standard operating procedures manual for the brewer

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES MANUAL
FOR THE
BREWER SPECTROPHOTOMETER
Version: D.01
June 12, 2008
Environment Canada
4905 Dufferin Street
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M3H 5T4
1
Table of Contents
1. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Document History
2. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Acknowledgements
3. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Preface
4. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abbreviations
5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Safety Issues
5.1. Overview
5.2. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
5.3. Hazard—Electrocution
8
9
10
11
12
12
12
13
5.3.1. Power LEDs ......................................................................................13
5.3.2. Power Switch Terminals ...................................................................14
5.3.3. Power Cables ....................................................................................14
5.3.4. Tracker Power Terminal Strip...........................................................14
5.3.5. Maintenance and Weather.................................................................14
5.4. Hazard—Permanent Damage to Eyesight from UV Irradiance
5.5. Hazard—Back Injury from Handling Brewer Spectrophotometer
5.6. Hazard—Injury due to Tripping over Cables or Tripod
5.7. Hazard—Information from the Manufacturer
14
14
15
15
6. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Introduction 16
6.1. Measurement Principles and Theory
16
6.1.1. Ozone and sulfur dioxide ..................................................................16
6.1.2. UV.....................................................................................................16
6.1.3. Umkehr .............................................................................................16
6.1.4. Aerosol optical depth ........................................................................16
6.1.5. NO2 ...................................................................................................16
6.2. The Brewer Spectrophotometer
6.3. Brewer Models and Measurement Capabilities
6.4. Basic Component Assemblies
6.5. Communication Configuration
16
17
19
20
7. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Maintenance 21
7.1. Critical Maintenance Warnings
21
7.1.1. Overview...........................................................................................21
7.1.2. Photomultiplier Tube ........................................................................21
7.1.3. Excess Moisture ................................................................................21
7.1.4. Optical Surfaces ................................................................................21
7.1.5. Lubricants..........................................................................................21
7.2. Routine Maintenance
22
7.2.1. Overview...........................................................................................22
7.2.2. Brewer Log Form..............................................................................22
7.2.3. Daily Maintenance ............................................................................23
7.2.4. Bi-Weekly Maintenance (every two weeks) .....................................25
7.2.5. Bi-Monthly (every two months)........................................................31
7.2.6. Unscheduled Maintenance ................................................................33
8. ------------------------------------------------------------------Hardware Installation 37
2
8.1. Overview
8.2. Brewer System Requirements
8.3. Site Selection
8.4. Installation Surface
37
37
38
38
8.4.1. Building Roof Top Installation .........................................................39
8.4.2. Ground Installation ...........................................................................39
8.4.3. Platform installation on Building Roof Top or on Ground...............39
8.5. Brewer Spectrophotometer Assembly Instructions
8.6. Leveling the Brewer Tripod
8.7. Leveling the Brewer’s Optical Assembly
8.8. Protective Covers for NO2/Red Brewer Viewers
8.9. Computer System Installation and Connection
39
40
44
47
47
9. ------------------------------------------ Software Installation and Configuration 48
9.1. Overview
9.2. Installation of current version of the Brewer GWBasic Software
9.3. Computer and Brewer Software Configuration for Autoboot
9.4. Start the Brewer Software
9.5. Setting the Buffer Delay (if required)
9.6. Brewer Time-Keeping Options
9.7. Configure Software for Brewer Location and Station Pressure
9.8. Configure Software for Date and Time
9.9. Sighting
9.10. Place the Brewer on Schedule
48
48
49
49
49
50
52
52
52
52
10. -----------------------------------------------------------------------Data Acquisition 52
10.1. Overview
10.2. Introduction to Schedules
10.3. Schedule Conventions
10.4. Sample Schedules
52
53
53
55
10.4.1. Sample Schedule for all Latitudes and Brewer Models ..................55
10.4.2. Sample Operational Schedule for a MKIV .....................................62
10.4.3. Sample Operational Schedule for a MKV ......................................69
10.4.4. Sample Schedule for all Latitudes and Brewer Models with Umkehr
Measurements .........................................................................................................74
10.4.5. Sample Direct-Sun Ozone Calibration Schedule for All Brewer Models
.................................................................................................................................80
10.5. Tips for Schedule Writing
83
10.5.1. Micrometer Movement ...................................................................83
10.5.2. Lamp Commands ............................................................................83
10.5.3. DS, ZS, FZ and UV Measurements ................................................84
10.5.4. Focussed Moon Observations .........................................................84
10.5.5. Umkehr Commands ........................................................................84
10.5.6. CI and CZ Scans .............................................................................85
10.6. Sample Schedules
85
11. -------------------------------------------------------------------Routine Diagnostics 85
11.1. Overview
11.2. Daily Error Checks
11.3. Weekly Diagnostic Checks
85
85
86
3
11.3.1. Mercury Lamp Test (hg) .................................................................86
11.3.2. Standard LampTest (sl)...................................................................86
11.3.3. A/D Information Checks (ap) .........................................................87
11.3.4. Dead Time Test (dt) ........................................................................88
11.3.5. Run Stop Test (rs) ...........................................................................89
12. ------------------------------------------Data Analysis and Archival Procedures 91
13. ----------------------------Data Quality Control and Data Quality Assurance 92
14. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Calibrations 93
14.1. Instrument Calibration for Ozone Measurement
14.2. The Information Collected During a Calibration
Introduction 93
93
14.2.1. Instrument Performance History.....................................................93
14.2.2. Data Comparison ............................................................................94
14.2.3. Optics Mechanical Check (all optical surfaces properly constrained)94
14.2.4. Optical Surface Visual Inspection...................................................94
14.2.5. Alignment check .............................................................................95
14.2.6. Motor Inspection and Electro-mechanical Testing .........................95
14.2.7. Azimuth and Elevation Motor Functionality Test ..........................95
14.2.8. Elevation Axis Alignment and Instrument Levelling .....................95
14.2.9. Wavelength Dispersion Constants ..................................................96
14.2.10. Slit Function..................................................................................96
14.2.11. Relative Sensitivity (among wavelengths)....................................96
14.2.12. Absolute temperature coefficients ................................................96
14.2.13. Delay Constant..............................................................................97
14.2.14. Run/Stop Test Results (test of chopper dynamics) .......................97
14.2.15. Dead Time.....................................................................................97
14.2.16. Relative Dispersion Constants (grating 2 v. grating 1 in double).98
14.2.17. Calibration Step Number (on sun and relative to mercury lamp) .98
14.2.18. Grating offset(s) (2 in double spectrometer).................................99
14.2.19. Photomultiplier High Voltage Setting ..........................................99
14.2.20. Calibration of temperature, humidity and pressure sensors. .........99
14.2.21. Measurement of Temperature Dependence of Absolute Sensitivity99
14.2.22. Determination of the neutral density filter properties .................100
14.2.23. Sun Scan to Determine Proper Wavelength Setting ...................100
14.2.24. Calculation of Effective Ozone Absorption Coefficients ...........100
14.2.25. Determination of Extraterrestrial Constant .................................101
14.3. Post Calibration
14.4. Reporting
14.5. Sample calibration report as currently provided by IOS to customers.
101
102
102
15. --------------------------------------------------------- List of available commands 103
15.1. Overview
15.2. AP (ext) Monitor Voltages Printout
15.3. AS (int) Azimuth Tracker to the Sun
15.4. AU (ext) Automatic Operation
15.5. AZ (ext) Azimuth Tracker Zeroing
15.6. B0 (int) Turn off Lamps
103
103
103
104
104
104
4
15.7. B1 (int) Mercury Lamp ON
15.8. B2 (int) Standard Lamp ON
15.9. CF (ext) Instrument Constants File Update
15.10. CI (int) Lamp Scan on Slit #1
15.11. CO (int) Comments
15.12. CY (int) Slitmask Cycles
15.13. CZ (ext) Custom Scan
15.14. DA (int) Date Set
15.15. DS (ext) Direct Sun Observation
15.16. DSP (ext) Dispersion Test
15.17. DSSUM (ext) Direct Sun Data Summary
15.18. DT (ext) Dead Time Measurement
15.19. ED (ext) End of Day
15.20. END_DAY (ext) End of Day (past day)
15.21. FM (ext) Focused Moon Observation
15.22. FMSUM (ext) Focus Moon Data Summary
15.23. FR (ext) Micrometers Reset
15.24. FZ (ext) Focused Sun Observation
15.25. FZSUM (ext) Focused Sun Data Summary
15.26. GS (ext) Gratings Data Collection
15.27. HG (ext) Mercury Wavelength Calibration
15.28. HGSUM (ext) Mercury Lamp Summary
15.29. HP (ext) Grating Synchronization
15.30. HV (ext) High Voltage Test\
15.31. HVSET (ext) High Voltage Set-up
15.32. IC (ext) Instrument Configuration File Update
15.33. LF (ext) Location File Update
15.34. LL (ext) Location Update
15.35. NO (ext) Change Instrument
15.36. OZSUM (ext) Ozone Summary
15.37. PB (ext) Data Playback
15.38. PD (int) Print to Disk
15.39. PF (int) Printer Off
15.40. PN (int) Printer ON
15.41. PO (ext) Printout Instrument Constants
15.42. PZ (int) Point to Zenith
15.43. QS (ext) Quick Scan
15.44. RE (ext) Reset
15.45. REP (ext) Report
15.46. RS (ext) Slit Mask Run/Stop Test
15.47. SA (ext) Solar Angle Printout
15.48. SC (ext) Direct Sun Scan
15.49. SE (ext) Schedule Edit
15.50. SH (ext) Slit Mask (shutter) Motor Timing Test
15.51. SI (ext) Solar Siting
15.52. SIM (ext) Lunar Siting
15.53. SK (ext) Scheduled Operation
15.54. SKC (ext) Continuous (scheduled) Operation
15.55. SL (ext) Standard Lamp
104
104
104
105
105
105
105
105
106
106
107
107
108
108
109
109
109
110
110
110
110
111
111
112
112
112
112
112
113
113
114
114
114
114
115
116
116
116
116
117
117
117
118
118
119
119
119
119
120
5
15.56. SLSUM (ext) Standard Lamp Summary
15.57. SR (ext) Azimuth Tracker Steps Per Revolution
15.58. SS (ext) Direct Sun UV Scan
15.59. ST (ext) Status and Control
15.60. SUM (ext) Summary Data File
15.61. TE (int) Temperature Printout
15.62. TI (int) Time Set
15.63. TT (int) TeleType Communications
15.64. UM (ext) Umkehr Observations
15.65. UV Related Commands
15.66. UA (ext UV.RTN) Timed UX scan
15.67. UB (ext) UV Summary for Schedules
15.68. UF Fast UVB scan
15.69. UL (ext) UV Lamp Scan
15.70. UV (ext) UV(B) Observation
15.71. UVSUM (ext) UV Data Summary
15.72. UX (ext UV.RTN) Extended UV Wavelength Scan
15.73. W0-W4 (ext) Time delays
15.74. XL (ext) Extended External Lamp Scan
15.75. ZB, ZC, ZS (ext) Zenith Sky Observations
15.76. ZE (ext) Zero Zenith Prism
120
121
121
122
122
122
122
122
123
123
123
123
124
124
124
124
125
125
125
125
126
16. ------------------------------------Diagnostic and Troubleshooting Procedures 127
16.1. Aligning and focussing a Single Brewer
128
16.1.1. Preparing for Alignment - Removing the Optical Frame..............128
16.1.2. Setting up ......................................................................................128
16.1.3. Input side alignment......................................................................128
16.1.4. Grating rotation.............................................................................129
16.1.5. Focussing. .....................................................................................130
16.1.6. Beam along the Optical Axis ........................................................130
16.1.7. Beam entering the right of the Optical Axis .................................131
16.1.8. Beam entering the Left of the Optical Axis ..................................131
16.1.9. Make a Plot ...................................................................................131
16.1.10. Adjusting the focus. ....................................................................131
16.1.11. Repeat the Focus Measurement ..................................................131
16.1.12. Re-assembly................................................................................132
16.1.13. UV Focus ....................................................................................132
16.1.14. Spectrum Position - Double Spectrometer..................................132
16.1.15. This needs more - ......................... setting the mechanical reference 132
16.1.16. UV Focus - For single spectrometer ...........................................133
16.1.17. Lock all adjustments. ..................................................................133
16.1.18. Re-assembly. ...............................................................................133
16.2. Removing the Brewer Fore-optics from the Spectrometer Housing
133
16.2.1. Unlatch the cover of the spectrometer weatherproof housing ......133
16.2.2. Lift off the cover. ..........................................................................133
16.2.3. Remove the sight cover plate. .......................................................134
16.2.4. Disconnect the fore-optics motors. ...............................................134
6
16.2.5. Unclip lamb housing and zenith motor connectors.......................134
16.2.6. Remove clamp. .............................................................................134
16.3. Remove the Cover of the Optical Frame.
16.4. Removing the Optical Frame
134
134
16.4.1. Disconnect the motors...................................................................134
16.4.2. Disconnect the Optical Frame from the Bulkhead........................135
16.5. Separating the Optical Frames in the Double Brewer
16.6. Setting up the program to continuously monitor intensity.
16.7. Finding the lines. Double spectrometer.
135
135
135
16.7.1. Put the instrument in teletype mode..............................................136
17. -------------------------------------- Appendix C: Manufacturer’s Information 137
18. -------------------Appendix D: ISO Implementation for Brewer Operation 138
7
1.
DOCUMENT HISTORY
Authors
I
Name
Role
Revision Date
CTM
Dr. C. T. McElroy
Author
2008-06-12
VS
Dr. V. Savastiouk
Author
2008-06-12
TG
Tom Grajnar
Author
2008-06-12
Role
Review Date
nitials
Reviewers
Initials
Name
Reviewer
Approval
Initials
Name
Role
Approval Date
Detailed History of Changes
Rev#
Date
State
Initials
Description of Changes
8
2.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors, Tom Grajnar, Tom McElroy and Vladimir Savastiouk of Environment
Canada, would like to thank the following individuals and organizations:
1. International Ozone Services Inc. for the contribution of operational expertise and calibration
software that they have developed and donated to the Brewer user community over the years;
2. Ben Dieterink of Kipp & Zonen BV for allowing the unrestricted use of the Kipp & Zonen
Instruction Manual, Service Manual and Final Test Record Manual. Much of this
information appears intact and unedited as required for the writing of this document;
3. Michael Kimlin and his staff at the National Ultraviolet Monitoring Center, Department of
Physics and Astronomy at the University of Georgia for making available several procedure
notes.
4. Edmund Wu, a former employee of Environment Canada, for his UV calibration procedure
instructions;
5. Finally, we would also like to express our appreciation to all other contributors and all those
who reviewed the document and provided feedback and advice on how to make it better.
9
3.
PREFACE
This manual was written to provide an overview of Brewer spectrophotometer
measurement principles and theory of operation, installation, maintenance, calibration, data
analysis and troubleshooting.
This manual describes the minimum requirements and procedures needed to achieve high
quality measurements. Documentation of all procedures and results from all instrument
maintenance, tests and calibrations is critical in a world that is moving toward standardized
practices and procedures. A number of Meteorological offices around the world have registered
their organization to the ISO 9000 standard. The Meteorological Service of Canada is one of
these offices and the Canadian Brewer Spectrophotometer Network will be registered to the ISO
9000 standard in the near future. In the ISO world, it has been said that if a process is not
documented, then for all intents and purposes, it is considered not to have happened. This SOP
document will describe the minimum information that must be recorded in order to properly
describe a calibration or other form of instrument maintenance. Standardization of operational
procedures will improve the credibility of information produced by Brewer spectrophotometers
worldwide.
The size of this document is in part a reflection of both the versatility and complexity of
the Brewer spectrophotometer. Each main section of the document is preceded by an
“Overview” to highlight the issues relevant to that topic.
The section entitled “Safety Issues” must be read prior to installing and operating the
Brewer spectrophotometer. Failure to take the precautions detailed in this section can lead to
serious injury or death.
The sub-section entitled “Critical Safety Warnings” in the “Maintenance” section of this
document must be read prior to handling the Brewer spectrophotometer. Failure to take the
precautions detailed in this section may result in serious damage to the instrument.
Please copy all of authors listed below when sending comments and recommendations for
improvement of this document:
Tom.McElroy@sympatico.ca
Volodya.Savastiouk@io3.ca
Tom.Grajnar@ec.gc.ca
Thank you.
Toronto
April, 2007
10
4.
ABBREVIATIONS
AOD
Cd
CUT
CW
CCW
Double
GMT
Hg
In
ISO
LED
MKII
MKIII
MKIV
MKV
MSDS
NiSO4
NO2
PMT
Red Brewer
Single
UG11
UTC
UV
WMO
WOUDC
Zn
Aerosol Optical Depth
Indium (in reference to the cadmium lamp)
Coordinated Universal Time (same as GMT and UTC)
Clockwise
Counterclockwise
Brewer model Mark III
Greenwich Mean Time (same as CUT and UTC)
Mercury (in reference to the mercury lamp)
Indium (in reference to the indium calibration lamp)
International Organization for Standardization
Light Emitting Diode
Brewer model Mark II (also referred to as “single Brewer”)
Brewer model Mark III (also referred to as “double Brewer”)
Brewer model Mark IV (also referred to as “NO2 Brewer”)
Brewer model Mark V (also referred to as “red Brewer”)
Material Data Safety Sheets
Nickel Sulfate (Nickel Sulfate filter used in all Brewers except MKIII)
Brewer model MKIV
Photomultiplier Tube
Brewer model MKV
Brewer model Mark II
filter in front of PMT
Coordinated Universal Time (same as GMT and CUT)
Ultraviolet
World Meteorological Organization (www.wmo.ch)
World Ozone and UV Data Centre (www.woudc.org)
Zinc (in reference to the zinc calibration lamp)
11
5.
SAFETY ISSUES
5.1. Overview
There are a number of potential hazards associated the installation and operation of a
Brewer spectrophotometer. Failure to be aware of these potential hazards and take appropriate
precautions can lead to serious injury or death. If you do not clearly understand any of the safety
issues discussed in this document then please contact the manufacturer or other expert for
clarification.
5.2. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Material data safety sheets should be available at each Brewer installation, for all
chemicals and products that may release chemicals, which are used for Brewer maintenance.
Examples of chemicals and products that may be used for a typical Brewer installation include:
Table 1: Typical MSDS Information for a Brewer Station
Pro
Appli
Manufa
MSDS Web Link
duct Name
cation
cturer and
Website
Mer
Wav
Ushio
http://www.germicidal.com/dl/msds%2
cury (Hg)
elength
Ushio.c 0germ-2007.pdf
lamp
reference
om
Met
Brew
Canadia
http://www.bu.edu/es/labsafety/ESMS
hanol
er quartz
n Alcohol
DSs/
window and Company
MSMethanol.html
dome
N/A
cleaner
Wi
Brew
SC
http://scjohnson.com/msds_us_ca/wind
ndex
er quartz
Johnson
ex.asp
window and
Scjohns
dome
on.com
cleaner
Sor
Desic
Engelha
http://www.engelhard.com/msds/
bead
cant for
rd Corporation
loadDoc.aspx?FileNav=P16540
Orange
drying air
Engelha
Chameleon inside
rd.com
Brewer
12
Sor
bead Blue
Desic
cant for
drying air
inside
Brewer
Kry
Nontox
off gassing
bearing and
gear
lubricant
Mol
Grea
ySlip
se for tripod
Grease
foot bolts
Engelha
rd Corporation
Engelha
rd.com
http://www.varian.com/shared/oncy/
msds/sorbeadblue.pdf
Dupont
Chemicals
Dupont.
com
http://msds.dupont.com/msds/pdfs/
EN/PEN_09004a2f806d5e3c.pdf
The
Slip Group of
Companies
Molysli
p.com
N/A
5.3. Hazard—Electrocution
Brewer spectrophotometers and the azimuth trackers that they rest on are powered by AC
electricity. It is important to note that Brewer spectrophotometers may have been assembled and
maintained by various individuals, over the years, who have had different levels of electronics
expertise. Furthermore, various instrument operators may have made their own repairs,
modifications or upgrades over time. All of this can lead to instruments that may be hazardous to
work with. If the instrument is not a relatively new one then it would be a good idea to carefully
inspect all of the connections that transfer AC power both inside and outside the Brewer and its
tracker including the power cables before proceeding with installation or working with the
instrument. Ensure that all of the bulkhead connectors on the Brewer and the tracker are clearly
labeled as to their purpose.
5.3.1. Power LEDs
The green power LEDs installed on some of the older Brewers and trackers were not
hermetically sealed. This means that over time moisture will enter between the LED and its
shroud and eventually lead to corrosion of the LED’s electrical leads resulting in LED failure. It
is important to replace burnt out LEDs immediately. Someone may see the LED as being off and
begin maintenance procedures not realizing that the power is actually on.
Check to confirm that both the Brewer and tracker power LEDs are illuminated when
power has been applied. If the LED(s) do not illuminate then replace them. To test if the LEDs
work, connect the Brewer power cable to a wall outlet. Connect the other end to the Brewer by
determining which of the three connectors on the Brewer the cable should mate to based on the
number of matching pins and sockets in each connector. If the power LED is not illuminated
then press the power switch. If the LED still does not illuminate then contact a qualified
individual to determine whether the cable, power switch or LED have failed and then make the
appropriate repairs.
13
Repeat the same procedure to determine if the tracker power LED is operational.
Disconnect the power cable from the Brewer and connect it to the connector at the base of the
tracker that is farthest from the tracker’s power switch.
To prevent further damage from occurring to an LED that is not currently protected by a
hermetic seal, it is strongly recommended that a thin layer of clear silicone may be applied over
the entire surface of the LED and its shroud.
5.3.2. Power Switch Terminals
It is possible that some Brewers and trackers have exposed power terminals at the back
side of their power switches. Contact with these terminals can lead to electrical shock. Ensure
that the power to the Brewer is off and that the power cable is disconnected from the Brewer.
Place a generous amount of clear silicone on the back terminals of these switches if there is none
present to prevent accidental direct contact with live AC power.
5.3.3. Power Cables
Not all power cables shipped with older Brewers were UV or cold temperature-rated.
Inspect the Brewer power cables and look for any cracks in the outer cable cover. Also ensure
that individual wires are not exposed at the point where the wires go into the connectors.
Replace any Brewer or tracker cables that show any sign of cracking or peeling of the cable
covering or if individual wires are exposed at any point along the length of the cables.
5.3.4. Tracker Power Terminal Strip
Ensure that the power terminal strip inside the tracker has a cover in place to isolate AC
power from accidental operator contact.
5.3.5. Maintenance and Weather
The Brewer and tracker covers should never be removed if there is any form of
precipitation. Opening the instrument during precipitation can result in both electrical shock to
the operator and damage to the instrument.
Any time maintenance is to be performed on the Brewer or tracker or the cables, the
power to BOTH units should be shut off and the power cables should be removed from the wall
outlet and from the Brewer and tracker power connectors. The power connector on the tracker is
the one that is furthest away from the power switch.
5.4. Hazard—Permanent Damage to Eyesight from UV Irradiance
The Brewer contains a mercury bulb that emits a blue coloured light, and a halogen bulb
that emits a white coloured light. Both bulbs emit UV irradiance that can result in damage to
eyesight if viewed directly. Always wear UV protective goggles when working with the lamp
housing or the lamps.
5.5. Hazard—Back Injury from Handling Brewer Spectrophotometer
14
A single spectrometer or MKII/MKIV/MKV model Brewer has one carrying handle
suitable for carrying by one person and weighs about 30 kg or 65 lbs. A double spectrometer or
MKIII Brewer has two carrying handles suitable for carrying by two individuals and weighs 34
kg or 75 lbs. While these weights may appear to be manageable for one individual it is always
safer to have two people transport the instrument.
It is always best to have two people carry the instrument to minimize the risk of back
strain. If only one person is available for the installation then it is a little safer to remove the
Brewer cover and install the Brewer instrument on the tracker first. This makes the load lighter
and less awkward. Bolt the Brewer to the tracker and then install the Brewer cover. Refer to
Section XX on Installation of Brewer Hardware for details on how to assemble a Brewer.
5.6. Hazard—Injury due to Tripping over Cables or Tripod
Brewer cables placed on a walking surface can lead to a tripping hazard. It is best to
install the Brewer cables so that they do not lie across a walking surface. If it is not possible to
install Brewer cables below the level of the walking surface then a cable ramp should be installed
over the cables. A cable ramp also serves to protect the cables from damage.
Tripod legs also present a significant tripping hazard when walking near a Brewer.
Always walk slowly and proceed with caution around the instrument.
5.7. Hazard—Information from the Manufacturer
It is also very important to review all of the cautions expressed in the manuals, which
were provided by manufacturer with the instrument. If these manuals are not available then
contact Kipp & Zonen BV for a copy of these manuals before proceeding with Brewer
installation and operation. The manufacturer’s contact information is located on the website
www.kippzonen.com
15
6.
INTRODUCTION
6.1. Measurement Principles and Theory
6.1.1. Ozone and sulfur dioxide
Measurements of ozone and sulfur dioxide with the Brewer spectrophotometer are based
on the Beer’s law.
6.1.2. UV
The Brewer spectrophotometers that are equipped with the UV dome are capable of
measuring the global UV irradiance.
6.1.3. Umkehr
A special type of zenith-sky observations can be done during the sunset and sunrise to
record what is called “Umkehr effect”, the reversal of the ratio between the intensities at a short
and a long wavelengths. A separate computer program can interpret this observation and a
vertical ozone profile can be deduced.
6.1.4. Aerosol optical depth
Once both the ozone and the sulfur dioxide columns are known, the residual extinction in
the Beer’s law gives an estimate of the aerosol optical depth.
6.1.5. NO2
One type of the Brewer spectrophotometer, referred to as MKIV, is capable of measuring
light intensities in the visible region where nitrogen dioxide has absorption features (aprox.440
nm). These instruments can do the direct-sun and the zenith-sky measurements of NO2 column.
6.2. The Brewer Spectrophotometer
The Brewer spectrophotometer is named after Alan W. Brewer, who began development
of the instrument at the University of Toronto. David Wardle did the original optical design and
J.B. Kerr and C.T. McElroy participated in its further development. Brewer brought the idea of
the instrument to the attention of the ozone community and instigated the call for it to be made
available as a replacement to the Dobson spectrophotometer.
The first commercial prototype Brewer, sometimes referred to as the “blue Brewer”
because of the colour of its outer case, was designed and manufactured by SED Systems Ltd. in
Saskatoon, Canada. This version turned out to be unsuitable for network use for a number of
reasons so Kerr, McElroy and Wardle began developing a commercial version of the Brewer
spectrophotometer in 1979 at the Experimental Studies Division of Environment Canada. This
prototype was on display at the Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium in Boulder
Colorado in 1980 where significant interest led to commercial production. Commercial
production of the first Brewer instruments was undertaken in the early 1980’s by SCI-TEC
16
Instruments Inc. in Saskatoon, Canada under license agreement with Environment Canada. In
2004 the license to build Brewers was transferred to Kipp & Zonen BV of Delft, The
Netherlands. There are more than 190 Brewer instruments in over 43 countries worldwide
including Antarctica.
6.3. Brewer Models and Measurement Capabilities
There are four different models of Brewer spectrophotometers. The first single
monochromator MKII (pronounced “Mark 2”) model Brewers were built in 1982. MKII Brewers
have an 1800 line per mm grating that is used in the second order to measure column ozone and
column SO2, in the UVB portion of the spectrum, as well as the vertical ozone profile using the
Umkehr technique. A few years after the first MKII’s were introduced, they were upgraded to
measure solar spectral UV irradiance as well. MKII’s are sometimes referred to as “single
Brewers” because they have a single monochromator. Solar spectral UV irradiance
measurements are made from 290 nm to 325 nm.
The first MKIV Brewer was built in 1985. MKIV Brewers have the same measurement
capabilities as the MKII instrument as well as the ability to measure column NO2. A 1200 line
per mm grating is used to measure ozone and UV in the third order and NO2 in the second order.
A filter wheel, installed between the monochromator and the PMT, allows for the automated
insertion of the appropriate order filter into the light path to switch to NO2 measurement mode,
which is performed in the visible portion of the spectrum. MKIV’s are sometimes referred to as
“dual Brewers” because they have two separate modes of operation—an ozone measurement
mode and an NO2 measurement mode. Solar spectral UV irradiance measurements are made
from 290 nm to 325 nm. With a modified grating arm, MKIV Brewers can be used to measure
solar spectral UV irradiance from 286.5 nm to 363.0 nm. This type of Brewer is referred to as a
“MKIV-e” or a MKIV instrument with extended UV measurement range capability.
