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The Electrical Experimenter
Published by Experimenter Publishing Company, Inc. (H. Gernsback, President; S. Gernsback, Treasurer; M. Hynes, Secretary), 233 Fulton St., New York
Vol.
III Whole No.
32
CONTENTS FOR DECEMBER, 1915
-
FRONT COVER-"A CANAL SCENE ON MARS"
From a painting by Thomas N. Wrenn
381.389
RADIO LEAGUE OF AMERICA
BARON MUNCHHAUSEN'S NEW SCIENTIFIC ADVENTURES..
By Hugo Gernsback. 386.388
HOW THE "WIRELESS WIZ" CELEBRATED XMAS
By Thomas W. Benson. 389.390
.,
VOLTMETER
R. Barmckol
41G
By Earle Reisinger. 417
419
WRINKLES, RECIPES AND FORMULAS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 423
"\\'ITII THE AMATEURS" DEPARTMENT
424 -425
LATEST PATENTS
426
Titi IIVCV nATCIVTC
427
OFFICIAL LIST OF LICENSED RADIO AMATEURS
428
OFFICIAL CODE CHARTS GIVING INTERNATIONAL RADIO
SIGNALS, CONVENTIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
429
"QUESTION BOX"
430
"PATENT ADVICE"
441
REVIEWS
446
BOOK
By Dr. Lee de Forest. 394 -395
THE UNITED STATES ADVISORY BOARD AND ITS PER398.399
SONNEL
400
THE ELECTRICAL BURGLAR OF THE 20TH CENTURY
A REMARKABLE ELECTRIC PIANO PLAYER FOR THE
11J1111111111111J1
l'Ei(tIANEN1
M\GNET TYPE
"HUN-TO- M. \KE-IT" DEPART\MEN1
A
391
BUYING BY MAIL. By Thomas Reed
TO FOIL SUBMARINES WITH UNDERSEA SEARCHLIGHTS... 392
393
11Y WIRELESS 'PHONE FROM ARLINGTON TO PARIS
AUDION BULBS AS PRODUCERS OF PURE MUSICAL TONES..
"MOVIES." By Frank C. Perkins
MARVELOUS ELECTRIC SIGN THAT ACTUALLY SPELLS
HIGH FREQUENCY CURRENTS AND APPARATUS (Concluded).
By H. Winfield Secor, E E.
No. 8
THE RADIO TRANSMITTING SET AT ARLINGTON, VA
406
I :NITER S'T'ATES ARMY FIELD RADIO SET
407
L.titOR. \TOl4Y EQUIPMENT FOR ILLUSTRATING THE PRINC11'I.LS OF ELECTRO-hIAGNETIC, MAGNETIC AND ELECTItO- DYNAMIC I'll ENOMENA. By Harlan A. Eveleth
414.41;
HOW TO t\1:\KE AN ELECTROLYTIC RECTIFIER
.
400
401
405
1.11.,1-10.1-11,ilAgtaJkilf,c19
,JLL+J
1.1-11,1,1
111,
t
Edison and Tesla
Ok,J
o
inventions which Mr. Edison has patented up to this
date. The incandescent lamp would not have been
much of avail to humanity had not Edison perfected
at the same time the necessary adjuncts to feed the
current to the lamp. He had to make dozens of inventions to accomplish this ; the lamp itself was the
least of his troubles. Exactly so with the phonograph
and the cinematograph several hundred inventions
were necessary before either .4 as ready to leave the
laboratory. Thus it is a far cry and a weary road
from his first tin foil phonograph record to his gold
moulded unbreakable Aniberol record.
Equally as great as the three above inventions are
Edison triumphs in the field of telegraphy, which he
revolutionized. His quadruplex telegraph. his telephone transmitter, his alkaline storage battery, his
stock printer, his machine for separating magnetic ores,
his Portland cement process, his concrete building
standardization. are all inventions of the first order.
While Tesla's inventions have not been so numerous
as Edison's the world nevertheless owes Tesla a tremendous debt. The modern transmission of power
electrically is due entirely to Tesla. Perhaps his greatest invention is the alternating current induction motor,
whose wonderful flexitility and vast usefulness have
made electrical power what it is to -day. His pioneer
work in high frequency currents showed the true
genius of the man. This art is as yet but in its infancy and no one can foretell where it will lead us.
but it certainly has already opened the way towards
the transmission of power without wires. It is not
popularly known, but the fact remains that Tesla invented a system of transmitting wireless impulses
through the ether in 1F93, three years before Marconi
began his historical wireless experiments. His wonderful researches on vacuum tubes under the influence
of high frequency Tesla currents have practically demonstrated that the day is not far off whe'n the 95 per
cent. of electrical energy now waste... in heat in all
incandescent lamps will be turned int- cold light, that
is light without heat. In the long list of brilliant inventions of Tesla, we particularly wish to mention the
following: His Sun motor for the utilization of solar
energy, his new fluid propulsion turbine, the Tesla
high -frequency coil, his rotary transformer, etc. Mr.
Tesla's patents now number above 100.
II. GERNSBACK.
F the recent cabled reports be correct, every
American will note with great satisfaction
the awarding of this year's Nobel prize in
G'l'vg
physics to Thomas A. Edison and to Nikola
`1
Tesla.
When Alfred Nobel, the multi- millionaire inventor
of dynamite and nitroglycerine died in 1896, his will
provided for a series of five annual prizes to the most
deserving persons in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and for the best work done in the interest of
universal peace.
These prizes have been regularly awarded since
1901, and the learned Academies of Sweden while admittedly well informed and fair as to the award of
the prize, have in the past, we believe, overlooked several scientists who by all means were entitled to the
prize long ere this.
We are quite convinced, for this reason, that this
year's choice of Edison and Tesla will not only be acclaimed in the United States, but in the world over.
For, if the world is indebted to two physicists, Edison
and Tesla are certainly the biggest single creditors.
The awarding of the Nobel prize in a single year
to these two world renowned inventors naturally leads
to the question: Who is the greater man, Edison or
Tesla? A natural question such as this which surely
will arise in the popular mind is manifestly unfair, because the two illustrious sciertists have been working
in dissimilar fields and their accomplishments are
vastly different. Besides, Edison as well as Tesla are
hard at work at this minute. and for that reason it is
impossible to foretell what they might not still accomplish.
Without wishing to minimize Edison's tremendous
amount of work, the fact is well known that he is not
so much an original inventor as a genius in perfecting existing inventions.
In this respect Tesla has perhaps been the reverse
for he has to his credit a number of brilliant as well
as original inventions which, however, have not been
sufficiently perfected to permit commercial exploitation.
If the average man were asked what Mr. Edison's
greatest gifts to the world are, his choice probably
would fall on the Incandescent lamp, the Phonograph
and the Cinematograph. Undoubtedly this is a good
selection, but it is but a small fraction of the 1,400
1,11010)4141.41.11.10.11119-1.1-l0,10f
TILE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER is published on the 15th
of each mouth at 233 Fulton Street, New York. There are 12 numbers per year. The subscription price is $1.00 a year in U. S.
and possessions. Canada and foreign countries, $1.50 a year.
U. S. coin as well as U. S. stamps accepted (no foreign coins or
stamps). Single copies, 10 cents each. A sample copy will be sent
gratis on request. Checks and money orders should be drawn to
order of THE EXPERIMENTER PUBLISHING CO., INC. If you
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All communications and contributions to this journal should be
JJ
..,.
!kJ
- _1.11-19411A11.1.1141)
addressed to: Editor, THE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, 233
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contributions are paid for on publication. A special rateaccepted
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THE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER. Monthly. Entered as
second -class matter at the New York Post Office, March 1, 1915.
under Act of Congress of March 3. 1879. Title registered U. S.
Patent Office. Copyright, 1915, by E. P. Co., Inc., New York. The
contents of this magazine are copyrighted and must not be repro:
dneed without giving full credit to the publication.
379
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THE
380
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
M E S C 0 LITE
December, 1915
MAKE
YOUR WAY
WILL
SAFE and
BRIGHT
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be inserted in the container in any other way than the RIGHT WAY.
with battery contacts, pol-
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RED SEAL Dry Battery.
For efficiency, economy
is that the battery cannot
The Red Seal Battery will give about twenty-five hours of continuous service and from forty to fifty hours
of intermittent service. Always use the REI) SEAL Dry Battery in preference to any other. It does not deteriorate when not in use. If the REI) SEAL Dry Battery cannot .be had any other standard size dry cell can
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GO
(Illustration shows container with
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The MESCOLTTE can also be supplied with a "Special" two cell dry battery which will give approximately
hours of continuous and 120 hours of intermittent service.
5343- MESCOLITE, complete with
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II
ELE.CTRICIL
EXPERIMENTER
4,,,THE
GERN 5 B ACK
H.
EDITOR
H. W. 5ECDR A55OCIATE EDITOR
Vol. III.
DECEMBER, 1915
Whole No. 32
Number
8
The Radio deague of America
If
HONORARY MEMBERS
Captain W. H. G. Bullard, U.
Nikola Tesla.
S. N.
Prof. Reginald A. Fessenden.
Dr. Lee de Forest.
Manager, H. Gernsback
A Retrospect.
thermore succeeded in enlisting the press of
activities of every wireless enthusiast in
the country in taking up the cry to save the
URING the past year the need of the country.
amateurs from hostile legislation. All this
This, of course, brought the amateurs to
a national body to champion the
had the desired effect, and when finally in
their senses speedily, but had it not been
cause of the wireless amateurs
1913 the Alexander Wireless bill, amended,
for the formation of the Wireless Associain the United States has become
was signed by President
moro and more
Taft, thereby becoming law,
pressing. There are now over
it contained almost word for
300,000 radio. amateurs and
word Mr. Gernsback's historabout 350 local clubs in existical recommendation of his
ence in the United States, but
editorial in the February,
there is no national body to
moo. sus*
1912, issue of Modern Elecsafeguard the interests of
r-..u,.186E0-p;
trics. As is well known, that
the amateurs.
editorial called the attention
When H. Gernsback, in
NAVY DEPARTMENT,
to the lawmakers that in case
1909, organized the Wireless
U. S, NAVAL RADIO SERVICE,
x, errt.i.T,.o[ .
Dmv
the amateurs were to be reAmerica,
Association
of
stricted the latter should be
RADIO, VA,
there did not exist at that
allowed to operate their statime a wireless club in the
tions at a wave length below
United States. There were
200 meters, and they should
then, of course, numerous
furthermore be allowed the
radio amateurs in this counuse of power up to one kilotry, but the wireless art -as
watt. This suggestion saved
far as the amateur was con8 Cernabaok; Salter
The Reperimenler.Publiehi
Co.,
the day, and the amateur at
cerned -was only in its earli238 Fulton street,
last had come into his own.
est infancy. Mr. Gernsback,
New York, N. T.
With the passing of the
who at that time sensed apr:
wireless act in 1913 the useproaching danger to the wireIn a000rdenee with our telephone oenverastion last evenfulness of the Wireless Asless amateurs in the form of
ing and confirming it,
have no objeotion to be considered as
socia'ion of America had
sn Honorary Member of the Radio Leese., end will -be glad to be
hos'i'e legislation, succeeded
$Ieooiated with others interested in the general aubleot of mobicome to an end, and thus
in banding together the malising the amateur radio operatore of this country with the view
of enlisting their aervioee towards a general uplift of the
matters rested.
jority of wireless enthusiasts,
oieaoe in general as well ea cooperation in preventing lateen,
and the membership of the
ease with the legitimate handling of government and commercial
buaineea end further with the idea of enlisting their interest In
association grew rapidly till
A Formidable Defense
operation whereby their eereloee man be made available under government supervision if the time ehenld ever arise when the govern.
at the end of 1912 there had
Weapon.
ment would feel that their aervioes were desirable, and neoseaary.
been enrolled no less than
HE advent `of the
22.300 members.
great European war
In those early days the
in 1914 found the
wireless amateurs in this
United States in
country were a rather reckan unprepared conless sort of element and bedition as regards its defenses
came more and more disliked
and vigorous steps were
on account of their growing
promptly taken to wake us
mischief. False distress and
up from our lethargy. Presialarm calls by perverted
dent Wilson's recommenda"humorists" were the usual
tion to the country for a vast
"smart" acts, and when a
increase of our army and
coastal station received a
navy has been so much disC.Q.D. call in those days the
Captain Bu Ilard's Letter of Acceptance as Honorary Member In the Radio
cussed of late that no further
thought was always upper League of America.
reference to his valuable adflfi most in the operator's mind
vice is required here. It suffices to say
lion of America a year earlier, all efforts
that the call was one of the usual amateur
that probably a vast majority of citizens
would have been in vain and the amateur
hoaxes. Despite Mr. Gernsback's vigorous
indorse the President's defensive military
would to -day be as dead an issue as he is
warnings through his editorials in Modern
at present in Europe. Through the Associa- program.
Electrics, of which publication he was
But there exists to -day a formidable detion Mr. Gernsback caused thousands of
editor, the mischief continued, till in 1910
fense weapon, which up to now has not
letters to be written to Washington offiseveral bills were introduced in Washingbeen exploited by Uncle Sam. We refer
cials by the wireless amateurs, and he furton which fairly promised to throttle the
D
O.
S
1
I
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
382
ELECTRICAL
to the thousands of amateur
radio stations scattered broadcast through the en.ire length
and breadth of this fair land.
There is hardly a hamlet today which dos not boast of
several amateur wireless stations, and their number is increasing by many hundreds
each day.
As the European war has
so thoroughly demonstrated
quick transmission of intelligence is of paramount importance. Telegraph and telephone
lines are put ou' of
order with ridiculously small
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
The Duty of the Amateur.
F Uncle Sam grants the
amateur the free use
COMPAGNIE FBANÇAISE.NES CÂBLES TÉLÉGRAPHIQUES `
u".r
...
u.vTlcfollowing
sad
CO
'
L04/7"11117
TuA<x
nsyrclmlb.
MESSAGE
IB PARIS
"'"'
es
4
America.
By referring to the 1915
Government book, Radio
14
FOPOGO NY
nILL
ACC(PY
of
the ether it is certainly up to the amateur to give something
in return for the privi.ege. It
was with this thought uppermost in his mind that Mr.
Gernsback in July, 1915, first
conceived the idea of organizing the Radio League of
kS
HONORARY
PERK R$NIP IN RAOiO L(AGUi Of
C
AM(R1
Stations of the United
Stat s, it will be
or f0P(SI
seen
that only
3,723 amateurs
have
effort by
been
the
Professor Reginald A. Fessas
Acceptance
enden's
Honorary Member in the
Nikola Tesla's Acceptance
as Honorary Member in
of
League
the
Radio
America.
enemy and whole sections of country are
thereby isolated. Such sections are then
helpless and no important messages can
be safely transmitted
in either direction.
helps the enemy enormously, and
the thus isolated section is then entirely at
France or Belgium had poshis mercy.
sessed an effective amateur wireless scout
service there might possibly be a different
story to tell to -day. In these days of fast
military movements, quick reporting of war
All this
If
intelligence is of incalculable importance,
and if this is true of Europe, it is even
truer in the United States, the country of
such vast and undefended coast lines.
One needs not be a dreamer in order to
appreciate how easily a hostile fleet could
approach our long, badly patroled coasts
and try a landing of an armed force. There
might not be a telegraph or telephone line
around for miles, or if it did exist, it is
certain that spies operating on land would
have found little trouble in putting it out
of commission beforehand.
But there will be a lone radio amateur
on the alert who has seen the approaching
fleet and within 30 seconds Washington will
have the priceless intelligence. Vice versa,
there might be a handful of poorly equipped
United States militia holding the enemy at
Radio
Ica.
Abose: Dr. Lee de Forest's Acceptance
the Radio
as Honorary Member in
League of America.
bay temporarily. It is conceivable that this
small body of men might have neither sending nor receiving radio apparatus. Somewhere back of the hills the United States
regulars are coming to the rescue of the
sorely pressed militia men. They want the
latter to hold out for a few short hours and
want to tell them of their comir.g. The
radio message containing this intelligence
is flashed over the hills, but is not received
by the exhausted men. However, just as
all hope is given up, a lad of 17 years with
streaming hair runs up to the major of the
small band and breathlessly conveys the
cheering news to him. He caught the message over his pitiful 30 -foot aerial on top
of his barn, but it saved the day. He did
not even have a sending station. His outfit comprised only a cheap home -made receiving "set"! But it did the work, just the
same.
Such occasions are almost certain to arise
in the future, and it is thus of the utmost
importance
that every patriotic radio
amateur should offer his station to his
country.
www.americanradiohistory.com
League
of
Amer.
licensed since 1913. The reason for this
surprisingly small registration is found in
the fact that the law does not require receiving stations to be licensed, nor small
sending stations located in the interior of
large States, where the effect of a weak
spark coil would not extend over the State
borders,
Such stations are exceedingly
numerous and have been estimated to run
above 300,000. Now, then, there appears no
reason for doubt that sooner or later the
Government would pass a new law requiring the registration and licensing of such
stations in order to have such stations
available in case of national stress.
No one can foretell what surprises such
a new law will bring the amateurs, and for
that reason it cannot be denied that it is
far better and more patriotic to give this
necessary information voluntarily to the
Government, instead of waiting till a new
law is passed which might perhaps be detrimental from the viewpoint of the amateur.
The League's Charter.
HE Radio League of America was
organized at New York under
laws of the State of New
repa the
York in October, 1915.
Its charter follows:
T
ELECTRICAL
THE
December, 1915
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF THE
RADIO LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC.
State of New York
City of New York
County of New York
SS.:
We, The Undersigned, of full age, citizens of the United States, a majority of
whom are citizens of the State of New
York and resident therein, being desirous
our
of associating ourselves together forheremutual welfare and advancement, as
purinafter is more particularly described.
Chapter
with
conformity
i:1
and
to
suant
Forty (40) of the Laws of 1909 and known
as the Membership Corporations Law, do
hereby certify and declare as follows:
hirst-That the name by which the said
corporation hereby to be formed shall be
known and distinguished is and shall be
Radio League of America, inc.
Second-That the purposes for which
the corporation is to be formed are as
follows:
To promote the art of amateur wireless
telegraphy and telephony in the United
States among the members of the said
corporation; to have available for the Government of the United States or any of its
officials a complete list of all the amateur
radio stations Its the country pledged to the
service of the Government for use in times
of national danger or need ; to establish a
uniformity in the transmission of wireless
messages by amateurs; to uphold the provisions of a law known as the Wireless Act
of 1912 and all subsequent laws pertaining
to wireless telegraphy; to assist the Government of the United States or any of
its officials in apprehending offenders thereof ; to prevent the sending of misleading
wireless messages; to give information to
the members of the said corporation concerning new and useful devices in the operation of wireless telegraphy and telephony
and to provide an organization for the interchange of ideas concerning wireless
telegraphy and telephony for the benefit of
the members and the public at large.
Third -That the number of directors of
the said corporation shall be and are five
(5) in number; and that the names and
residences of such &rectors who shall manage its concerns until the first annual meeting are as follows: (See below.)
Fourth -That the territory in which the
operations of the corporation are to be
principally conducted is the entire United
States, and that its principal office shall be
and is located in the Borough of Manhattan. City, County and State of New York.
Fifth -That the said corporation shall
hold its annual meetings on the first Monday in October in each and every year beginning with the year. 1916 (October 3,
1916), and annually thereafter.
In Witness Whereof we have made and
signed this certificate in duplicate and have
hereunto set our hands and seals this 25th
day of October, 1915.
Hugo Gernsback, Sidney Gernsback,
Milton Hymes, Harry W. Secor, Frederick
H. Pruden.
As will be seen, the League is a purely
scientific organization. There are no dues,
no membership fees to be paid. It has been
organized under the auspices of the world's
greatest wireless men, who thoroughly indorse its principles. It is not a money making organization, nor is it conducted by a
commercial wireless company for its bene-
this journal, with the largest circulation of
any wireless publication at present, reaches
either directly or indirectly almost every
wireless amateur in the country to -day. It
I will do everything
in my power to bring assistance to the
party or parties thus in danger.
Rule 6. That I will communicate to the
League such information concerting the
operation and construction of mv radio station as will be helpful or instructive to the
other members of the League.
Rule 7. That I will, when requested, furnish information concerning mv radio station and observations, which intormation is
to be used by the League in its compilation
of wireless st- tistics.
Rule 8. That I will carefully read and
adopt any suggestions published by the
League for the benefit of its members, and
the transmission of wireless communications.
Rule 9. That its case of my removal to
another address, or in case of the permanent discontinuance of my station, I
will immediately communicate such facts
to. the manager of the Radio League of
America.
Rule 10. That I will display my membership certificate in the League in a conspicuous place in my radio station.
In witness whereof I have signed my
name and address, etc.
Each certificate is numbered and a member is entitled to one membership certificate only. Before the League can furnish
a certificate it is necessary that the prospective member shall fill out an application
for membership; a convenient blank being
printed below. (If it is not desirable
to cut up the magazine, a blank will be
promptly mailed on receipt of a 2c. stamp
to cover necessary mail charges.)
No blank is valid nor can it be accepted
unless it is filled out properly as prescribed.
Two persons must sign as witnesses to
the signature and these may be two friends,
or your father and your mother, or a sister
and a brother, etc.
Upon receipt of the application blank the
official membership certificate will be
mailed. Ten cents in stamps or in coin
should be inclosed to cover mail charges,
handling, as well as the heavy cardboard
tube to insure safe delivery.
Upon receipt of the membership certificate by the member it must be signed at
once in ink in its proper place, and it
should then be suitably framed and hung
up in the station in a conspicuous place.
It will give your station official recognition, and within the next few months the
amateur who cannot produce an official
membership certificate will hardly be looked
upon on a par with officially recognized
amateurs. He will have but little standing
The League's Rules.
VERY wireless amateur of god
standing, whether Ile has a sending or a receiving station, is eliThere
gible for membership.
are but two conditions:
1.
Ile must be a citizen of the United
States.
2. He must own either a sending or receiving station, or both.
Each member will be supplied with an
official membership certificate furnished
free by the Radio League of America. Our
illustration gives a good idea of this beautiful certificate, but it must be seen to be
fully appreciated. It is lithographed on a
heavy bond paper in green and gout. and its
size is 15x111/4 inches. The text follows:
E
CERTIFICATE OF MEMBERSHIP
TO
383
or in person, and that
will publish the league's news from month
to month, thereby keeping up the interest of
its members.
THE
RADIO LEAGUE OF AMERICA.
A membership organization organized under laws of State of New York.
I, the undersigned, a radio amateur, do
hereby apply for membership in the Radio
League of America, upon the express condition that by so doing I do not assume or
incur any liability either for dues, assessments or any financial obligations whatsoever, and, if accepted, I do agree to follow
and abide by the rules and regulations of
the league as set forth herein, and all other
roles and regulations which may hereafter
be adopted.
Rule 1. To observe all rules and regulations of the Wireless Act of 1912 (as set
forth on the back of this certificate).
Rule 2. That I will at :.11 times have my
station in readiness and at the service of
the United States Government for use in
any defensive or offensive purpose in
periods of war, riot or disaster.
Rule 3. That I will at all times allow
my station and equipment to be used by the
United States Government or any of its
officials, and will assist, if possible. in apprehending offenders violating the Wireless
Act.
Rule 4. I furthermore solemnly and distinctly pledge myself not to send out at any
time whatsoever, a misleading cast, particularly a distress call (S. O.
. .) nor knowingly allow anothe: to use
my station for sending out such a call.
Rule 5. That I will at all times. in case
of necessity transmit a distress call to the
nearest official, either by wireless, by wire,
... - - -
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:
Application for Membership in the Radio League of America
a Wireless Station described in full on the back of this application. My station has been
, and I herewith desire to apply
in use since
for membership in the RADIO LEAGUE OF AMERICA. I llave read all the
rules of the LEAGUE, and I hereby give my word of honor to. abide by all the
rules, and I particularly pledge my station to the United States Government in the
event of war, if such occasion should arise.
'
THE UNDERSIGNED, a Radio Amateur, am the owner of
I understand that this blank with my signature will lm sent to the United States Government
officials at Washington, who will make a record of my station.
Name
Witnesses to signature:
P.
City
t
t
State
Date
E
fit.
The Electrical Experimenter has been
eelected as the league's official organ, as
EXPERIMENTER
=
1.91.
Describe the apparatus of your station on the back of this application.
event of national peril, you will volunteer your services as a radio operator in the
the
In
interest of th IT. S. Government'
This last question need not be answered unless you so desire it.
d111111111111111111111I1111111111IIIIIIIIIIII
II! 1141!11111111111I11111111111I11 VII1111111111111IIIIIIIII1111I11 VIII I111111111I11'31:1l
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THE
84.
NAVY DEPARTMENT,
U. S. NAVAL RADIO SERVICE.
'OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT.
RADIO, VA..
H. Gernsback, Editor,
SIR:
I beg leave to acknowledge the receipt
of your letter of November 8, 19:5, submitting information concerning the Radio
League of America, together with a copy
of the Certificate of Membership.
It seems to me that yeu have undertaken
to carry throug't a very patriot :z motive
in banding together the great number of
amateur wireless operators in the United
States, which, as you state, now number
probably over '10,000, of which only about
3,000 have been licensed; it being presumed that the remainder operate receiving stations only, and under the law are
not required to have lic ^uses. This latter
proposition I regard as a very serious detriment to the proper government control of
wireless stations, and am of the belief that
legis'ation should provide that all stations,
whether for transmitting or receiving,
should be licensed by the Federal Government. Al.hough the teadio Act provides
penalties for divulging any information
received by means of wireless receiving circuits, yet the fact that important govern-
as a wireless amateur, for he obviously
refused to pledge his station to his Government.
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
ment messages might be received by unscrupulous amateurs not friendly to the
home government renders some form of
protection necessary, and, I might add, will
be advocated this coming Congress.
The Naval Radio Service is particularly
anxious to increase its operating personnel in time of public peril when many private stations, ship and shore, would probably be taken over by the general government, and the thought has arisen that
through co-operation with the Radio
League many of its members would like
to enroll themselves for active service under the Navy Department at such times as
their services might be required.
You can readily understand that any
information collected by the Radio
League will be of the greatest value
to this service and this office will be
glad to avail itself of your kind offer
to furnish such free of all cost, this to
contain the names, locations, etc., of all
amateurs in the United States.
I should like further to take advantage
of this opportunity to ask your co-opera-
tion in enrolling members of the Radio
League for government (Navy Department) operation in time of war, and take
this opportunity to enclose a circular prepared in this office which we have sent out
to operating wireless companies in the
United States, who in turn have distributed
lationship between you and these members
depends entirely tiro., yourself. Thus the
Privileges of the League's Mcmbers.
NASMUCH as the League has
00
been organized for the benefit
of the wireless amateur, its
members are entitled to the
following privileges:
introduction to other members.
All members are registered on cards at
the headquarters of the League. The names
are filed geographically by State and town.
Let us suppose you live in Plattsburg, O.,
and that you own a wireless receiving outfit. You very much desire to know several radio amateurs in your vicinity, but
you have no means of making their acquaintance. As
member of the League
you mail a letter to headquarters asking for
the names of any w'reless amateurs located
1: your vicinity. Such information will be
given free to members, providing a two
cent stamp is inclosed with the inquiry to
cover postage. As a member of good
standing in the League the other members
will receive you gladly, and the future re-
The League's
Official Button.
League will be highly instrumental in
bringing together members and cementing
their friendship.
A
Associations and Clubs.
LOCAL wireless association, or
radio club, to be officially
recognized by the League must
have at least six members.
There should be a president, a treasurer and a secretary. The
address where such a body meets should
be stated. Clubs and associations should
meet at least once a month. The above requiremcn's are necessary to secure publication in t'le Electrical Experimenter, as well
as recognition in the "Radio League of
America's Official Year Book."
EQ;
JIIIIII'IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIII!IIIIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II IIIIIIII IIHIIIIII IIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIII!IIIIIIIIIIIII II IIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIC
December, 1915
them to their operators, with the result that
many civilian operators have engaged
themselves to enlist in the Navy in time of
war. Could we not do something similar
to enlist members of your League, and
would you lend your efforts to co-operate
along these lines by giving the matter a
little publicity? From the mon.hly list you
propose to furnish we can get the names
and addresses of many amateurs, among
whom we might find many who would
wish to enroll themselves. Of course, the
forwarding letter accompanying the circular would have to be modified, but that
could easily be done to call the attention of
amateurs to how they can really serve their
country in time of need.
Please accept my thanks for thus being
allowed to bnng to your attention certain
views in connection with the Radio
League, an organization which can be made
to be of the utmost help to the government, and by focusing the attention on existing laws bring home to every amateur
the desirability of co-operation all along
the line to correct the great question of interference with proper government, commercial and other legitimate correspondence handled by means of the wireless art.
Very truly yours,
(Signed)
W.H.G. Bullard,
Captain U. S. Navy,
Supt. Radio Service.
In this book, to be issued once a -ear,
will be found all the important League
news. a full listing of all the clubs and associations, as well as a complete list of all
the members.
The League particularly indorses and
encourages the rendering of scientific lectures by their members. The latter should
write scientific papers, particularly those
that have a wireless subject as its theme.
The president of the club should select the
best paper in his oninion, and it should be
sent then to the editors of the Electrical
Experimenter. 1f it has sufficient merit it
will be published in due course in the Electrical Experimenter. It will show the title
of the author as well as a sub -title, giving
the name of the club to which the author
belongs.
Once a year the best-paper from among
those that were published in the Electrical
Experimenter will be selected by the editors
and this prize paper will be published in
the official year book. This honor will only
be accorded to one paper.
A
Official League Insignia.
V official button securable only by
the League's members is illus-
tra'ed herewith.
tive,
sign
This distinc-
as well as striking, demeasures % inch in
diarreter. It is inlaid in real, hard enamel
in the three national colors, red, white and
blue. The aerial design as well as the mast
is in gold on a dark blue background. The
button is heavily gold filled and is guaranteed by the makers not to tarnish for
two years. It will positively not turn
brassy. You will be proud to wear one of
Description of My Station and Apparatus
Sending
these distinctive buttons.
The League furnishes the button at coat;
the price, including mailing, being 20e.
Both the membership certificate and the
button will be sent for 25c. prepaid.
A solid gold button as described above
is furnished for $3 prepaid to those not
desiring a gold filled one. The snlid gold
button and the membership certificate will
be furnished for $2.05 prepaid, the actual
cost of both.
All communications should be addressed
to
Receiving
THE RADIO LEAGUE
(OVER)
IIIIIIIIP.
www.americanradiohistory.com
233
OF AMERICA,
Fulton Street, New York City.
THE
December, 1915
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ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
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www.americanradiohistory.com
335
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THE
386
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
Baron Münchhausen's New Scientific Adventures
By Hugo Gernsback
is about 60 feet high, with an imas always, at exis
mense golden transparent cupola
11 P.M. the next evenactly
PUNCTUALLY,
forming the ceiling. The tables, the
ing, Münchhausens dear old
huge thing was as flexible as a velvet chairs, all the furniture, as well as all the
voice once more sounded in my receivers.
There was the usual preliminary talk, after portière. When our host was but 10 feet objects for which we had no names, seemed
transparent. Even the walls seemed transaway from it, it suddenly blazed forth in
which the Baron went on:
"I am very much pleased, my dear Alier, a brilliant golden light which seemed to parent, as well as the soft, rug -like carpets
on which we walked. But
that my Radiotomatic relay station on the Moon
the wonder was centered
works so well. Up to
NE of the greatest puzzles our astronomers and scientists had to not solely in the transparency of the strange
last night neither Flitter contend with during the last decade is the problem of how water material, but in the fact
nix nor myself were sure
is moved in the Martian "Canals." Nearly all scientists of note
that it gave forth a soft,
if we could bridge the
60 million miles between
who have studied them do not question their existence, but they are all white light. Imagine a
Mars and the Moon by at odds as to what agency moves such enormous quantities of water. It solid chair of glass,
glowing in a mellow,
wireless, but by means
of our wonderful ultra is singular that most of them suggest a form of pump to move the water white light-not a brilsensitive radio-active de- in the canals, as our present -day knowledge of science and mechanics
liant light-and you have
tector we were enabled leaves them no other choice.
a good idea what we beto 'listen in' successfully.
held. It struck us at
But
what
makes
our
rivers
on
What
condenses
flow
Earth?
agency
When I had finished talkonce that this wonderful
ing last night, it was billions of tons of ocean water and brings these waters down in form of
material could be hanabout 9 P. M., your ter- rains, which keep our rivers from drying up? The Sun, of course. Why dled at will by the Marrestrial time. We got
waters in the Martian Canals also? This instal- tians ; for, the luminous
our receiving instru- can't the Sun move the
rugs on which we stood
ment
a
new
contains
idea, how the Martians might accomplish it.
ments ready at once and
were soft as velvet.
promptly at 11 P. M. I
while a desk -like object
could hear ,myself talknearby seemed hard as
ing. The message which I had sent a come from nowhere. Simultaneously the
steel. The next thing which attracted most
few hours before had been faithfully huge door, for this is what it was. rose of our attention were the luminous walls.
recorded on the telegraphone wire of quickly up in the air just like a theater They were all paneled in a curious manner,
my Radiotomatic on the Moon, and as curtain. Our host now entered into a and, of course transparent and luminous.
soon as the automatic clock released the large circular salon-like room, followed Each panel had a vast amount of small
sending machinery, the vibrations carrying reluctantly by us.
hexagonal plate -like facets arranged somemy voice were hurled back to us over a
I say reluctant advisedly. I have absnwhat in honeycomb fashion. These hexagdistance of 60 million miles. From this lutely no adjectives to do the thing justice. onal cells were constantly changing in
we knew that you must have heard the Our state of mind upon entering that
soft colors, and the most unique. as well
message too, for you are but 238 000 miles room was probably the same as if you had as pleasing, geometrical designs in colors
distant from the Moon. While my 'canned' brought back to life Julius Caesar of the were thus unendingly produced. It was a
voice undoubtedly must have sounded un- year 50 B. C., and had suddenly transfascinating sight, and we found it hard to
canny to you -excuse the pun
assure planted him some night on blazing Broad- take our eyes from these. walls.
you that it gave me the creeps listening way in New York. His mind would have
"At the far end of the room we noticed
to my own voice, flung 60 million miles reeled at the-to him -marvelous sights.
four Martians whom we recognized at
It would have taken him days and days once as females on account of their mass
through the ether!
"But to come back where I broke off of asking questions and explanations of all of hair and their more delicate features.
last night: I told you how several Mar- the impossible things he saw before him.
Their heads seemed somewhat smaller
"Exactly so with us. Only Caesar would than those of the males, but they appeared
tians had approached us and had placed a
soft metallic cap on our heads. I also have made a jump of but 1,965 years, to dress exactly like the men, except that
told You how we then followed the august
where we made one of over 200,000 years.
the color of their metallic looking dresses
Martian into the church -like structure.
We were but uncomprehending children, was of a much lighter shade. But it was
"While we walked over the hard metal- and our eyes and senses were absolutely not the 'girls' that drew our attention as
lic- appearing walk, which conducted us to inadequate to do justice at once to the
much as what they were doing. We could
the structure, we became conscious of higher plane of civilization on which we
not rid ourselves of the idea that these
strange flashes in our brains. We also had been thrown so suddenly. We have females were some sort of secretaries to
caught distinct, though faint, bars of a been on Mars eight days now and still we our host, and it was manifest that they
soft music, which was followed by weird know practically nothing of this most were 'working' at something. And they
pictures flashing through our minds. All miraculous world. Every day brings more appeared to be working earnestly and dilithis took place within our heads, and as tremendous surprises and at night we are gently, too, but there were no pencils, no
I closed my eyes for a few seconds to test
usually exhausted from all the excitement books, no paper, no typewriters; in fact,
myself, the music as well as the picture of the continuous bombardment of new
nothing whatsoever that a terrestrial secreflashes persisted: I knew then that I did and wondrous things on our brains.
tary requires to get up her superior's re"But to come back to the wondrous ports.
not hear the music with my ears, nor see
Instead each girl sat motionless in
the pictures with my eyes. I reasoned salon of our host, who. as we found out
correctly that both had their origin with- later. was the reigning Ruler of the Planet front of a small glass -like table which was
in my brain.
Mars. The house in which we were
entirely bare and flat, except for the center,
"Before I had time to puzzle it out, we was a sort of executive mansion or
from which projected two small glass -like
had entered the structure at the heels of palace, and the room in which we were rods each about 4 inches high and as thick
our host. We passed through a magnif- standing was what you might call the as a pencil. At the top they bent over and
icent archway, constructed entirely of Ruler's office.
formed a gooseneck pointing in the direcsome transparent material, decorated in
"Here I must stop again to advise you tion of the girls. The rods were both
superb taste in green, white and gold. that it is extremely difficult for me to ex- pointed at their ends, and while one apOne thing struck us immediately; the hall- plain in existing terrestrial terms what peared luminous, the other seemed dark.
way appeared as light as day, but we could
"The 'operators' were watching the point
we see, hear and feel, for everything on
not see where the light originated. Later, Mars is so totally d'fferent from what we of the luminous rod intently, and the exthough, we were to find out about this.
are accustomed to al Earth. that my best pression of their faces was as if they
"As the end of the hallway was a pon- comparisons with tr-restrial things must were reading something. Every once in a
derous massive panel with a door -like of necessity fall far short of actual con- while they seemed to relax and at that
appearance. It must have been at least ditions on Mars. Ho .vever, I will do my moment a curious white ray seemed to
125 feet high and 30 feet wide. It looked
best to convey a true picture to you.
pass from the light point of the rod into
"The thing that struck 's with greatest the point of the dark one. That was all
very much like cut glass with all its prisms
and fancy cuts; we first thought it was force at first was that everything in this we could see.
"While we were still wondering our host
glass, but when we came closer to it we immense room appeared transparent. The
motioned us to sit down on the comfortchanged our minds, for we saw that the room, which is about 150 feet in diameter,
Münchhausen
Taught "Martian"
-I
Copyright, 1915, by H. Gernsback. Ali rights reserved.
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
Decemb.r, 1915
able looking arm chairs. These chairs, as
already mentioned, appeared like transparent glass, but when we put our hands
on them they felt like satin and not at all
hard or cold. The transparent seats,
which had a moment before appeared as
glass, were soft and flexible as an air cushion and extremely comfortable. The
only trouble with the chairs was that they
were too big for us. Built for large 8foot Martians, our feet hardly reached the
floor, so we sat in the chairs just as children sit in big armchairs, that is with our
backs resting against the inside back of
the chair and our legs and feet projecting
straight out on the seat; and only then
were we quite comfortable.
"This position, ridiculous as it doubtless
was, evoked a faint smile from our host,
who sat down in his own chair in front
of a large piece of furniture that was a
cross between a rectangular table and a
flat top desk, garnished in its center with
a huge birthday- cake -like affair with 10
transparent and 10 dark glass -like candles,
curved in gooseneck form.
"Our host then turned around to us and
looked us over long and earnestly. His
large, liquid blue eyes were wonderful in
their depth; in them shone a wisdom as,
indeed, we had never before beheld. His
face had a very benevolent expression, and
the features were clear and sharply defined.
He appeared tremendously intellectual, yet will power and strength of
character radiated from his face in an
amazing manner. We thought at last that
he was going to speak to us, instead he
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
as if I had tried to think intently of the
terrestrial globe, as it stands silhouetted
against a dark sky. Then in quick succession followed our 'Interstellar,' the Planet
Mars, a picture of our capture by the
Martians with their yellow rays and their
floating fortresses, then an exact picture
of how we appeared at our landing on
Mars.
It then dawned on us that our host was
'talking' to us, not in words and not in a
strange language, but motion- picture -wise.
I1'e had experienced the first transference
of thoughts, and had understood everything our host had 'said: because he
thought in pictures which were perfectly
familiar to us, not in words which would
have had no meaning for us! When there
was a lull we opened our eyes in astonishment and blinked bewildered into the
smiling eyes of our august host. He
seemed highly amused at our amazement
and once more he motioned to us to close
our eyes.
"For the next hour or more we liad our
first lesson in 'Martian.' In easy stages
our host first flashed simple pictures into
our minds, which were then followed by
scenes with various actions and explanations just as in a moving picture scene,
where the mind must infer what the actors
are saying to each other by the expression of their faces and their obvious
actions.
"There was a short pause, after which
our host launched into the 'Evolution of
Mars.' We were first shown how the
planet, millions of years ago, was but a
.4
-
..1...
387
and stones. then we saw for a long period
the slow evolution of Mars down through
the ages till a civilization similar to that
of present terrestrial conditions was
reached. There were the wars, the barbarism and the thousand other evils exactly as those experienced by man on Earth.
Evolution, after all, is the same throughout the Universe, given like conditions.
"As the story of the evolution went on
we could see how the Martian's small head/
and his small chest both kept on increas -,
ing with each subsequent generation. WO
were shown how big oceans and inland
seas, as well as vast rivers, dried up grad -'
ually, and how the whole population turned
into mechanics, electricians and chemists.
No true happiness and contentment, however, seemed to exist on Mars until thought
transference was established, till gravity
was conquered and money was abolished.Í
There had been wars and disorders up to
that period, but it seems that these three
things, apparently invented and originated
at about the same time, finally emancipated
the race completely. As we found out
later, this period was reached some 14,60Cí
years ago.
"Beginning with that period only die,
the Martians really become great. WI:
saw how in less than five generation',
speech had been entirely abolished, it bed
ing possible to 'converse' over considerabb
distances by thought transference. Vv 41;
were shown the evils of too man;
languages and the race hatreds producer
thereby, and how finally one universa
language was adopted by all races ani
il
1
tica
a?i
.,
.
Lowell Observatory.
-r--s-
MARS -1896 -7.
Photo courtesy Prof. Percival Lowell, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Ariz.
The above map shows Mars and its canals in Mercator's projection. As
objects appear upside down in the telescope, it should be remembered when
studying the above ma., that the top is South, the bottom North; East is
left, West is right. Note how the majority of the canals run North and
South (or South and North), toward the poles, which is necessary in order
to convey the water from the melting polar snow caps equatorward. The
canals can be plainly seen running over the dark areas, which are therefore
motioned to us to close our eyes, which,
of course, we did. The following then
took place, and I will describe it as well
as I can. No sooner had I closed my eyes
than a clear picture of the Earth with its
continents was flashed in my mind, just
a
not seas, but vast stretches of vegetation. Particular attention is called
the numerous circular dark spots, only to be found at the intersection of n
or more canals. These dark spots, termed Oases, are thought to be circa f.
vegetational tracts, containing vast farms, parks, cities, etc.
The above map was made by Professor Lowell at the last opposition
1896.7 when Mars was but 40 million miles distant from the Earth. the win
regions at the top and bottom are the snowcaps of the poles.
nebulae floating in space and how the
nebulae slowly became a solid sphere. The
early life of Mars was then pictured,
which must have been exactly like the
evolution of our own Earth. We saw the
prehistorical Martians with their clubs
www.americanradiohistory.com
nations. We saw the abolition of pres
dents and rulers over small and big n
tions, and the inauguration of a Univers
Council and a Planet Ruler, both elect(
by popular votes.
\Ve witnessed how the once dense a
J
388
THE
became thinner and thinner and how fertile valleys turned into deserts on account
of lack of water. \Ve saw the transmutat;on of the metals, as well as the transmutation of all other matter. Thus we
were shown how iron or lead was turned
into gold or copper, or into 'any other
metal. Or else new marble or stone was
turned into steel or gold or other metals.
the same as clay can already be turned
into aluminum on Earth to -day.
"Simultaneously with these discoveries,
we witnessed the unlocking of atomic
forces, which was the last great Martian
discovery in the final mastery of the
Planet.
"Where extermination had stared the
Martians in the face on account of their
constantly decreasing water supply, the
new atomic engines, combined with the
conquering of gravity, dispelled all fears
for the future. During the next few generations we were made to see the creation
of the monstrous waterways which not
alone were to bring water from the two
poles. but also were to irrigate existing
agricultural districts as well as barren
deserts. We saw how the Martians finally
harnessed the Sun and how the latter was
now moving the waters in the vast water ways, which you know as 'canals.'
"In quick succession we were then
shown the past progress and evolution on
Mars during the last thousand years. f
do not attempt to go into details here, as
you would surely not grasp the meaning.
Neither do I attempt at this time to explain all the wonders that took place on
Mars during the past 10,000 years, because
you would not understand most of it, precisely as we did not grasp everything during our first 'lecture.' It therefore becomes necessary to explain the wonders to
you by way of examples and comparisons
with existing terrestrial terms. This 1
will do during our stay on this Planet.
"After our host had concluded his first
'lecture' he watched our titter amazement
with the benevolent smile a fond mother
will bestow on her four -year -old child
after she has finished telling him a particularly interesting fairy story.
"After a short time we could understand
him fairly well by his motions as well as
by more picture talk without our eyes being closed. He then made us understand
that he desired us to transfer our thoughts
to him. Accordingly we tried the experiment. Flitternix's turn being first. He
failed utterly, for our host shook his head
smilingly. I then tried my hand, or rather
my head at it. But as the metallic -like
cap, which one of the Martians had placed
on my head, made me too warm, I foolishly proceeded to take it off. Of course our
host smilingly made me put it back again,
and only then did 1 remember that he had
shown us during our lecture that thought
transference was impossible without the
medium of the complex 'cap; which I shall
later describe to you.
"I then proceeded to concentrate my
mind and began thinking real hard of Flit ternix and how he appeared just then. For
some seconds I did not seem to be successful, for our host looked blank. Finally.
with the perspiration running down my
forehead from the unaccustomed effort.
the Ruler's face lit up and he pointed
similingly at Flitternix! I was much elated
over this success. my first transmission of
thoughts, or rather one thought! For a
few minutes our host then tried to make
us understand that it would take some
days of practise before we could hope to
even 'talk' by pictures, and perhaps months
before we could begin to actually 'talk'
in words without using our tongues or
ears. He then recommended that Flitter nix and r-yself should practise as much
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
as possible and to forget speech entirely.
He also cautioned us that as all thought
transmission took place through the medium of electricity, it was necessary that the
flexible metallic cord hanging from our
metallic -like caps should touch some conductor, preferably the ground. As we
could easily guess that this was necessary
in order to provide a return circuit for
the currents we soon learned how to keep
in contact with a conductor, when we
wanted to transfer our thoughts from one
to the other.
SYNOPSIS
I. M. Aller, an eccentric young scientist
of Yankton, Mass., who claims as his own
many new as well as startling inventions,
far ahead of anything as yet discovered,
owns the largest radiotelephone plant in the
country. One evening he hears strange
noises over his phones and immediately a
rg sepulchral voice 's heard. It is Münchhau
sen, one of the greatest yarn and story
k. tellers of all times. Müncbbausen explains
how it came about that he did not die in
1797, as popularly thought, and he furthermore gives unrefutable proof that his home
is on the moon at present.
Mier wants to know why Münchhausen
went to the Moon and how. The latter then
explains how Prussia persecuted him and
how he went over to the Allies and succeeded in capturing Berlin in a wonderful
manner. However, it was not a complete
success, so the Baron left Europe for ff
America. He immediately constructs a
machine which is to take him into space to
the moon. Mùnchhausen has discovered
bow to neutralize Gravity by means of
Electricity, and he applies this invention to
his space flyer, the "Interstellar." The
machine proves a success; it responds and
is lifted with tremendous speed towards the
moon.
Queer things are discovered on the way
to the Moon, among others that bodies lose
all their weight inside of the "Interstellar."
Finally a landing is effected on the Moon
in a desert, but great hardship is encoun
tered on account of the Moon's rarified
atmosphere, The party then leaves for the
nearest mountain range, where they disi= cover a huge suhterranean cave and a lake
filled with luminous fish. Bread trees are
also discovered.
Mùnchhausen next gives
a vivid description of the Earth, Sun and
the firmament as viewed from the Moon; he
also explains how the continents and oceans
of the Earth appear from the Moon. He
then tells of the ponderous meteors which
continually crash down on the Moon.
Finally one falls down near him and the
resulting concussion hurls Münchhausen in
a bottomless crater, which goes straight
through the Moon. He falls clear through
to the other side, but his momentum brings
him hack to the starting point, where he
is saved by his companion. They then decide to depart for the Planet Mars, hut
they leave behind them an automatic Wire= less Plant, the "Radiotomatic,"
which will
relay the messages from Mars to the Moon
and thence to Alier. A popular lecture
on Mars is also given by Mùnchhausen.
Within 86 days they arrive at Mars, but
when they attempt to land, three floating
forts capture the "Interstellar" by means of
a yellow ray which benumbs them, and
g. guides the 'Interstellar" to the Planet
Ruler's revolving mansion where a landing
is effected. Flitternix speculates on the
probable appearance of the Martians and
gives his reasons on which he hases his assumption. Immediately after landing, the
Martians place soft metallic caps on the
travelers' heads, and they are
= ducted to the Ruler's mansion. then con-
°-
-
-
-E.
