Nova Scotia Food Retail &

NOVA SCOTIA FOOD RETAIL
&
FOOD SERVICES CODE
Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture
June 2005
Revised March 2016
Nova Scotia Food Retail and Food Services Code
Table of Contents
1.0
Purpose and Definitions .................................................................................................... 6
1.1
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.2
Purpose............................................................................................................................ 6
1.3
Application ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.4
Scope ............................................................................................................................... 7
1.5
Guiding Principles ........................................................................................................... 8
1.6
Outcomes ........................................................................................................................ 8
1.7
Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 9
2.0
Construction, Design and Facilities ............................................................................... 14
2.1
Site and Location .......................................................................................................... 14
2.2
General Premises Design and Construction Specifications ........................................... 14
2.2.1
Premises Design and Layout ................................................................................. 14
2.2.2
Construction Plans and Specifications .................................................................. 14
2.3
Walls and Ceilings ........................................................................................................ 15
2.4
Floors ............................................................................................................................ 15
2.4.1
Dry Areas .............................................................................................................. 16
2.4.2
Wet Areas.............................................................................................................. 16
2.4.3
Carpeting ............................................................................................................... 16
2.5
Floor Drains .................................................................................................................. 17
2.6
Stairs, Catwalks and Mezzanines .................................................................................. 17
2.7
Lighting ......................................................................................................................... 18
2.8
Ventilation ..................................................................................................................... 19
2.9
Storage Areas ................................................................................................................ 20
2.10 Water and Steam Supply ............................................................................................... 21
2.11 Sewage and Solid Waste Disposal ................................................................................ 22
2.12 Plumbing System .......................................................................................................... 23
2.13 Overhead Utility Lines .................................................................................................. 24
2.14 Handwash Stations ........................................................................................................ 24
2.15 Toilet Facilities and Dressing Areas ............................................................................. 25
2.16 Janitorial Facilities ........................................................................................................ 26
2.17 Exterior Openings ......................................................................................................... 27
2.18 Private Homes, Living or Sleeping Quarters ................................................................. 27
2.19 Temporary Food Premises and Mobile Vendors........................................................... 28
2.19.1
Temporary Foodservices ....................................................................................... 28
2.20 Mobile Vendors............................................................................................................. 28
2.21 Vending Machines ........................................................................................................ 28
2.21.1 Liquid Foods and Ice ................................................................................................... 29
2.21.2
Self-Service Beverages ......................................................................................... 29
2.21.3
Beverages in Paper-Based Packaging ................................................................... 30
2
2.21.4
2.21.5
2.21.6
Low Risk Foods .................................................................................................... 30
Potentially Hazardous Foods................................................................................. 30
Can Openers/ Stirring Mechanisms ...................................................................... 31
3.0
Control of Food Hazards ................................................................................................ 31
3.1
Control Measures .......................................................................................................... 31
3.1.1
Supervision............................................................................................................ 31
3.1.2
Management Systems ........................................................................................... 32
3.1.3
Control Principles ................................................................................................. 32
3.1.4
Record Keeping..................................................................................................... 34
3.2
Incoming Material ......................................................................................................... 35
3.2.1
Sources .................................................................................................................. 35
3.2.2
Inspection .............................................................................................................. 35
3.3
Temperature Control ..................................................................................................... 36
3.3.1
Frozen Foods ......................................................................................................... 37
3.3.2
Thawing ................................................................................................................ 37
3.3.3
Refrigerated Storage.............................................................................................. 37
3.3.4
Cooking Raw Foods of Animal Origin ................................................................. 38
3.3.5
Hot Holding........................................................................................................... 38
3.3.6
Cooling after Cooking........................................................................................... 38
3.3.7
Cooling from Room Temperature ......................................................................... 39
3.3.8
Room Temperature Holding ................................................................................. 39
3.3.9
Reheating Potentially Hazardous Foods for Hot Holding ..................................... 39
3.3.10
Reheating Potentially Hazardous Food for Immediate Service ............................. 40
3.3.11
Use of Microwave for Cooking or Reheating ....................................................... 40
3.3.12
Freezing for Parasite Destruction .......................................................................... 41
3.4
Water ............................................................................................................................. 41
3.4.1
Water in Contact with Food .................................................................................. 41
3.4.2
Steam..................................................................................................................... 42
3.4.3
Ice as an Ingredient ............................................................................................... 42
3.5
Preventing Contamination............................................................................................. 42
3.5.1
Microbial Contamination ...................................................................................... 42
3.5.2
Physical and Chemical Contamination, and Allergens ......................................... 43
3.6
Packaging ...................................................................................................................... 43
3.6.1
Protection of Food Content ................................................................................... 43
3.6.2
Food Grade Packaging .......................................................................................... 44
3.6.4
Reusable Packaging............................................................................................... 44
3.6.5
Storage of Packaging Supplies .............................................................................. 44
3.6.6
Returnables, Cleaning-for-Refilling ...................................................................... 45
3.7
Transportation, Storage and Distribution of Food Products .......................................... 45
3.7.1
Verification ........................................................................................................... 45
3.7.2
Food Transportation, Storage and Distribution Units............................................ 46
3.7.3
Handling and Transfer of Foods............................................................................ 46
3.7.4
Storage Procedures ................................................................................................ 47
3.7.5
Temperature Controls............................................................................................ 48
3
3.8
Commodity Specific Control of Hazards – Donair or Similar Products ....................... 48
3.8.1
Donair Cone Size .................................................................................................. 49
3.8.2
Secondary Cook Step ............................................................................................ 49
3.8.3
Cooling Methods ................................................................................................... 50
4.0
Maintenance and Sanitation........................................................................................... 51
4.1
Equipment ..................................................................................................................... 51
4.1.1
Location ................................................................................................................ 51
4.1.2
Fixed Equipment ................................................................................................... 52
4.1.3
Design ................................................................................................................... 52
4.1.4
Food Contact Surfaces .......................................................................................... 52
4.1.5
Use of Wooden Food Contact Surfaces ................................................................ 53
4.1.6
Non-Food Contact Surfaces .................................................................................. 53
4.1.7
Clean In Place Equipment (CIP) ........................................................................... 54
4.1.8
Filters and Grease Extraction Equipment.............................................................. 54
4.1.9
Maintenance .......................................................................................................... 55
4.1.10
Maintenance of Cutting Surfaces .......................................................................... 55
4.1.11
Heating and Cooling Equipment ........................................................................... 55
4.1.13
Containers for Waste and Inedible Substances ..................................................... 56
4.2
Cleaning and Sanitation ................................................................................................ 57
4.2.1
Written Sanitation Program ................................................................................... 57
4.2.2
Cleaning Frequency: Non-Food Contact Surfaces ................................................ 57
4.2.3
Cleaning Frequency: Food Contact Surfaces ........................................................ 58
4.2.4
Cleaning of Reusable Food Equipment ................................................................. 58
4.2.5
Sanitizing of Equipment Food Contact Surfaces and Utensils .............................. 58
4.2.6
Mechanical Dishwashing: Chemical Sanitizing Methods ..................................... 59
4.2.7
Mechanical Dishwashing: Hot Water Sanitizing Methods.................................... 60
4.2.8
Manual Dishwashing ............................................................................................. 61
4.3
Pest Management .......................................................................................................... 64
4.3.1
Immediate Corrective Action ................................................................................ 64
4.3.2
Eradication of Pests: Methods ............................................................................... 64
4.3.3
Use of Rodenticides/ Insecticides.......................................................................... 65
4.3.4
Documentation ...................................................................................................... 65
4.4
Use of Chemicals and Toxic Substances ....................................................................... 66
4.5
Waste Management ....................................................................................................... 66
4.5.1
Waste, Refuse and Recyclable Materials .............................................................. 66
4.5.2
Sewage and Other Liquid Waste ........................................................................... 67
4.6
General Maintenance Schedules ................................................................................... 67
5.0
Hygiene and Communicable Diseases ........................................................................... 67
5.1
Training ......................................................................................................................... 67
5.2
Clothing......................................................................................................................... 68
5.3
Aprons ........................................................................................................................... 68
5.4
Hair ............................................................................................................................... 68
5.5
Personal Habits.............................................................................................................. 68
4
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
Handwashing ................................................................................................................. 68
Personal Effects and Jewelry......................................................................................... 69
Illness and Disease ........................................................................................................ 69
Injuries .......................................................................................................................... 70
Visitors .......................................................................................................................... 70
6.0
Education and Training.................................................................................................. 70
6.1
Educational Programs ................................................................................................... 70
6.2
Mandatory Educational Programs ................................................................................. 71
6.3
Training Programs ......................................................................................................... 71
6.3.1
Responsibility ....................................................................................................... 71
6.3.2
Food Handler Training .......................................................................................... 72
6.3.3
Continuing Educational Training .......................................................................... 72
6.3.4
Time Expiration of Training Programs ................................................................. 72
6.4
Components of Food Safety Training Courses ............................................................. 73
6.4.1
Certification Programs .......................................................................................... 73
6.4.2 Course Content........................................................................................................... 73
6.4.3
Course Selection ................................................................................................... 73
6.5
Learning Outcomes ....................................................................................................... 73
6.5.1
Operators ............................................................................................................... 73
6.5.2
Food Handlers ....................................................................................................... 75
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A:
APPENDIX B:
APPENDIX C:
APPENDIX D:
Potentially Hazardous Foods ............................................................................ 76
Time/Temperature Control - Raw Animal Foods ............................................. 80
Typical Food Allergies ..................................................................................... 81
Recall Manuals ................................................................................................. 84
5
1.1
Purpose and Definitions
1.2
Introduction
Canada's food system is ranked amongst the best in the world in providing safe and wholesome
food. In Nova Scotia our status as a leader in producing safe, quality food is secure as long as we
collectively commit ourselves to applying sound principles of food safety – principles that have
been acquired over the past century as a direct result of applied theoretical and scientific
knowledge of foodborne diseases. The study of past or emerging diseases and of how food plays
a role in the transmission of disease has had a dramatic effect, both in helping us identify key
requirements in food safety, and in highlighting the need for various regulatory interventions.
Foodborne outbreaks can affect us all. Foodborne illness can be very serious and even lifethreatening to some consumers, especially pre-school children, older adults, and those with
impaired immune systems. Effective control of foodborne illness is vital, not only to avoid
adverse effects on human health, but also to safeguard the Canadian and Nova Scotian food
industry. The potential business repercussions of foodborne illness are many, including loss of
earnings, unemployment and litigation, damage to trade and tourism through negative publicity,
lower staff morale, and professional embarrassment.
The challenge in all jurisdictions is to continually reduce the risks and achieve excellence in food
safety, while supporting the ability of the food industry to adapt to new technology and survive in
a competitive environment.
1.3
Purpose
The Regulations respecting the Inspection of Food Establishments commonly known as the Nova
Scotia Food Safety Regulations were developed by industry and government. These regulations
have moved away from prescriptive, narrow definition of requirements and wherever practicable,
define outcomes or performance-based expectations. The unique and diverse nature of the Nova
Scotia food industry has been considered. The regulations apply to every food establishment
which sells, offers for sale or distributes free of charge, packages, prepares, serves,
manufactures, processes, or distributes food. Exemptions from all or parts of the regulations have
been provided for, if other jurisdictions have authority, or the risks are minimal and food safety
outcomes can be obtained by other means.
To accompany and complement the Nova Scotia Food Safety Regulations a more comprehensive
Nova Scotia Food Retail and Food Services Code has been developed. This code is based on the
National Food Code. The two documents provide a common set of harmonized food safety
standards and operational guidelines which are recognized by government, the food industry and
consumers. The Code consists of model requirements for safeguarding public health and assuring
food safety. It provides practical, user-friendly interpretations and guidance for compliance with
legislation. Both the NS Food Safety Regulations and the NS Food Retail and Food Services
6
Code embody sound scientific, risk-based approaches to food safety. This is the overriding
principle underlying Canada's and Nova Scotia’s food safety practices.
1.4
Application
Since the Code is an interpretative guideline that explains how to meet the objectives identified
in the NS Food Safety Regulations, it is not intended to be used as a rigid, inflexible document.
The Code is not intended to stand alone, but rather is to be used in conjunction with companion
provincial regulations, relevant statutes, research, and other resource materials. Taken together,
these materials provide an extensive information base to assist in the safe operation of the
foodservice and food retail industries.
As new technology becomes available, operational procedures and equipment standards in a
foodservice premise may vary from that described in the Code.
Materials and/or methods other than those specified in the Code may be used by food retail and
foodservice operators, if the operators can provide sound, scientific evidence that clearly
demonstrates compliance with the regulatory objectives.
1.5
a.
Scope
The Code has, as its primary focus, a broad range of retail and food service
premises that include, but are not limited to, the following:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
Full service restaurants,
quick service restaurants,
foodservice operations in institutions, including hospitals and schools,
bakeshops, butchers and delicatessens,
grocery and convenience stores,
food commissaries and food outlets on common carriers, and
other food premises such as markets, food banks and vending operations.