MKIII Brewers were first introduced in 1992 as a replacement for the MKII Brewer. The
primary advantage to the MKIII design is the use of a double monochromator. The top
monochromator is used for dispersion of the incoming beam and the bottom half is used for
recombining the spectrum to present it to the photomultiplier. This virtually eliminates stray
light. Each monochromator uses a 3600 line per mm grating in the first order to measure ozone
and UV. Elimination of stray light allows the MKIII to operate without the NiSO4 and UG11
bandpass filters that are required by the MKII and MKIV models. Removal of the bandpass
filters eliminates uncertainties caused by changes in filter characteristics with time and also
removes the instrument temperature dependence that is associated with the NiSO4 filter from the
calculation of ozone ad SO2. MKIII’s make the same type of measurements as MKII’s and are
sometimes referred to as “double Brewers” because they have a double monochromator. MKIII
Brewers provide high quality column ozone measurements, in the UV portion of the spectrum,
up to an airmass value of about 5.0 at an average ozone value of 300 DU or up to 1500DU of
ozone in the path that the sun’s light travels through the atmosphere. All MKIII Brewers can
measure solar spectral UV irradiance from 286.5 nm to 363.0 nm.
17
The first MKV Brewer was manufactured in 1991. The MKV Brewer is essentially the
same as a MKII Brewer but with a filter wheel installed between the spectrometer and the PMT.
The filter wheel contains an order filter that allows for column ozone measurements to be made
in the “red” portion of the visible spectrum. Ozone absorption in the UV, large Rayleigh
scattering attenuation and stray light degrade the quality of ozone measurements made in the UV
portion of the spectrum with increasing airmass between the instrument and the sun. Ozone
measurements in the visible portion of the spectrum are not as strongly affected by ozone
absorption, Rayleigh scattering and stray light and as a result MKV’s are suited to the Arctic and
Antarctic regions where low solar elevation angles prevail for much of the year. MKV column
ozone measurements, made in the visible portion of the spectrum, are generally acquired between
airmass values ranging from 5 to 10. MKV instruments are sometimes referred to as “red
Brewers” because they measure ozone in the red portion of the visible spectrum. Solar spectral
UV irradiance measurements are made from 290 nm to 325 nm.
Brewer model MKII, MKIII, MKIV and MKV instruments measure ozone in the UV portion
of the spectrum to an accuracy of about +/-1% when stray light is not an issue. The quality of ozone
measurements made by these various models is equally accurate when the amount of ozone in path is
less than 1000 Dobson units, which is equal to 1 cm of ozone at Standard temperature and pressure.
This limit is determined by stray light and is calculated by multiplying the airmass value and the
column ozone measurement. A MKIII instrument will maintain this same level of accuracy out to
about 2000 Dobson units or 2 cm of ozone in the path. Beyond these thresholds, stray light begins to
progressively degrade the accuracies of the ozone measurements made in the UV portion of the
spectrum. MKV ozone measurements made in the visible portion of the spectrum have an accuracy
of about +/-3%. The above-stated accuracies are subject to the proviso that the instruments are
operating properly and are well maintained.
Stray light for a MKIII Brewer is normally 10-7of peak intensity and in the 10-3 or 10-4 range
for a MKII, MKIV and MKV Brewers as measured using a monochromatic source. Development of a
stray light algorithm may improve MKII, MKIV and MKV Brewer column ozone measurements by
factor of 10 but never will get close to MKIII Brewer ozone measurements for three reasons. MKIII
Brewers measure column ozone in the first order of the grating and do not require a NiSO4 and UG11
filter. Both of these factors increase the measured intensity relative to background noise. The MKIII
does not require a stray light correction so there is no additional uncertainty added because of the
application of this correction.
The versatility of the Brewer instrument is demonstrated by its ongoing evolution over the
years, not only in terms of the different models, but also through the other improvements made to
both hardware and software. An example of a more recent software routine being tested allows the
extraction of aerosol optical depth information from direct sun measurements. Other examples
include investigation into whether the Brewer is capable of measuring tropospheric ozone, improving
the accuracy of NO2 measurements as well as ongoing improvements to the Umkehr inversion
algorithm. Brewer stray light properties are currently under investigation and may extend the
measurement range for column ozone measurements made in the UV portion of the spectrum for all
Brewers.
18
6.4. Basic Component Assemblies
The basic components of a Brewer spectrophotometer are shown in Fig. XX and include a
foreoptics tube, spectrometer, photomultiplier tube (PMT), control electronics and primary and
secondary power supplies. The Brewer itself rests on a rotating pedestal, often referred to as a
“tracker” because its function is to track the sun during the day or the moon at night.
The controlling electronics in older Brewer instruments were housed in a card cage
containing seven boards that are all plugged into a motherboard located at the back of the card
cage. The photon counter board attached to the PMT counts the photonic energy from the light
source and relays this information to the controlling computer through the analog to digital
electronics board. The analog-to-digital converter board is also used for the collection of
housekeeping data like temperature and power supply voltages. Other boards in the card cage
include three boards which move the various motors in the Brewer including those attached to
the tracker, zenith prism, iris, various filter wheels, wavelength-selecting micrometer and the
shutter motor. The clock board contains temperature circuitry and can be used to maintain
accurate time for the Brewer controlling software. The microprocessor board interprets and
executes commands from the controlling computer and relays the resulting instrument status and
measurement results back to the computer.
The original electronics configuration of the Brewer was maintained until 1998 when
SCI-TEC began selling the Brewer with single-board electronics. The introduction of single
board electronics also incorporated a number of improvements including built-in circuit
redundancy, improved surge suppression, shielded ribbon cables to reduce noise, and reduced
power consumption resulting in lower heat generation.
Replacement boards for the old Brewer multi-board electronics card cage are obsolete and
are no longer being manufactured. Boards that fail can usually be repaired although the
microprocessor board is one of the most difficult to repair. International Ozone Services has
developed a replacement for the microprocessor board that fits into the existing multi-board
electronics card cage. This board also has the advantage of communicating with the Brewer
computer at 9600 baud compared to the old board that communicated at 1200 baud.
The foreoptics tube is used to direct various sources of light, including light from the sun,
the sky, the horizontal diffuser, the moon or the internal calibration lamps into the spectrometer.
The spectrometer disperses light into its component wavelengths and directs the light
through a wavelength-selecting shutter onto the photomultiplier tube photocathode (PMT). The
photon pulse amplifier and discriminator attached to the PMT counts the photon counts from the
light source and divides them by 4 to reduce the bandwidth of the signal and relays this
information along a differentially-driven twisted pair to the controlling computer via the photon
counting electronics board.
The first Brewer instruments that were manufactured were not fully automated nor did
they have UV measurement capability. An operator would manually configure the azimuth,
19
zenith, iris and filterwheel positioning of the instrument for each ozone measurement. Soon after
initial production, Brewers were fitted with the quartz dome and a port mounted onto the
foreoptics to measure solar spectral UV irradiance. Motors were also added to fully automate the
operation of the Brewer.
6.5. Communication Configuration
Brewer instrument electronics were designed to support RS232 communications through
a computer’s serial port. The GWBasic Brewer software is restricted to the use of COM1 and
COM2 only. Most newer computers have USB ports instead of serial ports. It is possible to use
a USB to serial adapter to connect the Brewer data cable to computer’s USB port. It should be
noted that not all serial to USB adapter cables work with the Brewer instrument.
In the early 1990’s the capability of RS422 communication was added to the Brewer by
installing a converter within the Brewer and another converter at the other end of the data cable
at the computer. RS422 increases the communication distance over data cables from 15 m or 50
ft for RS232 communications to 90 m or 300 ft. Brewers with the single board electronics have
RS422 capability built into them.
The distance between the Brewer and its computer is limited by the type of
communication system used. The official limit for an RS232 communication cable is about 15m
or 50ft. RS232 communication cable lengths of up to 90m or 300ft have been used successfully
with the Brewer. The RS422/RS232 data set communications module, which may have been
installed by the manufacturer into the Brewer, extends the communication range up to 1.2 km or
4000 ft. Wireless communication systems are also available for locations where it is not
practical to run cable.
20
7.
MAINTENANCE
7.1. Critical Maintenance Warnings
7.1.1. Overview
Routine instrument maintenance and care during instrument handling are required in
order to prevent potentially serious and costly damage to the Brewer instrument.
7.1.2. Photomultiplier Tube
Saturation of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) with bright light can lead to a transient
shock or permanent damage. Always power down the Brewer and disconnect its power cable
before opening the spectrometer case. It is always best to avoid opening the spectrometer cover
unless absolutely necessary to prevent excess light from entering the PMT and dust from settling
onto the optics. If the spectrometer cover must be removed then it is best to do so in a clean
dust-free room.
7.1.3. Excess Moisture
High levels humidity inside the Brewer can lead to the permanent damage of various
optical components including the film polarizer(s) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO4) and UG11
filters. Damage to these optical components will negatively impact data quality and likely
require expensive repairs and instrument recalibration.
Excess moisture can also lead to the corrosion and shorting of solder traces on the various
electrical boards, which can cause erratic behaviour of the instrument as well as operational
failure. Accumulation of water inside the Brewer from a deteriorated seal can short out the
primary power supply.
Section XX on Desiccant Check/Replacement in the Maintenance portion of this
document describes how to control the humidity level within the Brewer.
7.1.4. Optical Surfaces
Do not touch or attempt to clean any of the optical surfaces inside the Brewer, especially
the spherical mirror and the diffraction grating, which are located inside the spectrometer
housing. Cleaning either the diffraction grating or spherical mirror, no matter how carefully, will
result in permanent damage to the optical surfaces and may leave them unusable.
7.1.5. Lubricants
Several components in the Brewer require lubrication for proper operation. Only non-offgassing lubricants should be used. One such lubricant approved for use in the Brewer is
“Krytox”. Most other lubricants off-gas over time and deposit themselves on sensitive optical
surfaces.
21
7.2. Routine Maintenance
7.2.1. Overview
The Brewer requires various types of maintenance to prevent damage to the instrument
and ensure proper operation. Maintenance procedures will be described according to frequency
required. Each section provides maintenance instructions in normal font. Text in italicized font
indicates solutions to resolve problems that may occur. Note that once this maintenance
information has been reviewed, the process of filling out the Brewer Log Form (to be described
below) will summarize all of the required checks and their frequencies.
A summary of maintenance checks and their frequency are listed below. This
information also appears on the Brewer Log Form so that it is always at hand for the station
operator(s).
Daily Brewer Maintenance
Confirm that the Brewer is in scheduled operation mode.
Brewer software date check
Brewer software time check
Confirm that schedule is correct
Dome and window cleaning
Make appropriate entries into Brewer Log Form
Bi-Weekly (Every two weeks) Brewer Maintenance
Desiccant check/replacement
Steps per revolution check
Sighting check on sun (moon when sun not available during Arctic or Antarctic winter
months)
Bi-Monthly (Every two months) Brewer Maintenance
Tracker drive plate cleaning
Detailed notes on the summary list shown above follow below.
7.2.2. Brewer Log Form
Reference is made to the “Brewer Log Form” rather than the “Station Log Form” because
instruments can be moved from one station to another and because the information on the Log
Form is primarily related to the Brewer instrument and not the station.
The purpose of the Log Form (refer to Appendix XX for a sample Log form) is to
document all human interaction with the Brewer spectrophotometer system including its control
computer. The Log Form is ideally an electronic document that facilitates copying, backup,
transfer and archival. The form itself would ideally exist within the Brewer directory structure so
that if the Brewer software were to be copied or transferred to another computer the Brewer Log
Form would be copied or transferred at the same time.
22
•
•
•
•
Key elements of a Log Form include:
Contact information—experts who are available to assist Brewer operators.
Space for the operator to note all routine checks and maintenance performed.
A summary of procedures required to perform all routine maintenance along with
maintenance frequencies.
An area to Log all system changes, upgrades, errors etc. including the date, time and initials
of person who noted the condition or performed the work.
The form shown in the Appendix is set up so that it can be readily printed on a single
sheet of paper or displayed entirely and legibly on a computer screen all at once. The Log Form
represents one month of information per worksheet. One Microsoft Excel workbook file can
easily hold many years worth of data.
If a station uses various schedules during the course of a year then it is a good idea to
enter the name of the schedule in the day entry of the appropriate monthly worksheet in advance
to remind the station operator of the change in schedule.
One possible naming convention for the Log Form spreadsheet file is “Log###
YYYY.xls” where “###” is the three digit Brewer serial number and “YYYY” is the four digit
year.
7.2.3. Daily Maintenance
7.2.3.1. Confirm that the Brewer is in Scheduled Operation Mode
Ensure that Brewer is in scheduled operation mode. This can be confirmed by noting the
information in the second line of the software window header. During scheduled operation a
two-letter short form of the measurement name is followed by the name of the schedule in use.
If the message “Brewer not responded 5 times” or some other message indicating
communication failure appears in the center of the software window then refer to Section XX in
Appendix XX for the diagnostics procedure to resolve this issue.
If the Brewer is on menu (as indicated by the word “menu” located in the second line of
the software window header) then check the current day’s B-file to determine why scheduled
operation was aborted. If there is no indication for the reason for failure in the current day’s Bfile then check the end of the previous day’s B-file to ensure that “ed” is the last piece of
information in the file. An “ed” indicates that the file was closed properly at the end of the day.
The primary reasons for the software aborting scheduled operation are: a) the lamp intensity of
either the mercury or standard lamps was below the acceptable threshold (“lamp not found”
message), b) there was an azimuth tracker or zenith prism zeroing failure (“azimuth/zenith
zeroing failure” message), or c) someone pressed the “home” key and did not return the
software to scheduled operation mode. If the current and previous day’s B-files do not indicate
why scheduled operation was aborted then type the command string “pdrefrhphgpf” and press
23
“Enter”. Once this command string has completed execution check the B-file to determine if
there were any errors logged. If there were no errors logged then type “skc” and press “Enter”
to display the list of available schedules. Type in the name of the schedule that was in use before
scheduled operation was aborted (refer to the Log Form) and press “Enter” to resume
scheduled operation. If the error message refers to a lamp intensity problem or a zeroing failure
then refer to Appendix XX for the diagnostics procedure to follow to resolve these issues.
7.2.3.2. Brewer Software Date Check
Check the calendar day as well as the Julian day. Note that the displayed calendar day changes
to the next day at Greenwich Mean Time 00 hours. The displayed Julian Day changes with the
change of the local day as determined by the sun; not the time of day. Confirm that the date is correct
using a date and time reference such as that at the National Institute for Standards and Technology at
www.time.gov and select the UTC time zone.
If the date is incorrect then refer to the Log Form to note the name of the schedule that is
currently in use. Press the “Home” key to exit scheduled operation and go to the menu list. Type
“da” and press “Enter” to change the date. Enter information as prompted (two digit day, two digit
month and two digit year). If the date was wrong then confirm that the time is correct as described
below. When done type “skc” and press “Enter” to display the list of available schedules. Type in
the name of the schedule that was in use before scheduled operation was aborted and press “Enter”.
7.2.3.3. Brewer Software Time Check
Check the C.U.T. value in the Brewer program window. (C.U.T. = U.T.C. = Coordinated
Universal Time = G.M.T. = Greenwich Mean Time). Confirm that the time is correct to within +/- 5
seconds using a C.U.T. date and time reference such as that at the National Institute for Standards and
Technology at www.time.gov and select the UTC time zone.
If the time is incorrect then refer to the Log Form to note the name of the schedule that is
currently in use. Press the “Home” key to exit scheduled operation and go to the menu list. Type
“ti” and press “Enter” to change the time. Enter the information as prompted. When done type
“skc” and press “Enter” to display the list of available schedules. Type in the name of the schedule
that was in use before scheduled operation was aborted and press “Enter”.
7.2.3.4. Confirm that Schedule in use is Correct
If multiple schedules are in use during the course of a year then confirm that the Brewer is
running the correct schedule for the given day of the year. The name of the schedule currently in use
appears on the second line of the program window after the two-letter short-form name of the current
measurement.
If the schedule is not correct then press the “Home” key to exit scheduled operation and go to
the menu list. Type “skc” and press “Enter” to display the list of available schedules. Type in the
name of the correct schedule and press “Enter”.
7.2.3.5. Dome and Window Cleaning
24
Clean the entire UV dome and the entire zenith prism window using a non-abrasive tissue
for optical surfaces moistened with methyl alcohol.
Remove snow from the window and dome using a soft bristled non-abrasive brush. A thin
layer of ice may be removed by very gently scraping (not chiseling) the glass surface with a
plastic car window type scraper. A thicker layer of ice may be removed by using gentle heat
from a blow dryer.
7.2.3.6. Fill Out the Brewer Log Form
Make entries into the station Log Form as required. A sample station Log Form appears
in Appendix XX.
7.2.4. Bi-Weekly Maintenance (every two weeks)
7.2.4.1. Desiccant Check/Replacement
The nickel sulfate filter is very sensitive to humidity and changes its optical
characteristics when subjected to high levels of humidity resulting in unstable standard lamp test
results. Over time, excess moisture in the Brewer can cause damage to the nickel sulfate, UG11
and polarizing filters resulting in a degradation of data quality. High moisture levels can also
cause shorting between traces on the various electronics boards resulting in erratic instrument
operation or operational failure. A description of two methods for controlling moisture within a
Brewer spectrophotometer along with their respective check/replacement procedures follows.
Typical Desiccant Drying System
The most commonly used type of drying system involves two desiccant systems that work
together to keep the internal components dry. The first desiccant system is the “breathing”
system and consists of a lexan cylinder of desiccant that is attached to a tube connected to a hole
in base of the instrument or alternatively connected directly to an opening at the base of the
instrument without the use of a tube. This breathing system serves to dry air that passes into and
out from the instrument due to changes in atmospheric temperature or pressure compared to
internal temperature or pressure.
The second desiccant system is simply a bag or other container of desiccant that is
typically placed over the secondary power supply (or other free space within the instrument) and
serves to dry the internal space of the instrument. This second system helps to remove moisture
that enters the instrument from one of the various seals, which may have developed a leak. It
also helps with the drying of the interior space each time the Brewer cover is removed—for
example, during desiccant check and replacement.
There are several types of desiccant media that are typically used in the Brewer. The first
and least desirable type is desiccant that is designed for single use only (ex. Calcium Sulfate).
This desiccant is typically blue in colour when fresh and turns pink when expired. This type of
desiccant is not preferred because it often breaks down into a powder when saturated with
moisture. This powder can settle on instrument optics.
25
There are typically several desiccant media types whose moisture capacity can be
regenerated (almost indefinitely) by heating the media to release the moisture. The first of these
types consists of self-indicating beads and turns from a dark blue colour, when fresh, to a pink
colour when saturated (ex. “Trochenperlen”, “Sorbead Blue” or “Sorbead Orange Chameleon”).
To regenerate this desiccant, heat it to 140 degrees Celsius (not exceeding 180 degrees Celsius)
for a few hours or so depending on moisture content. Once dry, the desiccant needs to be placed
into a dry airtight container. A second type of desiccant often used in the Brewer consists of
small beige-coloured beads and does not change colour but rather contains a separate strip of
indicator paper in the desiccant tube that turns from blue when dry to pink when moist. The best
of these desiccant media is the one that is self-indicating so that an operator can easily assess the
state of all of the desiccant in the container, not just the desiccant adjacent to the strip.
The least desirable desiccant media type is the type that is supplied in a closed opaque
packet. These packets typically require a desiccant indicator card to be placed somewhere in the
instrument in order for the operator to judge the level of moisture in the instrument. An operator
has no idea as to how much drying capacity this packet has left or how long it would take to dry
in an oven. Over time most desiccant types lose their ability to be regenerated by heating. The
packet type would provide no clear indication of this situation. The indicator card, whose
measuring capability may also deteriorate with time, is often placed under the iris/entrance slit
viewing window inside the Brewer to provide an operator with an indication of the moisture
level in the instrument. While this may be helpful for the operator to see what the card indicates
without taking off the Brewer cover it should be noted that at least one of the manufacturers of
these cards suggests that the card not be placed in direct sunlight. Heating the card in the
sunlight might burn off the moisture from the indicator and thus provide misleading information.
In this case it would be best to check the card on a cloudy day or even better, cover the viewing
window so that sun does not normally enter the instrument. Note that all Brewers referred to as
“MKIV” or “Dual” or “NO2” as well as those referred to as MKV or “Red” Brewers should have
an opaque cover placed on the iris/entrance slit viewing window because diffuse visible light can
enter the viewing tubes and contaminate NO2 or red spectrum ozone measurements that are made
in the visible portion of the spectrum.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
To check the condition of the desiccant containers inside the Brewer:
Press “Home” to abort scheduled operation and wait until the software displays its menu.
Place a protective plastic cap over the UV dome.
Remove the Brewer cover and examine desiccant condition or indicator condition.
Replace any desiccant that indicates that it is more than 50% expired or if the Brewer internal
humidity is above 50%.
Re-install the Brewer cover.
Remove the protective plastic cap from the UV dome.
Type “skc” and press “Enter” to display the list of schedules.
Type in the name of the schedule currently in use and press “Enter” to resume scheduled
operation.
26
9. Make the appropriate entry into the Log Form indicating the date that the desiccant was
checked/replaced, the percentage expired and a notation indicating if the desiccant was
replaced.
10. Regenerate the desiccant as specified by the manufacturer.
Advanced Drying System
A less commonly used but generally better moisture control system involves the removal
of the above-mentioned desiccant tube and tray/packet systems and rather forces dry air or dry
nitrogen into the instrument under very low pressure. The flow of dry gas is adjusted to a level
that provides a slight positive pressure within the instrument so that moist air is never drawn into
the instrument. Dry air or dry nitrogen can be provided from a gas cylinder. Dry air can also be
made by pumping ambient air through a desiccant container.
When using a gas cylinder the only requirement is to periodically monitor tank pressure
to ensure that it is still capable of providing dry gas to the Brewer. Checking or changing of the
desiccant in a system that uses ambient air is best done when the desiccant is about 50% expired.
Again, the best desiccant to use for this system is one that is self-indicating for the reasons
mentioned above.
The significant advantage to the advanced drying system is that it does not require
interruption of Brewer operation and removal of the Brewer cover, which introduces moisture
and dust into the instrument.
Note: If desiccant is found to be completely or almost completely expired then it is likely
that one of the seals inside the instrument has failed. Bring the Brewer indoors immediately to
prevent damage to the instrument and correct problem—see Appendix XX on Brewer Seal
Maintenance, Diagnostics and Repair/Replacement.
Note: Most spectrometer cases have a desiccant holder mounted on the case. It is best to
empty this container and not use it since it may encourage opening the case and to check and
change it periodically. It is best to avoid opening the spectrometer case unless absolutely
required to prevent moisture from entering the spectrometer and dust from settling on the optics.
If the desiccant tube and box are properly maintained then the spectrometer case will remain dry.
7.2.4.2. Steps Per Revolution Test
The steps-per-revolution test is used to determine the number of steps in one revolution
of the azimuth tracker. The tracker first moves counter-clockwise to find its reference position.
Then it will move clockwise and count the number of steps taken to reach its reference position.
When completed the computer indicates both the new and current steps per revolution values.
The number of steps per revolution is typically about 14670 steps.
To run this test press “Home” to go to the menu. Type “sr” and press “Enter”. Log the
new steps per revolution value into the Log Form. If the new value is within 5 steps of the most
recent previous value then press “y” to accept the new value.
27
If the new value is greater than 5 steps from the most recent previous value in the Log
Form then repeat the test two more times to determine if the new results are both within 5 steps
of the first test. If the three measurements are not all within 5 steps of one another then clean the
tracker azimuth drive disk as described below in the “Monthly Maintenance” section on
“Azimuth Drive Plate Cleaning”. Log the disk cleaning in the Log Form. After the disk has
been cleaned repeat the steps per revolution test two times to determine if the new results are
both within 5 steps of each other. If the two measurements are not within 5 steps of one another
then refer to Appendix XX for information on checking and adjusting drive plate tension. After
tension check and adjustment repeat the steps per revolution test two more times to determine if
the new results are both within 5 steps of the first test. If the two measurements are not within 5
steps of one another then the disk may be out-of-round and require replacement.
7.2.4.3. Sighting the Brewer on the Sun
Note: When the daily minimum solar zenith angle is less than 86 degrees then it is better
to perform a moon sighting. The daily minimum solar zenith angle can be determined by noting
the value of the zenith angle, as displayed on the top right hand corner of the Brewer window just
below the software version, near solar noon. An alternate way to do this is to use the “sa”
command (refer to the section on “Brewer Commands” above). Refer to the section below on
“Sighting the Brewer on the Moon” when the daily minimum solar zenith angle is greater than 85
degrees.
The Brewer orientation procedure during installation requires the approximate alignment
of the north sticker on the tracker to “true north”. The Brewer will use the solar ephemeris
routine in its software to calculate where the sun is. The software will then point the Brewer to
where it thinks the sun is based on the year, Julian day, time of day and the latitude and longitude
that were entered by the operator as well as on the default value of the north correction and
horizon correction in the instrument constants file.
The Brewer needs to be manually targeted on the sun to determine its north and horizon
correction values. The north correction is used to correct for the difference between the
orientation of the instrument on the ground when it was installed compared with the “true north”
orientation. The horizon correction corrects for the difference between the number of steps
between the zenith drive reference position to where the software believes the horizon is
compared to the zenith drive step position where the horizon is determined to be from the
sighting.
It is best to perform sun sightings as close to solar noon as possible. This ensures that the
Brewer is tracking as good as possible during the portion of the day when the solar elevation is
near its maximum and direct sun ozone measurements are of the highest quality. Atmospheric
scattering of sunlight is reduced with lower solar airmass values thus reducing contamination of
direct sun measurements by scattered light. It is also good to periodically check the Brewer
sighting at other times during the day. Ideally one good sighting is all that is required to keep the
Brewer tracking correctly almost indefinitely. In reality, however, changes in the various levels
28
and alignments within the instrument may cause the quality of tracking to deteriorate
progressively from the time of day that the sighting was taken. Please refer to Appendix XX to
diagnose the reason for the deterioration in the quality of tracking as the Brewer moves further
away from the time that the sighting was taken.
It is assumed that the Brewer latitude and longitude (in degrees) are accurate to two
decimal places (as can be determined by a GPS device). Coordinate in current use can be
determined by pressing “Home” to go to menu. Type “pdpopf” and press “Enter” to print
currently used constants to the D-file. Examine the latitude and longitude information at the end
of the D-file. If these values are not accurate to two decimal places then refer to Section XX on
Brewer configuration.
To perform a sun sighting:
Press the “Home” key to go to the menu.
Confirm that the date is correct and that the time is accurate to the second.
Type “ze” to zero the zenith motor and eliminate any accumulated step discrepancy.
Note—this step can be omitted if the steps per revolution test was completed immediately
before this sighting process. Type “sr” to determine the number of steps per revolution and
to zero the azimuth motor and eliminate any accumulated step discrepancy. Log the new
steps per revolution value into the Log Form. If the new value is within 5 steps of the most
recent previous value then press “y” to accept the new value. Refer to the section above
entitled “Steps per Revolution Test” if the new result is not within 5 steps of the most recent
previous result.
5. Type “si” and press “Enter” to activate sun sighting mode.
6. Go to the Brewer and look into the Iris Viewer to confirm that the sun light is passing
through the iris. Ensure that you are not blocking the sun light from entering the quartz
window. If the sun’s image appears on the iris surface or the Brewer is not oriented toward
the sun then use the four sighting push buttons to move the sun’s image into the center of the
iris opening so that the sunlight can pass on to the entrance slit.
7. Look into the Entrance Slit Viewer to confirm that the sun’s image is centered uniformly over
the entrance slit. Correct any offset of the sun’s image from the slit by using the sighting push
buttons.
8. Go to the computer and press the “Ctrl” and “End” keys at the same time to exit sighting
mode.
9. Record the date, time and the new sighting corrections into the Log Form. Then press “y” to
accept the new sighting values.
10. Type “skc” at the menu prompt and type in the correct schedule name and press “Enter” to
resume scheduled operation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
If the north correction has changed by more than 10 steps or the horizon correction has
changed by more than 5 steps from the previously recorded corrections then repeat the above
steps again to confirm that there is a significant change compared to the previously recorded
values. If the change is more than 10 steps for the north correction or 5 steps for the horizon
correction then refer to Appendix XX to diagnose and resolve this problem.
29
7.2.4.4. Sighting the Brewer on the Moon
Note: When the daily minimum solar zenith angle is greater than 85 degrees then it is
better to perform a sun sighting. The daily solar minimum solar zenith angle can be determined
by noting the value of the zenith angle, displayed on the top right hand corner of the Brewer
window just below the software version, near solar noon. An alternate way to do this is to use
the “sa” command (refer to the section on “Brewer Commands” above). Refer to the section
above on “Sighting the Brewer on the Sun” if the daily minimum solar zenith angle is less than
86 degrees.
The Brewer orientation procedure during installation requires the approximate alignment
of the north sticker on the tracker to “true north”. When the Brewer is run for the first time in a
new location, it will use the lunar ephemeris routine in its software to determine where moon is
and then point the Brewer to where it thinks the moon is based on the year, Julian day, time of
day and the latitude and longitude that were entered by the operator as well as on the default
value of the north correction and horizon correction in the instrument constants file.