This story started in the May, 5915,
Issue. Back numbers will be supplied
at loc. each postpaid.
II11111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIO"
IIIIIIIIIfIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIRIilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
"As our host had to go to the other
end of the room just then for a few minutes, Flitternix and myself tried thought
transmission at once, and we surprised
ourselves how well it worked. Not only
could we 'talk' in pictures almost at once,
but after a while we could tell each other
whole sentences. Of course, the unusual
strain gave us a headache long before our
host returned, which was only to be expected; we had never been used to such
hard mental work, and we understood
quickly that we must learn the art gradwww.americanradiohistory.com
December, 1915
wally by constant slow practising and giving the brain a chance to recuperate from
the strain.
"As if our august host had divined the
strain on our minds during the past hour
and one -half since our landing. he immediately began to divert us, and he did this
admirably by letting us see for ourselves
with our own eyes, instead of making us
'see' with our minds.
"However, we quickly began to understand and appreciate his wisdom in first
giving us his historic lecture, because if.
he had not done this most of the things
we saw during the next hour would have
been meaningless to us. Thus you will
understand that what I am going to tell
you now, including the explanations, did
not originate entirely in my own mind.
Most of my explanations are, naturally,
based upon that important lecture.
"We followed our host outdoors, where
we boarded his private flyer. This machine was. of course, an anti -gravitational
flyer, propelled by atomic engines. It behaved much like our own 'Interstellar'
that is. it had no wings, nor planes, because it is not dependent upon the air.
The gravitational attraction of Mars is
neutralized by the atomic engine to a certain degree. The more the gravity is neutralized the higher the machine rises.
Now, in order to steer the flyer an Emanation Ray is used. This ray is the joint
product of several elements not known on
Earth; the nearest, although a poor analogy, is found in your Radium emanation, but the latter is several million times
weaker than the Martian Emanation Ray.
This ray is projected into space by means
of electricity and another source of energy, which I shall term ION, as yet unknown on Earth, and to be described by
me later. The Emanation Ray can be
stored just as electricity is stored in a
storage battery. When it strikes an immovable object it acts exactly as an oar
does when the latter is used in 'pushing
off' from a dock, i. e., the boat will move
away from land. Precisely so with the
Emanation Ray; it is used in controlling
the horizontal motion of the gravity -neutralized flyer, and by its means the latter
can be guided into any desired direction..
"Our flyer was round in shape, resembling a disc, and measured about 25 feet
in diameter. It was almost 6 feet thick,
and like most other things we had seen
on Mars it was, of course, transparent.
In the center was a dome that looked like
the conning tower of a submarine, and a
slender metallic pole extended from it almost 25 feet into the air. It branched out
at the top into three short brackets. at the
end of each was a transparent ball about
10 inches in diameter. Between these
balls the Emanation Ray played, and the
latter could be thrown at will into any
direction desired.
"Our flyer was an open one and not covered on top, and there were two 'drivers,'
which you probably would call chauffeurs,
one forward and one aft. There were no
steering wheels and no brakes, nor a horn.
The two drivers sat in transparent chairs,
not unlike our own, and in front of them
was a little round table with small key
levers like 'listening in' keys on an American telephone switchboard. That was all.
"As soon as we were seated, our host
sitting between us, our 'drivers' pressed a
lever or two, and we shot upward with
amazing speed. In a few seconds the
Emanation Ray went into action, and we
began to fly or rather float into an easterly
direction. From the position of the Sun,
I concluded that it was almost 'Noon,' as
the Sun was about overhead; this must
(Continued on page 442.)
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
389
How The "Wireless Wiz" Celebrated Xmas
By Thomas W. Benson
yES; I was burning the midnight oil, or
rather juice, constructing a highspeed key for the "Wiz." I knew
that he wanted this more titan anything else
and it had to be "scale key." Time and
money were no consideration, and neither
was spared on this work of art. I was
buoyed up to m task by the anticipation
of the look on the Wizard's face when he
would open the box and lift out the shining piece of apparatus on which I was
spending so much time in making.
The noise I made in the basement was
outdone by that in the ether, for my wrist
lo! a "wave meter" was revealed nestling in a bed of cotton batting. I reached
forward to touch it, and "ouch! "
nearly
dropped the whole thing. I grinned, for I
and,
-
-I
had detected a soft, buzzing sound issuing
from the box that explained everything.
Using extreme care, and taking a few more
shocks for good measure, I succeeded in
of the box.
getting the wave meter
The "Wiz" had included a small but "hefty" medical coil and had arranged two clips
that made contact as soon as the lid was
removed. A few wires twisted around the
box and one to the condenser had served
o`
room was darkened, and half of it was
taken up with a platform about two feet
high and about six feet wide. On one end
of the platform was a massive Christmas
tree, slowly revolving, and at the other end
was mounted a miniature lighthouse on the
rocks, against which water appeared to be
dashing. The platform was decorated to
imitate a mountainous country in the wintertime, and over the whole scene hung a
half -moon that vied with the ever -changing
beams of light from the lighthouse for su-
periority.
On the edge of the platform were laid
The "Wiz" liad Quite Outdone Himself. A Miniature Lighthouse Blazed
Forth, tV'hiie Toy Electric Trains Passed Each Other True to Life.
Tree Revolved While the Lamps on it Blinked On and Off Repeatedly.
was nearly gone, returning the good wishes
of the season via wireless. In disgust I
had shot the closing signal and slid away
to the haunts of the rats and cobwebs. The
clock in the kitchen had struck one, yet I
ceased not.
*
*
*
*
*
*
Time sped on, and that Saturday morning
came at last, on which the world does honor to the birth of its Saviour. At six bells
I kicked the blankets off and sat in, garbed
only in my bathrobe and slippers, and nearly had the 'phones burned out by the disturbances in the ether which carried the
good wishes that came literally pouring into
the set.
I was the first one down that, eventful
morning and was waiting for the postman
as he came whistling up to the door and
fairly snatched the box out of his hand. I
could not count the time in minutes or seconds that I consumed in opening the box;
to give me a shocking surprise. It was a
wave meter that anyone would have been
proud to own, and I knew the "Wiz" had
spent some time in his "Lab." constructing
it.
After I had eaten my breakfast I went
out to call on him and, of course, bumped
into the usual Christmas morning crowd
roaming around half -dressed. They appeared to be waiting for the "Wiz" to start
something, and as I came into the room
he said, "You're just in time for the ceremony.
I'm taking the kids in to meet
Kris Kringle."
He stood in front of the door leading to
the parlor and clapped his hands. The door
swung slowly open, and to the strains of a
Christmas carol, played on the Victrola, we
walked into the land of wonders.
Wonder is a pretty poor word to express
my sensation when I beheld the work of
art the "Wiz" had wrought over night. The
www.americanradiohistory.com
The
the gifts for the children. and with a shout
-of joy they dashed for them without wait-
ing to pay any attention to the ever- changing, ever-flashing, vari- colored beams of
light that made a charming scene; one indeed never to be forgotten. There was an
electric curling -iron for the
s" sister,
Olga. She left immediately with an abashed smile to try it out in the privacy of her
own room. There was an electric chafing dish for mother, and an electric shaving
mug for dad, lying beside the usual collection of Teddy Bears and Trumpets that the
kids were fighting over. I turned and saw
them standing at the door with a smile
that would not come off, and dad was feeling his jaw, to see if he was ready to test
out the new shaving mug.
I looked for the "Wiz," as I wanted to
compliment him on his work of art. but
found him bending over a small switchboard, showing Toe how to dispatch the
"Vii
THE
390
trains on the railroad system. After watching the action for a few minutes. I was
practically speechless. He had laid out a
railway system which consisted of two stations and a side -track. By closing a switch
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
The tiny fir trees on the mountain side,
the rising and falling of the semaphores.
the whistling of the locomotives, all made
such an enchanting scene that it was hard
to realize that I was standing in a warm
December, 1915
the moon shone forth in all its glory, and
the lighthouse once more sent its beams
out to sea as I bade the "Wiz" farewell, to
go my regular Christmas rounds.
As I left him I promised I would be back
light in
/i9ht house
J
/2
//
Tree
To
To
Complete Layout of
Toy Railway Tracking,
he would start a freight train from one
station and simultaneously start an express
train running in the opposite direction
around the loop. It looked like a head -on
collision, till he pressed a button, and the
freight train would shoot on to a sidetrack and let the express through. After
the express had reached the home station,
the freight train would be backed off the
siding and run to its station. This action
could be changed indefinitely and many
peculiar and exciting situations came up
during the action. He would have the express train about to overtake the freight
train when- click -the "freight" would be
Detail Sketches
"B"
and
"C."
switched out of the way, with only two
inches to spare.
The action was quite natural, for the
trains would blow their whistles and
emerge from the stations with headlights
flashing, glittering on the imitation snow,
and with a little stretch of imagination the
beholder could readily believe himself on a
mountain peak looking down at a scene in
one of our many inlets in New England
during the winter.
arc light
/iyhfs on tree
,,o Pott
o
Sketch A"
With Automatic Reversing Switches, Side- tracks, Stations, et cetera.
room in the city. and not seated on a mountain top, surveying a picturesque mountainous seashore.
The moon was the final touch to the
scene as it shed its pale rays on the landscape, and casting faint shadows just like a
real moon. Mountains were painted on the
back scene, and the moon appeared to be
just rising over the peaks. It was the kind
of moon that jewelers and housefurnishin" dealers delight in, being an accessory
be`ore the fact of many of their sales.
The only object that would spoil this
flight of fancy was the Christmas tree
slowly turning, while among its branches
were flickering numerous tiny lights, and
the colored rays from the lighthouse lit up
the tinsel and shining fol-de -rols on its
branches.
I have seen Christmas trees, many of
them, but they all lacked something. Something was always missing, a subtle, but perceptible something that all things should
possess when used in the worship of a
celestial Deity. They had the gaudy appearance that oftimes means cheapness and
lack of refinement.
This tree, however, was decorated very
simply, yet did not look bare. It turned
slowly on its axis, as though it were showing you, but not without a little hesitation,
the wonders attached to its branches, proud
of them, but endeavoring to suppress its
pride.
My attention was then attracted by the
rocks on which the lighthouse was mounted
and they appeared to be glowing in the
semi- darkness.. When the lamps in the
lighthouse and tree were turned off and
the moon had faded away to a faint glimmer, the rocks shone forth in the darkness
in resplendent glory and the tree, revolving
with its phosphorescent trimmings, put the
final touch to the enchanting picture. Again
www.americanradiohistory.com
for the full details of this wonderful display, and asked him what he had received
in the line of presents. With a half- depreciating smile, he replied, "Well, old man,
outside of your high -speed key, I got a
couple of pairs of slippers and a smoking
cap, besides several boxes of those famous
or, rather, infamous Christmas cigars. I
E°?`//,'.iQ'v'S=FJ JGïG.a.í-'=,,,`%<
PIM14EXt+Commutotor
NMy
Brushes', únalOINOW
"for/0/5
.
IIW1N
Tree!
Box tor /eooyytree
agree
pi
Be to AA/
11aaD:11-M.lallll..e...
house
Detall Sketch "D," Showing Suspension and
Base Mounting of Xmas Tree.
haven't had time to open all the packages
yet, though."
(Continued on page 397.)
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
391
Buying By Mail
By
IWONDER who the wise man was who
first discovered that a boy's trade was
worth having. As I look over the experimental supply catalogues of the present
time -with everything that a "bug" could
want pictured out so exactly, offered in the
smallest quantities, and priced so cheaply
I am reminded of the humble figure we
"old bugs" used to cut in the "marts of
-
Thomas Reed
pression "Stung!" had not been added to
the language, but the sting was certainly
among those present in all advertising columns.
Those were the days of shin- plasters. Do
you know what "suspension of specie payment" means? Say no; and say it with
gratitude. Uncle Sam was paying his heavy
war expenses in paper money, and Unc's
gold and silver coinage had fled from the
light of day. That's what economists call a
necessary consequence, and you have to
take their word for it; but I saw its inner
workings. Whenever I peeped into the family strong -box I saw there a little roll of
silver "quarters," hoarded since the beginning of the war, when the word went round
that they would be "worth a premium."
keeps "; 'though I assure you no dealings
were permitted on margin. Well, this boywealth, accumulating as slowly and painfully as any other wealth,- eventually blosm need into the small copper coin of the upper realm, finally to ripen into the glorified
fruit of fractional currency. I have had
the pleasure since of gazing upon a rather
large banknote (not mine, to be sure
was for $50,000, or such a matter), but it
-it
trade."
Those marts certainly bore us in no high
entirely lacked the haughty impressiveness
esteem. It was a dreaded ordeal for us to
of my first 25-cent shin -plaster.
meet the lordly hardware clerk and preAnd even while I gloated over my magsume upon his august attention for five
nificent aggregation of capital, frenzied
a
quarter
cents' worth of copper wire, or
finance got it. I can see that seductive adof a foot of brass rod. Our reception vavertisement now, picturing a bewildering
ried from an amused indulgence that made
medley of articles
printing press, a Japaus afraid to come again, lest we wear out
nese parasol, a trick spider, and a dozen
so kind a welcome -down
other lures of childhood -all for
through a snappish compliance
exactly my fund of 25 cents.
that usually carried a crushing
Wonderful
coincidence, the
overcharge-down, down to the
chance of a lifetime. Really
icy depths of "we don't deal in
worth $1. Sell them for their
such small quantities."
real value and grow rich.
How many times I have timidThe old folks were sceptical
ly inquired the price of some
Pacific Bank, it seems, had
the
coveted material, such as copper
in some such strain -but
spoken
burrs, to receive the answer
I knew better. Good-night, 25;
pound!
a
pound."
A
much
"So
a fond farewell! To New York
A vast, uncertain quantity that
it went, and for days I waited,
would make me the envy of my
each day a year long. With
fellow "bugs" in that one particevery rumble of a wagon I was
ular and bankrupt otherwise!
at the window to see the express
The word "pound" gives me a
package trundled in. It was the
shiver to this day.
however, who handed
postman,
And people never sold fintwo inches by four
a
box
out
ished parts. "Oh, no," they said,
plenty large enough to contain a
"we're too sharp for that. If
world of woe. Every article was
you could buy that one impossithere, but in ,miniature form
ble piece, you would make the
toys for a baby to suck the paint
whole article, and we should
not goods commanding
off,
lose a sale." Such was the logic
traffic in boy- commerce. The adof merchandising then. So the
vertisement had not mentioned
"boughten" commutator that we
that detail. I was face to face
wanted to put the finishing
with the dreaded "ketch."
home
-made
dynaon
our
touch
I considered my young life
mo remained unbought. But
blighted, of course, but it might
what booted it ?-as Shakespeare
have given me some comfort
was wont to inquire. We found
had I known that the mail order
a substitute; and the stingy venwas blighting itself as well. It
dor, instead of selling a thoutook a generation of time, strict
sand commutators, sold no dylaws, and the teaching of experinamos. or few, and disappeared
ence that honesty is the best
from the haunts of men.
policy before the mail order, in
You lucky "bugs" of later
partnership with the square deal,
times, take a day off and use it
came into its own.
to realize your blessings. You
You young "bugs" really don't
can buy a single milled nut, or
fully appreciate how good the
an inch of Wollaston wire, or
world treats you these days. No
ten cents' worth of galena crysmore "ketches" in these days of
tals, and have them delivered at
watchful post -office inspectors,
your door, and not grudgingly,
but with a hearty "thank you; f "
*
it was a Dreaded Ordeal for Us to Meet the Lord tY Hard- no sir -e -e! When you stick your
ware Clerk
to Purchase Five Cents Worth of Copper Bu rrs.
come again." And parts? "Why,
money order with your letter in
sure; make all of it you can,
the envelope, and send it off to
Mother had put them there, and I think that big mail -order house, .you know
and buy the rest from us." The best in
the house is none too good for the amateur her most reasonable hopes of profit took
just how long it will take till the
now.
the form of a walnut chamber set. Mother
postman hands you that pair of longThe mail order! There can be great dis- was speculating. Dear old mother, she nevcoveted "classy" 'phones. And, believe
coveries entirely outside of the physical scier speculated on anything else, except on
me, "bugs," those 'phones will be a whole
ences. The modern mail -order system is as
the love and loyalty of her children; and
lot better than the cut showed, or the detruly an invention as the gas engine and,
sometimes, I fear, she must have placed
scription read. And on top of this, if
like it, was formed from several contributhose in the same disappointing category as
you're finnicky and don't happen to like
tory sources. The development of illustrathe silver quarters!
them, why of course you send 'em back.
tion through the photographic half -tone and
So we used "fractional currency "-little
And in due time the mail order returns
the machine -line engraving was necessary
young paper bills, about three inches by
your money, if you want it.
for the exact description of goods by catatwo, representing 50 cents, 25 cents, even 10
Take it from an old "bug," you young
logue.
But another factor, intangible cents; and, believe me, even that humble
"buglets" have lots to be thankful for.
though it is, was requisite before the sys- form of money was hard to get. Boys had
tem could be a success-an insistence alno "allowances" in those hard times -exThe largest electric range in the world
most fanatical on the square deal.
cept the allowance to have nothing; but
has been placed in the Montana State HosIt is greatly to the credit of the mail ordeep down in the boy -world there was a
pital at Warren Springs, Mont. The range
der that it lived down the errors of its system of trade and finance. We collected is more than 30 feet long. It is equipped
youth. 'Way back in the '70s it was in
rusty nails, swapped knives. Instead of
with eight ovens and will prepare meals for
decidedly ill -repute. The picturesque exstock transactions, we played marbles "for
more than 1,500 persons daily.
-a
-
:
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1
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Ti-IE
392
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
To Foil Submarines With Undersea Searchlights
THE submarine and mine constitute
the greatest menaces to
warships and other vessels under
modern war-time conditions and to offset
the utility and efficiency of same has interested many inventors both in this country and abroad. Inventors and scientists
have advocated from time to time various
methods whereby they hoped to render
the submarine at least an obsolete engine
of destruction.
What bids fair to be a successful combatant of these submerged terrors of the
sea is the invention recently brought out
by Prof. Herschel C. Parker and Edwin G.
Hatch, of New York, mechanical engineer,
associated with Prof. Parker in his engineering and research projects.
The accompanying illustrat:o.i will give
two of
communicated to the gunner, who then
discharges a special form of projectile resembling a torpedo. This projectile, of
course, is so aimed as to strike the mitre
or other submerged devise, and it is not
detonated until it is close to the submerged
body proper. It is then exploded by the
gunner, who closes an electric switch,
causing a current to flow along the attached wires to the projectile, fusing a fine
wire detonator inside the missile.
On first sight this invention may seem
to be a mere theorist's dream, but from
tests that have been made in the taking of
pictures under water by means of a powerful searchlight, it is definitely asserted that
submerged objects can be seen in this way
for distances of from 1,000 to 2,000 feet.
These distances, of course, may be greatly
Latest Scheme for Locating and Destroying Submarines, Mines, etc., by M - -tes of
Developed by Prof. Herschel C. Parker and Edward
an adequate idea as to the method of utilizing this arrangement as perfected by
Messrs. Parker and Hatch. Simply explained, it makes use of a powerful searchlight beam which is projected through a
suitable focusing tube, fitted with reflecting lenses and mirrors and an instrument
termed a inarisaope (but really the same
as the periscope used on all submarines)
is used to sight through the water along
the light beam, aforementioned, and which
is turned about on the axis of the projecting tube until it intersects a hidden mine,
the hull of a submarine boat. etc. When
the mine, or other engine of destruction,
is accurately located by this apparatus, the
range of same, as well as the angle at
which it lies from the hull of the war
vessel, is measured accurately by scientific
instruments, such as used on regular cannon. These angle and range figures are
o
G.
tration shows, so that a protection would be
afforded the gunner and sighter from ordinary rifle and machine gun fire.
For details regarding this latest scientific
invention for the detection of submarines,
etc., the following considerations will help
to make clear the modus operandi of the
apparatus in general:
At the top of the tube, the latter being
represented by the figure 10 in the diagram,
is a powerful electric searchlight 11, of any
approved kind, which throws its rays
through lenses 12 and 13, arranged to hold
the rays in parallel relation. These rays
are directed against a mirror 14, which is
arranged at an angle at the lower end of
the tube, and refracts the rays through the
lens at the outlet of the tube. This latter
lens can be shaped to throw the rays in
Powerful Under-Water Searchlight and Periscope Device.
Hatch, M. E., of New York.
increased by using a proportionately
greater amount of energy in the search light projector.
The larger projecting
tube, into which is fitted the searchlight lenses, mirrors, etc., is termed a
helioscope, and the instrument mounted in
the smaller sighting tube through which
the submerged body is viewed is called a
niariscope by the inventors. In the illustration herewith given it is, of course, to
be taken into consideration that the proportionate distance between the mine and
war vessel proper is quite close, but in
practise the distance would naturally have
to be greater than that shown, for the reason that the explosion from such a device
would affect the vessel undoubtedly unless
it was more than 300 feet away. If this
device is actually tried out and adopted by
the navy it would have to be arranged most
probably in some such manner as our illuswww.americanradiohistory.com
parallel relation or to give any amount of
divergence desired.
The tube, with the searchlight. lenses and
refracting mirror, is attached to the outside of the vessel. Inasmuch as the searchlight is to be used on deck, a light of the
highest power can readily be used. The
tube can be adjusted so that it may be
raised or lowered to bring the light to any
desired point. Likewise the mirror can be
moved for the same Purpose, but the details
of this adjustment have not as yet been
considered exhaustively, because they do
not concern the general scope of the invention. If a light is projected on both sides
of the bow, the field which it is possible to
light is almost equivalent to the field of
human vision.
When the submerged field is lighted, the
next step is to 'observe it properly, and to
(Continued on page 450.)
.
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
393
By Wireless 'Phone from Arlington to Paris
THE spoken word uttered in Arlington,
has becii heard in Paris,
France, on tare different occasions
recently, and particularly on the evening
of Oct. 20 last. On that memorable date
the human voice was projected across the
Atlantic for the first time in history, and
"Hellos" and "Good- byes" spoken in Arlington were heard and understood in the
French capital, 3,800 miles from the point
of transmission.
Announcement of the epochal achievement was made officially by the American
Telephone & Telegraph Co., following
cabled confirmation of the success of the
wireless telephone experiments received in
New York and in Washington from the
company's engineers in Paris.
H. E. Shreeve and A. M. Curtis, of the
staff of John J.
Carty, the chief engineer of the American Telephone &
Telegraph Co., went
to France to represent the company in
the transatlantic experiments.
Owing to the fact
Va.,
that France
is
t:te Eiffel Tower in Paris have heard
speech sent out by engineers of the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. from apparatus developed by that company and the
Western Electric Co. and installed at
Arlington, Va. The equipment used was
that employed a few weeks ago in talking
4,900 miles by wireless telephony to San
Francisco and Ionolulu."
That speech has actually been transmitted
from Arlington to observers stationed at
the Eiffel Tower, Paris, marks the conclusion of another chapter in the experiment undertaken by the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. When Mr. Carty's
engineers commenced work on the long distance wireless telephone experiments observers with receiving apparatus were sent
an Diego, Mare
not only to Panama,
I
that
he
heard
conversation
throughout the entire schedule and
that Mr. Webb's
t h e
at
voice was e a
war and that wireless is playing a
most important part
'in the working out
of the French military communication
system, it was with
difficulty
extreme
-'
interference from high -power stations in
tile neighborhood and from static disturbances, speech was successfully transmitted
on several occasions since.
In a cable message received by Mr. Carty
concerning the results of the tests, Mr.
Shreeve reported speech received by him
and the time of its reception at Paris. The
matter received at Paris was that sent
from Arlington, where R. A. Heising, B.
B. Webb and other telephone engineers
were manipulating the apparatus at the
transmitting station. Mr. Webb did the
talking throughout the final experiments.
Simultaneously with the reception at
Paris, speech sent out from Arlington was
received on the wireless antenna at the
\ Vestern Electric laboratories in New York
and at the temporary station of the Americ an Telephone &
elcgraph Co. at the
Pearl Harbor Navy
Y a r d,
Honolulu.
Mr. Espenschied at
Honolulu reported
recognized.
s
i
l
y
After the an-
nouncement was issued Mr. Carty, who
was in Chicago, was
called up on the
long distance telephone and asked to
that officials were
tell the story of the
persuaded to permit
achievement.
the use of the 1,000 "Tell us all about
Tower
Eiffel
foot
the Paris achievestation at Paris for
ment," said an offithe receipt of the racer of the company
diophone messages
in New York.
from Arlington.
"Is anybody 'lisOnly a few sectening in?'" Mr.
onds at a time, in
Larty asked, quickly
periods far apart,
guessing that news were allowed the
pepermen also were
American engineers,
at the New York
during which they
end of the line.
were permitted to
Mr. Carty laughed
listen for the greetwhen told he had
ing from far away
guessed rightly, and
Arlingtdn. In order
after a little pe
that there could be
suasion told the
no doubt of the
story of the test.
genuineness of t h e
It was on the
tests, officers of the
night of Oct. 12
French Government,
Graphic Illustration of Arlington to Honolulu and Arlington-Paris Radio phone Tests Recently
two or more of
when the first signal
Conducted; the Distances Covered Being 4,900 and 3,800 Miles Respectively.
whom represented
from Arlington was
caught by Shreeve, in Paris. Shreeve heard
the army, were with Messrs. Shreeve and Island and Honolulu, but also two engiCurtis in Paris, while Colonel Samuel neers, H. E. Shreeve and A. M. Curtis, the 'Hello' of Webb at Arlington several
Reber, of the United States Army Radio were sent to Paris. Through the courtesy
times. Again, the following night, the words
Service Captain W. H. G. Bullard, head of the French Government, limited facilities
were heard, and on Oct. 20 the words were
of the United States Naval Radio Service, for listening at the Eiffel Tower station again heard, not only in Paris, but in
and other American army and navy officers were placed at their disposal.
Honolulu, by Lloyd Espenschied, who
watched intently the experiments at ArlingFull appreciation of the interest and excabled to -day that he heard the 'Hello,
ton.
treme courtesy of the French Government
Shreeve,' and the 'Good -bye, Shreeve,' utMr. Carty, who not only heads the en- can be understood when the great value of tered by Webb in Arlington so plainly that
gineering staff of the telephone company the Eiffel Tower station for military pur- he was able to recognize the voice as that
but is president of Cie American Institute poses is remembered. Due to the military of Webb.
of Electrical Engineers, directed the ex- necessities, the amount of time available
"The announcement of the success of the
periments. Following the announcement for the wireless telephone experiments was experiment was deferred through courtesy
of the success of the tests, he predicted that so limited as to constitute a serious handi- to the French Government, and it was not
wireless telephonic communication between cap to a speedy completion of the work. until Oct. 22 when further cable confirmaNew York or any other American city and Added to this was the handicap resulting tion of the success that has attended our
all the great cities of the world was but a from the fact that all regular communica- efforts made it possible for us to take the
matter of time.
tion between Mr. Shreeve and the engineers public into our confidence and tell what has
The announcement given out at the of- in America had to be by cable and was sub- taken place.
fices of the American Telephone & Tele- ject to long delays.
"While Webb was talking to Shreeve he
graph Co. follows:
Notwithstanding the difficulties of com- repeated the 'Hello' and 'Good -bye' several
"Transatlantic wireless telephony is an munication. the limited amount of time times, and they were heard each time in
accomplished fact. Observers listening at available for receiving, and despite heavy
(Continued on page 448.)
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
394
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
Audion Bulbs as Producers of Pure Musical Tones
By Dr. Lee de Forest
NOW that the attention of the public
has been drawn to the astonishing
use of the incandescent vacuum
lamp, not only as a receiver in transcontinental wireless telephony, but as a
generator of power necessary to transmit
the voice in the first place, it may be interesting to know that this incandescent
lamp, or " audion," has another entirely
different field of utility -that of producing
sound or music. Music from light-that,
in a word
the latest magic of this lamp.
Tradition has it that on the plains of
Egypt three thousand years ago the giant
statue of the Memni emitted weirdly beautiful notes when struck by the first rays of
-is
phone detector and incidentally as an amplifier to be used on long distance telephone
lines I made the discovery years ago that
when the circuits of the audion were connected in a certain way a clear, musical
npte was heard in the telephone receiver,
which was connected in one of these drcuits. The quality of the note was very
beautiful, and I found after a little experimenting that I could change this quality of
timber into a great variety of sounds, imitating, for example, the flute, oboe, cornet,
stringed instruments and other sounds
which, while pleasing to the ear, were quite
unlike those emitted from any musical Instrument with which we are familiar. The
of altering the pitch and quality of notes.
Acting on these discoveries and suggestions I found it was a comparatively simple
matter to arrange a crude scale similar in
function to that of an organ, with switches
in place of the ordinary keys, so that by
pressing certain keys I could cut out, or in,
more or less inductance or capacity or resistance, thus changing the notes emitted
from the telephone receiver at will.
In order to bring the volume of sound
out large and full in the room it was necessary to connect a number of loud speaking
horns connected with telephone receivers
similar to those which you have sometimes
heard in the central railroad stations as
The Audion Piano May Entertain Us in the Near Future With Music Purer Than That Obtainable With Any Instrument Now Available.
IN
the rising sun.
To -day, after three thousand years, it is interesting to know that
we have at last reached the point of transmitting light rays directly into sound
waves that which has hitherto been only
for the pleasure of the eye can now be
made a pleasure also to the ear.
In my laboratory there are a number of
small spherical incandescent bulbs, from
which I am able to obtain a succession of
musical notes, clear and sweet, of surprising volume, the pitch and timber of which
can be varied almost at will to imitate any
musical tone of an orchestra. Here, then,
in the laboratory we have for the first time
the music of the lamps.
While working on my experiments in
developing the audion as a wireless tele-
Imitate Faithfully Any Orchestral Piece.
pitch of the notes is very easily regulated
by changing the capacity or the inductance
in the circuits, watch can be very readily
effected by a sliding contact or simply by
turning the knob of the condenser. In
fact, the pitch of the notes can be changed
by merely putting the finger on certain
parts of the circuit or even by holding the
hand close to parts of the circuit. In this
way very weird and beautiful effects can
be obtained with ease.
At the earlier stage of these investigations I found that the pitch of the note
could also be varied by a simple,arrangement, such as a graphite pencil mark on a
piece of paper or slate, connected across
between certain parts of the circuit, and
that this afforded the most ready means
www.americanradiohistory.com
Also it
train announcers. With these horns distributed in different parts of my laboratory,
or grouped together in one place, the sound
can be made to emanate from all quarters
of the room or from one corner, as I
choose.
In producing pure musical tones with an
ordinary audion detector bulb, or with the
special large size audion oscillator bulbs,
the arrangement is shown diagrammatically
herewith. At A there are placed in circuit
two inductances, inductance No. 1 being of
adjustable value, while inductance No. 3
has an iron wire core within it and also
has taps taken out at equidistant numbers
of turns to E connected to a series of
switches or keys (and it is well to use, say,
eight keys corresponding to a musical oc-
December, 1915
THE
tave, thus giving eight notes). Of course,
to produce more tones it is necessary to
use more inductance taps, or condenser
No. 3 may be of the adjustable type, so as
to produce a variation in the musical tones
developed in the circuit.
Using an ordinary audion detector bulb,
the high voltage battery No. 4 may give
45 to 50 volts, composed of the ordinary
3 -cell flashlight batteries. Where the large
size oscillation generator bulb is employed
110 volts D. C. is adaptable to this part
of the circuit. A D. P. D. T. throw-over
switch may be used, as shown in the diagram, to throw the tone -producing audion
on to a pair of ordinary radio receivers or
on to a loud -talking receiver. The expermenter who wishes to try out this arrangement should try making different
adjustments in the circuit, including the
filament current applied, until the best re
sults.are obtained.
Several years ago, as the public of New
York remembers, a very elaborate undertaking was started for producing music by
gigantic electric dynamos mixing the tones
from WC or more machines in accordance
N:ith the wishes of the skilled performer
who in that way produced musical tones of
large volume, and which siinilated almost
those of every instrument in an orchestra
This instrument was termed the telharmonium. The idea was to generate this
mt.sic at a central station, where highly
trained organists were constantly at the
keyboard, and distribute it through telephone wires throughout the city to hotels,
restaurants, lobbies, concert halls and
private residences. This was a most meritorious idea and deserved great success.
However, the extraordinary heavy cost of
the original plant, the maintenance of the
wire cables, etc., rendered it commercially
a failure.
Now, with the audion or incandescent
lamp as a efnerator of musical tones, we
have on : small scale all of the possibilities
of the large telharmonium.
Now, this same little bulb which I have
just described, in addition to being a receiver of wireless messages and an amplifier for long distance wire telephones (in
which use it is now employed on the transcontinental lines of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company), can be made
to actually generate alternating current. It
receives the energy which is expended in
these currents from the dry battery or
dynamo. The audion is, in other words, a
transformer of energy. The alternating
current, if of low frequency, can actuate
the telephone diaphragm and make musical
notes which the ear can hear, and this is
the germ idea involved in the musical instrument which I have just described. The
bulbs for musical purposes which I have
thus far used are not larger than three
inches in diameter.
At the present time I am using one bulb
for an octave on the musical scale, with
the arrangement of keys and switches such
that from this one bulb I can produce the
notes of that octave by pressing the appropriate keys. For the next octave another
bulb is used, and so on. The output of all
these bulbs is made common to one set of
telephone receivers or loud speakers, so
that the total energy in the form of sound
is that of all the bulbs which are operating
at any one time.
In the same way when used as a wireless
transmitter or generator the high frequency alternating current from the various bulbs is combined on the same transmitting aerial wire or antenna. Thus, if
one oscillator is "developing" one -half
horsepower 300 of these bulbs connected in
parallel and acting on the same antenna
will develop 150 horsepower. This is ex-
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
actly the method which is used at Arlington
by the Western Electric Company in generating sufficient energy to send the voice
via radio to Honolulu.
In al: my work with the audion -and I
395
effect variations in the audionbptb circuits.
Each bulb is capable of prodttéing an octave
or eight notes. The large keyboard similar
to those used on organs is well suited to
this instrument, with which it will become
Above. Dr. de Forest': Laboratori
Where the Musical Audion Bulb
Was Developed. The Large Tubes
are Cooled by a Fan as Perceived.
Note Elaborate Tuning Variable
Condensers In Foreground.
At Right: Close View of
de
Forest
Audion Oscillator Bulb, with Tuning Condenser in Case. Some of
These Tubes Measure Seven Inches
in Diameter. They Actually Generate High Frequency Oscillations.
can imagine no device in the whole realm
of practical physics of greater fascination
have
than this little audion principle
never found any phase of its unlimited possibilities quite so interesting as this of
producing musical notes. Although not a
musician myself, I have always been exceedingly fond of music. The idca of producing beautiful musical tones by an entirely new method unknown to all our
great composers and perhaps offering to
future composers new fields fo their
genius, has truly captivated me. In the
next twelve months I hope to be able to
produce an instrument which will be far
enough perfected so that I can turn it over
to musicians to work out the thousand and
one details of musical perfection which
such men alone are capable of introducing.
The illustration here presented as worked
out by the editor of this journal shows the
probable appearance of an "Audion piano"
-I
of the not far distant future, utilizing the
de Forest musical tube principle, by which
means it is possible to produce the purest
tones of any value ever obtained by any
existing means. The various controlling
handles are observed on the front of the
H!!Bolt eosovt
4
--
loudfo/rhe
T
Z
PD
lYi09
6rid-
A
Qudion bulb
'Vron wire are
lone /regs
6 d60.-T
I
Rheos/ot--Diagram of Connections for Creating Pure Mu.
sical Tones w,th Any Audwn Bulb.
piano, and the music is emitted from the
large horns on top of same. - A storage
battery of small size will supply sufficient
current for this wonderful instrument, and
the feet might be utilized in assisting to
www.americanradiohistory.com
possible to reproduce imitations of any
band, orchestral or stringed instrument, etc.
Extra oscillator bulbs for emergencies for
use in case one should break, a-e seen lying
on the stand at the left. It should be
thoroughly understood that music produced
by suc.i an instrument as this is much
purer in every way than that produced by
any other type of musical instrument now
known to the art and, moreover, the music
is electrically produced in contradistinction
to that produced by the usual musical pieces
which yield sounds mechanically, so to
speak.
PENETRATIVE POWER OF COLORED LIGHTS.
It may interest those engaged in sign
lighting and signaling to know that lights
of different colors show varying degrees
of ability to penetrate the atmosphere.
Some calculations, based on experiments.
give the following results for the minimum
intensity visible in a clear atmosphere at a
range of two miles. (In these calculations
light sources of equal area are assumed.):
Red
2.37 candle power
Green
1.96
"
White
1.71
"
The range of visibility of any light source
depends, of course, upon the intensity of
the source. However, it must not be supposed that by doubling the intensity the
range will be doubled. The relation between the range and intensity varies for
different colors.
The great absorption of light in an atmosphere laden with water vapor is a wellknewn fact. A few years ago the German
Government found that arc lights of 1,000,000 C. P., which were installed in a lighthouse, had less pliility to penetrate á fog
than a 10,000 candle power oil lamp. This
indicates that electric incandescent lamps
having more red rays would be superior to
arc lamps for use in light- houses.
Dust and smoke unquestionably interfere
more with the transmission of blue or
green light than with red light. Therefore,
when viewed through the atmosphere, all
lights should appear redder. On weighing
the evidence, it seems that reddish illuminants should have more penetrative
power that bluish lights, and where details
are to be distinguished at a distance the
red light is more readily focused than by
any other color. Hence the use of red danger signals on ships and railroads.
THE
396
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
Wireless Telegraphy Aids the Teutonic Allies
The photographs presented herewith illustrate some of the up-to -date wireless
telegraph equipment in use by the German army and also by the Turks. The
smaller photograph shows a complete Mar-
The larger illustration shows a telescopic steel radio mast which can be elevated to a height of 100 feet very rapidly,
and the machinery for performing this
work is mounted on the truck here de-
\l
'
Above: Turkish Sailors Being
Instructed in the Rudiments
and Operation of Wireless Telegraphy. The Apparatus Shown
Here is of'Marconi Type. Wireless Has Revolutionized Modern Warfare.
At Lett: Remarkable Collapsi-
ble Steel Mast for Radio- telegraphy as Used in German
Army. It Can be Elevated to
a Height of loo Feet Very
Rapidly.
Photo by Paul Thompson.
coni radio set as used in teaching the
Turkish sailors the rudiments of the art.
The outfit as perceived includes a multiple
valve tuner of the latest Marconi style, as
well as a magnetic detector. The transmitter comprises a 10 -inch spark coil, together with storage batteries and other
auxiliary apparatus. Regular wireless messages are being received by the students
here shown. The Turks have made good
use of wireless telegraphy in their numerous brilliant maneuvers on land and sea.
pilled. Suitable guy wires are providea
for strengthening the mast as it is projected upward, and the total work of raising same to its maximum height, ready for
the purpose of transmitting and receiving
messages over a fairly large range, can be
accomplished in a few minutes by the well
trained German radio corps. The wireless
apparatus is contained in another cart not
shown in the picture. The whole equipment forms a very compact and easily
portable outfit.
VINELAND HIGH SCHOOL RADIO
ASSOCIATION.
lated wireless station in the world. The
station crew is made up of three operators,
two engineers, a cook, a machinist and
three laborers. No women are permitted
to land on the island. Men who express
a willingness to go to Swan Island are
obliged to sign a contract whereby they
agree to remain at least 18 months or waive
their right to free return transportation.
Those remaining the full period of service
are returned to their homes by way of one
of the Central American ports and are
granted six weeks' vacation with full pay.
Strangely enough, there is no difficulty
in obtaining men to man the station. Applicants, indeed, exceed the number of vacancies. Board and lodging, of ,.ourse, are
supplied, a boat bearing all provisions
necessary, including fresh meat, and the
mail as well, arriving regularly every two
weeks. Some men have remained on the
island as long as two years and a half and,
subsequently, have been glad to return to
the station.
The Vineland High School Radio Association, of Vineland, N. J., was recently
organized. Leslie H. Adams was elected
president; Firman A. DeMaris, vice- president; Franklin Lamb, secretary, and Frank
M. Comfort, treasurer and advisory president.
The association has secured permanent
rooms, through the kindness of the Board
of Education, in the physical laboratory of
the new Vocational High School.
The aerial will have an average height
of 100 feet and a length of 250 feet. The
set will consist of a V2-k.w. transmitting set
and a receiving set of standard make.
The object of the association is to bring
the amateurs of Vineland and vicinity in
closer relation and to purchase elaborate
equipment which would be impossible
otherwise.
The association would like to get into
communication with other clubs. All correspondence should be sent to Franklin
Lamb, 623 Elmer street, Vineland, N. J.
THE MOST LONESOME RADIO
STATION.
On Swan Island, in the Caribbean Sea,
is situated what is probably the most iso-
305
FOOT RADIO MAST BLOWN
DOWN.
On September 26 last the 305 -foot steel
wireless tower of the American Radio and
Research Corporation was blown down at
Tufts College, Mass. Through carelessness
in erection details the tower fell, it is
www.americanradiohistory.com
December, 1915
claimed. The accident was the result of
insufficient temporary guying. It had been
erected to its full height, but was not entirely completed. I: wa; made up of structural steel with a cross -section of 3 feet 4
inches square, and followed the same dimensions all the way up; the total height
was 305 feet. The plans called for three
sets of guy ropes at intervals of 100 feet
of height. The two lower sets of guys
were permanently in place, but some 5-16 inch steel rope was fastened temporarily
to the top. As the design called for %inch crucible steel guys for the top, it is
evident that the guys used temporarily had
an ultimate strength of only 1 -12th that
called for by the plans. The high wind of
September 26 last parted the temporary
5-16 -inch steel rope, allowing the top of the
tower to sway out, thus bringing into play
enormously high stresses at the next lower
set of guys. This undue strain snapped
first the middle set of guys and then the
lower ones.
Some interesting features were nóted in
the falling of this tower. There were no
signs of buckling, the tower falling as a
unit indicating great rigidity. It fell across
a street railway line, cutting down the
trolley wires and feeder cables act-ass the
tracks of the Boston & Maine Railway,
derailing a locomotive. When the locomotive fender caught the end of the mast it
dragged the tower 50 feet down the tracks,
twisting the steel somewhat. It was remarkable, however, the way the steel held
together, shearing off the bolts rather than
pulling out the bolt holes.
The tower was insulated from the
ground. Some of the base insulators remained intact, although a few were crushed,
due to the side thrust of the falling mast.
The rebuilding of the tower was started
immediately. After the new insulators
were in pace and the cement hardened the
steel work was started anew. It is now
up 60 feet and should be completed within
Two Views of Fallen
305 =foot
Steel Radio Tower
at Tuft's College, Mass.
a short time. All the anchor blocks were
perfect, showing no trace of the strain exerted when the tower fell.
Never dust electric globes while unlighted. The static electricity generated
will break the filaments.
THE
December, 1915
POWERFUL
SEARCHLIGHTS
WORK WONDERS IN MODERN WARFARE.
In modern warfare some of the greatest battles are not fought in the daytime,
but at night, when darkness provides a
mighty impenetrable blanket over land and
sea. For that reason the enormous armies
now engaged in the titanic struggle in Europe invoke the use of powerful electric
searchlights which blaze forth over thc
battleground at night, so that advances and
sorties may be made regardless of nature's
handicap. Our illustrations show a clever
method for handling, to the best advantage,
a powerful electric searchlight projector
and, moreover, its mounting is cleverly
placed on a specially constructed wagon, as
perceived. This vehicle carries at the rear
two large reels of flexible cable, which
serve to supply the arc lamp with current
from a petrol engine and dynamo plant
similarly mounted on a wagon, but located
in most cases at some distance from the
projector.
When thc searchlight wagon lias rcached
the point where it is to be used on the
field the telescopic, collapsible framework
here shown is elevated in a few seconds to
any desired height and the searchlight can
now be swung to whatever direction desired. A flexible electric cable leads down
from the projector case to make connection with the wires leading back to the dynamo truck, as aforementioned.
This outfit is also equipped with a military type telephone instrument, whose circuit runs back to the rear army guard.
Note how the truck is partially covered
with pine boughs in an effort to conceal
the outfit as much as possible from the reconnoitering aeroplanes of the enemy during daytime. Some of these schemes are
carried out in such detail that the apparatus cannot be observed at all, even when
the scouting aeroplane flies but a short distance above the earth. The particular
searchlight here shown has done effective
duty in Northern France, and, as may be
HOW THE WIRELESS "WIZ"
CELEBRATED XMAS.
'
(Continued from page 390.)
"Well, see you later in the day," I sang
out. * * *
Fig. E.
/tow Revolving Flasher
light is Constructed.
of
Search-
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
judged from the picture., this unit forms
a part of the wonderful German signal
corps equipment, which is said on good
authority, to be second to none in the
world to -day. It must be remembered that
in most instances, not one or two searchlights are used on the battlefield, but whole
397
5 to 15 kilowatts. Some searchlights require less, where they are used for
minor work, and likewise some of them
take more energy than above mentioned.
The American Army and Navy are equipped
with some of the largest projectors
extant, several of which measure 60 inches
sume from
+IS
MF
r.-
Above: German Signal Corps About to Put
into Operation One of Their Powerful 36Inch Electric Searchlight Projectors for Night
Fighting. Left: Supporting Frame Elevated.
Note Screen of Trees to Help Disguise it
From Enemy During Day.
Photos Copyright by Underwood & Underwood.
batteries of them are brought into play
simultaneously, so that the ground is brilliantly illuminated for several miles, thus
for all practical purposes they take the
place of the sun Itself. Occasionally one
of these powerful searchlight beams spots
an enemy's aeroplane at night, and in several instances it has resulted in the flying
scout being brought to earth in short order
by the effective use of anti- aircraft guns.
The majority of these devices operate
on 80 to 110 volts, direct current, and con-
and more in diameter across the reflector.
The front opening of the lamp cases are
closed with glass, but this is not in one
piece. It is divided up into several narrow
strips to permit greater facility in replacement, and also to more efficiently take care
of the unequal expansion and contraction
of the glass, due to the enormous amount
of heat developed by the arc, and which
is moreover reflected against the glass by
the parabolic mirror in the rear of the
lamp housing.
"Are you ready for the dope now ?" inquired the "Wiz" that night at 11, as he
sank into the chair at his desk and drew
forth a few sheets of blank paper, on which
he proceeded to make some sketches. "Well,
I'll now 'wise you up' on the railroad stunt
first. I was certainly stuck for a while on
the switches for this system, till I got into
communication with a New York electrical
firm and managed to get hold of a complete list of miniature railroad supplies to
fill my bill. I used two stations -'A' and
'B' (see sketch A) -and one siding made of
standard track.
"The three switches were electrically operated from the switchboard and were made
similar to this sketch B. Two magnets were
mounted with a pivoted magnetized arm to
play between them. This pivoted arm was
fastened to the bar that swung the switch,
and by throwing the current in one direction or the other I was able to open or
close the switch.
"The third rail on the side -track and stations was disconnected from the main system, and I had switches 1, 2 and 3 arranged
to control them, while switch 4 controlled
the current to the main track. The electric
switches 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 controlled the
operation of the track switches. I also
rigged up magnetically controlled reversing
stops at several points, marked X, controlled by keys 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16.
These reversers also operate the semaphores by means of the sliding rod, 'R,'
pushing the arm into 'Danger' position.
"Now the operation of the system can
be briefly outlined as follows: Making the
freight train's station, 'A,' and the express
train's station, 'B'; then, by closing the
switch 1, the freight train is started out
on the main track and runs in the direction indicated by the arrow. When it has
just passed the express station we may
throw the current into that track by closing
the switch 2, and the express train will
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start out in the opposite direction. It will
look just like a head -on collision, but by
depressing the key 9 the switch is opened
that allows the freight train to run onto
the side-track ; and the button 14. controlling the reverse, is pressed at the same
time and the reverse gear will cause it to
(Continued on page 151.)
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
The United States Advisory Board and Its Personnel
lE newly- appointed United States Naval Advisory Board of scientists, inventors and engineers, which is the
outcome of an excellent idea originated by
the Secretary of our Navy, Josephus Daniels, recently held its first meeting and several important matters were taken up at
that session. A consulting staff of specialists, such as here brought together, should
have been available for the benefit of our
Government many years ago, and it is really remarkable that such an idea was not
formulated and carried through long before
TI
now.
The photograph herewith shows the members of the Advisory Board at their first
meeting in Washington, D. C., and below
is given a brief outline of the qualifications
of the savants and engineers who make up
this staff, which is headed by Thomas Alva
Edison as Chairman of the Board.