The Code does not apply to certain premises with exemptions in NS Food Safety
Regulations.
b.
The Code includes general information and guidelines to assist operators in the
foodservice and food retail industries in the operation of their food premises. It
also establishes universal learning outcomes that will help standardize food
handler educational courses and evaluation criteria.
c.
Definitions found in this Code are in keeping with those found in the NS Food
Safety Regulations and other applicable regulations. (Refer to Section 1.7 of this
Code.)
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1.6
Guiding Principles
a.
The safety of foods produced and sold through the food retail and food service
sectors is a shared responsibility among many stakeholders including the
operators of food premises, food workers, regulatory agencies, and consumers.
b.
The Code has been developed on the basis of the following guiding principles:
i.
ii.
iii.
1.7
The retail and foodservice industries have the primary responsibility of
ensuring the safety of their foods and, where applicable, of providing a
reasonable level of descriptive product information to permit consumers to
make informed decisions.
Consumers have a right to be informed, and are also responsible for safe
food handling.
Government has a responsibility to:
o
set and enforce standards for health and safety based on sound
scientific risk assessment and management principles,
o
work to ensure that food product information provided by industry
is sufficient and accurate, and
o
provide health and food safety information to consumers and to
industry.
Outcomes
The primary objective of the Code is the safety of foods produced, served and sold by the food
retail and food service sectors. In addition, there are a number of other expected outcomes:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Better knowledge of safe food handling practices by all stakeholders;
improved consistency in the interpretation and application of food industry regulations by
all stakeholders;
the establishment of minimum health and food safety practises for the food retail and
food service industries;
better communication among all sectors of the industry and government, concerning
critical requirements in food safety, and a greater commitment to finding cooperative
approaches to handle risks; and
improved information concerning best practices, to complement industry-driven
inspection, auditing and educational programs.
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1.8
Definitions
Definitions of common terms contained in the Nova Scotia Food Retail and Food Services Code
are listed below.
Act:
The Nova Scotia Health Protection Act unless otherwise stated.
Adulteration:
Any food ingredient which has been corrupted, debased, or made
impure through the addition of any foreign or inferior substances.
Applicant:
One who applies for a permit or license.
Clean:
To render free from food residues and other foreign material.
Code:
The Nova Scotia Food Retail and Foodservices Code.
Comminute:
To reduce to minute particles.
Communicable Disease:
An illness in humans caused by an organism or micro-organism or
its toxic products, and transmitted directly or indirectly from an
infected person or animal, or the environment.
Container:
Includes a food grade receptacle or covering used to package,
wrap, contain or cover food.
Contamination:
The exposure of food to conditions which permit or may permit the
introduction or the occurrence in food of a disease causing microorganism or parasite, any biological or chemical agent or foreign
matter, or other substance that may effect food safety or
wholesomeness.
Corrective Actions:
Procedures to be followed when a deviation occurs from the
Critical Limits, i.e., a violation or deviation at any of the Critical
Control Points.
Critical Control Point:
A point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a
food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to
acceptable levels.
Critical Limit:
A criterion that must be met for each preventive measure
associated with a Critical Control Point.
Equipment:
Includes items that are used in the operation of a food premises.
This includes (but is not limited to) dispensing units, stoves, ovens,
deep fryers, ventilation systems, slicers, grinders, mixers, scales,
cutting surfaces, tables, shelving, refrigerators, freezers, sinks, ice
makers, trolleys, vending machines, dish washing machines, and
9
lighting systems.
Fish:
Fin fish, mollusc and crustacean shellfish.
Food:
Any raw, cooked or processed substance. This includes (but is not
limited to) ice, beverages or ingredients used or intended for use, in
whole or in part, for human consumption.
Food Bank:
A non-profit organization that:
1. operates with the exclusive intent of feeding the hungry,
and
2. receives, holds, packages, repackages, or distributes food to
be consumed off the premises, but does not process food.
Foodborne Illness:
Sickness caused by the ingestion of food containing
microbiological, chemical, or physical hazards.
Food Contact Surface:
The surface of equipment or utensils with which food normally
comes into contact.
Food Grade:
In the case of packaging, any material that does not violate the
provisions of Division 23 of the Food and Drugs Regulations. The
document states (in part) that no person "shall sell any food in a
package that may yield to its contents any substance that may be
injurious to the health of a consumer of the food."
Food Handler:
Individual working with unpackaged food, food equipment,
utensils, or food contact surfaces.
Food Premises:
Any place where food that is intended for public consumption is
sold, offered for sale, supplied, handled, prepared, processed,
packaged, displayed, served, dispensed, stored or transported, or a
“Food Establishment” as defined in the NS Food Safety
Regulations.
Food Recall:
A process in which foods or food products are effectively
withdrawn from the marketplace.
Food Transportation
Unit:
Vehicles, aircraft, railcars, ships, containers, boxes, bulk tanks,
trailers, and any other transportation unit used to transport food.
Game Animal:
An animal, the products of which are food that is not classified as
cattle, poultry, sheep, swine or goat. This includes reindeer, elk,
deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, aquatic and non-aquatic
birds, non-aquatic reptiles, and aquatic mammals or “wildlife” as
defined in the Wildlife Act R.S.N.S., C 504,S.2.
10
Good Operating
Practices:
Universal steps or procedures that control the operational
conditions within a food premises allowing for conditions that are
favourable to the production of safe food (i.e., proper personal
hygiene, sanitation, and food handler training).
HACCP:
An acronym for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point which is a
systematic approach to be used in food production as a risk-based
means to ensure food safety.
HACCP Plan:
The document which defines the procedures to be followed to
ensure the control of product safety for a specific process, raw
ingredient or recipe category.
Handwashing Station:
A hand basin provided with:
1. hot and cold running water from a potable water supply,
2. soap in a dispenser,
3. a method of hand drying that uses single service products,
such as sufficient single service towels in a dispenser, or
other drying apparatus that is approved by the regulatory
authority, and
4. a sign which explains proper hand washing procedures.
Health Hazard:
Any condition that is or might become injurious or dangerous to
the public health or that might hinder in any manner the prevention
or suppression of disease.
Mobile Vending or
Mobile Food Service
Vehicle/Unit:
A self-contained mobile unit, which is used for the preparation and/
or retail dispensing of food products. The unit is capable of moving,
or being moved, and is not left in any one location for a period
longer than one week.
Operator:
A holder of a permit, an owner, leaser, or manager of the food
premises.
Pathogen:
A disease-causing organism.
Permit:
A document issued by the regulatory authority that authorizes a
person to operate a food premises.
Permit Holder:
The person who is legally responsible for the operation of a food
premises, such as the owner or the owner's agent, and who
possesses a valid permit to operate the food premises.
Pest:
Any animal or arthropod that is destructive to the operation of a
food premises, or that may contaminate a food or food contact
surface. This includes rats, mice, cockroaches and flies.
11
pH:
The symbol for the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion
concentration, which is a measure of the degree of acidity or
alkalinity of a solution. Values between 0 and 7 indicate acidity
and values between 7 and 14 indicate alkalinity. The value for pure
distilled water is 7, which is considered neutral.
Potable:
Suitable for drinking/ingestion.
Potentially Hazardous
Food:
Any food that consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products,
eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish (edible mollusca and crustacea),
or any other ingredients, in a form capable of supporting growth of
infectious and/or toxigenic micro organisms. This does not include
foods which have a pH level of 4.6 or below and foods which have
a water activity of 0.85 or less.
Poultry:
Any domesticated bird (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese or
guineas), whether live or dead.
Process:
To make change or to modify food which includes (but is not
limited to) washing, rinsing, thawing, heating, cutting, cooking,
smoking, salting, canning, freezing, pasteurizing and reprocessing
of previously processed food, or to substantially change or alter the
appearance or nature of a food, or combine with an ingredient or
additive.
Raw Ingredient:
Any food that enters into the composition of a mixture in a natural,
crude, uncooked state.
Ready-to-Eat Foods:
A food which is normally consumed without washing, cooking or
other preparation, or has been prepared into a form in which it is
consumed without further processing.
Refuse:
Solid waste not carried by water through the sewage system.
Regulatory Authority:
The municipal, provincial, territorial, or federal enforcement body
having jurisdiction over the food premises for the purposes of the
appropriate Act and regulation, or any agency or authorized
representatives of any of them.
Retail:
The selling of food to the end-user.
Sanitary:
Free from contamination.
Sanitize:
The reduction, by means of a chemical agent and/or physical
method, of the number of micro-organisms to a level that does not
compromise food safety. Sanitation has a corresponding meaning.
12
Service Animal:
Service animals are animals specifically trained to provide
assistance and perform tasks for persons with disabilities such as
guiding people who are blind, alerting people who are deaf,
assisting wheelchair users, sensing, alerting, and protecting a
person who is having a seizure, providing support or balance,
aiding someone with a cognitive or psychological disability by
barking for help in an emergency, assisting a person with panic
disorder in coping with crowds, or performing other special tasks.
Service animals are working animals, not pets.
Shelf Stable:
Foods not requiring refrigeration. (See Water Activity below)
Single Service:
Designed to be used only once and then discarded.
Tableware:
Eating, drinking and serving utensils for table use, such as flatware
including forks, knives and spoons, and hollow-ware including
bowls, cups, serving dishes, tumblers, and plates.
Toxic Substances:
Substances that are not intended for ingestion, such as cleaners,
sanitizers, pesticides, insecticides, paint, petroleum, etc.
Utensil:
Includes kitchenware, tableware, glasses, cutlery or other similar
items used in the handling, preparation, processing, packaging,
displaying, serving, dispensing, storing, containing, or consuming
of food.
Vending Machine:
A self-service device that dispenses servings of food in bulk or in
packages without the necessity of replenishing the device between
each vending operation.
Voluntary Caterer:
A member of a group, organization, or agency who volunteers to
prepare food for functions or gatherings.
Water Activity (Aw):
The ratio of water vapour pressure of a food product to the vapour
pressure of pure water at the same temperature and pressure.
Generally, food products with an Aw of less than 0.85 are
considered shelf stable.
13
2.1
Construction, Design and Facilities
2.2
Site and Location
Sites for food premises must be chosen that are free from conditions that might interfere with
their sanitary operation, including:
a.
No land use conflicts or potential conflicts with adjacent sites.
b.
Set reasonably apart from waste disposal facilities, incompatible processing facilities,
and any offensive trades. Generally a minimum set back of 30 metres is recommended
from potential sources of contamination. However, a greater or lesser distance could be
accepted depending on specific site conditions.
Rationale
Surrounding facilities must not contaminate food. Conditions which might lead to contamination
include excessive dust, foul odours, smoke, pest infestations, airborne microbial and chemical
contaminants, and other similar conditions.
2.3
General Premises Design and Construction Specifications
2.2.1
Premises Design and Layout
a. Food premises should be designed such that food flow is in one direction (for example,
from receiving, to storage, to preparation, to packaging/serving).
b. Incompatible areas or processes, particularly clean-up and chemical storage areas, must
be reasonably separated from food preparation/processing areas.
Rationale
Unnecessary movement of food and personnel within the food premises increases the likelihood
of contamination, and should be controlled as much as possible. If unsanitary operations are
conducted in close proximity to sanitary operations, the likelihood of contamination is similarly
increased. A properly designed and operated food premises will minimize the opportunity for
food to be contaminated.
2.2.2
a.
Construction Plans and Specifications
Construction plans and specifications respecting the location, design and construction
of the facility are to be approved by the food safety staff of the Department of
Agriculture before construction begins.
14
b.
With regard to alterations to existing facilities, if the alterations are major or involve
items or equipment that are specified in the Code, the plans and specifications
regarding the alterations are to be submitted to and approved by food safety staff of the
Department of Agriculture. Plans for minor alterations such as the installation of
shelves in a store room do not have to be submitted to the regulatory authority.
c.
The term "alteration" and the context in which it is used in sub-section (b) above,
means those alterations that normally require a building permit from the municipality,
involve the relocation, removal, or installation of equipment and facilities. If unsure
check with Department of Agriculture food safety staff.
2.3
Walls and Ceilings
a.
Walls and ceilings in food preparation, processing and storage areas must be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
b.
constructed of finishes such as such as tile, plaster, stainless steel, or other
equivalent materials, which are smooth, impermeable, washable, and light
coloured;
kept in good repair;
kept in a clean and sanitary manner;
free from flaking materials; and
free of pitting and cracks.
Inserts for false ceilings must have a non-porous (smooth), washable, impervious
finish in areas where food is prepared or stored.
Rationale
Properly finished walls and ceiling are easier to clean and as such, are more likely to be kept
clean. A light coloured finish aids in the even distribution of light and the detection of unclean
conditions which can then be corrected.
2.4
Floors
Floors that are subject to moisture must be constructed of impervious materials, and sloped to
allow for draining.
Rationale
Properly constructed floors facilitate cleaning and sanitizing. Impervious materials do not
absorb water or organic matter, and sloping helps avoid pooling of liquids which can lead to
unsanitary conditions.
15
2.4.1
Dry Areas
a.