The Brewer needs to be manually targeted on the moon to determine its north and horizon
correction values. The north correction is used to correct for the difference between the
orientation of the instrument on the ground when it was installed compared with the “true north”
orientation. The horizon correction corrects for the difference between the number of steps
between the zenith drive reference position to where the software believes the horizon is
compared to the zenith drive step position where the horizon is determined to be from the
sighting.
It is best to perform moon sightings as close to the moon’s upper transit as possible. This
ensures that the Brewer is tracking as good as possible during the portion of the day when the
moon elevation is near its maximum and focused moon ozone measurements are of the highest
quality. Atmospheric scattering of moonlight is reduced with lower lunar airmass values thus
reducing contamination of focused moon measurements by scattered light. It is also good to
periodically check the Brewer sighting at other times during the day. Ideally one good sighting is
all that is required to keep the Brewer tracking correctly almost indefinitely. In reality, however,
changes in the various levels and alignments within the instrument may cause the quality of
tracking to deteriorate progressively from the time of day that the sighting was taken. Please
refer to Appendix XX to diagnose the reason for the deterioration in the quality of tracking as the
Brewer moves further away from the time that the sighting was taken.
It is assumed that the Brewer latitude and longitude (in degrees) are accurate to two
decimal places (as can be determined by a GPS device). Coordinate in current use can be
determined by pressing “Home” to go to menu. Type “pdpopf” and press “Enter” to print
currently used constants to the D-file. Examine the latitude and longitude information at the end
of the D-file. If these values are not accurate to two decimal places then refer to Section XX on
Brewer configuration.
To perform a moon sighting:
30
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press the “Home” key to go to the menu.
Confirm that the date is correct and that the time is accurate to the second.
Type “ze” to zero the zenith motor and eliminate any accumulated step discrepancy.
Note—this step can be omitted if the steps per revolution test was completed immediately
before this sighting process. Type “sr” to determine the number of steps per revolution and
to zero the azimuth motor and eliminate any accumulated step discrepancy. Log the new
steps per revolution value into the Log Form. If the new value is within 5 steps of the most
recent previous value then press “y” to accept the new value. Refer to the section above
entitled “Steps per Revolution Test” if the new result is not within 5 steps of the most recent
previous result.
5. Type “sim” and press “Enter” to activate moon sighting mode.
6. Go to the Brewer and look into the Iris Viewer to confirm that the moon light is passing
through the iris. Ensure that you are not blocking the moon light from entering the quartz
window. If the moon’s image appears on the iris surface or the Brewer is not oriented toward
the moon then use the four sighting push buttons to move the moon’s image into the center of
the iris opening so that the moonlight can pass on to the entrance slit.
7. Look into the Entrance Slit Viewer to confirm that the moon’s image is centered uniformly
over the entrance slit. Correct any offset of the moon’s image from the slit by using the
sighting push buttons.
8. Go to the computer and press the “Ctrl” and “End” keys at the same time to exit sighting
mode.
9. Record the date, time and the new sighting corrections into the Log Form. Then press “y” to
accept the new sighting values.
10. Type “skc” at the menu prompt and type in the correct schedule name and press “Enter” to
resume scheduled operation.
If the north correction has changed by more than 10 steps or the horizon correction has
changed by more than 5 steps from the previously recorded corrections then repeat the above
steps again to confirm that there is a significant change compared to the previously recorded
values. If the change is more than 10 steps for the north correction or 5 steps for the horizon
correction then refer to Appendix XX to diagnose and resolve this problem.
7.2.5. Bi-Monthly (every two months)
7.2.5.1. Azimuth Drive Plate Cleaning
A friction interface inside the tracker is used to transfer power from the tracker motor to
the azimuth drive plate to rotate the Brewer. The stainless steel drive shaft connected to the
motor is tensioned against the aluminum drive plate. Normal movement of this drive system
causes microscopic aluminum particles to be worn off of the drive. These particles need to be
cleaned off every two months. Failure to clean the drive plate causes the particles that are worn
off of the plate to become larger and larger over time until they appear as flakes of aluminum.
These flakes then score the surface of the drive plate edge. The wear on the drive plate becomes
progressively worse and results in permanent damage to the plate—it becomes “out of round”
31
and will require replacement. Failure to replace a worn drive plate will result in poor tracking
and both less “acceptable” data and lower quality data.
To clean the drive plate:
1. Press the “Home” key to abort scheduled operation.
2. Power down the tracker using the switch on the side of the tracker—the Brewer can be left
powered. The stepper motor in the tracker allows for free rotation of the Brewer once the
tracker is turned off.
3. Remove the back cover of the tracker. The “back of the tracker” refers to the side of the
tracker that has the cover that is furthest from the tracker’s power switch.
4. Note roughly the Brewer’s current position. Slowly rotate the Brewer counter-clockwise to a
North position. Clean the tracker drive plate edge using a non-abrasive tissue or cloth
moistened with methyl alcohol while slowly moving the Brewer clockwise to North in small
increments (a full 360 degree clockwise rotation). At each rotational increment, clean the
plate until a fresh portion of the tissue or cloth no longer removes any grayish coloured
deposit from the plate edge. During tracker rotation, be careful not to break the string that
connects the large post in the center of the tracker to the internal shut off switch. This switch
exists to prevent the tracker from winding up and breaking the power and data cables if the
tracker moves beyond its zero position (in either the clockwise or counter-clockwise
direction). If this string is broken then it must be replaced. Refer to the section on “Tracker
Shutoff String Replacement” below under “Unscheduled Maintenance”.
5. Manually rotate the Brewer counter-clockwise to a position roughly near where it was before
the tracker was powered down.
6. Re-install the tracker cover after ensuring that each of the spacers on the cover bolts are
screwed in toward the head of the bolts. The bolts contain an “undercut” portion where there
are no threads. The washers must be rotated down into this area in order for the tracker cover
seal to mate properly with the tracker body.
7. Power up the tracker.
8. Type the “az” command at menu and press “Enter” to eliminate the Brewer’s step
discrepancy from the drive plate cleaning process.
9. Type “skc” and press “Enter”.
10. Type in the name of the current schedule in use and press “Enter” to resume scheduled
operation.
11. Make the appropriate entry into the Log Form indicating the date that the drive plate was
cleaned.
Note: While it is recommended that this cleaning be performed at least every two months, it is
much better to perform this cleaning more frequently if the drive plate is dirty. A drive plate that is
very dirty every two months is likely an indication that the drive tension requires adjustment. Refer to
the “Tracker Drive Plate Tension Adjustment” in Appendix XX to correct this problem.
It is recommended that when a drive plate cleaning is required that it be performed
immediately before other bi-weekly maintenance procedures. This will allow for the plate
32
cleaning to be followed by a steps per revolution test and then a sighting that will help to ensure
optimum tracking.
7.2.6. Unscheduled Maintenance
7.2.6.1. Mercury Lamp Replacement
Note: The mercury lamp emits UV radiation when it is powered on. A powered
mercury lamp will emit a blue coloured glow. Always wear UV protective goggles when
working with the mercury lamp.
Mercury lamps typically require replacement after one and a half to three years depending
on the quality of the lamp and frequency of lamp use. Lamp test failure can result either from
lamp burnout or from degradation of the lamp intensity that occurs as the mercury vapour forms
a progressively thicker deposit on the inner surface of the lamp. If lamp intensity (measured as
the difference in counts between slits one and four) is less than 498 counts then the software will
first try to reset the micrometer and then repeat the mercury lamp test. If the lamp intensity
threshold is not reached for a second time then scheduled operation is aborted. Scheduled
operation will continue to be automatically aborted until the lamp is replaced.
The second column in the Hgoavg.### file in the Brewer data directory shows the
maximum lamp scan intensity for each day of Brewer operation. If the mercury lamp intensity is
in the range of a few thousand counts then the lamp should be replaced before it causes the
Brewer to terminate scheduled operation.
If lamp replacement is due to filament burnout or due to low lamp intensity then skip the
instructions that follow and go directly to the instructions “To replace the mercury lamp” that
follow.
Several days prior to planned mercury bulb replacement due to low counts:
1. Insert several sunscan “sc” measurements into the schedule starting at zenith angles 66 and
lower for both the morning and afternoon periods. Refer to section XX for details on
schedule editing.
2. Examine the sunscan data to confirm that there are sufficient data points to determine the
instrument’s existing calibration step number. Refer to section XX for the procedure to
determine the calibration step number.
3. Press the “Home” key to abort scheduled operation.
4. Type in the name of the current schedule in use and press “Enter” to run the schedule with the
added sunscan measurements.
To replace the mercury lamp (refer to Fig. XX above):
1. Press the “Home” key to abort scheduled operation.
2. Type “co” and press “Enter” to enter a comment.
33
3. Type “old hg lamp” and press “Enter” to make a note in the B-file to indicate that the bulb is
about to be replaced.
4. Type pdhphgslslslpf to run a mercury lamp test followed by three standard lamp tests. The
standard lamp ratios R5 and R6 are used to correct SO2 and ozone ETC values for changes in
instrument response with time. Having knowledge of these ratios immediately before and
after bulb replacement will allow for removal of any changes in R5 and R6, and subsequently
to ETCs, due solely to bulb replacement during data processing.
5. Wear UV protective goggles.
6. Close the Brewer software window.
7. Power down the Brewer using the power switch on the side of the Brewer near the quartz
zenith prism window.
8. Place a protective plastic cap over the UV dome.
9. Remove the Brewer cover.
10. The lamp housing is located below the zenith prism. The mercury lamp holder can be
removed from the lamp housing by loosening the two thumb screws located on either side of
the housing and then sliding the holder out of the housing.
11. Use a non-abrasive tissue to handle mercury lamps. Unscrew the old bulb from its socket and
then install the new bulb.
12. The lamp holder contains a guide pin that helps to ensure that the holder is being installed
correctly into the lamp housing. Hold the lamp holder with the guide pin facing up. Note the
position of the lamp filament holder. The filament holder should not be directly above or
very close to being directly above the lamp filament otherwise it will reduce the light
intensity as measured by the Brewer. If the lamp filament holder is directly above the lamp
filament when the guide pin is facing up then pry the chrome coloured spring clip, on which
the lamp socket is mounted, away from the lamp holder using a wide blade slot screwdriver.
Rotate the spring clip within the lamp holder until the filament holder is clearly offset from
the filament (about 30 degrees or so from the vertical). Press the spring clip back into the
lamp holder and confirm correct positioning of the filament holder. Re-insert the lamp
holder into the lamp housing while ensuring that the guide pin is fully inserted correctly into
the lamp housing. Tighten the lamp screws.
13. Replace the Brewer cover.
14. Remove the protective plastic cap from the UV dome.
15. Power on the Brewer—you should hear the shutter click if you listen carefully.
16. Restart the Brewer software.
17. Type “co” and press “Enter” to enter a comment.
18. Type “new hg lamp” and press “Enter” to make a note in the B-file to indicate that the bulb
has been replaced.
19. When the Brewer has finished its reset and returned to menu type pdhphgslslslpf to run a
mercury lamp test followed by three standard lamp tests.
20. Type “skc” and press “Enter”.
21. Type in the name of the current schedule with the added sunscan measurements and press
“Enter” to resume scheduled operation.
22. Make the appropriate entry into the Log Form indicating that the mercury lamp was changed.
Also note the date, time and initials of the individual who changed the lamp.
34
Several days after bulb replacement:
1. Examine the sunscan data to confirm that there are sufficient data points to determine the
instrument’s new calibration step number. Refer to section XX for the procedure to
determine the calibration step number.
2. If the new calibration step number is within +/- 2 steps different from the old one then the
lamp replacement process is complete and the following steps can be ignored.
3. Press the “Home” key to abort scheduled operation.
4. Type “cf” to access the constants file.
5. Scroll the cursor down to the entry next to “WL cal step number” and enter the new value.
6. Press the “Ctrl” and “End” keys at the same time to exit constants file editing mode.
7. Press “y” to write the constants to a new file.
8. Enter the new filename using the format “icfJJJYY” without using an extension and press
“Enter”
9. Type “skc” and press “Enter”.
10. The previously added sunscan measurements may be removed from the schedule.
11. Type in the name of the current schedule in use and press “Enter”.
7.2.6.2. Standard Lamp Replacement
Note: The standard lamp is a 20 Watt tungsten halogen bulb and it emits UV
radiation when it is powered on. Always wear UV protective goggles when working with
the standard lamp.
Standard lamps typically do not require replacement for many years. Lamp test failure
usually results from lamp burnout. Lamp intensity often changes significantly during the first
few hours or days of lamp use, after which there is a much more gradual decline over time due to
normal lamp aging. If lamp intensity (measured as the difference in counts between slits one and
four) is less than 498 counts the standard lamp test aborts scheduled operation. Scheduled
operation will continue to be automatically aborted until the lamp is replaced.
The eleventh column in the Sloavg.### file in the Brewer data directory shows the mean
intensity of lamp scans for each day of Brewer operation. Replace the standard lamp if its
intensity is less than half of its original intensity (lamp intensity after the first few days of lamp
burn-in). Also replace the lamp if lamp counts are less than 300,000. The reason to replace the
lamp if counts decrease significantly is that changes in lamp intensity can produce changes in the
wavelength spectrum emitted by the lamp. Changes in the emitted wavelength spectrum can
result in undesirable changes to the standard lamp ratios that are used to correct for changes in
instrument response with time.
To replace the standard lamp (refer to Fig. XX above):
1. If lamp replacement is due to filament burnout or due to low lamp intensity then skip this
step and proceed to step 5.
2. Type “co” and press “Enter” to enter a comment.
35
3. Type “old sl lamp” and press “Enter” to make a note in the B-file to indicate that the bulb is
to be replaced.
4. Type pdhphgslslslpf to run a mercury lamp test followed by three standard lamp tests. The
standard lamp ratios R5 and R6 are used to correct SO2 and ozone ETC values for changes in
instrument response with time. Having knowledge of these ratios immediately before and
after bulb replacement will allow for removal of any changes in R5 and R6, and subsequently
to ETCs, due solely to bulb replacement during data processing.
5. Wear UV protective goggles.
6. Press the “Home” key to go to abort scheduled operation.
7. Close the Brewer software window.
8. Power down the Brewer using the power switch on the side of the Brewer near the quartz
zenith prism window.
9. Place a protective plastic cap over the UV dome.
10. Remove the Brewer cover.
11. The lamp housing is located below the zenith prism. The standard lamp holder can be
removed from the lamp housing by removing either one or two hex head bolts or one or two
thumbscrews (depending on the lamp holder version) from the rectangular plate directly
below the zenith prism opening in the foreoptics tube.
12. Always Use a non-abrasive tissue to handle standard lamps. The standard lamp is held into
its socket by a spring clip. Simply pull the lamp straight out to remove it from its socket.
13. Pick up the new bulb using a non-abrasive tissue and insert it into the lamp socket.
14. Replace the lamp holder into the lamp housing.
15. Replace the Brewer cover.
16. Remove the protective plastic cap from the UV dome.
17. Power on the Brewer—you should hear the shutter click if you listen carefully.
18. Restart the Brewer software.
19. Type “co” and press “Enter” to enter a comment.
20. Type “new sl lamp” and press “Enter” to make a note in the B-file to indicate that the bulb
has been replaced.
21. When the Brewer has finished its reset and returned to menu type pdhphgslslslpf to run a
mercury lamp test followed by three standard lamp tests.
22. Type “skc” and press “Enter”.
23. Type in the name of the current schedule in use and press “Enter” to resume scheduled
operation.
24. Make the appropriate entry into the Log Form indicating that the standard lamp was changed.
Also note the date, time and initials of the individual who changed the lamp.
36
8.
HARDWARE INSTALLATION
8.1. Overview
It is important to read the entire Installation section of this manual before proceeding with
installation.
8.2. Brewer System Requirements
The computer system which controls the Brewer will require shelter from the
environment as specified by its manufacturer. Brewer data downloads as well as software update
and instrument remote control for testing or diagnostic purposes is facilitated by an Internet
connection.
Power-related requirements for the Brewer and its tracker are specified by the
manufacturer to be:
Voltage and current: 3 A @ 80 to 240 VAC or 1.5A @ 160 to 264
Frequency: 47 to 440 Hz
The Brewer’s operating temperature range has been specified by the manufacturer as 0C
to +40 degrees Celsius in still air. The temperature range can be extended to -20C with an
internal heater and further to -50 degrees Celsius with a cold weather cover. A further extension
of the upper limit to the operating range may be possible by installing a white-painted aluminum
sheet mounted on standoffs above the top and front of the Brewer in such a way as not to obstruct
the zenith prism viewing window or the UV dome’s view of the horizons. This plate serves to
reflect sunlight and improve convective cooling of the instrument by allowing air to pass between
the aluminum sheet and the Brewer.
A good quality uninterruptible power supply can provide both the Brewer instrument and
its computer with stable power and reduce the incidence of operational failure due to power
outages.
The power cables for both the Brewer and its computer system should be plugged into the
same power circuit—preferably the same outlet on the same circuit--to prevent ground loops.
Ground loops can cause the Brewer computer program to hang up at random intervals.
The minimum recommended surface space allocated for Brewer installation is about 2m
X 2m. It is better to allocate more space if possible as this would facilitate operator access from
all directions.
A port through a wall, roof or floor may be required to connect the power and data cable
between Brewer and computer system.
If the Brewer is to be installed at a remote station then it might be useful to consider a
means to connect to the instrument’s computer system for diagnostics purposes. There are a
37
number of remote access software packages available for remote communications. It is also
useful to have a means for the instrument to transfer its daily data files, and possibly near-real
time information as well, to a centrally located server. This allowa for data backup and archival
as well as provides real time feedback on the Brewer’s operational status which can help to
minimize operational down time. This can be accomplished by having a scheduled job on the
computer which sends files from the Brewer computer via FTP for example.
8.3. Site Selection
The ideal site for a Brewer spectrometer would afford it an unobstructed view of the
whole hemisphere of the sky right down to the horizon (in all directions). The WMO (World
Meteorological Organization) specifies that no obstruction should be greater than 10 degrees for
the purpose of solar radiation measurements. The same applies for Brewer UV measurements.
In higher latitudes, where the sun spends a good deal of time at lower elevations, it would be
much more important to have a completely unobstructed horizon (especially to the south, east
and west). In some cases the availability of necessary infrastructure, such as electrical power,
and shelter, as well as cost issues, may prevent fully satisfying this criterion.
The site selection criterion is less critical for Brewer direct sun ozone measurements
since these measurements are generally not performed at zenith angles greater than 72
degrees for MKII and MKIV Brewers or at zenith angles greater than 80 degrees for
MKIII Brewers. MKIV or NO2 Brewers and MKV or Red Brewers are specifically
designed to take NO2 and ozone measurements, respectively, at high zenith angles so
horizon constraints should be taken into account more carefully.
8.4. Installation Surface
The Brewer should be installed on a surface that is sufficiently rigid so that the Brewer
will not shift its position when it is walked around. Because of the shock associated with the
motion of the stepping motor that drives the azimuth mount, situating the instrument on loose
material will lead to continual creep in the instrument alignment.
The installation area should be able to comfortably accommodate at least two Brewers-one space for a permanently installed Brewer and the other space for a visiting traveling standard
Brewer for ozone calibrations. The size of the installation area should also allow for safe access
to each of the at least two Brewers in all directions. A recommended minimum surface area for
two Brewers is about 2.5 m X 4.5 m or about 8 ft. by 14 ft.
The ideal orientation of the installation area would be to have the longer dimension of the
area positioned north-south. This would allow the operational Brewer to occupy the south spot
and a traveling standard Brewer to occupy the north spot without either Brewer obstructing the
other's view of the sunrise/sunset portion of the horizon. . The instrument situation is just
opposite in the southern hemisphere. Calibrations are normally done in the summer season so
that the traveling standard will have a clear view throughout the day.
38
8.4.1. Building Roof Top Installation
If the building roof top is a flat surface then the tripod may be installed directly onto the
roof surface. If the surface is made of loose gravel then the tripod feet may be placed on concrete
slabs or blocks of sufficient size to prevent shifting of the slab or block if it is stepped on.
8.4.2. Ground Installation
If the ground is not subject to freeze/thaw action and is relatively firm then the tripod feet
may be placed on concrete slabs or blocks of sufficient size to prevent shifting of the slab or
block if it is stepped on. If the ground is subject to freeze/thaw action then the Brewer should be
installed onto a platform which may be constructed of wood or metal and stabilized with piles to
prevent seasonal shifting.
8.4.3. Platform installation on Building Roof Top or on Ground
A rigid platform, constructed of wood or metal is required when the ground is subject to
freeze/thaw action. It is also useful in other circumstances such as to provide the Brewer with a
height advantage compared to nearby obstructions to view. A platform is also helpful when a
location is
subject to blowing snow. A raised platform generally allows most low level
blowing snow to pass under the platform. Snow drifts can build up around the tracker and tripod
and prevent the tracker from rotating properly because the cables and/or the tracker become
bound in the snow.
A raised platform should be surrounded by a safety railing. A relatively safe
recommended railing height is about 107 cm or 42 inches. Refer to local regulations for railing
height specifications.
If a railing is higher than 115 cm or 40 inches above the surface on which the Brewer is to
be installed then it may be necessary to elevate a Brewer’s tripod feet so that the top of the railing
is at or below the height of the bottom edge of the Brewer zenith prism window. Concrete slabs
or blocks may be used to elevate the Brewer.
8.5. Brewer Spectrophotometer Assembly Instructions
Once the installation site and surface have been selected, as described above, the Brewer is
ready to be assembled.
Note: Do not plug the Brewer system into a power outlet until instructed to do so below.
1. Assemble the tripod so that it appears as shown in Fig. XX. Place the tripod over the area where
it is to be installed.
2. Place the tracker onto the tripod so that the “N” sticker on the tracker post or on the tracker base
plate (as shown in Fig. XX) are oriented toward the north in the northern hemisphere and toward
the south in the southern hemisphere. If the north stickers on the tracker post or the tracker base
plate are faded or missing then remove the tracker covers and locate the north sticker on the
surface of the drive plate. Rotate the tracker on the tripod to line up the holes of the tracker post
39
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
base and the holes in the tripod. Attach the tracker to the tripod using three bolts as shown in Fig
XX.
Rotate the tripod so that the “N” sticker is facing north (or south in the southern hemisphere).
Place the protective plastic UV dome cover over the Brewer’s UV dome.
Place the Brewer onto the tracker so that both of their power switches are facing the same
direction.
Ensure that the Brewer’s rubber feet are centered on the tracker’s angle brackets. Loosely insert
the four bolts, by hand, through the angle brackets and into the Brewer feet. Do NOT force the
bolts into the feet. If there is ANY tightness in the movement of the bolt, before it is fully inserted
up against the base of the angle bracket, then loosen the bolt and manually shift the Brewer foot
on the angle bracket by pressing on the foot until there is no tightness in screwing in the bolt.
These bolts cross-thread easily and can damage the aluminum threads. Forcing the bolts may also
prevent proper operation of the Brewer by preventing the Brewer from being properly seated on
the tracker’s angle brackets. Tighten all four bolts only when all of them have been properly
inserted into the Brewer feet.
There will be either two or three cables extending from the base of the tracker, not including the
auxiliary power extension. Each of these cables needs to be connected to the appropriate
bulkhead connector on the Brewer. Examine the number of pins / sockets and attach each cable,
in turn, to the appropriate mating bulkhead connector on the Brewer. Attach each of the cables
coming from the base of the tracker to the Brewer. Note that the screw-on connector nuts may
appear to be tight but the connector will remain improperly attached. When the nut feels tight,
push the connector in toward the Brewer and then tighten the nut again. Repeat this process until
the connector cannot be pushed in any further and the nut is tight.
Attach the power cable from the power outlet to the power bulkhead connector at the base of the
tracker (the bulkhead connector furthest from the tracker power switch). Attach the data cable to
the other bulkhead connector at the base of the tracker (nearest the power switch) only if all three
of the connectors on the Brewer have a cable attached to them. Otherwise attach the data cable
directly to the remaining bulkhead connector on the Brewer.
It is a good idea to have a means of stabilizing the Brewer tripod against strong winds which can
upset the Brewer. The manufacturer may include a “tie-down” kit with the instrument for this
purpose. The tripod feet can be bolted to a wood, metal or concrete platform. Weights can be
placed over each tripod leg. Metal straps can be placed around the tripod leg and bolted down.
Note that the Brewer should be leveled as discussed in the following section before legs are
strapped down.
10.
8.6. Leveling the Brewer Tripod
The following procedure will outline the steps required to align the azimuth axis of
rotation of the Brewer tracker with the local vertical. It is essential that the axis be vertical to
better than 0.1 degrees and that the azimuth and elevation axes be perpendicular to each other to
better than 0.1 degrees to achieve adequate pointing accuracy for all types of observations. The
tracker leveling requirements are summarized in Figure XX and the leveling procedure is
outlined in Figure XX. As outlined, the procedure is based on the underlying assumption that all
40
adjustments are free and the system is operating properly. A summary of problems and solutions
associated with the leveling operation is included at the end of this section.
Figure XX: View of Brewer from above with spirit level.
Tools Required: One large slot screw driver, one adjustable wrench and a sensitive spirit
level (0.01 degree or better precision) with two vials mounted on a plate with three adjustment
screws. This level has a ground and graduated main vial and a cross test vial. With the cross test vial,
it is possible to simultaneously level in both directions. This prevents inaccuracies in the main vial
reading caused by canting the level sidewise.
Caution:
1. During the leveling procedure care must be taken not to move the spirit
level with respect to the surface of the Brewer.
2. During manual rotation of the Brewer, be careful not to rotate the Brewer
through the North facing position by more than about 30 degrees. If this occurs, the string that
connects the large post in the center of the tracker to the internal shut off switch may break. This
switch exists to prevent the tracker from winding up and breaking the power and data cables if the
tracker moves beyond its zero position by about 60 degrees (in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction). If this string is broken then it must be replaced with 40 pound test nylon braided
41
line or equivalent. This is why it is a good practice to rotate the Brewer slowly so that if it is
accidentally moved in the wrong direction, the click of the shutoff switch can be heard and rotation
can be stopped before the string is broken. If the tracker cover must be removed to replace the string
then re-install the cover after ensuring that each of the spacers on the cover bolts are screwed in
toward the undercut portion of the bolts just below the bolt head.
Notes:
1. Omit steps 1 to 3 if the computer has not yet been set up to run the Brewer
program.
2. Rotating a tripod bolt screw clockwise (CW) raises the corresponding tripod
leg while rotating a tripod bolt screw counterclockwise (CCW) lowers the
corresponding tripod leg.
3. While this procedure has been written up assuming that the Brewer is fully
assembled onto the tracker, if the tracker is being set up prior to installing
the Brewer, it is useful to simply level the tracker with a regular spirit level
before installing the Brewer. Performing this preliminary level will have
the axis very nearly vertical since the top surface of the tracker is machined
accurately relative to the main bearings.
4. It is recommended that the covers of the tracker be removed before leveling
so that the position of the tracker relative to the safety switch can be
monitored during the leveling operation.
1. If the Brewer program displays the status message “Waiting until HH:MM:SS for lamp warmup”, Press “DELETE” to stop the lamp warm-up.
2. Press the “HOME” key to place the Brewer program in the main menu.
3. Close the Brewer program window. Click on the “End Task” button when the dialog window box
appears.
4. Turn off the power to the Brewer and tracker.
5. Loosen the locking nuts on each of the tripod leg leveling bolts by several turns to allow for
adjustment.
6. Rotate the Brewer so that its zenith prism window is facing approximately south (north in the
southern hemisphere) – i.e., parallel to the line connecting the ends of legs 2 and 3 and
perpendicular to leg 1, which is the one pointing north as shown in Figure XX.
7. Place the spirit level on top of the Brewer, over the axis of tracker rotation, so that it is parallel to
the line through legs 2 and 3 as shown in Figure XX.
8. Adjust the two screws near the small spirit level until the bubble in the small spirit level is
leveled. Adjust the “single adjustment screw” as indicated in Fig. XX until the bubble in the
larger spirit level is leveled.
9. Rotate the Brewer manually clockwise 180 degrees until it is again parallel to legs 2 and 3 but
with the zenith prism facing north (south in the southern hemisphere).
10. Turn the single adjustment screw, while counting the turns, on the spirit level plate until the plate
is level.
11. Back off toward the original setting by half the number of turns and fractional turns counted.
42
12. Level the bubble in the large spirit level, by adjusting tripod feet 2 and 3. Note the position of the
slots in the tripod adjustment bolts and use them as a reference for the amount of the adjustment
that is made.
13. Rotate the Brewer through 180 degrees (staying clear of the safety switch). Repeat steps
10
through 13 until the large bubble stays level when the Brewer is rotated through 180 degrees.