Mr. Edison is probably one of the most
present wonderful success as a captain of
industry and invention. 'It would be hard
indeed to find a man with a more general
and widely extended education than Mr.
Edison and, as we know, he has been responsible for many of our greatest mechanical and electrical devices of untold benefit
to the human race, such as the electric light,
phonograph, motion picture machine and
storage batteries, etc. In all, this phenomenal man has taken out over 1,200 patents
on various inventions.
Two well -known mathematicians were
nominated to the Board by the American
Mathematical Society. These were Professor Robert Simpson Woodward, of Washington, D. C. and Professor Arthur Gordon
Webster, of Worcester, Mass. The former
gentleman is a well -known engineer and an
expert in astronomical matters. He was
born in Rochester, Mich., in 1849 and graduated with the degrees of Civil Engineer
sidered an authority on physics.
The two members nominated by the
American Society of Civil Engineers were
Alfred Craven and Andrew Murray Hunt.
The former gentleman has been for many
years connected with the various branches
of the municipal engineering department of
New York City, He is a son of Rear Admiral Thomas C. Craven and a nephew of
Alfred W. Craven, for many years Chief
Engineer of the old Croton Aqueduct. He
was born in Bound Brook, N. J., in 1846
and graduated from the United States Naval Academy. In 1910 he became Chief Engineer of the Rapid Transit Commission of
New York. His experiences have been varied and most thorough, and his opinion on
engineering and technical matters is taken
as final. Mr. Hunt comes from San Francisco and occupies a prominent position as
an engineer in that city. He also graduated
from the United States Naval Academy in
Photo Copyright by International Film Servlce-
In the above illustration looking from left to right, the following members of the new Naval Advisory Board appear as indicated: t.
Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy; 2. Thomas A. Edison, Chairman of the Board; 3. Elmer Ambrose Sperry; 4. Arthur Gordon Webster;
3. Hudson Maxim; 6. Lawrence Saunders; 7. Benjamin G. Lamme; 8. Frank Julian Sprague; 9. Henry Alexander Wise Wood; io. Lawrence
Addkks; it. Howard E. Coffin; H. Spencer Miller; 13. Thomas Robins; 14. Wm. L. Emmett; is. L. H. Baekeland; 16. Beni. B. Thayer; 17. W. R.
Hunt; zz. Andrew L. Riker; 23. Robert SimpWhitney; 18. Peter Cooper Hewitt; 19. Joseph W.
20. Alfred Craven; 21. Andrew
son Woodward; 2.. Matthew B. Sellers.
widely read and experienced scientific men
available in this country to -day, and so we
may indeed congratulate ourselves in having such an able electrician and inventor at
the head of this illustrious body of welltrained specialists which, in its entirety, covers practically all branches of applied science with which we are familiar to-dayf rom navigation to wireless.
Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847 in
Milan, O. His early education was entire ly self- acquired, and he very early took up
the vocation of a railroad telegraph operator. However, his leaning toward scientific and technical matters caused him to
invent at an early age an attachment for
telegraphic apparatus. He finally disposed
of one of his inventions at a goodly sum,
which really started him on the road to his
and Doctor of Philosophy. He has also received honorary degrees from the Universities of Wisconsin, Columbia and Pennsylvania. Part of his experiences covered
positions as assistant engineer in the United
States Lake Survey, assistant astronomer in
the United States Transit of Venus Commission, etc. He was at one time Professor
of Mechanics, Physics and Mathematics at
Columbia University and also served in the
capacity of president of Carnegie Institution and has besides served in various capacities in numerous scientific societies.
Professor Webster is Professor of Physics
at Clark University, Worcester. He was
born at Brookline, Mass., in 1863 and graduated from Harvard University. He has
spent much time abroad at scientific schools
in Berlin, Paris and Stockholm, and is conwww.americanradiohistory.com
He is a specialist in steam and gas
engine plant design, as well as hydro -electric developments of large extent.
The Inventors' Guild selected two members for the Board, namely, Peter Cooper
Hewitt, of New York, and Thomas Robins.
Mr. Hewitt is a New Yorker born and bred,
and first saw the light of day in 1861. He
graduated from Stevens Institute with the
degrees of mechanical and electrical engineer. He was also honored with a degree of Doctor of Science from Columbia
University. He has performed very extensive research work in the direction of mercury vapor and mercury arc devices, such
as rectifiers, illuminating devices, etc., and
latterly has taken up the work of developing special generating and amplifying mercury vapor apparatus for use in radio -teleg1879.
December, 1915
THE
ETHEREAL ELASTICITY.
The Danish physicist Oersted, in 1819,
discovered the magnetic effect of electric
currents upon needles. It created a great
deal of excitement at the time because it
was the first clew which had been found
that a relationship existed between electricity and magnetism. The idea that a
third electricity existed was never advanced
until my "Electrical Theory of the Universe" was published, says Prof. G W.
Cooper, suggesting that an electron of electricity was composed of positive, negative
and magnetic electricity, magnetic occupying the center of an oblong electron. The
ether of space has been referred to by many
scientists as the elasticity that holds our
earth to the sun, or bodies of the universe
in their respective places, but no scientist
has ever attempted to explain what that
elasticity is. If we accept the theory of
three kinds of electricity and allow each
electron in nature to set universally north
and south, unless otherwise deflected, and
that like electrically repels and unlike attracts (meaning positive and negative electricity) ; also that magnetic electricity
attracts positive, negative and magnetic.
The drawing will illustrate this arrangement of electrons, showing lines of attraction and repulsion. If we pull the electrons
apart endwise and let go they will instantly
fly back to place; if we pull them apart or
push them together sidewise and let go
they will return to their former position.
If we accept this theory we have the
only explanation of the elasticity of the
raphy and telephony. Thomas Robins is a
resident of Stamford, Conn. He was born
at West Point, N. Y., in 1868 and graduated
from Princeton University. He is in business in his home city, holding the position
of president of the Robins Belt Conveyor
Co. He also serves as secretary of the Inventors' Guild and is a member of a number of technical societies.
The American Society of Automobile $ngineers is represented by Andrew L. Riker
and Howard E. Coffin, both of Detroit. The
former was born in New York City in 1868
and is a graduate of the Columbia Law
School. He later became greatly interested
in the problem of mechanical propulsion of
vehicles. One of his early inventions was
that of the first electrically propelled vehicle
in this country. His experience with gasoline engines and vehicles adapted to propulsion by this means has been vast and varied.
Probably one of the best -known men in the
automobile line is Howard E. Coffin. He
was born at West Milton, O., in 1873 and
studied at the University of Michigan,
where he received the degrees of B.S. and
M.E. He was for several years in the
United States Civil Service, along the line
of internal combustion engineering and was
for some time in charge of the Olds Motor
Works' experimental department, at which
plant he later served as chief engineer.
Since 1910 he has held the office of vice president and consulting engineer of the
Hudson Motor Car Co.
From the flying world two well-known inventors were selected through the courtesy
of the American Society of Aeronautic Engineers. These representatives are Henry
A. Wise Wood and Elmer A. Sperry. Mr.
Wood hails from New York. He has perfected and developed many appliances in
the realm of printing machinery and for
which he was awarded a gold medal by the
Franklin Institute. Among his societies is
the Society of Naval Architects and Marine
Engineers. For some time he has been an
enthusiastic student of, and a writer on,
aeronautical subjects. He was born in New
York City in 1865 and received his early
education in the Media Academy at Media,
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL
399
Since the recent wonderful achievement
of successful wireless telephony from the
Atlantic coast to Honolulu suggestions are
forthcoming of possible life-saving uses at
sea for this latest scientific miracle. If the
device had been perfected a few years
earlier the Titanic disaster might have been
averted, for President Vail, of the American Telephone & Telegraph Co., predicts
the employment of the apparatus as a protection to liners against icebergs. The idea
is to equip a lifeboat with a wireless telephone, and when a ship gets into a fog
where ice may be met, to send the boat
ahead as a scout to give warning of danger.
This use would also guard against collisions between vessels in fog, which have
cost so many thousands of lives in maritime history.
Again, when a man has fallen overboard,
it often happens that rescuers sent out in
a small boat cannot see him, although he
may be plainly visible from the ship's
crow's nest. It is pointed out that the
lookout could direct the rescue if the lifeboat wcre fitted with a wireless telephone.
Then, too, there would be the value of
wireless telephony to castaways from shipwrecks.
Communication between their
boats and passing ships would be comparatively easy. The wireless "telephone" has
an immense advantage over the wireless
"telegraph" in that it dots not call for the
presence of a skilled operator, and the
mechanism is much simpler. Thus the
newest marvel of modern science bids fair
to rob sea travel of much of its danger
and suffering.
Pa. The latter gentleman-Mr. Sperry-is
well known to -day for his inventions pertaining to the automatic stabilizing of aeroplanes. He also is an electrical engineer of
ability, besides having had wide experience
in many other lines of engineering and industry. He was born at Cortland, N. Y., in
1860 and received his degree from Cornell
University. He is a member of many scientific and technical societies and should prove
indeed a very able and valuable member of
the Naval Advisory Board.
From the American Society of Mechanical Engineers there were nominated William LeRoy Emmett, of Schenectady, and
Spencer Miller, of South Orange, N. J. Mr.
Emmett was born at Pelham, N. Y., in 1859
and graduated from the United States Naval Academy and has also received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science from
Union College. He has specialized in electrical engineering. At present he is connected with the illuminating engineering department of the General Electric Co. Mr.
Miller serves as chief engineer in the cableway department of the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Co. He was born in Waukegon,
and graduated from Worcester Polytechnic
with the degree of B.S. He has made a
number of inventions relating to apparatus
for saving life at sea and cableways for
coaling vessels at sea, which devices are
used by the Navy Department of the United
States Government.
In electrical science two brilliant men
were selected by the American Institute of
Electrical Engineers; namely, Frank Julian
Sprague, of New York City, and Benjamin
G. Lamme, of Pittsburgh, Pa. As a pioneer
in the development of electric railways and
devices for the control and operation of
same, Mr. Sprague is well known and he
has served in many important capacities
with various corporations. He was born in
Milford, Conn., in 1857 and graduated from
the United States Naval Academy. He was
at one time assistant to Thomas A. Edison
and has acted as consulting engineer to the
Edison General Electric Co., the General
Electric Co., and as a member of the Terminal Commission for the Electrification of
the New York 'Central Railway. Mr. Lamme
was born on a farm near Springfield, O.,
and graduated as a mechanical engineer
from the Ohio State University. He has
had a large amount of designing and other
experience with the Westinghouse Electric
Manufacturing Co. at Pittsburgh, and at
present holds the position of chief engineer
with that corporation. He is one of the
best -known men to -day in the field of large
size alternating current electrical machinery
design, and the mighty generators at the
Niagara Falls power plant are constructed
after his designs. He holds many patents
on electrical machinery. One of his particular pleasures is in discovering and assisting
young men of ability along the lines of
his chosen profession.
In the field of aeronautics two well known men have been appointed by the
Aeronautical Society of America in the persons of Hudson Maxim, of Brooklyn, N.
Y., and Howard Bacon Sellers, of Baltimore, Md. The former is well known
throughout the world for his original and
important research work on high explosives
and his activities have covered many other
fields of sociology, philosophy and science.
He was born in Orneville, Me., and at an
early age he engaged in the publishing business. Later he took up the work of inventor and experimenter, developing the
first smokeless powder ever used by the
United States Government. This invention
he later disposed of to the Du Pont de Nemours Powder Co., of which he became the
consulting engineer and expert in research
work. In later years he has evinced great
interest in aeronautical science and has
made many valuable suggestions along this
direction. Mr. Sellers was born in Baltimore and there he received his early education. He studied in the Law School of
Harvard University, from which he later
graduated, and then followed up this work
with courses in the Laurence Scientific
School and the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia. He was the first editor of Aeronautics and is also a member and past chairman of the technical board of the Aero
(Continued on page 450.)
ether of space, and if the earth was pulled
out a million miles farther into space and
released, it would go back into position so
gently that we would never know it happened.
Now, if we change Newton's
famous law of gravitation and use electrons instead of bodies, here is the result:
Any two masses of electrons (meaning any
magnets) in the universe attract each other
Mognelic
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Negative and Magnetic Electrons. Attraction at A; Repulsion at R.
with a force which is directly proportionate
to the product of the masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance
between thcm ; also, every electron in the
universe attracts every other electron with
a force which varies inversely as the square
of the distance between the two electrons.
HUMANE
USES
OF
'PHONE.
WIRELESS
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
400
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
The Electrical Burglar of the 20th Century
IT
is, indeed, surprising what ingenuitp
and ability are.shown among the criminal
classes in quickly adapting the latest
advances in the electrical and mechanical
down the length of the hall, as the case
may necessitate.
While on the subject it may be of interest to state that the yeggmen and
second- story "artists" of our day use nothing but electric flashlights or battery lamps,
and one is here shown illuminating the
combination lock dial of the safe.
A cable is perceived dropping down
from a convenient electrolier and terminating in a large disc fitted with a carbon
electrode and insulated handle, which lies
in front of the burglar who is attempting
to open the safe. A pair of smoked goggles are necessary in conjunction with the
use of this electric arc burning apparatus.
Whenever the safe lock refuses to yield
to the treatment aforementioned, it is a
matter of but a few moments, relatively
speaking, to ground one side of the electric circuit to the safe and by means of
the shielded electrode just mentioned, an
arc is readily established between it and
the surface of the safe door. This "arc"
is one of the hottest fusing agencies known
to modern science. It has a temperature
of from 6,000 to 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit,
and it is needless to say that the hardest
nickel steel, even though Harveyized or
chilled, will soon be melted by the intense
heat of the incandescent electric arc
gaseous stream thus produced. As may be
readily imagined, it would take but a short
time to literally "bite" the lock mechanism
right out of the safe door. When this
work has been performed it is a simple
matter to throw the bolts and open the
door in most cases.
However, in this instance as well as in
most others, and in accordance with the
old proverb, "There never was a smart
man but that there was a smarter one," it
is safe to say that sooner or later the most
clever and cunning tricks of the best yeggmen are ferreted out or compensated for
by equally clever counteracting ideas as
promulgated and devised by our modern
detective and police experts. The selenium
cell is probably one of the best devices
with which to foil the would -be safe breaker, for the minute he flashes a light
on the spot where the selenium cell is
concealed, an electric bell will ring in any
part of the building desired or at police
headquarters, notifying the proper parties
instantly as to where the alarm originated.
Thus it is that the march of science is
constantly toward a higher plane, endeavoring to eliminate any weak spots in
diversified applications to th,; needs of society and the fine arts.
SEEING A BASEBALL GAME BY
WIRE.
One of the most novel and entertaining
photograph which depicts an exact reproduction of a baseball field, but on a miniature scale. The action of the complete de-
of the building or also within same.
In this case the supersensitive microphone
transmitter of the detectaphone is placed
cvtside the front door of the building or
side
The Modern Burglar UtlCzes Electricity to Find the Combination of
Other Purposes.
-if
it-
sciences to their art
we may so call
of breaking into safes, vaults and buildings.
The up -to -date burglar has many marvelous
scientific devices at his beck and call, and
most of them require but little knowledge
of science or the trades in order to operate them very effectively.
Our illustration herewith depicts a 20th
century burglar in the act of blindly checking up the combination lock on a steel safe
by means of a very sensitive telephone out-
fit, known as a "Detectaphone." The
microphone transmitter of this supersensitive telephone set is held, by means of a
rubber suction cup. against the front of
the safe door in proximity to the combination lock mechanism. When the knob
carrying the numbered dial of such a lock
is rotated, the movement of the bolts on
the inside of the door can be heard, and
in some cases the interlocking of the various parts of the lock mechanism proper
can be perceived by this arrangement. It
thus becomes an easy matter for a clever
safebreaker, with a little patience, to readily open any ordinary safe or vault door
fitted with this type of lock, without
knowing the actual combination numbers
by which it was locked in the first place.
The telephone set is completed by a pair
of sensitive telephone receivers placed over
the ears as our illustration indicates, and
the battery for this set may be carried in
the pocket as depicted at B.
A second detectaphone set is often utilized by a confederate, for the purpose of
indicating the approach of the police, etc.,
on the outside of the building. The accomp:ice is stationed at the door in the
illustration thus pictured, in the act of detecting the approach of any persons out-
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This Electrically Operated Baseball Diamond in Miniature Duplicates Every "Play" Made.
vice is very human; that is to say, each
performance of the player is so naturally
(Continued on Page 454.)
inventions of the 20th century is that enabling one to see a baseball game by wire.
This is illustrated in the accompanying
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL PROSPERITY WEEK.
By John A. Randolph.
(The Society for Electrical Development.)
OPTIMISM, enduring, persevering,
finally triumphant, made the biblical legend of "Job" a classic. Job
looked on the sunny side. kept plugging,
and achieved prosperity in the end. The
moral is obvious.
With the same faith in destiny, hope for
the future and confidence in truth, the
united electrical interests of the country
have planned a big sales campaign for the
week of Nov. 29 to Dec. 4.
They have called it ELECTRICAL
PROSPERITY WEEK, a fitting name,
fraught with wholesomeness and characterized by-the spirit electrical.
It is to be an event, a six -day celebration, in which the people throughout the
United States from the Canadian frontier
to the borders of Mexico, from ocean to
ocean, will be shown the wonders of electricity as never before -will be taught how
inseparably linked with modern progress
this all pervading force has come to be.
In short, the purpose is to advocate, demonstrate, promulgate, electricity.
The Goddess Electra.-The emblem of
the celebration is a design beautifully symbolical of the broadness in scope, the cleanliness, convenience, economy of electricity..
The central figure is the "Goddess Electra' "
in the act of closing an electric switch. A
look of confidence and satisfaction illumines her countenance, as our illustration -.
portrays. Electricity is her servant. The
attractive background shows a residence
section on one side and a city street on
the other, with electric light and power
everywhere. The home scene is peaceful.
It suggests things as they ought to bewhere drudgery has passed, to give way
to cleanliness and purity,..the,light of truth
The city street is suggestive, at once, of
efficiency, system, speed -tasks done automatically, everything moving at the push of
a button.
The design was as carefully chosen as
the other features of the campaign. It was
selected only after weeks of careful consideration, during which a large number of
other designs produced by many of the
I
ELECTRICAL'PROSPERITY
NOv. Z9 DEC.4
-
WEEK,
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
UP -TO -DATE SHOPPING
BY TELEPHONE.
Newark, N. J., has a new shopping idea.
Usually there are two ways of shopping
either by telephone or going personally into
the store. This shopper goes to the window
of the store, which in this case is the Western Electric Co.'s supply depot at 64 Park
place, picks tip one of the several Inter-
-
401
tanners coming inside at all. An increase in
sales has resulted.
Here's the way the new electrical seller
is worked out:
A desk equipped with order books. Inter -phones and electrical de-
vices has been placed just inside the show
window. One of the office force sits at the
desk in plain view of the passing thousands.
'He is a very busy young man. His desk
'phones are connected up to lines which
reach to the outside. A customer comes
Electrical Supply Store Uses Telephone Outside of Show Window to Attract Customers.
phones extending through to the street side
of the window, and talks to the clerk inside, as perceived from the photo.
Experts in selling goods to the public
often say that if a dealer can only get
people inside his store he will sell goods.
That's why so many bargain days are conducted. People come for the bargains, but
also buy otter goods. Just to try out the
psychology of this claim the local manager
of this store decided to find a way to sell
goods and take orders without his cus-
along, sees some electrical appliance that
he needs, picks up the outside Inter -phone.
speaks quickly to the clerk in the window,
who is there to take down orders, and asks
The winner was Miss Florence Cassasa, of
Brooklyn.
The spirit of the celebration will be
education. The public will be shown as
never before that electricity is a necessity,
not a luxury; is economical. not expensive; is simple, not complex; is broad in
scope, not limited; is safe, not dangerous;
is, in short, the most willing, reliable, able
servant mankind has ever known.
Displays, exhibitions, lectures, parades,
shows will be held everywhere-presenting, demonstrating, explaining things electrical as never before. A blaze of illumination from coast to coast will come at
night as a climax to the activities of the
day. Myriads of electric lamps of all
types, shapes and sizes will take up the
light where the sun leaves off. The coolness of the year will make people actively
receptive. Meetings in full sway everywhere will offer unbounded facilities for
lectures.
The schools will be in session, and will
provide a means of setting forth the advantages of electricity to the coming generations by prize essay contests upon electrical subjects. "Electurettes," recitations,
readings, addresses embodying the electrical spirit.
the clerk for further details about cost,
etc., of devices in the window. Usually a
crowd stands about waiting for a chance to
ask questions. Addresses are obtained and
the mailing list improved by the arrangement, besides giving to the public an excellent idea of how an up -to -date concern
handles its office work.
^
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HOT
r
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Piti
I
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I
-DO IT ELECTRICALLY s.---
Official Design for Electrical Prosperity Week.
foremost artists of the country, were submitted for approval.
The story of the choosing of the model
for the "goddess" was published in the
newspapers throughout the country. She
was chosen by contest, the final selection
being made by a jury of well -known artists.
www.americanradiohistory.com
ELECTRIC SHOWER FOR
TO BE.
A
BRIDE
It is the Custom among young people to
give a "shower" to a bride to be and bestow upon her gifts that she is likely to
need in her future home. There are linen
showers and handkerchief showers, tinware
and woodenware showers, but the very
latest is the "electric" shower!
Miss Irene Brothers, of Nela Park,
Cleveland, was the fortunate recipient of
such a shower recently when her engagement was announced. The event took place
in a beautiful ravine in Nela Park. Electric Japanese lanterns were strung among
the trees. An electrically cooked supper
was served. Among the electrical devices
presented to Miss Brothers were an electric
coffee percolator, toaster, grill, electric
iron, hair drier, tea urn and table lamp, all
of which can be utilized to best advantage
in the modern home.
Man to man-can you afford to miss a
single issue of this magazine?
THE
402
SUBWAY IMPROVEMENTS CAUSE
GREAT CHANGE IN ELECTRIC
WIRES.
Owing to the vast amount of underground excavations now having to be
made in New York City in building the
new subway lines, which extend for many
miles, the electrical engineers of the telephone and power companies have had their
hands full in taking care of the continual
shifting and rearrangement of the hun-
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
electric power and other cables. It is astonishing to the uninitiated who, for the
first time, happens to behold one of these
exposed sections of a New York thoroughfare, when he observes the tremendous
amount of underground wires, cables and
pipes which seem to intertwine and pass
each other like so many huge snakes. The
magnitude of this task becomes more apparent when it is considered that there are
often a dozen different voltages, both high
December, 1915
their protective system work so that London could sleep in peace.
The detection system which Dr. de Forest proposes to work out is as follows:
Several delicate microphones are placed on
a geometrical figure, probably each on a
mast. These microphones are equipped with
Audions so that any vibration reaching them
is magnified several hundred times, each of
the Audions being of the same recording
power. The microphone on that point of
the geometrical figure nearest the approaching airship will record vibrations of a
greater strength than the microphone on
the most distant point of the figure. The
effect of the vibrations upon the intermediary microphones will, of course, be of
varying force, according to the relative distance of the, microphone' from the source
of the vibrations, the approaching airship.
From the varying effects of these vibrations on individual microphones is calculated the line of direction of the approach
of the vibrations on each microphone.
These lines of direction when extended
form the outline of an imaginary cone, at
the apex of which will be found the approaching airship.
When the location of the airship has
been determined, Dr. de Forest's task ends,
and that of the aeroplanes and airship guns
begin. It is planned to send aeroplanes
out above the dirigibles after the location
has been determined.
GIRL RADIO OPERATORS.
No girls have as yet qualified as licensed
radio operators in this country, although it
is stated unofficially that hundreds of girls
are transmitting messages in amateur stations controlled by their licensed brothers.
Many French girls have qualified as wireless operators, and are now in active service in the war zcne.
Showing Vast Net Work of Electric Gas. Water and Steam Conductors in
Exposed During Building of New Subway.
dreds of underground cables and wires
used for telephone, light and power
service.
The illustration we present herewith
shows a section of Dey street where it intersects with Church street, in New York
City. In the foreground may be seen one
of the telephone cable manholes, in the
process of reconstruction. At the left of
the picture may be observed a myriad of
DR. DE FOREST TO HELP DE-
TECT ZEPPELINS.
A middle -aged American inventor with
an electric bulb arrived in London recently
on a hurry -up call from the British Government to show Sir Percy Scott how the
British capital may avert danger from
Zeppelins. And when the American inventor has done his work in London he
will cross the Channel to devise a system
of protection from air attack for the
treas-
ures and the lives of Paris. The inventor
is Dr. Lee de Forest, of New York City.
As our readers are well aware, Dr. de
Forest is the inventor of the Audion amplifier, an adaptation of the incandescent
electric light, by which feeble electric impulses can be magnified to a point at which
they can be registered with considerable
force.
For several months England has used for
coast defense a system of microphone detection against submarines by means of
which the vibration of the propellers of
German subi ersibles was picked up by
microphones at sea and transmitted to a
base, so that the approaching submarine
could be located. This defense has been
credited by London with being responsible
for the destruction of many submarines.
a
New York City Street
and low, being carried by these various
cables and wires, and, also, the pipe lines
which pass and repass these electric lines
contain gas, live steam and water. Besidcs
this, there are the huge sewer lines. All
of these various transmission cables and
conduits have to be invariably rearranged
and shifted about in the construction of
the subway, even to different levels, or
from one side of the street to the other.
In this plan an instrument fashioned on the
principle of the Audion was used to magnify the impluses recorded by the microphones at sea, but
that form of Audion
was not perfected to
the stage of Dr. de
Forest's recent inventions.
T h e effectiveness
of the coast defense
system suggested to
the English authorities a similar plan
for defense against
invading airships. But
conditions were different from that of
dealing with sub-
marines,
because
NOVEL ELECTRIC VIBRATOR
STRAPS ON HAND.
A very neat and efficient type of electric massage vibrator is shown in the
illustration and, as perceived, it can be
strapped to the back of the hand. The
vibrations from the device may thus be
transmitted tirough the hand to the face
of the patient, etc. It is of great use to
barbers and facial specialists.
It is
supplied for 110 -volt direct -current or
alternating-current circuits, and comes
complete with flexble cord and attachment
plug, which may be inserted in the regular
lamp socket. Undoubtedly this is one of
microphones could
not be placed high
enough in the air to
record the vibrations
of the propellers of
Unique Electric Vibrator Straps to Back of Hand.
approaching
Z e ppelins. The success of the de Forest Audion
the smallest practical massage vibrators
was brought to the attention of the British of the electric type ever devised and one
authorities, and they sent for the man who
that will appeal to everyone interested in
any way in this art.
had invented it to come over and make
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
December, 1915
A
THE
ELECTRIC
REMARKABLE
PIANO PLAYER FOR THE
"MOVIES."
By Frank C. Perkins.
The accompanying illustration shows the
mechanism of a wonderful electric piano
player, controlled from the filin booth by
a series of buttons. By the use of sets of
endless perforated rolls the movie operator
is enabled to instantly change the type and
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
conceived the idea, and through his suggestion Secretary Daniels obtained the co -operation of the news agency and the telegraph
company. Only officers and sailors who
are thousands of miles from home, in
strange waters, by strange shores, can fully
appreciate the value of a service of this
kind.
Not long ago some 300 jewelers informed Secretary Daniels that they had
equipped themselves with radio apparatus
just to catch this twice daily time flash
from Washington. Time signals are said
to be of immense benefit to vessels on the
high seas, which now possess for fhe first
time an accurate means of checking their
chronometers, which is of the greatest help
music for battle scenes and the like, allegretto or fast, lively music of various character to correspond with animated scenes
such as horse or automobile racing, moderato for social or dramatic scenes, diminuendo, or slow music to coincide with
pathetic or sentimental pictures, Indian
music to make American Indian action
more realistic, staccato chords for highwaymen or burglar action, the music produced having automatic expression.
It is stated that in
addition to the above
musical effects t h e
more expensive machines are equipped
with elementary apparatus controlled by
the picture operator
for 'producing battle
chaos, shooting, thund e r, lightning and
wind. Instantaneous
changes from one selection of music to
another with change
in tempo, at the instant the scenes are
shifted on the screen,
is a most important
factor for the successful display of a
in fixing longitude.
As soon as the new wireless section in
the Philippines is completed it is believed
that an interchange of messages between
the Philippines and the United States Can
be made in 30 minutes.
WOMAN MAKES TELEPHONIC
INVENTION.
Knowing nothing of the workings of
electricity or the telephone, but living daily
with a 'paralyzed husband and mother, who
in her absence could not lift the receiver
to answer the 'phone, a Memphis, Tenn,
woman has invented and patented an appliance to the telephone which enables one
to talk and hear without using the hands
at all.
The appliance is on the order of a phonograph horn and the connection is made by
pushing a little button which is mounted
on the stem of the 'phone. This can be
done with a pencil held in the teeth if
necessary, and the connection once open,
the sound may easily be received and sent
15 feet away from the device by talking in
a moderate tone of voice.
This combination 'phone will be especially desirable in hospitals or with invalids
who have no use of their hands, as they
may talk and hear with the greatest ease.
This appliance also enables one to cut
out the branch 'phone in the house, as the
instrument placed on the landing or stairway with string attached to button enables
film.
It is pointed out
that in this the ordinary piano player is
deficient and the effects desired are
oftentimes spoiled.
The common auto -
matie piano is almost
worse than useless
for the picture theater on account of lack
of music control, for
it may play "Onward,
Christian Soldiers"
while burglars operate, tango music for
New Electric Piano Player, Designed to Replace Orchestras and Capable a battle scene or a
of Accurate Control by "Movie" Operator.
waltz for a funeral.
It is, of course, apparent that the right
tempo of music from the rear of the house
without any other attention to the piano. music at the right time and in the right
Bellows are eliminated by a series of elec- time, is most vital for the success of the
trical contact points which actuate ham- motion picture house; for without it the
mers that play on the keys.
proper effect of the pictures is nullified
This electric piano player makes possible which means eventuallythe lossof patronage.
the instantaneous change from one piece of
It is held that with the new player inmusic to another at any moment and is parstalled to operate the piano, the musical
ticularly adapted for playing pianos in program is directly under the control of
moving picture theaters, eliminating the the picture operator as it should be and at
services of the pianist and the disadvan- his will the music changes instantaneously
tages and annoyances incident thereto.
on pushing a button, even to the breaking
It will be seen that the player is placed off of playing one selection at any note,
before the piano, the latter remaining in its and the beginning of another of different
usual position before the picture screen, tempo the next second -so flexible is the
and is controlled by the moving picture op- electric current in connection with this
erator from his booth by means of a sim- mechanism. It is thus possible at all times
ple electrical controller. The musical pro- to have melody to correspond and be congram embraces crescendo and thunderous sistent with each picture shown.
DAILY NEWS RADIO NOW GOES
TO NAVY IN DISTANT WATERS.
Even the oldest inhabitant of Port -au-
Prince, Hayti, cannot remember the time
before now when the tropics received the
baseball scores every evening.
Somehow one doesn't associate the
thought of the blue Caribbean and scorching semi -equatorial sunshine with the
thought of "New York, 4; Pittsburgh, 6."
But it's an actual fact, just the same.
Secretary Daniels has been bitterly assailed as the man who took the Demon
Rum out of the navy. But the officers and
men in Southern waters bless his name as
the man who gave them baseball scores
every night.
Not only baseball scores, but the latest
word about the Kaiser and the war and
William Jennings Bryan's latest opinion
penetrate the tropical evenings. The officers and men of Uncle Sam's warships in
West Indian waters are now able to learn
of the things going on at home and abroad.
Every night the day's news is boiled
down to 200 words-just as it should be,
someone says -and is telegraphed to the
naval wireless station at Key West, Fla.
Then the wireless sparks begin to sputter
and out over the Gulf, the Caribbean and
the South Atlantic flashes the news "from
home."
Capt. W. H. Bullard, Superintendent of
the Naval Radio Service, is the man who
www.americanradiohistory.com
403
.
Telephonic Loud Speaking Device Invented by a
Woman.
one to answer calls and hear perfectly without going upstairs or down.
The newest patent for the "Hatch Combination 'Phone" is the collapsible horn and
the sound intensifier; by the use of the former the 'phone has the appearance of an
ordinary instrument, and by putting it over
the lips and using the intensifier properly
one may carry on conversation as privately
as if he were in a sound -proof booth.
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
Marvelous Electric Sign that Actually Spells
ARECENT innovation in the multitudinous array of electric signs
appearing along the "Great White
Way." otherwise known as Broadway,
New York City, is that advertising "Pebeco"
tooth paste. The illustrations herewith
show four distinct views of this extremely
Complete sentences are spelled out in
this way, but of course only a section of
the sentence, as two or three words appear
in the course of a couple of minutes, while
the letters form at the right and move
across the sign, so to speak.
To more clearly illustrate the action of
December, i9t5
HEARS JAPAN WIRELESS MESSAGE AT GREAT LAKES, ILL.
Sitting at the desk in the new wireless
station at Great Lakes, Ill., at 4.10 o'clock
on the morning of Oct. 1 last, G. F. Reiling,
one of the wireless operators, heard one
of the new stations in Japan, about 5,000
miles distant, talking to Kokoa Head station in the Hawaiian Islands. He also declares he heard a wireless telephonic message from Mare Island, Cal.
That there is no doubt about the efficiency of the new wireless station at Great
Lakes is seen by the fact that Reiling gives
word for word the message which he heard
flashing from the Japanese staticin, as follows:
"Hello! Hello! How do you hear me?
How are you? What do you want? Please
copy: 543210. Do you get this? Please
copy (repeats figures) that's all; that's all.
Good -bye."
Reiling worked the same morning at 4
o'clock with the San Diego, Cal., station
and the operator there told him that the
message sent out from Great Lakes station
was heard very distinctly. He in turn, at
Great Lakes, could hear the California
message very plainly.
The Great Lakes station is in daily scltedtile with San Diego and Arlington, Va.,
and the clearness of the messages sent so
far has caused officials at the station to
feel that the local plant is about as efficient
as any in operation at any place in the
country.
STEEL JACKET CATHODE HELPS
'
;, hum:'
`..+«5 ":, .nwiüÌl'MIti}¿.
,
,
Changing Night Effect and Daytime Appearance of New Electric Sign in New York City that
Spells Out Successively Continuous Sentences.
novel advertising attraction which, of
course, is only to be seen at its best at
night time.
The sign is, a large affair, measuring
about 100 feet long by 50 feet high, and it
is supported on a steel framework mounted
on top of the Hotel Hermitage near Forty first street and Broadway in the metropolis.
The upper part of the sign does not possess any remarkable features, as may be
seen by carefully looking over the illustrations herewith. At the bottom of the sign,
however, as becomes noticeable in Fig. 4, is
a band about 12 feet high and which extends
clear across the face of the sign. This
band (which is stationary) is made up of
a series of harrow strips, on which are
mounted vertical lines of electric bulbs.
By a very ingenious flasher arrangement,
due to the engineers of the O. J. Gude Co.
and on which it is understood patents have
been issued, it is made possible to cause a
letter, a word or a sentence to flash across
this normally black band from right to left,
i. e., it is spelled out in front of the spectator's very eyes, the letters apparently
forming at the right and slowly traveling
across the face of the sign, each letter being
,followed by its complement in forming a
wórd, etc.
This sign has attracted greater crowds
than probably any other like advertisement
ever erected on Broadway for many a day.
It is so unique that it is bound to catch the
eye of nearly every passerby, no matter
how much in a hurry he is or how intent
on his business.
this highly ingenious sign we may glance
at Fig. 1. Here we see tie words "nearly
all," which form part of a Pebeco advertisement sentence. To start with, only the
"N" is observed, and this is formed at the
right and gradually slides over toward the
left, the E-A -R, etc., following each
other consecutively and in their proper sequence with respect to one another.
One of the best effects obtained with this
sign is at the close of a certain sentence
when the active part of the display becomes
totally dark, when the letters forming the
end of the sentence appear to literally slide
off into the darkness of the night.
It is understood that the switching control of this spectacular display is arranged
somewhat on the order of a player-piano,
with perforated paper roll, which passes
through a special switch arrangement in a
manner which becomes apparent to any
electrician. A vast amount of work is
necessitated in designing, installing and operating such a display, and this is more
clearly emphasized when we consider that
practically every lamp in the active (spelling) part of the layout has to have a wire
brought from it to the switch- control booth
on the roof of the hotel. Most' of these
elaborate sign effects require a staff of several electrical experts to operate and care
for the complicated and intricate switch
gear utilized in cutting in and out the
proper lights.
The sign is in the theatrical section and,
therefore, commands nightly a vast audience.
www.americanradiohistory.com
COOL X -RAY TUBE.
One of the principal troubles encountered in modern X -ray work and particularly where medium or small sized tubes
are utilized, lies in the large amount of
heat generated within the tube, and especially at the cathode electrode. In some
cases water cooling is resorted to, in ari
effort to help cool the tube, and electric
fans are also employed in a similar effort,
It has remained for a western X -ray concern to bring out a very simple device
which seems to possess considerable prom-
Ingenious Steel Jacket to Cool X-Ray Tube
Cathode.
ise in an effort to reduce the heating in
such tubes.
This device, the new Kesselring tube.
comprises simply a steel jacket, as illustration shows, which surrounds the cathode electrode proper. The heat produced
by the cathode is conducted through the
steel jacket and thence along the electrode
rod and so out of the tube. This device is
of low initial cost and much simpler than
many other schemes advocated and employed for this purpose.
December, 1915
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
405
High Frequency Currents and Apparata
(Concluded)
AT Fig. 7 is shown how a 16-cp. 110 volt incandescent lamp may be
lighted through the body by a
A piece of cophigh frequency coil.
per wire is firmly held in the mouth
for this somewhat startling experiment and
it is also joined to one terminal of the incandescent lamp. A second wire is con-.
7.
Lighting no Vt. it C.P. Lump Thru
the Body by Nigh Frequency Current.
nected from the other terminal of the
lamp to the high frequency transformer.
When the 'proper adjustments have been
made on the high frequency set it will be
found possible to bring the lamp up to full
brilliancy. The Oudin connections are invariably employed for this class of experiments where lamps are lighted, sparks al-
Fig.
{I
siderably wizen allowed to jump directly to
the skin. In ally case, a piece of metal
should be held in the hand. No severe shock
ns experienced in the passage of such high
frequency currents through the body a,
long as they are properly handled by allowing the spark to enter the body through
a metal electrode, as stated, and providing
the frequency is high enough. Experiments have been conducted where half a
million volts were passed through a man's
body with several amperes of current.
Even tvita a small high frequency set, lighting a a9 -cp., 110-volt lamp, then one ampere
of current is passing through the body.
With this current, as indicated on a hotwire ammeter (and which also has the effective current value of one ampere), it is
quite possible that it may have an instantaneous maximum value of as much as 190
to 170 amperes. This is due to the very
rapid discharge of the condensers in the
circuit, and if large enough electrodes are
used on the skin no burning effect will be
felt.
Rather spectacular high frequency discharge effects are portrayed at 8 and 9.
These are usually produced by using an
Oudin transformer giving a powerful unipolar discharge at high frequency and
ultra -high potential. In the experiment at
Fig. 9 a metal piece is held in the hand
and a flame discharge from same leaps
forth into space. The body of the man is
here charged at very high voltage by connecting the high frequency terminal of the
Ondin transformer to his ankles through a
couple of metal ankle straps. He is best
seated on a glass platform for this experiment, and all of the adjustments in the
high frequency transformer circuit must be
very carefully made in order to produce
these fine effects, and the inductance of the
primary exciting transformer is very important. It is quite advisable, and in fact
imperative in some experiments of this
nature, to use an adjustable impedance coil
the primary of the exciting step -up
transformer, so as to be able to tune it
properly with respect to the high frequency
circuit. The wonderful effect produced at
in
Fig. io.
Large Nigh Frequency Cage Used for
Electro -Therapeutical Treatment.
lowed to jump to the hand, etc. A word
of caution should be mentioned here, as
these high frequency sparks will burn con Figs 7, 8 and 9, reproduced from "Electricity at
High Pressures and Frequencies," by Henry L.
Transtrom.
Fig. 8 is also an Oudin coil phenomenon.
and a very fine spray is seen to branch out
all around the top of the high frequency
coil. This effect is truly marvelous and can
cnly be fully appreciated when observed at
first band. No photograph, and especially
a half -tone as here printed, can do justice
to the weird and awe -inspiring effect produced in this way. In this experiment a
person can approach carefully the highly
charged Oudin coil and part of the spray
will discharge through the head without
any appreciable shock as long as the person
does not come too close.
In the electro -therapeutical application
of high frequency currents by the medical
profession there is often employed a large
wire cage of sufficient size to enclose the
subject's body as Fig. 10 shows. The high
frequency current from an Oudin or Tesla
machine is passed through this large helix
and powerful currents are induced in the
subject's body, and in this way are produced valuable results of an electro- therapeutical nature for various kinds of ailments and diseases. This method is one
of the best known to medical science for
the treatment of arteriosclerosis, or as i'
is commonly termed, "hardening of the
arteries." Dr. D'Arsonval, the noted French
scientist, lias made numerous measurements in this direction and has proved by
tests on different male and female patients
www.americanradiohistory.com
that, after a few treatments of this kind.
the blood pressure can be reduced quite
markedly, and in most cases permanent
lowering of arterial blood pressure is effected.
This large solenoid arrangement can be
Fig.
9.
Wonderful Brush Discharge Effect
by High Frequency Current.
Produced
used to produce spectacular high frequency
stunts and experiments, a common one be-
ing to let the person inside of the wire
cage hold a Geissler tube in his hands so
that the current produced in the body will
pass through the tube from one hand to
the other, lighting up same in a spectacular
manner. If the cage is made sufficiently
large, two or more persons may stand
.within same and Geissler tubes placed in
their hands so as to complete the circuit
Fig.
8.
Another Beautiful and Spectacular Effect Produced by an Oudin Coli.
from one body, through a Geissler tube, to
the next body, etc., giving a very interesting effect for stage and lecture purposes.
Malty other remarkable and interesting
(Continued on Page 419.)
THE
406
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
The Radio Transmitting Set at Arlington, Va.
THE powerful Government wireless
telegraph station operating at Arlington, Va., and rated at approximately 100 kw., utilizes a synchronous
rotary spark gap and a number of other
unique apparatus especially designed to
handle such a large amount of power in
the most efficient manner possible. This
installation was supplied by the National
Electric Signaling Co., exploiting the patents of Prof. Fessenden, One of the
basic patents embodies a synchronous
rotary spark gap mounted on the end of
the generatorshaft or similarly disposed so
as to cause the spark to occur in an exact
relation at all periods with respect to the
reversal of current in the alternating current transformer (primary) circuit. This
has been found essential for the best result
in any case and is always superior fo any
non -synchronous rotary spark gap. The
very large and are composed of hollow
copper tubing. In shifting or adjusting
these large tuning inductances, recourse is
had to a rope or a belt and countershaft
which rotates the drums on which the coils
are wound. Electrical contact can be made
with any part of _a turn as desired by
means of a rolling wheel or trolley. This
is noticeable, particularly on the aerial
loading inductance observed at the extreme
right of tie photograph.
The rotary spark gap of heroic size
rotates at 1,200 R.P.M. and contains two
stationary spark electrodes which are fitted
with two insulated water cooling systems to
help extinguish the spark abruptly, which,
of course, is conducive to the most efficient
operation of any wireless transmitting set.
This rotary gap is enclosed within a guard
ring of large size and in which the stationary electrodes of the gap are mounted in
When a break -down occurs in such con -.
densers as these they possess a self -healing
or self -restoring dielectric characteristic,
and in operation it is merely necessary to
keep the compressed air at so many pounds'
pressure within the tanks. The metal
tanks are of very rugged construction and
the condenser plates within them are suspended from the covers, which are bolted
to the tank proper. One set of plates is
grounded to the shell, while the alternat -'
ing plates are connected through a heavily
insulated terminal, as perceived from the
illustration. This plant is probably one of
the most powerful and efficient extant to -'
day and the wireless time- signals sent out
at noon and 10 P. M., Eastern time, daily
are now received by thousands of experimental and commercial radio stations
throughout the United States, and also by
ships at sea in all parts of the Atlantic
At Left:
Close -up View of Synchronous Rotary Spark Gap on loo KW. goo
Cycle Radio Transmitting Set at Arlington, Va. From this Mastodon Spark
Gap Is Sent Out the Radio Time Signals and Weather Reports That Spread
Broadcast Over the United States and the Atlantic Ocean Daily.
Below: General View of the too KW. wireless Transmitting Set at Arlington.
Tanks Below are the Compressed Air, Fessenden Type, Condensers. Water
Cooling Tanks for Spark Gap are Seen Over Dynamo. Not Wire Radiation
Ammeter is Observed in Foreground on Post.
l'hotos Coortiaht by Underwood & Underwood.
two illustrations herewit:t depict the extra
large synchronous spark gap used at Arlington in transmitting time signals, and
the other view shows the spark gap itself
mounted on the shaft of the 500 -cycle
alternator, together with the large -size oscillation transformer and aerial loading inductance, as well as the compressed air
condensers of the Fessenden type, which
resemble steel boilers or tanks, as perceived. The radiation hot -wire ammeter is
mounted on the wood post shown in the
foreground of the general view of the
transmitting set. The tuning oscillation
transformer and the loading inductance are
extra large insulated bushings. This form
of construction has many advantages, and
one in particular is that allowing the stationary electrodes to be moved through
several degrees with respect to the rotating
spark wheel, and in this way the sparks
proper can be made to occur at practically
any point desired in the alternating current
cycle passing through the step -up transformer which charges the condensers and,
likewise, this spark gap circuit.
The condensers used with this set, which
are, as aforementioned, of the compres -ed
air type, have many advantages over other
types employing glass as the dielectric.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Ocean. Signals from this station have
been received under good conditions at the
Eiffel Tower radio plant at Paris, France.
It has been stated a number of times that
the time signals and weather reports as
picked up from the Arlington station are
much clearer and more easily read over
long distances than those transmitted by
the Eiffel Tower station at Paris, or from
any other high -power radio station now
in operation. This service is of inestimable
value to the merchant marine and also to
the naval service, enabling the chronometers on board ship to be correctly checked
twice each day.
December, 1915
THE
U. S.
THE photographs and diagram here-
with show the general appearance
and also the connections of the
various parts making up the portable radio
pack set as used by the U. S. Signal Corps.
Fig.
.A.
Compact zso Watt Hand-driven soo Cycle
Generator Used to Supply Power for
U. S. Signal Corps Radio Pack Set.
L.
C.
The photograph Fig. 1 illustrates the
hand -driven dynamo, rated at 250 watts,
which can be disassembled in a few minutes so as to be readily packed on a mule's
back. Photograph Fig. 2 shows the very
compact arrangement of the transmitting
and receiving apparatus, including the
quenched spark gap, oscillation transformer
and loading inductance, the latter being of
the flatwise wound ribbon type. These pancake coils forming the oscillation transformer can be swung toward or away from
one another, as they are mounted on hinges.
On the shelf in the cabinet containing this
apparatus is mounted the spark gap, as well
as the radiation hot-wire ammeter and the
transmitting key. Under the shelf there is
mounted the receiving apparatus inductance, and also the step -up transformer of
the sending set, as well as the high tension
condensers, etc.
Switching means are provided on this set
for quickly throwing the aerial and ground
terminals onto the receiving or transmitting apparatus. All of the instruments
used in the make -up of this outfit are first class in every particular, the best possible
being purchased, as becomes requisite for
military requirements.
The small -size hand- driven dynamo
utilized in this set can be operated by two
men nicely, and is especially geared up with
enclosed gears as pe-ceived, so as to give
the proper speed when the crank handles
are turned at a fair velocity. This style
of radio pack set can transmit 20 to 30
miles under average conditions, and can
receive over distances of a couple of hundred miles or more in connection with the
collapsible mast and antenna wires used in
conjunction with it. The whole outfit, inchiding the mast, can be erected in a few
minutes' time, ready for service.
Referring to the diagram of connections
ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER
-i"7
Army Field Radio Set
Fig. 3 as used with this set, they in general
follow regular radio engineering practise.
As will be evident, there is employed for
receiving a switch type loose coupler with
primary and secondary windings, and several unique features not commonly found,
on experimental radio sets at least, are
herewith to be noted.
Among these features is the inductive
coupling of the buzzer test with the primary
coil of the loose coupler. This is arranged
on any receiving set very easily by simply
winding a few turns of wire around the
primary coil or by placing these few turns
of wire at the end of the primary, so as to
react on same by induction. Another feature which works very nicely, and also one
that is invariably used on all commercial
radio sets nowadays, is the safety spark gap
placed across the aerial and ground connections of the receiving apparatus proper.
Any heavy static or lightning discharges
will jump this gap in preference to passing
through the high resistance and reactance
of the coupler windings. This indirectly
protects the sensitive and expensive head
'phones, as well as the mineral detector.