In operating areas where the floor is not normally subject to moisture, the floor should
be durable, impervious and easily cleanable, and non-slip.
b.
The floor to wall joints should be coved. Generally a gap of no larger than 1 mm is
recommended.
2.4.2
a.
Wet Areas
In areas where the floor is subject to moisture (such as food preparation or processing
areas, walk-in coolers, washrooms, and areas subject to flushing or spray cleaning), the
floor must be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
durable, easily cleanable and non-slip;
constructed of a impervious material that is able to withstand regular wet
washing, such as tile or epoxy resin;
coved at the wall to floor joints, and sealed;
smooth so as not to allow for pooling of liquids; and
sufficiently sloped for liquids to drain to adequately sized and constructed floor
drains. (See Section 2.5 below). A minimum slope of 2% or more is
recommended.
b.
All floors must be kept clean and in good repair.
c.
Rubber or plastic mats excluding carpet or other similar floor coverings applied to the
floor must be designed for easy removal, cleaning and sanitizing, and made of a nonabsorbent material.
d.
Absorbent material (e.g. sawdust, cardboard, newspaper) use on floors is not
acceptable.
2.4.3
Carpeting
Carpeting or similar material must not be installed as a floor covering in food preparation areas,
walk-in coolers/freezers, storage room, janitorial/waste rooms, washrooms, change rooms, or
other areas subject to moisture or wet cleaning. Where carpet is used in an operation, it should be
installed only in the dining or public areas.
16
Rationale
Sanitary food operation areas will minimize the risk of contamination of the food from
environmental sources.
2.5
Floor Drains
a.
Floor drains must meet all the plumbing codes , and should:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
effectively prevent accumulation of liquids;
be cleaned out on a regular basis;
be located so that they are easily accessible, and equipped with removable
covers that are flush to the floor; and
be equipped with backflow preventers.
b.
Drain lines should be sloped, individually trapped, and properly vented to outside air.
c.
The drainage system must be constructed such that there is no cross-connection
between the drains or drain lines, and:
i.
ii.
the water supply; or
the food product lines or equipment.
Rationale
The accumulation of liquids on the floor of a food premises can lead to unsanitary conditions,
increasing the likelihood of contamination of food. Properly designed drains and drain lines can
eliminate the accumulation of liquids.
Trapping and venting of plumbing, as well as other mechanisms preventing backflow, will
prevent sewer gases and pests from entering the food premises. The provision for the separation
of floor drains from sewage drains is to prevent the contamination of the floor drains with
human wastes, which can contain pathogenic bacteria. Faecal contamination of the floor drains
increases the likelihood of contamination of the food premises.
2.6
Stairs, Catwalks and Mezzanines
Stairways must be:
i.
ii.
located so as to minimize the risk of food contamination; and
constructed of materials that are impervious and easily cleanable.
17
Catwalks or mezzanines must:
i.
ii.
iii.
not be located over food preparation areas, or where splashing or dripping could pose a
contamination risk;
be constructed of solid masonry or metal construction; and
be equipped, where appropriate, with raised edges of a height sufficient to prevent
contamination from falling onto surfaces below.
Rationale
Stairs, catwalks, and mezzanines, whether over work areas of exposed food or near these areas,
can act as a source of contamination.
2.7
Lighting
a.
Lighting and lighting fixtures must be designed to prevent accumulation of dirt and be
easily cleanable.
b.
Food premises must be supplied with sufficient artificial light to ensure the safe and
sanitary production of food, and facilitate cleaning of the premises. Unless otherwise
specified, the minimum lighting intensities should be:
i.
110 lux (at a distance of 89 cm (3 ft.) above the floor) in walk-in coolers, dry
food storage areas, and in all other areas and rooms during periods of cleaning;
ii.
220 lux (at a distance of 89 cm (3 ft.) above the floor) in areas where fresh
produce or packaged foods are sold or offered for consumption; areas used for
handwashing, warewashing, and equipment and utensil storage; and in toilet
rooms; and
iii.
540 lux at the surface where a food handler is working with unpackaged
potentially hazardous food or with food utensils and equipment such as knives,
slicers, grinders, or saws where employee/worker safety is a factor.
c.
Except as otherwise specified, lighting fixtures should be shielded with shatter-proof
coverings in areas where there is exposed food, equipment, utensils, linens, or
unwrapped single-service and single-use articles. Shielded lighting is not necessary in
areas used only for storing food in unopened packages if:
i.
the integrity of the food packages cannot be affected by broken glass falling
onto them; and
ii.
the food packages are capable of being cleaned of debris from broken glass
before the packages are opened.
d.
Infrared or other heat lamps should be protected against breakage by a shield
surrounding and extending beyond the bulb so that only the face of the bulb is
exposed.
18
Rationale
Adequate lighting promotes cleanliness by facilitating the identification of unclean areas.
Shielding of lights to prevent the contamination of food from glass fragments in the event of
breakage is an essential public health protection measure.
2.8
Ventilation
a.
Food premises must be provided with adequate natural or mechanical ventilation to
keep rooms free of excessive heat, steam, condensation, vapours, odours, smoke and
fumes.
b.
Where mechanical ventilation systems are used, they must be designed and installed
such that:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
they are sufficient in number and capacity to prevent grease or condensation
from collecting on the walls and ceiling;
the filters or other grease extracting equipment are easily removable for
cleaning and replacement if not designed to be cleaned in place;
the exhaust ventilation hood systems include components such as hoods, fans,
guards, and ducting which will prevent grease or condensation from draining or
dripping onto food, food contact equipment or surfaces, utensils and linens, or
single-service and single-use articles; and
they are equipped with make-up air systems, installed in accordance with the
National Building Code.
c.
Mechanical ventilation systems should be cleaned in accordance with frequencies
stipulated in local fire or building codes.
d.
The design and installation of mechanical ventilation systems must be approved by the
local authority having jurisdiction. Both the National Building Code and the National
Fire Prevention Act 96 deal with ventilation and grease extraction in commercial
premises.
Rationale
The air supplied to the food premises must be of sufficient quality so as not to contaminate the
equipment or the food. Unclean air, excessive dust, odours, or build-up of condensation or
grease are all potential sources of food contamination. Build up of various constituents in
equipment, such as range hoods, also pose a fire hazard.
19
2.9
Storage Areas
Stored items must be protected from contamination such as water leakage, pest infestation or any
other unsanitary condition.
a.
Food premises require adequate storage facilities for all items required for operation,
including food, food ingredients, equipment, and non-food materials such as utensils,
linens, single-service and single-use articles, packaging, and chemical agents. Foods
are to be stored in an area separate from all other items.
b.
The following criteria should be applied to all storage areas:
i.
ii.
iii.
adequate shelving should be supplied in order that all materials may be stored
off the floor. All food and food items should be maintained a minimum of 15
cm (6 in.) off the floor on racks, shelves or pallets. Shelving which is not
sealed to the floor should have a clear vertical space of at least 20 cm (8 in.)
between the bottom shelf and the floor to facilitate cleaning. (Extra-wide
shelving will need more space.) Shelving should be at least 5 cm (2 in.) from
the walls to allow for access, and permit easier visual inspection;
areas must be located in a dry, pest-free location; and
they must be constructed of materials which are durable and easily cleaned.
Unsealed wood is not an acceptable finish for shelves, ceilings and walls.
Note: Subsection 2.9(b) does not apply to storage of foods in chest type freezers or
upright refrigerators and coolers where it is impractical to provide a vertical space
from the floor of the chest freezer or cooler to the food container.
c.
The facilities used for the storage of food, food ingredients, equipment and non-food
materials such as utensils, linens, single-service and single-use utensils, and packaging
must be designed and constructed so that they:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
d.
are cleanable;
are located in a clean and dry location;
restrict pest access and harbourage;
provide an environment which minimizes the deterioration of stored materials;
and
protect food from contamination during storage.
These facilities may not be located:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
in areas used for the storage of soiled linens;
in locker rooms;
in toilet rooms;
in garbage rooms;
in mechanical rooms;
under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips; or
20
vii.
in the same room/vicinity as chemicals/pesticides.
e.
Non-food agents such as cleaners, sanitizers, detergents, pesticides and other similar
products must be stored in an area that prevents the potential for cross-contamination
with food, food ingredients, food contact surfaces and non-food materials such as
utensils, linens, single-service and single-use utensils, and packaging materials.
Personal belongings of employees must be stored separately from food storage and
food preparation areas.
f.
Recyclables such as bottles and cans need to be stored in a sanitary manner that
prevents the harbourage of pests.
g.
Other materials that may be stored on the premises can also include items not directly
related to the operation of the premises. This can include items such as landscaping
tools, pesticides for use outside, and marketing materials (signs, posters, etc.). These
items must be stored in a separate, designated area that prevents the potential for crosscontamination with food, food ingredients, food contact surfaces, and non-food
materials such as utensils, linens, single-service and single-use utensils and packaging
materials.
Rationale
Contamination of food, food ingredients, equipment, and non-food materials can occur when
improper storage facilities are used. Separation of food and equipment from toxic and soiled
materials ensures that the opportunity for cross-contamination is minimized. Additional
information on the storage of chemicals and other poisonous materials can be found in
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) guidelines.
A number of other environmental conditions can lead to contamination or food spoilage. For
example, refrigeration condensers located in dry food storage areas can produce heat that may
damage foods, including canned goods. Unhygienic practices, including poor employee hygiene,
can cause contamination.
2.10
a.
Water and Steam Supply
Water supplies must only be from an approved source, such as:
i.
ii.
iii.
b.
a public water system; or
a private water system that is constructed, maintained, and operated to meet
health requirements, and is approved by the provincial/ regulatory agency as
outlined in the Water and Wastewater Facilities and Public Drinking Water
Supplies Regulations N.S. Reg. 186/2005; or
Be registered with the NS Department of Environment where applicable.
Hot and cold water, under adequate pressure and in sufficient quantities, must be
21
provided to meet the peak demands throughout the food premises. Hot water must be
of sufficient temperature to effectively clean and sanitize.
c.
Premises that are equipped with their own private water supply should have a written
water sampling plan and protocol. Samples of the water should be tested for bacterial
and chemical quality at an accredited laboratory at a frequency deemed necessary by:
i. the Department of Environment in the case of a registered supply; or
ii. the Department of Agriculture in the case of a facility not requiring registration.
Test results for potable water must meet or exceed the minimum health requirements
as prescribed in the current publication of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water
Quality, published by Health Canada. A copy of all sample results during the past
twelve months should be kept at the facility for review purposes by NSDA and NSE
inspection staff.
d.
The use of non-potable water in food premises is prohibited.
e.
Water and boiler treatment chemicals approved for use are listed in the Reference
Listing of Accepted Construction Materials, Packaging Materials and Non-Food
Chemical Products published by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
f.
In-line water treatment units i.e. chlorinators, UV lights, mineral removal filters, where
approved must be maintained at all times to provide a potable water supply.
Rationale
An adequate water supply, in quantities that encourage cleaning and rinsing, is necessary to
ensure effective cleaning and safe food processing operations. The water supply used in cleaning
and other culinary operations must be of a safe and sanitary quality in order to avoid
contamination of food equipment or food.
A properly constructed, maintained and operated water distribution system is necessary to
ensure the water supply delivered to the food premises is not contaminated.
Nova Scotia Environment must be contacted to determine if a water supply requires
registration as outlined in the NS Water and Wastewater Facilities and Public Drinking Water
Supplies Regulations.
2.11
Sewage and Solid Waste Disposal
a.
Sewage disposal systems must meet all local or provincial requirements.
b.
Disposal of sewage and solid wastes must be done in a sanitary manner which does not
expose the food premises or food products to potential contamination.
22
c.
Requirements for the separation of various solid waste streams as outlined as outlined
by municipal regulations and bylaws must be followed. Solid waste containers within
the premises should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
sufficient in number and accessible;
designed to minimize both the attraction of pests, and the potential for airborne
contamination;
identified as to their contents; and
emptied when full or at least daily.
d.
Garbage storage rooms and containers should be emptied, cleaned and sanitized as
often as necessary.
e.
Solid waste containers located outside the premises should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
equipped with covers and closed when not in use;
maintained in a manner that does not attract pests; and
cleaned regularly and emptied when full or at least two times per week; and
preferably stored in a vermin proof structure.
Rationale
The proper disposal of sewage and solid waste is critical in preventing the spread of pathogens
in the food premises. In addition, the sanitary disposal of both sewage and solid wastes, and the
maintenance of waste containers and facilities will minimize the presence of pests inside and
outside the premises.
2.12
Plumbing System
a.
The plumbing system conveying water and waste requires the approval of local or
provincial building authorities.
b.
Where water conditioning devices such as water filters or screens are installed on
water lines, they should be of a type that is approved by the regulatory authority, and
designed and installed according to the manufacturer's instructions. They should
permit easy disassembly to facilitate periodic servicing and cleaning.
c.
In order to prevent backflows through cross connections, backflow prevention devices
(eg. air gaps, vacuum breakers) must be installed wherever required and in compliance
with local plumbing/building codes.