14. When the adjustment sequence above is completed, rotate the Brewer so that it is parallel to the
leg pointing north with its zenith prism window facing east. Adjust the large bubble to show full
level using the leveling bolt in leg 1.
15. As a final check, rotate the Brewer so that it is parallel to legs 2 and 3 with the zenith window
oriented north as shown in Figure 3. Now slowly rotate the Brewer through 360 degrees in 90
degree increments ensuring that the large bubble always indicates that the Brewer remains level as
the Brewer is rotated. If the Brewer is not level then repeat the leveling procedure.
16. Tighten each tripod leg nut while using the screwdriver to hold the corresponding bolt in place.
17. Rotate the Brewer so that it is pointing south. Ensure that the Brewer can rotate one-half of a turn
in either direction without the cables winding around the tracker post so as to restrict rotation. If
the tracker rotation is obstructed by the cables then remove the cables, unwind them and then reattach them in such a way as to ensure tangle-free operation.
18. If the tracker covers were removed, replace them and power up the Brewer and tracker.
Problem: Seized tracker leveling bolts. A second adjustable wrench may be necessary if
the stainless steel bolts are seized in the threads of the aluminum tripod leg. If one or more of the
bolts are seized then remove the nut from another tripod leg bolt and place it onto the seized bolt near
the top of the threads. Rotate the nut on the seized bolt up to the nut just placed on the bolt. Spread
some low-temperature grease on the bolts threads. Place the adjustable wrench onto the top nut and
rotate it clockwise to force the seized threads of the bolt to turn out from the tripod foot. Spread some
low-temperature grease on the portion of the threads that were seized and place the wrench on the
lower nut and rotate it counter-clockwise to work the grease into the tripod foot.
43
8.7. Leveling the Brewer’s Optical Assembly
Once the Brewer’s tripod has been leveled, it may be necessary to level the Brewer’s
optical assembly in order to ensure proper tracking. While the primary goal of this alignment
procedure is to make the axis of rotation of the zenith prism exactly perpendicular to the azimuth
axis of rotation, the secondary goal of making the optical axis of the UV diffuser viewing prism
vertical is also addressed.
The instrument’s optical assembly rests on three shock mounts. When the Brewer is
mounted on the tracker, the main mounting screws pull the Brewer case down onto the tracker so
that the optical assembly is resting solidly on three bolts that contact mounting surfaces located
inside the shock mounts. The height of the optical assembly above the tracker surface is set by
these three bolts which protrude from the top of the tracker. The separation between the optical
assembly and the tracker at those three points can be adjusted to set the height of the optical
assembly as well as the angle between the axis of the foreoptics and the tracker azimuth axis.
Before beginning the alignment procedure, install the protective plastic cap onto the UV
dome. When removing the Brewer cover, rotate the latch handles counter clockwise one-half
44
turn to release the latch from its catch. Then turn the latch clockwise back to their original
position, while holding the latch away from the catch, so that the latch hook is fully retracted and
cannot get caught on the latch catch when the Brewer cover is lifted off. Place the cover flat on a
horizontal surface. If the cover is stood on its end or on its side there is a very high probability
that the cover will fall over and suffer damage.
The procedure used to adjust these bolts requires the removal of the tracker covers as well
as the Brewer cover. The adjustment process is made much easier if the locknuts on the tracker
bolts are installed on the inside of the tracker instead of on the outside. If the nuts are moved
from the outside to the inside of the tracker longer bolts may be required to properly support the
optical assembly. Note that the bolts used to level the optical assembly must have spherical ends
machined onto them which mate with the surfaces inside the shock mounts.
Note: When the tracker bolts are properly adjusted, the Brewer optical assembly will be
lifted relative to the base of the case by a few mm (compared to the situation when the instrument
is resting on a horizontal surface rather than on the tracker) when the case is screwed down to the
tracker. This force is required to ensure that the optical assembly alignment is properly
maintained. (ref. problem description at the end of this section.) However, excessive lift on the
optical assembly can cause damage to the rubber seals inside the shock mounts. A quick check
to ensure that the optical assembly is sitting properly is to push down on the assembly over each
of the three bolts in turn. If any motion can be felt, the bolts should be adjusted. This procedure
is described in the problem description at the end of this section.
Required tools: Allen keys and a high accuracy circular spirit level that fits onto the
surface of the zenith prism.
1. If the nuts on tracker-head leveling bolts are on the outside of the tracker then the Brewer
needs to be taken off of the tracker to loosen the nuts. Place an allen wrench in the socket
head of one of the leveling bolts on the inside of the tracker to hold it in place. Use a wrench
to loosen the corresponding nut on the outside of the tracker by a few turns. Repeat this
process for the remaining two bolts. Place the Brewer back onto the tracker and insert and
tighten the 4 retaining screws.
2. If the nuts are on the inside of the tracker then place an allen wrench in the socket head of one
of the leveling bolts on the inside of the tracker to hold it in place while using a wrench to
loosen the corresponding nut on the bolt by a few turns. Repeat this process for the
remaining two bolts.
3. If there is reason to believe that the Brewer has not been properly aligned before, if this is the
first time the instrument has been set up on the tracker being used, or if the Brewer optical
assembly is observed to be sitting clear of the adjustment screws (as per the test in the
introduction), carry out the ‘Initial setup of the optical assembly alignment’ procedure below.
4. Place a high-accuracy circular spirit level on the surface of the UV diffuser prism.
5. Screw in one or other of the two bolts furthest away from the zenith prism to make the prism
horizontal in that axis. Screw in the third bolt (nearest the zenith prism) as needed to keep
the level operating properly.
45
6. Place the circular spirit level on the surface of the zenith prism and manually rotate the brass
gear in the zenith drive system to bring the bubble as close to the centre as possible.
7. Adjust the tracker bolts until the bubble is centered within the target area. In order to ensure
that the optical assembly remains firmly on the three adjustment bolts, make the adjustment
by either screwing in the bolt nearest the zenith prism or screwing in equally the two bolts
furthest away from the prism depending on which way the optical assembly needs to be tilted.
The brass gear can be rotated manually as needed to keep the bubble in the centre of the
target. Ensure that the three adjustment bolts are never lowered such that they are not
supporting the optical assembly.
8. If the nuts are on the inside of the tracker then place an allen wrench into the socket of each
of the leveling bolts on the inside of the tracker in turn to hold it in place while using a
wrench to tighten the corresponding nuts to set the level position.
9. If the nuts on tracker head leveling bolts are on the outside of the tracker then the Brewer
needs to be taken off of the tracker to tighten the bolts. Place an allen wrench in the socket
head of the of the leveling bolts on the inside of the tracker in turn to ensure that they do not
change their adjustment while using a wrench to tighten the corresponding nut on the outside
of the tracker.
10. Remove the circular spirit level from the surface of the zenith prism.
11. Place the Brewer cover back onto the Brewer. If the latches do not close properly, check to
make sure that Brewer cover is not resting on latch catch instead of slipping down behind it.
If the Brewer cover is resting on the latch catch then push the Brewer cover in toward the
Brewer in the area of the latch and off of the catch. Place the Brewer onto the tracker and
screw it down.
12. Flip the Brewer cover latch handles down to draw rain water away from the latch centre and
to prevent gradual corrosion and seizure of the latch.
13. Power up the Brewer and the tracker.
Problem: The Brewer may not be sitting properly on the optical assembly adjustment
screws.
Initial setup of the optical assembly alignment.
1.
The Brewer should be mounted on the tracker and fastened down with the 4
attachment screws. The Brewer optical frame will lift up compared to the position it has relative
to the bottom of the case when it is sitting on a horizontal surface.
2.
One by one, back out the three bolts until they are just free of the mounting
surfaces inside the shock mounts. This can be determined by pushing down on the optical frame
over top of each of the three screws as they are adjusted. When the screw is just free of the
optical frame it will be possible to feel motion when the optical frame is pushed down.
3.
With all three screws just free of their mounts, place the circular level on the
Brewer.
4.
Turn each screw in until the circular level just shows motion. The screws will
then all be just touching the mounts.
3.
Advance the 3 bolts by 1 turns each.
46
4.
Complete the optical assembly alignment procedure.
8.8. Protective Covers for NO2/Red Brewer Viewers
All Brewers referred to as “MKIV” or “Dual” or “NO2” Brewers as well as those referred
to as “MKV” or “Red” Brewers should have an opaque cover placed on both the iris and entrance
slit viewers. Alternatively, a cover can be placed on the entire lexan viewing window. The
cover(s) prevent diffuse visible light from entering the viewing tubes and contaminating NO2 or
red spectrum ozone measurements which are made in the visible portion of the spectrum. The
prism in these viewers is made of glass so it absorbs UV light and thus is not a problem for
regular ozone and UV measurements. Any simple blue glass can also be used to filter out this
light. This blue glass would work for both NO2 and red ozone measurements.
8.9. Computer System Installation and Connection
Assemble the computer system as specified by the computer manufacturer. Plug the
Brewer power cable into the same outlet and circuit as the Brewer computer. Connect the
Brewer data cable to the RS232 port labeled “COM1” on the back of the computer. If the
number of pins on the data cable is different from the number of sockets on the computer’s
RS232 port then an interface adapter is required. If the computer has no RS232 ports then an
RS232 card may have to be installed into the computer. An RS232 to USB interface adapter
cable may also be an option if the computer has a USB port. Note that there has not been much
experience to date using this latter option so there is no guarantee that it will work in all cases.
47
9.
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION
9.1. Overview
It is important to install the most recent version of Brewer software since each new
version not only enhances both software and hardware operational capabilities but also
operational reliability through correction of software errors.
At the time this document was last updated International Ozone Services Inc. (IOS) has
taken it upon itself to maintain the DOS-based GWBasic version of the Brewer software. The
most recent version of the Brewer software can be downloaded from their website at
www.io3.ca.
The original software for the Brewer was written in the early 1980s using the GWBasic
programming environment. The GWBasic environment is a predecessor of QBasic which in turn
has been replaced by Visual Basic. The GWbasic version of the Brewer software is still the
commonly used form of the Brewer control software. This version of the software works
relatively well within the business versions of the Microsoft operating system environment
including Windows NT and Windows XP Pro.
The GWBasic version of the Brewer program was written so that it has a “main”
component, which represents the core of the program, and a series of “routines”. This is because
GWBasic is a 64 KB interpreter. Each routine is loaded into memory and appended to the main
program as it is required and is then on completion of its execution it is overwritten by the next
required routine.
9.2. Installation of current version of the Brewer GWBasic Software
To simplify operations and installation the Brewer directory (ex. Br###, where ### is the
last three digits of the Brewer serial number) can be installed in the root directory of a hard drive.
Two subdirectories can be created under this Br### directory—one is a “Program” directory and
the other is the “Data” directory. A ### directory is created as a sub-directory in the Data
directory. Copy the GWBasic software program and routines into the Program directory. Copy
the instrument’s five constant files into the ### directory.
The following directories must be created if you install in the root of disk C (Brewer
number #046 is used for this example):
C:\Br#046
C:\Br#046\program
C:\Br#046\data
C:\Br#046\data\046
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Edit the Op_st.fil in the \Program directory and the Op_st.### file in the \Data\###
directory, using a text editor, to ensure that the information is correct. The first line in both of
these files should contain only the last three digits of the Brewer serial number. The second line
in both of these files is the path to the data directory. The following is an example of how the
first two lines of both of these files should look like:
046
c:\Br#046\data\
Edit the Brewer.bat file in the \Program directory using a text editor to confirm that all of
the information correct with respect to the hard disk on which the software resides as well as the
Brewer program directory path. The following is an example of how the entries in this file
should appear:
c:
cd\Br#046\Program
set brewdir=c:\Br#046\Program
setdate
echo on run brewer program
gwbasic main /f:10
It may be useful to copy a shortcut to the Brewer.bat file onto the computer desktop so
that the program can be started without having to find the Brewer.bat file in the program
directory.
9.3. Computer and Brewer Software Configuration for Autoboot
Refer to the computer operating system’s reference manual to configure the computer for
automatic boot up in the event of a power failure and to simplify Brewer program start up.
A copy of the Brewer.bat file can be placed into the operating system’s startup directory
so that the Brewer software can also start up the Brewer to automatically resume operation in the
event of a power failure. For Microsoft Windows XP this can be achieved by placing a copy of
the Brewer.bat file into the C:\Documents and Settings\[username]\Start Menu\Programs\Startup
directory.
9.4. Start the Brewer Software
Start the Brewer software by double-clicking on the Brewer.bat icon which is located
either on the desktop or in the Brewer program directory. If the Brewer, computer, cables and
software have been installed correctly then the software will attempt to communicate and reset
the powered up Brewer in preparation for operation. When the reset cycle is completed then
main menu will appear along with a “cm>” prompt at the main menu which can be used to enter
commands to control the Brewer. If the Brewer does not reset properly or the software displays
an error message then refer to Appendix XX to diagnose the problem.
9.5. Setting the Buffer Delay (if required)
49
New computers with fast processors may require a “buffer delay” value to be entered into
the Brewer software to ensure proper communication between the Brewer and its computer. To
determine if a buffer delay is required, press the “c” key several times and watch how fast the
letters appear at the command prompt in the Brewer software window. If the response is
immediate then no buffer delay is required.
If the response to repeated keystrokes is not immediate then set the buffer delay using the
“cf” command as follows:
1. Hold down the “c” key until at least one “c” appears at the command prompt. The software
may print many “c” characters on the screen because it empties the buffer all at once. Simply
press the “Backspace” key to delete all of the “c” characters except one.
2. Repeat the same process to place one “f” character after the “c”. When “cf” after the
command prompt then press “Enter” and wait for the constants file to be displayed.
3. Cursor down to the “Buffer Delay (s)” value near the end of the file and type “0.2” over the
existing entry.
4. Press the “CTRL” and “END” keys to exit the constants file. Press “n” when prompted if
you want to save the information into a new constants file.
5. Hold down the “c” key at the command prompt to determine if the display response has
improved. If this process does not yield and immediate response then repeat the above steps
and increment the delay by another 0.1 and so on until the response to keystrokes is
immediate.
9.6. Brewer Time-Keeping Options
Maintaining the Brewer software window clock to within +/-5 seconds from the correct
time is important to ensure proper tracking of the Brewer instrument.
There are a few time-keeping options which may be used to maintain correct Brewer
time. The Brewer itself contains a clock card which is installed inside its card cage. The time, as
maintained by this clock card, can be set by typing the “ti” command at the main menu and
pressing the “Enter” key. This clock card contains two batteries that are used to maintain the
Brewer clock in the event that there is a power failure or when the power to the Brewer has been
turned off. A second time-keeping option is to use the computer clock to update the GWBasic
environment clock. A third option is to use the computer clock which is automatically kept
correct by using some combination of hardware and/or software as discussed below.
Most computer clocks are fairly poor at keeping time and can be off by 15 seconds or
more each day. The Brewer internal clocks tend to be much better than computer clocks but still
require periodic use of the “ti” command to correct any time drift beyond 5 seconds from the
correct time. The best option for keeping time is to use some means to automatically maintain
the computer clock’s time so that it is always correct. There are a number of options available to
maintain the accuracy of the computer clock. A few of these options include: a) a high accuracy
time keeping card, which is installed into the computer, b) a GPS receiver card which is installed
into the computer that polls the time from GPS satellites or c) time server software which
50
automatically polls a time reference website and then updates the clock of a computer which has
been connected to the Internet.
To determine which time-keeping option is currently in use, note the letter located
immediately after the “C.U.T.” and before the time in the top left corner of the Brewer software
window. If this letter is an “I” then this indicates that the “internal” Brewer clock is being used.
An “E” indicates that the “external” (to the Brewer) computer clock is being used. The external
clock is the clock maintained by the GWBasic program environment. Note that this GWBasic
clock is not the same as the computer’s clock. To change the Brewer software to use the
“internal” clock if it is currently set to use the “external” clock, or vice versa, type “ic” at the
main menu and press “Enter”. Cursor down to the “Clock board” option. Press “y” to select the
internal Brewer clock or press “n” to select the external GWBasic environment clock. Press the
“Ctrl” and “End” keys at the same time to return to the main menu.
The “td” command can be used at the main menu prompt or in a schedule (refer to
Section XX on Schedule Writing below) to automatically update the GWBasic environment
clock from the computer clock. Note that “td” option should only be used when the Brewer
clock has been set to “E” for external otherwise the Brewer software clock will be updated by
both the GWBasic clock and the computer clock.
To use the “td” command, the td.rtn file must be located in the Brewer’s program
directory. If the td.rtn is not located in the program directory then use a text editor and copy the
following section of code into the editor window.
10000 REM ********************** td routine 26/11/97 ********************
10001 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV This Routine
10002 REM
10003 REM gets TRUE time from PC clock by going to RIGHT!! dos shell and back
1004 REM julian groebner 26 11 97 julian
10004 REM
***************************************************************
10005 DATA td
10070 PRINT#4,TIME$
10080 PRINT#4,"Getting time from PC clock..."
10100 shell("cmd /C")
10110 PRINT#4,TIME$
10200 return
65529 REM *** proper last line ***
After the above section of code has been copied to into the text editor window, save it as
“td.rtn” and place it into the Brewer’s program directory.
51
9.7. Configure Software for Brewer Location and Station Pressure
The best way to enter station latitude, longitude and station information is to use a text
editor to open the loc.fil located in the Brewer program directory. The first number in this file is
the index number and it represents the number of existing station entries in the file. To add
another station to the list, add one to this first entry. Insert four blank lines after the index
number. On the first blank line type the station name and press “Enter”. It is best to use GPSdetermined coordinates for the Brewer location. The latitude and longitude values should be
entered using two decimal places on the second and third blank lines respectively. Note that for
longitudes up to 180 degrees east of the Greenwich meridian the longitude values are entered as
negative numbers. Note that latitudes south of the equator are also entered as negative numbers.
Type the station latitude accurate to two digits after the decimal place and press “Enter”. Type
the station longitude accurate to two digits after the decimal place and press “Enter”. Type the
mean station pressure value to the nearest millibar. Save the file. At the main menu type “LL”
and press “Enter” to display the list of stations preceded by an index number. Type the index
number of the station that was added to the loc.fil and press “Enter” two times. The header at the
top center of the Brewer program window should now show the name of the new location that
was selected using the “LL” command.
9.8. Configure Software for Date and Time
Refer to Section XX: Brewer Software Date Check and Section XX: Brewer Software
Time Check in the maintenance section for instructions on how to enter date and time
information into the Brewer software.
9.9. Sighting
Refer to Section XX: Sighting the Brewer on the Sun in the Maintenance section to
prepare the Brewer to track the sun and moon.
9.10. Place the Brewer on Schedule
On completion of a sighting, the Brewer is ready to be placed on schedule to begin
automated collection of ozone and UV data. Type “skc” and press <Enter> to display the list of
schedules available in the program directory. Type in the name of the appropriate schedule file
without the “.skd” file extension and press <Enter>. Refer to the Section entitled “Data
Acquisition” for more information on schedules.
10.
DATA ACQUISITION
10.1. Overview
The Brewer software can execute various measurement, diagnostic and calibration
routines by typing the appropriate command abbreviation at the command prompt and pressing
“Enter”. Refer to the section entitled “List of Available Commands” for more detailed
information on the commands available.
52
The software also accepts a string of two-character commands, at the command prompt,
for automatic execution of the command sequence.
Brewer data collection can be fully automated by the use of one or more schedules.
10.2. Introduction to Schedules
A schedule is an ASCII text file that contains a series of command strings, each of which
are executed as a function of the solar zenith angle specified on the preceding line in the file. To
distinguish between the morning and the afternoon, the morning zenith angles are preceded by a
negative sign. When a schedule is run, the Brewer software reads and executes the schedule line
that is correct for the current solar zenith angle. When the sun reaches the next zenith angle
specified by the schedule the software re-reads the schedule file in the Brewer software directory
and executes the command string for this new zenith angle after having completed the most
recent command from the line for the previous zenith angle.
The final line in the schedule is the name of the schedule, without the file extension, to be
run on the next day. This can either be the name of the same schedule or the name of another
schedule. This feature allows for the linking of two or more schedules.
At the end of each day of scheduled operation, the end of day routine, ed.rtn,
automatically executes a sequence of diagnostic commands, which includes a printout of the
summary of the diagnostic and measurement routines, performed during the day, into the D-file.
Schedules can be run by typing either the “sk” command for one day only, or by typing
the “skc” command which runs the schedule continuously, and pressing <Enter>. To start a
schedule, type in the schedule name at the command prompt without the “.skd” file extension
and press <Enter>.
To exit scheduled operation press the “HOME” key.
10.3. Schedule Conventions
Schedule filenames follow the DOS file naming conventions with eight alphanumeric
characters followed by “.skd” so that the software recognizes it as a schedule file.
To execute a command at solar noon type “0” as the zenith angle. Specifying a zenith
angle as “1” (if there is no 0 line before it) instructs the software to execute the following
command string soon after solar noon. Specifying a zenith angle of “180” instructs the software
to execute the following command string at the time of solar midnight. Note that the command
sequences following a “0”, “1” or “180” will be executed even if none of these solar angles are
actually achievable due to latitude or season.
To write commands to the D-file, which provides a formatted version of information that
appears in the B-file, place a “pd” command immediately before the command(s) that are to be
written to the D-file. A “pf” can be used to stop the writing of information into the D-file.
53
If, during the execution of a schedule command string, the next zenith angle occurring in
the schedule has been achieved, then the software will continue executing its current command
and then abort the processing of the remainder of the string and proceed to the next command
string. If a command string is completed before the next zenith angle in the schedule is reached
then the Brewer will sit idle and display the message “waiting until HH:MM:SS for [next
measurement]” until the next zenith angle is achieved.
A number between 1 and 99 can be placed at the end of a command string to indicate the
number of times to repeat the sequence. This saves repeating the same sequence within a
command string. Alternatively, there is an automatic routine, au.rtn, which can be placed into a
schedule as “au” and contains a series of commands. These commands are then executed. If the
last command in the series is “au” then the Brewer software will re-read the au.rtn and continue
looping through these commands until the next angle in the schedule is achieved or until a
termination criteria within the au.rtn becomes valid. The au.rtn can be copied and given a
different name so that different automatic routine command sequences can be executed at
different zenith angles. Note that the name of the new routine should be two letters followed by
the extension “.rtn” because the software parses the command strings into two letter commands.
It is also important to ensure that the name of the new file is not the same as the name for any of
the existing routines in the program directory to prevent existing files from being overwritten. If
the au routine is copied then it is important to do a search for the “au” string within the au.rtn file
and change all occurrences of “au” to the new two letter name otherwise the new routine will
eventually call the au.rtn and not repeat itself.
The use of a standard schedule naming convention will allow Brewer operators to easily
distinguish between schedules for different Brewer models, locations and sequence of use. One
example of a schedule naming convention, given the 8 character filename limit, is as follows:
A sample nomenclature for schedule names:
1. The first two characters are first two letters in station name. If there are two stations like
Resolute and Regina which share the same first two letters then use the first and third letters
for each of these (ie rs and rg) to eliminate any ambiguity that could be caused by “re”.
2. The third character is the schedule number—starting at 1 and incrementing from there if there
is more than one schedule used at the station during the year for the same instrument.
3. The remaining character indicates the model number of the Brewer (MKII, MKIII, MKIV,
MKIVe (extended range) and MKV)
4. A final character may be used to indicate unique modifications to the default schedule for a
particular Brewer.
For example, the file name for the third schedule in the year for the MKIVe Brewer at
Eureka would be eu3mk4e.skd
A sample nomenclature for custom automatic routine names called by schedules:
54
The file names for automatic routines are limited to two characters since they are parsed
by the software as a regular Brewer command. The extension for automatic routines is “.rtn”
1. Four letters are used for the first character of automatic routine filenames. They are k,l,m,n.
“k” is used for the first automatic routine that appears in the schedule, l for the next one and
so on.
2. The second character in the automatic routine file name represents the model in question.
“2” for MKII, “3” for MKIII, “4” for MKIV, “5” for MKV. “1” was used for MK4e instead
of “6” to avoid confusion in the event that an MKVI is ever created.
Again it is important to ensure that any routine does not have the same name as an
existing routine otherwise the existing routine will be over-written. This is the reasoning behind
using a number as the second character in the name—few if any other Brewer routines have a
number as part of their name.
10.4. Sample Schedules
Sample schedules have been included in the updated version v3.76b of Brewer software.
These schedules may be used as they are or modified to emphasize certain measurement types
while placing less emphasis on other types.
Some of these schedules call automatic routines. The default automatic routine, au.rtn,
provided with the Brewer software can be modified to suit any measurement scheme. Automatic
routines provide additional flexibility because they, like schedules, can be chained together to run
alternating sequences of measurements during the same zenith angle time period of operation and
can cause any command to happen 1 or more times per day every so many days
Many of the sample schedules included with the Brewer software are described below.
Explanatory comments appear in italicized blue font.
10.4.1. Sample Schedule for all Latitudes and Brewer Models
The following schedule provides a balance of ozone and UV measurements, made in the
UV portion of the spectrum and is suitable for any model of Brewer at any latitude. It should be
noted that this schedule does not contain any NO2 measurements that a MKIV Brewer would be
capable of nor does it contain any direct sun measurements in the red portion of the spectrum
which a MKV Brewer would be capable of.
Schedule: to1mk3.skd
Notes: The td command synchronizes the GWBasic clock to the computer’s clock. One
reason that the automatic routines are used is to take five or so standard lamp measurements per
day so that the daily mean standard lamp ratios are more representative and so that there is
more data for the standard lamp ratios. This can help to highlight existing or changing
dependencies of the standard lamp ratios over time as well as to provide information for the
determination of instrument temperature coefficients. The automatic routines used in the
schedule are described below.
-180
55
pdpotdk3
-96
l3
-86
m3
-74
n3
73
m3
85
l3
95
k3
180
to1mk3
At solar midnight print the instrument constants to d-file and run k3
At morning zenith angle 96 degrees run l3
At morning zenith angle 86 degrees run m3
At morning zenith angle 74 degrees run n3
At afternoon zenith angle 73 degrees run m3
At afternoon zenith angle 85 degrees run l3
At afternoon zenith angle 95 degrees run k3
At solar midnight run schedule to1mk3 (the same one again in this case)
Automatic routine: k3.rtn
The k3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of focused moon, fm, measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals
as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin
summarizing all ozone and uv measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
The fm routine will become active if the lunar phase is greater than or equal to one-half and the
lunar zenith angle is greater than 75 degrees. These measurements are particularly useful
during the polar winter when the sun is too low for direct sun measurements.
10000 REM ******************** k3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA k3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
56
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11180 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11200 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11210 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11230 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11240 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11250 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11270 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="k3"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 REM IF G$(0)="k3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="k3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: l3.rtn
The l3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of UV measurements at a time when the sun is too low to acquire ozone measurements.
Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5
hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV
measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** l3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA l3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
57
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11170 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11300 '
11310 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11340 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11350 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11410 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11440 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11450 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11510 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11520 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11530 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11540 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11550 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11610 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11620 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
11630 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11640 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11650 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11660 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="w1"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="l3"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 REM IF G$(0)="l3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="l3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: m3.rtn
58
The m3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, focused sun and UV measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at hourly
intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a
bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day to the desired
ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** m3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA m3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11180 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11190 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11200 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11210 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11300 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11310 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11320 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11430 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11510 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11520 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
59
11530 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11540 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11550 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11560 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m3"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 IF G$(0)="m3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="m3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: n3.rtn
The n3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, zenith sky and UV measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at hourly
intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a
bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day to the desired
ftp server.
The sunscan command, sc, has been inserted to collect data to allow for the
determination and monitoring of the wavelength calibration step number over time. The sc
command becomes active every 14 days and is run hourly. This routine suspends standard lamp
measurements on days when the sun scans are taken to minimize the effect on the rest of the
scheduled commands.
The fv command has been inserted to log the correction values between where the Brewer
is pointing compared to where the sun actually is at the time of measurement. Fv data will allow
for the monitoring of the quality of sun tracking and any changes in sun tracking accuracy over
time. The fv command becomes active every 15 days and is run hourly. Factors that affect
sighting quality include the accuracy of the following items:
- GWBasic clock when the sighting was taken and when the sighting was checked,
- steps per revolution value at the time of the sighting and at the time of the check,
- leveling of the Brewer enclosure,
- leveling of the Brewer’s optical frame,
- Alignment of the zenith prism within the fore optics tube, and
- any accumulated azimuth or elevation step discrepancies at the time that the last
sighting along with any accumulated discrepancies at the time of the sighting checks.
Poor sun tracking usually results in fewer acceptable focused and direct sun and moon
measurements along with a reduction in the quality of these measurements.
Every 15 days the sl command is performed hourly in order to provide more
measurements to obtain better data for the determination of temperature coefficients. The
frequency of intense sl measurements has been selected based on the idea that there will be
60
cloudy days which will reduce the temperature range experienced by the instrument. The best
data set for the determination of temperature coefficients is one which is most representative of
the annual instrument operational temperature range.