Also in some cases where such protective
spark gap were not used it has happened
that the coupler was burned out by an extra
heavy static surge through the circuit, occasioned by the close proximity of an electric storm while operating the set.
A simple aerial switch effects the changeover from transmitting to receiving set.
The transmitting apparatus is very simple
and will be readily understood from the
diagram. It comprises a primary coil in the
oscillation transformer, and this reacts by
induction on three secondary spirals, any
one or all of which may be joined in the
OS6///Ot/O/1
Trans(
cated clearly, and the step -up transformer
of the resonance type, especially designed
for this work, is air insulated. Alternating
current of the proper voltage and 500
cycles frequency is supplied by the hand driven self-exciting generator previously
described. This machine is fitted with an
automatic centrifugal cut -out switch which
does not permit operating the set until the
EE
Fig. Z. Showing Neat Arrangement of Complete
Portable Radio Transmitting and Receiving
Apparatus in Army Pack Set. Note Use
of Several "Pancake" Style Helices.
proper speed is reached, and consequently
the critical frequency produced by the
dynamo. This is necessary for several reasons when maximum efficiency is to be at-
Antenno
l
Antenno
Rug
Antennabreart
11111
II
Oueiáied&ft
Resonance
/ronsf
Fig.
3.
Diagram of Connections for Transmitting and Receiving Instruments in Radio Pack Set.
Note "Buzzer Test" Inductively Coupled.
circuit as different wave lengths are required. The quenched gap, condenser and
hot -wire ammeter connections are indiwww.americanradiohistory.com
tamed by such a set, and particularly due
to the utilization of the resonance type of
transformer incorporated in this design.
,
'
tog
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
Marconi Company Develops New 2 -KW. Radio Panel Set
A HUGE OIL TYPE
The accompanying illustrations show, respectively, the front and rear views of a
newly developed 2-kw. radio transmitting
set of the quenched -spark type as brought
out by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co.
This set marks the latest advance in wireless outfits of this type. As will be observed, all of the apparatus for both the
primary and secondary transmitting circuits are mounted behind the switchboard
panel. This conduces to the interchangeability of the outfits for installation on shipboard, and also it permits of using short
leads for connect'ng up the apparatus, and
in this way undue losses are obviated.
The large oil insulated condenser herewith presented is of the non -variable type
and consists of a large number of zinc
plates separated by glass plates. The conducting plates are bolted together in the
usual manner. The condenser is placed
which move over calibrated scales marked
off in wave lengths.
Variation in the coupling between the
primary and secondary coils of the oscillation transformer is effected by the control handle and needle, which are mounted
directly above the quenched -spark gap.
On the lower front of the panel are
mounted the necessary motor- generator
switches and starting solenoid, as well as
overload relay. The usual ammeter and
voltmeter for the primary circuit of the
alternating- current transmitter are mounted
on the front of the panel, as well as slider
type rheostats for the field circuits of the
RADIO CONDENSER.
Large Size German Make Oil Type Radio
Condenser.
in a container in which oil is used as a
dielectric. Each condenser acts as a single
unit and any number of them can be
shunted across the two metal conducting
tubes, as shown above the containers. Each
one is properly insulated, as can be observed.
These condensers are now extensively
used in the German wireless stations, as
they are very reliable. Note that hollow
tubes are used to give low resistance for
the high frequency currents, which, as we
know, only travel on the surface of a con-
ductor.
PHOTOGRAPHING RADIO WAVES.
Front and . Rear Views of New Marconi z-KW. Radio Transmitting Panel Set.
This is a very important consideration in
the high -potential, high -frequency circuits.
The motor -generator set is seen at the
bottom of the photograph in its cylindrical
casing. Above it are mounted, in a special
rack, the Leyden jar condensers. Back of
the motor -generator set is placed the stepup, high- potential alternating- current transformer, which is provided with a protective
spark gap fitted with ball terminals. On
the upper rear section of the panel is
mounted the oscillation transformer, made
up of a spiral copper strip moulded in a
special insulating disc, and also a large
loading inductance for the aerial circuit
used in transmitting long waves is incorporated in this part of the apparatus. The
wave lengths are controlled by suitable
handles on the front of the switchboard
panel, as the illustrations indicate, and these
handles are fitted with indicating needles,
Various methods have been suggested
and some actually developed for recording
incoming wireless waves. These were
generally unsuccessful, due to the fact that
the messages had to be transmitted at a
slow speed. Finally a photographic recording scheine has been developed whereby the waves are photographed upon a
moving strip of film. This apparatus here
shown consists of a camera, a string galvanometer, mechanically-driven
photographic film strip and a beam of light
from an incandescent electric lamp.
The operation of this instrument is as
follows: The galvanometer is connected
to the receiving instruments in place of
the regular receivers and a beam of light
is set upon the mirror of the galvanometer.
Now the film is passed before the reflected
light of the mirror by starting the mechanical motor. If there are messages in the
ether, the galvanometer string will oscillate in accordance with the incoming
waves and in turn deflect the reflected
light on the film. After the message is
finished the film is developed and fixed
as in the ordinary photographic process.
It will be found that the dots and dashes
motor and generator. This, as will be seen,
forms a very desirable and compact set.
readily adaptable to ship and other requirements which in most cases permit of very
little space for the installation of the radio
apparatus.
FESSENDEN INVENTS SUBMARINE RADIO.
Professor Fessenden, of Boston, claims
to have invented a contrivance for sending
wireless messages from battleships to submarines at a distance of 32 miles under
water. By experiments he hopes to increase the distance very considerably. He
states that the appliance can also detect
the sound of submarine propellers at a distance of two miles, which can be increased
to five miles by means of a sound- amplifying contrivance. This, he says, would be
useful in detecting enemy submarines.
www.americanradiohistory.com
Radio Signal Photographic
Uses Film.
Apparatus,
are all connected in one continuous wavy
ine.
This method of recording wireless signals is very accurate, durable, and high
speed signals can be successfully copied.
It was found that 150 words per minute
can be readily recorded in this '-ay.
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
V
EXPERIMENTER
MAR 9 9 192109
A New Vibrating Reed Radio Amplifier. 'X
By Homer
1.11/.217 R
Vanderbilt
The greatest desire of the present wireless "bug" is to have some means of amplifying the incoming radio signals to such an
intensity that he may remove his head
'phones and still be able to hear; also
plating it, after which the cup is soldered
ment if once set.
fast and a small polished carbon button is
It is hoped that this may lead to further
fitted snugly into it.
research on the part of other radio "bugs"
The armature is supported by two No.
along this line, as the writer's experiments
40, or better, No. 45 B. & S. copper wires
with a rather crudely made model, conE E, which are soldered to
each end of it. The free ends
are fastened to an adjusting attachment G, which consists of
11111111
an 8 -32 threaded brass rod
II1I1IIIIIIIII11II
having on one end a small
Upl
hole for inserting the copper
III
wire E, and the rod G slides
through a small tube N. This
tube is soldered to the bar M
and standard F. The rod F is
IIIIIóoö
.;pilll giis,:"
,
oo oo
supported by a square base of
p,III,..
umr'i,
wood A, having also a small
,
wire support Q and set screw.
The other standard K sup®
I
ports the second carbon point
I by means of an 8 -32 threaded
brass rod, which is used to reg,,ii
RIIIII'Ílllii
ulate the pressure between the
NI
mlluuuullu1äl11tllltl 777
carbon electrodes.
As will be noted, seven bindfig 3
ing posts are employed, three
Fig. i. Photo of V,brat:ng Reed Amplifier.
N
of which are connected from
M
thereby making it possible for any interthe electro- magnets, two from
ested friends to "listen in" at the same
the high- resistance coils, while
time. Many such devices have recently
the other two lead from the
been developed, but most of them have
microphonic points I and H.
Fig. 5 explains the connecproven failures, while the cost of others
is far beyond the means of the average
tions of each part and, as is
!se0001.10
experimenter.
seen, one coil of the electromagnet is connected in series
The amplifier herewith described was de¡4P
veloped after some research work, and
with a buzzer and battery ana
below is explained briefly the building of
the other is hooked up directly
the complete apparatus, the photo at Fig. 1
across a set of storage batfig. 4
being the completed instrument and Figs. 2,
teries giving about 8 to 10
3, 4 and 5 depicting the construction in
volts. The sensitive high -redetail.
sistance coils are connected to
the regular receiving apparatus
By referring to B in figures it will be
in place of the head receivers,
noted that two electro- magnets B B are
made up from a couple of soft iron cores
while the microphonic electrodes are wired in series with
% inch in diameter and 8 inches long. A
a 5-ohm telephone receiver
pound of No. 24 B. & S. insulated cooper
(having its permanent magnet
wire is wound on each. The bobbins
measure 31/2 inches between end cheeks.
removed) and a small horn attached to its cap.
On one end of each core there are two
1Ql
strips of soft iron L L for supporting the
The operation is as follows:
When the current is sent
coils C. These coils and their soft iron
cores are obtained from a wireless receiver
through one coil the iron arff.'q. 2
(having 3,000 ohms resistance), and are
mature is twisted and attracted
at that point. As soon as the
held in place by means of two No. 8 -32
buzzer is operated (which pro- Side and Top Views of Amplifier, Showing Suspension of
machine screws as sh6Swn. The two large
Reed.
duces an alternating current in
electro- magnets are supported on a sof t
iron yoke P (see Fig. 2).
the opposite coil) it starts the other end strutted as here outlined, seemed to possess
of the armature vibrating. considerabke promise.
Now adjust the carbon point
Buzzer
I by screwing the knob on
INSTITUTE OF RADIO ENGINEERS
i
[c
threaded rod J until a slight
PACIFIC COAST MEETING.
click is heard in the receiver.
ia
p
Thursday and Friday afternoons,
On
At this point, without touchSept. 16 and li last, joint meetings of the
ing
any
part
of
the
amplifier,
64'
Institute of Radio Engineers and the
connect the 3,000 -ohm coils to
Micraphanic
the wireless set. If there are American Institute of Electrical Engineers
contact
were held at the Native Sons of the Golden
signals in the ether, and picked
West Hall, Panama -Pacific Exposition
up by the apparatus, they will
grounds,
San Francisco. Two papers for
/torn
be transmitted to the coils C,
the
radio
engineers were presented, one on
which will cause a break in
Nigh reris/once
each day. Thursday afternoon Prof. Harcalf
the vibration of the armature,
ris J. Ryan read the results of investigadue to the alternating current
tions on the "Sustained Radio Frequency
sOhm /e%phane
produced in the electromagfig. 5
High Voltage Discharge," by Roland G.
receirer(K
net, which consequently shortMarx and himself, taking up the flame and
ens the contact between the
Fig. 5. Diagram for Amplifier.
brush types of discharge obtained from
carbon electrodes and thereby conductors when a powerful arc generator
The armature D, as we see from Fig. 4,
making the "telephone circuit" comis used to apply voltages up to 50,000 at
consists of a thin strip of soft iron (about
plete. This will produce a loud sound
frequencies as high as 200,000 cycles per
No. 34 gauge), cut as may be perceived.
in the
receiver. By very carefully
second. On Friday Robert H. Marrjott, of
A small cup H, made from brass, is now
adjusting the carbon contacts the signals the United States Naval Radio Service,
fastened to the armature. This is done,
can be readily amplified without any
read a paper on "Radio Development in
first, by thoroughly cleaning the upper portrouble. A good point about this amplifier
the United States," giving special attention
tion of the armature and then copperis that it will not jar or break its adjustto Pacific Coast conditions.
;
II II
11
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i
IIIIIi
II
'ill
II
_' 1
U
I
+
TIrC
tl
JT
rBa/
11
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
,
I
,,
i
410
THE
THE TELEFUNKEN PERMANENT
CRYSTAL DETECTOR.
A form of crystal detector which has
been used for some [lime in the Telefunken
radio receiving sets as supplied to various
army and navy signal corps, and also in
use in the United States Signal Corps radio
Make -up of Telefunken "Permanent" Mineral
Detector.
pack sets, has interested undoubtedly more
than one experimenter who has seen one
of them. The particular reason why this
detector is very little known is due to the
fact that once it is adjusted and made
up in the laboratory it is sealed and is
not supposed to be opened by anyone,
even the Government operators. We present herewith a diagram showing how this
crystal detector is made up, and besides
being robust in construction it is also extremely sensitive and compares well with
the audion.
Referring to the sectional view of this
detector shown herewith, A is a washer
serving as one terminal of the device, while
B is a plate of sensitive mineral material,
such as galena. At C is placed a thin perforated mica disc, while 'D is a brass,
graphite or other washer whose surface
next the mica is corrugated and silvered.
When sufficient pressure is applied to this
device the corrugated surface of D comes
in contact with the mineral B, thus providing several rectifying parts for the received oscillations of the radio receptor
circuit. The washer E allows the whole to
No
be screwed up tightly, as perceived.
auxiliary battery is necessary for this detector and it is connected into circuit in
the same way as the galena detectors, with
which practically all experimenters are
familiar. Two of these detectors are
usually provided in the Telefunken sets
and they are connected with a throw -over
switch, so that if one should fail for some
reason, the second detector may be immediately switched into circuit.
ELECTRICAL
stations, with their classes of service, is
here presented:
Location.
Annapolis, Md.
Arlington, Va.'
Balboa, Canal Zone
Beaufort N. C.
Boston, Mass.
Cape Blanco, Ore
Cape Cod, Mass.
Cavite, Philippine Islands
Charleston, S. C
Colon, Canal Zone
Cordova, Alaska
Darien, Panama
Dutch Harbor, Alaska
Eureka, Cal.
Farallons, Colo
Fire Island, N. Y.
Guam, Marianne Islands
Guantanamo Bay Cuba
Honolulu Hawaii.....
Service.
Official
Official
Commercial
Official
Official
Commercial
Official
Official
Commercial
Commercial
Commercial
Official
Commercial
Official
Official
Commercial
Commercial
Official
Jupiter Fla
Official
Key West, Fla.
Commercial
Kodiak, Alaska
Commercial
Mare Island, Cal.
Official
New Orleans, La.'
Official
Newport, R. I
Official
New York, N.Y. (Brooklyn Navy Yard) Official
Norfolk, Va.
Official
North Head Wash.*
Commercial
Olongapo, Philippine Islands
Official
Peking, China
Official
Pensacola, Fla.
Commercial
Philadelphia, Pa.
Official
Point Arguello, Cal
Commercial
Portland, Me.
Official
Port Royal, S. C
Official
Portsmouth, N. H
Official
Puget Sound, Wash.
Official
St. Augustine Fla.
Commercial
Official
St. George, Alaska
St. Paul, Alaska
Commercial
San Diego, Cal.
Commercial
Commercial
San Juan, Porto Rico
Commercial
Sitka, Alaska Commercial
Tatoosh, Wash
Commercial
Tutuila, Samoa
Official
Washington, D. C.
Official
Yerba Buena, Cal.
Station transmits time signals and weather re.
ports daily.
Besides these the army of the United
States, through its Signal Corps, has stations that are open to commercial business
at Fairbanks, Alaska Fort Mills, Philippine Islands; Fort Sit. Michael, Alaska;
Kotlik, Alaska; Nome, Alaska; Petersburg,
Alaska, and Wrangell, Alaska.
Plans have been made for radio communication between San Francisco and Manila by way of Honolulu, but work on that
project will not be commenced until fall.
and the section to 'Honolulu will not be in
operation until a year from this time.
A naval station at Point Isabel, Tex., and
Great Lakes Training School Station are
under construction.
SPIRAL ANTENNAE FOR RADIO
PURPOSES.
M. Bethenod, in La Revue Electrique,
proposes the antenna arrangement shown
-
Fig. t.
length being 3,500 meters, in comparison
with an antenna in which the spiral arrangement is employed, the wave length
here being 5,500 meters. As will be seen,
the construction is much simpler and ree-
iY.
t 3500 meters
Commercial
NAVAL RADIO STATIONS.
The opening of the new naval radio station at Darien, Isthmian Canal Zone, adds
to the facilities for the transmission of
Government messages, but does not extend
the commercial service. The Navy Department, in advising the Department of Commerce of the opening of the station, offers
to transmit free all official .messages to or
from points in the Canal Zone from or to
points in the United States.
Out of a total of 47 naval radio stations
which are now in use in various parts of
the United States or possessions 21 are
open to commercial messages, while the
others are reserved for official business. In
the Canal Zone there are two stations
at Balboa and Colon-which receive commercial messages, so that the new station
need not enter that field in order to accommodate the public as the facilities are already adequate.
A list of the United States naval radio
Decr
December,
ber, f1915
EXPERIMENTER
Proposed Spiral Antennae for Radio=
Telegraphy.
1, in which the antenna starts from
the station building in the form of a single
wire and is then arranged in the form of
a spiral, in a nearly horizontal plane, by
means of supporting cables as shown in
the illustration. Fig. 2 shows an ordinary
antenna consisting of 11 wires, the wave
in Fig.
www.americanradiohistory.com
P
L.5500
meters
Flg. z. Comparative Sizes of Spiral
Straight Types of Antennae.
and
quires considerably less space. The only
inconvenience seems to be that a spiral antenna cannot be used with damped waves
on account of the high tension which would
be developed .ietween the horizontal conductors.
THE RESISTANCE OF WIRELESS
ANTENNAS.
A suggested explanation of increase of
resistance of radiotelegraphic antennas
which has been observed under certain conditions where the wave length is increased
has been offered by L. W. Austin in a
paper on the subject issued by the Bureau
of Standards.
The resistance of radiotelegraphic antennas may be divided into three parts -first,
the ohmic resistance of the wires ; second,
the so- called radiation resistance, and third,
the so- called earth resistance.
Up to the present no satisfactory theory
of ground resistance has been developed.
The experimental curves of antenna resistance, on account of the decreasing radiation resistance, fall rapidly at first, as the
wave length is increased, and then, as the
wave length is further increased, remain
nearly constant, if the ground conditions
are good, as in the case of a ship's antenna,
or again rise nearly in a straight line, if
the ground conditions are poor. This rise
may be very rapid In the case of peculiarly
poor grounds. For instance, the resistance
of the Bureau of Standard antenna rises
from 13 ohms at 800 meters wave length
to 38 ohms at 2,000 meters.
Great difficulty has been found in explaining this increase of resistance with increasing wave length, but it is believed that
the antenna system must be looked upon
as a condenser, the antenna itself being the
upper plate and the ground water the lower
plate. Between the ground water and the
surface there is usually a layer of semiconducting material, which would correspond to a poor dielectric in the case of an
ordinary condenser. It is well known that
the dielectric losses in imperfect condensers
generally increase in proportion to the wave
length of the current employed in the measurement. It is found that by covering the
surface of the ground under and around
the antenna with a wire net, thus making
the lower plate of the condenser, ground
losses nearly disappear.
Don't nickelplate your instruments. It
increases the high frequency resistance and
lowers the tuning efficiency.
)
ELECTRICAL
THE
December, 1915
SOME WIRELESS KNICK- KNACKS.
Very few amateurs care to invest in the
hard- rubber support necessary when building efficient high- tension condensers. A
good method is to build them as in Fig.
1.
The plates are simply stacked one on
G/oss
deals
in the gap when seemingly :, sharp spark
should be tae result, is due to these faults
in construction as explained above, and a
change in such a small matter may make
the set highly efficient. Like all other
things, a wireless set is "no better than
its weakest spot."
was called on one time to look over a
wireless receiving set which from all appearances should have given excellent
results, lint which was very unsatisfactory.
After testing aerial, ground circuits and
insulation, l' found that tae trouble was in
the tuning coil. \\'ith unthinking zeal and
haste, characteristic of the average
amateur, he had painted the coil wit.) some
black enamel rich in carbon. I am not
sure as to whether the turns were actually
shorted, or if the trouble was due to the
inductive effect. \t any rate, when the
coil was rewound with new wire, the 'set
"got" long distance.
Another time I "soot trouble" for an
hour before the trouble narrowed down to
the detector. The crystal itself was good
before and after mounting, for it has been
tried in the test clamps.
The detector itself was a beautifully
polished brass and marble affair and truly
was a thing of beauty. We hooked tip
the detector in series with the battery and
'phones, and on withdrawing the point
from the crystal the 'phones still showed
a short. On dismantling the detector we
found -with battery and 'phones-that
there was an invisible vein of mineral
from one post to another, running through
the marble. All the holes in this detector
were rebored a little larger, bushed with
hard 'rubber, and it has given no trouble
I
Foil
Porce%in
EXPERIMENTER
fig_2
413
A
CONVENIENT LIGHTNING
GROUND SWITCH.
is-
"lit cases where the aerial
perinaneatly and effectively grounded at all times
when the station is not in operation, by a
conductor not smaller that No. 4 B. lti S.
gauge copper wire, run in a direct line as
possible to water pier at a point on the
s rest side of all connections to said water
.
v
f,..9 5
_C-C.EF
Useful Wrinkles for the Wireless Man.
top of the other, using porcelain cleats for
separators.
I have visited quite a few amateur radio
stations and it is surprising to learn how
many experimenters tolerate brush discharges in their condensers. Some of
them paint the edge of the foil with shellac, but this soon breaks down, due possibly to the shellac cracking when drying
out.
The best plan is to dip the edges of the
glass plates in hot paraffine until a quarter
of an inch of the edge of the foil is coated;
when dry and hard, dip again quickly (to
make a thicker coat) and you will have no
brush discharge. Your hot wire meter should
now show a higher reading. It is well to
construct a pan for coating these plates.
The size of the pan will vary with the requirements of each amateur
good size
measures 18 inches long, 2 inches wide and
3 inches deep. A piece of "tin" for the
purpose may be obtained from a clean five gallon gasoline or kerosene can. which,
when opened at the seams and bent to
shape. will prove big enough for a largesized pan.
When pasting the foil on the glass at
best to coat the glass with shellac, b. :.na
oil or other binder and then paste th, ío;i
on the glass, for if the foil is first -,ate,
and pasted the shellac forms an inerlacor
between the foil sheets where they c, -clap
at)
(exaggerated in Fig. 2 to make
or
Of course, the foil might touch in
r
more places, but this is insufficient
quick discharge
positively necess
tion, since the law requires "sharp"
Sometimes you will find that the
of the contacts touching the foil is
quate, and quite often it would arc at ti,
contacts, burning holes which quickly enlarge and necessitate entire rebuilding.
These condenser contacts should in
made of % or till -inch wide spring bras
or copper ribbon 1/32 inch thick and bent
to shape as in Fig. 3, A or B. At least
they should be made of some flat metal.
and even then it is an excellent plait to
wrap some scrap tin -foil about the 1,ring
where it comes in actual contact *Ht., t.
condenser foil; Fig. 3-,C will mal.' thi
-a
-a
since.
It is a good plan to bush all holes in
marble bases, especially in high- tenson
switches. This course is usually unneces-
sary with manufactured apparatus for
the imperfect ones are discarded, though
where the pur1 know of two instances
chased detector "leaked," and was repaired
by the above method successfully.
in making radial arm switches for tuning coils. detectors. etc.. it is a common
practise to use simply a straight strip of
brass or copper for the arm. with the
necessary tension obtained by the use of
some form of spring, usually a spiral
spring inside of the case or switch. as in
Fig. 4. The arm vv:tlt this form of construction is never level and seldom looks
well. A far better -looking, better -acting
and much simpler plan is shown in Fig. 5.
Bend the spring brass arm to the shape as
in the figure at B or C. The end A will
h.- cocu,,,; int.. :one
frrbelo, v the nu: .' `i::
?
E.
will
:
ì
1l
I
t
s
uer;"2r
kEftl'.l:''
t, lv
S,
c
pi
1
"
2-
Controll'ng Out -Door
v eel
www.americanradiohistory.com
_Ifll
11
1111
11
L'ghtning Switch
Inside of Building.
From
pipe ru thin the premises, or to some other
satisfa, tory earth connection -the switch to
joint tl a aerial to the ground connection
shall not be smaller than a standard 100 ampere knife switch." -From sections a and
d of Rule 86 of "Rules and Requirements"
of the ,\'ational Board of Fire Under-
writers."
Some radio amateurs are not aware of
the above fact and others are sadly so because the location of the ground switch
often indirectly locates the apparatus in a
place which is not as well suited for it as
some other. To move the apparatus away
from the lightning switch often increases
the wave length, so that to keep within 2110
meters the amateur must shorten his aerial
or use the ineffective series condenser.
The only things required besides the
switch are two iron angles, about two feet
of one- quarter inch round iron rod. a
round wood radiator valve handle and a
few screws and bolts. Nearly all of these
can be obtained from any hardware store.
A hole large enough to allow the iron
shaft to freely turn is drilled in the side
of the house and the shaft put through the
hole and bent so that the end can be
crrawed to the switch handle. The locaof these screw holes is then found by
ing the switch upon the angles with the
to screw in front of the hole in the
fter drilling the holes and fastening the
to the switch handle the shaft. is then
through the hole and the switch
wed fast, as shown. The control handle
hen fastened to the inside end of the
ft with a screw or pin and a small intor put on. it may be necessary to
,,cn the hinge screw to have freer mot,or,
1:' ?
"used from
Contril
t
dear.
Very often a "sputter spark."
-IIU,''I
tì
1
;2- X)AIL..
THE
414
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
Laboratory Equipment for Illustrating the Principles of Electro- Magnetic,
Magnetic, and Electro- Dynamic Phenomena
By Harlan A. Eveleth
THE amateur radio- telegraph operator
and electrical experimenter enthusiast does not usually obtain satisfaction by the mere operating of finished
apparatus which has come direct to his
hands from the display windows of the
warehouse; he is -to be successful -of an
inquisitive temperament and is forever
delving into the mysteries of the unknown
in the fervent hope of discovering, by the
"cut and try" method, some idea which
may have escaped the observation of his
contemporary "scientists." Following is a
description of apparatus which, because of
their simplicity and wide range of adaptability, will enable its possessor to investi-
core, one inch in diameter by nine inches
in length, is composed of a bundle of annealed, soft -iron wires. It is taped for insulation and then, beginning at a distance
of one inch from one of the ends, is wound
with six layers, 150 turns to a layer, of
No. 20 S.C.C. copper wire. The magnet
is to be operated direct from the 110-volt,
A.C. 60 -cycle mains. It is suggested that
empire cloth or other insulating fabric be
interposed between the various layers, and
that the final layer be taped to prevent
abrasion of the insulation.
The magnet should be suspended vertically from a bracket fastened to the wall
of the room, and a means must be devised
for attaching the cord, by which it hangs,
to the upper end of the core. A simple
way of doing this is to turn a cylinder of
wood to a diameter of about four inches
and a length of three inches. Bore a hole
at the center of one end of the cylinder to
a depth of one inch, and of a diameter
which is slightly greater than that of the
taped end of the core. Spread glue over
the taped core and then force it into the
hole in the cylinder and secure it by
wooden wedges driven in about its circumference; when the glue has set the cylinder
will be securely fastened to the magnet.
The whole can now be suspended from
the bracket by a stout cord tied to a screw eye set in the upper part of the cylinder.
A switch of some sort should be inserted
in the circuit, and it may well be placed
on the top of the cylinder near the screw eye. The feed wires may be entwined about
the cord and bracket and then led to the
power mains. The consumption of current will vary according to the load placed
upon the magnet, but the greater part of
the experiments will require but a fraction
of a kilowatt.
EXPERIMENT No. 1 .-To illustrate electromagnetic repulsion of an A.C. magnet pole.
If possible obtain a solid copper ring of
two inches internal diameter and three quarters to one square inch sectional diameter; see Fig. 2. A satisfactory ring can
be constructed by forming a coil of bare
copper wire; wind the coil to the dimensions specified and bind by winding the
last few feet radially. A ring formed in
this manner by the writer was wound with
No. 14 bare copper wire and weighed 11
pounds.
Steady the magnet with one hand and
with the other grasp the copper ring and
raise it vertically over the magnet. The
electro-magnetic repulsion is so great that
Fig.
EXPERIMENT No. 2.-To illustrate the heating effect of Foucault or "eddy" currents.
Grasp the ring with a pair of tongs and
hold forcibly at a point of maximum repulsion. The ring, notwithstanding its
large cross -sectional area, will heat rapidly
Demonstrating Repulsion of Solid Copper Ring from A. C. Magnet Pole.
and if left long enough will become red hot. Care should be exercised so as not
Fig.
2.
to char the insulation of the magnet winding. Lumps of solid iron attracted to the
core will heat perceptibly, thus showing the
necessity of employing laminated cores in
alternating current machinery.
EXPERIMENT No. 3.-To illustrate continuous
rotation from t1ectro- magnetic repulsion, or
electro- magnetic attraction.
Wind a coil of wire on a form, or "pie,"
having an internal diameter of 2% inches,
an external diameter of 514 inches and a
width of % inch; the rectangular cross section of the coil will thus measure 7/s
inch by 11/2 inches. About two pounds of
No. 26 S.C.C. copper wire will be required. Tape or bind with cord to preserve its form.
Procure two aluminum discs, 6 inches
in diameter and of r inch gauge. Drill
a small hole in the center of each and pivot
so they will revolve in a horizontal plane
with little friction.
Energize the magnet; then hold.the discs,
De/oil of "Pie-coil
disc
2/bS. }26JC
.0IIINIII1i [P('
s. Showing Suspension of Experimental
Alternating Current Electro- Magnet.
,-6íl/uminum
5j
'w}gire
AC coi/
gate, to a marked extent, the principles of
electro- magnetic, magnetic and electrodynamic phenomena. Several of the experiments described are exceedingly simple
as viewed by the initiated, but all are guaranteed to hold the attention cf the uninitiated -the casual visitor to the "laboratory."
.
PiéCoi/
Aluminum discs.
-A-
4/u37. disc.
B-
Apparatus Used in A. C. Rotating Disc
Experiment.
partially over -lapping, one about half an
inch below the other, Fig. 3 A, beneath
the magnet in such a position that the end
of the core is above a point on the upper
disc, which is about 11/> inches back of one
Fig.
3.
of the two intersections of the peripheries
of the discs. The discs will rotate in oppowww.americanradiohistory.com
MrTHE
December, 1915
site directions. If one disc is held the
other will rotate with greater torque.
The rotation of one of the discs can be
shown more lucidly by employing the coil
of wire, see Fig. 3 B. Slip the coil over
the core (it being understood that the
magnet is hanging vertically in this experiment) until the bottom of the coil and end
of the core are in the same plane, then
hold the disc so that about three- quarters
of its surface is beneath that of the coil.
The disc will rotate in an opposite direction-if held in the same relative position
to the magnet -to that of the first case, and
will attain a speed of approximately 300
r.p.m. The terminals of the coil should
be short-circuited.
EXPERIMENT No. 4. -To show the shape and
A new field tester, shown in the illustration, Fig. 1, has been perfected for the
special purpose of testing the field coils and
armatures of the electric railway type of
motors. It is a quick and certain detector
of weak fields and faults in armatures. It
tests the fields when in the motors or out, as
the presence of iron makes no difference.
It is not even necessary to disconnect the
fields. Armatures are tested for shorts.
opens and grounds without raising the leads
or disturbing the hoods. This new field
tester is very simple and easy to operate.
It is operated by direct current from the
lighting circuits by simply attaching same
to a lamp socket in the car or shop.
When testing fields the readings are obtained by- sliding the pointer knob along
the scale to the point where two distinctly
separate sounds become as one, or continuous. The armature test is a bar -to-bar
receiver test with the telephone receiver
and contact fork.
Experience shows that weak fields are
the cause of roasted armature coils, blistered commutators, flash -overs, sparking
bar magnet.
Form a coil of 50 turns of No. 20 S.C.C.
copper wire and connect terminals to a
discarded telephone receiver, as in Fig. 4.
Do not use radio-telegraph receivers which
are valued as such, for a strong alternating current is to be induced in the coil,
which tends to weaken the permanent mag-
-
7S°'/e%phone
receiver
Exploring cod of
so turns N zos.c c.
fig.
4
wire
EE
Fig. 4. Exploring Coil and Telephone Receiver for
Ascertaining Shape of A. C. Magnetic Field.
The magnetic field surrounding the
alternating current magnet can be explored
and its shape and intensity roughly determined by noting the strength of sound
which comes from the receiver as the coil
is moved about the magnet. The coil should
be kept in a horizontal plane throughout
the experiment.
Another method is to employ the coil
used in Experiment No. 3, with its terminals connected to a 110 -volt lamp. Care
should be taken not to burn the lamp out.
The induced current from this c :;r can
also be taken through the body without
discomfort.
EXPERIMENT No. 6.-To illustrate the princinet.
ples of the transformer.
Two coils should be wound which will
slip easily over the magnet; the first of
10 turns of No. 4 bare, copper wire, and
the second of a great many turns of fine,
insulated, copper wire. The current induced in the first coil will be in the order
of several hundred amperes and the carrying capacity of different sizes of wire can
be shown by bringing them across its
terminals. Relatively high voltages can
be obtained with the second coil; in fact,
the whole will act as a fairly efficient transformer.
EXPERIMENT No. 6. -To illustrate the magnetic effects of an A.C. magnet pole upon different metals.
Obtain strips of iron, lead, copper and
aluminum and place each in turn beneath
the pole of the magnet. The iron will be
attracted while the other metals will be
slightly repelled. Substances which are attracted to the poles of magnets are termed
EXPERIMENTER
415
Ingenious Instruments for Testing Electrical Machinery
Intensity of the magnetic field around an A.C.
AC.magnet coi/
ELECTRICAL
brushes, arcing controllers, overloaded
power circuits and generators. 'Hence the
value of a good field tester, and especially
one such as this, which is capable of accurately testing the field coils when in posi-
tion on the pole pieces.
Another field and armature tester, as
seen at Fig. 2, is about to be put on the
market by the same company. This instrument was developed to supply the demand
for testing apparatus that could be operated
by current from alternating circuits and
which could be used in noisy places, where
too much noise might interfere with the
use of a telephone receiver. It does the
same work as the field tester above described, but instead of the telephone receiver for obtaining the readings meters
with pointer and dial are used. When testing field coils the readings are obtained by
sliding the pointer along the scale until
both meters read the same. The armature
test is a bar -to-bar meter test. The meter
is mounted in a convenient position right
on the testing fork.
The same concern also supplies an armature tester, as shown in the accompanying
cut, which was developed to supply the demand for a very simple little device intended for testing armatures only. It is
operated in connection with either alter-
nating current or direct current lighting
circuits. A hard rubber knob with
knurit, age pertu;ts. rb +nginb c ...r from
one kind of current to the other. As
is the case with the two instruments
above described, no batteries are used.
It quickly detects and exactly locates
shorts, opens and grounds without disconnecting the leads or tearing off the
hoods. It exactly locates a grounded bar
paramagnetic, while those which are repelled are termed diamagnetic.
Place the pole of the magnet within a
box of iron brads, then remove the box
from its contents. The brads will tend to
align themselves in the ' direction of the
magnetic lines of force. Iron filings may
be used if desired, but brads are much
easier to pick out of the carpet. Take
several of the brads and place them end
on end at different points on the magnet.
They will form magnetic chains and will
tend to assume the direction of the lines of
force.
Interpose sheets of glass, aluminum, copper and iron between the pole of the magnet and a paramagnetic metal held within
or coil in less time than it takes to tell
about it. It will make a complete test of
any ordinary armature in less than two
Fig. t. Instrument for Rapid Testing of Motor
and Dynamo Field and Armature Coils.
minutes. This device is regularly furnished with either the alternating current
or direct current adjustable contact fork,
or both, as desired. It is a handy and indispensable device for power plants and
z. Similar Device to That Shown at Fig. i,
but Utilizes Meters Instead of Telephone
Fig.
Receivers.
electrical repair shops of every description.
It will test any type of motor or dynamo
armature.
the influence of the field. The sheet of
iron will shield the object from the effect of the magnet while the sheets of
diamagnetic substances will not affect the
transmission of force from one point to
another, any more than an equivalent
thickness of air.
Magnetization may be destroyed or
weakened by an excessive rise of temperature. If an iron wire be heated to redness and held beneath the pole of the magnet there will be no attraction between the
two. At a temperature of 750 degs. C.,
known as the critical temperature, iron becomes non -magnetic, but upon cooling it
becomes magnetic although completely demagnetised at this stage.
THE
416
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
llccenlher, 1915
THE UN5TRUCTP.R
0000000
o=0000
How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier
By C. R. Barmckol
The following are the details for the
construction of an electrolytic rectifier for
the experimenter who does not want the
will be found very satisfactory. The ends
of the box, at the top, are cut down 1%
inches, making U- shaped ends for the top
!2-
Step dwrnlranJ./
/
Q4
To
flheos/o/
t1
ACJtepdorvn
i iiiiiisiiiiiiiií.vv: zilli/iií,;i;//iii/i iïi
i
r's
4a/uminum
One iron
this
.size
and z iron
J
p/o/e /his
Q
/ron
Parts for Making an Electrolytic Rectifier.
trouble of dragging numerous large jars
about and who does not care to spend
much money. if you have a few things
around the house the cost is insignificant
as compared with the larger rectifiers.
With an alternating current pressure of
26 volts from the secondary of a step -down
transformer the rectifier has given as high
as 6% amperes. Of course, it cannot be
used for any great length of time owing to
its size, but I have recharged storage batteries very successfully by charging at inlet vats.
of box. In these slots, where the box has
been cut out. the board holding the plates
rests. Its dimensions are 12x3% inches.
The containing jars are three ordinary
one -pint fruit jars. The next part is the
plates. Aluminum and iron are used. The
necessary plates are drilled and cut as
follows:
Four aluminum plates 41/41x2 inches, with
lugs 11/%x %, drilled for níá hole, 1,á inch
f rom top.
T::c
?'
11/2x%, drilled
t'4'2 inches. ''`h lugs
for is hole, % ...cn from
tA-
The first thing to build is the containing
box. The wood should be about % inch
thick, with the following dimensions:
11x7x4% inches. A Mellin's Food box
top.
One iron plate 41/4x2 inches. with lugs
21/4x% inches, drilled for 1/a hole. 1/2 inch
from top.
EMERGENCY SPARK
COIL VIBRATOR.
Having need for a spark coil vibrator.
to the post grounded to the bell frame and
the other to the adjusting screw on the
-..,.,..,
MAKING A LOW VOLTAGE LAMP.
Procure an ordinary mazda lamp (110,
115 or 120 volt), the vacuum of which has
not been impaired. This lamp may have
t
IIIIIIIAItlIIIoIIItlIIIIIIIIIIItlIIIII
Using Ordinary Buzzer as
rupter.
make and break contact, I secured excellent results. The batteries are connected
to the bell as usual. Contributed by
JEAN J. EILER
Spark
Coil Inter-
and no time to construct one, I hit upon
the following idea: Taking an ordinary
door -bell and connecting one primary wire
been broken by rough handling or burned
out normally. Then connect a socket
(which can be placed in any position) to
the current supply and screw in the lamp.
Tap the lamp so that all or part of the
filament comes loose from the wire support. Now shake the lamp around, so that
the filament falls across the two lead -in
www.americanradiohistory.com
Having procured the plates, they must
next be put in place. Their position may
be seen in the drawing, the large iron plate
being the central plate of the middle jar.
The top board is measured off as shown
in drawing, the first slot (all slots 1/x%
inch) being placed 1% inches from edge.
One -quarter inch separates this from the
next slot, and the drawings give dimensions
for the remainder.
Having slotted the board, the plates are
then fitted in their position as shown.
After fitting them up as tight to the supporting board as is possible, bend the plates
over as indicated. This serves to hold
them in place. Binding posts from ordinary dry cells can be used, and are placed
in the holes drilled in the plates. Having
finished this part, mount other binding
posts, two for alternating current side
and two for direct current side on the
board, and connect as shown in drawing.
Next mount the rheostat on the end of the
box where the cover extends over. It will
be seen that by cutting down into the box
the lugs of the plates are protected. Next
paraffine the inside of the box. The fruit
jars are placed in it as shown. The solution is to be made as follows: Fill- jars
within
inch of top with water. ( \\Tarin
water is better, but not necessary) ; then
dissolve a heaping teaspoonful of ordinary
baking soda into each jar of water.
Then to each jar very slowly add about
three or four teaspoonfuls of sulphuric
acid. Although this solution can be used
immediately, it is better to allow it to cool
for some time.
The rectifier will be found quite efficient,
and its small size makes it very desirable.
An ammeter may also be mounted on the
side of the box in the case of charging
storage batteries. Also another improvement may be added. You may cut a
r.7ctar tular hole in one side of the box.
t..
..aking it an open window rectifier,
allowing inspect`on of the jars without removal. To take out plates and to renew
solution only the wire to the rheostat needs
to be disconnected. This rectifier utilizes
both halves of the cycle.
wires. The lamp will light up as soon as
contact is made within the lamp.
If the lead -in wires are far apart, the
lamp will burn best on 6 volts or more;
but if the lead -in wires are very near or
the filament extra thick, the lamp will
light best on a lower voltage, as 2, 3, 4 or
5 volts.
The writer has had success with about
95 per cent. of all the lamps thus tried.
These lamps burn up to 800 hours when
filament is new, and from 25 to 200 hours
when filament has already been used.
Contributed by EPHRAIM DUSKIS.
-
Kieselguhr, 7 lb.:
Liquid Polish.
Bath Brick (powdered), 3 lb.; Oil of
Lemon, 2 oz.; Lemon Juice, gal.; Paraffine Oil, 1 gal.; Malt Vinegar, 4 gal.
1
THE
December, 1915
A PERMANENT MAGNET TYPE
VOLTMETER.
Herewith I suggest how to construct a
permanent magnet type voltmeter, which
I have made myself and found to work
very satisfactorily.
The case (at Fig. 1) is made of any
suitable wood that is not too thick. The
base of the meter is 5x71/axy/a inches, while
the front part of the case is 5x7x1/2 inches,
inches
with an egg -shaped hole 3%x2
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
inch from the top, which forms the front
bearing. The rear bearing, as shown in
Fig. 7, is built from a flat piece of a brass
door-catch with two perforations bored
through it for screws, with a punch mark
at the center for the needle point of the
armature.
No. 36 wire is wound around the armature, through the slots, after first soldering
one end to a needle point. About 150 turns
are taken, after which the other end is
417
:Tread over the zinc and give it the aspect
of a looking- glass. A piece of wire may be
soldered to the zinc (before amalgamating
it) in order to attach the mold thereto.
In the porous cup is to be placed a solution,
of dilute sulphuric -acid, made by stirring
one (1) part of sulphuric acid in ten (10)
of water. The water must not be added
to the acid, or the violent reaction might
cause an accident with serious result. A.
saturated solution of copper sulphate, or
blue vitro!, is to be placed in the vessel
containing the porous cup. The solution
must be kept saturated with the coppersalts. This can be done by placing a small
basket made of wire screen in the solution
and keeping it partly filled with the C;,ier;
sulphate. The basket must be hung near
the top of the vessel in order that the solution may be diffused equally through the
water.
The mold is then to be made. Anything
that will take the fine lines of an engraving can be used. Gutta-percha and wax
are the commonest materials now in use
for this purpose. The wax must be warmed
and worked into a ball and their pressed
over the coin,
Gutta -percha must by
scalded. The coin should he slightly oiled
before pressing on the wax, so as to prevent sticking. A small wire must be
pressed in on one side of the wax (near
the face of the coin) as in top sketch. The
mold should be brushed over with powdered black lead (graphite) and polished.
Some of the lead must be placed on the
wire so as to conduct the electric current.
When all is ready fasten the mold to the
zinc -rod and place it so it is in the copper sulphate solution. After leaving it about
12 hours the exact reproduction, or rather
impression of the mold will be reproduced
in the copper. This can be pried off the
wax and the mold used again. The impression may be coated with a thin film of
solder on the back by rubbing it over with
the soldering fluid, and then by placing
a few small pieces of solder on it,
A soldering iron should be utilized to melt tie
solder. In the drawing the various parts
of the outfit, designated by letters, are thus
explained: A is the mold. B is the containing vessel, C is the porous pot, D is
the zinc, and, finally, E is the little wire
basket, suspended on wire from the top
of the vessel, as clearly shown. When not
in use the outfit may be used as an ordi-
'
Details and Make -up of Permanent
cut into it for the glass. The sides of the
case are 1'/1x6x14 inches. Two holes 21/2
inches from the bottom are drilled for
binding posts, and a piece of glass is cut
and fastened on inside of the case, as
shown in Fig. 3, by four tacks. The scale
is of cardboard glued to the horseshoe
magnet, which is in this case taken from a
telephone magneto.
The steel magnet is supported at the top
by a strap as shown. This strap is either.
screwed or glued fast to the base. The
side supports are two blocks, with strips
of wood tacked or glued on so that they
overlap (see Fig. 4L The side supports
are fastened to the base in the same manner as the upper block. A wooden block
turned into a cylinder, with a groove sawed
on each side lengthwise for winding the
wire in, constitutes the armature. A portion of a sewing needle is forced into each
end, leaving the points projecting to form
the shaft of the armature. A hole 3/16
inch in diameter is bored into the bottom
of the block, into which a small lead weight
A is placed for the purpose of bringing
back the armature to normal position after
it has swung over, due to an electric charge.
Into the top of the armature a straight pointed aluminum or brass wire 3% inches
long is forced. This serves as the indicating
needle.
The front bearing is
brass
a
piece
of strip
inches long, bent as shown in
Fig. 6. First a/.i inch is measured off and
bent; then it is bent again 1 inch from the
first angle, leaving 1/2 inch for screwing on
to the base. A deep center -punch mark is
'made in the vertical leg of the strip 3/16
21/2
Magnet
Style Voltmeter.
soldered to the remaining needle. Wires
are attached to the screws that hold the
bearings and then to the binding posts on
the case, after which the case is screwed
on by two round -head wood screws. The
scale is of pasteboard, glued on to the magnet as shown. If the needle does not move
correctly after connecting the instrument
to a b?`-ery, remove the wires and thus
reverse the 1.11arir., F th^ ci,
.
To calibrate the instrument, connect it
up to one dry cell and indicate where the
needle comes to rest by a pencil mark.
Then connect it up to two cells ; then three,
and so on until the needle is at the end of
the scale.
The first mark signifies 1%
volts; the second 3 volts, and the third 4%
volts, etc. After the marks are numbered
the scale can be divided off into fractions
of a volt fairly accurately.
Contributed by
EARLE BELSINGER.
A SIMPLE, YET EFFICIENT
ELECTROPLATING APPARATUS
A novel, interesting, yet inexpensive elec-
troplating outfit may be readily constructed
from odd parts, usually to be found in an
experimenter's laboratory.
A wide- mouthed jar, of about one (1)
quart capacity, will serve for the cell. In
this cell is placed a porous cup, which may
be taken from an old battery. A rod or
strip of zinc is now to be placed in the
porous cup and the zinc must be amalgamated by rubbing its surface, previously
polished, with dilute sulphuric acid and
then with mercury.
The mercury will
www.americanradiohistory.com
Home -made Electroplating Set.
nary battery for ringing door -bells, etc.
by placing a piece of copper bent in a
circle around the porous pot.
The most pleasing and satisfactory re
sults and experiments can be carried out it
the directions are carefully and exact!!
followed. 'Contributed by
WM. WARNECKE, JR.
A HOME -MADE MERCURY
VAPOR LAMP.
-
'
THE
418
A mercury vapor lamp may be easily
constructed by any experimenter with the
aid of a very simple apparatus, by making
use of the principle of a Torricellian, or
barometer vacuum. The above vacuum is
produced when a long tube is closed at one
end, completely filled with a liquid and
then inverted with its open end under the
Platinum Wire
So/der
'
Positive Electrode
(Iron Wire)
Tube
Mercury Vapor
C/amp
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
no air present, it might be supposed that
there would be a space quite empty left
above the mercury. This is very nearly,
but not exactly, true, as the mercury, like
water, only to a much smaller extent, will
evaporate, thus filling the space above it
with attenuated mercury vapor.
Clamp the tube in a vertical position
and attach one terminal to the mercury in
the dish by merely inserting a wire in it
and the other to the iron wire electrode terminal projecting from the top.
The current used may be 110 volts direct
current, taken from the street mains, or
from any other convenient source.
When the power is first thrown on, no
current will flow because of the very high
resistance of the space between the electrodes. If a spark from an inch or even
Va-inch spark coil be sent across the terminals, it will break down this high resistance and pass. In doing so it will cause
the formation of much more mercury
vapor than before, on account of the
resulting heat. The path of this spark will
then have much less resistance than the
space had before, on account of the greatly
increased amount of vapor present Because of this lowered resistance the main
current is now able to pass, and in doing
so will heat the vapor in its path to a bluish- white, dazzling light, with which the
reader is familiar. Contributed by
ALFRED MORGENBOLD.