Rationale
Cross connections and backflows can contaminate the potable water supply.
23
2.13
Overhead Utility Lines
a.
Utility lines such as gas, electrical, sewage and water lines, as well as heating ducts,
should be suspended away from work areas or areas of exposed food to minimize the
potential for contamination.
b.
They should exhibit no sign of flaking rust or paint.
c.
Lines carrying contaminated or hazardous materials, such as sewer or floor drain lines,
should be located sufficiently distant from any product or product contact surfaces to
prevent any risk of contamination.
d.
Lines should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
insulated, where appropriate, to prevent condensation;
constructed and covered with a suitable material to minimize the build-up of
soil;
easily cleanable; and
labelled or colour-coded.
Rationale
Conditions such as dripping condensation or excessive dust from overhead utility lines can be a
source of contamination when the lines are suspended over work areas or areas of exposed food.
The consequences of contamination due to leakage are significantly greater with lines carrying
sewage, hazardous chemicals, or highly contaminated materials.
2.14
Handwash Stations
a.
At least one handwash station must be provided in each food preparation area.
Additional handwash stations may be required by food safety staff of the Department
of Agriculture. It should comply with the provisions of the National Building Code.
b.
Handwash facilities must:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
be located to allow convenient use by food handlers in the food preparation
area, and in areas where workers are doing other tasks, then handling food.
be accessible for the use of workers at all times;
not be used for purposes other than handwashing;
be provided with single-use soap dispensers (e.g., liquid soap) and single-use
hand drying devices such as paper towel dispensers and/or hot air dryers;
be equipped to provide hot and cold, or pre-mixed warm, running water;
provide an adequate flow of water - if a self-closing faucet is installed, it
should flow for at least 20 seconds, without the need to reactivate the faucet;
24
vii.
viii.
c.
be equipped with a sign which explains the proper handwashing procedures;
and
be easily cleanable, and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
If approved by food safety staff of the Department of Agriculture, when food handling
or food exposure is limited, alternative handwashing facilities may be provided.
Rationale
Proper use of handwashing facilities is essential to personal cleanliness and to reduce the
likelihood of food contamination. It has been documented that improper handwashing is a major
contributing factor in outbreaks of foodborne illness.
2.15
a.
Toilet Facilities and Dressing Areas
i.
At least one toilet must be provided for the use of workers in each food premises.
The facilities must comply with the provisions of the Nova Scotia Building Code.
ii.
Washroom facilities must be available for the public. The number and
construction of washrooms shall be determined in accordance with the Nova
Scotia Building Code.
iii. Food establishments with no customer seating inside or on an exterior deck,
having a building footprint of 74.322 square metres (800 square feet or less) will
no longer require the provision of a public washroom. A staff washroom is
required.
iv. Food establishments having a building footprint that does not exceed 93 square
metres (1000 square feet or less) may use the same washroom for staff and public.
Those food establishments that exceed 93 square metres (1000 square feet or
more) a separate washroom for staff and at least one for public is required.
b.
Toilet rooms for staff should:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
be completely enclosed and provided with a tight-fitting and self-closing door,
with the exception of those washrooms which are designed for use by
handicapped persons (in all cases doors must be closed at all times);
be equipped with a handwash station; including a liquid soap and paper towel
dispenser;
have handwashing notices prominently displayed;
be conveniently located and accessible to workers during all hours of
operation;
provide hooks outside the facility to hang aprons, white coats, etc.;
be easily cleanable, well ventilated, and well lit; and
25
vii
c.
Toilet rooms for the public should:
i.
ii
iii
iv.
v.
vi.
d.
be completely enclosed and provided with a tight-fitting and self-closing door,
with the exception of those washrooms which are designed for use by
handicapped persons (in all cases doors must be closed at all times);
be equipped with a handwash station; including a liquid soap and paper towel
dispenser;
have handwashing notices prominently displayed;
be conveniently located and accessible to patrons during all hours of operation;
be easily cleanable, well ventilated, and well lit; and
access to the washroom should not be through the food handling or food
preparation areas.
Dressing areas should be provided if workers routinely change their clothes in the food
premises. Dressing areas should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
e.
toilet rooms should not open directly into a food preparation area.
easily cleanable;
well ventilated and well lit;
provided with lockers or other suitable facilities for the storage of workers'
possessions; and
completely enclosed and provided with a lockable door, unless separate
facilities are provided for each sex.
All plumbing must meet the applicable provisions of the provincial or local plumbing
codes.
Rationale
Properly located and equipped toilet facilities are necessary to protect the equipment, facility
and food from faecal contamination which may be carried by insects, hands or clothing. Toilet
facilities kept clean and in good repair, minimize the opportunities for the spread of
contamination.
2.16
Janitorial Facilities
a.
To provide for the cleaning requirements of the operation, every food premises must
be equipped with cleaning materials, equipment and facilities, located away from food
handling areas.
b.
The service sink or curbed cleaning facility, equipped with a floor drain, should be
conveniently located for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools, and
for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.
c.
Adequate storage facilities should be provided as necessary to store brooms, mops,
pails, and cleaning compounds when not in use.
26
Rationale
Liquid wastes from wet floor cleaning methods are contaminated with microorganisms and filth.
A service sink or curbed cleaning facility with a drain allows for the sanitary disposal of this
waste water in a manner that will not contaminate the food. Designated storage areas for
brooms, mops, pails, etc., will assist in the sanitary operation of the premises during periods
when they are not in use.
2.17
a.
Exterior Openings
Exterior openings must be protected against the entry of pests. Examples include:
i.
ii.
iii.
b.
filling or closing holes and other gaps along the floor, walls and ceiling;
solid, self-closing, tight-fitting doors; and
screen doors that open outward and are self-closing.
If windows or doors are kept open for ventilation or other purposes, the exterior
openings must be protected against the entry of pests by means such as:
i.
ii.
iii.
screens (a screen size of 16 mesh to 25 mm (1 in.) is generally recommended);
properly designed and installed air curtains; and/ or
other effective means to restrict the entry of pests.
These provisions may not apply if pests are absent due to the location of the food premises,
weather conditions or other limiting conditions.
Rationale
Pests may carry pathogenic organisms on and within their bodies. As the pests move about the
operation, these pathogens can spread through the food premises. Freedom from pests reduces
the likelihood of contamination of both equipment and food.
2.18
Private Homes, Living or Sleeping Quarters
a.
A private kitchen or living quarters is not suitable for use as a commercial food
premises. An Administrator may exempt certain facilities as stated in the NS Food
Safety Regulations Part II (3).
b.
Living or sleeping quarters located adjacent to a food premises should be separated
from rooms and areas used for food preparation or storage by complete partitioning
and solid self-closing doors.
Rationale
Private facilities are not generally built to meet commercial requirements for the preparation of
27
food, or for the protection of food from contamination. Many municipalities have strict bylaws
concerning commercial food preparation/storage within a private residence.
2.19
Temporary Food Premises and Mobile Vendors
For a variety of reasons, temporary food premises, mobile food vending operations and catering
trucks present some different challenges when it comes to design and equipment. The
Department of Agriculture provides for more flexible requirements when it comes to these
operations, while continuing to ensure that risks from health hazards are minimized.
2.19.1 Temporary Foodservices
Temporary foodservices are those types of foodservices with a time-limited life (e.g., special
events, concessions at fairs and festivals), to a maximum of 15 consecutive days in duration, per
year. Specific requirements related to ensuring food safety must be met and a permit to operate a
temporary foodservice may be required.
Copies of the Temporary/ Special Event Guidelines and additional information may be
obtained by contacting any Department of Agriculture food safety office.
2.20
Mobile Vendors
A Mobile Food Service Vehicle/Unit is a self-contained mobile unit, which is used for the
preparation and/or retail dispensing of food products. The unit is capable of moving, or being
moved and is not left in any one location for a period longer than one week.
Note: The NS Guidelines for Foodservice at Temporary Events are applied to food service
facilities constructed for the service of foods on a temporary basis.
Copies of the NS Guidelines for Mobile Foodservice and additional information may be
obtained by contacting any Department of Agriculture food safety office.
2.21
Vending Machines
Vending machines, although technically regarded as "food premises", often do not require the
same level of construction and equipment as full-fledged food premises. They do have some
specific requirements to ensure the safe storage and dispensing of food and the prevention of
health hazards.
28
2.21.1
Liquid Foods and Ice
In equipment that dispenses or vends liquid food or ice in unpackaged form, the delivery tube,
chute and orifice should be designed such that:
a.
Splashes and drips (including drips from condensation) are diverted away from the
container receiving the food (by means of barriers, baffles, or drip aprons).
b.
Tubes, chutes and orifices are protected from manual contact (i.e., by being recessed).
c.
Where the item is dispensed, the equipment is provided with means to prevent back
siphonage.
d.
Delivery tubes, chutes and orifices are protected from dust, insects, rodents and other
contamination by a self-closing door if the equipment is:
i.
ii.
located outdoors and is not protected from precipitation, wind-blown debris,
pests and other contaminants present in the environment; or
available for self-service of food during hours when it is not under the full-time
supervision of a food employee.
Rationale
For vending machines that dispense liquid food or ice, it is important to prevent the entry of
condensate or splash, which may be contaminated, into the food product. Food contact surfaces
which divert liquid food into the receiving container need to be protected from contact by
customers/people to prevent contamination of the food product. A self-closing door on outdoor
machines or unsupervised machines further protects against accidental or malicious
contamination.
NSF International can be contacted for further information contained in Standard 25 - 1997,
Vending Machines for Food and Beverages
NSF International
P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48113-0140
Phone: 734-769-8010; Toll free: 888-NSF-9000; Fax: 734-669-0196
Email: info@nsf.org; Website: www.nsf.com
2.21.2 Self-Service Beverages
a.
Self-service beverage dispensing equipment should be designed to prevent contact
between the lip-contact surface of glasses or cups that are refilled and:
i.
ii.
b.
the dispensing equipment actuating lever or mechanism; and
the filling device.
Beverage equipment that utilizes carbonation equipment (CO2) shall incorporate a
29
back-flow, back-siphonage prevention device (i.e., check valves) to prevent the
migration of the carbonated beverage into copper water supply lines.
Rationale
Through proper design of the dispensing equipment, contamination of the lip-contact surfaces of
the refillable containers can be avoided, and the risk of cross-contamination reduced.
As well, back-flow into water supply lines has resulted in incidents of copper poisoning after
consumption of the dispensed beverage.
2.21.3 Beverages in Paper-Based Packaging
Vending machines designed to store beverages that are packaged in containers made from paper
products should be equipped with diversion devices and retention pans or drains for container
leakage.
2.21.4 Low Risk Foods
Vending machines that dispense pre-packaged foods that are not potentially hazardous (e.g.,
chips, pretzels, etc.) should be equipped with a self-closing door if the machine is:
i.
ii.
located outdoors and not protected from precipitation, wind-blown debris, pests and other
contaminants present in the environment; or
available for self-service of food during hours when it is not under the full-time
supervision of an employee.
Rationale
A self-closing door is required on vending machines which are unsupervised or located outdoors
to protect food inside the machine from sources of contamination.
2.21.5 Potentially Hazardous Foods
A machine vending potentially hazardous food must have an automatic control that prevents the
machine from vending food if there is a power failure, mechanical failure or other condition that
results in an internal temperature that cannot maintain the food temperature required in Section
3.3 of this Code.
NOTE: The automatic control must prevent the machine from dispensing food until it is
restocked and can maintain food at required temperatures.
30
Rationale
Vending machines require a "fail-safe" device that would prevent the dispensing of potentially
hazardous foods, in the event of mechanical or power failures which could subject them to
temperature abuse.
2.21.6 Can Openers/ Stirring Mechanisms
Cutting and piercing parts of can openers on vending machines must be protected from manual
contact, dust, pests, and other contamination. Both openers and stirring mechanisms must be
cleaned on a regular schedule.
Rationale
Cutting and piercing parts of can openers on vending machines come in direct contact with the
canned food product and, if not protected, may contaminate the vended food product.
3.1
Control of Food Hazards
3.2
Control Measures
a.
The operator of a food premise should provide effective supervision, in implementing
safe food practices, addressing potential food risks, and, where necessary, taking
appropriate corrective action.
b.
Trained supervisory personnel shall be accessible on site at all times during
foodservice operations. Refer to section 6.0 Training and Education
3.1.1
Supervision
The effectiveness of any management system is only as beneficial as an organization's capacity
to implement it. It is essential that knowledgeable supervisory staff are available and accessible
during all hours of operation to respond to various food hazard concerns and to apply corrective
actions.
31
3.1.2
Management Systems
An operator of a food premise shall ensure that a management system is in place and practised so
that the potential for contamination of foods (whether by chemical, physical, biological agents, or
allergens) during critical phases of food production operations is effectively controlled and
minimized.