10000 REM ******************** n3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA n3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11180 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11200 ZT=ZT+1
11210 1F INT(val(jd$)/14)*14<>val(jd$) OR INT(val(jd$)/15)*15<>val(jd$) OR
INT(val(jd$)/16)*16<>val(jd$) THEN IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11220 IF INT(val(jd$)/16)*16=val(jd$) AND INT(ZT/2)*2=ZT THEN
QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11230 IF INT(val(jd$)/14)*14=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sc"
11240 IF INT(val(jd$)/15)*15=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fv"
11310 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11350 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11420 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
61
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11510 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11520 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11530 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11540 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="b1"
11550 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n3"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 IF G$(0)="n3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="n3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
10.4.2. Sample Operational Schedule for a MKIV
Schedule: to1mk4.skd
Note that the td command synchronizes the GWBasic clock to the computer’s clock. One
reason that the automatic routines are used is to take five or so standard lamp measurements per
day so that the daily mean standard lamp ratios are more representative and so that there is
more data for the standard lamp ratios. This can help to highlight existing or changing
dependencies of the standard lamp ratios over time as well as to provide information for the
determination of instrument temperature coefficients.
-180
o3pdpotdk4
-112
o3pdtdpofrhgsln2slmdk4
-102
o3l4
-85
o3m4
-80
n4
80
o3m4
85
o3l4
100
o3pdtdpfhgsln2slmdk4
180
to1mk4
Automatic routine: k4.rtn
62
The k4 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of focused moon, fm, measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals
as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin
summarizing all ozone and uv measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
The fm routine will become active if the lunar phase is greater than or equal to one-half and the
lunar zenith angle is greater 75 degrees. These measurements are particularly useful during the
polar winter when the sun is too low for direct sun measurements.
10000 REM ******************** k4 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA k4
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11180 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11200 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11210 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11230 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11240 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11250 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11270 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="k4"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
63
12030 REM IF G$(0)="k4" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="k4" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
The l4 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of UV and NO2 mode zenith sky measurements at a time when the sun is too low to
acquire ozone measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals as well as a
standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing
all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** l4 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA l4
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11170 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11300 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11310 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n2"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11350 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11370 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
64
11390 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="o3"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n2"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11450 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11470 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11480 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11490 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="l4"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 REM IF G$(0)="l4" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="l4" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: m4.rtn
The m4 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, focused sun, UV and NO2 mode zenith sky measurements. Mercury lamp
scans are done at hourly intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md
routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far
during the day to the desired ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** m4 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA m4
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
65
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11170 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11300 '
11310 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11390 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n2"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11350 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11370 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="o3"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11450 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11470 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m4"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 REM IF G$(0)="m4" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="m4" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: n4.rtn
The n4 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, zenith sky, UV and NO2 mode zenith sky measurements measurements.
Mercury lamp scans are done at hourly intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours
66
or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements
taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
The sunscan command, sc, has been inserted to collect data to allow for the
determination and monitoring of the wavelength calibration step number over time. The sc
command becomes active every 14 days and is run hourly. This routine suspends standard lamp
measurements on days when the sun scans are taken to minimize the effect on the rest of the
scheduled commands.
The fv command has been inserted to log the correction values between where the Brewer
is pointing compared to where the sun actually is at the time of measurement. Fv data will allow
for the monitoring of the quality of sun tracking and any changes in sun tracking accuracy over
time. The fv command becomes active every 15 days and is run hourly. Factors that affect
sighting quality include the accuracy of the following items:
- GWBasic clock when the sighting was taken and when the sighting was checked,
- steps per revolution value at the time of the sighting and at the time of the check,
- leveling of the Brewer enclosure,
- leveling of the Brewer’s optical frame,
- Alignment of the zenith prism within the fore optics tube, and
- any accumulated azimuth or elevation step discrepancies at the time that the last
sighting along with any accumulated discrepancies at the time of the sighting checks.
Poor sun tracking usually results in fewer acceptable focused and direct sun and moon
measurements along with a reduction in the quality of these measurements.
Every 15 days the sl command is performed hourly in order to provide more
measurements to obtain better data for the determination of temperature coefficients. The
frequency of intense sl measurements has been selected based on the idea that there will be
cloudy days which will reduce the temperature range experienced by the instrument. The best
data set for the determination of temperature coefficients is one which is most representative of
the annual instrument operational temperature range.
10000 REM ******************** n4 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA n4
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
67
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11180 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11200 ZT=ZT+1
11210 1F INT(val(jd$)/14)*14<>val(jd$) OR INT(val(jd$)/15)*15<>val(jd$) OR
INT(val(jd$)/16)*16<>val(jd$) THEN IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11230 IF INT(val(jd$)/16)*16=val(jd$) AND INT(ZT/2)*2=ZT THEN
QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11240 IF INT(val(jd$)/14)*14=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sc"
11240 IF INT(val(jd$)/15)*15=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fv"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11350 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11370 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11390 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="uv"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n2"
11450 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11470 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11480 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zw"
11490 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n4"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 REM IF G$(0)="n4" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="n4" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
68
65529 REM proper last line
10.4.3. Sample Operational Schedule for a MKV
Schedule: to1mk5.skd
Note that the td command synchronizes the GWBasic clock to the computer’s clock. One
reason that the automatic routines are used is to take five or so standard lamp measurements per
day so that the daily mean standard lamp ratios are more representative and so that there is
more data for the standard lamp ratios. This can help to highlight existing or changing
dependencies of the standard lamp ratios over time as well as to provide information for the
determination of instrument temperature coefficients.
-180
pdpotdhgslvlpfk5
-95
l5
-80
m5
80
l5
95
180
to1mk5
Automatic routine: k5.rtn
The k5 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of focused moon, fm, measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals
as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin
summarizing all ozone and uv measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
The fm routine will become active if the lunar phase is greater than or equal to one-half and the
lunar zenith angle is greater 75 degrees. These measurements are particularly useful during the
polar winter when the sun is too low for direct sun measurements.
10000 REM ******************** k5 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA k5
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
69
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11180 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11200 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11210 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11230 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11240 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11250 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11270 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="k5"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 REM IF G$(0)="k5" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="k5" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: l5.rtn
The l5 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of UV and red spectrum ozone measurements at a time when the sun is too low to acquire
direct sun ozone measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals as well as
a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin
summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp
server.
10000 REM ******************** l5 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10030 REM *************************************************************
70
10500 DATA l5
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF TYP$="mkiv" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ap"
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11160 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11180 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11300 '
11310 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="vs"
11340 ZT=ZT+1: IF (INT(ZT)/3)*3 = ZT THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11350 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fl"
11370 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11390 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="vs"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fl"
11430 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11450 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="vs"
11470 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11480 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fl"
11490 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="l5"
71
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 IF G$(0)="l5" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="l5" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: m5.rtn
The m5 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, zenith sky, UV and red spectrum ozone measurements. Mercury lamp scans
are done at hourly intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md
routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far
during the day to the desired ftp server.
The sunscan command, sc, has been inserted to collect data to allow for the
determination and monitoring of the wavelength calibration step number over time. The sc
command becomes active every 14 days and is run hourly. This routine suspends standard lamp
measurements on days when the sun scans are taken to minimize the effect on the rest of the
scheduled commands.
The fv command has been inserted to log the correction values between where the Brewer
is pointing compared to where the sun actually is at the time of measurement. Fv data will allow
for the monitoring of the quality of sun tracking and any changes in sun tracking accuracy over
time. The fv command becomes active every 15 days and is run hourly. Factors that affect
sighting quality include the accuracy of the following items:
- GWBasic clock when the sighting was taken and when the sighting was checked,
- steps per revolution value at the time of the sighting and at the time of the check,
- leveling of the Brewer enclosure,
- leveling of the Brewer’s optical frame,
- Alignment of the zenith prism within the fore optics tube, and
- any accumulated azimuth or elevation step discrepancies at the time that the last
sighting along with any accumulated discrepancies at the time of the sighting checks.
Poor sun tracking usually results in fewer acceptable focused and direct sun and moon
measurements along with a reduction in the quality of these measurements.
Every 15 days the sl command is performed hourly in order to provide more
measurements to obtain better data for the determination of temperature coefficients. The
frequency of intense sl measurements has been selected based on the idea that there will be
cloudy days which will reduce the temperature range experienced by the instrument. The best
data set for the determination of temperature coefficients is one which is most representative of
the annual instrument operational temperature range.
10000 REM ******************** m5 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
72
10020 REM Updated 20060119 TG
10022 REM Updated 20070819 TG
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA m5
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF TYP$="mkiv" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ap"
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11160 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11190 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11200 ZT=ZT+1
11210 1F INT(val(jd$)/14)*14<>val(jd$) OR INT(val(jd$)/15)*15<>val(jd$) OR
INT(val(jd$)/16)*16<>val(jd$) THEN IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11220 IF INT(val(jd$)/16)*16=val(jd$) AND INT(ZT/2)*2=ZT THEN
QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11230 IF INT(val(jd$)/14)*14=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sc"
11240 IF INT(val(jd$)/15)*15=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fv"
11300 '
11310 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11340 ZT=ZT+1: IF (INT(ZT)/3)*3 = ZT THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11350 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11370 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11390 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="vs"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fl"
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11430 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
73
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11450 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11470 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="vs"
11480 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ls"
11490 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fl"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11510 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkii" OR ZERO=3469 THEN G$(QC)="u"+"v" ELSE
G$(QC)="u"+"x"
11520 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m5"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 IF G$(0)="m5" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="m5" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
10.4.4. Sample Schedule for all Latitudes and Brewer Models with Umkehr
Measurements
The following schedule provides a balance of ozone and UV measurements, made in the
UV portion of the spectrum along with Umkehr measurements and is suitable for any model of
Brewer at any latitude. It should be noted that this schedule does not contain any NO2
measurements that a MKIV Brewer would be capable of nor does it contain any direct sun
measurements in the red portion of the spectrum which a MKV Brewer would be capable of.
Schedule: to1mk3u.skd
Note that the td command synchronizes the GWBasic clock to the computer’s clock. One
reason that the automatic routines are used is to take five or so standard lamp measurements per
day so that the daily mean standard lamp ratios are more representative and so that there is
more data for the standard lamp ratios. This can help to highlight existing or changing
dependencies of the standard lamp ratios over time as well as to provide information for the
determination of instrument temperature coefficients.
-180
pdpotdpfk3
-96
l1
-80
m1
-60
n3
74
60
m1
85
l1
95
k3
180
to1mk3u
Automatic routine: k3.rtn
The k3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of focused moon, fm, measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at 90 minute intervals
as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin
summarizing all ozone and uv measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
The fm routine will become active if the lunar phase is greater than or equal to one-half and the
lunar zenith angle is greater 75 degrees. These measurements are particularly useful during the
polar winter when the sun is too low for direct sun measurements.
10000 REM ******************** k3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA k3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11180 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11200 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11210 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
75
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11230 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11240 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11250 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11270 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fm"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="k3"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 REM IF G$(0)="k3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="k3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: l1.rtn
The l1 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of UV and Umkehr measurements at a time when the sun is too low to acquire ozone
measurements. Good quality Umkehr profiles depend on many Umkehr measurements taken
during the critical zenith angle range between 90 and 80 degrees. Mercury lamp scans are done
at 90 minute intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is
used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day
to the desired ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** l1 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA l1
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>3 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
76
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11170 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11300 '
11310 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="u5"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="u5"
11310 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="u5"
13000 '
13010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="l1"
13020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
13030 REM IF G$(0)="l1" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
13040 REM IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="l1" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
13050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
13060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: m1.rtn
The m1 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, focused sun and UV and Umkehr measurements. Fewer Umkehr
measurements are required between zenith angles 80 to 60 degrees to complete the Umkehr
profile. Mercury lamp scans are done at hourly intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every
5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV
measurements taken so far during the day to the desired ftp server.
10000 REM ******************** m1 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA m1
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
77
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11170 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11180 ZT=ZT+1: IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11190 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11200 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11210 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11230 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="u5"
11240 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11250 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11270 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="u5"
11290 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$<>"mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="b1"
11300 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fz"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m1"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 IF G$(0)="m1" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="m1" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
Automatic routine: n3.rtn
The n3 routine is a modified automatic routine, au.rtn that has the instrument perform a
series of direct sun, zenith sky and UV measurements. Mercury lamp scans are done at hourly
intervals as well as a standard lamp scan every 5 hours or so. The md routine is used to send a
bulletin summarizing all ozone and UV measurements taken so far during the day to the desired
ftp server.
The sunscan command, sc, has been inserted to collect data to allow for the
determination and monitoring of the wavelength calibration step number over time. The sc
command becomes active every 14 days and is run hourly. This routine suspends standard lamp
measurements on days when the sun scans are taken to minimize the effect on the rest of the
scheduled commands.
The fv command has been inserted to log the correction values between where the Brewer
is pointing compared to where the sun actually is at the time of measurement. Fv data will allow
78
for the monitoring of the quality of sun tracking and any changes in sun tracking accuracy over
time. The fv command becomes active every 15 days and is run hourly. Factors that affect
sighting quality include the accuracy of the following items:
- GWBasic clock when the sighting was taken and when the sighting was checked,
- steps per revolution value at the time of the sighting and at the time of the check,
- leveling of the Brewer enclosure,
- leveling of the Brewer’s optical frame,
- Alignment of the zenith prism within the fore optics tube, and
- any accumulated azimuth or elevation step discrepancies at the time that the last
sighting along with any accumulated discrepancies at the time of the sighting checks.
Poor sun tracking usually results in fewer acceptable focused and direct sun and moon
measurements along with a reduction in the quality of these measurements.
Every 15 days the sl command is performed hourly in order to provide more
measurements to obtain better data for the determination of temperature coefficients. The
frequency of intense sl measurements has been selected based on the idea that there will be
cloudy days which will reduce the temperature range experienced by the instrument. The best
data set for the determination of temperature coefficients is one which is most representative of
the annual instrument operational temperature range.
10000 REM ******************** n3 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10010 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10020 REM
10030 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA n3
10510 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10520 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11010 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11020 IF ZT>5 THEN ZT=0: REM THIS VARIABLE IS USED TO TRACK # OF
ITERATIONS OF THIS ROUTINE
11100 '
11110 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pd"
11130 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="td"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="pf"
11150 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hp"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="hg"
11180 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11190 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11200 ZT=ZT+1
79
11210 1F INT(val(jd$)/14)*14<>val(jd$) OR INT(val(jd$)/15)*15<>val(jd$) OR
INT(val(jd$)/16)*16<>val(jd$) THEN IF ZT=1 THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11220 IF INT(val(jd$)/16)*16=val(jd$) AND INT(ZT/2)*2=ZT THEN
QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sl"
11230 IF INT(val(jd$)/14)*14=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="sc"
11240 IF INT(val(jd$)/15)*15=val(jd$) THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="fv"
11310 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11320 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11330 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11350 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11400 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11410 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11420 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11430 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
11510 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="zs"
11520 QC=QC+1:IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN G$(QC)="ux" ELSE G$(QC)="uv"
11530 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="md"
11540 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="b1"
11550 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="ds"
12000 '
12010 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="n3"
12020 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
12030 IF G$(0)="n3" THEN ZF=90:REM set to stop at zenith angle=90
12040 IF ZA>90 AND G$(0)="n3" THEN G$(1)="ed":SK$="":REM end day to follow
12050 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12060 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
10.4.5. Sample Direct-Sun Ozone Calibration Schedule for All Brewer
Models
Schedule: calo3.skd
This schedule collects standard lamp data throughout the day in order to be able to
determine temperature coefficients for the instrument. Automatic routine f1 is called between
zenith angles -80 to +80 in order to collect direct sun data required for the ozone calibration.
-180
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-170
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
80
-160
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-150
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-140
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-130
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-120
o3pdtdhphgslapdtrspf
-110
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
-100
o3pdtdhphgslapdtrsmdpf
-90
o3pdtdpofrhphgslmdpf
-81
f1
80
o3pdtdpfhphgslmd
90
o3pdtdpfhphgslmd
100
o3pdtdhphgslapdtrspf
110
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
120
o3pdtdhphgslapdtrspf
130
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
140
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
150
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
160
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
170
o3pdtdpfhphgsl
180
calo3
10000 REM ******************** f1 routine 20/10/95 ********************
10020 REM
MKII/MKIII/MKIV Set Up and Repeat Auto Sequence
10040 REM
81
10060 REM *************************************************************
10500 DATA f1
10520 IF Q1%+Q2%+Q3%+Q4%+Q5%<>5 THEN RETURN:REM return if not
automatic
10540 IF ED%=2 THEN ED%=3
11000 '
11001 ' *** Set up command sequence ***
11002 '
11004 UC%=0:JJ=0:QC=0:REM reset command counter to zero
11006 IF MDD$<>"o3" THEN MDD$="o3"
11010 REM
===========================================================
11020 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="p"+"d"
11040 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="t"+"d"
11060 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="p"+"f"
11080 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="h"+"p"
11100 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="h"+"g"
11120 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11140 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11160 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11180 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11200 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11220 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11240 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11260 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11280 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11300 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11320 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="b"+"2" ELSE G$(QC)="b"+"1"
11340 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11360 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11380 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m"+"d"
11400 REM
===========================================================
11420 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="p"+"d"
11440 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="t"+"d"
11460 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="p"+"f"
11480 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="h"+"p"
11500 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="h"+"g"
11520 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11540 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11560 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11580 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11600 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="b"+"2"
11620 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
82
11640 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11680 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="s"+"l"
11700 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11720 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11740 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11780 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11800 IF TYP$="mkiii" THEN QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="b"+"2" ELSE G$(QC)="b"+"1"
11820 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11840 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="d"+"s"
11860 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="m"+"d"
11880 REM
===========================================================
11900 QC=QC+1:G$(QC)="f"+"1"
11920 QR=1:IF G$(0)="" THEN G$(0)=C$:SK$=C$
11940 IF G$(0)="f1" THEN ZF=85:REM set to stop at zenith angle=85
11960 IF ZA>85 AND G$(0)="f1" THEN G$(1)="e"+"d":SK$="":REM end day to
follow
11980 IF RM%=1 THEN RETURN:REM if called from command sequence
12000 GOTO 3400
65529 REM proper last line
10.5. Tips for Schedule Writing
10.5.1. Micrometer Movement
Commands which involve micrometer movement include hp, hg, sc, uv, ux, um, n2, and
o3. It is best to place commands which do not move the micrometer (ex. ds, zs, etc.) directly
after an hphg to prevent loss of data in the event that a micrometer movement issue develops and
is not addressed immediately.
10.5.2. Lamp Commands
It is best to schedule an “hphg” command with sufficient frequency to ensure that
important to ensure that this string is always executed before instrument temperature changes by
3 degrees Celsius in order to compensate for temperature=induced spectrum shifts.
It is good practice to use “hphg” instead of just “hg” even for MKII, MKIV, and MKV
instruments to make schedules more generic and to prevent data degradation due to misalignment of the two micrometers in the event that the schedule is ever installed on a MKIII
Brewer or shared with someone who has an MKIII Brewer.
It’s a good idea to have a take a few sl measurements at various times during the day, in
order to collect instrument response data at various temperatures.
83
Scheduling more than about 30 hphg commands and more than 6 sl commands is likely
excessive and will lead to premature aging and burn out of the hg and sl lamps without providing
any more useful information.
It is better not to place any command that measures light from the sun or sky between a
lamp warm up command (i.e., b1 or b2) to prevent light from reflecting off of the quartz window
and contaminating the signal.
Newer versions of the Brewer software perform a micrometer and filter wheel #3 reset
(fr) automatically after each instrument reset (re) command. As a result, it is necessary to run an
hphg to properly position the micrometer to disperse the correct wavelengths onto the exit slits of
the spectrometer.
It is recommended that about ten standard lamp measurements be scheduled evenly
throughout each day and night so they occur at various temperatures and can be used to monitor
instrument response changes with temperature.
10.5.3. DS, ZS, FZ and UV Measurements
UV measurements at zenith angles greater than 90 degrees may contain useful
information. There is likely no value in measuring UV for ze angles greater than 95 degrees.
Measurements can be taken at 90<ze<95 if the instrument has nothing else to do. The absolute
minimum is two UV measurements per hour for zenith angles less than 90 degrees and it would
be nice to have three to four measurements per hour around solar noon.
It is also useful to take DS and ZS measurements at high zenith angles. At present, we do
not use measurements taken at mu>3.5 (or 4 - depending on the site). Focused sun
measurements can be used down do an airmass of 8.2 or to a zenith angle of 85 degrees. With
new algorithms that help to correct for stray light it is hoped that MKIII instruments will produce
useful ozone values to an airmass of 8.0 and that MKII, MKIV and MKV Brewers will product
useful ozone measurements in the UV down to an airmass of 5.0.
10.5.4. Focussed Moon Observations
Focussed moon (fm) observations can be contaminated by sunlight if sun is near or above
horizons so it is best not to schedule these measurements for zenith angles less than 92 degrees.
10.5.5. Umkehr Commands
A “um” command runs indefinitely so it is best to schedule desired measurement
commands before it. It is better to use the u5 routine which collects the required amount of data
for umkehr processing purposes since the runtime of this command is known in order to facilitate
the scheduling of other commangs. If “um1” is typed in a schedule after an angle (and nothing
else) then only one um scan will be done.
84
10.5.6. CI and CZ Scans
Ci scan of entire 290 to 325 should be done say once a week. Does not have to be too
fine. Cz scan of hg line should be done at about same frequency.
10.6. Sample Schedules
Recommended generic sample scheds in appendix for mod/mid-lat—min rec # uv and ds
per hour for Global network. Write schedules for 20, 40, 60 and 80 degrees with min number of
ds,zs,uv,um meas. for the various seasons. Reverse for southern hemisphere.
11.
ROUTINE DIAGNOSTICS
11.1. Overview
The Brewer generates a significant amount of diagnostic information during routine
operation. Results from diagnostic tests can be found on the computer screen, in the instrument’s
B-files, D-files as well as in the various average files. The information from these files can be
used to determine the current operational state of the instrument as well as to address any
concerns before they begin to have negative implications for both data quantity and data quality.
11.2. Daily Error Checks
There are three classes of errors that may occur during Brewer operation. The first class
of error will result in the error message being written to the software window and immediate
failure of Brewer operation. Examples of these types of error messages include “Brewer failed to
respond 5 times” or “reset in ## seconds”, which are displayed on the screen and result from an
instrument power or communications failure.
The second class of errors result in an error message being written to the B-file at the time
that the instrument was last in scheduled operation mode and cause the software to abort
scheduled operation and display the command prompt at the main menu. Examples of these
types of errors include a motor zeroing failure or a lamp not found error. These errors will cause
the Brewer software to exit scheduled operation because continued operation would not yield
useful information. As long as the software is on menu, it will create small daily B-files with file
header information only.
The third class of errors, which are not as serious, do not cause the software to exit
scheduled operation but simply generate warning messages in the B-file. One example of a
warning message results from an unrecognized character string in the schedule file. The B-files
must be examined in order for the operator to be aware of this type of error.
A software package called “BrwRprt.exe” can be used to extract error and warnings
information from B-files. This software also extracts any text from the “B-file” that does not
reflect normal Brewer operation. The list of recognized text strings is user-editable. Refer to
Appendix XX for more information about this free software and on how to access it.
85
Please refer to Appendix XX for the procedures to deal with each type of error or warning
message. Log all types of errors into the Brewer Log Form along with the action(s) taken to
resolve them.
11.3. Weekly Diagnostic Checks
Various diagnostic parameters should be monitored in order to ensure that the Brewer is
operating optimally. Each of the following diagnostic tests topics provides the two letter
command used to invoke the test, the location of the diagnostic information, a brief description
of the purpose of the test, acceptable limits, and potential problems and recommendations.
Software like BrwrRprt.exe can be used to extract diagnostic information from Brewer B-files as
well as from the various average files. Refer to Appendix XX on Troubleshooting for detailed
instructions on resolving any variances from recommended limits for each diagnostic parameter.
Refer to Appendix XX for more information about this free software and on how to access it.
11.3.1. Mercury Lamp Test (hg)
Information location: Mercury lamp intensity information can be found in the second
column of the Hgoavg.### file.
Purpose: Spectral shifts occur in the spectrometer as the instrument’s temperature
changes. The mercury lamp test is used to locate either the 302.15 nm or 296.73 nm mercury
spectral emission line (depending on software configuration) and then re-position the grating to
disperse the five operational wavelengths onto the spectrometer’s corresponding exit slits.
Acceptable limits: Mercury lamps last about one to three years depending on the bulb
and frequency of use. Lamp intensity gradually declines with use due to deposition of a mercury
film on the inner surface of the lamp. Lamp intensities of new mercury bulbs can range from
about 40,000 counts to about 150,000 counts, as measured by the hg routine, depending on the
sensitivity of Brewer and neutral density attenuation filter in place during the test. It is common
for mercury lamp intensity to decline by as much as 10,000 to 20,000 counts during the first few
hours or days of use before starting a slower rate of decline in intensity levels.
Potential problems and recommendations: It is a good idea to replace mercury lamps
once their lamp intensity deteriorates to about 20% of their original value. At this point there is
generally not much life left in the bulbs and the intensity check performed at the beginning of
each test can cause the test to fail and the Brewer to abort scheduled operation if the lamp
intensity falls below 400 counts.
11.3.2. Standard LampTest (sl)
Information location: Standard lamp R5, R6 and intensity information can be found in
the ninth, tenth and eleventh columns, respectively, of the Sloavg.### file.
Purpose: The standard lamp test is used to monitor the stability of the instrument’s
response to light over time. Standard lamp tests produce two diagnostic ratios, the R5 and R6
86
ratios, which can be used to correct the instrument’s SO2 and ozone extraterrestrial coefficients
respectively.
Acceptable limits: The R5 and R6 ratios should remain stable over time and remain
within +/-20 and +/-10 units, respectively, of their nominal values.
Standard lamps can last for many years depending on the bulb and frequency of use.
Lamp intensity generally decreases slowly over time and can be further reduced by the deposition
of a black or white film on the inner surface of the bulb. Lamp intensities of new standard lamps
can range from about 500,000 counts to about 1,200,000 counts, as measured by the sl routine,
depending on the sensitivity of Brewer and on the neutral density attenuation filter in place
during the test. It is common for standard lamp intensity to decline by as much as 50,000 to
100,000 counts during the first few hours or days of use before starting a slower rate of decline in
intensity levels.
Potential problems and recommendations: It may be a good idea to replace the standard
lamp if lamp intensity declines to about 50% of its initial value. Lamp intensities below 350,000
counts can lead to higher standard deviations in the measurement results of other diagnostic tests.
The neutral density filter in place during the test is recorded after each “sl” scan. If lamp
intensities of new standard lamp bulbs is below about 500,000 counts and the filter in place is 1
or two, stettings 64 and 128 respectively, then the neutral density filter can be reduced to the next
lowest settings, 0 and 64 respectively, using the “cf” command to increase lamp counts and also
effectively increase the useful life of the bulb.
11.3.3. A/D Information Checks (ap)
Information location: PMT high voltage and primary power supply 5 volt level
information can be found in the second and third columns, respectively, of the Apoavg.### file.
Purpose: Stability of the high voltage level supplied to the PMT and the +5 volt level
from the primary power supply are critical to proper instrument operation.
Acceptable limits: The PMT high voltage level should remain within two increments or
about +/- 22 units of its nominal value.
The +5 volt level on the primary power supply, with lamps on, should be between +4.95
to +5.10 volts.
Potential problems and recommendations: Variation in the PMT high voltage level above
acceptable limits should be investigated.
Primary power supply voltage levels below 4.8 volts can lead to erratic Brewer operation
including operational failure. The potentiometer on the power supply can be used in an attempt
to bring the +5 volt level within acceptable limits. If there is not enough adjustment available in
87
the potentiometer to bring the +5 volt level to within acceptable limits then it is likely that
contact corrosion is the cause.
11.3.4. Dead Time Test (dt)
Information location: The high intensity dead time test results and the low intensity dead
time test results can be found in the second and third columns, respectively, of the Dtoavg.###
file.
Purpose: The dead time test measures the dead time of the PMT and the photon counting
circuitry. The dead time is the time during which the PMT is not able to count a second photon
after the first photon has been detected. The dead time constant is used to correct for the
Brewer’s non-linear response to light. A correct response curve (counts as a function of light)
would be a linear curve (i.e. counts directly proportional to level of irradiance). However, the
curve actually begins to move below the ideal at higher irradiance levels. Three percent to four
percent of the counts have to be added back to the signal at the 1 million count level (i.e., real
count rate is 3 to 4% higher than measured value at 1 million count level). About 6% of the
counts have to be added back at the 2 million count level. The ideal operating range is between
one and two million counts. The dead time correction depends on the count rate and on the dead
time itself. 30 nanoseconds (dead time constant) . 106 (count rate) = 3% correction. The
correction is calculated, using Poisson’s law, as = expλ . x where λ is the dead time constant and x
is the count rate. The value in the brackets is 0.03.