Home-made
Mercury
Vapor
Lamp.
surface of more of the same liquid, as the
illustration shows. Under these conditions
the liquid, if the tube be long enough, will
fall to a certain height above the lower
liquid level. The space above the liquid is
left empty, except for the small amount of
liquid which evaporates into it, existing as
vapor.
Mercury vapor lamps consist essentially
of a positive electrode of iron and a negative electrode of mercury, projecting into
a vacuum saturated with mercury vapor.
Minor details as to the means of starting
may be omitted here for the sake of
brevity. This vapor, under certain conditions, is capable of carrying a current of
electricity, at the same time becoming
heated and producing a dazzling, bluishwhite light
The mercury vapor lamp is made as
follows:
Procure a glass tube about 40 inches
long, of about '4 -inch bore, with medium
thick walls and open at .both ends. By
heating very carefully and gradually. f..;t
in the.smoky flame aiy +h n in the bluish
flame of a
rMt^^..itne torch, the walls
bococ aofte..e so that they will close
together around a piece of platinum wire
twisted to a piece of No. 12 iron wire, thus
sealing it into the tube.
Fill the tube thus prepared with some
pure mercury, which has been boiled to remove all of the inclosed and dissolved air.
This boiling should take place in a glass or
porcelain vessel. The resulting fumes.
which are very poisonous, should not be
inhaled.
The glass tube must be wholly and cornpletely filled with mercury. Not even a
bubble of air should be left behind, sticking to the walls; otherwise the operation
will be a decided failure. When absolutely
sure that all the air has been removed,
close the open end of the tube with the
thumb, and by inverting it place this end
under the surface of some mercury in an
open vessel. Then, while still under the
surface, remove the thumb.
This done, the column of mercury will
not completely fill the tube, but will fall to
a height of about 29 inches. In falling
from the top of the tube, since there was
HOW TO BUILD AN
OZONE GENERATOR.
December, 1915
AUTOMATIC LIGHTING SWITCH.
How many times have you entered a
dark room with your hands full and found
to your great perturbance that to turn the
light on you would have to drop everything,
thus losing time and also patience? To alleviate this, the following may aid you to
lose less of your patience and also to retain
your good nature:
Remove the switch and place it in such a
position that it will be behind the door
Switch Fastened to Door by Rod "C" Cuts Off
Lights Automatically.
when opened. Then procure a piece of
wood (use your own judgment in selecting) ; also another piece about 4 inches by
IX inch, and join these pieces as shown in
diagram, nailing crosspiece to door. Now
bore a hole through the handle of the
switch and also in the stick nailed to the
crosspiece. Put an axel from an old skate
wheel through the holes and fasten them
by an ordinary machine pin. Now the
opening and closing of the door will turn
the switch automatically on and off.
Contributed by
.
ANDREW M. GALLAGHER.
The peculiar properties of ozone as a
purifier and sterilizer have made it very
serviceable for use in libraries, homes, factories, etc. An apparatus to produce ozone,
termed Ozonator, calf be readily made and
advantageously employed.
This generator should be made up of
three distinct parts-the high -tension induction coil. such as a two -inch spark coil; the
discharging device and the circulating fan.
These are treated in the following paragraphs.
An ordinary spark coil, having heavy over, simple in construction.
Two pieces of heavy sheet brass, measurcontact points, in order to stand continuous
ing 3x4 inches, are placed in a horizontal
work, and better still, if used on 110-volt
alternating current, with its vibrator closed position, one -eighth inch apart, in grooves
in a fiber base. Rubber should not be used,
and in series with a suitable resistance,
as it carbonizes quickly under such electric
should be employed. If direct current is
available an electrolytic interrupter should
stresses as it would be subjected to, and
wood has too low a dielectric strength. Bebe placed in a vessel containing some water,
tween the brass pieces in another groove, at
or, still better, circulating water, so as to
least one-quarter of an inch deep, should
cool the solution of the interrupter. This
latter method of running the, c"i. will be be fitted a one-eighth-inch sheet of plate
frnm ..y ,ati :fac+m.y. Tt " be con- glass, measuring 4x5 inches. The differnected in the usual way.
ence in potential of the two electrodes,
The discharging device is next to be con- which are connected to the secondary terminals of the coil, is sufficient to cause a
violet "brush" or corona discharge to form
in the spaces between them and the dielectric. In these spaces enough ozonized
air is produced in a short while to purify
and freshen the air in a comparatively large
room or hall.
The function of renewing the air between
the electrodes and forcing the ozonized
product out into the room is performed by
a small electric fan, operated either by
storage batteries or on a lighting circuit.
It should be placed several inches behind
the discharger, so that the air flows through
the electrodes and out into the room.
The complete ozone generator may be
mounted or cased, as the builder desires.
The different parts are connected in the
Details of Ozone
Generator.
manner shown in diagram.
sidered. To ozonize air it is essential that
Contributed by
a visible electrical corona or brush disWILLIAM AMPERE.
charge be produced. This takes the form
[Ed.
is usual to employ a small 75 to
of a violet glow and is always the index of 100 watt alternating current step -up closed
an extremely high potential or voltage.
core transformer for this purpose. One
There have been many forms of dis- giving about 7,000 volts at the secondary
chargers developed, among which the one is used in several commercial ozonators of
herein treated is quite efficient and, moresmall type.]
-It
www.americanradiohistory.com
December, 1915
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
419
10 MAKE
This department will award the following monthly prizes: FIRST PRIZE, $3.00; SECOND PRIZE, $2.00; THIRD PRIZE. $1.00.
The idea of this department is to accomplish new things with old apparatus or old material, and for the most useful, practical and original idea submitted
For the best ideas submitted a prize of 23.06 will be given; for the second best
to the Editors of this department, a monthly series of prizes will be awarded.
idea a $2.00 prize, and for the third best a prize of $1.00. The article need not be very elaborate, and rough sketches are sufficient. We will make the me-
chanical drawings.
FIRST PRIZE $3.00.
A USEFUL 495 WATT ELECTRIC
STOVE.
SECOND PRIZE $2.00.
A
SIMPLY CONSTRUCTED
POLARIZED RELAY.
Many experimenters have found it impossible to use a polarized relay owing to
the prohibitive price which is usually
charged for this instrument. The following description, together with
the accompanying drawing,
Too removed
Yó lhic%r po/ished
will enable one to make a
iron
'isn/chromeirire
Soopsmne
simple yet efficient instrument
/sturns
1-bale
of this character with little
trouble :
An alternating current or
t±1_
magneto bell ringer (polarized type) is mounted on a
wooden base about 4xR
inches. A hole is drilled
through the clapper ball to
accommodate a pair of silver or platinum contacts C'
and C' as shown. '..djustable
6/pss
contact screws C and C" are
3'
beads
Mounted so as to be engaged
/6 /70/e
by the contacts in the clap4per. A spring SP connects
M
rlei1lafarer
the clapper with a rotatable
and slidable rod BR. which
serves to hold the contacts
C' and C' in a neutral posid.32 /IV
tion between the contacts C
and C".
fE
Connections are made as
shown by heavy dotted line.
Practical and Useful Home -made Electric Stove.
Upon the reception of a difor those who like simple designs.
rect current either one or the other of the
The heating element is made from ascircuits will be closed, depending upon the
bestos or soapstone; either one will do, as
it is easily cut with a hack saw. Then it
is wound with No. 25 Nichrome wire (91
feet in all). After it is wound a few beads
are slipped on the ends, so as to insulate
them from outside objects, and fastened
by means of binding posts.
The unit is supported by four screws
running through porcela'n bushings and
fastened to a slate base. When this is done
a cover is cut from iú -inch thick iron and
fastened to the screws. This will be usef ul for heating the coffee pot, etc.
Contributed by FRANK HARAZIM.
The enclosed drawing shows a simple
way of making an excellent electric stove
for use on a circuit of 110 volts at 4.5
amperes. This stove will be interesting
THIRD PRIZE $1.00.
A MAGNETIC
POLARITY INDICATOR.
Magnetic polarity indicators are not very
well known to the average experimenter,
and the sketch herewith shows a plan for
making up one from a pair of 20 -ohm
electro- magnets and a small permanent
steel magnet, properly motinted. While
AP%
fi
11111111111111111111111
AN ACID -PROOF CEMENT.
A very good acid-proof cement for cementing articles exposed to acids may be
made up of a mixture of litharge (yellow
lead) and glycerine. Mix to a stiff paste
and use quickly, as this cement sets quite
rapidly.
A Good
Varnish for Electrical Apparatus.
A very good insulating varnish for metal
work on electrical instruments is black asphaltum varnish. It has a finish like black
enamel and good insulating qualities.
If this finish to too glossy a varnish made
from orange shellac and lampblack should
be satisfactory.
This latter is better for woodwork, while
the first is better for metal work. Contributed by
WALTER FRANSEEN.
i
Polarized Relay Constructed from A. C. Telephone Bell.
direction of the current. By the use of
this instrument either of two circuits may
be closed at will over a two -wire line by
www.americanradiohistory.com
Magnetic
Type
Polarity
Indicator.
one electro- magnet can be used in making
up this device as at A, it is best to use
two of them as sketch shows. The small
permanent magnet, which can be made of
a piece of magnetized tool steel about 1
inch long by % by 1 /16 inch, is mounted
on a pivoted arm C carrying an indicating
needle D. A paper scale is mounted suitably on the device, as at E, with a zero
center mark. Care must be taken in hooking up the electro-magnets, so that
when the positive pole of the circuit is
joined to the binding post marked "plus"
the proper magnetic poles will be produced
in the electro- magnets to give the maximum effect or reaction on the permanent
magnet F. This can easily be ascertained
by making a couple of tests with different
connections from the magnet coils. When
two magnet coils are used, mounted on a
soft iron yoke (made of %x3á -inch stock)
the two core ends facing each other will
have to produce the same magnetic poles,
so that in one air gap the magnetic action
between the permanent magnet and the
coil A will be "attractive," while in the
opposite air gap, at magnet B, the magnetic effect will be "repulsive." This acts
on the principle that like poles repel, while
unlike poles attract each other. Contributed by
G. BARENBLATT.
A dime in time may save nine. A single
idea gleaned from these columns may save
you money and time going over ground already covered.
means of a key and a simple pole -changing
switch. Contributed by
HENRY B. GRAVES, JR.
r
THE
420
FASTENING CONTACT POINTS
ONTO ALUMINUM.
Sometimes it is convenient to use
aluminum as the moving element on an
instrument such as a moving coil relay, or
in wireless telegraphy when the element
must necessarily have a small time period
to prevent lag. These moving elements
must have contact points on them, and as
it is difficult to solder them onto alumi-
Method
of
Securing Platinum
minum {'arts.
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
unfamiliar and remote in its efforts at improvement. It is only within recent periods
that it lias been made possible for most
every individual to be provided with an
artificial light that is practically as good as
daylight.
If electric light is used in a dome over
the library table the dome should be arranged to take a single Mazda or tungsten
lamp, which should be fitted with a prismatic or opal glass reflector, and the lamp
itself should be what is called "bowl- frosted," i. e., have the lower part of the lamp
frosted. A 60 -watt tungsten lamp will give
ample light under all ordinary conditions
and will use very little more current than
a single 16 C. P. carbon filament bulb, which
consumes about 54 watts. Desk lights
should be fitted with a reflecting, or rather
deflecting, shade, to prevent the direct or
December, i915
ELECTRIC FAN HELPS DRY
PHOTO NEGATIVES.
Those engaged in developing and drying
photographic negatives will find an ordinary
electric desk fan of great value in quickly
drying such negatives as they rest in their
drying rack. The fan is placed a few feet
l'oint to Alu-
num I hereby propose a plan which has
Ä
proven successful.
A small rivet, made necessarily of light
material, such as from lath or shingle
nails, can be riveted to the aluminum.
Sheet platinum can then be soldered to the
nail head, which first must be well cleaned
and scraped. This will present a comparatively large and non -oxidizing surface to
the spark. By referring to the illustration
this will be made very clear. Contributed
R. E. RYBERG.
by
Electric Fan Qu ck y Dries Photo
TI
Frosted Bow/
away from the negatives, and it is best that
this arrangement is so located that a good
draught of fresh air can be drawn in
through the fan from an open window. The
negatives will be dried very quickly in this
way, and it is considered by many photographers as much superior to the use of
artificial cooling baths.
Chino Shode
Wire
Shield
%I
Bulb
ETCHING ON STEEL.
Cover the article with a film of paraffin
wax (or candle grease) and with a scriber
write or mark on the surface whatever is
required, making sure to cut clean through
the wax. Sprinkle some salt over this and
then cover with strong nitric acid. The
etching should be continued for an hour
or so. depending upon the depth of the
etched part. Then clean off with hot water
and grease the article to prevent any
rusting.
A HANDY DRY CELL TESTER.
Practically the simplest and most commonly used method in vogue for testing
the electrical activity of dry cells is that
involving the use of an ordinary buzzer or
bell. If any number of cells worth mentioning are to be tested it is rather a tedious job to try out each with two wire
terminals from a buzzer. Therefore I provide in this suggestion a very quick and
efficient method of testing such batteries.
and the sketch makes this idea quite clear.
It consists simply of a piece of wood cut
to the shape indicated; on the lower part
of it is mounted a small buzzer. The two
terminals of the buzzer connect by pieces
of copper wire to two copper strips. as
shown. All that is necessary is to place
the lower part of this wood support between the binding post of the dry cell so
that the two copper shoes on same make
contact with the zinc and carbon binding
posts.
MONROE MILA\l.
Contributed by
Negatives.
Efficient Desk Lighting Scheme.
even strongly reflected light rays from
striking the eye. A sufficient, yet soft, light
is that which proves the least trying to the
eye. Indirect lighting is widely employed,
but is not universally adaptable to all requirements.
A
FLASHLIGHT "BULB"
PROTECTOR.
Rust Preventive.-The following is a
good rust preventive for steel: 16 parts
Turpentine and 1 part Caoutchouc dissolved by a gentle heat. To this add 8
parts Boiled Oil, stir and at the same time
bring to the boiling point. Apply with a
brush after the manner of varnishing.
This coating can be removed by the use
of Turpentine if desired.
Those who are troubled with the crack-
IMPROVED BINDING
POST MOUNTING.
II
II
1111111111
=`_
IIIIIIII
mm
wwm_
111111
Lamp Protection for Flash -Lights.
Testing Device for Battery Cells.
GOOD READING LIGHT.
Have you a good reading light? If this
very important question was put to a mass
of people 99 per cent. of that mass would
he compelled to answer in the negative.
A
\Vhy?
The reason that good lights are so uncommon is not so easy to discover. Perhaps the best explanation may be found in
the well -known proclivity of the human
mind to accept without question the things
it is most familiar with, and to turn to the
ing or breaking of flashlight bulbs and filaments will find the following device an
antidote for these unpleasant mishaps:
All that is necessary is a block of either
fiber, hard rubber or wood, backed by a
copper disc. Through the center of this
block is bored a hole, large enough at one
end to allow the base of the lamp to fit
in with ease. Just below the disc of copper the hole is made smaller, with a small
spring attached.
The object is to take the weight of the
battery off the lamp bulb and put it on the
case instead.
Contributed by
WATSON McALEXANDER.
www.americanradiohistory.com
'
ra'm
1
1
--
VIIIIIIIIIÌIIIIIIIIIÌIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIINIIIII11IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIII11N4I
Improved insulation for Binding Posts.
The sketch herewith shows a method of
using riffs inch hard rubber (or other thickness) as an insert in table or cabinet tops
to support binding posts, spark -gaps, helix
stands or other connections which carry
high potential or high frequency currents.
This results in better insulation and
greater efficiency without the excessive cost
of using hard rubber for the entire surface.
It is recommended for wireless receiving
sets also if maximum efficiency is to be
realized from such sets.
Contributed by I. L. JONES.
I
THE
)ecember, 1915
A BATTERY COMPUTING TABLE.
A convenient table to have at hand for
quickly calculating the power of dry cells
connected tip in various ways is shown in
the accompanying illustration. This table
/
5
3
4
1
.1Y 411: 6Y 7#
6
7
e
9
/0
9V /0/V /1Y J2Y /5
70,
2
404
3
604
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENT ER
mouse is placed on the cloth, the wire net
placed over the mouse, and the motor set
rotating. As the motor turns around the
mouse will also hurry around, being attracted by the magnetism of the horse -shoe
magnet on the revolving shaft of the
motor. It is desirable that the motor
should not run too fast. Contributed by
\V\l. \WOODHOUSE, JR.
42I
AN ELECTRIC "HOUND" CHASER.
For those who are troubled with neighboring dogs (hounds and such), the following scheme will be found efficacious in
getting rid of them thoroughly and finally.
All that is required is a small spark coil
which most experimenters have about their
laboratory, together with a Leyden jar, a
r
WINDING RESISTANCE COILS.
\lany an experimenter has wanted to
make a resistance or perhaps an electric
toaster or heater but was at a loss as to
4 B04
aS
6
7 /404
B
160,4
9
/B04
Electric Shocker for Dogs
/0
Direct Reading Battery Chart.
for "new" dry cells only.
Each square represents a single dry cell.
Should a battery with an output of, say, 6
volts, 60 amperes be desired, then G volts
are depicted on the top line under the (cell)
number 4, signifying that it takes four cells
in series to produce G volts. Sixty amperes
wi,l be found on the side row opposite the
figure 3, indicating that three cells in multiple make 60 amperes. Now four cells in
series and three rows in multiple (4 X 3
= 12) give 13 cells necessary for the desired output. Also, as each of the 12
squares represents 12 cells, the arrangement can be readily understood.
Any combination up to 1.5 volts, 200 amperes may be obtained. Contributed by
ARTHUR R. DARLING.
is worked out
A
MYSTERIOUS MOUSE
WINDOW ATTRACTION.
On the end of the motor shaft, as depicted, a horse -shoe magnet of tungsten
steel is attached. This, of course, must be
well magnetized. An old, weak one, will
not do. Now, on top of the wood box,
where the cover was removed, a cloth is
fastened, by small tacks, as shown in
sketch. Two binding posts may be placed
on the side of box, as will be noted. Next
a mouse -trap (of circular shape, preferably) is obtained and the entire base thereof removed so as to leave the hollow, wire
net only. A. little gray mouse (costing but
a few cents) of plaster -paris is needed,
mill
Hand -Drill Used I
such as are usually sold in stationery stores,
also a piece of iron :is inch thick is tacked
to the bottom of the mouse. The base,
however, so as not to be noticed, must be
neatly trimmed off so as to fit the lines of
the little creature. When all is ready the
Rap d W ndin4 of Resist-
winding the coils of the resistance wire.
While making a resistance I hit upon the
following method of winding the coils:
The handle was removed from a hand
drill and the drill fastened in a vise so
that the crank could revolve freely. A
rlo-inch rod. 5 inches long and with a
hole in one end, was fastened in
the chuck. The wire for winding the coils
was No. 22 iron (German silver would
do), having been obtained from a basket
factory. The wire was cut into as many
J foot lengths as coils were needed. The
end of the wire was put through the hole
in the end of the rod and the wire wound
on the rod in one closely formed layer.
The end of the wire is pulled out of the
hole and the coil slipped off the rod. This
gives a coil about 4 inches long, but when
stretched to about G inches in length the
adjacent turns do not touch. 1 wound 120
of these coils in one afternoon, using this
method. Contributed by
ALBERT P. V.\XSELO \\'.
A
CHEAP ATTACHMENT PLUG.
Herewith
A tachment
Magnetic Revolving Mouse Window Display.
or
ance Coifs.
I
suggest a method for utilizing
Plug
Made From
and Lamp Base.
Wooden
Contributed
'1w
LA\VRENCEMiCHELS.
www.americanradiohistory.com
C. L.
A VISUAL
ROBINSON.
PHOTOTELEGRAPHIC
RECEIVER.
A visual receiver for phototelegraphy
and telectroscopy, employing a special electrolyte, has been recently invented, says L.
H. Walter, in the Proceedings of the Royal
Society. The schematic sketch is herewith
shown.
It consists of luminous elements, 5,300
in number, with independent electrical con nections placed in a frame, which is hardly
larger than that of an ordinary camera.
The anodes s are embedded in an ebonite
plate e, their backs being wetted by an
electrolyte which escapes from the holes
h of the pipe p and flows over the crape c.
A voltage of 130 to 140 volts is used. The
negative pole of the circuit is connected to
the pipe p, while the anodes s, which are
to be rendered luminous. are connected to
the positive pole.
This arrangement can be used for various applications, as it combines in a hip-
Rod
to good advantage an old incandescent lamp
base and a piece of broomstick.
Empty the lamp base of everything except two wires, which should be threaded
through a hole bored in the center of a
short stick cut from an old broom handle.
The wires are then soldered firmly to a
couple of flexible leads. The wooden plug
may be cut down until it just fits into the
brass cup and with a little glue it can be
made to hold fast.
This completes a neat, vet very cheap
and effective attachment plug for labora-
tory requirements.
china plate and a piece of string with batteries and a switch for sane.
The piece of string is arranged near the
china plate containing milk or meat. so that
when his "Riverence the Pup" strides toward the plate his foot engages the string
which closes the battery switch and a metal plate or sheet under the china plate is
then charged with high voltage from the
spark coil.
Needless to say, this makes the most
highly seasoned dish that friend "Pup" ever
dined on. Contributed by
Visual Phototelegraphic Recever.
ited space almost an unlimited
elements, the surface of which
lumined or darkened hundreds
second at will. The degree of
can be adjusted by the voltage
number of
can be ilof times a
luminosity
applied.
Wireless communication between Scandinavia and America, with an intermediate
station in southern Greenland. has been
proposed.
THE
422
A HANDY FUSE
TESTER.
Many electrical experimenters have cartridge fuses on most of their instruments.
The following diagram will show a good
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
MAKING A MOTOR IN
10
MINUTES.
Anyone having some wire, a few pins
and a cork can construct this motor in less
than 10 minutes. The armature consists
of a cork having a pin stuck in each end.
See that the pins are exactly in the center or the armature will wobble. Wind
the armature with No. 30 enameled wire,
as shown in Fig. 1. Stick four pins in
a piece of wood as at Fig. 2. Arrange the
armature, bearings, brushes and magnets,
as in Fig. 3. The brushes are of No. 26
wire, bent as per sketch. Although simple,
this motor will run very swiftly with one
December, 1915
penpoints, and which usually come with
Eberhard Faber's pencil sets). Two holes
are drilled in on both ends of the case and
posts from old batteries are fastened
therein.
This is all that is necessary, and. the
sketch plainly shows how the device is
operated to make a connection.
It it invaluable for running small motors,
111111111111111i01111111
II,
Electric Connector Utz izing Pencil Tips
I
,
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;
Quick Test Board for Fuses and Lamps.
way to test them. This apparatus can be
used to test fuses of any kind by making
the block of wood to fit the length of the
fuse. Contributed by
CARL MENKE.
A
NOVELTY AMONG
TELEGRAPH SOUNDERS.
novel telegraph sounder of quite odd
proportions is described and depicted in the
following contribution:
First two wood posts are mounted in an
upright position on a base of wood, neatly
varnished. Then another wood rod is fastened on the upright ones at each end, as
will be seen in the sketch. In other words.
it is bridged across, from one to the other,
as drawing depicts. A pair of electromagnets are mounted on the bottom of
the wood base, as perceived. Two binding
posts are fast ned to the base of the apparatus, and, of course, put in circuit with
the magnets. For . clicker an iron shaft,
such as door -knobs are fastened on, offers
itself well for this purpose. A small
spring to make tension is soldered to the
steel shaft, and the other end (of spring)
is tacked to the top wood piece, which is
shown in sketch clearer than words can
A.
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iiiiiÌìiillillllllllllllll
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Unique Style of Telegraph Sounder
describe it. After the regulation-screws
(at the top) are properly adjusted, the instrument is ready for use. It may be put
in circuit with a telegraph key, as usual.
Contributed by WM. WARNECKE, JR.
pppllqllllllllll
eihlÌl1111117 ?..ä __
g
I
I
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III
li
=
Simple Motor Made From Cork and
lighting automobile lamps and miniature
lighting systems, etc. It is merely clipped
together, the action being the same as if
a penpoint were taken out and the case
closed again. Contributed by
ALGERNON W. WRANDON.
a
Few Pins.
dry cell. It also demonstrates the principle of large motors very clearly and at
the lowest possible expense. Contributed
by
MATT JAROSZ.
CLOSED CIRCUIT MAIL BOX
ALARM.
Herewith is presented a very serviceable
mail box alarm of the closed circuit type.
SOLDERING IRREGULAR PIECES.
To solder accurately irregular pieces of
metal or the parts of a broken piece, press
the parts into a lump of putty, placed on
a piece of tinplate. Having thus formed
a mould, remove and dry the putty with
a gas jet. This burns the oil in the putty.
When the mould is ready replace the
pieces and also some solder in small pieces.
Use a gas jet or blow -torch to heat same
and do not remove the parts until quite
cool.
BATTERY MOTOR ON ALTERNATING CURRENT:
Many experimenters have some small
battery motors which they wish to run
on alternating current. For this purpose the following directions will be found
efficacious:
The field windings should be connected
in series with a suitable high resistance.
The brushes are short -circuited and then
adjusted to give the greatest speed and
power. It has been found that a 6 -volt, 4ampere "Knapp" motor will operate best
when the lower brush is at right angles
with the upper one. No connection whatever is made between the field and armature. Contributed by
Closed Circuit Alarm for Mail Boxes.
A' is made of two light pieces of some
flexible metal, and is bent, as shown, to
separate when a letter is dropped in the
box. A is of the same material, but much
heavier, and is so constructed that when a
parcel or letter is placed in contact A' is
opened from L. The springs should be
connected in series with each other, and
a pair of "crowfoot" gravity cells is then
connected to a buzzer with the windings
arranged as illustrated. A bell and two
dry cells are connected to the vibrator contact and to the iron armature bar of the
buzzer.
When the closed circuit is broken the
armature of the buzzer rebounds and closes
the local bell circuit, thereby sounding the
alarm and signifying that a letter of. parcel
is in the box. Contributed by
S. F. CSOHAR.
A SIMPLE CONNECTOR
PENHOLDERS.
FROM
One glance at this neat little device is
sufficient to disclose its simplicity, usefulness and niftiness. It is constructed from
a simple metal penpoint case (for holding
www.americanradiohistory.com
[ED. -This is
PERCY M. ROOPE.
the "repulsion type" of
Operating Battery Motor on A. C. Circuit.
alternating current motor principle. For
best results the iron frame should he
laminated or made up of many soft iron
sheets, firmly bolted or clamped together.]
A year's subscription would make an appropriate Xmas gift to your friend.
J
THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
"SOLDER" FOR METAL, GLASS
AND PORCELAIN.
EDITED BY'S.GERNSBACK
Under this heading we will publish every month
useful information in Mechanics, Electricity and
Chemistry. We shall be pleased, of course, to have
oar readers send us any recipes, formulas, wrinkles,
new ideas eta, useful to the experimenter, which
will he duly paid for, upon publication, if acceptable.
FORMULA No.
16.
Soaps.
Transparent Soap.=Slice 6 lbs. nice Yellow Bar Soap into shavings; put into a
brass, tin or copper kettle, with Alcohol,
% gal, heating gradually over a slow fire,
stirring till all is dissolved; then add 1 oz.
Sassafras Essence and st :r until all is
mixed ; now pour into pans about 1%
inches deep, and when cold cut into square
bars the length or width of the pan, as
desired.
English Bar Soap. -Six gal. Soft Water,
6 lb. good Stone !.ime, 20 lb. Sal -Soda, 4
oz. Borax, 15 lb Fat (Tallow is best), 10
lb. Pulverized :_esin and 4 oz. Beeswax;
put the wate, in a kettle on the fire, and
when nearl. 'oiling add the lime and soda;
when these are dissolved, add the borax.
Boil gently and stir until all is dissolved;
then add the fat, resin and beeswax.
Best Soft Soap.-Mix 10 lb, Potash in 10
gal. Warm Soft Water over night; in the
morning boil it, adding 6 lb. Grease; then
put all to a barrel, adding 15 gal. Soft
Water.
German Yellow Soap.-Tallow and SalSoda, of each 112 lb.; Resin, 56 lb.; Stone
Lime, 28 lb.; Palm Oil, 8 oz.; Soft Water,
28 gal. Put soda, lime and water into a
kettle and boil, stirring well; then let it
settle, and pour off the lye. In another
kettle melt the tallow, resin and palm oil;
having it hot, the lye being also boiling hot,
mix all together, stirring well, and the work
is done. For small quantities -Tallow and
Sal-Soda, each 1 lb.; Resin, 7 oz.; Stone
Lime, 4 oz.; Palm Oil, 1 oz.; Soft Water,
1
A soft alloy which adheres to metal,
glass and porcelain and can be used in the
saute manner as soft solder is prepared
from powdered copper (copper dust)
which may be obtained by stirring a solution of blue vitriol with granulated tin.
The solution becomes considerably heated
and a fine brown powder is precipitated.
Of this copper dust, 20 or 36 parts by
weight, according to the desired hardness
of the solder, are mixed in a cast -iron or
a porcelain mortar with sulphuric acid of
1.85 specific gravity to the consistency of
paste, and 70 parts of mercury added with
constant stirring.
When the amalgam is thoroughly mixed
it is carefully washed with water to remove
all traces of acid, and then cooled off. In
10 or 12 hours the mass becomes very hard.
When the solder is to be used it should be
heated to about 400 degrees Fahrenheit, in
which condition it can be kneaded like wax
in an iron mortar. In this plastic state it
is applied to the broken surfaces, which
are then pressed together, and when cooled
the amalgam adheres very firmly. ConDAVID KARRON.
tributed by
A DOUBLE FLAME LABORATORY
BLOW TORCH.
While working in a laboratory last winter I frequently needed a blow torch for
welding purposes, but as there was none
in the laboratory equipment I struck upon
a novel means of making the desired heat.
I attached a mouth blow pipe to a gas jet
qt.
Hard Soap with Lard.-Sal -Soda and
Lard, each 6 lb.; Stone Lime, 3 lb.; Soft
Water, 4 gal.; dissolve the lime and soda
in the water by 'boiling, stirring, settling
and pouring off; then return to the kettle
(brass or copper) and add the lard, and
boil it till it becomes soap; then pour into
a dish or moulds; and, when cold, cut into
bars and dry it.
Camphor Soap.-Curd Soap, 28 lb.; Otto
of Rosemary, 1514 lb. Reduce the Camphor
to powder, add 1 oz. Almond Oil, then sift
it; when the soap is melted and ready to
turn out, add the camphor and rosemary.
Sand Soap.-Curd Soap, 7 lb.; Marine
Soap, 7 lb.; Sifted Silver Sand, 28 lb.;
Oils Thyme, Cassia, Caraway and French
Lavender, of each 2 oz.
Shaving Paste. -4 oz. of Naples Soap, 2
oz. of Powdered Castile Soap, 1 oz. of
Hone, 5 drops each of Essencce of Ambergris, Oil of Cassia, Oil of Nutmegs.
Melt the soap in water bath, add honey
and when nearly cool add the oils and essence.
L,iIÌ,
IIIIIgIIII111
A Double
IIIIII
Flame Laboratory Blow Torch
by means of a rubber tube and, turning
on the gas, held the blow pipe in the flame
of a Bunsen burner. The gas coming
through the blow pipe had the desired effect upon the Bunsen flame, producing as
great or greater heat than the average
blow torch.
Contributed by
HARRY R. FEES.
Shabby leather can be much improved
by either Linseed Oil or the well -beaten
Whites of Eggs mixed with suitable coloring matter. The surface can be brought
to a gloss by the use of a soft duster.
To Clean Brass. -Rub it with a mixture
of Vinegar and Salt, or Oxalic Acid, then
wash with Water and polish with Tripoli
and Sweet Oil.
www.americanradiohistory.com
423
SOME USEFUL WRINKLES FOR
THE EXPERIMENTER.
Turpentine makes a very good lubricant
for a drill when boring thin glass.
A liberal coating of parrafine on the
outside of battery jars keeps the acid from
climbing.
It is hopeless to try to restore dry cells
to their former strength, but after they
have lost most of their voltage they can be
partially restored by soaking them in a
solution of salt water and drilling a number of holes around the base of the battery to let the solution soak in.
A very good way to intensify weak radio
or telephone signals when using only a
single pole watch case receiver is to procure a large magnet from some electrical
supply store. Bind one of the poles on
the back of the receiver where the screw
that holds the bobbin protrudes (some little experimentation will have to be done
to determine the right pole), and the signals will be found to have been increased
to three and four times their previous
strength.
Never try to tap your local telephone
line. The company dislikes it; in fact, so
violently that they may have you arrested
on a serious charge. Many an innocent
experimenter has gotten himself into a lot
of trouble doing this.
Never try to make hydrogen gas without some knowledge of safety appliances
to be used on the apparatus. It is about
as quick a way to put your eyes out as
there is.
If you are using storage batteries in
your wireless set, and they fail to give
proper voltage, or get too hot, don't try
to fix them yourself, as they can be very
easily ruined. A garage man can't fix in
a day what you can "unfix" in 10 minutes.
Don't light matches around storage batteries to see if they are working properly.
When operating they liberate a gas which
is at times very explosive. Use a pocket
flashlight.
If you are disturbed by alternating currents interfering with your wireless receiving set turn your aerial in another
direction. It may help.
If you can get your wireless instruments
silver plated, do so by all means, as silver
is a much better conductor than nickel,
and high frequency currents such as are
used in wireless work travel almost entirely on the surface of switches.
If you are intending to buy any instrument and don't know the size, range,
adaptability to your requirements, etc.,
don't be afraid to ask the manufacturer
about the instrument. Even if he does
have a catalogue, he will be glad to give
you any additional information you desire.
When experimenting with 110 -volt current always have a pair of 10 amp. fuses
in circuit. It will stop a lot of pyrotechnics if something goes wrong.
Don't paint the stand that you intend to
mount your instruments on. Paraffine, is
better; it don't allow so much current to
leak through.
Contributed by WARD B. BABCOCK.
Rust spots on nickel can be treated with
Grease, and after several days rubbed with
a rag saturated with a few drops of Hydrochloric Acid in Ammonia. Parts should
be thoroughly rinsed, dried and polished.
Aluminum Polish. -An emulsion of
equal parts of Rum and Olive Oil can be
used for cleaning aluminum. Potash Lye,
not too strong is also effective in brightening aluminum ; Benzol is also used.
A good polish for aluminum consists of
a paste formed of Emery and Tallow, the
finish luster being obtained by the use of
Rouge Powder with Oil of Turpentine.
424
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
Our Amateur Radio Station Contest is open to all readers, whether subscribers or not. The photos are judged for best arrangement and efficiency
of the apparatus. To increase the interest of this department we make it a rule not to publish photos of stationa'unaccompanied by that of the owner. Dark
photos preferred to light toned ones. We pay each month $3.00 prize for the best photo. Make your description brief. Address the Editor.
AMATEUR RADIO STATION
CONTEST.
Monthly Prize, $3.00.
This month's pri :e winner.
WIRELESS STATION AND ELECTRICAL LABORATORY OF
FRANK H. BROOME.
The accompanying photo shows the sending and receiving outfits, also the main
switchboard controlling the other laboratory and experimental apparatus, most of
which is on a slate table not shown in the
photo.
The wireless receiving outfit is of the
Frank Broome is an Ardent
and
Electrical Student.
Radio
Here We See Him Surveying a
Mast Site.
Below: The Radio Laboratory of
Mr. Broome is Up -to -date and
Contains Transmitting and ReMr.
ceiving Apparatus with Amplifier.
semi -cabinet type, most of the instruments
of which have been described by the owner
Electrical Experimenter during the
past year. All of the instruments are of
the owner's design and make. and have
proved of exceptional worth. They consist
of a loading coil, loose coupler. variable
and adjustable condensers, crystal detector
and 'phones. The horn was used in connection with a receiver in receiving from
WHB, NAH and other near -by stations.
The present sending set consists of a finch coil, operated in connection with an
electrolytic interrupter on 110 volts alternating current; Leyden jar condenser,
helix, hot-wire ammeter and key. Aerial
is "T" type, 40 feet high and 100 feet long.
The aerial and lightning ground switch
are both conveniently located, and can be
operated from the switchboard panel.
The laboratory apparatus consists of
step -down transformers, rectifiers, arc
lamps, electric furnaces, storage batteries,
etc., all of which are home -made. Tools
and raw material are conveniently kept
under the wireless table.
The station is over five years old, and
during that time The Electrical Experimenter or its predecessor, Modern Electrics, was always to be found in its library.
FRANK H. BROOME.
Roselle Park, N. J.
in The
RADIO OUTFIT OF JACOB WEISS.
enter my station
in your monthly contest. My station consists of a 1 -kw. closed -core transformer
(made by Queen & Co.), pancake oscillation transformer, rotary gap, consisting of
motor -driven disc containing 13 studs
(r.p.m. 6,000), and three Murdock condenser units. I use a break -in system, eliminating the aerial switch, and a magnetic
key. The key operates the magnetic relay,
which in turn operates the break -in relay.
My transmitter is in the basement of my
home and my receiving set is in the dining
room on the first floor. I use a small Pittsburgh step -down transformer
on 110 volts to operate a relay
type motor starter. The relay
fez the motor is energized by
foot -plate push
a
small
mounted on the floor under
the table.
My receiver consists of a
loose coupler, primary and
secondary rotary condensers
and Audion amplifier, with
2,600 -ohm 'phones. There are
of course the necessary batteries and resistances to go
with the audions. I use the
series -shunt system for condenser on the primary coil.
I have no trouble in getting
the distant stations very well.
On Oct. 18 last I heard N.A.W.
very plainly. I have held communication with Western stations regularly at such times as
I h ve happened to be at home.
During the winter months 1
worked 8 P.P., 8 A.M., .9
K.U., and was received at a station
in
Chicago, Ill., and at Winnetka,
Ill.
Also I have worked stations in
Wheeling, W. Va.; Cleveland, O.; Little
Valley, N. Y., and 8 O.Z., Pennsylvania.
I hold a certificate of the American Radio
League as an official relay station; also
first -grade commercial license. I am a regI take this occasion to
G. L. LA
PLANT'S RADIO STATION.
here a brief description and photograph of my station, and would be pleased
to have you publish them in your journal.
The receiving apparatus consists of an R. J.
5 Audion detector, Blitzen receiving transformer and rotary variable condenser; also
three pairs of 2,000 -ohm 'p'aones. The
transmitting set is composed of a Blitzen
1 -kw. transformer,
rack type condenser,
oscillation transformer and Marconi type
discharger. As the discharger is extra
I give
l KW. Transmitting Set and Also Receiving Apparatus of G. L. La Plant's Radio Station.
large I will give the dimensions for those
who wish to build one. It is made of a
hard rubber disc 10 inches in diameter, 1/4
inch thick, with 13 studs on the side of the
disc placed a/4 inch from the outer edge.
The motor is a Robbins & Meyers 1 /10 -hp.
style, running at 2,400 r.p.m. The aerial
consists of lour No. 14 H. D. W. P. copper
wires spaced 2'iá feet apart and is 80 feet
high and 150 feet long. It is insulated with
Electrose 4 -inch insulators.
I am a member of the Central Association, American Relay League and also corresponding secretary of the Hawkeye
Radio Association. My call is 9.K.T.
St. Anthony, Ia.
G. L. LA PLANT.
CHARLESTOWN NAVY YARD
RADIO CLOSED.
Mr. Weiss
Gets Excellent Results
Radio Receiving Set.
With His
ular subscriber to The Electrical Experimenter and find it excellent in its contents
and suggestions.
JACOB WEISS, Asso. M. I. R. E.
Port Washington, L. I.
www.americanradiohistory.com
While the divisional radio is being secured the wireless station at the Charlestown, Mass., Navy Yard will be closed and
all messages will be received at the Chelsea
station. This will be for several months.
The station at the navy yard has been dismantled and the apparatus has been set up
at the Chelsea station. Messages received
at Chelsea will be sent by "wire" to the
Charlestown station.
December, 1915
J. W.
THE
EXPERIMENTER
double slide tuner set, and the variable condenser may be shunted between the aerial
and ground or may be switched in series
with aerial. 1 have a 2,000 ohm double
head set and a 1,000 ohm single head set.
My sending outfit is a 1/4 k.w. set with a
I have no
Clapp-Eastham rotary gap.
aerial switch as 1 use a break -its system.
bly receiving apparatus has a range of 11111
to 3,000 meters wave length.
ALLEN AND HIS WIRELESS
"LAB."
illustration herewith depicts my
wireless station. At the left is the receiving set, consisting of a loose coupler, two
The
specially designed silicon detectors, a dou-
ble slide tuner, a large variable condenser
and fixed. condenser. I have two aerials,
Mr. J. Wyman Allen,
owner of the Experimental Radio
Station Shown Be-
J.
425
WCX; several lake boats, including the
C. & B. boats, and numerous unidentified
stations. NAA comes in loud enough to be
heard 2(i inches away from the 'phones. By
WYi11AN ALLEN.
Beverly, Mass.
low.
Below:
ELECTRICAL
HAMMOND PROFFERS INVENTION TO NAVY.
Well Ar-
ranged
Radio Set
Mounted ron Desk.
John Hays Hammond, Jr., recently laid
before Secretary Daniels and ordnance experts of the navy the wireless device which
he has perfected to direct torpedoes discharged from submarines.
Secretary Daniels declined to give the mechanical make -up of the device. He said,
however, it may be of incalculable advantage to the navy.
H. LIGHTNER'S REMARKABLE
POCKET RADIO SET.
one six -wire aerial 90 feet long and 60 feet
high, for sending, and one two -wire aerial
200 feet long and 60 feet high, for receiv-
Either or both of these aerials may
switched on for receiving by means of
the two two -point switches seen on the
front of the receiving set. The set is wired
up so that by manipulating the switches on
the front of the cabinet the hook -up may
be changed from a loose coupler to a
ing.
be
.
lfter seeing the wireless sets pictured in
your Prize Contest Department 1 decided
to submit a snaps;lot of a pocket wireless
designed and constructed by myself.
The outside dimensions of this set are
8x4x2 inches, while the weight is only two
pounds without the receivers. I use one of
the E. I. Co. dime galena detectors and find
it extremely sensitive. My headset consists
of two 2,000 -ohm Brandes' Superior type
receivers, which are very good. My condenser and coils are of my own make and
have sufficient inductance to bring in high
wave-length stations.
This set is able to receive 'NAA, WSL,
Mr. Lightner Has Perfected
an
Efficient Pocket
Radio Receiving Set.
using a bed spring as an aerial I have
picked up the first three stations above
mentioned.
HERBERT LIGHTNER.
Alliance, O.
Amateur News
The
Engineers'
of Radio
October Meeting.
6,
Institute
At the regular monthly meeting, held on Oct.
at Columbia University, New York City, The Institute of Radio Engineers had the pleasure of hearing a timely paper on the subject of "The Training
of the Radio Operator," by Mr. i11I. E. Packman,
professor of Radio Telegraphy at Dodge's Telegraph, Railway and Wireless Institute, Valparaiso,
Ind. Mr. Packman's discourse covered the method
found best for instructing embryo radio operators,
and covers such matters as the type of apparatus
best suited to transmit code practise signals, number of subjects to be taught, length of time required to thoroughly teach the operator the necessary rudiments of electricity and radio operation, etc.
The point was brought out that in most cases,
and tàking for granted that each applicant to the
school has a fairly good general education, such as
given in grammar schools, that a finished radio
operator could be turned out in about six months.
About 600 students have been enrolled annually at
this school and one-third of them are radio students.
The pupil is taught typewriting and penmanship
as well as all necessary wireless instruction for the
reason that most telegraphic and radio messages today are copied direct on the typewriter and, of
course, in any event the wireless man in charge of
Geoga station should be a first -class penman.
raphy and other practical branches of study are also
The
gone into at this school with good results.
practical side of the radio operating profession is
also covered, so far as becomes possible in the
short length of time the student has at his disposal.
This covers such matters as the routing of messages, repetition of messages, the various codes and
modifications as well as abbreviations in use inter-
nationally, etc.
The fact was brought out that
most of the radio operators graduated are in the
Marconi service as this company controls the
major portion of the radio business to -day. The
short-comings of young radio operators were brought
out and the speaker offered several suggestions
tending to offset these, if proper training was given
in the school.
Boston Radio Amateurs, Attention
Radio amateurs located in or near Boston
ested in forming a wireless association with
quarters and a central station will do well
quire for particulars at The Young Men's
tian Union, 48 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.
inter-
head-
to inChris-
Maple City Radio Club of Hornell, N. Y.
Loper, president; James Stephens, vice -president;
Robert Shults, secretary; Benedict French, chief
operator, and the following as members: Raymond
Wright, Carl Mead, Sidney Emerson, Carl Chapman, Walter Howard.
All correspondence should he addressed to the
secretary at 179 Main Street, Hornell. N" Y.
Bronx Radio Club.
At the last October weekly meeting of the
Bronx Radio Club of New York, the election of
new officers was held, the result of which was as
follows: M. Haber, president; J. Smith, vice- president; A. Schoy, business manager; H. Berlin, secretary; A. Richter, treasurer.
A lecture was delivered by one of the members
on "The Theory of Wireless Transmission."
Lectures are given at every meeting by the more
advanced members of the club, dealing with timely
topics of wireless or electrical interest.
The club will be glad to communicate with other
societies and individuals desirous of having information or particulars of the proceedings of this
organization.
All communications should be addressed to the
secretary, 705 Home St., Bronx, New York.
Those wishing to call on the president may do so
at his home, 670 E. 170th St., Bronx, New York.
Ames, Iowa, Has Radio Society.
The second annual convention of the Hawkeye
Radio Association was held at Ames, Iowa, on Sept.
It was well attended and proved a suc1 and 2.
cess in every way.
The meeting on Sept. 1 was
attended by wireless amateurs from all over the
RADIO CLUBS ATTENTION!
We are always pleased to hear
from young Edisons and Radio
Clubs. Send a write -up of your
Club with photos of members and
apparatus to -day to: Editor "Amateur Gossip" Section, The Electrical Experimenter, 233 Fulton St.,
New York City.
The "Maple City Radio Club" was organized on
Guy
2, 1915, with the following officers:
Oct.
www.americanradiohistory.com
State. The following officers were elected: President, Ralph, Batelier 131 Ilyland Ave., Ames. Iowa;
Vice-President, W. 'P. Rathert, Cresco, Iowa; Secretary, A. B. Church, Lamoni, Iowa; Treasurer,
Hollis Sels, 131 Ryland Ave., Ames;
Secretary, G. L La Plante, St. Anthony, Iowa.
The association bas had published a monthly bulletin containing from one to three pages filled with
articles of interest to the members. This will be
continued and enlarged during the next year. Information will be given applicants by the officers,
We are trying to get a
regarding membership.
complete directory of the amateurs residing in
Iowa, and the president would be glad to obtain
any information relating to such a directory.
Much interest was afforded the members by a
large display of the most modern types of radio apparatus, which was kindly loaned for the occasion
by some of the well -known wireless manufacturers.
Savannah, Ga., School Wireless Licensed.
Arthur Funk, amateur radio operator, who has
for the last two years been perfecting the station
he has now installed on top of the High School at
Savannah, Ga., recently received his operator's
license from the Government.
It is a license for "Commercial, experimental and
instruction purposes," and was obtained primarily
to enable loin to pursue research work in connection with the roblems of the station. His call
letters are 4AHn
Mr. Funk is also endeavoring to install a wireless 'phone, working along a theory of his own,
and has already begun work on the instruments.
He is working independent of the lines followed
by experimenters in the recent Government successful wireless 'phone tests.
The station, which was constructed entirely at
the High School, has a sending radius of 100 miles
and the operator has picked up messages from
Colon, Panama and the naval stations at Guantanamo, Cuba. Among other devices that have been
recently installed is a marble switchboard, and the
lightning switch has been placed outside the school
to minimize the danger from that source.
Middletown Scientific Association Holds
410th Meeting.
The 410th meeting of the Middletown Scientific
.Association was held in the Scott Laboratory of
Physics at Wesleyan University, on the evening
of Oct. 13 last. The address was by Professor
Walter Guyton Cady, Ph.D., professor of physics
in Wesleyan University, on the subject, 'Wireless
telegraphy." The lecture was illustrated with experiments and lantern slides.
-
['RTE5T
Flashlight for Canes and Umbrellas.
(No. 1,151,114; issued to Gustav Mattines and August Rehberg, Jr.)
This patent covers a neat arrangement for a small flashlight bulb, to-
_.ÿ
Q11-1111
gether with necessary battery of
miniature dry cells and switch for
controlling the lamp circuit in a
The drawing clearly shows
cane.
how these parts are arranged and
the lens of the flashlight is indicated
while the push button appears at 38.
The miniature dry cells are shown
at 20.