While procedures can vary between different food service operations, there are a number of
procedures which are known to be significant contributors to foodborne illness originating from
food service establishments. Some of the more significant contributors to foodborne illness
include acquiring food from unapproved sources, improper cooling of cooked foods, advance
preparation, contamination of foods by infected workers, inadequate reheating of foods to be
served hot, improper hot holding of foods, cross-contamination, and improper cooking. As
such, it is important that food service operators prioritize their resources to ensure higher risk
procedures found in their establishments are addressed by the management system described in
Section 3.1.3.
Rationale
In food premises, it is necessary to outline specific procedures for product safety. Each product
type has its own specific risk characteristic that is based upon scientific data. The potential for
biological, chemical and physical hazards may vary considerably from one food product to
another. Specific hazards, as well as allergens (see Appendix C), have the potential to cause an
adverse health effect and need to be identified, as do the preventative measures for their control.
3.1.3
a.
Control Principles
The management system referred to in Section 3.1.2 should:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
b.
identify critical control points in the production and processing of menu items
with potentially hazardous ingredients (including raw ingredients) that have the
potential to contaminate food;
include critical limits for each critical control point;
identify procedures to regularly monitor critical control points on the critical
limits;
include corrective actions and procedures to follow when deviations from
critical limits occur; and
record all exceptions to the procedures/specifications that impact food safety.
The principles listed above regarding hazard analysis and the identification of critical
control points are an effective means of controlling food hazards, particularly in a food
processing organization. However, the operations of a food premises are very different
from that of a food processor. For example, a food premises can process a large number
of food items simultaneously while a food processor generally processes one
32
or two items at a time. The application of this type of management system may need to
be modified in a food premises.
The requirement for the application of this type of management system in a food
premises should be balanced by a number of factors including:
i.
Is the premises capable of instituting this type of management system for foods
being served? This will be dependent on a number of factors including the level
of technical expertise of the operator, the number and variety of menu items
served, and the type of processes used.
What is the public health risk of the foods being served in the premises? There
are several factors which will determine the level of risk including:
o
Who are the predominant customers or clientele of the premises?
Consumers who are considered high risk include the elderly, young
children and immune compromised individuals. These consumers will
have a lower resistance to foodborne illness and may have more severe
outcomes from illness.
o
Does the type of operation increase the level of risk? Types of operation
that can be considered high risk include:
•
large volume operations,
•
full service kitchens,
•
premises with a large menu item list,
•
premises that prepare foods with complicated or multi-step
recipes, and
•
catering operations.
o
What is the level of food safety knowledge of the operator and the food
handlers? Individuals with little or no knowledge can increase the level
of risk at the premises.
o
Does the premise have adequate equipment for the types of processes or
volumes of food being processed (e.g., cooling capacity, cold storage
capacity, hot holding capacity, etc.)?
o
Are the processes that are being used those which are known to
contribute to foodborne illness (e.g., bulk cooling, preparation of menu
items well in advance of serving, bulk cooking, simultaneous
preparation of raw and cooked foods, etc.)?
ii.
Premises which are determined to be high risk would benefit from the management
system described in Section 3.1.3 a).
c.
In those premises where the risk of foodborne disease outbreak is lower, or the cost
and resources necessary to implement the management system outweigh the benefits,
the operator may wish to institute an alternative management system. Examples of
such alternatives are:
•
For small operations with a limited number of menu items and simple
processes (i.e., cook/serve), the operator should have a good knowledge of the
33
•
•
hazards and the critical control points of the process and implement some
monitoring of the critical control points.
For larger operations with several menu items, the operator should prioritize
the menu items based upon low, medium and high risk of causing a foodborne
illness. The operator should then concentrate available time and resources into
monitoring critical control points on the high risk items.
For larger operations with several menu items and processes, the operator
should concentrate on high risk processes (i.e., cooling and cooking) rather
than identifying high hazard activities for individual foods. By controlling and
monitoring a process, such as cooling, all foods that are prepared using the
process will be handled safely.
The above alternatives are only examples of management systems that can be
considered. There may be others that are appropriate. Not all food premises can adhere
to one particular management system. The objective of the management system that is
used is to ensure control of the potential hazards in the food premises.
Rationale
Operators need to determine the steps in each operation which require effective controls to
eliminate hazards, or to minimize the probability of those hazards arising. For high risk
potentially hazardous products, this includes establishing critical limits and a monitoring
system, including record keeping, to ensure control, as well as a corrective action plan to be
taken when deviations occur.
Risk-based management systems are widely accepted as an effective means of controlling food
related risks and minimizing the potential of foodborne illness outbreaks.
3.1.4
Record Keeping
a.
Records required pursuant to Section 3.1.3 (a)(v) should be maintained and available
for review for at least a three month period.
b.
Records relating to the implementation of corrective actions in managing an incident
involving a potential risk to food safety or a departure from a critical control point
should be retained for a period determined by the Department of Agriculture.
34
3.2
Incoming Material
3.2.1
Sources
3.2.1.1 Approved Sources
a.
Food and food ingredients received at a food premises must be obtained from sources
that are approved by the regulatory authority having jurisdiction.
b.
Section a) above applies to:
i.
ii.
iii.
potentially hazardous food and food ingredients such as meat, poultry, fish, egg
and milk, and other foods capable of supporting the growth of pathogenic
microorganisms or the production of toxins;
food in hermetically sealed containers; and
game animals from commercial game farms that raise, slaughter and process
the animals as per the Department of Agriculture or other regulatory authority
having jurisdiction.
3.2.1.2 Unapproved Sources
a.
Food prepared in a private home or any other place which is not approved by the
Department of Agriculture or other regulatory agency having jurisdiction shall not be
used or offered for human consumption in a food premise.
b.
Wild game that has not been inspected and approved by the Department of Agriculture
or other regulatory authority having jurisdiction shall not be used or offered for human
consumption in a food premise.
Rationale
Safe food starts with reliable suppliers who meet inspection standards of the jurisdiction's
regulatory authority. These suppliers operate in a manner which prevents and controls
contamination of food.
3.2.2
Inspection
3.2.2.1 Receiving
Food products received at a food premises should be visually inspected as they are received, and
acceptable items shall be quickly moved into storage.
35
3.2.2.2 Package Identification
a.
All food products received at a food premise should be properly packaged and
labelled, according to requirements outlined in the Food and Drugs Act and
Regulations and the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and Regulations.
b.
Best before dates are required on foods that will keep fresh for 90 days or
less. “Best before” dates refer to the quality and shelf life of an unopened
food product, not safety.
c.
Shipping containers should be labelled with the common name, net quantity, name and
address of the responsible party, and a list of ingredients. Labels of shipping containers
such as those for commercial, industrial or institutional use, (i.e., not for sale to
consumers), are not required to be bilingual. Additional information which should be
declared depends upon the type of food.
d.
Invoices, receipts, and lot coding information should be retained, to allow tracking of
unlabelled products (such as carcasses, produce, or bakery products) or split lots.
e.
All meat products must be labeled indicating the plant number(s) where meats have
been slaughtered and processed. Pre-packaged meats must have labels on package.
Products packaged on site must have the label on the bulk package.
f.
Seafood tags should be retained for a minimum of 90 days after use.
Rationale
Lot coding is essential, as it facilitates tracing products in the event of a recall. Invoices or
receipts should be retained, since lots are often split and original labels removed, and since
some food may arrive without labels (e.g., beef carcasses, produce and bakery products).
3.2.2.3 Disposition
a.
Food products that have been inspected and found unclean, temperature abused,
contaminated, damaged, or in any way unsafe, shall be rejected or segregated and shall
not be available for consumption.
b.
This would include (but is not limited to) the following:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
packaging or food with signs of pest or rodent infestation;
shell eggs that are cracked;
badly dented canned foods;
leaking or broken product containers; and
food containers with torn or removed tamper-evident seals.
36
3.3
Temperature Control
All temperatures quoted are internal product temperatures.
3.3.1
Frozen Foods
Frozen foods must be maintained at a temperature of 00C (320F) or less. To maintain their
quality, a temperature of -180C (00F) or less is required.
Foods that are kept constantly frozen at -18C (0°F) or lower will keep safe indefinitely. Over time,
all frozen foods will eventually lose their quality when it comes to texture, flavor and taste.
3.3.2
Thawing
a.
Potentially hazardous foods should be thawed quickly or in a manner that will prevent
the rapid growth of pathogenic bacteria.
b.
Food may be thawed:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
under refrigeration at 40C (400F) or less;
completely submerged in cold running water;
as part of the cooking process (but only when thawing is taken into
consideration in determining cooking time); and
by microwaving.
c.
When thawing foods using methods where the thawed portions of the potentially
hazardous foods are above 40C (400F), the time period above 40C (400F), including the
time for cooking preparation, or the time required to cool the potentially hazardous
foods to below 40C (400F), should not exceed 4 hours.
d.
The only exception to the above procedures and temperature requirement is the
thawing of frozen ready-to-eat seafood, which should be maintained at 3.30C (380F) or
less during thawing.
Rationale
Freezing prevents microbial growth in foods, but will not destroy all microorganisms. Improper
thawing provides an opportunity for surviving bacteria to grow to harmful numbers and/or
produce toxins. In seafood, the lower maintenance temperature of 3.30C (380F) prevents the
growth and toxin production of C. botulinum.
37
3.3.3
Refrigerated Storage
All potentially hazardous food shall be stored at a temperature of 40C (400F) or less. This
includes foods that have been prepared and cooled to be served cold.
3.3.4
Cooking Raw Foods of Animal Origin
a.
Raw foods of animal origin and food mixtures containing raw foods of animal origin
should be cooked to heat all parts of the food to the minimum temperatures and for the
minimum times outlined for different foods in Appendix B. Other times and
temperatures may be acceptable, if they are considered to be equivalent by the
Department of Agriculture.
b.
Raw foods of animal origin and food mixtures containing raw foods of animal origin
should be stirred, to ensure that all parts of the food are heated to the minimum
temperatures and for the minimum times outlined in Appendix B.
c.
Where foods are allowed to be served raw or lightly cooked (such as raw oysters, steak
tartare, carpaccio, shakes or salad dressings made from raw eggs), the public should be
notified of the increased health risk.
Rationale
To kill microorganisms, food should be held at a required temperatures for specified times as
outlined in Appendix B. Different species of microorganisms have varying susceptibilities to heat.
As well, food characteristics affect the lethality of cooking temperatures. Heat penetrates into
different foods at different rates. High fat content in food reduces the effective lethality of heat.
High humidity within the cooking vessel, and the moisture content of food aid in thermal
destruction. Heating a large piece of meat/ poultry too quickly with a high oven temperature may
char or dry the outside, creating a layer of insulation which could shield the inside from efficient
heat penetration. To kill all pathogens in food, cooking should bring all parts of the food up to the
required temperatures for the correct length of time.
3.3.5
Hot Holding
Potentially hazardous foods that have been prepared, cooked, and are to be served hot, shall be
held at a temperature of at least 600C (1400F).
3.3.6
Cooling after Cooking
Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked and are intended to be kept under refrigerated
storage prior to serving, are to be cooled from 600C (1400F) to 200C (680F) or less within two
hours and then from 200C(680F) to 40C (400F) or less within 4 hours (total 6 hours) as outlined in
38
the parameters of Appendix B.
Rationale
Proper cooling requires removing heat from food quickly enough to prevent microbial growth.
Excessive time for cooling of potentially hazardous foods has been consistently identified as one
of the leading contributing factors to foodborne illness. During extended cooling, potentially
hazardous foods are subject to the growth of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms or
production of microbial toxins which may cause illness.
If the cooking step prior to cooling is adequate and no recontamination occurs, all but sporeforming organisms such as Clostridium perfringens should be killed or inactivated. However,
under poorly monitored conditions, other pathogens may be re-introduced. Thus, cooling
requirements have been based on growth characteristics of organisms that grow rapidly under
temperature abuse conditions.
Large food items such as roasts, turkeys and large containers of rice, take longer to cool because
of the mass and volume from which heat must be removed. By reducing the volume of the food in
an individual container, the rate of cooling is dramatically increased and opportunity for
pathogen growth and toxin production is minimized. Commercial refrigeration equipment is
designed to hold cold food temperatures, not cool large masses of food.
3.3.7
Cooling from Room Temperature
When potentially hazardous foods are prepared at room temperature and intended to be kept
under refrigerated storage prior to serving, they should be cooled from 200C (680F) to 40C (400F)
or less within 4 hours as outlined in Appendix B. This includes those foods which ingredients
were canned or made from reconstituted foods.
3.3.8
Room Temperature Holding
a.
Potentially hazardous foods that are intended for immediate consumption may be
displayed or held for service at room temperature (not kept on ice or other equivalent
methods) for no more than 2 hours, after which they should be discarded.
b.
The foods referred to in subsection (a) above, should be marked with the time at which
they were removed from temperature control.
Rationale
Potentially hazardous food may be held without temperature control for short time periods
because there will be no significant growth or toxin production possible in that limited time.
39
3.3.9
Reheating Potentially Hazardous Foods for Hot Holding
a.
Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked, then cooled to 40C (400F) and are
intended to be served hot should be reheated to 740C (1650F) or higher in a manner
that they will pass through the Danger Zone (40C to 600C (400F to 1400F)) as quickly
as possible. This time should not exceed 2 hours.
b.
Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked, cooled to 40C (400F), reheated and
then recooled to 40C (400F), and are intended to be served hot should be reheated to
740C (1650F) or higher with the total time between 40C and 740C (400F and 1650F) not
to exceed 2 hours.
Rationale
Proper reheating provides a major degree of assurance that pathogens will be eliminated. It is
especially effective in reducing the numbers of Clostridium perfringens that may grow in meat,
poultry or gravy if these products were improperly held. The generation time for C. perfringens is
very short at temperatures just below adequate hot holding. The potential for growth of
pathogenic bacteria is greater in reheated foods than in raw foods. This is because spoilage
bacteria, which inhibit the growth of pathogens by competition on raw products, are killed during
cooking. Subsequent recontamination will allow pathogens to grow without competition if
temperature abuse occurs.
3.3.10 Reheating Potentially Hazardous Food for Immediate Service
a.
Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked, and then cooled to 40C (400F) once,
can be served, if for immediate service, at any temperature, provided the time the
food spends between 40C and 600C (400F and 1400F) does not exceed 2 hours.
b.
Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked, cooled to 40C (400F), reheated and
then recooled to 4C (400F) should be served, if for immediate service, after being
reheated to 74C (1650F) or higher.
Rationale
Many foods are at risk during preparation and service. As foods are thawed, cooked, held,
served, cooled, and reheated, they pass several times through the "temperature danger zone",
between 40C and 600C (400F and 1400F). The amount of time that potentially hazardous foods
are in the danger zone will have an impact on the shelf life of the product.
40
3.3.11 Use of Microwave for Cooking or Reheating
a.
Potentially hazardous foods, cooked or reheated in microwave, should be rotated or
stirred throughout or midway during cooking to compensate for uneven distribution of
heat, and allowed to stand covered for a minimum of 2 minutes after cooking to obtain
temperature equilibrium.
Rationale
The rapid increase in food temperature resulting from microwave heating does not provide the
same cumulative time and temperature relationship necessary for the destruction of
microorganisms as do conventional cooking methods.
Since cold spots may exist in food cooking in a microwave oven, it is critical to measure the food
temperature at multiple sites when the food is removed from the oven, and then allow the food to
stand covered to allow thermal equalization and exposure.
3.3.12 Freezing for Parasite Destruction
a.
Fish that is intended to be consumed raw, including raw-marinated and partially
cooked fish, shall either be:
i.
ii.
b.
frozen by the supplier in the manner described below, and obtained from the
supplier in a frozen state; or
frozen within the food premises, as described below.
The fish described in a) above should be frozen either:
i.
ii.
to a temperature of -200C (-40F) or below for 7 days; or
to a temperature of -350C (-310F) or below for 15 hours in a blast freezer.
Rationale
Foods of animal origin may contain food-borne disease microorganisms including parasites.
Because these foods are intended to be eaten in a raw state and not subject to cooking
temperatures, they must be treated in a manner that will provide assurance that some diseasecausing organisms such as parasites are effectively destroyed. Subjecting these foods to cold
temperatures, as described above, is an acceptable method for parasitic destruction.
41
3.4
Water
3.4.1
Water in Contact with Food
Only potable water in either form of liquid, steam, or ice shall come in direct or indirect contact
with food during food handling, processing, and cleaning. Potable water must conform to the
standards outlined in Health Canada's Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.
3.4.2
Steam
Non-potable water used for the production of steam must not come in contact with food or food
contact surfaces.
3.4.3
Ice as an Ingredient
Ice added as an ingredient to any food must be made from potable water. Ice used for cooling
exterior surfaces of food containers should not be used as a food or food ingredient.
3.5
Preventing Contamination
3.5.1
Microbial Contamination
a.
Access to food preparation areas should be restricted, as much as practically possible,
to designated food handlers.
b.
Where the public has access to food other than raw, unprocessed fruit and vegetables,
or food specifically served to a customer by a worker of the food premises, the food
shall be protected from public handling and contamination by the use of packaging,
display cases, or salad bar sneeze guards (food guards), and be provided with suitable
utensils or effective dispensing methods.
c.
Food handlers should avoid contact with exposed areas of ready-to-eat foods with their
bare hands and use, as much as practically possible, clean and sanitized utensils such
as tongs, spatulas, disposable gloves or other food dispensing apparatus.
d.
Raw or unprocessed food shall be kept separate from ready-to-eat foods.
e.
Raw fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed in potable water to remove soil
and other contaminants before being cut, combined with other ingredients, cooked,
served, or offered for human consumption in ready-to-eat form. This does not apply to
whole raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for washing by the consumer
following point of sale.
42
f.
Cleaning and sanitizing of food contact surfaces between uses should be carried out as
described in Section 4 of this Code.
g.
Food should not come into contact with surfaces of utensils and equipment that have
not been cleaned and sanitized in accordance with procedures described in Section 4 of
this Code.
h.
When workers must taste the food, only cleaned and sanitized utensils should be used,
and the utensils should be immediately cleaned and sanitized after tasting and prior to
tasting another food or the same food.
i.
Foods that have been previously purchased and returned to the retailer or food service
operation may not be re-offered for sale to another consumer, unless those foods are
low risk or are in their unopened original package (e.g., creamers, crackers,
condiments).
j.
Prepared foods and raw vegetables under refrigerated storage should not be stored
below raw meat and fish products.
Rationale
The food industry faces the threat that the food it serves may endanger workers or customers.
Microbes are everywhere. Pathogenic microorganisms pose the greatest danger by causing
foodborne illnesses. Good policies and procedures for preventing microbial contamination serve
as barriers to these disease-causing organisms.
3.5.2
Physical and Chemical Contamination, and Allergens
a.
The operator of a food premise shall ensure that food is stored, displayed, prepared and
served in a manner that prevents the food from becoming contaminated.
b.
Non-food items must be stored in designated areas away from any food, food
equipment, or food contact surfaces.
c.
Food operators should be familiar with common food allergens which can be life
threatening to some customers. If consumers have inquiries in regard to the presence
of allergens in a food, it is suggested that they be provided with a list of ingredients
(i.e., from the recipe, from the master package, and/ or from all packages used) and
referred to their physician. Appendix C provides information regarding typical food
allergies.
d.
Foods may not contain unapproved food additives or food additives in excess of the
amounts listed in Canada's Food And Drugs Act.
43
3.6
Packaging
3.6.1
Protection of Food Content
Food packages must be in good condition and protect the integrity of the contents so that the
food within is not exposed to adulteration, damage or potentially harmful contaminants.
3.6.2
Food Grade Packaging
Packaging materials or atmospheric packaging gases, where used:
i.
ii.
iii.
3.6.3
must not cause harm to people exposed to them;
must not pose a threat to the safety and suitability of food under the specified conditions
of storage and use; and
should be approved for use according to the CFIA's Reference Listing of Accepted
Construction Materials, Packaging Materials and Non-Food Chemical Products.
Food Containers
a.
The operator of a food premises should ensure that only food grade containers are
used.
b.
High-acid foods (pH below 4.6) should not be stored or cooked in containers coated
with, made of, or containing:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
c.
Cast iron may be used only under the following conditions:
i.
ii.
3.6.4
lead or lead-based products, including lead-glazed ceramics, china, crystal or
pewter;
zinc, such as galvanized containers;
enamelware, which may chip and expose the underlying metal;
copper and copper alloys such as brass; and
cast iron.
as a surface for cooking; and
in utensils for serving food, if the utensils are used only as part of an uninterrupted process from cooking through service.
Reusable Packaging
Reusable packaging should be durable, clean, and if required, able to withstand sanitizing.
44
3.6.5
Storage of Packaging Supplies
Packaging supplies shall be stored so as to be free of contact with hazardous materials.
3.6.6
Returnables, Cleaning-for-Refilling
a.
Except as specified in (b), returned empty containers intended for cleaning and
refilling with food, should be cleaned and refilled only in a regulated food processing
plant.
b.
Food specific containers for beverages only may be refilled in a food premises if:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
the beverage is not a potentially hazardous food;
the design of the container, the rinsing described in (iii), and the nature of the
beverage, when considered together, allow for effective cleaning at home or in
the food premises;
facilities for rinsing the containers with un-recirculated hot water under
pressure are part of the dispensing system; and
the consumer-owned container returned to the food premises for refilling is
refilled only for the same consumer.
Rationale
Separating food from non-food items by creating designated storage areas will ensure that
accidental contamination from foreign matter (dirt, broken glass and crockery, and other
objects) and toxic chemicals (cleaning agents, sanitizers, detergents, pesticides) will be
minimized.
Chemical contamination can occur during cooking or storage when certain metals contact highacid foods. Potentially toxic metals include lead, copper, brass, zinc, antimony, and cadmium.
Some foods that have been involved in metal poisoning are sauerkraut, tomatoes, fruit gelatin,
lemonade, fruit punches, and carbonated beverages.
Damaged or incorrectly applied packaging may allow the entry of foreign matter or other
contaminants into the food. Canned foods should be closely inspected for imperfections or
damage, such as punctures, bulging, or seam defects.
3.7
Transportation, Storage and Distribution of Food Products
During all phases of transportation, storage, and distribution of food products, foods must be
maintained in a sanitary condition.
45
3.7.1
Verification
Foods should be routinely verified during transportation, storage and distribution to ensure that:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
3.7.2
foods are protected from all possible forms of contamination;
foods are protected from all types of damage that may render the food unfit for human
consumption;
a protective environment is provided to effectively control the growth of pathogenic or
spoilage microorganisms, such as safe holding temperatures of 40C (400F) or colder, or
600C (1400F) or hotter; and
all temperature control equipment is suitable and maintained for the purposes intended.
Food Transportation, Storage and Distribution Units
a.
Food transportation, storage and distribution units must be designed, constructed,
maintained, and used in a manner that protects food products from being
contaminated.
b.
Food transportation, storage, or distribution units should be inspected to ensure they
are free of possible contaminants, and that they are suitable for the purposes intended.
c.
Food transportation equipment that is intended to be in direct contact with food
products must be constructed with non-toxic materials, which are easy to maintain and
clean. Examples include stainless steel and food-grade plastic containers. (See Section
4 of this Code.)
d.
Where both food and non-food products are transported, stored and distributed
together, procedures shall be in place to ensure that food products are not exposed to
potential contamination from non-food products.
Rationale
Even if the food premises does not directly transport or distribute food, stock received by a
supplier may have been subject to contamination or temperature abuse while being delivered.
The food premise operator shall make every reasonable attempt to verify that the food supplies
have been protected from contamination and temperature abuse.
Off-site caterers and premises involved in the preparation and distribution of foods from
centralized kitchens need to verify the food transportation, storage, and distribution units which
they utilize, and in particular the temperature control systems of these units.
46
3.7.3
Handling and Transfer of Foods
a.
Inspection of foods is required to ensure that any signs of contamination, deterioration
of foods, or their container systems are observed.
b.
Potentially hazardous foods should be monitored to ensure that proper temperatures
are maintained during their transportation, storage, and distribution. Temperature
recording devices, which produce a graphic temperature history of the food product
and/or storage environment, should be used. Products should be checked upon being
received and recorded if found to be in variance to required temperatures.
c.
Food must not be handled or transferred in any way that may cause damage,
contamination, or adulteration of the food. Food handlers responsible for filling
display coolers should be familiar with capacity levels and restrictions to loading such
units, including volume limits, air flow, and temperature range variances, in order to
maintain the minimum/maximum temperature needs of the products being placed
therein.
d.
In transferring potentially hazardous foods, foods must be quickly moved into
temperature controlled storage, to minimize the time in which they are in the Danger
Zone, between 40C and 600C (400F and 1400F).
e.
Contaminated or adulterated foods must be discarded or disposed of. Damaged food
container systems must be thoroughly examined and if the food is contaminated or
adulterated, it must be discarded or effectively segregated until returned to the supplier
or disposed of.
Rationale
The careful inspection of transported food will help to minimize the potential of contamination or
deterioration of the food product. The prompt handling of foods being transported, stored, or
distributed serves to minimize the amount of time that perishable foods are in the danger zone for
growth of pathogenic organisms. Minimizing the amount of handling also minimizes the
chance of contamination.
Adequate and properly functioning temperature control systems are essential. The routine use of
temperature monitoring devices is necessary to confirm that potentially hazardous foods have
been kept out of the danger zone for bacterial growth and toxin production.
3.7.4
Storage Procedures
a.
Rotation of food stocks in storage areas should occur frequently to ensure that the
"first-in-first-out" rule is followed. Food products removed from storage should always
be the oldest food stocks present.
b.
Refrigerated ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods, prepared and held for more than
47
24 hours, should be marked with the date of preparation or the "consume by" date. In
general, refrigerated ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods should be discarded if not
consumed within 10 days from the date of preparation.
c.