Acceptable limits: The high intensity dead time test value should be within +/- 2 ns of
the current dead time setting in the instrument’s constants file.
The high and low dead time means should agree to within an acceptance tolerance of two
high intensity dead time test standard deviations and lie in the range of 30 to 45 ns.
Acceptable standard deviation values for dead time tests are up to 2.5 for high intensity
and up to 20 for low intensity.
Standard deviation values for high and low intensity dead time tests can be found in the
D-files.
Potential problems and recommendations: Failure to satisfy the acceptable dead time test
criteria suggest that the shutter motor operation, high voltage circuitry and the photon counting
circuitry should be examined. Variable dead time test results can be due to a failing heat sink
assembly.
If both dead time and run/stop results are poor then the positioning of the spherical mirror
may have to be adjusted to focus the light correctly onto the exit slits.
If the dead time means are variable and run stop test values are good and the dead time
test standard deviations consistently follow the normal pattern (i.e., high intensity dead time test
88
standard deviations less than those of low intensity dead time test standard deviations) then the
neutral density filter applied during the dead time test may be too high.
Poor instrument grounding can result in bad dead time test results.
Poor slit mask alignment may cause the high and low intensity dead time test numbers to
be different from each other.
It has been observed that high humidity can lower dead time test results probably by
changing the transmission properties of the UG11 and/or Nickel Sulfate filters.
Negative dead time values can result from low standard lamp counts. Items to be
checked include the zenith offset constant, the condition of the standard lamp, the standard lamp
voltage and current values, which should multiply together to yield 16 Watts or slightly more.
Higher voltages may lead to premature lamp burnout. The standard lamp voltage may be
adjusted using the appropriate potentiometer on secondary power supply. Refer to the
manufacturer’s maintenance manual for the location of the standard lamp potentiometer.
If there is poor dead time test or standard lamp ratio stability then ensure that the high
speed amplifier ground wire is in place.
Unstable dead time test values might be solved problem by increasing the high voltage
setting.
A new dead time value should not be entered into the constants file unless it is
consistently more than +/- 2 ns different from the old value and the instrument is working
properly. A change in the dead time constant value will impact standard lamp test results,
measured ozone values and may require a new ozone calibration.
If the dead time constant is changed then check the standard lamp ratios after a few weeks
to see if there is any change in their values. If there is a significant change then correct the SO2
and ozone ETC’s using the corresponding change between the old and new R5 and R6 values.
11.3.5. Run Stop Test (rs)
Information location: The run stop ratios appear in the second through ninth columns of
the Rsoavg.### file.
Purpose: To confirm that the slit mask motor is operating correctly. The RS test
produces a report on the operation of the Slit Mask Motor by taking measurements in the
“running” and “stopped” modes of the Slit Mask Motor.
Acceptable limits: Position zero of the slit mask is used for the mercury lamp test.
Position one is blocked and used for dark count measurements. Positions 2 to 6 are used to
measure intensities for the five operational wavelengths. Position 7 is allows light from positions
89
2 and 4 to pass simultaneously and is used for the dead time measurement. Run stop ratios for
wavelength 0 and 2-6 (columns 2 and 4 to 8) should always be within 1.000 +/- 0.003. An
instrument that is operating optimally will have ratios that are consistently within 1.000 +/0.001. The dark count ratio, “wavelength 1” (column 3) should be within the range of 0.2 to 5.0.
Potential problems and recommendations: A malfunction in the slit mask motor circuit
or in the alignment of the slit mask itself can result in improper counting, which reduces data
quality.
It has been found that shutter motors mounted to the spectrometer chassis with nylon nuts
and bolts may loosen over time resulting in erratic movement of the slit mask. The nylon
hardware should be well tightened, or even better, replaced with a stainless steel bolt held in
place with a lock nut.
If the run stop ratios are outside of the acceptable range then the shutter alignment, the
shutter motor, power supply drive circuitry, the shutter motor timing constant should be
examined. One sure sign of a failing shutter motor is excess play in the shutter motor’s shaft,
which is an indication of worn bearings. Worn shutter motor coils may be diagnosed by
continually running the shutter motor back and forth from position zero through 7 and looking
for any erratic behaviour, which may indicate weakened motor coils. If both dead time and
run/stop results are poor then the positioning of the spherical mirror may have to be adjusted to
focus the light correctly onto the exit slits.
90
12.
DATA ANALYSIS AND ARCHIVAL PROCEDURES
91
13.
DATA QUALITY CONTROL AND DATA QUALITY ASSURANCE
92
14.
CALIBRATIONS
14.1. Instrument Calibration for Ozone Measurement
Introduction
This section of the document is intended to provide guidance for the characterization and
calibration of Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometers. It outlines the series of tests, and their
sequence, which must be completed in order to post-calibrate or re-calibrate a Brewer. A list of
characterization information which results from the tests and must be retained as documentation
for the calibration exercise (and which should be lodged with the WOUDC as well as national
data centres) is also included.
The methodology of measurement, when examining a time-series of data collected by an
observing instrument which depends on an absolute calibration, must be based on the following.
It must be assumed that, however high a quality instrument that is being used, and given that the
initial calibration was correct and exact, the possibility exists that long-term drift or step changes
in the response of the instrument may occur at any time between calibration events. For this
reason, a data set is only complete after a post-calibration has been made and the information so
determined has been used to reprocess the measurements from the raw data recorded between
calibrations.
14.2. The Information Collected During a Calibration
The information collected includes is outlined in the following sections. Table 14.1
provides a summary fo the information collected during a calibration exercise.
14.2.1.
Instrument Performance History
It is noted whether the instrument is being calibrated at the normal measurement site, or
transported to or from the observing location to the calibration site. Instrument data files are first
analyzed to determine the stability and performance of the spectrometer over the time period
since the last calibration. The elements analyzed include the standard lamp record, the mercury
lamp performance, the micrometer calibration setting history, the dead time test record, run/stop
test performance, the sighting record and the housekeeping data.
The original data, analysis and interpretation of the results is a deliverable.
Table 14.1
Information collected during a calibration exercise.
14.2.1
14.2.2
Instrument Performance History
Data Comparison
93
14.2.3
14.2.4
14.2.5
14.2.6
14.2.7
14.2.8
14.2.9
14.2.10
14.2.11
14.2.12
14.2.13
14.2.14
14.2.15
14.2.16
14.2.17
14.2.18
14.2.19
14.2.20
14.2.21
14.2.22
14.2.23
14.2.24
14.2.25
14.2.2.
Optics Mechanical Check
Optical Surface Visual Inspection
Alignment Check
Motor Inspection and Electro-mechanical Testing
Azimuth and Elevation Motor Functionality Test
Elevation Axis Alignment and Instrument Levelling
Wavelength Dispersion Constants
Slit Function.
Relative Sensitivity
Absolute temperature coefficients
Delay Constant
Run/Stop Test Results (test of chopper dynamics)
Dead Time
Relative Dispersion Constants
Calibration Step Number
Grating offset(s) (2 in double spectrometer)
Photomultiplier High Voltage Setting
Calibration of Temperature, Humidity and Pressure Sensors.
Measurement of Temperature Dependence of Absolute Sensitivity
Determination of the Neutral Density Filter Properties
Sun Scan to Determine Proper Wavelength Setting
Calculation of Effective Ozone Absorption Coefficients
Determination of Extraterrestrial Constant
Data Comparison
Any minor maintenance of the instrument needed make it operational for comparison
measurements is done and then comparison data are collated and analyzed. Ozone, SO2, aerosol
and UV measurements can all be compared to derive calibration constants if an accurate
reference (travelling standard) is available
14.2.3.
Optics Mechanical Check (all optical surfaces properly
constrained)
Ensure that the optical alignment surfaces are all in contact with the screws that define
their position and that adequate spring tension is available to maintain that relationship.
Record description of instrument status.
14.2.4.
Optical Surface Visual Inspection
94
All optical surfaces are inspected for damage and dirt. Cleaning is recommended only in
cases where the visual impact of dirt or damage is extreme. Generally, cleaning makes the
surfaces’ performance worse, not better. Cleaning of optical surfaces is very difficult and the
outcome is always considerably worse that the original un-contaminated surface.
Deliverable: Status report. Cleaning only if required. Replacement if needed.
14.2.5.
Alignment check
A suitable laser and alignment jigs are used to ensure that the optics are properly aligned
and that the spectrum at the exit slits is centred and travels parallel across the exit slits when the
grating is rotated. A visible light focus check and adjustment (if necessary) is done using the
laser light. The final focus is done using the UV.
14.2.6.
Motor Inspection and Electro-mechanical Testing
All of the motors must be inspected visually, and manually operated to ensure that the
bearings are free and the drive trains clear. They must be run through the range of motion
electrically and checked to ensure that the full range of operational positions can be accurately
and repeatably accessed.
14.2.7.
Azimuth and Elevation Motor Functionality Test
The Brewer azimuth and elevation pointing performance must exceed 0.1 degrees
absolute accuracy or some measurement types will fail. This performance level is assured if the
system can be reliably zeroed, calculate the steps per revolution and maintain a sighting after a
reset. In order to meet these requirements the motors should be inspected and the azimuth
tracker cleaned and properly adjusted. Any excessively worn parts, particularly the main drive
disk, should be repaired or replaced. Local problems with the drive disk can be polished out with
emery cloth. The steps per revolution for the azimuth tracker is a deliverable. The elevation
drive uses a gear train and has a fixed number of steps per revolution.
14.2.8.
Elevation Axis Alignment and Instrument Levelling
The Brewer and sun tracker assembly must be accurately levelled so that the azimuth axis
of rotation is parallel to the Earth radius vector. The instrument-to-tracker interface must be set
so that the elevation axis of rotation, which is defined in the fore-optics assembly, is exactly
perpendicular to the azimuth rotation axis. The azimuth axis of rotation is set parallel to the
Earth radius vector by using a sensitive bubble level and adjusting the feet of the tracker to set
95
the axis so that the tracker can be rotated through 360 degrees with no change in the bubble level.
It is convenient to level one axis at a time, adjusting the screws on 2 feet in opposition and then
adjusting the third foot to level the perpendicular axis. The elevation axis is adjusted using a
laser beam which is know to be vertical and centred on the elevation prism face (accomplished
by adjusting the laser until its beam retraces itself when reflected off a liquid surface at the
location of the prism face). The beam reflected from the face when the liquid surface is removed
is adjusted to retrace itself by adjusting the three screws inside the tracker which support the
Brewer optical subassembly.
No explicit deliverable. Note only if an elevation axis adjustment was necessary.
14.2.9.
Wavelength Dispersion Constants
Scans using a variety of discharge-lamp emission lines, such as mercury, cadmium and
indium, are analyzed to produce a polynomial dispersion relationship relating wavelength to
grating stepper motor step number. The deliverables include the coefficients of the polynomials
for each spectrometer exit slit and the RMS uncertainty with which the relationship fits the
observed lines and an error formula which predicts the uncertainty with which the relationship
will provide the wavelength of any step position within the operating range of the instrument.
14.2.10.
Slit Function.
The intensity of a line located as closely as possible to the ozone operational wavelength
of each slit is scanned and reported as a function of wavelength determined using the dispersion
relationship for each slit. The slit function is parameterized for use in the algorithm that
determines the effective ozone and sulphur dioxide differential absorption coefficient at each
wavelength.
14.2.11.
Relative Sensitivity (among wavelengths)
The relative sensitivity among wavelengths is tracked by observing the internal quartzhalogen lamp (the ‘internal standard lamp’). Any calibration will include sufficient observations
of the lamp to provide a mean reference value to compare with those measured at other times.
Deliverable: The standard lamp mean ratios and standard error.
14.2.12.
Absolute temperature coefficients
Absolute temperature coefficients for the sensitivity of the instrument are required in
order to correct the absolute counts detected at any particular temperature, to equivalent counts
96
measured at the effective calibration temperature. Corrections are done using the temperatures
recorded by the thermistor located near the photomultiplier cathode. In instruments equipped
with nickel sulphate and cobalt glass order filters much of the temperature coefficient is due to
the temperature dependence of the transmission of the filters.
Deliverable: Absolute temperature coefficients of sensitivity as a function of wavelength
and slit number.
14.2.13.
Delay Constant
Stepper motor armatures form a quasi-resonant system in the magnetic field of the stator.
The frequency of the oscillation is determined by the inertia of the system and the strength of the
magnetic field (i.e.: moment of inertia, the field current and motor magnet strength). As a result,
the rotor tends to oscillate when it is stepped from one position to the next with a simple squarewave drive pulse. This tendency is reduced by driving the motor with a waveform that does not
excite the oscillation as much as a square wave. The time constant for this waveform is
determined experimentally using the dl.rtn command.
The value of the delay constant is a deliverable in the calibration process.
14.2.14.
Run/Stop Test Results (test of chopper dynamics)
Once the shutter delay constant is determined, the dynamic performance of the shutter can
be evaluated using the shutter test routine (sh.rtn). This test uses the internal standard lamp as a
source and makes observations of the intensity of light on each of the slits in ‘static mode’, that is
with the shutter held fixed with one slit open, and with the shutter sampling the light on each slit
at a rate of 0.83 samples per second in the normal Brewer observing mode. The routine
determines the ratio of the static test to the dynamic operation. For all illuminated positions the
ratio should be equal to approximately 1.0± 0.0001. The ratio at the dark position will not be as
precise because of the poor statistics of the dark count measurement, but should not be different
from 1.0 by more than ± 0.1.
The test results are a deliverable. If the test fails, it is likely that there is a problem with
the shutter motor or the associated electronic drive circuitry. The high voltage power supply for
the PMT could also contribute to a problem, as could the photon counting electronics.
14.2.15.
Dead Time
Provided that the run/stop test has shown that the shutter motor is operating properly, the
dead time test can use the exit slit chopper (shutter) to perform a 2-source linearity test. The
shutter has openings that allow two slits alone or both at once to let light into the photomultiplier.
Comparing the sum of the individual intensities on their own to the total seen when both slits are
97
open at the same time allows the determination of the dead time of the counting system. The
dead time must be determined at a rate close to the maximum count rate to be used in practice.
For example, a 50 ns dead time requires a counting correction of approximately 5% at a counting
rate of 1.0E6 c/s. This is approximately the maximum counting rate that should be permitted so
that a knowledge of the dead time to 5% makes an error in the corrected intensity of less than
0.25%. (Ratios will generally be a little more accurate.) In addition to the primary dead time test
at high count rate, an additional test should be done at 1/3 to 1/10 that rate to ensure that the
counting system behaviour is independent of count rate. The low-intensity dead time value
should agree with the high intensity result within the respective uncertainties of the two
measurements (as indicated in the test printout).
The value of the dead time is expected to be in the range 35 to 50 ns. It is assumed that
the instrument dead time obeys the following relationship:
C = Co exp( -Co ϑ )
Where
C
Co
ϑ
is the observed count rate (c/s)
is the rue count rate (c/s)
is the dead time (s)
The dead time is a deliverable from calibration.
14.2.16.
Relative Dispersion Constants (grating 2 v. grating 1 in double)
The double spectrometer, like the single, has a dispersion function for each exit slit which
relates the wavelength passing through the slit to the step number of the micrometer relative to its
reference position. In addition, the double spectrometer has a second polynomial function which
relates the setting of the grating in the recombining half of the instrument to the position of the
grating in the dispersing half. The constants defining this polynomial are deliverables from the
calibration process.
14.2.17. Calibration Step Number (on sun and relative to mercury lamp)
The calibration step number is determined by calculating the ozone and SO2 absorption
functions for a range of step positions near the nominal (theoretical) calibration point. The
optimum step position minimizes the sensitivity of the ozone and SO2 readings to small
wavelength shifts (at an extreme point). This position is the setting that is used for making ozone
and SO2 measurements using the standard Brewer weighted-ratio measurement. The grating
micrometer step offset between the mercury calibration position and this optimal measurement
point is an essential calibration constant for the instrument and is a deliverable from the
calibration procedure.
98
14.2.18.
Grating offset(s) (2 in double spectrometer)
The lever arms which rotate the diffraction gratings in the Brewer are moved by the
action of a stepping-motor-driven micrometer. The mechanical reference for the position of the
motor is ‘remembered’ through power off by leaving the instrument always set at the nominal
ozone measurement step position. In the event that a mercury calibration test fails, the gratings
can be approximately reset relative to a mechanical reference defined by a photo-diode-LED pair.
The distance from the reference point to the nominal ozone measuring position is called the
‘grating offset’ and is stored in the instrument constants file. Double spectrometers have two
offsets, one for the dispersing and one for the re-combining spectrometer.
The grating offsets are deliverables from the calibration procedure.
14.2.19.
Photomultiplier High Voltage Setting
The photomultiplier must be set to a voltage setting which maximizes the signal-to-noise
ratio and minimizes the rate of change of sensitivity of the instrument with respect to voltage.
These are usually slightly conflicting requirements. The minimization of sensitivity change with
respect to voltage is more important. In order to determine the correct voltage setting it is
necessary to observe the dark count and the sensitivity as a function of voltage setting. There is a
Brewer routine to help do this, however, the voltage setting must be manually adjusted, although
it is read out by the computer.
The optimal setting of the high voltage is a deliverable from the calibration.
14.2.20.
Calibration of temperature, humidity and pressure sensors.
High-accuracy calibration of these sensors is not important. However, it is useful if the
relative temperatures between different sensors agree and if the readings are comparable to those
made by other instruments. The calibration of the temperature sensors must be fixed before the
temperature dependence of the sensitivity of the instrument is determined in order to avoid
having to recalculated the constants when the instrument is put into operation.
The values of the calibration constants is a deliverable of the calibration process.
14.2.21. Measurement of Temperature Dependence of Absolute Sensitivity
Operationally, the temperature dependence of the absolute sensitivity of the Brewer (for
ozone and SO2 measurements) is usually determined from an analysis of a large amount of data
collected by the instrument when measuring the internal standard lamp under normal operational
conditions. The temperature range encountered over the year is representative of the range of
99
temperatures the data must be corrected for. The determination of the temperature corrections
for UV scans is normally done with an external reference standard lamp. A more accurate set of
coefficients will result if the data analyzed is over a large temperature range, but collected over a
short time period.
The deliverables are the temperature coefficients as a function of slit number and
wavelength.
14.2.22.
Determination of the neutral density filter properties
A Brewer test routine is available which compares intensity readings from the internal
standard lamp on various filter settings as a function of wavelength and determines the relative
transmission as a function of wavelength. These data are used in normal operation to correct data
collected using the N.D. filters to the equivalent value which would have been observed with no
filter in the path (if the instrument were able to measure directly light that bright accurately).
14.2.23.
Sun Scan to Determine Proper Wavelength Setting
If the wavelength setting of the spectrometer varies, each of the slit positions will vary
and both the effective ozone absorption cross-section and the extraterrestrial constant for the
instrument will shift. (The change in ozone absorption coefficient is the larger effect.) This
change can be minimized if the operational grating angle is set so that the ozone value is at a
local extreme point. The ozone absorption function and the SO2 absorption function both have
extreme points at very near the same grating angle setting. In order to determine the appropriate
position, a trial set of ozone absorption coefficients and extraterrestrial (usually the ‘old’
calibration constants) is used and the ozone amount is measured at a number of micrometer step
positions (grating angles and wavelength settings) with the instrument measuring in the directsun mode. These sunscan (sc.rtn command) data are plotted up and the best calibration position
is selected. Once this position is known, the exact ozone coefficients for that particular grating
angle are calculated using the slit function data and the dispersion polynomials. (see 14.2.17
above.)
The calibrated ozone and SO2 measurement step position is a deliverable from the
calibration procedure.
14.2.24.
Calculation of Effective Ozone Absorption Coefficients
Because of minor optical and mechanical variations from instrument to instrument the
precise placement of the slits in any instrument and the exact slit function will be slightly
different. These differences are accounted for in the characterization of the instrument by using a
measured slit function and the dispersion relations for the slits of the Brewer to calculate a priori
100
the effective absorption coefficient of each slit. These numbers are then weighted to produce the
effective differential absorption coefficient for ozone and SO2 measurement using the Brewer
absorption function weighting constants.
The effective absorption coefficients are deliverables of the calibration procedure.
14.2.25.
Determination of Extraterrestrial Constant
The extraterrestrial constants for the instrument (the ‘zero-ozone’ and ‘zero-SO2'
absorption function values) can be determined in two different ways. The usual procedure for
network instruments is to compare observations made with the Brewer to be calibrated to those
of a well-calibrated reference instrument. The other method is to take the Brewer to a suitable
location, such as Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and make solar observations over a range of solar zenith
angles and deduce the extraterrestrial constant from a Langley analysis. The data collected in
either case must be sufficient in volume and obtained under appropriately stable atmospheric
observing conditions to permit an accurate analysis. The analysis of 50 to 100 comparison or
Langley observation points in a half day is required to determine an accurate calibration constant.
The extraterrestrial constants for both ozone and SO2 are deliverables from the calibration
procedure.
14.3.
Post Calibration
Post calibration is carried out to determine the stability of the instrument over the period
since the last calibration and to provide the information needed to re-process the data collected in
that interval to provide accurate ozone results. The information needed to recalculate the ozone
and SO2 results includes: changes to the operational wavelength setting, changes in the slit
function, absorption coefficients, standard lamp ratios and extraterrestrial constants. The nature
of the changes and an analysis of the behaviour of the instrument (particularly the standard lamp
ratios) should lead to a description of how the instrument probably changed since the last
calibration. This in turn determines the formula to use in re-analyzing the raw data collected in
the period between calibrations.
For example, if the standard lamp record includes a jump change a some time in the
measurement period and this jump agrees with the change in the extraterrestrial ratios for the
instrument, then a simple correction applied after the time of the jump would be appropriate and
the data can be recalculated using the extraterrestrials so determined. If the lamp record shows a
long-term drift, then a smoothed lamp record could be used to determine a correction on a dayto-day basis. The exact formula applied will depend on the physical nature of the changes
detected in the refurbishment and re-calibration process. In general, it may not always be
possible to correct all parts of a data record, although usually a high-quality product is accessible.
101
14.4. Reporting
The deliverables, in terms of calibration results as outlined in section 2 above, are
reported to the instrument operator in two distinct ways. First, a calibration in formation sheet is
provided that includes the results (e.g.: numbers) produced in all of the tests and the
recommended values to be used in the operation of the instrument and for the analysis of data.
Those constants used the Brewer control software are also provided in the form of updated
instrument constants files (e.g.: icf.dat). Once the calibration is completed the instrument should
beleft operational making ozone measurements with an accuracy of <1% and SO2 measurements
with an accuracy and precision of ~1 DU.
Tables should be developed that provide the capability of providing the previous and
current calibration constants for each instrument and for each calibration event entered into the
system. These data can then be used to:
1. Update national and international data bases (e.g.: WOUDC).
2. Analyze and plot the calibration history of the instruments.
3. Generate the instrument constants files for the instrument.
If calibrations are paid for using WMO or Environment Canada funds, there is a
requirement that the data be lodged in the WOUDC.
14.5. Sample calibration report as currently provided by IOS to
customers.
102
15.
LIST OF AVAILABLE COMMANDS
15.1. Overview
This section provides a list of available Brewer commands in alphabetical order. “(int)”
comment indicates the internal, or built-in, command and “(ext)” indicates the external
command. External commands are those for which an appropriate .RTN file is required. With
the exceptions of UX and UA commands, the corresponding RTN file has the same name as the
command.
Where appropriate a sample output (result) of the command is also provided.
15.2. AP (ext) Monitor Voltages Printout
This command prints to the line printer, the monitor screen, or to disc, a number of
diagnostics that are continuously available in the Brewer. The diagnostics include power supply
voltages, test lamp voltages and currents, temperatures, and Brewer moisture content, if the
Brewer includes the “Moisture” option.
Sample AP output:
A/D Values for APR 03/07 at 00:52:54 for instrument number 145
Channel#
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Name
Value
(Lamps off)
Brewer temp 1 (deg C)
11.26
Brewer temp 2 (deg C)
11.26
Brewer temp 3 (deg C)
10.89
H.T. voltage (V)
1260.48
+15V power supply (V)
14.97
+ 5V power supply (V)
5.08
-15V power supply (V)
-14.85
+24V power supply (V)
23.52
Rate meter (kc/s)
0.00
Not used (bits)
0.00
Not used (bits)
0.00
Not used (bits)
0.00
+ 5V ss (V)
5.03
- 8V ss (V)
-7.92
Std lmp current (A)
0.06
Std lmp voltage (V)
0.00
Value
(Lamps on)
11.26
11.26
10.89
1260.48
14.87
5.05
-14.85
23.75
89.70
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.00
-7.92
1.73
10.48
15.3. AS (int) Azimuth Tracker to the Sun
The AS command moves the Azimuth Tracker to the azimuth angle where the Ephemeris
has calculated the sun to be for the current location and time. The North Correction from the
most recent Siting (see SI command) is applied.
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15.4. AU (ext) Automatic Operation
The AU command results in the Brewer executing a series of commands which are
imbedded the AU routine (HP HG DS ZS DS ZS DS ZS B1 UV (or UX)). The sequence
continues until interrupted by an operator, or until the sun reaches ZA = 85. At ZA = 85, the
system executes the ED command.
15.5. AZ (ext) Azimuth Tracker Zeroing
The AZ command causes the Azimuth Tracker to return to its zero reference (North)
position, and then move the Brewer to the solar azimuth as calculated by the Ephemeris
according to the Location, the Time, and the current North Correction, as determined by the most
recent Siting (see SI command).
15.6. B0 (int) Turn off Lamps
B0 ensures that the Standard Lamp and Mercury Lamps are both off.
15.7. B1 (int) Mercury Lamp ON
B1 turns on the internal Mercury Calibration Lamp, and is useful in a command sequence
(i.e. B1DSHG) where a DS measurement is taken while the Mercury lamp is warming up B1.
Note that if the HG does not execute for some reason, the lamp may be left on and should be
turned off with the B0 command.
15.8. B2 (int) Standard Lamp ON
B2 turns on the internal Standard test Lamp and is useful in a command sequence (i.e.
B2ZSSL) where the ZS measurement is taken while the Standard Lamp is warming up. Note that
if the SL does not execute for some reason, the Lamp may be left on and should be turned off
with the B0 command.
15.9. CF (ext) Instrument Constants File Update
CF accesses the Brewer’s Instrument Constants File and allows the operator to make
changes. Note that the constants in this file affect the operation and calibration of the instrument,
and normally are not changed unless the instrument is undergoing recalibration or has undergone
104
repairs. This command requires operator input, and changes should be made or approved only by
qualified personnel.
15.10. CI (int) Lamp Scan on Slit #1
CI is used to perform a wavelength scan from 286.5 nm to 366 nm on one of the two
internal test lamps. Filter Wheels are set to positions 1 and 0, and the Iris is open. The increment
of the scan is user selectable with choices of 1, 2, or 5 Angstrom. Data can be compared with the
data contained in the Final Test Record, and is stored in the file CIJJJYY.NNN in the \BDATA
directory. A typical command sequence might be B1W1CI, where B1 turns on the HG lamp, W1
produces a 5-minute lamp warm-up delay, and CI executes the wavelength scan.
15.11. CO (int) Comments
CO allows the operator to enter a comment (up to 75 characters) into the Brewer data file.
This command is useful to record information about a measurement, current weather, sky
conditions, and so on. This command requires operator input. CS (ext) Command Sequence CS
is similar to a command line entry at the cm->__ prompt. The operator may enter a sequence of
commands to be executed, followed by an integer which indicates the number of times the
sequence is to be repeated. This command requires operator input.
15.12. CY (int) Slitmask Cycles
The default value for slitmask cycling for most observations is 20. The CY command
may be used to increase or decrease this number if better statistics, or a faster measurement (with
degraded statistics) is desired. This command requires operator input.
15.13. CZ (ext) Custom Scan
CZ allows the operator to define a custom scan. Sources may be one of the internal
lamps, the UV port, or the quartz window. The scan may be over any wavelength range within
the Brewer’s UV scan limits, have any wavelength increment, and use any filterwheel
combination.
15.14. DA (int) Date Set
The Brewer ephemeris requires GMT (both date and time) for proper operation. Under
normal, uninterrupted operation, the computer, and Brewer, dates will change at 00:00:00 UT,
and are displayed on the monitor screen. Under some conditions (power failure at 00:00:00 UT),
105
the date may not update, and may have to be corrected manually. The pointing system updates
automatically when a new date is entered. This command requires operator input.
15.15. DS (ext) Direct Sun Observation
DS results in an O3 observation being taken using the direct sun as a radiation source.