Electric Apparatus Enabling the
Blind to Read.
(No. 1,149.547; issued to Henry
Tideman.)
Intended to aid the blind to read,
makes use in general of special books
containing a perforated page, whicb
lar form as perceived, is composed
of strips of brass and steel soldered
together. This thermostat is used to
regulate a motor or other electrical
attachments for opening and closing
dampers or doors, so as to keep tbe
incubator at a practicallg constant
temperature.
Arc Type Telephone Transmitter.
(No. 1,150,266; issued to Walton
Harrison.)
A telephone transmitter intended
to be used with heavy currents, such
as for loud- talking telephone circuits, wireless telephony, etc.
The
air waves set up by speaking into the
horn 37 are caused to impinge
against the arc at 27. Controlling
electro- magnets, which aid in the
operation of this arrangement, it is
said, are shown at 15. It acts on
the principle that the variable air
currents, corresponding to the voice
waves, will cause the arc 27 to
change in its length and resistance,
thereby varying the strength of the
current through an induction coil 6,
which is joined to a loud- speaking
telephone, etc.
perforations correspond to the dots
and dashes of the Morse telegraph
code. A regular sounder (or a telephone receiver t)'pe sounder) may be
used, together with battery, as shown
in diagram and this circuit is opened
and closed by means of a metal
stylus 3, which is moved over the
perforations 7, on the page. Under
the page lies a metal plate, which is
connected with the opposite side of
Several other unique
the circuit.
schemes are covered in this interesting patent.
Electro- Magnetic Sound Producer.
(No. 1,147,016: issued to Leo Grubman assignor to Electric Spark
Appliance Co., Inc.)
A novel form of electro- magnetic
sound producer, intended for use
particularly on Ford automobiles,
whose magnetos yield alternating
current. This horn has an electromagnet coil C, mounted in a magnetic or iron frame with pole pieces,
as drawing shows. The flux from tbe
pole pieces reacts on to a distinct
magnetic armature H. This, when
.T49.1.
.íT9.9
coherers for radio telegraphic or other
requirements. The inventor lays
great stress on the proper formation
of tbe spherical chamber 13, in which
metallic or other filings are contained. Also he mentions that if
ajr
Wireless Condenser.
(No. 1,150,895; issued to Augustus
Kellogg Sloan.)
A newly devised variable condenser suitable for radio or other circuits
and comprising a number of concentrical metal tubes nested together as
these filings are of the proper size,
and also by utilizing a periodically
changing sweeper", or mixer, that it
is possible to obtain very regular and
reliable results with a coherer so
constructed. Again he mentions the
use of a number of such coherers on
a common circuit and each one of
these coherers to be successively but
independently switched into circuit
by proper means, and thus while one
is decohering another one will be in
circuit to perform the regular function of such-asdevice.
Electric Humidor.
(No. 1,145,218; issued to Walter E.
Schimmel.)
This type of humidor, used to produce a damp vapor from water or
other liquid, utilizes an electric lamp
illustration shows. Every other tube
connects to one pole of the condenser and one set of tubes may be
moved up and down to vary the capacity by means of a special insulated handle 34. This handle is
threaded and the nut within same is
made in two halves; thus it is possible to compress the nut sections so
that the moving element can be slid
up and down the threaded vertical
rod rapidly.
For the fine adjustment the handle 34 is released and
the split threaded nut engages the
screw 7, so that the plates can be accurately and closely varied in their
relative position.
.
18, placed in
the upper part of a
chamber 9. In order to improve the
operation of this device blotting paper or some other good absorbent is
supported in the vaporizing chamber
from rods 16, and this causes the
water to be drawn up near the lamp
and thus the vaporization is greatly
enhanced
The moist vapor produced in this way can then escape
through perforations in the top of
the containing vessel.
Radio Detector Stand.
(No. 1,152,444; issued to Augustus K.
Sloan, Jr.)
Another radio detector stand which
embodies several good features, it
seems, with respect to the spring tension adjustment for the "cat- whisker" electrode. By means of an ad-
Thermostatic Circuit -Closer for
Incubators.
(No. 1,151,142; issued to Louis L.
White.)
A modified form of thermostatic
circuit closer for incubators and the
like, the closing and opening
"valves" of which are easily adjusted for, as by means of a dial
very accurately adjustable owing to
the unique construction, which employs a flat tension spring 28, secured to a movable block 29. This
block 29 can be raised or lowered
independently by turning knob 8.
Also the electrode 19 may be moved
over the face of the crystal rapidly
owing to the novel construction of
pillar 7, which permits the whole
spring arm arrangement to be swung
from side to side.
Electric Insect Trap.
(No. 1,150,835; issued to Joseph
It
Satinover.)
is proposed with this device to
Pig -- 16
b
NM;
and handle 31 and 33 placed on the
The
exterior of the incubator.
handle 33 is secured to a shaft 31,
which in turn connects by means of
levers to the pivot 21. A thermelectric element 20, which is of circu-
attracted forward moves the dia
phragm proper ' b" naturally, and
alo in its return movement the
diaphragm "D" acts resilliently on
the armature H. By this action the
inventor claims to attain tbe best
results for this form of construction. A tuning screw t is provided
for properly adjusting the arma.
ture vibration period. No interrupter is used.
'"
Radio Telegraphic Coherer.
1,150111; issued to Edwin
'
an
%/
//
%//
/ / /E..-
v
tit
1
a
Gill.)
Another advance in the design of
2-
-
--
/
-
lusting knob 8, the tension exerted
by he metal point electrode 19 is
COPIES OF ANY OF THE ABOVE PATENTS SUPPLIED AT 10c. EACH.
426
www.americanradiohistory.com
electrocu e 'nsects of all kinds by arranging two sets of oppositely
charged wires or metallic rods to
form a cage, as perceived in the illustration. These oppositely charged
wires are hare, of course, and spaced
a short distance apart.
They will
work on a 110 volts and alternating
current or direct current, the same
as that supplied for lighting.
ELECTRICAL
THE
December, 1915
EXPERIMENTER
427
Phoney Patents
Under this heading are published electrical or mechanical ideas which
our clever inventors, for reasons best known to themselves, have as yet
not patented. We furthermore call attention to our celebrated Phoney
Patent Offizz for the relief of all suffering daffy inventors in this couldtry as well as for the entire universe.
We are revolutionizing the Patent business and OFFER YOU THREE
DOLLARS (83.00) FOR THE BEST PATENT. If you take your Phoney
Patent to Washington, they charge you Ezo.00 for the initial fee and
then you haven't a smell of the Patent yet. After they have allowed
the Patent, you must pay another Ezo.00 as a final fee. That's E10.00I I
WE PAY YOU $3.00 and grant you a Phoney Patent In the bargain,
so you save $43.001 I When sending in your Phoney Patent application,
be sure that it is as daffy as a lovesick bat. The daffier, the better. Simple sketches and a short description will help our staff of
Phoney Patent examiners to Issue a Phoney Patent on your invention
In a
jiffy.
PHONEY PATENT
No. Px6
OFFIZZ
PHONEY PATENT PERPETRATED BY WATT A. LUNKHED
ELECTRO OFFICE EFFICIENCY DEVELOPER
L;74
To all who should worry:
Be it known that I, Watt A. Lunkhed,
of the City of Ohl State of Affairs,
have deliberately sacrificed my fortune and
last ray of sanity in devising, developing
and perfecting this apparatus for alleviating
the troubles of all poor stenographers who
are troubled with a lack of ambition. It has
worked perfectly under all conditions. Many
girls preferring it to the effeminate attentions of mushy office managers, the latter
are not required on the payroll any longer.
Pat. Applied Externally
motor should
the letter -head and starts typing. As she
presses the keys real movies appear oli the
screen in front of her. The scenes appear
-this
be at least
two horse -power
is a small detail that should be care-
fully attended to.
in perfect synchronism with the striking
of the keys, therefore fast work is necessary so she can find out quickly how it all
I or best results with this recipe for efficiency it is absolutely necessary that only
pure ingredients he used -thus purely emotional motion pictures-pure high grade
chocolates, and purely sentimental music
should only be employed.
This machine has been tested by all the
crowned heads and blockheads of Europe
and New Zealand, proving in every case
ends.
A touch on the spacing bar automatically
turns lose the Victrola with a lot of love
melodies and mushy ballads, in perfect
keeping with the movies.
When the carriage is pushed back after
VIVID MOVIES
CHANGING
AT CORRESPONDING RATE
JAR OF
OF SPEED OF STENOG
LETTER TO A SCENE
1
GOOD CHOCOLATES
SLIDE OPERATED BY
7c
LEVER
SHELF FOR CHOCOLATE.
TO DROP ONTO
BALL BEARING To PREVEN¡
FRICTION
SWITCH CLOSES EVER,/
TIME. PAPER IS
GENERATOR CONTROLLED
REMOVED FROM PLATES
BY SPACING KEY
'POPULAR
MUSIC
OANCES
ANO
MUSHY
LAVE
,SONGS
9
1,
ARMS EXTENDING A
WARM HUG CVFRY TIME
LETTER IS COMPLETED AND
Marvelous Elect
-
o
Office Efficiency Developer.
The results are based upon the formula
E.
=
P.
W.
where E.
=
efficiency P.
=
pleasure and W. = work. By increasing
both factors of the fraction it is apparent
that the results will not be changed, thus
doubling the work can be offset by increasing the pleasure an equal amount, thereby
retaining the same efficiency, and vice versa.
The apparatus is arranged as per attached drawing and its operation is as fol-
lows:
After the stenographer has taken all the
letters (700 a day is common when this
machine is installed), she sits down, inserts
ROLLED OUT OF MACHINE
Amid These Exhilarating Surroundings an Output of
of levers (not lovers)
delivers a luscious chocolate to her rosy
lips. The supply of delicacies is contained
in the large glass jar at the right, and if
the boss is of a sporting disposition he can
offer prizes to the stenog emptying the jar
first.
The master stroke of my invention is
found in the hugging attachment operated
each time a letter is removed from the
machine. The motor operated arms clasp
her firmly but tenderly around the waist
and hug her as good as any mere man
without the attendant smell of cheap tobacco, which latter ofttimes accompany this
blissful pastime. For best results this
each line, a system
www.americanradiohistory.com
.
huff
110 VOLT MAIN
700
Letters
a
ll it
I
Day is Common.
that woman, with the aid of this machine,
is complete in herself, does not require the
association of males and therefore should
rule herself.
In testimony thereof I therefore bury
here my tame seal on this day of devotion
and supplication to Woman Beautiful in
this City of Oful State of Affairs.
WATT A. LUNKHED.
By his Attorney:
S. A. TROMBLY,
fVorcester, Blass.
Witnesses:
G. WATASINCH,
LILL Q. Plia,
ROMEO
CHEESIT.
'
THE
428
ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
OFFICIAL LIST OF LICENSED RADIO AMATEURS NOT TO APPEAR IN NEW GOVERNMENT CALL BOOK.
PRESERVE THIS LIST FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
Amateur Radio Stations Licensed by the Bureau o f Navigation During the Month of July, 1915.
SIXTH DISTRICT,
FIRST DISTRICT.
Call
signal.
-1.ßrT-
Campbell, Margaret
Durham, Wison N
1.\E
L
Rockport, Mass
Oakland, MG
15 Hastings St. Greenfield, Mass
41 C St., Lowell, Mass
15 School St., Newport, R. 1
198 Randolph Ave., Milton, Mass
14 high( St.,
Eberlein, Geo. II
Entwistle Warren R
Jackson, Edw, A
111Q
1M
1TM
Jr
Johnson, Edw. C.,
Lang, Stanley W
111J_
10K
lI1T
HIS
`
1KL
1TK
10G
1LJJ
11íX
1VC
30
65 N. Franklin St.. Lynn, Mass.....
260 Broad St., Central Falls, R. 1...
13
Tarr, Gertrude E
Taylor, Jas. W
Vogel, Edw. A
Zander, Joseph T
100
Woodlawn Ave., Pittsfield, Mass.
181
Stiness, Samuel
Swanson, Richard
lOL
100
799 Tyler St., Pittsfield, Mass
Plymouth, Mass.
'3G Chestnut St., Cambridge, Mass..
235 Springside Ave., Pittsfield, Mass.
Lindsay, Alex. M., Jr
Morash, Arthur F
Oliver H. E
Reese,-Lauren A
Stocker, Clarence I
1MT
Power
in watts.
Location of station.
Owner of station.
8
Hale St., Rockford Mass
Iligh St., Rockport,
Mass
2SE
2AGO
2:\FT
".\GP
2AGO
2AGY
2AGV
2AGN
2AGU
32
100
550
30
1(111
62 Tremont St., Boston Mass
49 Curtis Ter.. Pittsfield, Mass
34 South St., Ansonia, Conn
SECOND DISTRICT.
35 [looker Ave., Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
1160 Third Ave., New York, N. Y.
106 Leonia Ave., Leonia, N. J
Bedell, Walter R
Buttner, Edwin ..
Godley, Paul F
906 Marks Ave., New York, A Y
Norris, Robert P
t 7 Union St., Schene tady, N. Y
Ondin, C. kolger
Ripperger, Clinton..... 147 Wisner Ave., Middletown, N. Y
Rosenberg, Uda P
2116 Iloneywell Ave., New York
Schlcckscr, Raymond R. 12 Fabyan I'1., Newark, N. J
Sievering, Harry W... 54 Navin Pl., Newark, N. J
Williams, E. Malcolm. Troy High( School, Troy, N. Y
Zimmermann, William.. 765 Ilunterdon St., Newark, N. J
2:\GE
2AGM
180
550
100
770
250
100
49
25
3IA
Hall, Marvin S
Pinkston, Jeter, Jr
Sanders, Tye C
Stringfellow', Geo. P
4AT
4111)
SFO
4A1'
4AV
4.\R
4AD
Summers, C.
12
10
10
30
40
100
.
FIFTH DISTRICT.
14.28 N. 12th Ave., Birmingham, Ala,
406 Granbury St., Cleburne, Tex....
Memphis, feue.
1012 Government St., Mobile, `.la..
233 Orchard St., Georgetown, Tex..
726 Speight St., Waco, Tex
Leroy, Louis
Mitchell, Erwin H
Ward Robert P
Z
5I1A
5C1'
Wood', Ross
5DB
327
550
575
330
120
1,000
L....
Ansley, Hewlctte
Holland Jesse W
5CW
5CX
20
Ortega, Fla.
01 E. Main St., Gainesville, Fla
Milledgeville, Ga
Il., Jr
Walker. Jas. F
SIXTH DISTRICT.
2286 Olive St., Long Beach, Cal....
Andrews, Carl
Bauchou, Leon J
Mayfield, Cal.
Bumbaugh, H.
Lemon Grove Cal.
Carroll, Lionel II
427 hunter St., Stockton, Cal
Chase, Ralph N.
R.F.D. No. 4, Santa Ana, Cal
Cosgrove, Clarence E
435 Hanover St.. East Oakland, Cal
Eddy, Myron F
1232 Alice St., Oakland, Cal
6IC
6111
L
6PC
6J
8
6FF
6U
GGY
61X
6IL
GIP
e,,GH
ONS
6í1Y
6SR
6EQ
OPI_)
60V
7KF
7W11
7LB
F77
7\IF
16
1,000
250
FOURTII DISTRICT.
rc7 N Boulevard, Atlanta, Ga
107 Gordon St., Valdosta, Ga.
239 Woodward Ave., Atlanta, Ga
61K
GI'U
71.11
40
40
990
Hettinger, Alfred C... 12s S. Church St., Allentown, Pa
Mahlmeister, E., Jr.... 1801 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, Pa
3GI'
SC
M... Paoli Pa.
hingee, Alex, L
6IA
35
THIRD DISTRICT.
s%
Call
signal.
250
SMX
sAF
nOII
SLI
nFK
8L\'
SMO
8RP
SMA
sNS
8 ME
SSP
SAC
SHH
8DG
8CP
SQA
80V
80\'
sACG
M....
Griffiths, Walter
250
5111
300
100
24
500
100
1,000
250
500
9UL
.)U1
9}I V
913M
9JF
K
9U0
9
9UIf
1'
9UN
1022 1st St., Napa, Cal
Cal.
3913 26th St., San Francisco, Cal...
417 S. 1st St., San Jose, Cal.
2508% Palm Drive, Los Angeles,Cal.
Shelton, R. O
3443 5th St. San Diego, Cal.
Smith, Clarence W..... 333 Naples St., San Francisco, Cal
Somers, Wm. A
2057 W. 29th St., Los Angeles. Cal..
Mountain View, Cal.
Toft, Frank
SEVENTH DISTRICT.
Duncan, Andrew
3919 Burke Ave., Seattle, Wash
Harrington. Wilbert
Y. M. C. A., Seattle. Wash.
Hill, Leroy C
4824 76th Sc, Portland, Ore
Mahan, LeRoy
644 Exchange St. Astoria, Ore.....
394 11th St., Portland, Ore. Miller, Clinton
Tingstad, Anton R..... 2128 Wilkinson St., Tacoma. Wash
EIGHTH DISTRICT.
McCarthy, John J
Neville, Glen
Plimpton, Roe
J.....
I..
.........
R.F.D. No. 3 Gobleville, Mich
155 Poplar St t. Mansfield, Ohio....
Spencerville, Ohio
Hill Dormand S.
2 Taft Ave. Detroit, Mich.
Hosley, Fred'k D
900 South Ave., Rochester, N. Y. ..
Krommer, Frank
811 York St., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Magregor, James E
211 Gold Ave., Grand Rapids Mich..
Merrill, John l'
608 Crescent Ave., Buffalo, N. Y...
Metzger, Milton
121 Lane St., Bucyrus, Ohio
Moore, Allan N.
36 W. La Belle St., Grand Rapids,
Mich.
Preece Richard, Jr..... 2124 N. 12th St., Toledo, Ohio
Reid, (rhos A.
411 S. Limestone St., Springfield, O.
Richmond, Norman E.. 5811 Lexington Ave., leveland, O
Schaming, John P
3114 McClurg, St., Pittsburgh, Pa...
110 Washington St., Kalamazoo,Mich
Shiley, Charles
Smith, Newell R.
525 N. Main St., Wellington, Ohio..
Sternfield, Chas. B
516 W. Cedar St., Kalamazoo, Mich.,
Struchen, Raymond S Sterrettania, Pa.
Wahl, Arthur F.
Pine Ridge, Buffalo, N. Y.
Pine Ridge, Buffalo, N. Y.
Wahl, Wilburt C
Pandora, Ohio
Welty, C. W..
Cooke, Lovell
Frey, Frcd'k. E
Harter, Raymond
N
9C2
in watts.
Grotzinger, Clarence E. Corona, Cal.
Hamilton. Howard B... 1218 N. 6th St., Redlands, Cal
Ilemenway, Walter D.. Winters Cal.
Ivins, George
5102 S. Wilton Pl., Los Angeles, Cal.
233 Ifawthorne St., San Diego, Cal..
Mahler, Jas. J. , Jr
Marsh, Hallan N
1225 W. Brookes Ave., San Diego,
1140
190
Power
Location of station.
Owner of station.
1,000
12
100
3G
220
280
330
50
30
330
467
50
330
24
50
352
5(1
1,000
50
50
120
330
250
440
24
18
420
40
440
100
500
660
550
12
20
550
550
36
550
550
550
NTII DISTRICT.
Chamberlain, A. Lee... 1040 E. Sixth Ave., Des Moines, Ia.
Cheyne Thos. L.
526 West Drive, Indiana olis, Ind
Cottrell, Hale T
1229 St. Ann St, Owensboro, Ky....
Custer, Alfred E.
1432 S. Washington St.,Denver, Colo
Erickson, Edward H
627 W. Superior St., Ft. Wayne, Ind.
Kennebec, Iowa.
Erskine Vernon
Polo, Ind
Graybill, Donald R
Adolph
Ilatton, N. Dak.
May De Witt W
1227 Spaight St., Madison, Wis
Neumann, Adelbert G.. 1616 Wells St., Milwaukee, Wis
Paetzold, William H.... 4302 Farlin Ave., St. Louis, Mo
Smith, Joe L
100 N. Highland St., Chanute, Kans.
Hegge
1,000
225
1,000
2511
495
50
550
36
432
25(1
36
500
Amateur Radio Stations Licensed by the Bureau of Navigation During the Month of September, 1915.
Call
Signal.
1DJ
1TX
111
V
1PK
1PE
1SY
10T
1KU
1?IT
1l'L
FIRST DISTRICT.
I
Owner of station.
Bishop, Donald
Power
Location of station.
S.....
Brown, Louis
Chutter, George A
Eastman Damon L...
211
Washington
in watts
St., North Attle.
boro, Mass.
209 Blackstone St., Providence, R.
67 Church St., Swanton, Vt.
I
Norfolk, Mass.
Littleton, Mass,
126 Atlantic Ave.,Marblehead, Mass
74 Woodcliff St., Boston. Mass
244 Federal St. Greenfield Mass
Hardy, Jack
Hathaway, Samuel D
Ilovey. Arthur T
Lamb, Claude M
Mathewson, Oliver W.
34 Corona St., Dorchester, ((lass
215 Federal St., Greenfield, Mass
Strattoq Rolland A
35
100
550
50
500
500
2l)Z
2FL'
511C.
202 W. 98d St., New York, N. Y....
166 Ralston Ave, South Orange, N. J.
182 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.
883 S. 19th St., Newark, N. J
IEttlinger, Albert
Leeb, Henry Lorent
Tuna, Lawrence
Volke, Edgar
FIFTH DISTRICT (No stations licensed in 3d and 4th Districts).
(Barr, Charles S........1327 Parkway, Memphis, Tenn...... I
100
36
40
Abbott, Clare C.
611L
Betterly, rack A.
Bradley, John
Brundige, Lamont J
Cantelow, Elbridge M
High, Freeman K., Jr
Latta, Paul.
..
Macurda, Malcolm
6iE
6VS
6FL
61'K
6MX
15
1,000
GYM
GBR
ltlunzig, Arthur
GSD
Shaffer Charley L
Webb, Walter R
GWV
Peelle, Russell G
Cal.
2500 Elm Ave., Long Beach, Cal
120 Julian Ave., San Francisco, CaI
114 E. [ladlepp St., Whittier, Cal
2515 Derby St.. Berkeley, Cal
726 W. 27th St., Los Angeles, Cal
2158 Woolman Ave., San Diego, Cal
Ilarvard Blvd., Los Angeles,
Cal.
Tribune St., Redlands, Cal
N. Washington St., Whittier,
Cal.
450 W. Center St.
omona, Cal
1306 W. 41st St., Los Angeles, Cal
217
517
'
990
250
700
500
250
250
100
500
500
'WC
710
rNJR
Anderson, Leonard
Cates, Walter C
Hurt[, John
Penne(, }tarry R
Tolmie, Jack R
8AIC
8K M
8LZ
8SD
80H
8
B
8IA
80C
8LR
8QN
8 F
. 218 Ninth Ave., N., Seattle, Wash..
1704 Franklin St., Vancouver, Wash.
.. 1067 E. Burnside St., Portland, Ore.
317 Cornell Road. Portland. Ore...,
1213 Columbia St.. Seattle, Wash....
80T
80Y
SFY
8GM
8RX
81311
811J
8NZ
8Q
SE
811 V
8.031
540
100
1,000
SEVENTH DISTRICT.
7LC
8JEQ
8KN
4728 S. Western Ave., Los Angeles,
1714
8LN
8NN
8KU
8LT
8AY
12
561
24
SIXTH DISTRICT.
6CD
8ES
SKI!
72
SECOND DISTRICT.
2FR
^CB
Call
signal.
1,000
1,000
500
220
290
8
I
EIGHTH DISTRICT.
Owner of station.
Aber, Ernest M., Jr....
Angel, Jay L
Appel, Floyd
Butler, Harry F
Chester, Allan .
Cookman. Murray
Copp, Stanley R
Cross, Blakely E
Daniels, Le Roy
R...
Power
Location of station.
in watts.
30
352 W. Ferry St., Buffalo, N. Y...
50
R.F.U. No. 1, Bowling Green, Ohio.
500
310 Short St., Erie, Pa..
Pa.
900
Lehighton,
..
St.,
456 Mahoning
550
50 E. Elm St, Norwalk, Ohio
118 Glasgow St., Clyde
5
47
N,
Y
W. Monument Ave., bayton O,..
Burr St. Gloversville, N. Y
Litchfield, Mich.
Toledo, Ohio (portable station).
13 Babcock Ave., Silver Creek, N.Y.
4129 Carter St., Norwood, Ohio....
Curwensville, Pa
1335 Hill St., Ann Arbor, Mich
18 Stratford Park, Rochester, N. Y..
White High School, Toledo, Ohio...
172 N. Division St., Buffalo, N. Y..
63 E. Pine St., Gloversville, N. Y..
1306 Spruce St., Ashland. Pa
53 Good Ave., Buffalo, N. 1
906 E. 8th St., Port Huron, Mich
Odenkirk, Russell
332 N. Beaver St., Wooster, Ohio
Palmer, Roland F...... 470 E. Butchel St. Akron, Ohio
Pancoast, Maurice H... R.F.D. No. 6, Lansing, Mich.
Peck, George W
1014 Vine St.. Scranton, Pa
Prince, Harmon
3214 W. 88th SL Cleveland, Ohio..
Root, Leland B
711 Utica St., Fulton, N. Y
Ryan, Theodore W.... 1458 14th Ave., Detroit[ Mich
Scoville, George I. C... 518 N. Jamison Ave. Lima, Ohio
Sherman, Fred
Benton Harbor, Mich
Simcox, Paul C
,. 403 N. 7th St., Cambridge, Ohio
Spindler, Raymond .... 83 Saranac St.. Rochester, N. Y
Vickery, William J..... 40 Burr St., Gloversville, N. Y
Wagner Wayne
18 East St., Ashtabula. Ohio.
Wing, Wills K
Scott High School, Toledo, Ohio....
Zimmerman, F. C., Jr
15 Taft Ave., Detroit, Mich........
Feldstein Milton
Guest, Wesley T. ....
(less, Elmer
Irvin, Daniel L
Johnston Clarence N..
Kelly, Edward O
Leach, J. Gardner.....
Lindsay, Percy }I
,.
Lucas, W. Gerald
Morris
Magdeburg,
R
Mann, Rolland
McCowan, Jack
......
20
118
18
40
40
24
35
660
880
825
900
24
250
100
36
27
20
500
36
1,000
27
250
33
50
550
250
23
18
440
550
500
NINTH DISTRICT.
9VU
9VY
Allman, John C
Bauer, George D
9VP
9WE
9WA
Benson, Lester A.
9VS
Crown Point, Ind
2133 Weisser Park Ave., Ft. Wayne,
Ind.
2706 Stoddard St., St. Louis, Mo
2314 Vliet St., Milwaukee. Wis
Coats, Roscoe
820 S. Clinton St., Ft. Wayne, Ind..
Diffenderfer, b avis A. 2409 Harrison St., Ft. Wayne, Ind.
(To Sc concluded.)
Brandt Erwin TH
www.americanradiohistory.com
40
500
500
550
250
972
THE
November, rqi 5
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
t2Ì
OFFICIAL CODE CHARTS GIVING INTERNATIONAL RADIO
SIGNALS, CONVENTIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS.
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,,
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
QUE ST ION BOX
!
of
THE
;i
This department is for the sole benefit of the electrical experimenter. Questions will be answered here for the benefit of all, but only mat,
sufficient interest will be published. Rules under which questions will be answered:
i. Only three questions can be submitted to be answered.
a. Only one side of sheet to be written on; matter must be typewrit ten or else written in ink, no penciled matter considered.
3. Sketches, diagrams, etc., must be on separate sheets. Questions addressed to this department cannot be answered by mail.
MAKE AND BREAK COIL OPERATION.
(368.) Montgomery Joseph, Cove, Tex.,
wants information regarding:
(1) The
operation of "make and break" coils for
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,
tioffely
Ora
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w/oled
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toenç/ne traiix 1eto/
1,il'irè on
top
Gos durner
gallery,
0 #36B
Fig. A -i. Hook -ups for "Wipe" Spark Gas Ignition Coils. Fig. A-z. Connection of "Jump"
Spark Coil to Fence Gate.
ignition purposes, and (2) 't method of
protecting a gate or other entrance by using
high-tension induction coils.
A. 1.
The diagram given herewith
shows how a "make and break' spark coil is
used on gasoline engines or igniting gas
burners, etc. It works on the principle of
self -induced currents, which increases the
battery potential at break of the circuit.
A. 2. You can protect a gate, as you
mention, with a spark coil by simply hooking up proper switching arrangements operated in the house or by action of the gate
itself, and this switch should be placed in
the primary circuit of the coil as the diagram indicates. A pair of copper wires
secured to the gate might carry the current
from the secondary of the spark coil to give
the shock, or one secondary lead may be
grounded.
WAVE LENGTH AND 1/4 -KW.
TRANSFORMER QUERIES.
(370.) Roy Trome, Norfolk, Va., desires to know: (1) Wave length of his
aerial. (2) The dimensions and winding
of 1/4-kw. transformer.
A. 1. The wave length of your antenna,
which is 50 feet long with a 49 -foot lead -in,
is approximately 175 :peters. Should you
use six wires on 18 -foot spreaders your
wave length will be increased to about 190
meters.
A. 2. The dimensions of the sheet -iron
core for a '4 -kw. radio transformer are
101/4 inches long and 61/4 inches wide, outside measurements. The core should be
1.4 inches square. The primary should consist of six layers of No. 15 D. C. C. copper
wire, and the secondary should comprise 3.7
pounds of D. C. C. copper wire wound into
17 pies, each 1/4 inch thick.
The secondary
is wound with No. 34 wire and has 35,000
turns. Regular transformer practise should
be followed in building this transformer,
paying particular attention to the insulation
of the different windings.
ANCHOR GAP HOOK -UP.
(371.)
Carl Menzer, Lone Tree, Ia.,
wants information regarding the anchor
gap in connection with a looped aerial.
A. 1. The anchor gap is practically not
used any longer in modern wireless stations, as it entails too much loss in the
transmitting set.
Diagram is given showing how the anchor gap is used with looped aerial, and in
this way, as you will perceive, the spark
can jump the gaps in transmitting, while in
receiving this anchor gap reduces the complexity of the switching scheme necessary
SODIUM VAPOR AND SPARK
GAPS.
(369.) Francis Feig, Jr., New York
(1) How to obtain sodium
City, asks:
vapor, and (2) the effect of lengthening
the spark on the primary input to a spark
coil.
A. 1. Sodium vapor is obtained from
"Na" or sodium proper. The sodium is
usually heated, and by proper appliances
the vapor is gathered from same. The vaporizing point of sodium is about 95 deg.
C. We have been unable to locate any
definite data on the resistance of sodium
vapor, and in this direction wish to suggest
that you might communicate with Dr. A. N.
Goldsmith, care of College of the City of
New York, New York, who undoubtedly
can supply data on this point.
A. 2. As the spark gap is reduced in
length the primary will tend to draw more
current. This is not so noticeable with an
ordinary spark coil excited with dry batteries as becomes the case when a regular
alternating current transformer is used,
owing to the peculiar action resultant from
the spring vibrator.
means of a "phantom circuit." It is necessary to construct two coils having a comparatively high impedance. These coils
may be wound on a core of soft iron wire
6 inches long and 34 inch in diameter, and
Use of Phantom Coils in Sending Telegraph
Signals Over a Telephone Circuit.
consist of six layers of No. 26 S. C. C. wire.
A tap should be taken from the third layer.
The coils are then connected across the
telephone circuit and the wire run from the
taps on the third layer to the telegraph instruments; the other wire from the telegraph set is run to the ground in the usual
manner, as shown.
AERIAL CONSTRUCTION.
(373.) Harry Slater, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
requires information on the usual method
of erecting an aerial, particularly the manner in which the wires and spreaders are
fastened together before hoisting to the
tops of the poles.
A. 1. The usual way is to lay out the
aerial wherever possible at full length on
the roof or on the ground, and the two
outside wires are the first ones to be secured to the insulators on the spreaders.
It is then an easy matter to connect up
the other wires between the two outer
ones, so that they will all be of approximately equal length and at equal tension
when hoisted into position.
STATIC ELIMINATION.
Glenn Decker, Ligonier, Ind.,
(1) For a method of eliminating
static in his wirelss receiving station. (2)
Why the strength of the wireless signals
from N.A.A. (Arlington) change.
A. 1. We do not have anything particular to suggest regarding the elimination of
static in your wireless receiving station, excepting you try one of the static preventers,
such as that devised by Professor Fessenden, and you will find complete hook -up
for this arrangement given in our 25 -cent
book entitled "Wireless Hook -ups."
A. 2. The change in strength of the
wireless signals from N.A.A. is, of course,
- experienced regularly, and this is due to
the change in temperature, or from winter
to summer ; the winter range of radio stations is about two to three times that
obtainable in summer. From some very
(Continued on Page 432.)
(374.)
asks us:
Arrangement of Anchor Spark Gap and Looped
Aerial in Radio Transmitting and
Receiving Set.
in throwing on and off transmitting and
receiving set to the aerial.
PHANTOM CIRCUITS.
(372.) W. S. Clampitt, New Providence,
Ia., inquires for a method by which he can
transmit telegraph signals over a telephone
circuit without interfering with the tet_ephone transmission.
A. 1. We give herewith a sketch show-.
ing the method of accomplishing this by
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
December, 1915
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL
431
EVERY LINE
Or THIS
INTERESTING AD
TREAD
IXPERIMENIERS
We want you to know the Electro -Set Co.
We are anxious to have you realize what we are
We've prepared it with care and it's written for YOU.
We haven't space to tell you all -you'll have to send for our
doing to make experimenting financially possible for every live American Boy.
seven
S
opportunity
to
introduce
only
our
specialties
of
regular
We are taking tb
and 14 wonderful bargains in odd parts
catalogues to See this.
Get in touch with us to -day.
such as every experimenter needs and can use. One order will convince you what the Electro -Set Co. is offering.
HERE IT IS AT LAST,!
after making
dozens of designs and models, we havesorm produced
practical formerly transformer to retail
a tM
he price you formerly had h pay for spark
a t {6.96 the
coils and batteries.
Thousands of amateurs will welcome the advent of
trament who either did not require M K, W.
OP/ 1_
j
this
power
no did not care [o spend the money for It.
for twenty miles
ild fig
.¶
The transformer
will send m0fact
` i i4.
I
not a wild figure, but an actual fact-if good aerial
E'
send
used. Under extraordinary circumstances it
lb
one hundred miles. No trouble with vibrators and
(stances.
Just connect 1M
aa, r ctancoe or
primary terminals to 110 volt, 60 cycle A.C. mat.
a d press key. Rest silicon transformer iron k used in its construction.
Ìtinch
will throw a heavy crashing spark that. with proper condenser. will all a Rap with a bolter white flame
In diameter. Thin tom... vely email but pfowerfutnim k will send six times as lar as a 1 Inch
tented in
83
IL The 1.6 K. W. Transformer another ELECTRO-SET triumph. It was
spark
atories In the country by competent engineers, who pronounced It
one of the most complete electical
all partmukrs. you well e
with it.
P Meet, for its size
,.
t
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and
dirVi
No. 10001- 6K.it'. CLOSED CORE TIANSFORMERwnhoutease ,ehipiished mahogana.
4I
compound andRfimdwith fourpouts: éñpngdwightllo lbs.
The Rotary Spark Gap is without
an equal. Made like any of the more
pe, but smeller con size.
operates in aeries with a 18 C. P.
ft
Ba
tampon
--
110
or direct
volt alternating
from
it
its the Rotary
i
irate is of caacetlYru
array aria is erteruy acesore. Trig
rl is maanha
whavybrass
shara,ngwhch
navy
motor which
The
to the
shaft.
Therful.
motor tea K.ÁÖ. aeries
d A.e "AD.C.Mxhlnc small but posigned
rimy Type'
Can, although eapei designed for our oxtK,
nary me K. W. transformer will readily stand any good ;t K. W.
instrument.
NO.
476 TYPE
err cane.
q'
ROTARY CAP, shipping weight 41bs...
ROTARY OAP. wound to operate on3
NO. 478 THREE INCH ROTARY DISC ONLY, mounted on
hard rubber woo brass bushing, n in, hole , snipping
weight 4 oz... . . . . . .
'
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$6.95
9.00
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NO.
NO.
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1698
16.iß
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J
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1.50
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Its priee.
COUPLER
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;
ill wood construction
9.00
No. 611 Aerial Switch
For Our
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containing description of dozens of new wireless and experimental instruments, parts and
are new-instruments
raw newria,
catalogue every experimenter
arc new
-a
MUST HAVE.
Special
Catalogues
ues
S
p erial Catalo
Send Cic, in stamps for our SPECIAL
ELECTRIC TRAIN CATALOGUE, illustratingB scores of models. Send 4c. in stamps
P
for our Electric Vibrator and Medical Coil
,.
r
This instrument Is novel in
design
oration.
convenient in opThe base is dark Inao g 0 6 y flotsam:.
and
'-
The
copper
lairs
are S Inches luny
and are
sawed,
..
p
not drawn. Posts
am provided oaall
contact Jaws for
connections. Three
Mists and hors are
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transmitting power she
1Iii
This instrument is handsome in appearance and
efficient in use. Suitable for powers up to 1 K.W.
'
-
Write Today
$5.50
Our Navy Loose Coupler or Receiving
informer, b
remarkable
qualnatrumrnt l price , is lower and in quality
s
n
l Of almost any losercoupler, no matter what
m certainly far superiorto any we have seen at
anywhere scar its price. Think of being able to buy a
ire "Navy' type loose murder at a low price
heaths
following npec,ficationa usually only found in prohibitively
áriced transformers: hard rubber seeondend with large turned braes co rich:
rubber switch,,panel on the front t the
Pk mai
hard rbbeorsañ
,,pane
am brass
5i C
onsets: primary enclose l in a dark mahoany finished covering on all ides; every
contact soldered, assuring perfect ronnecDon; handsome mahogany finished bso:
lacquered braes posts and trimmings. The
equal of tbl.. tece:ito transformer can not
t
be found. It is the acme of efficiency at
moderte price.
It
RECEIVING LOOSE COUPLER;aWpidn5 weight 101ba .$10.00
" NAVY"
NAVY
RECEIVING
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Type "A"
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1-6 K. W. Closed Core
Wlrcl ass Tra nsformar.... .
After months of exmvrlmentinR
N0. 611 AERIAL SWITCH,
Shipping weight 5 lbs. $2.50.
Catalogue.
We Are Agents For
Electro-Set ``Arlington-Tested" Crystals
Electro-Set "Famous"
Famous Mineral Sets
MARCONI USED APPARATUS
One of the most interesting Belda in wireless telegraphy
Send 5c, in stamps for new, interesting
When testing outs wireless receiving installation for the
experimenting with varions combinations and methods
catalogue
of used Marconi Wireless Instrn ' the
first timo you want to know tbat your mineral crystal is seag
of contact in detectors. We offer the following outfitespecineft5 at ridiculously low prices.
We are
sitive. Then. too, w by buy minerals on a gamble. Bosura
folly designed for thin purpose and peeked ins at box.
Cof results -good results. Buy our Arlington Tested"
agents for this line and can ship promptly Countless Lours of interesting experimenting is offered to
rystals. Every ones tested for Arlington time signals.
the amateur with this set. It includes five different minerals
anything from a Type "D" Tuner to a Motor
Each crystal
sealed in an air-tight glass phial and in
(galena, eille.o, carborundum, bornito and molybdenum I.
Genera tor.
care( ully tested before leaving our factory. Only one cryseach parked in a neat glass bottle: one universal detector
tal In 20 passes our camination. Arlington Tested cup; three pieote to boopor-brpnze "cat whisker' wit one
Crystals are the most sensitive you can procure. They are worth the price. Each one
polished wood detector base: one large binding post: one bard rubber knob; oneebrass
i ndividually examined and packed.
rod with holderfor wire. Witb t his outfit it is possible to make many different kinds o
NO. 301 ARLINGTON TESTED GALENA, individually parked and mated; postpaid .. $0.15
detectors. Itie i deal for the experimenter.
NO. 302 ARLINGTON TESTED SILICON, as above
15
NO. 2100 DETECTOR MINERAL SET, as described complete. postage paid. ..51.25
NO. 303 ARLINGTON TESTED BORNITE- ZINCITE COUPLE
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NO. 215.) MINERALS ONLY, as above, five kinds, in bottles. posta.ie paid
50
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14 EXTRA - ORDINARY BARGAINS
'
-
;#:;o
/
1
Polarized Ringers -New, ever used. Complete
with 2 high resistance magnet coils wound with silk
and a strong rerminent magnet with noner.
Aey experimenter can use one.
S nee al price, ea. 15e.
(Postage 6c.Ì
Hard Rubber Koehn-Sire 19 -16 in, o Yin. Drilled
and Tanned fir 6 -32 screw. Handy for making appara i-.. Worth 3e. a
new.
a
Special Price. per
doz. 10e.
(Postage Sr.)
UIII
,
Telephone Induction Coils -Never used. Wound
to 100 Ohms with primary and secondary coils. silk
covered wire. Excellent shocking it can be made
with one. Worth 50e. ea. Specialprice ea. 09e.
(Postage lc.)
Binding PostS- Handsomely nickeled 5 16 in. x 1
in. over all. Complete with nut. Worth 6c. ea.
Special price, per doz. 25e. ea. 2)5C., (Postage per
doz. 5c.)
Ó9c.
IPonmge 4c.)
Connecting Blocks-Hard bber, s t in. x 1
3 -16 in. Have 6 holes for 6 -33 mach 'screws.
Complete with 6 screws. Worth 120. ea. Special
p
04e.
(Postage le.)
Hard Rubber Handles -,4 in. x Yi in. Drilled and
shop. These boxeseacb contain from 40 to60pieees
of odds and ends, uch as rubber knob brain
standards hooks, binding posta, screws units,
thumb puts, Coils and miscellaneous Darts. Some are
newd, but all of them are useful to have
Äwhen to are making apparatus. Thbb a
Dot the kind of nnvenie tparta to be able to
from for your ex
ts. We've sold
hchoose
undreds of them m our retaildepartment.
Ex-
r'bmenters all want them. You can woke dozens
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ó things
of
No. 121 -Handy Assortment. Prepaid 20e.
75 Ohm Receiver Coils -Never us.d. Ready to
d s
'th.
p t i
any ph.. ."r to makeconc
orct 26c.
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nneetora Owe
Soe al price per pan with
(Pnstape le.)
ConnectingBlocks-Made of genuine hard rubber.
ppaa
with I nuts and screws with connectors. Worth
15e. ea. Special
O5c.
(Postage 2c.)
Connecting Blocks-made
sCe ade of genuine hard rubber
with 3 handsome nickeled binding posts. Useful
(or
dozens of thin about the experimenter's sin
WYorth
25e.
'
R
Relay
ca.
They have never been used.
Postage 2c.)
Special
or Telex
Telegraph
ph Magnets -in fair condition.
isP feet ham. Wound
Have been used but arc
to SO ohms resistance.
THE ELECTRO -SET CO
Yon benefit by Mentioning
Tapped for 8-32 screw.
a
r dos,
Special price,
Make relay or telegraph
s
with them. Worth 50e. pair. Specal artes with
yoke, per pair 09e. Postage 5e.)
Toy Motor Parts -Consisting of on iron
e
with polo pieces; 2 covers for same and one 3 -pole
laminated armature with shaft. All you need is
mutate bearings, and wire to complet motor.
rte worth 40c. sot. Special price, 15c.
Above
(Postage Gr.)
Nnle: -Commutator wire for above motor extra
40c.
(Prepaid.)
1874CLE ELAND, rOHIO
"The Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
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'
Worth 40. ea. new.
(Postage Sea
cry
Horse Shoe Magnet -3 In. long
useful for many experiments andd for making
akin in.
etruments. Worth 15e. nob.
price Use.
Postage 3c.)
Mertes A Dandy. Chance-We have made up
umber of boxes of small odd parts of ekctr,cel
apparatus that every experimenter can use in his
fl
/
iiri
fly
G
100 Ohms with
size 36 eilk covered wire. Complete with soft iron
ci
Wire lone worth 20e.
Special price, ea.
Telephone Relay Coils -Wound to
110
THE
432
YOUR RANGE
DEPENDS ON YOUR
RECEIVERS
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
QUESTION BOX.
(Continued from page 430.)
exhaustive tests extending over a period of
a year and more and presented in the Institute of Radio Engineers' "Proceedings"
of a recent date, this summer range has
been found for ordinary ship radio stations
of the spark type to quite regularly be only
equivalent to one -tenth the winter range.
REGARDING QUENCHED SPARK
GAPS.
Frank Zacharia, Jr., N. S., Pittsburgh, Pa., desires to know how many pairs
of gap plates are required for a t/9 -kw. and
a 1 -kw. wireless transformer.
A. 1. The number of pairs of plates required for the Telefunken gap depends
upon the discharge voltage of your condensers. The general practise is to allow
1,000 volts to each gap: ^ Thus, knowing
the voltage of the transformer secondary
or the discharge voltage of the condensers,
it is very easy to calculate the number of
gaps required. You understand that the
more power there is used the larger the
surface must be to prevent overheat (371)
Holtzer-Cabot
Radio Receivers
have honestly
earned their
reputation of
being the
"Most Sensitive Receivers Made"
Other features are light weight, comfortable shape, durability, perfect finish. Send
for Booklet 20 D2 for description.
THE HOLTZER - CABOT ELECTRIC CO.
BOSTON
-
CHICAGO
You
Can Get
Results
UNMOUNTED
TRANSFORMER
with a small
condenser and
this transformer
It
is a I -2 K. W. size and is built on the
same specifications as to material and
workmanship, etc.. as our big central
station transformers.
Hundreds of stations are
now using these transformers. This transformer gives you 13,200 volts.
Let us tell you how you can do part of
the work yourself and get this transformer at a remarkably low cost.
THE PACKARD ELECTRIC CO.
555 Dana Avenue
Warren, Ohio
B
OSTON WIRELESS
Boston Receiving Translormer 57.50
Variable
25 Plates 52.75
Boston Detectors, $1.00, $1.25, $1 75, $2.25, ít.00
Agent for Electro Importing Co. sod A. W. Bowman Co., Manhattan and Adams Morgan Spark
Colle, Ever -ready Bash lights and batteries.
Catalog for stamp only.
M. MUELLER. IS Devonshire Street, BOSTON, Mass.
December, 1915
Mass., sends us a sketch of a wireless telephone transmitter and wishes to know: (1)
If this set would work. (2) If not, why
not? (3) Will the 6 -volt 40 -A.H. and 8volt 80 -A.H. storage cells be powerful
enough, and how far will it work?
A. I and 2. To all appearances your apparatus will not work because you have the
secondary of the 1-inch spark coil inserted
in the high- frequency circuit, and the high
impedance of this coil will prevent pure
oscillations taking place.
A. 3. We cannot say whether the storage batteries you are using would be powerful enough for a wireless telephone, but an
ideal set of this type should operate on
such small storage batteries. We would
like to say `here that for a satisfactory
wireless telephone it is necessary to obtain
undamped oscillations in the closed oscillatory circuit having a frequency value of
at least 30,000 per second, which is above
audibility. It is impossible to obtain this
frequency with an ordinary vibrator, and
gap.
gap
g
ELECTRO- MAGNET DESIGN.
(376.) Charles Malcolm, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa., requires information: (1) As
to relation between the size of a wire on a
magnet and its lifting power. (2) Data
for the construction of an electro- magnet
to exert a force of one pound at a distance
of G inches.
A. 1. It makes practically no difference
what size of wire is found on an electromagnet if the proper voltage is used in
conjunction with same. That is to say, the
same number of ampere turns will go in a
given space, roughly speaking, if the voltage and current are properly balanced out,
so that the coil will not overload. This. as
you will perceive, is merely a matter of
electrical design and calculation.
A. 2. Your problem for designing an
electro- magnet to exert a force of one
pound at a distance of 6 inches is rather
out of the ordinary, and it would require a
very powerful magnet coil to do this work.
Possibly, however, your problem can be
solved efficiently by the use of a properly
designed solenoid or suction type electromagnet. However, it does not seem practical to build a regular type electro- magnet
to exert any such pull as you mention over
the range of action specified.
INSULATION AND DETECTORS.
(377.)
C.
Russell,
London,
England.
asks: (1) The best dielectric or insulator
for high- frequency apparatus. (2) Several
questions regarding the de Forest Audion
and Fleming valve detectors.
A. 1. The best substance now available
is that known as Bakelite Di- Electo. This
is used by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph
Co. for its panels on wireless receiving
cabinets, and therefore can be considered
as probably one of the best substances
available at this time for the purpose in
question.