In transportation, storage and distribution units, foods should be stored off the floor
and away from walls.
Rationale
Proper rotation of food stocks limits spoilage and potential infestation/contamination by pests.
Spills and spoilage can contribute to insect and rodent problems. Defective stock and/ or their
containers can be identified to the suppliers for appropriate replacement and follow-up.
3.7.5
Temperature Controls
a.
All potentially hazardous foods requiring temperature controlled environments to
extend their shelf lives or limit microbial growth shall be transported, stored, or
distributed in equipment that consistently maintains those temperature controls.
b.
Equipment units must have accurate and reliable temperature control and monitoring.
All such units and devices should be calibrated and verified for accuracy.
c.
Temperature control units must be maintained at temperatures that are consistent with
Section 3.3 of this Code.
Rationale
Temperature control is an effective way to prevent microbial growth, toxin production, and
product deterioration. Temperature abuse during transportation, storage, or distribution
increases the potential for foodborne illness.
3.8
Commodity Specific Control of Hazards – Donair or Similar Products
Donairs and other similar products such as gyros, kebabs, chawarmas, and shawarmas meet the
definition of potentially hazardous food in the Code, and are therefore subject to the
requirements for potentially hazardous food within other sections of the Code. The requirements
outlined in Section 3.8 address food safety issues which may be specific, but are not limited to,
these types of food products.
Rationale
The specific requirements in the Code for donairs and other similar products such as gyros,
kebabs, chawarmas, and shawarmas have been taken from the final recommendations of the
Federal/ Provincial/ Territorial Donair Working Group, June 2008. The working group reported
to the Federal/ Provincial/ Territorial Food Safety Committee, which is a government committee
that provides leadership, advice, and recommendations on food safety policy in Canada.
48
3.8.1
Donair Cone Size
a.
Food service establishments should make or purchase donair cones based on the
limiting specifications of their cooking unit (i.e., no larger than the maximum size and/
or dimensions recommended by the broiler manufacturer).
b.
If the operator is consistently left with large amounts of product at the end of the day,
they should reduce the size of cone being used.
Rationale:
Countertop broilers in food establishments may vary significantly in relation to their dimensions,
number of heating elements, and burner power. There is also a significant range of cone sizes
produced by manufacturers and food service operators. Matching the size of cone to the cooking
capacity of the broiler being used should help to optimize cooking performance. Food service
facilities should also identify the appropriate size of cone to use in order to avoid excessive
amounts of leftover food and therefore reduce reliance on cooling and storage procedures at the
end of the day/ shift.
3.8.2
Secondary Cook Step
a.
Portions sliced from a donair cone should undergo a secondary cooking step designed
to achieve a temperature of 710C (1600F) in the case of beef, lamb, and pork
containing products or 740C (1650F) in the case of chicken containing products. The
establishment operator should have a process in place to verify the effectiveness of the
secondary cooking step, including the use of a suitable thermometer to ensure that the
target temperatures are being reached on a consistent basis.
b.
This requirement does not apply to donair cones that have been fully cooked by a
recognized method before slicing. A recognized method is one that is consistent with
guidelines or standards established by the Department, and would involve verifying
that the required internal temperature at the centre of the cone has been reached.
Rationale:
The main risk identified with donair cooking and serving is that donair cones may be
insufficiently cooked prior to consumption (i.e., the cooking process is not adequate to destroy
pathogens). The need for precautionary measures, such as internal temperature monitoring, will
ensure that only fully-cooked donair meat is served to the consumer. Though food service
operators would not knowingly serve undercooked product, they may unknowingly do so (e.g.,
raw inner meats torn off during slicing, slicing too soon or too deeply into uncooked layers), or
serve product that has been contaminated by raw juices that have migrated from the inner (raw)
portion of the cone.
49
3.8.3
Cooling Methods
a.
Food service operators must demonstrate that the cooling method and equipment being
used at their establishment are capable of lowering a left-over, intact cone from a
temperature of 600C to 200C (1400F to 700F) within 2 hours after removal from the heat
source (broiler) and then from 200C to 40C (700F to 400F) within an additional 4 hours.
As the cone has not been fully cooked it should be treated as raw and not stored
with ready-to-eat products.
b.
If an adequate cooling method for the whole donair cone cannot be demonstrated by
the establishment, one of the following procedures should be followed:
i. At the end of the day the cooking and slicing process should continue for the
remaining partially cooked donair cone until the entire cone is sliced. Prior
to storage, all portions removed are to undergo a secondary cooking step
designed to achieve a temperature of 710C (1600F) in the case of beef, lamb,
and pork containing donairs or 740C (1650F) in the case of chickencontaining donairs; or
ii. In some instances an operator may have a large cone remaining at the end of
the day which may take a long time to cook and slice. The remaining partially
cooked donair cone should be sliced until the frozen core of the cone is
reached. The slices should undergo a secondary cooking step before storage.
If
the centre of the cone has thawed, the entire cone should be
cooked and sliced. The remaining (frozen) core of the cone should be refrozen immediately for use the following day.
Operators using option (ii) should be aware that partially cooked or raw portions of
meat nearer the frozen core of the donair cone will require longer secondary cooking
times than those used for slices taken from the outer surface of a cooking cone.
Operators utilizing this option should take extra care to ensure that the secondary
cooking process for these slices consistently achieves 710C (1600F) for beef, lamb, and
pork containing donairs, and 740C (1650F) for chicken-containing donairs.
Rationale:
It is common for some food service operators to have partially cooked donair cones remaining
on the broiler when the facility is prepared to close for the day. The practice of overnight
freezing or refrigerating whole donair cones may lead to ineffective cooling and, therefore
unacceptable growth of bacteria. Commercial refrigeration equipment is designed to keep foods
cold, rather than cool large masses of hot food. Reducing the volume of each portion of food
being cooled speeds up the cooling process. The practice of slicing the cone into smaller pieces
before cooling will limit the growth of bacteria during overnight storage.
50
4.1
Maintenance and Sanitation
A food premises shall have effective systems in place to:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
ensure adequate and appropriate maintenance and cleaning of the facilities and
equipment;
control pests;
remove wastes; and
monitor and record the effectiveness of maintenance and sanitation procedures.
Rationale
Buildings, materials, utensils, and all equipment in a food premises, including wastewater and
refuse collection systems, all present a potential source of contamination of food and food
products. These areas must be kept clean, free of pests, and maintained in good order.
Equipment, materials and utensils that come into contact with foods, especially raw products
(fish, meat, vegetables, and poultry) are generally considered to be contaminated by
microorganisms. These microorganisms could contaminate other products. For this reason, it is
necessary to have well established programs in place to ensure that physical structures,
including equipment and utensils, are maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. In order to
achieve thorough sanitation, equipment may require frequent dismantling, cleaning, and
sanitizing to prevent microbiological proliferation.
4.2
Equipment
4.1.1
Location
a.
Equipment used in a food premises must be located so that it:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
b.
is not exposed to any sources of contamination unrelated to the normal
operations of the food premises;
may be maintained, cleaned and sanitized;
may be inspected;
may be properly vented when required; and
functions in accordance with its intended use.
Equipment used in processing, handling, and storage of foods (including single-service
and single-use articles) should not be located in staff locker rooms, toilet rooms,
garbage storage rooms, mechanical rooms, under sewer or water lines not shielded to
intercept leakage/condensate, under open stairwells, or any area where the equipment
may become contaminated.
51
Rationale
Equipment used in a food premises must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition to minimize the
risk of contamination of food by equipment surfaces. When considering the location of
equipment, several factors should be taken into account, including ease of cleaning, the intended
use of equipment, and contamination prevention of equipment. Special care should be taken in
the placement of food equipment which will be used to process, handle, or store food. Such
equipment must not be located in areas where it may become contaminated, since the surfaces of
the equipment will be coming in direct contact with food.
4.1.2
Fixed Equipment
Equipment that is fixed (i.e., not easily moved) should be either:
i.
ii.
4.1.3
sealed to adjoining walls, floors, and equipment; or
spaced in such a manner to allow for cleaning under and around equipment.
Design
a.
Equipment and utensils must be designed and constructed to be durable and to retain
their characteristic qualities under normal use and conditions.
b.
If applicable, food service equipment and utensils should comply with international
sanitation standards such as those administered by third parties such as NSF
International (NSFI) and Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada (ULC).
Rationale
The food contact surfaces on equipment must be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition to
prevent contamination of food. Therefore, these surfaces must be designed so that they are
smooth, non-absorbent and easily cleanable to eliminate harbourage for microorganisms and
other contaminants.
4.1.4
Food Contact Surfaces
Food contact surfaces of equipment must be:
i.
ii.
iii.
made of materials that are corrosion resistant;
made of materials that do not pass on colours, odours or tastes to food and do not allow
migration of unsafe substances into food;
smooth and non-absorbent;
52
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
free from breaks, cracks, open seams, chips, pits and similar imperfections, should these
be shown to impede effective cleaning and sanitizing;
free from sharp internal angles, corners and crevices;
finished to have smooth welds and joints; and
accessible for cleaning and inspection (by disassembly, if necessary).
Rationale
Furthermore, food contact surfaces must not introduce substances into food, which are harmful
or change food characteristics. Examples of surfaces which can be of concern include copper
(due to copper migration into acidic foods or beverages), cast iron (due to heavy metals
migration into the food), lead glazed utensils, and galvanized metal.
4.1.5
Use of Wooden Food Contact Surfaces
a.
Wood is not recommended for cutting, especially meat and poultry.
b.
Wood is not normally acceptable as a food contact surface, except that hard maple or
an equivalently hard, close-grained wood may be used for:
i.
ii.
c.
cutting boards, cutting blocks, bakers' tables, and utensils such as rolling pins,
doughnut dowels, salad bowls, and chopsticks; and
wooden paddles, which are used in confectionery operations for pressure
scraping kettles when manually preparing confections at a temperature of
1100C (2300 F) or above.
Whole, uncut, raw fruit and vegetables and nuts in the shell may be kept in the wooden
shipping containers in which they were received until these foods are used.
Rationale
The limited acceptance of wood as a food contact surface is determined by the nature of the food
and the type of wood used. Moist foods may cause the wood surface to deteriorate and the
surface may become difficult to clean. In addition, wood that is treated with preservatives may
lead to illness due to the migration of the preservative chemicals in the wood, into the food.
Therefore, only specific preservatives are allowed.
4.1.6
Non-Food Contact Surfaces
In order to minimize the likelihood of food contamination, non-food contact surfaces of food
equipment must be:
i.
free from unnecessary ledges, projections and crevices; and
53
ii.
4.1.7
designed and constructed to allow easy cleaning and to facilitate maintenance.
Clean In Place Equipment (CIP)
Equipment that is intended to be "Cleaned In Place (CIP)" should be designed and constructed so
that:
a.
Cleaning and sanitizing solutions circulate through a fixed system and contact all
interior food contact surfaces.
b.
The system is self-draining or capable of being completely drained of cleaning and
sanitizing solutions.
c.
There are inspection access points to ensure all interior food contact surfaces
throughout the fixed system are being effectively cleaned.
Rationale
The interior food contact surfaces of CIP equipment must be cleaned and sanitized to prevent
contamination of food passing through the equipment. The equipment design should allow for
interior surfaces to be inspected verifying that these surfaces are clean.
4.1.8
a.
Filters and Grease Extraction Equipment
Filters or other grease extracting equipment must be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
designed to be readily removable for cleaning and replacement if not designed
to be cleaned in place;
cleaned regularly;
approved by the regulatory authority having jurisdiction; and
be made of metal or other approved substances.
b.
Exhaust ventilation hood systems in food preparation and ware washing areas,
including components such as hoods, fans, guards, and ducting must be designed to
prevent grease or condensation from draining or dripping onto food, food contact
surfaces, equipment, utensils, linens, single-service, and single-use articles.
c.
Ventilation hood systems and devices must be sufficient in number and capacity to
prevent grease or condensation from collecting on walls and ceilings.
Equipment that produces grease or steam must be properly located under exhaust
ventilation hood systems.
54
If deemed necessary by the regulatory agency having authority (i.e., Fire Marshall,
Building Inspector) exhaust ventilation hood systems must be equipped with fire
suppression devices.
Rationale
Dripping grease can contaminate food being prepared on the cooking surface below. Grease
build-up in food preparation areas can lead to pest infestation and contamination. Both the
National Building Code and the National Fire Prevention Act 96 deal with ventilation and
grease extraction in commercial premises.
4.1.9
Maintenance
Equipment shall be maintained in good repair, so that it functions in accordance with its intended
use.
4.1.10 Maintenance of Cutting Surfaces
Surfaces such as cutting blocks and boards that are subject to scratching and scoring must be
resurfaced if they can no longer be effectively cleaned and sanitized, or discarded if they are not
capable of being resurfaced.
Rationale
Inadequately maintained equipment could result in food becoming contaminated (e.g., chipped
or cracked food contact surfaces).
4.1.11 Heating and Cooling Equipment
a.