The Brewer Zenith Prism and Azimuth Tracker are oriented toward the sun, the Iris is closed,
FW#1 is rotated to the Ground Quartz Disk (position 1), and FW#2 is adjusted for maximum
intensity (starting from position 2) without overdriving the PMT detector. Data is recorded on
disk and is printed as previously determined by PN, PD, and PF commands. A DS observation
consists of five sets of 20 cycles of the slit mask (a measurement), each cycle taking a reading for
2*0.14 seconds on each wavelength. Intensity data for six wavelengths, and the dark count, is
recorded for each of the five measurements. The Azimuth and Zenith positions are updated after
each measurement. After each measurement O3 are calculated. After the fifth measurement all
data is processed, resulting in a single summary set for the total observation. As a safety feature
to prevent damage to the detector, the measurement may terminate if, as a result of varying cloud
conditions, FW#2 has initially been set to a low attenuation value and clouds suddenly move out
of the field of view. A DS measurement takes slightly more than three minutes to complete. A
sample DS command output:
10:09:38 DEC 17/04 Brewer temp = 9C ( 2.43V)
ds0 10:09:57 20 75.70
2
1
19
91
272
488
456
ds0 10:10:36
20
O3 = 247.4 SO2 =
75.61
3
2
7.3
24
88
300
506
ds0 10:11:14
20
O3 = 294.8 SO2 = -16.1
75.52
4
1
27
84
303
527
ds0 10:11:53
20
O3 = 306.2 SO2 = -27.8
75.43
3
3
18
98
308
543
ds0 10:12:32
20
O3 = 247.9 SO2 =
75.34
0
1
86
319
586
465
494
528
15.4
29
525
O3 = 354.2 SO2 = -39.1
************* data summary *************
10:11:14 DEC 17/04 75.52201 3.822
9 c deg
11392
6213
1722
-1028
14683
7100
ds 0
SO2= -12.1
O3=
290.1
1026
423
141
130
736
561
23.0
44.7
15.16. DSP (ext) Dispersion Test
DSP allows for the collection of data for a dispersion test analysis wherein absorption
coefficients, wavelength vs. step number and resolution vs. step number equations for each slit is
106
determined. This is a command generally reserved for factory use or for use during an instrument
recalibration.
15.17. DSSUM (ext) Direct Sun Data Summary
DSSUM reads the daily Data (B) file and printouts out the summary of the day’s DS
measurements. An entry is also made to the OZOAVGYY.nnn file. The DSSUM command is
usually used as part of the ED command.
Summary of Brewer direct sun measurements for APR 02/07 (092)
Measurements made at TORONTO with instrument # 145
Latitude
= 43.781
Longitude
= 79.468
ETC Values (O3/SO2) = 1581/ 300
Absorption (O3/SO2) = 0.348/
1.155
Type Time(GMT)
….
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
…..
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
ds 0
Temp
Airmass
Ozone Error
SO2
Error
-1.0
1.7
-5.8
10.6
23.3
12.2
13.8
7.5
7.2
+10.4
+2.4
+1.7
+6.0
+24.6
+10.3
+11.0
+6.2
+6.3
12:34:40
12:38:10
12:47:32
13:13:20
13:16:50
13:20:19
13:23:49
13:27:18
13:30:48
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
3.382
3.272
3.010
2.477
2.421
2.367
2.316
2.268
2.222
333.4
356.1
353.0
361.8
324.2
344.8
343.8
351.2
358.6
+32.5
+7.5
+10.1
+21.5
+51.1
+28.1
+25.5
+11.3
+9.4
22:27:17
22:30:46
22:34:15
22:37:45
22:41:15
14
14
14
14
14
4.115
4.291
4.482
4.690
4.917
282.2
281.5
273.1
285.5
272.1
+14.8
+31.0
+22.4
+28.4
+41.7
Daily means: Ozone:
Observations: Ozone:
ETC values:
Ozone:
153 observations.
369.8 +3.8
7 of 153
1640.9
SO2:
SO2:
-6.1 +7.1
-7.3 +12.2
-16.6 +4.9
-20.8 +11.1
-19.1 +10.4
2.8
+1.1
719.1
15.18. DT (ext) Dead Time Measurement
Dead Time is a measure of how long a photon counting circuit is “dead” (or cannot count
a second photon) after a first photon has been detected. This characteristic of counting circuits
can lead to counting errors especially at high photon rates if not compensated for. The DT
command initiates a test for the measurement of the dead time of the Photon counting circuits of
the Brewer. The DT command is normally executed as part of the ED routine and the test results
are recorded in the DTOAVG file. Times differences of greater than 5% should be investigated.
The dead time for each instrument is manually record in the Instrument Constants File and can be
107
seen on the PO command printout. For this test the iris is closed, FW#1 is put to position 1.
Measurements are made at high intensities (FW#2=0), and at low intensities (FW#2=1).
05:22:04 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 10C ( 2.31V)
o3 DEADTIME TEST AT 05:27:03, APR 02, 07
Deadtime (ns) for filter position 1 (high intensity)
2.87409E-08 (at 05:27:24)
3.210756E-08 (at 05:27:43)
2.990096E-08 (at 05:28:03)
2.915534E-08 (at 05:28:23)
2.944959E-08 (at 05:28:43)
Mean = 29.87
Std Dev = 1.3
Deadtime (ns) for filter position 2 (low intensity)
1.727843E-08 (at 05:29:23)
1.484916E-08 (at 05:29:43)
2.057535E-08 (at 05:30:03)
2.82178E-08 (at 05:30:22)
3.517561E-08 (at 05:30:42)
2.992695E-08 (at 05:31:02)
3.447449E-08 (at 05:31:21)
4.2262E-08 (at 05:31:41)
2.146486E-08 (at 05:32:01)
2.698413E-08 (at 05:32:20)
Mean = 27.12
Std Dev = 8.7
15.19. ED (ext) End of Day
At the end of each solar day (solar midnight) it is desirable to summarize, sort, and print
out the results of the tests and observations taken the previous day. This may be achieved by
using the ED command.
The ED routine:
• summarizes data into an “S” file (see SUM).
• sorts and prints data from observations and tests (see OZSUM, FMSUM, FZSUM,
HGSUM, SLSUM, UVSUM, ZSSUM).
• prints constants and monitored values (see PO, AP).
• executes a series of tests (see HP, HG, SL, DT, RS, SR, RE, FR)
The first command in ED is a print command, which directs the printout to the printer
(see PN) or to a disk file (see PD). If the operator wishes to change the printing path, either the
ED-PD.RTN or ED-PN.RTN must be copied to ED.RTN. An operator may run ED at any time.
If the Brewer is running in a schedule (see SKC), the ED command is initiated automatically at
solar midnight. See also ED-PD and ED-PN.
15.20. END_DAY (ext) End of Day (past day)
Command Syntax: END_DAY Feb29/98 or END_DAY 06098
108
END_Day performs an End of Day on a previous day’s data. For the command syntax
example: if the raw data file B06098.nnn exists, a Summary file (S06098.nnn) will be created
and summary files printed.
15.21. FM (ext) Focused Moon Observation
FM results in an O3 observation to be taken with the moon as the radiation source. The
Brewer Zenith Prism and Azimuth Tracker are oriented to the moon, the Iris is opened, FW#1 is
rotated to the position 3, and FW#2 is adjusted for maximum intensity, starting at position 2.
Data is recorded on disk and is printed as previously determined by PN, PD, and PF commands.
An FM observation consists of five sets of 80 cycles of the slit mask (a measurement), each cycle
taking a reading for 2*0.14 seconds on each wavelength. Intensity data for six wavelengths, and
the dark count, from the five measurements is recorded. The Azimuth and Zenith positions are
updated after each measurement. After each measurement O3 is calculated, and after the final
measurement all data is processed, resulting in a single summary set for the total observation. An
FM measurement takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. Note that FM observations are
not valid for ZA>75O and the message ”Waiting for the Moon to Rise above ZA=75” may
appear prior to this angle condition being met.
15.22. FMSUM (ext) Focus Moon Data Summary
FMSUM results in the daily Summary (S) file being read and a printout of the ‘summary’
results of the day’s FM measurements being made. An entry is also made to the FMOAVG.nnn
file. The FMSUM command is usually invoked as part of the ED command.
15.23. FR (ext) Micrometers Reset
FR performs a reset of the wavelength adjust micrometers. The micrometers are moved to
reference points, and then moved to the operating points as dictated by offset values contained in
the instruments constants file. The FR command is invoked as part of the RE command, or the
operator may manually send the FR command if the positions of the micrometers are suspect.
The FR command may be used to determine new micrometer offset values, but these values
should only be changed under the supervision of qualified personnel. FR results are recorded in
the average file, MIOAVG.nnn.
11:00:05 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 12C ( 2.45V)
Reset for mkiii o3 - Searching for micrometer #1 reference
Micrometer #1 reference found at step 8012(+CAL)= 8979 Now set to o3
offset = 8982
Searching for micrometer #2 reference
Micrometer #2 reference found at step 8135 Now set to offset = 8135
109
Zeroing filterwheel #3
Found reference at step -179 Moving filterwheel #3 to o3 position at
178
15.24. FZ (ext) Focused Sun Observation
As the sun drops lower in the sky, the high Mu values result in an increasing amount of
scattered radiation in the field of view of a DS observation. The FZ command allows ozone to be
determined at solar angles greater than which can be achieved with a traditional DS. Scattered
radiation is measured by offsetting the solar image by 1 degree from the entrance slit, and
observing radiation in the vicinity of the solar disk. This scattered radiation is then subtracted
from the direct sun result to give a more accurate measure of the direct radiation, before the
Ozone determination is made. This method will give reasonably accurate O3 values to ZA of
85O (Air Mass =8.2) as compared to the DS which has cut-off angles of 70 to 80O (Air Mass 3.2
to 5) without corrections. This is a useful command at high latitudes and is normally not used
where DS readings are available. For the FZ measurement the iris is closed, FW#1 is set to
position 3, and FW#2 is set to position 5. The minimum zenith angle at which an FZ may be
taken is 73 degrees. See also DS command.
15.25. FZSUM (ext) Focused Sun Data Summary
FZSUM command reads the daily Data (B) file and printouts out the ‘summary’ results of
the day’s FZ measurements. The FZSUM command is usually invoked as part of the ED
command.
15.26. GS (ext) Gratings Data Collection
GS initiates a routine that collects data required to calculate Grating Slope and Grating
Intercept values, which ensure that the two gratings are synchronized during scanning. The
routine performs a scan on slits 1 through 5. Data is written to a GSJJJYY.nnn file, and can be
processed by the RD_GS.EXE program to calculate the Grating Slop and Grating Intercept to
ensure that the two gratings are synchronized during scanning operations. GS and RD_GS.EXE
are normally run by as part of factory set-up operations or when problems are experienced with
the micrometers or gratings.
15.27. HG (ext) Mercury Wavelength Calibration
HG is used to accurately locate the 302.15 nm line of the Mercury spectrum, and then
adjust the diffraction grating such that the five ozone operational wavelengths fall onto the
110
appropriate exit slits. The zenith prism rotates to the test lamps (position 0), the iris is opened,
FW#1 is rotated to the quartz disk (position 1), FW#2 to ND=0 (position 0). Following the
initial set-up and lamp warm-up, the grating is scanned in the forward and reverse direction and
the resulting combined spectrum is compared to a stored spectrum. Corrections to the micrometer
position are made, and if the adjustment required is greater than 2 steps (.012nm) then the scan is
repeated. A test for the presence of Hg lamp radiation is made prior to the beginning of the scan,
and if it is not there, an FR test is done to reposition the micrometers to pre-set initialization
values and the test is redone.
Using wide slit0 on line 296.7 nm HG line ...
**** HG Calibration ****
05:57:19 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 11C ( 2.35V)
05:58:58 ( 0.9984 ) corr est for step 971.05 target is step 967
18149
micro is moved by
06:00:42 ( 0.9999 )
20837
405.96
4 steps
corr est for step 967.28 target is step 967
350.29
micro is moved by
0 steps
15.28. HGSUM (ext) Mercury Lamp Summary
HGSUM reads the daily Data (B) file and prints out the ‘summary’ results of the
day’s HG calibrations. In addition an entry is made in the HGOAVG.nnn file.
The HGSUM command is usually invoked as part of the ED command.
Summary of Brewer mercury lamp calibrations for APR 02/07 (092)
Measurements made at TORONTO with instrument # 145
Latitude
= 43.781
Longitude
Time(GMT)
Intensity
05:58:58
06:00:42
06:06:19
06:21:24
08:04:41
09:11:54
10:11:50
….
00:43:14
01:43:31
02:52:27
04:41:33
29
Temp
Correlation
HG Cal Step #
= 79.468
Setting
Peak
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
0.9968
0.9997
0.9997
0.9997
0.9997
0.9997
0.9998
971.05
967.28
967.26
967.23
967.08
967.02
967.01
971
967
967
967
967
967
967
18149.0
20837.0
22554.0
21966.0
16792.0
15767.0
15727.0
11
12
10
8
0.9997
0.9978
0.9999
0.9990
967.25
967.72
966.45
967.49
967
968
966
967
15239.0
15500.0
14925.0
15364.0
observations.
15.29. HP (ext) Grating Synchronization
111
It is important that the two micrometers remain synchronized such that they are both set
to the same wavelength. The HP test tests for this condition and makes an adjustment , if
necessary. For this test the Standard lamp is used as a light source. The Standard Lamp is turned
on, the prism is pointed to lamps, the Iris is opened, FW#1 is set to position 1, and FW#2 is set to
position 0. Micrometer #2 is then moved relative to Micrometer #1, and is adjusted such that
maximum intensity will occur – an adjustment of more than 10 steps results in the test being
repeated.
**** 2nd Spectrometer Alignment - HP Test ****
05:52:23 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 11C ( 2.35V)
Maximum intensity found at step: 76.1 156047.3 R^2:
.9983718
15.30. HV (ext) High Voltage Test\
The HV command invokes a test used to determine the optimum high voltage setting for
the photomultiplier. The HVSET command can then be used to set the High Voltage. This test is
normally used in the factory during the final set-up stages of manufacture, or in the field if it is
suspected that the setting is not correct . The Standard Lamp is turned on, the iris is opened,
FW#1 is put to position 1, and FW#2 is set to position 0. See the HVSET command, and
Appendix F for more details on the HV test.
15.31. HVSET (ext) High Voltage Set-up
The HVSET command can be used to adjust for the optimum High Voltage as determined
be the HV test.
15.32. IC (ext) Instrument Configuration File Update
The IC command results in a display of the Instrument’s current configuration and allows
changes to be made by the operator.
15.33. LF (ext) Location File Update
The LF command displays a list of some of the known locations of Brewer sites
throughout the world. The geographical co-ordinates of the current site may be entered and/or
modified.
15.34. LL (ext) Location Update
112
The LL command allows an operator to change the co-ordinates of a Brewer location, or
for the selection of another site contained the location file.
15.35. NO (ext) Change Instrument
The NO command allows the instrument number of the Brewer to be changed. Each
Brewer has a set of files which are stored in the C:\BDATA\NNN subdirectory, and which are
necessary for proper operation of Brewer NNN. When the NO command is issued, the software
is made aware of which Brewer is connected.
15.36. OZSUM (ext) Ozone Summary
OZSUM reads the daily Date (B) file and prints out the summary results of the day’s O3
observations. In addition an entry is made in the OZOAVGYY.nnn file. The OZSUM command
is usually invoked as part of the ED command.
Summary of Brewer ozone measurements for DEC 17/04 (352)
Measurements made at Punta Arenas with instrument # 017
Latitude
= -53.137
Longitude
= 70.88
ETC Values (O3/SO2) = 3350/ 3300
Absorption (O3/SO2) = .34110/
1.1444
Type Time(GMT)
Temp
Airmass
dsO3
zsO3
Error
dsSO2
zsSO2
Error
zs 0
09:57:15
9
4.339
323.0
+0.8
-44.7
zs 0
10:03:53
9
4.079
318.6
+1.0
-35.6
ds 0
10:07:57
9
3.933
239.5
+39.6
2.5
ds 0
10:11:14
9
3.822
287.6
+44.7
-11.2
ds 0
10:16:38
9
3.652
233.3
+50.9
3.4
ds 0
10:21:52
9
3.500
319.6
+32.3
-5.2
zs 1
15:53:19
17
1.165
ds 0
15:57:28
18
1.163
294.7
+16.8
3.7
ds 0
16:00:13
18
1.161
281.3
+46.7
6.2
ds 0
16:08:44
18
1.157
248.1
+79.0
11.0
ds 0
16:12:09
18
1.155
280.5
+22.4
7.1
ds 2
16:17:40
18
1.154
291.6
+15.8
1.7
ds 3
16:21:02
18
1.153
303.8
+1.6
-0.7
+1.6
+1.9
+20.7
+23.0
+11.5
+9.5
290.8
+4.5
10.0
+1.1
+4.9
+9.2
+17.9
+7.6
+3.5
+0.4
113
zs 1
16:25:09
18
1.151
291.1
+2.8
10.1
ds 2
19:50:45
22
1.447
300.7
+1.0
-1.9
ds 3
19:54:06
22
1.460
292.4
+1.4
0.1
ds 3
20:08:16
22
1.517
296.3
+2.1
-0.6
ds 1
20:11:36
22
1.532
288.2
+7.1
0.9
ds 0
20:16:39
21
1.554
278.5
+21.1
3.1
ds 2
20:20:21
21
1.572
297.6
+3.1
-1.1
ds 3
20:23:41
21
1.588
242.6
+73.6
20.9
ds 0
22:58:39
18
3.516
292.5
+18.8
-12.7
ds 0
23:01:56
18
3.611
284.9
+68.4
-10.6
ds 0
23:05:13
18
3.711
253.0
+51.5
13.4
ds 0
23:08:33
18
3.817
267.9
+32.1
-0.2
ds 0
23:13:48
18
3.997
282.8
+1.7
-2.3
zs 0
23:24:03
18
4.395
+0.5
+0.2
+0.2
+0.5
+1.6
+4.7
+0.6
+27.3
+16.9
+40.3
+17.3
+9.7
+0.6
323.8
+0.8
-48.0
+1.4
Daily means:
Standard deviation:
Number of observations:
296.0
5.8
29 /153
297.5
11.2
8 / 14
-0.7
7.2
0.6
4.2
167 observations.
15.37. PB (ext) Data Playback
Command Syntax: PB BJJJYY. The PB command allows any previous day’s data to be
printed using the current temperature coefficients.
15.38. PD (int) Print to Disk
PD directs printing to a “D” file on the data drive rather than to the line printer. See also
PN, PF.
15.39. PF (int) Printer Off
PF turns off all printing. Raw data continues to be recorded. See also PN, PD.
15.40. PN (int) Printer ON
114
PN directs printing to the line printer. See also PD, PF.
15.41. PO (ext) Printout Instrument Constants
PO generates a printout of the instrument constants file. An example of PO output
Values:
MKIII BREWER INSTRUMENT #145
---------------------------04-02-2007 11:00:04
************************************************************************
******
* Ozone Values
hg
*
1
*
2
*
3
*
4
*
5
*
*
************************************************************************
******
Wavelength(nm) * 306.290
310.029
313.479
316.763
319.958
Temp. Coeff
-0.7458
-1.3065
-1.4900
-1.8563
303.198
*
0.0000
0.0000
Disp. Coeff #1 * 2845.570 2885.260 2922.020 2957.400 2991.690
2812.390
Disp. Coeff #2 * 0.081125 0.080329 0.079543 0.078609 0.077790
0.081985
Disp. Coeff #3 *-0.701E-6 -0.716E-6 -0.730E-6 -0.727E-6 -0.740E-6 0.715E-6
************************************************************************
******
ETC Values
:
O3 =
1581
;
SO2 =
300
O3 Absn Coeffs :
SO2 Absn Coeffs :
O3 =
O3 =
0.3476
0
;
;
SO2 =
SO2 =
1.1550
2.3500
Micrometer steps/deg
Micrometer Zero
Iris Open Steps
=
=
=
0.00
1777
250
WL cal step number
Umkehr offset
Zenith steps/rev
Slit mask motor delay
=
=
=
=
Micrometer 1 Offset O3
=
8982
Micrometer 2 Offset
=
Grating Slope
=
1
Grating Intercept
=
Filterwheel 3 Offset O3
=
178
Dead Time(ns)
=
Zenith Offset
=
Buffer Delay(s)
=
967
2282
2816
96
8135
-
8
32
23
0.2
Zenith UVB Dome Position =
2091
Note:
Faster Processors May Require a Longer Buffer Delay
(Typically 0.2 to 0.8 Seconds)
115
15.42. PZ (int) Point to Zenith
PZ results in the Zenith Prism being pointed to a Zenith angle of 0 (straight upwards).
15.43. QS (ext) Quick Scan
QS is used in conjunction with the UV Stability Check Kit, and gives an indication of the
stability of the instrument in the intensity measurement of UV over the range 290nm to 325nm.
When the equipment has been set up as per the instructions in Section of this manual, and the QS
command issued, a report is generated which shows the stability of the instrument at 3.5nm
increments using the first generated set of readings as a reference. For the test, the iris is opened,
FW#1 is set to position 3, and FW#2 is set to position 1.
15.44. RE (ext) Reset
RE initializes all of the Brewer motors (similar to the Power On initialisation), and moves
them to positions as defined in the Instruments Constants File. Following a RE, the iris is closed,
FW#1 is in position 1, and FW#2 is in position 3.
Zenith diode found at :-21
Zenith zeroed at 05:42:20 Zenith discrepancy = -2
-10509
2931
13448
Azimuth diode found at : 13440
Azimuth zeroed at 05:44:02 Azimuth discrepancy = 8
Trying to zero filterwheel #3
Found diode at step -177 Moving filterwheel #3 to o3 position at
178
05:44:33 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 11C ( 2.35V)
Reset for mkiii o3 - Searching for micrometer #1 reference
Micrometer #1 reference found at step 8008(+CAL)= 8975 Now set to o3
offset = 8982
Searching for micrometer #2 reference
Micrometer #2 reference found at step 8133 Now set to offset = 8135
Zeroing filterwheel #3
Found reference at step -179 Moving filterwheel #3 to o3 position at
178
15.45. REP (ext) Report
REP displays (or prints) the SLOAVG, HGOAVG, APOAVG, DTOAVG, MIOAVG,
and RSOAVG over a user selected range of days.
116
15.46. RS (ext) Slit Mask Run/Stop Test
A malfunction in the slit mask motor circuit or in the slit mask itself can result in
improper counting and consequently incorrect data. The RS test produces a report on the
operation of the Slit Mask Motor by taking measurements in the “Running” and “Stopped”
modes of the Slit Mask Motor. The RS command is normally executed as part of the ED routine
and the test results are recorded in the RSOAVG file. For the RS test, FW#1 is set to position 1,
FW#2 is set to position 0 and the iris is open. RS values consistently outside the range of 0.997
to 1.003 for slitmask positions 2 to 6 should be investigated.
Sample RS output:
05:32:41 APR 02/07 Brewer temp = 10C ( 2.33V)
o3 RUN/STOP TEST AT 05:41:33, APR 02, 07
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
RUN 554430
7 667967 793964 989402 1114448 1239538 1878390
STOP 554327
2 668448 793959 989020 1115841 1238147 1878342
RUN/STOP 1.0002
3.5
.9993
1 1.0004
.9987 1.0011
1
ratios(run)
.2223
.1473
.0517
.0462
.0745
.0429
-
ratios(stop)
.2225
.1478
.0524
.0452
.078
.0448
-
.0211
.0221
15.47. SA (ext) Solar Angle Printout
SA will generate a printout of GMT vs. air mass, solar zenith angle and lunar zenith angle
for the day and location currently in use. Printouts for pasts and future dates are possible by
simply changing the Brewer system date.
15.48. SC (ext) Direct Sun Scan
Normally a factory or pre-calibration test, the SC determines the correct operating
position of the diffraction grating.
19:01:19 DEC 17/04 Brewer temp = 21C ( 3.17V)
Scanning test from micrometer step# 848 to 876
step# 848
sc3 19:01:49 10 39.99
2633
5 129389 196998
396166
429865
395679
429771
371567
O3 = 242.3
step# 850
sc3 19:02:10
10
40.03
2658
SO2 =
3
12.9
129739
195258
371251
O3 = 251.3
SO2 =
9.0
step# 874
117
sc3 19:06:17
10
40.55
3736
3
131698
208605
412469
454915
212148
415155
458217
212167
415151
458261
31617
65147
71637
90
122
253
290
48
90
151
173
380830
O3 = 287.1
step# 876
sc3 19:06:37
10
40.59
SO2 =
3823
2
11.0
132246
382375
O3 = 282.7
step# 876
sc3 19:06:58
10
40.63
SO2 =
3836
1
14.3
131787
382738
O3 = 280.9
…
step# 852
sc3 19:11:05
10
41.16
SO2 =
429
2
15.1
21038
61419
O3 = 262.6
step# 850
sc3 19:11:26
10
41.20
SO2 =
5
5.0
2
249
O3 = 293.2
step# 848
sc3 19:11:46
10
41.24
SO2 = -13.0
6
3
134
O3 = 269.8
SO2 =
53.4
15.49. SE (ext) Schedule Edit
SE is used to create or modify Brewer operating schedules, which are stored as “.SKD”
files in the Brewer directory. Brewer schedules consist of two columns of data - a solar zenith
angle, and a string of commands. The string of commands is executed at the corresponding solar
zenith angle. The SA command is useful for converting GMT to solar angle. See also the SK and
SKC commands.
15.50. SH (ext) Slit Mask (shutter) Motor Timing Test
Normally a factory test, the SH command is used to determine the timing constant used in
the control of the slit mask motor.
DELAY CAL DARK WAVELENGTH 1
10 1737768 7557 92828
12 1738031 480 93450
14 1737408 39 93100
16 1738864 37 93422
18 1738388 44 93318
20 1737191 28 93579
22 1738692 36 93580
24 1742088 40 93713
26 1737650 34 93666
28 1737937 32 93596
30 1739330 35 93605
32 1738615 41 93749
34 1738849 33 94036
118
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
1737947
1738791
1738398
1710601
1738853
1737273
1737608
1735986
35
34
39
43
41
42
44
41
93859
94128
93948
94193
94077
94555
94805
95543
15.51. SI (ext) Solar Siting
Brewer observations using the solar disc as the radiation source require that the Zenith
Prism of the instrument be pointed very accurately toward the sun. The SI command is used in
the initial set-up of the instrument and for subsequent checking of pointing accuracy. After the
date, time, and station co-ordinates have been set accurately, a set of four controls on the front of
the instrument are used to introduce ‘Horizon’ and ‘North’ corrections which compensate for any
offsets that may occur. These corrections are saved and used by the software in future pointing
calculations.
15.52. SIM (ext) Lunar Siting
Brewer observations using the lunar disc as the radiation source require that the input
window of the instrument be pointed very accurately toward the moon. (Normally the SI
command is used if at all possible, as a siting using the moon is much more difficult task than a
siting using the sun.) The SIM command is used in the initial set-up of the instrument and for
subsequent checking of pointing accuracy in the event that the SI command cannot be used. After
the date, time, and station co-ordinates have been set accurately, a set of four controls on the
front of the instrument are used to introduce ‘Horizon’ and ‘North’ corrections which
compensate for any offsets that may occur. These corrections are saved and used by the software
in future pointing calculations.
15.53. SK (ext) Scheduled Operation
SK allows an operating schedule, created by the SE command to be run for the current
day. At the end of the schedule, the program returns to the main menu and must be restarted the
next day.
15.54. SKC (ext) Continuous (scheduled) Operation
SKC allows an operating schedule, created by the SE command, to be run continuously that is, at the end of the local day a set of summary records is produced (see ED), and the
schedule waits for the beginning of the next day and the schedule starts again.
119
15.55. SL (ext) Standard Lamp
SL initiates the most important quality assurance test in the Brewer commend set. This
test essentially performs an ozone measurement using an internal quartz halogen lamp as the
source. The test should be run at least at the start and end of the day and should be preceded by
an hp and an hg, The values of R5, R6, and F1 should be monitored carefully, and any changes
should be noted and investigated. For the SL test, the iris is opened, FW#1 is set to position 1,
and FW#2 is set to position 0.
**** o3 Standard Lamp SL Test ****
00:48:20 APR 03/07 Brewer temp = 11C ( 2.39V)
sl1 00:48:38 20 101.88 365818
4 440902 524277
653185
736909
sl1 00:49:17
20 101.99
366343
4
440972
524274
653177
736581
sl1 00:49:55
20 102.10
365614
3
441489
524873
653319
737192
sl1 00:50:33
20 102.20
366308
2
441977
525114
654266
737982
sl1 00:51:11
20 102.31
366889
4
441917
525329
654678
737287
sl1 00:51:49
20 102.42
366923
6
441431
524944
654813
737965
sl1 00:52:27
20 102.53
366614
3
442342
526503
654565
738070
817945
818724
819365
819058
820192
819994
820902
************* data summary *************
00:50:33 APR 03/07 102.202 4.418
441576 819454
2248
1494
530
570
999
3
5
3
11 c deg
464
4
sl 1
762
439
15
10
15.56. SLSUM (ext) Standard Lamp Summary
SLSUM reads the daily Data (B) file and prints out the ‘summary’ results of the day’s SL
tests In addition entries are made in the SLOAVG.nnn file. The SLSUM command is usually
invoked as part of the ED command.