A. 2. The Audion detector is supplied
in America by the de Forest Radio Telephone & Telegraph Co., which manages
practically all sales for this detector in this
country, and it is, of course, supplied by
various dealers. However, no independent
companies make a detector similar to the
Audion insofar as we are aware.
The Marconi Co. supplies the Fleming
valve, but this is said on pretty good authority to be inferior to the Audion.
WIRELESS TELEPHONE QUESTIONS.
(378.)
M.
A.
Norgren,
Springfield,
t
C
s,
t
O.T.
/nd.-coil
G
-
Q
378
P'
6-40
Proposed, But Impractical, Radiophone Hook -Up.
for this reason spark coil sets have never
worked satisfactorily over very long ranges
and the enunciation in every case is very
poor.
THE AURORA BOREALIS.
(379.)
Lawrence Madison, Kingman,
Me., writes us stating that he has personally seen the Aurora Borealis from his
home in Maine and that a distinct hissing
sound was noticeable. This is contrary to
the statements in the article entitled "The
Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights,"
which appeared in the October issue of
The Electrical Experimenter, and he wishes
an explanation.
A. 1. It seems reasonable to suppose,
and especially if we consider the Aurora
Borealis an electrical phenomenon, that
there may be a noise or sound produced by
such a display. We have, however, checked
up this matter quite carefully in preparing
the article, and in all cases which came to
our attention and wherever this sound
theory or statement was made, it was invariably refuted by different authors and
authorities on the Aurora Borealis. One
of the best works on the subject is that by
Alfred Angot, and while many statements
are quoted therein from various people to
the effect that they had distinctly heard
sounds when the Aurora Borealis effect
took place, the authorities on this matter
give an explanation about in line with that
mentioned in the article referred to.
This same idea, advocating the "no
sound" theory with regard to the Aurora
Borealis, is concurred in by Henri Arctowsky, a well -known authority on this phenomenon and a scientist who has passed
many years exploring the Northern and
Southern Polar regions. This does not.
however, purport to infer that your ideas
or statements are not correct, and, as yet.
we can truthfully say that the Aurora
(Continued on page 434.)
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%N/AA/
EXPERIMENTER
AL
r, 1915
433
IN& FOR THE
EXPERIMENTER"
fed
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tables, full Morse Continental and Navy Code Charts, besides "Treatise on Wireless Telegraphy," list of call letters of all U. S. Gov't and Commercial ship and shore stations. This wonderful Cyclopedia sent free if you send us 4c, in stamps or coin to cover postage only. WE SELL
Use coupon below to send for Catalog, enclosing 4c. tor
MERCHANDISE, NOT CATALOGS, "II '5y buy Catalogs when the best is freer"
a
pncfvwe only
a
a
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Has S Upright Calorie Engine. Smallest Flashlight Made. Telegraph Key.
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Gives a and knob. Has three rubblades, stag handle and a model engine poesiblo to long life battery.
chain to guard against construct. Is very durable. ry powerful light, Is very ber comp. binding posts.
tter
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at will.
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4
Size Llexllt all -16.
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Metal
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coupler, galena detector. Jr.'
fixed condenser and 7000nieter loading coil all mounted)
A wonderful value. and connected on polished
oak hase. Sire Walla
1 pound.
$0.00
si.,. Sh. wt. ln Ilia. Price O
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tance messages or money
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elmp.
Bane
hard rubber
Metal parte nickeled.
tal supplié. Si
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p we
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o
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Reri Mante 10 ohms.
Pebble grain leather, lined pelvis. Very heavily built for `Pat'du.
with duck. ):ladder oaar- auto.ltg., charging batteries. tiinuafly. Invaluiable2fnrdimm ng
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Excel_,
lampa regulating small motor..
outset' against accident, electroplating.
Turner 4'nfilZ Contrat
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20
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beer eomD.
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Xmas Tree Lighting Out- Hustler Motor. /tuns Icon Revolver Flashlight. Ea
fit. For 110 volt bouse cur- derfully on one dry cell. art model of automatic re.
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t. Has 16 colored lamps. Will operate small toss. volver, shoots brilliant light
red, blue, white and green. beautifully finished and when trigger Is pressed. Con-
two festoon.. very strong. A wonder for tains tungsten lamp and batAbsolutely safe and complete the price.
Size 3 x 3 x4. tery in handle. Surprise your
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Sh wt. 1 Iormnd.
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size ix2' ,
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a
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a
Electric Lighting Outfi, Radio Nitrogen B
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o. 5 dry cell.
cludes
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switch
Wstandard
onderfully efficient.
a
Made
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Very pou ertul.
gives 6 volts 6 amperes,
lights. 12 tungsten lamps.
charges storage cells, runs
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of extra high grade materials. as a power motor, etc. Not
batten.. fuse., wire
shydro- Used for lanterns and experi- to toy.
Size 6x6x6 inches.
meterandplam. somental work. Size.. 5.35 Sh. wt. '7 pounds.
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Price
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Dynamo.
ï
$3.70
a
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Car size12x654. Sh.
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water gauge, whistle.
large balance wheel and will
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3
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Price....$5.65
Pocket Ammeter.
0.30 amperes.
Free wireless C
con - Telephone Necetver.
slating of :dl lessons, total ohms. Hard rubber comp.
160 page, cloth binder size powerful magnet. With two
receivers and no battery,
7z101í in. with 350 illus. 30
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Coupons for this
tables.
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40
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$.80
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Size 7e4x5.000s.
Sh.wt. 6 lbs. Price
oo
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236 FULTON STREET, NEW YORK
0
without
Reflector is d-
5o
THE ELECTRO IMPORTING COMPANY
You benefit by mentioning
ed coSl mpl
battery.
Bicycle Lamp. Spark Coil. OOes
inch Prinasng Mress ibritluk.
Operate. almost flaming spark on b volts. Mg).
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it iv I"IñoÌud es.Ìon[
inch reflector is fully adjust- ied but never equalled. Oak of 175 characters, type ease.
able. Fasten. on handle bars. frame.platlouni volute. Rub
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Pocket size. (electric).
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Invaluable for testing dry
cells. Diameter 2S inches.
Net weight Lit. oz.
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a
THE
-f34
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL
CRYSTALOI
THE NEW BB
The New Type
-BB
CRYSTALOI is a SUPERSENSITIVE Detector comprising every accessory
and refinement in A SINGLE UNIT
it consists of a highly finished African
mahogany case in which is located a super
sensitive Crystaloi cylinder of which the
periphery protrudes through the top making
it accessible for rotating to secure finest
adjustment. A cohering inductance especially calculated and calibrated to the supersensitive cylinder. A fixed condenser with
the exact capacity for this particular cylinder. A specially wound Buzzer of which
the frequency is controlled by a knurled
screw head mounted on the front of the
ease to produce a note that is best suited to
assist in cohering the alloy in the cylinder.
Two of the highest grade dry batteries to
operate the Buzzer and a Buzzer control button which protrudes through the top of the
case for accessibility.
With this carefully designed and calibrated
instrument you have but to set it on the
table, connect your phones and leads from
your tuning coil and you are permanently
and thoroughly equipped to engage in the
most serious wireless work of the present
day. Of course Variable Condensers can be
added if desired.
7/
Dimensions
z 5 4 z 3% high
Mailing Weight 3 Pounds, Price
$12.00
Other Types of the Crystaloi
CRYSTALOI TYPE
Vary Sensitive
O
-
TWENTY-ONE HUNDRED MILES CRYSTALOI TYPE AA, Super Sensitive
IS THE LATEST CRYSTALOI RECORD
CRYSTALOI
A PERMANENT WIRELESS DETECTOR THAT HAS MADE A
WONDERFUL RECORD
You will find wireless men on land
and sea using Crystaloi Detectors in
preference to any other detector
made. They will not burn out or go
dead and are ever ready to pick up
the minutest currents that are in the
air. They are sold under the Turney guarantee and are making their
wonderful reputation on real merit.
Send today for full description.
Dimensions 21/4 x 17 in. ORDER A CRYSTALOI TODAY AND
STOP YOUR DETECTOR
Mailing Weight 1 Pound.
Dimensions 4 z 3.A in.
PRICE, $3,50,
TROUBLES
Weight 2 Pounds.
PRICE, $4.00.
OUR WIRELESS ACCESSORIES
THE NEW TURNEY VARIABLE CONDENSER
Dimensions: 5% z 2i4 in. Made in two capacities.
Type X-35 Plates. Price $3.50.
Type XX -50 Plates. Priee, $5.00.
ORDER ONE NOW
and see what you have been missing,
The New Turuey Variable Condenser meets all
the requirements of the most exacting wireless
mau inasmuch as it has more capacity for its size
than any condenser ever made. The great advantage lies in the fact that it is provided with round
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which the entire area is available for condensing
purposes. This you will find in no other variable
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The New Turney Variable Condenser possesses
an absolute zero. This you will find in no other
type of condenser. The plates are inclosed in a
flint glass tube on which the scale is engraved.
It is air and dnstproof and can not get ont of
order. The dielectric is air, therefore the efficiency
is the greatest possible. The ends are of hard rubber composition and are highly finished. A handsomer and more valuable wireless instrument you
never saw.
SEND FIVE CENTS IN STAMPS FOR
COMPLETE CATALOG
THE TURNEY ROTARY LOADING -COIL
This is a radical deedrform of loading-coil
for the reason that the
entire coil with its switch
points revolves while the
switch blade remains
stationary. This new
f orm of construction
makes a much neater
and more compact instrument, and the rotating of the coil is a much
more natural movement
than turning the switch
bladp it has a capsDimensions
in. z 1 in.
city .cif 4,000
op,
Price $3.50.
0
m o
Mailing Weight One Pound.
oaa of 250 meters
each. When used with the ordinary loose -coupler will
give a total capacity of about 4.600 meters. The entire
instrument is of hard-rubber composition. The blade Is
a silver alloy, which insures the maximum a'iciency.
Tofhe rotary coil has a knurled edge and is provided with a
scale divided into sixteen equal divisions.
CONSTANT AMPLITUDE TEST BUZZER
Our special Constant
Amplitude Test Buzzer contains some entirely new features
and gives a smooth,
even tone at all times.
This is due to the arrangement of the contact which is provided
with a lenient hack T h e contact
CONSTANT AMPLITUDE check.
points are of pure silTEST BUZZER
ver,
which
Dimensions 2% x
ins. burning, and prevents
the entire mechanism is enclosed in a non -resonant dia
lectric ease.
PRICE, 75 CENTS
Include 10 Cents extra for postage. Remit in
form of P. 0. or Express Money Order.
t
3/
2/
Eugene T. Turney Company, .Inc.,
2595
Third Avenue
.
NEW YORK CITY
December, 1915
QUESTION BOX.
(Continued from page 432.)
Borealis effect is really but very little understood, even by our foremost men of
science.
DIMENSIONS OF 1/2-KW. STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER.
(380.) John Burkitt, Madoc, Ont., Canada, asks us for the dimensions of a 1/2kw. transformer to change 220 volts to 110
volts alternating current.
A. 1. The dimensions of the % -kw.
transformer for changing 220 volts to 110
volts are as follows : Core, outside dimensions, 14x7 inches and 1.4 inches square.
Primary windings consist of 625 turns of
No. 16 D. C. C. or enameled wire, and the
secondary requires 312 turns of No. 13
wire. Three pounds of the No. 16 and 21/2
pounds of the No. 13 will be sufficient for
you to wind the transformer. It can be
constructed in the usual manner and connected direct to the 220 -volt mains. It will
consume 2.5 amperes and will deliver 5
amperes at the secondary terminals. The
iron core should be made of transformer
iron and particular attention should be
paid to the insulation.
OPERATION OF ROTARY GAPS.
(381.) Walter Franseen, Woodhull, Ill.,
desires to know: (1) If the "Multi -AudiFone" and the "Multum in Parvo" instruments are fully up to the claims made by
the manufacturers. (2) Several points regarding the operation of a rotary spark gap.
A. 1. The "Multi-Audi -Fone" and the
"Multum in Parvo" instruments are fully
up to the advertiser's claims. The Electrical Experimenter does not carry any
questionable advertisements in any sense of
the word. We do not know the patent
number on these instruments. However,
you could, no doubt, find this out by communicating directly with the United States
Patent Office, Washington, D. C., or with
the manufacturers themselves.
A. 2. Your question regarding the
rotary spark gap is not entirely clear, as
most of the rotary gaps, to our knowledge,
are of the one type. Perhaps you refer to
a gap with two breaks; the number of
breaks has little or no bearing on the matter, and the only effect obtained is an increase in the quenching effect. It is, of
course, necessary to run the rotary gap so it
sparks at the peak of each cycle of the A.
C. for synchronism. This would give you
120 sparks per second on 60 -cycle current.
Non -synchronous gaps have been used with
more or less success, particularly the Marconi type, which gives 240 sparks per second. To increase the tone of a spark gap,
that is, to operate the disc at a Water speed,
it is necessary to change the capacity of the
condenser in the closed oscillating circuit
for highest efficiency, the capacity being
smaller the higher the spark frequency.
DOES A TUNER "KILL" SIGNALS?
(382.)
"Experimenter," Georgetown,
Tex., writes us inquiring how wireless signals pass through a tuner when the "curls"
of the wire used in some electric connections have the effect of choking the signals,
as we well know.
A. 1. A high frequency current flowing
in a circuit similar to a circuit used in radio
work requires that a certain amount of the
inductance capacity should be in that circuit to prolong the oscillations, the turns of
wire in the tuner acting as the inductance
and the elevated aerial as the capacity.
When these arz. properly adjusted the circuit is in tune and the incoming wave currents flowing in the circuit will be at their
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III
THE
December, 1915
maximum. Should any small coils be inserted in the connections it adds that much
unnecessary inductance, which is of no use
usually and the added impedance causes the
current to be reduced in value, owing to the
circuit being thrown out of tune, or to the
increase in resistance (damping).
HYSTERESIS IN CONDENSER.
(383.) Jeter Pinkston, Valdosta, Ga., asks:
(1) What is the standard formula for the
solution in storage cells? (2) Is a high
potential current a high voltage current?
(3) What does hysteresis mean when used
in the description of a variable condenser
that is losing energy due to hysteresis?
Also which is better to use in a variable
condenser, oil or air?
A. 1. The standard solution used in
storage cells is a mixture of 1 part of
sulphuric acid to 5 parts of water. This
should be mixed in an earthenware container and constantly stirred. Don't fill cells
until solution has cooled.
A. 2. A high potential current is one
having a high voltage.
A. 3. Hysteresis loss here is the loss in
the dielectric of the condenser. The plates
of the condenser are constantly charging
and discharging; thus the stress between
them is constantly changing its direction.
This change of stress lias the effect of heating the dielectric and a small amount of the
current is lost in this manner.
For high efficiency a variable condenser
should use air as a dielectric, but oil increases the capacity and also the hysteresis
loss somewhat, as mentioned ill your question.
RADIO RECEIVING TIKKERS.
(384.)
H.
P.
Keiffer,
Lebanon.
Pa.,
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL
435
Multi -Audi-Fone
wonder
The new
in
the
Read What Others Say
Messrs. Stickel & Stickel, of Connellsville, Pa., say: "We have given your apparatus a
thorough test and find that they are all that you claim them to be."
Mr. D. L.. Irvin, of Curwensville, Pa., says: "I was surprised with the results from it.
Arlington and several other stations came in so loud that I could read them with the 'phones
ten feet from my head."
Mr. Ralph Butcher, of Toledo, Iowa, says: "The results were even more than were
expected, both at the convention and by other amateurs in Des Moines, who tested the
apparatus, and other places."
Mr. John 'Pucker, Jr., of Elizabeth, N. J., says: "After a thorough trial, am astonished
at the results obtained
Combining, as these instruments do, the greatest degree of
efficiency coupled with extreme compactness, they are, without doubt, the finest instruments
otlered to the amateur and professional wireless field at large."
W. O. Horner, of Cleveland, Tennessee, says: "I have been trying your Multi- Audi -Fone
out as an Amplifier . . . I was more than surprised at its sensitiveness. It is certainly
I stood at the rear of my store, one hundred and twenty-five feet from
wonderful.
.
.
'phones, and copied Arlington and Key West, also Tampa, Florida. I consider that some
amplifying for way down here on Inland."
Cells
'TWO
mye
FIVE OH M
e°
ONE
CELL
used
BUZZER
Never ust mort
Thon ont tel\ a`
ERE
dry iwNev
%co
_
l
,
Dix
IA
CRT STA E01n
DETECTOR
t/1,..
J
C
`'
BOW;
nYn..a Ti,Ìllottk
-Motor
I
00
EC
GROUND
tl,t \Ytu\tura-
To sut
r
BAT
DE T.
h2ee
PUSH
RECEIVERS
TEST
G0.6tOh.
BUTTON.
COntOGtS
1,500 Times
It increases the Audibility
wireless world.
MULTI A
DI-rONE
ADJUSTMENT
HANDLE
' "tt\ultl-Aväl-Tons.
Connntt
2,000
TUNING SWITGNF$
ohm
Tttèlvtts to tests
(T)
I1ULTI--AUDI-FONE
(T)
\SRO
ELIZABETii, IW.
Rheostol
01384
Undamped Wave "Tikker" Hook -Up.
asks:
(1) Is it possible to receive stations
using undamped' waves with a Radioson,
electrolytic, or mineral detector? (2) Can
a copper disc be used in constructing a
tikker and what is the location of the
contact springs? (3) The hook -up for the
tikker, using a loading inductance and tuning coil or loose coupler?
A. 1. It is only possible to receive undamped wave stations with an ordinary detector when the sending apparatus gets
slightly out of tune, resulting in slightly
damped waves. The tikker is necessary for
all around work in the reception of undamped waves.
A. 2. Any metal can be used for constructing the disc of the tikker and the two
springs can lay in the groove about one -half
inch apart. The disc may be 2 inches in
diameter, and a rheostat should be used to
control the speed of the motor. The faster
the motor is driven the higher pitched note
will be as heard in the 'phones.
A. 3. Hook-up is given herewith for a
tikker, and no detector is used in the circuit with this instrument ordinarily.
Multum in Parvo Receiver, including Crystaloi Detector and Buzzer
Multi -Audi Fone, Including our Specially Wound Head Set - - The
Matchless Christmas Present. Our Complete Wireless Set, Only
-
-
-
$20.00
-
$30.00
$50.00
-
Talking Multi-Audi-Fone Telephone Voici Multiplier
Size, 414" x 5" x
7 ".
Size, 214" x 3''/s" x 4% ".
The amplification is so great with the Talking Multi- AudiFone that the signals can be
read all over the five -story building from our
laboratories, which are located on the third
floor. If the windows are opened, the signals
can be heard actress the street, even wben the
trolley is passing.
Price, Including horn
-
$100
The Telephone Voice Multiplier has been made
possible by applying the principle employed in
our MultiAudii -Font to the telepbone receiver.
The voice can be distinctly heard coming over
1,000 or even 2,000 miles of wire that would
be indistinct coming over 100 miles eS wire.
Buy a Multiplier and stop straining to get
sometbing you can't bear.
Pelee S 1 5.0 0
IS Mt7NCHHAUSEN AT IT AGAIN?
(385.) R. E. Breunig, Chicago, Ill., asks
several questions regarding a peculiar phenomenon that occurred in the neighborhood
(Continued on page 437.)
Send
for
circular
Ask your dealer
to day
to- morrow
MULTI -AUDI .FONE
www.americanradiohistory.com
213
ELIZABETH,
Ave.
N.
I.
THE
430
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL
December, 1915
BUY NOW -SAVE MONEY
WIRELESS XMAS SALE
BARGAIN PRICES TO PROVE the wonderful values and superior goods we give you direct from our factory. These
ridiculously low prices are only made possible by our enormous output for our tremendous trade.
All highest qualitybeautifully made and thoroughly tested out.
Save
.......
.
25 %
If You Act Now
Here is Your Opportunity to Secure the Best Navy Type Loose Coupler on the
Market. Regular Price
$15.00
$1 0.00
December
Sale
For
Only- Reduced
Price Equipped with four
A braes lacquered 0,000 meter inductance tuner, perfect in every detail.
point loading inductance which increases the wave length 4,000 meter over the averses Navy
Type Transformers. The primary winding has 24 taps -one switoh controls the primary in groupe
of ten. the other controls one turn at a time-and ie equipped with s dead end switch. Enclosed
in a cabinet, the frout of which is polished hard rubber. The secondary ooil is wound with double
silk covered wire and the inductance is varied by a ten point switch. With this coupler the very
finest and most accurate tuning ie easily and quickly seoured. With a good sized aerial the reception of wave lengths up to 6,000 meters ie possible.
All Finished Parts Ready For Assembling With Full Instructions . . . $6.50
Our No. 810 Complete Sending and Receiving Station Receive The Time From Arlington
Sends up to 12 miles.
Receives up to 1,000
miles.
Regular Price $20.00
For December Only
-Sale Price
Full 1 k inch coil type. Sends up
to 15 miles. Receives up to 1,000
ni lea under
favorable conditions.
Equipped with 2 double pole 1,000
receivers. 6 feet silk cord and
double
u
headband. Size of bass 12
16 inches, height 13 inches. weight
only 14 pounds.
electric"e liable onion,.n meth loped and thoroughly
ally perfect an
Nothings better
class was ever
ready
i
tá
cones
improved
e`nabbl
you
tuning
desire,
party you mighout
inthusy eliminating
terference. The set consists off a lit n. Spak
l.
Plate Co "Don't Jar
densere
Out" Detector. Buzzer
Switch to tell if your
dand
etector
s
working.
Double Slide Silk Wire
Wound Tuner for long
wave station
ser, Helix
Fixed Có
complete
Headset.
2.00Ób Ohm
AND ALL NEWSPAPER AND SHIP REPORTS
OUR SPECIAL TIME
SIGNAL RECEIVING OUTFIT
REGULAR PRICE $10.85-SALE PRICE
This is our new
1915 model made
of the highest
grade material
t a ins hl e.
slide
coupler
close
tuning Is wound
o h
Doublefor
with
No.
24
green silk covered wire on the
-
primary
secondary
the
with
No. 28.
There
are 8 points to
divide its capacity. A 3,000 -metre loading coil placed between the coupler
and the aerial by a switch that throws it In or out of the
circuit enables you to receive amateurs with the coupler alone
and long wave stations by the addition of the loading coil. One
fixed condenser of proper capacity, Improved universal detector,
one buzzer test to test your mineral, and potentiometer. This
instrument Is assembled on a highly finished oak base. All
metal parts are heavy nickel -plated.
This station, with our Navy Type Loose Coupler, as Illustrated
$15.00
above,
FREE!
OUR No. 401 SENDING AND RECEIVING STATION
Regular Price $5.95
$4 ;95
For December Only -Sale Price
Sends up to
-
Complete Gem
-
Receives up to 300 miles.
Consists of % -inch coil, fluted end
spark gaps, four plate secondary, one
collapsible helix, one key, a two -slide
tuner, fixed condenser, detector and
buzzer test to test your mineral, This
set is mounted on a highly finished
oak base with all metal parts heavy
nickel -plated. With a good -sized aerial,
under favorable conditions, will send up
to 3 miles and receive up to 300 miles.
3
$8.10
Station
miles.
necessary equipment for it.
2000 Ohm
16
1
500
20
Receives up to 300 mile..
We will give absolutely free
Gem Outfit to every one
who sends us the
o coat of the
This equipment nougats of
Headset
$3.95
.48
.10
Insulators
Ground Clamp
Ft. of A -1 Wire
Ft. of Rubber Cable for lead in
1.20
.90
$8.63
TOTAL
Send $0 63 et once and we will include the Gem Receiving Station
Free. A splendid outfit for beginners.
Send 6c. in Stamps for Our Big 152 page Wireless and Electrical Catalog
,o,'.1.
46H -80" Containing Hundreds of Wonderful Bargains of All Kinds
Xmas.
Money
Toy
Save
Catalog.
for Big Electrical
9 yP¢/0
H\.80
,
Nichols Elect. Co.,
1 -3
W.
Broadway,
Manufacturers of Standard Quality Goods Only
N. Y.
technical
ptUt,0.4\\°JLvice on alleewireess
tonNICHOLSs ELECTRIC
4ß 1-3ter,
West Broadway, New York.
_.,
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011 4llIIII11111 111111plpppp1pllAInI11111IlAlIIOnIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIilllllllll
You benefit by mentioning "The Electrical Ertmrimenterrr when writing to advertisers,
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CO.,
F.
Decentlf r. It)i
THE
3
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
137
QUESTION BOX.
(Continued from Page 435.)
The Famous
of Chicago from the 14th to the 18th of
September last, when the wireless detector
would go "dead" and no amount of adjusting would bring in any signals. He writes,
however, that by reversing the connections
to his detector it would be put into opera(2) When a rheostat or
tion again.
potentiometer is used to regulate the brightness of a lamp does the same amount of
current flow from the battery whether the
lamp burns bright or dim? (3) How does
a Radioson work?
A. 1. We cannot think of any reason for
the peculiar action of your detector, except
that strong static currents may have been
the cause; to the best of our knowledge
Baron Mfinchhausen had nothing to do
with
A.
DE FOREST AUDION
The Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of
Standaids, Vol. 6, No. 4, Page 540,
states that the DE FOREST AUDION
DETECTOR is fully 50 per
MORE SENSITIVE than ANY
known form of detector.
NO
OPEN CORE TRANSFORMER ON
(386.)
D. C.
Brookfield, Ill., writes
(1) How an open core trans-
B. Tilden,
asking:
former can operate on D. C., having seen
one working under these conditions. (2)
Instructions for making a closed core transformer from a 2 -inch coil.
A. 1. The fact that the transformer
operated on a D. C. generator indicates that
the commutator on the dynamo was in very
poor condition, creating distinct breaks or
bumps in the current. This would cause
the transformer to operate the same as a
spark coil on an interrupted primary current, but the efficiency is very low.
A. 2. A closed core transformer can be
made from a 2 -inch coil by constructing a
rectangular frame of thin transformer iron
and winding on one leg three layers of No.
16 D. C. C. copper wire and mounting the
secondary of the 2 -inch coil on the other
leg. The input will be about 250 watts, and
you should place a choke coil in series with
the primary to control the current.
us
ARC TRANSMITTER FOR RADIO.
(387.) Edward D. Fitzpatrick, Wilson
Park, Tarrytown, N. Y., requires (1) a
/fey,
USER.
The cut illustrates the popular and
efficient Type RJ5 De Forest Audion
Type R. JS
De Forest Audion Detector Detector.
It remains in adjustment
ALWAYS, and is guaranteed to be MORE EFFICIENT, and MORE
RELIABLE than ANY OTHER detector ever offered for private
Price, $25.
THE DE FOREST AUDION AMPLIFIER is used in
use.
with any detector,
preferably a De Forest Audion
Detector, to increase the intensity
of received signals from 5 to 10
times (actual, not theoretical) per
step. Constant and reliable, as all
other De Forest Audion Apparatus. Brings in stations otherwise
inaudible, ALWAYS. Price,
$65, and worth it.
connection
Type
Pi
De Forest
Audion Amplifier
WARNING
filament and two electrodes, as well as a number
of other types, are protected under a large number of BASIC PATENTS,
issued to Dr. Lee de Forest, and owned or controlled by this company.
Vacuum Bulbs, having
a
All infringers will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
DE FOREST AUDION APPARATUS is sold by all the large reliable
wireless supply houses and is carried in stock by most of them.
ORDER FROM YOUR REGULAR DEALER, or from us
if
you prefer.
Bulletins giving complete descriptions sent if you enclose stamp
De Forest Radio Telephone & Telegraph Co.
101 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Chope Coi/
ABC
_
=
HIGHER AUTHORITY
this --A SK ANY
could be quoted.
Further than
it!
2. As the resistance in the circuit determines the amount of current flowing
through the circuit, increasing the resistance
will decrease the current drawn from the
battery.
A. 3. The Radioson detector is constructed on the principle of the sealed -point
electrolytic device of this class. This detector at one time was thought to act on
the drop of resistance principle, but later
researches prove it to be a pure rectifier.
See "Principles of Wireless Telegraphy,"
by Prof. George W. Pierce, where this matter is exhaustively treated upon, accompanied by actual rectifying oscillograms.
cent.
other
MN . ó
/te/Zr
Q
'387
Are Used for Radlophony.
hook -up for transmitting set using an
(2) Why does the note of a sending
tion become louder when the rotary gap
stopped and while the last few letters
being sent?
A. 1. The sketch herewith shows
arc.
stahas
are
Winger's Closed Core Transformers
14,000 VOLTS
Perfectly Insulated.
Sin.75
1.4 K.W.
15.90
t/a K.W.
zn.sn
% K.W.
_5.5o
l K.W.
Designed for direct connection.
no volts 6o cycles without resist
Send 6c. for
ance or impedance.
big new catalog.
s
WingerElec.& Mfg.Co.
7i1 So. Dearborn St.,
CHICAGO,
ILL..
the
You benefit by mentioning "The Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE
438
It Works Fine
Your keceiving Transformer certainly
works fine.
It brings signals in louder than any other tuning
device I have ever used.
N. L. (Morin, Jr.,
Cagenovia, N. Y." Price only $5.00. Semi two cent stamp for bulletin 105.
School, Auburn, M. Y.
Telegraph
Colby's
A NEW CHAMBERS COUPLER
LOOK
No. 744, PRICE ONLY $4.50
Positively unqua led for
e
the money.
Is
6" high, 6"
.vide, and 14"
over all.
Wound with
E namele d
wire, and has
very unique
slider. Wood-
a
work
Try one, you will not
any finished.
pointed.
mahog-
be disap-
brings our 64 -page illustrated cataNone otherwise.
2046 Arch Street
Sc. in stamps
logue, B -B -24.
F. B. Chambers &Coe
"MignonSystem"
Is:,e. r
R
Pauses AFpfied
for
R C 2
Cà r.jTi(ÿ a
^
:;%ú
e"410
$20.00
Selectivity and
Efficiency.
The Last Word
in RADIO A PPA RATU 5,
-
Stir
l'_'.
x
9'.
x h
Marvel in
A
Writ, J.,r
In,ar.
MIGNON- WIRELESS
CORPORATION
Specialists in Radio Signal Receiving Apparates
127
W. Market St.. ELM IRA. N.Y.
"MONOTONE" QUENCHED
SPARK GAP
It
is new
I
Wonder-
fully efficient. Hear
what the operator at
the distant receiver
will say about your
new "spark." In
single units for small
spark coils.
Several
t
$f(
q
¡i
I111t
Lionel Electric Trains
Electrical Toys
Mesco Electric Engines
Electric Tree Lighting Outfits
We carry a full line of Wireless Supplies
being agents of The Electro Importing Co. and
J. H. Bunnell & Co.
728
LIGHT
Arch Street
method of wiring an arc for radio transmitting purposes. With this apparatus you
will be able to cover quite a long distance,
but it will be necessary to use a tikker or
audion "beat" circuit at the receiving station.
A. 2. The only reason we can give to
explain why the note from a transmitting
station increases in intensity when the
rotary gap stops is as follows: The diaphragm in the receiver has a certain natural period of vibration, and this may be
approximately tuned to the low frequency
of the note when the rotary gap is stopped.
Your receiver diaphragm does not vibrate
fast enough to be in synchronism with the
group frequency of the transmitting set
when the gap is running, therefore it does
not give the loud note noticed when the
two are nearly at the same pitch.
December, 1915
FRANCO
FLASHLIGHTS
are ideal for use by electrical experimenters. The Fibre case lights have
a patented wireless feature which ab-
solutely prevents their short-circuiting under any conditions whatsoever.
The nickel plated lights won't shortcircuit, either, and are not affected
by oil or moisture.
"Franco" flashlights are quality
flashlights; equipped with our Radio
Battery they give more light than
any flashlight on the market. They
are definitely guaranteed to give you
real satisfaction and s e r v i e e.
Among the many different styles you
are sure to see the one you want.
Prices are very reason-
MAGNETIZING COILS.
(388.) Young Experimenter, Buffalo, N.
Y., wishes to know : (1) Where he can
obtain a battery type magnetizer of the
Swedish- American type? (2) If distilled
water can be used instead of rain water in
mixing solution for silver plating, and if
rain water is a chemical or naturally pure
solution?
A. 1. You can no doubt purchase a battery type magnetizer of the Swedish -American type from the Swedish-American Telephone Co,, located in Chicago, Ill.
A. 2. Rain water is condensed moisture
from the atmosphere and contain.; no alkali,
but has several impurities in it, such as
dust and traces of various acids found in
the air. Distilled water can be used in
mixing plating solutions instead of rain
water, as they are both practically pure, but
not chemically pure.
able.
See your dealer's assortment, or if he
hasn't got the genuine
Franco"
flashlights, write
us for an inter.
esting catalog,
No. 9.
INTERSTATE
ELECTRIC
NOVELTY CO.
Park Place
NEW YORK
29
PERPETUAL MOTION.
(389.) George Haller, St. Louis, Mo.,
asks us: (1) Has any perpetual motion
machine ever been invented that will deliver power? (2) How do aeroplanes obtain a "ground" for wireless work?
A. 1. No one has succeeded in inventing
a practical perpetual motion machine as
yet, and such an invention would entirely
upset all our present basic laws of physics
and energy.
rt. 2. Aeroplanes obtain a ground by
dropping a wire 100 or 200 feet long from
a reel, and they use wires strung from the
tail to the wing -tips for an aerial.
CHICAGO
SAN FRANCISCO
TORONTO
a.
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII111111111111111111111111111111I11111111II11111111II11111111111111I1111111111SIMI119
k
LEARNING TELEGRAPHY
WAVE LENGTH OF COUPLER.
Elrrtrirsl 6ifts
fur XmFts
QUAKER
EXPERIMENTER
-
units in series and
multiple for transferSubstantially
built of brass, electric
mica and black fibre.
Parts nickeled. Introductory price only
Money back if this new gap
SI per unit as illustrated.
fails to please. Send SI bill or P. O. money order today to
K. RICHARDSON, BOX 686, ERIE, P ENNA
1
ELECTRICAL
SUPPLY
CO.
Philadelphia, Pa.
(390.) Nels Erlandson, Chicago, Ill., desires: (1) A formula to calculate the wave
length of loose coupler. (2) A tuning coil.
(3) Whether a carborundum detector requires a battery potentiometer.
A. 1 and 2. A rough method of determining the wave length of coupler or tun-
ing coil is to calculate the length of the
wire on the coil, primary only, in the case
of the coupler, and multiply the length of
this wire in feet by 1.5, which will give
approximately the wave length in meters.
For further data on this we refer you to
the September, 1914, issue of fhe Electrical
Experimenter, in which appeared an article
entitled "Loose Couplers and Their Wave
Lengths" ; also to the numerous publications procurable at small cost from the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C.,
which give exact mathematical formulas for
calculating self and mutual inductances of
coils of various sizes and diameters of wire
used in radio practise.
A. 3. For the best results with carborundum detectors a critical adjustment of
the voltage applied to it is required and it
will be necessary to use a potentiometer
^ ith battery for this purpose.
becomes simple when your instructor is the Omnig spit
Automatic Transmitter. Combined with a standard key and
send you telegraph messounder or Wireless Buzzer, it
match
sages
speed,
the sending of an epert operator a,you become more
ficient. t Adopted by U. S. Govt. Made in 4 styles, from
$2.50 up, all accurate. Circular free.
ll
Omnigraph Mfg. Co., 39 L Cortlandt St., New York
You benefit by mentioning "The Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
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Special
for
Dynamos
Lamp in
Arc
Moving
Picture
Storage
Batteries.
Shows. Special Dynamos for Charging
Special Dynamos
for
Incandescent Light.
ing. We sell upon
payments of $5 and
$10 per month.
Hobart Bros. Co.,Trey, O.
THE
December, 1915
MAGNETIC PULL.
Verne Bonnett, Birmingham,
Iowa, desires a formula for calculating the
pull of a magnet.at various distances from
its poles.
A. The pull of a magnet varie; inversely
as the distance of the armature from the
poles; thus, tl a certain magnet will lift 20
pounds 1 inch from the pole -pieces, then 2
inches from the pole -pieces it wi'l lift one quarter of this amount, or 5 pounds, and if
3 inches, one -ninth of this amount c r about
22 pounds. This law is known as the rule
of inverse squares and is also applicable to
lighting problems as well.
1391.)
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
/Here's the Most Sensitive\
' iv
Head-set forWirelessWork
On 10 Day
Free Trial
ELECTRIC WIRING QUESTIONS.
(392.) John Odill, Norway, Mich., asks
several questions regarding the wiring of a
house: (1) Is a person allowed to do additional wiring on his premises without permission from the authorities? (3) Where
can he obt_ìn this permission, if necessary?
(3) Must the work be inspected before connecting to the service line?
A. 1 and 2. It is unnecessary to obtain
permission to install additional wiring in
the house and barn, but proper precautions
must be taken in this work, so it will comply with the Fire Underwriters' rules.
A. 3. It is necessary that the wiring
should be inspected by the Fire Underwriters' before connecting to the supply
mains, or the fire insurance policy on the
building will be void should it burn down
from any cause.
RADIO CONNECTIONS.
(394.) Henry E. Davies, Jr., Vineyard
Haven, Mass., writes us asking for a hookup for the Mignon cabinet style radio re-
Stromberg- Carlson Radio Head-Set
THIS
set is guaranteed to increase the receiving efficiency of
any radio station with which it is used, regardless of the type
of head -set used heretofore.
This claim is based on comparative operating tests conducted
at many stations. If you are skeptical, convince yourself by
ordering a set for 10 days' free trial against all other makes. The
price is $8.25, and your money will be given back at once without
the slightest obligation if you are not satisfied.
Write today for
Dealers sell this Iliad -set. If you cannot get it from your dealer, write us.
1006.
MOTOR TROUBLES.
R. O. Shadd, Williamstown, Pa.,
writes regarding his 1 -6 H. P. motor which
sparks on the positive brush when the current is turned on, but ceases to spark when
the motor reaches its maximum speed.
A. The above mentioned action may
possibly be explained by the fact that the
positive brush is not at the right angle of
commutation and the armature, drawing
more current when accelerating, will make
the sparking more noticeable than when
running under normal speed conditions,
with the armature current somewhat
lower. Another cause for this may be that
one of the wires in the armature is grounded, causing an excess flow of current.
When the motor reaches full speed centrifugal force might throw the wire away from
the armature, thereby destroying the ground.
(393.)
4, ;i,
free bulletin No.
Stromberg- Carlson Telephone Mfg. Co.
Rochester, N. Y.
Chicago, Ill.
A BOUND VOLUME
EOENAIME EXPERIMENTEÁ FOR
75C
Bound in substantial green cloth; lettered In gold. Postage on 3 lbs. is extra. A REAL BARGAIN.
Book Department. EXPERIMENTER PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc., 233 Fulton Street, New York.
M r.
are
King
rose from
Newsboy to
Meter
Engineer
needed
NOW
AS METER ENGINEER
Get the big job. Earn the big salary.
Into the new profession
where high salaried positions are seeking Get
the men. Train yourself to
fill one of these big jobs. There is one or more in every Electric Light
Plant. The demand is growing daily for Meter Engineers. We have trained
hundreds of others and placed tbem in big jobs. We can do tbe same for you.
Just
fern $1,200
to S3,CCO a Year
few short months at borne during spare time. You learn while
you earn. Course Is interesting, concise,
thorough. You learn all about
meters and instruments. No problem
Light Plant as Meter Engineer at a will stump you. Step into an Electric
salary of $1,200 to
a year. Our
Our Money-Back Guarantee
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we guarantee to furnish
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as apeed in ourEnronment
unMr. King's Rise to Meter Engineer
`°'ilon
g
tll >ou r OVahaed to aetepl a position pa,ine
from $75 to $300 a month. Furthermore. we
His e% p erience is no different from bun- I guarantee to aasiar POU in securing a high grade
rou reeeine a Diploma. If ahter
dreds of our students. He wanted the big l eeeiá,n after
g an
piss and-Instructions to which
job and trained for it. He has a fine
entitled.
all
sition
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him Indispensable to his employer. His
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Ft. Wayne Correspondence School
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523 West 51st St.
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ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
THE RADIO PIONEERS.
In a recent communication to the New
York Times Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, director of the radio laboratory at the College of the City of .New York, said:
"I have read the highly interesting reports which have appeared in the Times
describing the radio (wireless) telephonic
experiments carried on over great distances
by the American Telephone & Telegraph
Co., using for the transmitting station one
belonging to the United States navy (Arlington, Va.). Without desiring to disparage in the least the undoubtedly earnest
and intelligent engineering work which has
resulted ill the accomplishment of this particular achievement, I feel strongly that
less than due credit has been given to the
many and eminent radio engineers who
have done previous research work in this
field, and without whose work the results
just obtained would have been completely
unattainable.
"I have been creditably informed that
what are known as oscillating gas valves
have been used for generating and controlling the power used in this work. While
I cannot hope to gauge the relative importance of the contributions of all the previous inventors, I certainly believe that the
following gentlemen are entitled to much
more than a curt dismissal of their claims,
and ignoring of all they have contributed
to our knowledge of the oscillating gas
valves. I refer to Edwin Armstrong, of
Columbia University; Dr. Lee De Forest
(under some of whose patents the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. is already
licensed) ; Professor Fleming, of London
University (one of the early workers in
this field) ; Peter Cooper Hewitt, Dr.
Irving Langmuir, of the General Electric
Co.; Dr. Meissner, of the Telefunken Co.;
Professor George Pierce. of Harvard University; H. J. Round, of the English Marconi Co.; Dr. Reisz and his associate, von
Lieben, of the Telefunken Co., and Mr.
Weagant, of the American Marconi Co.
Three of these gentlemen, Messrs. De Forest, Armstrong and Langmuir, have in the
order named made the results of their researches public in the 'Proceedings of the
Institute of Radio Engineers,' and the interesting and important information which
they gave has thus become available.
"It is impossible for me to apportion
credit for the present achievement suitably
among all the gentlemen mentioned, but it
is quite certain that their united contributions to radio telephony have made the
Arlington- Hawaii transmission possible. It
is their due to receive credit for what they
have done. It is not just that the commercial organizations involved should receive
full public credit and the originating engineers be hidden by enforced anonymity. It
is certainly to be loped and expected that
they will receive at least the mention which
they have earned."
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This stati on io equipped with a two -elide loose
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December, 1915
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
SUBSCRIBE TO
C
IINEIYTIO11
THE NATIONAL HELPMATE OF INVENTORS
REPORTS:- Patent OIBer news and decisions,
Edited by H. GERNSBACK
In this Department we will publish such matter as is of interest to inventors
and particularly to those who are in doubt as to certain Patent Phases. Questions
addressed to "Patent Advice" cannot be answered by mail. Sketches and descriptions must be clear and explicit. Only one side of sheet should be written on.
FOOLPROOF ELECTRIC SWITCH.
and r..,,lit pit b,u(s. l'a tent successes, market op
port uni li ev nod methods.
PUBLISHES:- Valunble articles on successful
inventors pied their methods: the Mistakes of Inventors. helpful mechanics and manufacturing.
upon it, but we would advise our correspondent to be cautious and he should try
to have a search made in the Patent Office before going ahead with the patent.
This is the best we can suggest in the
absence of the actual model.
(33.)Wilmer J. Slifer, Quakertown, Pa.,
submits a sketch of a novel electric switch
which he terms "foolproof" for the reason
that it is necessary to use a key in connection with it. He wants to know if this
switch can be patented, and if such an
article is in demand.
A. After looking over the drawing and
the description, we have come to the conclusion that a patent could not be obtained
on this device, at least, we have our doubts
about it. In case a patent was actually
obtained, we do not think it would be of
very much value as switches of this kind
are not very well liked by the trade.
SELENIUM WIRELESS RELAY
ELECTRIC REGISTERING
THERMOMETER.
447
MAINTAINS I Itnr au of Fed,. al Protection.
which s.eun5 s rung, T did PO tents, and sound
trade -marks and copyrights In the United Slates
and in all eon nt i,s at n reduced cost to aiili
conte.
BEFORE SPENDING MONEY ON PATENTS
CONSULT INVENTION and the ]Sureau of Fed
eral Prutvetion.
PATENTS secured through this Bureau adver
tised free in INVENTION.
Send sketch, drawing. and description. or mod.
el. for report and w t oit bh advice, Certificate of
conception pn tests nove, tors. scut nu request.
SPECIAL OFFER! INTENTION sent for one
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(37.) Isaiah Rosin, Cincinnati, Ohio,
submits to us a drawing of a selenium
wireless relay which is supposed to work
by means of a selenium cell and a telephone
receiver and by its vibrating diaphragm
and amplifying relaying arrangement. He
wishes to know if a patent can be obtained
ELECTRIC RAIN AND t WIND
upon this device. He also has bruitted an
SIGNAL.
idea on a registering thermometer which
(34.) Martin Hoeft, Minonk, Ill., claims
is intended to be used in registering temto have a new device for electric rain ;mid
peratures at a distance. He wishes to
wind signals, but fails to submit dia.vknow if this device is novel and whether it
ings to explain the idea. In the .absence_ can be patented.
of these we cannot give any advice on the
A. We find that the first idea is enmerit of the invention.
tirely impractical and it will not work the
way it has been submitted to us. A relay
INSULATOR AND AERIAL. CONdoes not work on alternating current and
NECTOR.
the idea of lighting a lamp as outlined in
(35.) Bernard Russell, Colorado Springs,
the drawing to operate a second selenium
Colo., has sent in a drawing of a new incell is not practical and will not work.
sulator on which he desires to have some
As to the electric registering thermomadvice. He also submits an aerial coneter, this is quite a clever idea and deserves
nector and wants to know if the latter is being looked into. We think that if this
patentable. He inquires further if there is
device were to be worked out carefully
a market for these two articles. He furfrom its present crude state a valuable
thermore wishes to know if an article can
patent might be obtained upon it. We
be patented by using Electrose instead of
would advise our correspondent to get in
porcelain for insulation without the con- touch with a patent attorney.
sent of the company.
A. The insulator presents no novel
ROTARY SPARK GAP.
ideas and we do not think it is practical;
(38.) William Boyle, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
we doubt whether a patent could be obsubmits a drawing of a new rotary spark
tained on it.
gap in which two separate motors are
The connector, -however, has some very
used and the spark points being arranged
novel features, and this is an article that in a novel manner.
probably will be welcomed by many wireA. While the idea of using two motors
less people. You should by all means try
on a rotary spark gap is not novel, the arto obtain a patent on this connector, and
rangement of the spark points seems to
we think this can be done without much
have some merit. at least we have never
trouble.
seen anything quite like it.
Concerning the last inquiry, you cannot
We think the best way is to get in touch
obtain a patent by simply changing one
with some of the patent attorneys and
material to another. In other words, if you
have a search made in the Patent Office
constructed (let us assume) a screw- to find out what has been done before
in
driver made of aluminum, you could not
this line. If you find that nothing similar
obtain a patent on this screw -driver simply exists so far, you stand a good chance of
because it was made of aluminum. The obtaining a patent.
mere substitution of materials does not
entitle anyone to a patent.
215
MUM
McGILL BLDG.
(36.) Walter Franseen, Woodhull, Ill.,
has submitted to us a new idea showing
how to run temporary wiring on walls
which have been papered, by using a
special appliance. He wishes to know if
the idea is good enough to warrant obtaining a patent on it, and whether the idea
has any merit.
A..
Inasmuch as no sample had been
submitted to this department, we are not
quite sure that the device will do everything which our correspondent claims for
it. As far as we can see, the idea is novel
and we think a patent might be obtained
C.
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THE
442
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
ELECTRICAL WAY TO FATTEN
SHEEP.
jl!
Electric lighting of pens at night causes
sheep to eat frequently and accordingly
grow fat for the markets in record time.
The tour made through the ranch section
of Oregon by Samuel Galland, a Spokane
financier, resulted in the discovery that the
Oregon sheep growers are using electricity
extensively for both light and power.
Besides being applied for pumping in irrigation districts and for doing nearly all
the ranch work, electricity has been wired
into the sheep pens. The light is turned
on at 4 o'clock in the afternoon in winter
and burns until 9 o'clock. The ranchers
find that sheep will eat during off periods
when the light is turned on. At 4 o'clock
in the morning lights are switched on
again and the sheep again begin to feed.
Frequent feedings encourage the animals
to eat so much that they are quickly fattened for the market.
MILLERS FALLS
TO
LS
For the Home, Shop
or Laboratory
THE experimenter is usually a
particular man who is particular
about his tools.
Experimental work calls for accurate
tools and not the least of these
should be a good reliable bit brace.
The next time you visit a hardware
store for any purpose just remem-
MÜNCHHAUSEN'S NEW
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BARON
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Bit Brace No.732
Ball bearing head.
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Ratchet. Free acting sweep handle,
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Nickeled steel parts and fine polished wood handles. Send for handy
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MILLERS FALLS CO.
"Toolmaker to Master Mechanics"
Millers-Fa Ile, Mass.
i
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IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO.
76 -82 West Broadway
New York City
WIN HEALTH
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have been in Flitternix's mind too, for
presently he set his chronometer to noon,
which, of course, was a ridiculous thing
to do, for we did not know if the Martians divided their day into 24 hours or
into 100 hours.
"We were now floating some 1,500 feet
up over what we afterward knew to be
the Martian National Capital, the 'city' of
the Ruler. It is located in the elliptical
spot which terrestrial astronomers have
marked as 'Solis Locus' on their Martian
maps.*
"As if our host had divined our innermost wishes, we soon passed over the
capital and approached the waterway
which you will find in your Martian map
under the name of 'Nectar.'
"The Martian Canals! At last we beheld one of them at a distance of less than
2.000 feet! The riddle of terrestrial astronomers for over a century! The cause
of one of the most heated controversies
on Earth! And now we saw them close
by with our own eyes!
"The 'Canal' proper, which is termed
'Nectar' by astronomers on Earth, is about
It runs in a perfectly
6 miles wide.
straight line for over 500 miles and is
about 20 feet deep. Like all other Martian waterways, it is lined with the Universal Martian material termed TOS,
which looks like glass, yet is not glass.
The Tos in this instance is waterproof, is
an electrical conductor on one side and an
insulator on the other. Yet it is a solid
body and much harder and tougher than
steel. The conducting side is turned
toward the water, and when a certain current of ION is sent through the Tos, the
water near it loses all weight because the
gravitational attraction of Mars is neutralized thereby. It becomes now an easy
matter to move the tremendous masses of
water, a problem which your earthly
scientists could never solve.
"At each bank of the vast waterway
we saw immense towers about 2,000 feet
high. These towers are spaced about 5
miles apart and follow the entire course
of every canal. Their purpose is as fol-
lows:
"At the top of each tower is an immense
'pyramid,' made of a certain variety of
Tos. The sides of these pyramids are
formed of thousands of small black cells,
which, when exposed to the Sun's rays,
See accompanying map of Mars. Solis Lacus
latitude and 90° longitude.
Nectar runs from the eastern (left) edge of Solis
Lacus, due east.
is located at about 30°
Compact.
ei
absolutely
orr
and
maarvel
AGENTS RESPOND
Bleadon -Dunn
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208
N.
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BUILD YOUR OWN
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WITH OUR HELP
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We furnish blue prints,
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Others with chimes at all
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Clock Company
o
1661 Ruffner M.
PHILADELPHIA, PA.
Armature
Discs
AT FACTORY PRICES
Any size from 234 inches
to 14 inches in diam'eter.
Best grade material with
japanned
insulation
on
one side.
Send stamp
for circular,
FRED. R. HEILMAN
444 Niagara St. Buffalo, N. Y.
Experimental and Model Work
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS AND
FINE MACHINERY
Inventions developed. Special Toole, Dice,
Gear Cutting, Etc.
HENRY ZUHR
New York City
3244 Frankfort Street
-INVENTORS
EXPERIMENTERS
Let u develop your inventions and make
working modele.
your
Our well equipped shop and staff of experienced model builds are st your servio ..
complete stock of mere.
We carry
Shipment made came day order reoeived.
Send 40 In stamps for booklet Inventor.'
Supplies
UNION MODEL WORKS, Established 1882
119 S.
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BRASS GEARS cut by an
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Every gear has a hub, outer
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SEND FOR CATALOGUE
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TOOLS AND DIES
Light Machinery Designed and Built. Automatic Machine. Cams Cut Exactly to Templet
123
GEO. SCHWARZ & CO.
Liberty Street
NEW YORK
Send sketch or blue print for estimate
READ
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(Continued from page 388.)
ber to ask to see
BUILD AN
December, 1915
the Classified Advertisements In thl
Issue. They are small but contain
big bargains and opportunities.
THE
December, 1915
absorb the heat of the latter.
As the surface of these pyramids is very large, a proportionally large amount of heat
is received. This heat is directly transformed into ION
and stored within the pyramid. The latter turns on its
axis, so, as to present the largest possible surface to the
Sun from sunrise until sunset ;
also as more power is generated than needed during the
daytime the excess is used
during the night.
"Now, then, from the top of
the pyramid a gigantic Emanation Ray bursts forth, fed
from the stored ION, originally secured from the Sun's
heat.
'This ray is made to fall
over the entire width of the
waterway, and it is directed
on the latter at an ang'e. The
ray striking the water, which
does not resist, as it has no
weight, as explained to you,
must naturally move away
from the direction of the ray.
This it does, the Emanation
Ray 'pushing' the water at a
rate of about 23/4 miles an
hour. If it was not for the
ray the water would, of
course, be entirely motionless,
for the Martian waterways
are exactly level, there being
'fall''to them.
"As each tower assists in
moving the water over a certain distance the water gradually acquires momentum and
flows slowly but steadily. Before the momentum has been
expended, the next tower is
reached, which pushes the
water on to the next one, and
so on through the entire
length of the Canal. You will
naturally understand that these
towers must work nights as
well as during the day, else
the water would not flow during the night. The stored
surplus power during the day,
of course, makes this possible.
ELECTRICAL
443
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to $150 a month)
Rapid advancement to higher Government Petitions. "No layoffs" because of STIl K ES. WARS, FINANCIAL FLURRIES or
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ry residents
city residents stand the same chance for
immediate appointment. Common -sonso education sufficient.
Political influenee NOT REQUIRED.
Write Immediately for schedule showing Cho places and dates of
TIIE COMINO GOVT examinations. Don' t delay. Every day
you lose means the
t so much coaching before the
of
ansi exam oo us
FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, Dept. D 113, Rochester, N.Y.
I
Yontsid ts
j
Pleasant Work- COntlnually Traveling
Franklin Institute (The Pathway to Plenty), Dept.DII1, Roches'er N.Y.
TThls coupon
filled out a.
directed, entities the sender to frees
ilTfi;n aue,nio al' a
free rare 1 our kink, l;
t Thom.
nt l' it on
d Hpw to
het of
Government
k. d to conddorauo0 for Free Coaching fee
h
bnnpon
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her checked
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The applications of electricity are increasing
every day. The man who has an exact knowledge of electrical
science has ever growing opportunity for profit. Ten years ago
practically all machines in use were run by steam engine and countershaft.
Statistics now show that most of the machines used are now operated by the
electric drive. A generation ago gas was the only known means for lighting
and cooking. Now almost every modern house is lighted by electricity, and
electric cooking utensils are coming more and more in use. Even the steam
locomotive, that great achievement of the twentieth century, is being gradually replaced by electric power. Whether it be for driving machines, for
railway transportation, for lighting for heating. for cooking, for a thousand
daily necessities, the watchword of the age is " Do It Electrically."
no
Furthermore, the towers work
to their full efficiency and uninterruptedly year in and year
out, for there are no clouds to
hide the Sun on Mars, as it is
well known; consequently, the
pyramids are never without
power, except nights.
"You realize that all the
towers must throw their rays
in the same direction, which,
of course, they do; thus, if the
water is to, be moved in one
season from North to South,
the rays face the South. During the next season when the
flow of the water must needs
he reversed, as explained to
you yesterday, the Emanation
Rays will all point northward.
Thus one of the great problems on Mars has been solved.
But who does the work? The
all dominating Sun.
"And who moves the waters
on Earth?
Who, condenses
the waters from the oceans
and lifts up myriads of tons
of water year in and .year out,
to form clouds, which latter
produce the rains, without
which your rivers would run
dry within four weeks? The
EXPERIMENTER
Hawkins Electrical Guides
Will Show You How
Electrical knowledge means money to you and these books will show
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A Most Complete Library of Electricity
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Look at the titles and convince
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They are a complete course in Electrical engineering. written especially for the ambitious man
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of electricity ever Published, and that you cannot
they are the most complete library
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NUMBERS ARE READY.
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A FEW OF THE
Easy
SUBJECTS
Dynamos
Magnetism-Induction-Experiments
nettem- Induction-Ez erments -D
tune Windings-Installing of Dynamos-Electrical Instrument Testing a tical Management
Dynamos and Motors-Distribution Systems
Wof lnng- Wirinngg Diagrams -Sign Flashers-Storof Alternating Current.
andage Alternators -Alternating Current MotoraTranefarmers- Converters -Rectifier.-Altematins Current Syatema -Circuit Breakers-Measuring instruments-Switch Boards -Wiring -Power
Stations Installing -Telephone -TelegraphWirelese- Bell.- LigVhting -Rnllw . Also many
aal
Ready Reference Index of the ioElectricity
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THE
444
Learn Electricity!
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December,. 1915
Sun, of course!
"Only on Earth the Sun does it in a
natural manner; here on Mars, the Sun
works just the same, but without the in-
termediary of the clouds,"
*
*
*
*
There was the familiar snapping sound
in my receivers, a low click and everything
was quiet. I knew that the telegraphone
wire on the Moon must have been filled
to capacity, and that I would not hear
again from Münchhausen till the next
evening.
"I'll PayYou$I75to$300
Per
That's what many suMorrill!" perintendents
and man
agere have said to OUR GRADUATES. That's
what one will say to YOU. It's not out of the
ordinary. In fact it Is Just what can happen
if you become a COYNE trained man. It means
success for you for life. Any man between the
ages of 15 and 50 who has ambition, no matter how little education, can learn this big
paying trade in our schools in a short time
and at small expense.
COYNE NATIONAL
TRADE SCHOOLS
Largest and best equipped trade school in America.
For 15 years we have sent hundreds of mon out annually as skilled mechanics to help supply the rapidly
increasing demand. Let us train you for one of these
big fobs. Our employment bureau places graduates
into big paying positions free of charge.
Men Wanted For These Trades
Electricity
Plumbing
Bricklaying
Motion Pic. Opr.
Mech. Drafting
Our Own Building
We teach all these big paying trades under actual
working conditions. Wo do not have classes, do not use
books, do not teach by correspondence. Each man is
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Estimating and Plan Reading included IN A LL courses.
We charge a small tuition fee which can he made in
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material is furnished by the school FREE. Our institution is open Day and Evening. Many of ourstudents earn a part or all of their expenses whileattending. Our employment bureau is always ready to
gist a man to earn expenses, without charge.
SEND COUPON FOR FREE BOOK
FREE COUPON
W.
eoonE, Manager
r
COYNE NATIONAL
IRA DE SCHOOLS
Dept. 1598
3951 E, Illinois St.,
Be a man of action. Send
today for our
-fully illustrhated.o It costs
you nothing and showse.how
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make a bigger success
than
uyuver. dreams
ro o m e over and go
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e your book of trades and
Lull Dartioulam-ALL
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::
PItEE.
y
-
welcome.
B. W. COOKE,
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COYNE NATIONAL
TRADE
SCHOOLS
Dept. 1598
39.51E. Illinois St.
CHICAGO,ILL.
Address
SUBMARINE F-BOATS ALL UNSAFE, NAVAL BOARD FINDS
The preliminary investigation into the
cause of the sinking of the submarine F-4
on March 25 last at the entrance of Honolulu Harbor has resulted in a report to the
Navy Department, which asserts that all
four of the submarines of the F class, including the F-4, had inherent faults, and
were difficult to keep in repair and that
serious trouble was experienced with their
propelling engines, electric motors and
storage batteries; in short, that they were
in a dangerous condition for use on long
dives like the one on which the F-4 met
with the accident which wiped out the lives
of her officers and crew.
The Board of Inquiry found that the
storage batteries of the F-4 were always
in a state of being more or less electrically
"grounded," due to leakage of electrolyte,
and that these "grounds" have been of
sufficient intensity to cause flame and the
fusing of electrical connections, also that
these faults obtained in all four of the
boats of the F class, of which there are
three remaining, the F-1, F-2 and F-3. The
F-4's storage batteries evolved excessive
quantities of hydrogen gas. The fumes of
hydrogen and acid were noticeable inside
the F-4 on long dives and on March 6 last,
some days before the F-4 was lost, there
was a hydrogen explosion in that submarine which damaged the battery deck and
broke several separators of the cells. The
report just received by the Navy Department asserts that the "conditions under
which an explosion of hydrogen is always
possible obtain in all the boats of the F
class."
RADIO LINKS TWO PRESIDENTS.
It was announced at the Navy Depart-
ment recently that congratulatory messages
were exchanged between the President of
the United States and the President of
Guatemala in celebration of the opening of
a new high -power radio station erected in
Guatemala City, Guatemala.
The naval station at Arlington, Va., handled the American messages.
AVA
1;
Demonstrators, Mechanical Experts, etc.
Over 3,000 of our graduates are making good
money. Most Up- to-Date -12 Years of Success.
feurs,
Latest equipment including 8 and 12 cyl. cars; latest types motors
and lighting and starting systems.
Individual Instruction. Tuition and Board reasonable. Write at once.
CLEVELAND AUTOMOBILE SCHOOL
2343 Euclid Ave.
CLEVELAND, O.
New York Electrical School
29
West 17th Street
New York City
LET SAM BROWN
TEACH YOU THE
AUTOMOBILE
BUSINESS
He'll fit you for a good Job as chauffeur, tester, repair man, salesman, etc., In 3 to 5 weeks.
Sam teaches you personally-is right on the
Established six years.
lob every minute.
Earn
$75 to $300 a Month
Good Jobs everywhere are waiting for good men.
Complete equipment to work on; 4, 6 and 8
cylinder cars for students' work. No theory.
Ham 1s practical.
Short on lectures-long on
actual, practical work. When you finish you
are ready to tackle any auto problem. You're
as good as the hest. Sam does a good Job.
Learn from a practical mechanic. I have a fine
3 story building, at 1518 -21 Prospect Ave., and
Welding and Bronz1520-26 Brownwell Court.
ing Depts.; large, well equipped machine
shop; Radiator, Fender and Tire Depts. Start
m at once. Drop in and see me, or write -Sam
Brown.
Ohio Auto School
Dept. 212, 1521 Prospect Ave.
CLEVELAND. O.
Learn
ió
INT
NoWyCARDS/
electrical means for warming rooms. To
the variety of these equipments now available there has been added recently a new
line of electric portable and fireplace heaters, which is made by a Western manu-
S'NCBPersonally l teach
by mail.
to years' successful teach
Big field for men and
omen. Yo. can
EARN SIB TO S45 A WEEK
Weaver Canada, saveYour course increased
Write forfullpnrticulare. See what's in It for you. r
A complete assortment of these is on
display in the Manufacturers' Building at
the Panama- Pacific International Exposi-
Chao. d.
facturer.
Own
The Auto hnslnesa is growing by leaps and
h Hinds; there are better opportunities now than
ever before, for properly trained men as Chauf-
MIR N. Y. ELECTRICAL SCHOOL is the pioneer and
Learn by Doing" method.
premier school of the
When you have completed this Course you shall be fully
qualified to handle ALL branches of Electricalindustry.
The equipment of this School is unequalled and up-to-theminute. No preparation needed to become a "learner" in
this school. You can start to learn on any day of any
week throughout the whole year.
Send for catalogue.
NEW ELECTRIC AIR WARMERS.
The approach of cool weather is directing attention to the subject of convenient
LEARN the
AUTO
BUSINESS
Earn a Splendid
Salary or Have a
Business of Your
(To be continued.)
DETROIT SCHOOL OF LETTERING
Strong, Founder
tion.
These heaters are all of unique construction, with one or more heating units. The
one shown in Fig. 1 resembles an enlarged
desk telephone stand, and has one heating
unit consuming 615 watts. It is made of
brass, highly nickeled. The height of the
outfit is 16 inches, and the base is 6.5 inches
in diameter. The weight is about five
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Dept. 3712, Detroit
You May Learn Theory, Code and
Laws of Radio Communication
In
Our School or at Your Home,
fitting you for positions paying good sal
area with wonder( ul chance to travel sae
world over. It's the most interesting profession known and the demand for skilled
Operator. is increasing. Send stamp for gals
ich gives full information.
alog
NATIONAL RADIO SCHOOL.
Washington. D. C.
1405 U
St
THE
December, 1915
'
We
Guarantee
First Grade
r y^`
Commercial
Operators'
Licenses
Teach
and
14
Specialize
i
1
Solely
We
on Radio
Telegraphy
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
445
pounds, making this a very handy device
that can' be readily placed where desired.
The reflector behind the heating unit directs
the heat to the point where it is needed.
The heater, or rather stove, shown at
Fig. 2, will take the place of a small coal
or oil stove, and it stands 28 inches in
height. It weighs 13 pounds and has two
heating units which consume 960 watts.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN .roa-
7wi// study and got
ready and maybe
my chance will come:'
LEARN WIRELESS
SEE THE WORLD
YOUR Chance
Will Come
AND
GET PAID FOR
DOING IT
Last year every one of our graduates successpassed his required commercial Government Examination upon the first trial.
These
results speak for themselves. Send a stamp for
new fall prospectus. Fall classes now forming.
fully
Eastern Radio Institute
899
B. Boylston St., Boston, Mass.
START NOW
Fig.
TELEGRAPHY
1
and WIRELESS
( ff
Studen s who start now reap the ad'Il vantages of the wonderful opportunities created by the war and which will
multiply when peace is declared.
/1r Our book on "Telegraphy and Wire "Il less as an Occupation" sent on receipt of IOc. It gives much necessary
and valuable information.',
BOSTON SCHOOL OF TELEGRAPHY
18 Boylston St., Boston, Mass.
I
WILL
TEACH YOU ENGINEERING
TECHNICAL
WORK
ACHINE DESIGN c
E
This is the hest course ever publicly
offered. It includes work and drawings made by me for the past 27 years
for U. S. and Foreign Governments. It constitute. a complete
study of all branches of machine design. mechanical drawing and real
shop system. None of the usual Correspondence School out and dried material. It starts at the hegioning.takea
through
u
h
advancs
Poblhermos
nd
until you have a thorough training In
Machine Design and a fair knowledge of U. Sand Foreign patentlaws.
1.
Small Size Electric Neater
of New Type. ,
Body and guard are finished in white or
black enamel, the balance of the heater being highly nickeled.
This form of heater will give a great
deal more satisfaction to the user than
any electric heater yet placed on the market, say the builders. High efficiency is
obtained by operating the heating units at
a high temperature, thus increasing the resistance and decreasing the operating cost.
They can produce heat comparing with
other radiators at approximately 20 per
cent. lower amperage.
They do not depend solely on the wire
temperature for radiation, and the high
temperature surrounding the unit is not
affected by outside atmospheric conditions
as readily as the comparative low temperature produced by other heaters; in other
words, it is a more permanent heat.
'=kléiy.sï
MAIL A POSTAL FOR FREE LESSON.
Pay as you learn. Terns arranged to suit yourself.
Your chance will come. Some
day you'll be considered for
promotion or for a good job in
some other line of work. If
you are ready, you'll go up.
And you CAN get ready. No
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you do have to work
long hours. If you really want
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-if
Correspondence Schools can
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More than Five Thousand I.C.S.
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What the I.C.S. have done for
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Mark the Coupon NOW
é Bldg. Bridgeport,Gt.
CONSULTING ENGINEER, 57
Just mark the osition or occupation you prefer and mail the
coupon today. Finding out costs
nothing.
Your Personal Needs
Meet
If you want to specialize in some form of electrical
education suited to your needs, for a longer or shorter
time, there is one place giving you boundless opportunity. High school not required for this work. Also,
usual s urses to degrees.
Open nearly all the year.
Stat almost any time. Expert faculty. Cost low
now. Write for information to
International Correspondence Schools
Box
HIGHLAND PARK COLLEGE
president,
Born in a log cabin, Abraham
Lincoln had little chance to
acquire an education. But
he was determined to succeed.
"Some day," he said, "my
chance will come." So he
studied and got ready. And
his chance DID come.
1071 -T,
ELECTRICAL ENG.
Electric Lighting
Electrician
Interior Wiring
Electric Car Running
Telephone Engineer
Telegraph Engineer
STEAM ENGINEER
Mining Engineer
ThereisaneverincreasLearn Wireless Telegraphy. rag
demand for competent operators-this profession offers steady employment.
eta good eelary=wireless operators t ravel all over the world.
The PAINE Uptown BUSINESS SCHOOL
1931 Broadway, (65th) New York. Bendier Catalog E
TELEGRAPHY
PHY
AND
Taught by retired railway officer. Railway wires in
advanced ro Expenses earned.
All .graduates
placed direct in the telegraph service.
Send for Folders and Rates
Pelear School of Telegraphy, Madison, Wis.
Americas Scientific Railway Traininafehoot
Scranton, Pa.
Please explain, without ob !gating me. how I can qualify
for the position. trade or profession before which I have
marked X.
George P. Magill, A. M., D.D.
Des Moines, Iowa
Fig.
2.
Electric Stove of Neat Pattern.
Consumes goo Watts.
Superior durability for the heating unit
is claimed and from the thermal point of
view in regard to durability, the individual
parts of the units are being operated on
an average of 30 per cent, below fusing
Point. and this allows for any condition
arising which may cause trouble in case
of an excessive voltage.
Chemist
BOOKKEEPER
Higher Accounting
Shorthand &Typewn'g
Good Eng. for Evr'yone
CIVIL SERVICE
Railway Mail Clerk
SALESMANSHIP
ADVERTISING
Shop Pracdn
Cu Engineer
ARCHITECT
Builder & Contractor
Structural Draftsman
Plumbing and Headng
CIVIL ENGINEER
Surveyor
Railroad Construcdon
CONCRETE ENG.
Textile Manufacturing
ILLUSTRATOR
WindowTrimmer
Show -Card Writer
Agriculture
AUTO. RUNNING
Name
Street and No.
City
Occupation
Employed by _
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MECHANICAL ENG.
Mechaninl Draftsmen
Starr
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ELECTRICAL
THE
q.}6
SquareDea]
sy,
Miller
191,
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Ready/
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Hamilton
Howard
Elgin
'Illinois- Rockford
Alt 1916 Models.
I amthe first mm In the country offer rvO
the New 191e Model& of America's
w
best known watches. 1 have them all,
the latest products of the world
You can get
moat famous factories.
nu."
too,the latest mountings forDlemonda
and the most uptredste Jewelry, at the
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No Money Down
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You take no chances with me. I am 'Square Deal" Miller
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New 1919
country. Suppose you want a watch.
Model, a brand new up to date one, Name any one. 1
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have it for you.
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I
the Terms
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1916 Catalog FREE sroam:
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from me that will make
Square DealUMILLER, Pres.
Miller -Hoofer Co.,
515
Miller Bldg., Detroit, Mich.
CHEMCRAFT
CHEMICALS
-
(39 Chemical Reagents)
(All Necessary Apparatus)
APPARATUS
(The Chemcraft Book)
INSTRUCTIONS
for performing over 50 Different Experiments. Each
experiment can be repeated many times.
Under the heading "Chemistry and Its Application to the Industries" are many experiments in
which the products of our great chemical industries
are really manufactured on a small scale. Everything is explained in a clear interesting way.
Chemcraft also contains 30 mysterious experiments in Chemical Magic.
It's great fun to show
these to your friends.
If your dealer does not have Chemcraft we will
send yours direct. Price $1.50 postpaid. Descrip-
tive literature sent on request.
THE PORTER CHEMICAL CO., Hagerstown, Md.
EXPERIMENTERS
We have what you want.
TO BREAK FOGS BY ELECTRICAL
WAVES.
Shipping men in New York are interested in an announcement from San Francisco
that experiments are to be made there in an
effort to dispel fog by the use of electrical
waves. The problem of clearing such inland waters as New York Harbor from the
dense mists that often interfere with navigation has engaged the attention of experts for many years, but no scheme within
reasonable cost has yet been brought forward.
Recently oil has been suggested. The
Hydrographic Office of the navy is tentatively considering this subject.
The news from San Francisco is to the
effect that Government scientists have constructed a giant electrical machine with
which experiments are to be carried on in
the harbor. The machine is a giant electrical transformer, the largest one ever built.
It can take a current of 1,000 kilowatts at
2,300 volts and "step" it up to 1,000,000
volts. This charge is expected to produce
a broad, continuous flash of lightning 100
feet long. Experts believe the result of
this electrical disturbance will be to clear
up a fog or mist for some distance; that
is, in comparatively inclosed waters. The
experiments will be watched with great interest by steamship men and navy officers.
Peter Cooper Hewitt, a recognized expert
in matters electrical, in expressing his
views as to the efficacy of this method,
said: "I have not gone into the question,
so I am unable to properly discuss it, but
I see nothing improbable in its efficiency.
It might work in small inclosed spaces and
under proper conditions. As I recollect,
somewhat similar experiments were conducted several years ago on the Thames at
London to clear the deck spaces of the
fogs. The results were said to be of a satisfactory character, but what has been done
since then, if there has been any continuance of the work, I am not informed."
BOOK REVIEWS.
ALTERNATING- CURRENT ELECTRICITY AND ITS
TO
INDUSTRY.
(First
APPLICATION
Course.) By W. H. Timbie and H. H.
Higbee. Cloth covers; 534 pages; 51/4x8
inches; 370 illustrations. Price, $2.00.
Pub:ished by John Wiley & Sons, N. Y.
City.
THE BOYS' OWN LABORATORY
A Complete Outfit of
EXPERIMENTER
Samarskite,
radio-active mineral,based uponUran :um.
100 lbs. contain 1.75 milligrams Radium.
Price per pound $4.20; large discounts on
orders of 5 pounds and over. 1 oz. sample
sent for 60 cts. cash.
Le -Bar Chem. Co., MineralctProd, vatio., Md.
This book is planned to meet the requirements
for a work r simple enough to be readily understood
by the beginners, yet sufficiently advanced to form
a basis for engineering calculations and practical
A. C. work.
Power transmission, fundamental ideas of A. C.
currents, different arrangements of circuits, power
factors, reactance and construction of single and
polyphase generators, are among the subjects covered.
The text is well illustrated with many clear analogies and photos of actual apparatus. The subject is covered in a rather broad manner to give
the reader a clear grasp on alternating current
theory and practise, while the authors promise
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APPLIED
ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY
AND
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By Charles F. Burgess, E.E., and
George W. Cravens. Cloth covers; 140
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Published by American Technical Society, Chicago, 1915. Price, $1.50.
ING.
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\\
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the latest developments in long- distance wireless
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very thoroughly and completely.
BY
WIRELESS PHONE FROM ARLINGTON TO PARIS.
(Continued front page 393.)
Paris and also in Honolulu.
"We have now heard from all our expeditions, and it is interesting to note that
the circle of the area covered by these
expeditions was about 10,000 miles in diameter. Never in history was such an expedition ever undertaken as was this one."
"How long was it before Webb in Arlington was able to establish communication
with Shreeve in Paris, and what test words
were used ?" Mr. Carty was asked.
"Owing to the very limited time at their
disposal, it was necessary to cable the exact
minute during which the Eiffel Tower plant
was available," he replied, "and in those
few seconds Webb did his talking. Signals
had been previously arranged, first by numbers, and then followed by words. Shreeve
was to cable what he got after each testthat is, provided he got anything-and, as
you know, the signals were heard on three
different nights. Owing to the fact that
there is now in existence only one set of
transmitting instruments, and that at Arlington, the talk, of necessity, as was the
case with San Diego, Honolulu and the
other places reached by the expedition, had
to be one -sided."
[Editor's Note. -For details and illustrations of apparatus used at Arlington in
Honolulu talk, see November, 1915, issue
of The Electrical Experimenter.]
December, 1915
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THE
December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
449
FREQUENCY CURRENTS
AND APPARATA.
HIGH
J'))
(Continued from page 405.)
experiments with high frequency currents
will be found described in the series of
many excellent books listed at the end of
this discourse. It can also be said that we
of to -day know very little about these high
frequency currents and their possibilities.
Nikola Tesla has done more in this direction
than any other person, as can be readily judged from the fact that over 15 years ago he
successfully produced sparks 100 feet long
resembling in volume and sound the lightning discharges we have all seen in nature
(not imitation ones). It is hoped that this
article may serve to kindle the spirit of
research along these lines in the young experimenter's mind, and he surely will be
amply rewarded for any discoveries he may
make in this little -understood branch of
electrical science, which bids fair to unlock
the door to a future electrical era of which
our generation has no reasonable conception at this time.
Nikola Tesla.
Electricity at High Pressures and Frequencies. By Henry L. Transtrom.
Wireless Telegraphy and High Frequency
Electricity. By Prof. H. ,LaV. Twining.
Wireless Telegraphy. (Covers Tesla's
wireless transmission of power patents.)
By Charles Henry Sewall.
Articles Published in Back Numbers of
Electrical Experimenter.
A Vs-kw. Tesla Coil.
Page 73, Septem-
ber, 1913.
Currents of Utra -High Frequency and
Potential. Page 151, February, 1914.
A Tesla Transformer for One -Inch
Spark Coils. Page 187, April, 1914.
Electro- therapeutics and High Frequency
Apparatus. Pages 20 -23, June, 1914.
Some Experiments with High Frequency
Currents (in two parts). Page 24, June,
1914 ; page 119, December, 1914.
High Frequency Currents -Explanation
and Apparatus (in two parts). Page 68,
September, 1914; page 84, October, 1914.
A Miniature High Frequency Outfit.
(Construction details given.) Page 123,
1w.
4..
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Department of Signaling
Outfits
FREE
Complete Signal Engineer's
OutStandcomplete Draft-s.
I
e'
Signaling
a
of any kind. We will send you our !Agnew Book absolutely free,
and prepaid. Read about this fascinating profession. Read
about the opportunities that await you. The book is free. Send e
the coupon for It now -it's the first step toward the realization of your ambition. Get your name and address in at once. e'
Room 3389, 1010 Wilson Avenue, Ravenswood Station, Chicago
Two Big
Block signal systemeare no longmin's Outfit
erin the experimental stage. All
giveú away
over the country they are being
tely free
ab
installed. Some States h eve legis.
to our students
lated to compel the railroads to
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Nance you have been looking
for, We are calling you. Take
Department
immediate advantage of this
wonderful opportunity. ee of
Don't fail to send the conReam 3389
n today for our big free
a 1810 Wilson
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tiulars. Do it NOW.
Chicago, lilinols
Put your name and address on the coupon or on a letter
or a post card now. and send it to us. Absolutely no obligations
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Gentlemen: -Please send
me absolutely
free and pre -
S,urnai yEngineeeriing. Also full
about
spal free outfit otter.yourIt isgreat
disparticulars
no
any kinds
sesame
Name
Address
Age
Occupation
Cuts the toughest wire with the least strain
"RED DEVIL" NIPPER No. 542 -6
I
lb. handle pressure gives zo lbs. cutting pressure.
Hand -honed. "stay sharp" cutting edges, slip -proof,
scientifically shaped handles. Sample 85c postpaid.
Pages 54-55, June,
1915.
MECHANIC'S TOOL BOOK FREE
loc. ISN Sh
SMITH & HEMENWAY CO.,
ELECTRICAL" WINS
AWARDS AT WORLD'S FAIR.
"HOME
The 900.000 persons who have inspected
the "Home Electrical" display at the Panama- Pacific International Exposition will
be interested to know that the General
Electric Co.'s exhibit has been awarded two
gold medals by the international jury of
awards. One of the gold medals was
awarded for the high educational value of
the display, while the completeness of the
exhibit and its drawing power as an attraction carried off the ott.er gold prize.
The "Home Electrical" presents a full sized model home of Spanish-California
bungalow design, in which world's fair
visitors see a practical demonstration of
how electric energy performs all the household labors and adds to the comforts of
living.
gineering is calling to ambitious
men. Our ranks are not over-
Send Coupon for Big New Book .ae.
December, 1914.
'Spectacular Discharges and Large Tesla
Coils (36 -inch spark apparatus. Construction details given).
b
.
'14'4
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Books Recommended.
The Theory and Design of Induction
Coils. By H. Armagnat.
(Electro'High Frequency Currents
therapeutical). By Dr. Frederick Finch
Strong.
Experiments with Alternating (Currents
of High Potential and Frequency. By
í
The Newest Thing in
Flashlights
Your watch on one end of your
chain, your WATCHLITE on
the other.
Not merely a novelty, but a useful, serviceable flashlight.
Bright Star Battery Co.
Factory and Main Office:
NEW YORK
Branches:
MONTREAL
CHICAGO
"WATCHLITE"
You benefit by mentioning "Tice Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
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rkClty`>
THE
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
TO FOIL SUBMARINES WITH
UNDERSEA SEARCHLIGHTS.
(Continued front page 392.)
Big Money
in
Electricity
The electrical industries offer wonderful opportunities for boys with
a liking for electricity. The salaries paid to trained men are large
-promotion comes rapidly, and,
best of all, the profession is not
overcrowded.
The opening of new lines, from
time to time, (such as wireless tel-.
egraphy and telephony), promise
attractive and paying fields to those
who wish to specialize. The will
to do and Special Training will
bring success to you.
The International Correspondence
Schools of Scranton can help to
make you an expert in electrical
work. Hundreds of boys have
already won success through
I. C. S. help. You can do the
same. Everything is made so clear
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or what you do. No books to
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There's big money in electricity. Get
after it by marking and mailing the
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costs you nothing.
Mark the Coupon -NOW
INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE
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Explain, without obligation to me, how I can
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Automobile Running
Motor Boat Running
Electrical Engin'er's
Electric Lighting
Electric Railways
Dynamo Running
Telep. & Teleg. Eng.
Mechanical Eng'r'g
Mechanical Drafting
Shop Practice
Steam Engineering
Mine Fore. & Supt.
Chemistry
tenog. &Typewrit'g
Bookkeeping
R. R. Accounting
Good English for Ev'yone'
Civil Service
Architecture
Contracting & Build.
Structural Engin'g
Plumb'g & Heat`g
Civil Engineering
Salesmanship
Advertising
_IAgriculhire
Name
Street and No
' City
Sta
o=upa=c=
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_J
this end the inventors make use of an observation tube. This can be any of the
well-known devices for seeing beneath the
surface, but they prefer the rttariscopc,
shown at 16, arranged adjacent to the tube
10 and being curved at right angles 17 and
18 at top and bottom. A lens 19 is provided at the lower extremity of the tube.
and opposite this is an inclined mirror 20,
with another above. 21. at the upper end of
the tube; from this the rays are refracted
to the sight hole 22, at the end of the tube
17, so that when any object appears in the
illutttinated field its image, or at least a
shadow of it, will be caught by the mariscope and seen in the sight opening 22.
As soon as they had devised a means of
locating an object in the path of a vessel
to be destroyed the inventors next foresaw
the necessity for having some means at
hand of attaining this end. They devised,
therefore, a torpedo tube 23 at the bow of
the vessel and adjacent to the means for
locating the object. Our illustration herewith shows a torpedo being discharged. The
inventors would have it understood, however, that their invention does not lie in any
detail of the torpedo tube or of its location, but that any means of discharging a
torpedo or other missile from the bow or
from the submerged part of a vessel can be
employed in connection with their means of
locatng the object to be destroyed and
their invention of an electrical device for
exploding a discharged torpedo when it hits
or reaches the vicinity of the object to be
destroyed.
As illustrated, the torpedo 24 has connecting wires 25 with any usual or preferred sparking device, wound into a cable
26, which is carried on a reel 27. The terminals 29 on board the vessel are connected
by means of two wires with a source of
supply of electricity provided with a controlling key 30. When it is seen that the
torpedo is in the immediate vicinity of the
submarine, mine or other object it can be
immediately exploded by closing the circuit.
"We have shown our apparatus attached
to the bow of a vessel." said Professor
Parker, "but it is obvious that it can be applied to any other part as well, and thus
provide a certain means of defense. As a
means of offense the importance of the invention will be readily seen, and it will also
be noticed that if several vessels equipped
with the helioscope and mariscope were approaching abreast a mine field or fleet of
submarines a very extensive field would be
illuminated and placed under observation,
so that the object of danger could easily be
destroyed. Furthermore, it is apparent that
where the objects of danger are readily located a surface vessel, because of its greater
speed and mobility, can easily avoid such
objects, even if it cannot destroy them."
ELECTRIC BRANDING IRON.
For branding hams, bacon and other
packinghouse products, a new electrically
heated iron has been invented, which receives its current from an ordinary lamp
socket at a cost of but one- fourth of a
cent an hour.
THE UNITED STATES ADVISORY
BOARD AND ITS PERSONNEL.
(Continued front page 399.)
Society of America. He is also a member
of other scientific societies, including the
Aerodynamic Commission of the Aero Club
of America. Besides his other numerous
activities in the realm of flying machines
and allied devices, he has investigated the
determination of air pressure on arched
www.americanradiohistory.com
December, 19th
surfaces, and is the inventor of a stepped
aeroplane that is the lightest machine so
far built, it is said.
From the realm of mining engineering
the Naval Advisory Board has been happily favored with the selection of two eminent specialists nominated by the American Institute of Mining Engineers, These
gentlemen are William Lawrence Saunders
and Benjamin Bowditch Thayer, both of
New York City. Mr. Saunders is a mining engineer of great prominence and was
born in Columbus, Ga., in 18:.6. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania
and for some time was in charge of the
hydrographic work of the National Storage
Co. He is serving at this tame as president of the Ingersoll -Sargeant Drill Co.,
the Imperial Tool Co., and the Ingersoll Rand Co., and at one time he was editor
of The Compressed Air Magazine. He is
a specialist in the design of compressed air
inach:nery and has invented many important devices in this field. Mr: Thayer was
born in San Francisco and graduated from
Harvard University. He is a well -known
mining engineer and is president of the
American Institute of Mining Engineers,
and, industrially, he is president of the
Anaconda Mining Co.
This brilliant staff of specialists includes
two all-around men of science, as selected
by the American Chemical Society, in the
persons of Dr. Leo H. Baekeland, of Yonkers, N. Y., and Professor William R.
Whitney, of Schenectady, N. Y. As a
chemist of repute Dr. Baekeland is well
known. He has also produced several im-
portant
industrial
productions based on
chemical affinity. He was born at Ghent,
Belgium, in 1863 and graduated from the
University of Ghent, where he served later
as Assistant Professor and the Associate
Professor of Chemistry. He also has been
Professor of Chemistry in the higher Normal School at Bruges. He is also the inventor of the well -known Velox gaslight
paper so widely used by amateur and professional photographers, and besides invented the famous Bakelite used very extensively for all kinds of electrical and
other insulating requirements. Professor
Whitney was born at Jamestown, N. Y., in
1868 and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he
served afterward as Instructor, Assistant
Professor and finally rs Professor of
Chemistry. The greatest electric corporation in the world -the Gener1 Electric Co.
-now counts him as one of its most valued men, and he is the directjr of the research laboratory of that immense industrial and scientific organization, which has
solved more problems of an electrical and
other nature than probably any other industrial concern of similar age.
. From the field of electro- chemistry there
has been contributed to the Board two able
authorities: viz., Professor Joseph William
Richards, of South Bethlehem. Pa., and
Lawrence Addicks, of Chrome, N. J. Professor Richards is the instructor in metallurgy and mineralogy at Lehigh University.
He was born at Oldbury, England, in 1864
and his early education war obtained in the
public schools of Philadelphia. He was
honored with degrees from Lehigh University and later spent considerable time in
advanced study at Heidelberg, Germany.
Mr. Addicks is considered an authority on
the metallurgy of copper, and acts in the
capacity of superintendent of the plant of
the United States Metal Refining Co. at
Chrome, N. J. He was born at Philadelphia in 1878 and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the
degree of Bachelor of Science in mechanical and electrical engineering. He has held
important positions as consulting engineer
THE
T)cccfnbcr, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
451
and is very well known in his chosen line
of work as a man of great ability and resource.
HOW
THE "WIRELESS WIZ"
CELEBRATED XMAS.
(Continued from page 397.)
Complete Set of
Drawing Instruments
run out again should the current be fed
to the third rail of the side -track. The
track switch is pulled into the straightaway
by operating the switch 10. The express
train will then continue to run around and
may be reversed and backed into its station, 'B.' The freight train can br backed
off the siding by closing the switch 3, and
by means of the current reverser, X', can
be made to go around the track. It is
yrs.!
will give you this complete set
of drawing instrutments absolutely
free. They are regular working instruments -the kind I use myself and they
do not cost you a penny, And besides the
instruments in this exquisite plush lined
leather case. I wall give you absolutely
free a 20x25 inch drawing board, a 24
inch T- square, a 12 in rule, a suraly of
drawing paper, two triangles, a French
curve, pencils, erasers, thumb tacks, etc..
etc. A complete draftsman's working
outfit. And I give it to the men who get
my personal instruction absolutely free,
understood that by properly manipulating
these switches and working the rheostat
R that some quite effective situations may
be ereated.
"An eleetrie whistle was mounted in one
of the stations, and this was operated by
a push button before the train was started.
"The electro-magnetic stops arc made as
depicted in sketch C. and consist merely
of a bent strip of brass or small wood
box supporting an electro- magnet, to which
is pivoted an arm, 1, which is raised into
posi.ion by the electrie eurrent in the coil.
to throw the current reverser on the train
ill the usual manner.
"The Christmas tree was supported from
the eeiling by means of a turnbuckle, and
on the bottom of the trunk were mounted
two large wooden pulleys, as in this figure,
D. A friction drive from the motor, M,
and the pulley, G, gave sufficient reduetion
gearing, so that the tree would run very
slowly. I had concealed about two dozen
tiny lamps in the foliage of the trees,
which were fed through a eommutator
(see D), arranged as detailed, to cause
the lamps to flash; furthermore, some of
the trimmings were coated with ealcium
sulphide, which glowed in the dark after
the lights were shut off.
"The second pulley, H. by means of a
belt -drove pulley, I, in the reverse direction to that of the tree. The shaft of this
pulley was fastened to the drum in the
lighthouse, on which was mounted colored
sheets of eelluloid. The body of the lighthouse was made of stiff cardboard, and
in the top was mounted a high candlepower tungsten lamp. The wires from this
lamp and the revolving cylinder were arranged as in sketch E. The rocks scattered
around the scene eonsisted of `willemite'
that glowed under the effects of the ultraviolet light. This light was generated by
means of an are lamp (made as in Fig
F) and hung behind the rear screen, which
had a half -moon shaped hole eut in it and
cheesecloth pas.ed over it. The sea was
made of thin, blue cloth on which was
laid strips of cotton batting. A rotating
fan underneath the platform caused upheavals of the cloth, and the cotton rolling back and forth gave the effect of rollers breaking on the rocks. The scenery
was made from ordinary sheets, and the
mountains, ete., marked in with chareoal."
"I suppose you used the old scheme of
the microphone to open the doors," I broke
Be a Draftsman!
Draw $125.00 to $175.00 Per Month
There is an urgent demand for skilled draftsmen. Companies are
issuing calls every day for men to fill positions paying from $125.00
to $175.00 per month. Work is light, pleasant and profitable.
Ch ef Draftsman
I have been doing
the highest paying expert drafting work hr a qaarter of a century and
know the kind of training that is demanded from the men who get the
big salaries. I will give you personal instruction deal individually with
you and give you up -to -date. practical working plans just as your ability
train you by giving you actual work
and advancement require.
practical work. the kind that you must be able to do in order to hold
big paying positions.: will give you my individual instruction.
Ifpermanent.
f your work is right, I will advance you rapidly. If it is wrong, will show
you where, and make you do it right, and do all I can to make you an expert draftsman and designer in a short time. Write today without fail.
1
night
want the
WHATI
kind of en. Don't
pother about the expense.
I charge a very small fee for
training you to be an experienced draftsroan.Youscan
pay the small cost as nits
you best.
develop expert draftsmen.
-
1
1
Send Coupon For
Chief Draftsman Dobe
My Big New Book
Put your name and address on the free coupon or
a letter or a post card and send it to me today. I
will send you absolutely free and prepaid my new
book "Successful Draftsmanship. and the great
special offer that I am now making on which you
get the $15.00 Draftsman's Working Outfit absolutely free. You assume no obligations of any
kind in sending in the coupon. Get in line now
for a big paying position. Getting the book and
full particulars of the special offer is the first step.
Chief Draftsman Dobe
Engineer's Equipment Co., Inc.
Chicago, Illinois
Div. 3389
You Can Only
Engineer's Equipment Co., Inc.
Div. 3389
Chicago, Illinois
Without any obligation on me
whatsoever please mail your book
Successful Draftsmanship' and
full particulars of your liberei Per-
sonal Instruction offer to a few
students. It is understood that I
am obligated in no way whatever.
Name_
Address
battery.
lights
and
Batteries are
If
cannot supply
you with our product
write directly to us
for Catalogue A2.
"Cigarette"
made in a wide
variety
of
-
styles and shapes but
only one quality
THE BEST.
LiIIPIMIIlIt3t611-
NE IDEAL m`P`Oz
)qTStPT2.] 1914
OTHERS vEXaln6
-y-,
si=
-
"Ideal Fountain Light."
Beacon Electric Works of National Carbon Co.,
118-20
NEW YORK
BRANCHES : CHICAGO, SAN FRANCISCO
in
._.._,.
Beacon Flash-
your dealer
"Yes," he replied, "the same old thing,
except that the relay, after once closing,
kept the contacts closed and supplied current to the motor until the door was fully
opened, when the circuit was broken by
means of two springs; here's the hook-up.
I'll mark it Fig. G."
"Well, I'll never forget that scene," I remarked as I was leaving.
"Yes, and I'll never forget the job I'll
have in cleaning up in time for the New
Year's party," grunted the "Wiz."
.._.._..._..........
secure the best in FLASHLIGHTS
and BATTERIES by insisting that
this trade -mark
is on flashlight -case and
in.
Yon benefit by
You Personally
I am Chief Draftsman of a large and well known firm.
Pay as YouWish!
is
Will Instruct
ntinp ing "The Electrical Experimenter" :rhea writing to advertisers.
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iï
THE
452
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
December, 1915
SLICING
FOR YOUR BENEFIT
In announcing these wonderful prit es it is with
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Presents, and they certainly make ideal gifts being a constant reminder
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THE
;December, 1915
ELECTRICAL
EXPERIMENTER
SLICING
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i _i
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THE
454
WIRELESS TOP FOR AN AUTOMOBILE.
two officers were seated. The motor had
(broken down, and the officers were made
prisoners.
In glancing over the car one of the patrol
noticed a wire connection to the metallic
"skeleton" of the raised top. Following
the wire, he pulled from under the seat a
Dykes Book -FREE
chauffeur and repair-
man-SEND FOR IT-T.-d" -n..I
&L.OIRE :32 Rs* 81d0.8t. LDnls,Mo
(Continued from page 400.)
produced that the spectator really thinks
he is at the actual field. Every movement
made at the regular ball ground is shown
instantaneously at the miniature one here
shown. This is accomplished by means of
an operator situated on the field, who telegraphs each movement that occurs on the
whole field; even if the players are practising or the mascot lifting the bat off
the ground, etc. All this is carefully and
exactly shown on the screen.
The entire scheme is based on the reversed motion picture theory; instead of
the film moving from one eeetitik another
in front of a light, the light mZifol& behind
a fixed transparent film. This film or
transparent screen, to be more exact. is a
solid mass of miniature baseball figures.
anyone of which becomes animated with
the switching on of an electric light in
the rear. Each figure is carefully concealed in a light -tight box, and when a
play is about to be enacted, the operator
moves his light along a line of the figures,
each becoming successively illuminated and
instilled with life in due course.
The players run bases, sliding head or
feet first, jump into the air for the ball
and in exactly the same way as the player
does in real life. Also, as the photograph
shows, a miniature bleacher crowd is placed
in front of the screen, and at either side
of same are mounted complete score
boards, which give the names of the players, their position on the team, the "runs,"
"hits" and "errors." "Outs," "bar's" and
"strikes" are duly recorded instantly by
electric bulbs, placed alongside these terms,
and which appear in the illustration.
This wondrful device is the outcome of
three years of continuous labor and ingenuity on the part of George S. Coleman.
Photograph by courtesy of I. Stein, of
Life -Like Baseball Player Co.
Handy Binder
for THE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER
Ti3f=
ELECTRICAL
IENTER
EXpE
December, 1915
SEEING A BASEBALL GAME BY
WIRE.
The companies constructing the new steel
barges that will ply the Mississippi River
use electricity to insure absolute safety
from fire for their cotton and other inflammable cargoes. Electric energy is now used
to operate the motor -driven cranes for
loading and discharging cargoes and for
cooking and heating in the officers' and
crews' cabins.
iotereelinr, instructive -tells you
how to Item AUTO TRADE. how
a
EXPERIMENTER
telephone receiver, and holding it to his
ear was dumfounded when he could
plainly hear a message coming from nowhere in particular.
The top skeleton formed the receiving
wires of a wireless station, and the message came from the nearest headquarters of
the army corps to which the officers belonged.
A report from Belgium tells of the most
extraordinary use of an automobile top. It
seems that a British patrol succeeded in
capturing a German touring car in which
to become
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