Summary of Brewer standard lamp measurements for APR 02/07 (092)
Measurements made at TORONTO with instrument # 145
Latitude
= 43.781
Longitude
Type Time(GMT) Temp
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
SDR5
= 79.468
R6
SDR6
F1
SDF1
sl 1
06:13:38
11
2247
1491
528
464
762
13
438
7
444673
sl 1
06:28:43
12
2245
1489
526
462
765
13
440
7
445562
474
591
120
sl 1
08:12:00
11
2245
1491
527
465
757
14
437
9
443456
sl 1
09:19:13
12
2247
1492
529
462
769
10
442
6
443407
sl 1
10:19:08
12
2244
1491
530
462
767
13
441
7
443747
sl 1
11:22:28
12
2245
1492
530
460
772
17
445
10
443728
sl 1
13:09:05
12
2248
1495
531
462
768
6
443
4
443041
sl 1
14:50:35
13
2242
1490
527
463
762
19
439
9
443238
sl 1
16:32:55
13
2243
1489
529
462
764
8
439
6
443105
sl 1
18:15:19
14
2240
1489
525
465
750
9
435
4
442976
sl 1
19:52:34
16
2240
1490
530
458
776
19
447
10
445031
sl 1
21:31:41
16
2241
1489
529
460
767
5
441
2
442778
sl 1
23:01:27
14
2244
1491
532
462
765
13
440
8
441284
sl 1
23:56:35
12
2244
1491
528
465
755
10
436
6
441290
sl 1
00:50:33
11
2248
1494
530
464
762
15
439
10
441576
sl 1
01:50:49
12
2246
1490
529
464
762
20
437
9
442713
sl 1
02:59:46
10
2249
1497
528
461
772
18
448
9
442042
sl 1
04:48:52
8
2253
1497
531
461
779
15
449
10
442880
Daily means:
2245
Standard dev:
3
18 observations.
1492
3
529
2
462
2
765
7
524
612
670
790
591
500
707
670
316
447
547
591
570
500
689
670
441
4
443140
1188
15.57. SR (ext) Azimuth Tracker Steps Per Revolution
SR initiates a test that determines the number of motor steps required for one complete
revolution (360O) of the Azimuth Tracker. The tracker is first zeroed in the counter clockwise
direction, and a discrepancy between where the software thought it was, and where the zero
reference was found, is output. The Tracker is then moved a full revolution clockwise and the
total number of steps required for this movement is output, and the operator is given an
opportunity to save the new value. A progressive change of value over time may suggest that
Tracker maintenance is required.
15.58. SS (ext) Direct Sun UV Scan
121
SS results in the Brewer performing a UV scan of the sun through the quartz window.
The scan is in 0.5nm steps over the range 290nm to 363nm. Data is stored in a SSJJJYY.nnn file.
No response file is available for this mode of UV scanning.
15.59. ST (ext) Status and Control
ST permits the operator to switch the Brewer’s internal lamps off and on, and to control
all Brewer stepper motors except the Slit Mask Motor.
15.60. SUM (ext) Summary Data File
SUM reads the daily raw data (BJJJYY.nnn) file and generates a new (SJJJYY.nnn) file
which contains only data summary information. In addition, Umkehr data is processed and put
into a separate (UJJJYY.nnn) file. The SUM command, and the various summary printout
commands are generally performed at local midnight as part of the ED command.
15.61. TE (int) Temperature Printout
TE results in the Brewer temperature (Thermistor #1) in degrees Celsius, along with its
equivalent (0 to 5.00v) voltage, to be printed. If the Brewer has a moisture sensor option, the
moisture (in grams/m3) is also printed or displayed.
15.62. TI (int) Time Set
TI allows the operator to set the internal clock of the Brewer, provided the clock option is
turned on in the instrument configuration File. Brewer time is GMT or CUT and is entered as a
six digit string (hhmmss). If the internal clock has been turned off in software, there will be an
“E” (external) displayed on the computer screen, and the operator will be given the opportunity
to turn the internal clock back on. An “I” is displayed on the screen if the system is using the
Brewer’s internal clock.
15.63. TT (int) TeleType Communications
TT sets the Brewer program to its teletype mode, whereby the operator may communicate
directly with the Brewer via the computer keyboard and a set of low level commands. Exit from
teletype mode with the home key. Ctrl-x will allow you to retype a line.
TU (ext) Test UV Port Alignment
122
TU uses an external quartz-halogen lamp mounted over the UV dome to find the zenith
motor step position for which the radiation intensity is a maximum through slit #1 of the
spectrometer slit mask. This is an alignment test and should be performed if alignment of the UV
optics is suspect. The results of the factory tests are found in the Final Test Record and are
nominally 2112+/- 4 steps.
15.64. UM (ext) Umkehr Observations
UM results in data being collected which can be processed to produce an Ozone vs.
Height profile. Data is normally collected between solar zenith angles of 60 O and 90O in the
morning and in the afternoon. The zenith prism is pointed to a solar zenith angle of 0O, FW#1 is
set to the 0 position, FW#2 is set to the 0 position, the iris is opened, and the Tracker is rotated
CCW until it is perpendicular to the sun. Intensity measurements are made at two sets of
wavelengths - long (320-330nm) and short (310-320nm), and continue until they are interrupted
by the operator, or by the next zenith angle in a schedule. Raw data is put into the BJJJYY.nnn
file, and is processed to a UJJJYY.nnn file by the SUM command.
l
s
l
s
l
s
um0
um0
um0
um0
um0
um0
08:33:26
08:34:44
08:36:02
08:37:20
08:38:37
08:39:55
40
40
40
40
40
40
88.05
87.91
87.77
87.62
87.48
87.33
6
3
4
7
4
6
12714
1348
12298
1265
13567
1531
17856
2980
17575
2710
19358
3455
23890
8096
23352
7510
25829
9841
29576
15540
28367
14781
31122
19713
18625
16700
17927
16061
19499
21268
15.65. UV Related Commands
There are a number of Brewer commands that are related to measurements taken through
the Ultra Violet (UV) Dome, and they are grouped together here for convenience. There are
typically two UV scan lengths - ‘short’ UVB scans, which cover the range from 290nm to
325nm, and ‘extended’ UV scans which cover the range 286.5nm to 363nm.
15.66. UA (ext UV.RTN) Timed UX scan
UA performs an Extended UV scan in 0.5nm increments and stores the data to a
UVJJJYY.nnn file. This is a ‘timed’ routine in that it starts on the next half hour after the
command is given. On execution of the command, the prism is rotated to the UV dome, FW#2 is
moved to the 1 position, FW#1 is moved to the 3 position, the iris is opened, and the tracker is
pointed at the sun.
15.67. UB (ext) UV Summary for Schedules
123
Raw UV scan data is stored in a UVJJJYY.nnn data file. The UB scan instructs the
program to process and print the daily summary for UV measurements taken throughout the day.
Damaging Ultra-Violet values are calculated for each scan and written to a DUVJJJYY.nnn.
15.68. UF Fast UVB scan
UF results in a UV scan being done in the ascending wavelength direction only. The
zenith prism is rotated to the UV dome, FW#2 is set to the 1 position, FW#1 is set to the 3
position, the iris is opened, and the tracker is pointed to the sun. The UV spectrum is scanned in
steps of 0.5nm, with and integration of 4 shutter cycles for wavelengths less than 300nm, and an
integration of 1 shutter cycle for wavelengths grater than 300nm. All data is normalised to a 1
cycle observation and recorded in a UFJJJYY.nnn data file. When scanning is complete, a
calculation of the UVB/UVA McKinley - Diffey weighted irradiance is computed and sent to the
printer and written to the DUVJJJYY.nnn data file.
15.69. UL (ext) UV Lamp Scan
UL is a test command that results in a UV scan being performed with a Lamp (rather than
the sky) being the source of radiation. The zenith prism is rotated to the UV dome, FW#2 is set
to the 1 position, FW#1 is set to the 3 position, the iris is opened, and the tracker is rotated to the
sun. The operator is asked for lamp number, and lamp-diffuser separation, and the radiation
intensity is measured in 1.5nm increments over the UVB range. Data is stored in a ULJJJYY.nnn
file.
15.70. UV (ext) UV(B) Observation
UV results in the irradiance over the “B” region of the spectrum to be measured. The
zenith prism is rotated to the UV dome, FW#2 is set to the 1 position, FW#1 is set to the 3
position, the iris is opened, and the tracker is pointed toward the sun. The UV spectrum is then
scanned in steps of 0.5nm from 290nm to 325nm, and then back to 290 nm. The data is appended
to a UVJJJYY.nnn data file. When scanning is complete, a calculation of the UVB/UVA
McKinley- Diffey weighted irradiance is computed, sent to the printer and to the monitor screen,
and appended to the DUVJJJYY.nnn data file. A correction is made to the Diffey action
spectrum to include the effects of the UVA region 325-400nm).
15.71. UVSUM (ext) UV Data Summary
This command initiates activity which processes and prints the daily summary of all UV
measurements made during that day. DUV values are also calculated for each measurement and
data is appended to the UVOAVG.nnn file.
124
15.72. UX (ext UV.RTN) Extended UV Wavelength Scan
UX causes the irradiance over the 286.5nm to 363nm range to be measured in 0.5nm
increments in ascending wavelength. The zenith prism is rotated to the UV dome, FW#2 is set to
the 1 position, FW#1 is set to the 0 position, the iris is opened, and the tracker is pointed toward
the sun. The UV spectrum is scanned, and the data is appended to a UVJJJYY.nnn data file
When scanning is complete, a calculation of the UVB / UVA McKinley- Diffey weighted
irradiance is computed, output to the printer and to the monitor screen, and appended to the
DUVJJJYY.nnn data file.
15.73. W0-W4 (ext) Time delays
These five commands result in time delays of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes respectively
and can be used in command strings or in schedules.
15.74. XL (ext) Extended External Lamp Scan
XL is a test command that results in an extended UV scan being performed with a Lamp
(rather than the sky) as the source of radiation. The zenith prism is rotated to the UV dome,
FW#2 is set to the 1 position, FW#1 is set to the 3 position, the iris is opened, and the Tracker is
rotated to the sun. The operator is asked for lamp number and lamp-diffuser separation, and the
radiation intensity is measured in 0.5nm increments over the extended UV range. Data is
sampled for 30 cycle time increments through slit #1 for wavelengths less than 300nm and 20
cycle time increments through slit #5 for higher wavelengths. Data is stored in an XLJJJYY.nnn
file and is normalised to 1 cycle observations.
15.75. ZB, ZC, ZS (ext) Zenith Sky Observations
ZB, ZC, and ZS are variations of the same command, and are used when sky conditions
are known and it is desirable to keep the observations separated. ZB is usually used in clear sky
conditions (Zenith Blue), ZC is used under cloudy conditions (Zenith Cloud), and ZS is used
when conditions are unknown (as is a schedule). The zenith prism is pointed to a Zenith Angle of
0O, the iris is opened, FW#1 is set to position 0, FW#2 is set to position 2, and the azimuth
tracker is pointed toward the sun. FW#2 is adjusted according to sky intensity. Data is recorded
on disk and is printed as previously determined by PN, PD, and PF commands. A ZS observation
consists of seven sets of 20 cycles of the slit mask (a measurement), each cycle taking a reading
for 2*0.14 seconds on each wavelength. Intensity data for six wavelengths, and the dark count,
from the seven measurements is recorded. The Azimuth and Zenith positions are updated after
each measurement. After each measurement O3 is calculated, after the seventh measurement all
125
data is processed, resulting in a single summary set for the total observation. As a safety feature
to prevent damage to the detector, the measurement may terminates if, as a result of varying
cloud conditions, FW#2 has initially been set to a low attenuation value and clouds suddenly
move out of the field of view. ZP initiates a variation of the ZS command in which the Azimuth
Tracker is rotated to an angle perpendicular to the sun. A ZS measurement takes slightly more
than five minutes to complete.
09:55:01 DEC 17/04 Brewer temp = 9C ( 2.41V)
zs0 09:55:19 20 77.73
14
1
593
2287
7583
14254
14011
zs0 09:55:58
20
O3 = 324.1 SO2 = -45.2
77.65
8
1
632
2364
8050
14883
zs0 09:56:36
20
O3 = 323.8 SO2 = -47.4
77.56
7
2
625
2361
7792
14544
zs0 09:57:15
20
O3 = 323.4 SO2 = -46.0
77.47
7
1
697
2557
8614
16016
zs0 09:57:53
20
O3 = 323.0 SO2 = -44.7
77.38
13
3
696
2685
8977
16705
zs0 09:58:32
20
O3 = 322.6 SO2 = -43.0
77.29
9
1
640
2374
7842
14484
zs0 09:59:10
20
O3 = 322.2 SO2 = -43.3
77.20
11
2
627
2280
7581
13893
14911
14432
15736
16506
14164
13613
O3 = 321.8 SO2 = -43.6
************* data summary *************
09:57:15 DEC 17/04 77.469 4.339
9 c deg
13661
7914
2682
-73
13895
6697
zs 0
SO2= -44.7
O3=
323.0
132
55
36
37
127
48
1.6
0.8
15.76. ZE (ext) Zero Zenith Prism
ZE positions the zenith prism to its zero-step position, or ZA=180O. The zenith
reference is found, and the prism is then moved back a constant number of steps
from the zero-step position.
126
16.
DIAGNOSTIC AND TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES
127
Initial Assembly, Alignment and Test Procedures
16.1. Aligning and focussing a Single Brewer
16.1.1.
Preparing for Alignment - Removing the Optical Frame
Equipment Required:
Assorted hand tools. Spacer blocks to support the Brewer optical frame so that it does
not rock on the screw heads and grating supports that protrude under the main plate of the optical
frame.
The Brewer should be removed from the tracker and transported to a suitable clean, dry
location. The cover is removed (see Appendix A.2). The fore-optics of the Brewer are removed
(see Appendix A.2). The cover is taken off the spectrometer housing (see Appendix A.3).
Remove the optical frame from the bulkhead (see Appendix A.4). In the case of the double
Brewer, separate the two halves of the optical frame by removing the three links that join them
(Appendix A.5). The subsequent alignment steps must be done on both of the separated optical
frames. The optical frame can be set down on a table if there are three suitable blocks to put
underneath to prevent the grating mount from touching the surface.
16.1.2.
Setting up
Equipment Required:
Assorted hand tools. Alignment blocks (3): 1 cm x 2 cm x 6 cm aluminum blocks with
1-mm holes centred on the cm face 5 cm above the base.
If this is a ‘first-time’ alignment, adjust the alignment screws if necessary and appropriate
to have opposite ends of the main mirror the same distance from the slit mounting bulkhead at a
distance of approximately 15 cm.
Set up a laser source on the work table and adjust its height so the light hits the centre of
the entrance slit of the Brewer running parallel to the table. Rotate the optical frame to make this
beam run parallel to the edge of the optical frame. Place an alignment block just behind the tilted
correction lens and adjust the laser and optical frame to have the beam go through the hole. Put a
second block in front of the mirror and adjust the laser and optical frame to ensure that the beam
goes through the holes in both of the blocks and remains parallel to the side of the optical frame.
16.1.3.
Input side alignment.
128
Equipment Required:
Assorted hand tools. Alignment blocks (3): 1 cm x 2 cm x 6 cm aluminum blocks with
1-mm holes centred on the cm face 5 cm above the base.
Without disturbing the alignment, move the second alignment block from in front of the
mirror and check to see that the beam bouncing from the mirror hits the diffraction grating at the
correct height. This can be done by moving the second alignment block near to the grating and
seeing that the beam clears the hole and strikes the grating near the centre (±2 mm). Exercise
extreme care to ensure that neither the block nor any part of the body touches the mirror. If the
test fails, then an adjustment of the main mirror maybe necessary. If the main mirror needs to be
adjusted , re-check the laser with the two alignment blocks to be sure that it is still aligned
properly, and then adjust the top screw of the mirror to bring the beam to the correct height to go
through the hole. The locking screw above the adjusting screw must be loosened slightly before
the adjustment can be made.
16.1.4.
Grating rotation.
Equipment Required:
Assorted hand tools. Alignment blocks (3): 1 cm x 2 cm x 6 cm aluminum blocks with
1-mm holes centred on the cm face 5 cm above the base.
Once the incoming beam is hitting the grating at the right point, it is necessary to remove
the push rod and swing the grating. Depending on the diffraction grating used, it is possible to
see at least 3 beams coming from the grating. One is at the specular reflection angle (angle of
incidence equals angle of reflection; sometimes normal to the grating surface depending on the
grating angle). With the grating arm at an appropriate angle, the grating tilt adjustment should
be used to put the reflected beam into the correct plane so that it reflects back and goes through
the hole on the first alignment block or through the second alignment block placed on the frame
where it can intersect the mirror reflection from the grating.
The tilt of the grating is adjusted using the top adjustment screw accessed from behind
the grating. It is necessary to loosen the two locking screws (which also secure the pulling
springs that load the grating in the tilt direction) before the tilt adjustment can be made.
With the grating in this position, the -1 or +1 order of the grating should be checked with
an alignment block to see that those beams are also in the same plane. If they are not, then the
rotation of the grating lines should be adjusted to bring the +1 and -1orders into the same plane
with the reflected beam.
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The rotation of the grating is accomplished by rotating the vertical support screws
accessed through the grating mounting blocks from underneath the grating. The locking screws
are loosened first and then the two rotating screws are adjusted in opposite directions. Begin
with a 1/4 turn and determine the correct amount needed by watching the motion of the diffracted
beam.
Once the necessary adjustments are complete, re-tighten the three locking screws and recheck the alignment. Repeat the process as necessary so the beams are centred where they
belong to less than 1/5 of the diameter of the alignment block holes (to about 1/5 mm).
With the beams properly aligned up to the point where they leave the diffraction grating, it is
necessary to swing the grating so that the diffracted beam on the exit slit side reflects from near the
centre of the exit side of the main mirror. A small adjustment of the top main mirror adjusting
screw should then be made to cause the beam to hit the exit slits at the horizontal centre-line. (In
the case of the re-combining half of the double instrument, it is necessary to place a paper screen
with a centre-line and a reference point at the focus of the spectrometer as a substitute for the slit
plate - include a figure to print to paper to use as the reference plane. Need dimensions for where to
place it.). At this point, a piece of cellotape (frosted) should be placed on the outside surface of the
entrance slit light shield. This will diffuse the laser beam so that the full area of the entrance slit is
filled. The mirror then should be adjusted to centre the image at the exit slits in the vertical
direction.
16.1.5.
Focussing.
Equipment Required:
Assorted hand tools. In a properly focussed instrument, rays coming from any part of the
aperture (point on the grating) should wind up at the same point along the length of focal plane.
This can be tested using the laser by sending it into the entrance slit from different angles in the
horizontal plane with no diffuser in place, and using the micrometer to make accurate, relative
position measurements.:
Remove any alignment blocks and re-install the push rod before proceeding with the
focussing step. The laser should be moved around in the horizontal plane and the position of the
image of the of the entrance slit on the exit slit plate observed. First the laser position is marked on
the bench with the beam entering along the optical axis of the instrument as in the alignment
procedure above. Then the beam is made to enter the entrance slit at an angle so that the laser spot
hits the grating about 3/4 of the way to the edge of the useful grating surface. This position should
be marked on the bench so it can be repeated. A similar mark is made with the laser entering at an
angle from the other side.
16.1.6.
Beam along the Optical Axis
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Starting with beam along the optical axis (hitting the centre of the main mirror an the
grating), adjust the micrometer to position the image of the entrance slit exactly on the edge of one
of the exit slits, preferably the middle one. The most accurate adjustment is to set the beam to be
consistently just beginning to illuminate one side of the exit slit. Record the micrometer reading to
the nearest 1/10 of a division.
16.1.7.
Beam entering the right of the Optical Axis
Set the laser up so that the beam enters from the extreme right-hand side as marked in
Step 2. Find the micrometer setting that illuminates the edge of the slit as in Step 3. Record the
setting.
16.1.8.
Beam entering the Left of the Optical Axis
Set the laser up so that the beam enters from the extreme left-hand side as marked in
Step 2. Find the micrometer setting that illuminates the edge of the slit as in Step 3. Record the
setting.
16.1.9.
Make a Plot
Plot the number recorded in Steps 3 to 5 against left, right and centre. The plot may look
like a straight line or a parabola. If it is a fairly symmetrical parabola then the instrument is in goo
focus. Other wise and adjustment is needed. If an adjustment is needed go to Step 7. Otherwise
jump to Step 10.
16.1.10.
Adjusting the focus.
The first adjustment will just be a trial to assess the sign of the error and calibrate the sensitivity of
the adjustment. It may go the wrong way and make things worse. For the first adjustment move
both the bottom two mirror screws by ½ turn in the same direction. Subsequently adjust by the
amount estimated in Step 8. Adjust the top screw to vertically centre the image of the entrance slit
on the exit slit centre-line again. (If this step is being done as part of the re-focussing of the
dispersing half of the instrument in the UV, then the half power points must be found by adjusting
the top screw each way to half-power and then setting it at the mid-way point before adjusting
anything else. See Appendix A.6 for instructions on how to read out the intensity.)
16.1.11.
Repeat the Focus Measurement
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Repeat steps 3 to 6. Examine the plot. Did the line get steeper or more shallow? By how much.?
If it got steeper, the screws were turned the wrong way. Adjust the opposite direction by 1 turn and
repeat 3 to 6. If the curve became shallower compute the change in end-to-end amplitude of the line
and adjust by ½ turn times the remaining amplitude divided by the change in amplitude that
occurred because of the adjustment. (Figures.) Repeat the adjustments until a parabola results with
the left and right end points at approximately the same position.
16.1.12.
Re-assembly
Perform the operations in Appendix A.5 in reverse order.
16.1.13.
UV Focus
Because the spectrometer focus is slightly different in the visible and the UV, once the laser
alignment is done, the focussing steps (steps 5 to 11) must be repeated once the spectrometer and
fore-optics are replaced in the instrument. The internal mercury lamp is used as a source and a twohole plate in the diffuser filter wheel is used to provide the left-right-centre illumination sequence
or, alternatively, the fore-optics can be left out and an external mercury lamp used to scan across the
field-of-view. The alignment should be very close to the optimal settings at this point, so a mercury
lamp test should be done to get the instrument near the correct calibration point.
If the alignment of the instrument has already been done in the past, the mercury line should
be very close to the last micrometer setting recorded. If this is the first alignment of a new
instrument, then the line will have to be ‘found’ manually. In the case of the double Brewer, it is
best to do an HP test first so that the formula linking the two instruments is available for the
program so that wavelength scans can be done. (Both gratings must be move in synchronism in
order for the instrument to have useful throughput.)
16.1.14.
Spectrum Position - Double Spectrometer
At this point it is assumed that the two instruments are aligned relative to each other
sufficiently accurately that light will pass completely through the system to the detector. The
dispersing half is assumed to be very close to optimloptimal alignment after the Rere-install the
fore-optics by following the steps in Appendix A.2 in reverse.
Once the fore-optics are re-installed, re-install the cover of the spectrometer section of the
instrument. Power up the instrument and do a reset via the Brewer control program.
16.1.15.
This needs more -
setting the mechanical reference
Doing the hp.rtn
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Do hg
Do the vertical mirror alignment in the re-combining half
Do the UV focus on the dispersing half
Iterate the centring of the spectrum
Focus the re-combining half (??)
Re-do hp
Re-do hg
Find reference diodes in both halves
16.1.16.
UV Focus - For single spectrometer
Perform successive adjustments as in steps 2 to 5 to fuocusfocus in the UV using routine
xxxx to find the hg line positions.
16.1.17.
Lock all adjustments.
Ensure that all the locking screws for the adjustment screws are snug. The apply varnish or
nail polish to the screws to lock them in place.
16.1.18.
Re-assembly.
Follow the instructions in A.4, A.3 and A.2 in reverse to re-assemble the instrument.
16.2.
Removing the Brewer Fore-optics from the Spectrometer
Housing
16.2.1.
Unlatch the cover of the spectrometer weatherproof
housing
Release all four cover latches and unlatch. Re-close the latches while holding them free of
the base. Re-closing the latches in the unlatched position prevents them from catching as the
spectrometer housing cover is lifted off the base.
16.2.2.
Lift off the cover.
Lift the housing cover straight up until it is well clear of the optical assembly within. Set the
cover down flat on a flat surface. DO NOT STAND THE COVER ON END. It will surely fall
over and break the quartz dome. The dome is very expensive and difficult to replace.
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16.2.3.
Remove the sight cover plate.
Remove the three screws that secure the sight cover plate to the bulkhead and fore-optics
clamp. Remove the plate.
16.2.4.
Disconnect the fore-optics motors.
Unclip the three motor connectors along the edge of the foreoptics assembly. Disconnect the
ribbon cables and free them from the fore-optics tube.
16.2.5.
Unclip lamb housing and zenith motor connectors
Unclip the connector leading to the lamp housing under the prism end of the fore-optics
tube. Unclip the connector leading to the zenith motor. Disconnect both connectors and place them
where they will not interfere with the removal of the fore-optics.
16.2.6.
Remove clamp.
Remove the two screws that attach the retaining clamp that holds the fore-optics in place.
Completely remove the clamp and set it aside.
Grasp the tube of the fore-optics assembly and lift the prism end gently until it is free of the
locating pin under the location of the retaining clamp. Move the whole assembly away from the
main bulkhead while lifting further. The bulkhead end of the assembly should easily slide free from
the entry hole in the bulkhead. Set the assembly down on a protective pad on a table.
16.3.
Remove the Cover of the Optical Frame.
There are two latches, one on each side of the optical frame cover. Open the latches and
then re-close them with the latches unlatched. Grasp both sides of the cover end slide it carefully
straight back. If it catches on something, gently move it from side to side or up and down until it
pulls completely free of the optical frame. Set it aside.
16.4.
Removing the Optical Frame
16.4.1.
Disconnect the motors.
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134
There are two stepping motors on the optical frame. One operates the micrometer drive
motor (wavelength adjustment) and the other operates the wavelength selector (shutter motor).
Disconnect both motor connectors at the totop of the bulkhead.
16.4.2.
Disconnect the Optical Frame from the Bulkhead.
The optical frame is secured to the bulkhead by three screws. Two are accessed from the
fore-optics side of the main mounting bulkhead. One is accessed from the right-hand side of the
optical frame as viewed from the optical frame side looking toward the bulkhead. There is a proper
order in which to proceed. First slightly loosen, but do not remove, the top screw which enters the
long thin support leg at the very top of the optical frame. This screw is accessed from the foreoptics side of the bulkhead. Fully remove the single screw from the apex of the triangular
mounting bracket on th right-hand side of the optical frame. Fully remove the large countersunk
screw from the fore-optics side of the main bulkhead that enters the conical mounting fixture on the
left-hand side of the optical frame. While holding the optical frame with one hand, completely
remove the first screw loosened above. The optical frame can be slid back slightly and lifted clear
of the spectrometer housing.
16.5.
Separating the Optical Frames in the Double Brewer
Remove the three links between the two halves and separate and place them on a table.
16.6.
Setting up the program to continuously monitor intensity.
Enter the ‘teletype’ mode by typing ‘tt’ and <enter>.
Type in the string “R,0,0,1;O;A;”. This command will cause the Brewer to make one-cycle
observations of Slit 0, nearby where the mercury line is found when the instrument has been
calibrated. Other slits can be measured if the ‘RUN’ command parameters are modified according
the the description of the ‘RUN’ command. The third parameter (1 here) is the number of cycles to
co-add for the observation.
When the necessary tests are complete, press <HOME> to return to the Brewer operating
program.
16.7.
Finding the lines. Double spectrometer.
After the instrument is assembled, it is necessary to find a rough relationship between the
wavelength settings of the two halves of the instrument. Since the start of an HP or HG routine for
the double is approximately setting the gratings near the correct operating position using the diode
offset constants for both halves of the instrument, the automatic method cannot be used until the
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instrument is approximately calibrated. This means finding the relation ship between the two
spectrometers by hand (essentially a manual HP test) and then finding the HG line manually.
16.7.1.
Put the instrument in teletype mode.
Enter the command TT. Turn on the standard lamp with command B2.
Put the instrument in intensity readout mode according to Appendix A.6.
Set both micrometers to about 1 mm. Move the recombining micrometer to 0.0 mm and
scan forward until the
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136
17.
APPENDIX C: MANUFACTURER’S INFORMATION
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18.
APPENDIX D: ISO IMPLEMENTATION FOR BREWER OPERATION
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