Equipment used to cook, heat treat, cool, store, or freeze potentially hazardous food
must be designed and operated to achieve the required food temperatures as described
in Section 3.3 of this Code.
b.
Equipment in the food premises must be sufficient in capacity to maintain all
potentially hazardous food at the temperatures specified in Section 3.3 of this Code.
c.
Heating and cooling equipment that impacts on food safety must be equipped with
devices to monitor and control temperatures.
d.
Temperature measuring devices should be easily readable and accurate to 10C (20F) in
the operating range, and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure correct functioning.
Calibration logs should be maintained for each piece of equipment, and records of
55
corrective action taken as required.
Rationale
Maintaining all potentially hazardous foods at the required temperatures is an essential
component of keeping food free from spoilage and disease-causing microorganisms. Equipment
used to store potentially hazardous foods at safe temperatures should have the capacity to raise
or lower the temperature of the food to safe levels as rapidly as possible.
4.1.12 Glass Temperature Monitoring Equipment
Food temperature measuring devices should not have sensors or stems constructed of glass
unless they are encased in a shatterproof sleeve.
Rationale
Temperature measuring equipment that has a glass stem should be encased in a shatterproof
sleeve to prevent the contamination of food in the event that the device breaks.
4.1.13 Containers for Waste and Inedible Substances
Containers for waste, by-products, and inedible substances should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
specifically and properly labelled to identify the contents;
leak-proof;
constructed of an impervious material which is easy to clean or disposable;
covered; and
securely closable, if appropriate.
Storage sheds or bins located outside must be vermin and insect proof, and be located as
to not cause a nuisance.
Rationale
To prevent foods from becoming contaminated, wastes, by-products and inedible substances
should be stored in containers clearly identified to prevent these substances from being
mistakenly used as food. The container should be easy to clean to prevent the build-up of
contaminants, and should be covered and capable of being securely closed (if appropriate) to
minimize objectionable odours and discourage pests such as insects, rodents and birds.
56
4.2
Cleaning and Sanitation
4.2.1
Written Sanitation Program
Food premises shall have a written sanitation program in place to monitor and control all
elements in Section 4.0 of this Code, which generally must:
a.
Outline the parameters to be controlled in the food premises to ensure safety of the
food product.
b.
Include sanitation procedures for equipment, utensils or refrigeration units that impact
on food safety, which must specify:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
areas, items of equipment, and utensils to be cleaned;
the designated food handler(s) responsible for the cleaning and sanitizing;
the chemicals and/or cleaning products (including concentrations) and process
to be used;
the procedures used;
the frequency of cleaning and sanitizing; and
inspection and monitoring records.
c.
Document that the sanitation program is monitored and its effectiveness verified.
d.
Reflect the level of risk of the food products as determined by the management plan
required in Section 3.0 of this Code.
Rationale
The requirement for a written sanitation program is very similar to the requirement, in Section
3.1.3 of this Code, for management principles to control food hazards. The objective of the
sanitation program is to provide reasonable assurance that the food premises is being cleaned
and sanitized effectively and consistently.
While the detailed program described above may do this, the costs of such a detailed program in
necessary time and resources should be balanced by the benefits. Particularly in a smaller food
premises with simple operations, the cleaning and sanitation may be made up of only a few
relatively simple steps. The complexity of the required written sanitation program should reflect
the complexity of the cleaning and sanitizing of the operation.
4.2.2
Cleaning Frequency: Non-Food Contact Surfaces
Non-food contact surfaces of equipment must be cleaned at a frequency that will prevent the
accumulation of dust, dirt, food residue and other debris.
57
4.2.3
a.
Cleaning Frequency: Food Contact Surfaces
Food contact surfaces of cooking equipment must be cleaned and sanitized at a
frequency that prevents the accumulation of grease deposits and other residues.
i.
b.
4.2.4
Some types of equipment, which do not pose a public health risk (e.g., pizza
pans, baking dishes), need not be cleaned at the frequency outlined in (a).
Equipment that is used continuously at room temperature for the handling of
potentially hazardous foods should be cleaned and sanitized at least every four hours
(e.g., deli meat slicers).
Cleaning of Reusable Food Equipment
Cleaning processes for all reusable food equipment and utensils in the food premises must
effectively remove food residues and dirt from the item.
Cleaning should involve:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
removing gross debris from surfaces;
applying a detergent solution to loosen soil and bacterial film and hold them in solution
and suspension;
rinsing with water to remove loosened soil and residues of detergent;
sanitizing (see Section 4.2.5 of this Code); or
alternative methods of cleaning that effectively remove residues and debris.
Rationale
Reusable food equipment must be effectively cleaned to remove gross debris, soil, and bacterial
film to prevent the contamination of food which may come into contact with the equipment.
4.2.5
a.
Sanitizing of Equipment Food Contact Surfaces and Utensils
Once cleaned in the manner described above, the food contact surfaces of equipment
and utensils should then be sanitized by heat or chemical means.
i.
ii.
Surfaces are effectively sanitized when, after application on a cleaned surface,
a 5 log reduction of disease-causing microorganisms is achieved.
The standard sanitizing methods contained in this Code (see Sections 4.2.6,
4.2.7, and 4.2.8) have been shown to attain this standard; alternative methods
will be evaluated against achievement of this standard.
58
b.
The food contact surfaces must be handled in a sanitary manner after sanitizing, and
air-dried, if possible.
c.
If applicable, they must be stored in a place and manner that prevents contamination.
d.
Wiping cloths used for wiping food spills on food contact surfaces:
i.
ii.
should not be used for other purposes such a for wiping raw animal foods; and
should be routinely cleaned and when not in use kept in separate sanitizing
solution which is maintained at a concentration as specified in Section 4.2.6.
Rationale
Utensils should be allowed to air dry after sanitizing; towel-drying or storage on a dirty surface
or where splashing may occur may lead to re-contamination of the cleaned and sanitized
surface.
4.2.6
Mechanical Dishwashing: Chemical Sanitizing Methods
Mechanical dishwashing machines employing chemical agents to sanitize tableware, utensils,
and equipment should apply the sanitizing solution as specified below:
a.
A chlorine solution should have a minimum temperature based on the concentration
and pH of the solution as listed in Table 1.
Table 1 :
Allowable minimum chlorine concentrations and temperature combinations for
mechanical dishwashing:
b.
Minimum
Concentration
mg/l (ppm)
Minimum
Temperature
pH 8 to 10
Minimum Temperature
pH 8 or less
25
490C (1200F)
490C (1200F)
50
380C (1000F)
240C (750F)
100
130C (550F)
130C (550F)
An iodine solution used as a sanitizing agent should have:
i.
ii.
iii.
a minimum temperature of 240C (750F);
a pH of 5.0 or less, unless the manufacturer's specifications state otherwise; and
a concentration between 12.5 mg/L and 25 mg/L.
59
c.
A quaternary ammonium compound solution used as a sanitizing agent should:
i.
ii.
iii.
have a minimum temperature of 240C (750F);
have a concentration of 200 mg/L or as indicated in the manufacturer's
specifications; and
be used only in water with a hardness concentration of less than 500 mg/L.
d.
Other chemical solutions may be used as sanitizers if the regulatory authority is
satisfied that such chemicals can safely achieve the desired results.
e.
The operator should check the temperatures of the water and the sanitizer
concentration frequently to ensure that effective results are occurring. Sanitizer test
kits/ strips should be obtained from the sanitizer/ detergent supplier and stored for
convenient use near the dishwasher.
f.
Operators should keep records of sanitizer concentrations and temperatures.
Rationale
The sanitizer concentrations, pH, and temperatures referenced here are contained in the US
FDA Food Code and have been evaluated for effective results against the standard swab test
referenced in Section 4.2.5 of this Code.
4.2.7
a.
Mechanical Dishwashing: Hot Water Sanitizing Methods
The temperature of the wash solution in spray type ware washers that use hot water to
sanitize may not be less than:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
b.
Mechanical dishwashing machines employing water temperature as a means of
sanitizing tableware, utensils and equipment should ensure that dishware is exposed to
clean rinse water for at least 10 seconds, at a temperature (measured at the manifold)
of:
i.
ii.
c.
for a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 740C (1650F);
for a stationary rack, dual temperature machine, 660C (1510F);
for a single tank, conveyor, dual temperature machine, 710C (1600F); and
for multi-tank, conveyor, multi-temperature machine, 660C (1510F).
740C (1650F) for single tank, stationary rack, single temperature machines; or
820C (1790F) for all other machines.
Other water temperatures and contact times may be acceptable to achieve the
necessary reduction in bacterial levels. Surfaces are effectively sanitized when, after
application on a cleaned surface, a 5 log reduction of disease-causing microorganisms
is achieved. Methods other than those described in (a) and (b) above must be approved
by the Department of Agriculture.
60
Rationale
The temperatures referenced here are contained in the US FDA Food Code and have been
evaluated for effective results against the standard swab test referenced in Section 4.2.5 of this
Code.
4.2.8
a.
Manual Dishwashing
Where manual dishwashing procedures are used for cleaning and sanitizing utensils,
the manual dishwashing equipment should include:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
b.
at least a double sink of non-corrodible metal or other approved material of
sufficient size to permit complete immersion of the utensils to be sanitized;
draining boards (if they are to be provided) of non-corrodible and nonabsorbent material;
a thermometer capable of measuring temperatures between 00C and 1000C (320
F and 2120F); and
testing equipment to determine the strength of any chemical used as the
sanitizing agent.
When relying on the manual method for washing and sanitizing dishware and
serving/dining utensils, the operator should use a two or three compartment sink and
the following procedure. Dishes should be:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
thoroughly scraped clean of gross foreign materials and food scraps;
washed in the first compartment sink in detergent solution capable of removing
grease and food particles, and that is maintained at a temperature of not less
than 450C (1130F);
rinsed in the second compartment sink in clean potable water maintained at a
temperature of not less than 45oC (1130 F); and
sanitized in the third compartment sink by immersion, in one of the following
methods:
o
o
o
o
o
for at least 2 minutes in water at a temperature of at least 770C (1710F);
for at least 2 minutes in a chlorine solution of 100 - 200 mg/L available
chlorine at a temperature of not less than 450C (1130F);
for at least 2 minutes in a solution containing a quaternary ammonium
compound having a strength of not higher than 200 mg/L consistent
with efficacy at a temperature of not less than 450C (1130F);
for at least 2 minutes in a solution containing not higher than 25 mg/L
iodine at a temperature of not less than 450C (1130F); or
in accordance with any other method that has been scientifically proven
to produce results equivalent to those achieved by use of any of the
61
methods in this sub-clause (iv).
NOTE: The solutions used for the methods outlined in (iv) should be
completely changed often enough to prevent utensils from becoming
soiled and to maintain the bactericidal effect of the solution.
air-dried, if possible.
o
v.
c.
The operator should test the temperatures of the water and the sanitizer concentration
frequently to ensure that effective sanitizing is occurring.
Rationale
Once food equipment has been cleaned, food contact surfaces and utensils should be sanitized
through mechanical or manual methods, to reduce the risk of food becoming contaminated with
microorganisms when coming in contact with the utensil or surface. The approved sanitizing
method or agent should be applied at the proper concentration and/or temperature and for the
appropriate length of time to achieve the necessary reduction in bacterial levels.
Regular monitoring of temperatures and/or sanitizer concentrations is necessary to ensure
effective results, since sanitizer effectiveness decreases with time and temperature. Sanitizers
should not be used at concentrations well above the recommended levels. While using the
manual method it is extremely important that the food equipment be properly rinsed after the
wash step but before the sanitize step takes place. Unless soap residue and food particles are
removed the sanitizer will not be effective.
To assist food workers using chemical methods of sanitizing, a posted sign can be useful. A
sample is printed below.
62
63
4.3
Pest Management
4.3.1
Immediate Corrective Action
a.
The presence of birds, rodents, or insects must be treated immediately by inspecting
and discarding any adulterated food.
b.
Inspection must be followed by:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
removing dirt, soil or filth if present;
verifying cleaning procedures;
cleaning and sanitizing surfaces contaminated by pests;
destroying and sealing off nests and breeding places; and
protecting the food premises against the entrance of pests.
Rationale
A pest infestation in a food premises can result in food becoming contaminated by foreign matter
(e.g., insect parts, rodent hair, etc.), pest urine/ faeces, and/ or pathogenic microbes carried by
pests. Food premises which have become infested must be thoroughly cleaned to eliminate pest
harbourage. Surfaces contaminated by pests must be cleaned and sanitized to destroy microbial
pathogens which might be present and which might contaminate foods.
4.3.2
Eradication of Pests: Methods
a.
Pest control devices must be designed and located to effectively control the presence
of pests in a food premises.
b.
Insect control devices that are used to electrocute flying insects should be located at
least 2 metres (6 feet) away from any food handling area. They should be equipped
with an escape resistant trap, and they should be emptied and cleaned regularly.
c.
Insect control devices designed to trap insects by adhesive or devices that may expel
the insects or insect fragments must be installed so that the dead insects or insect
fragments cannot fall onto exposed food or equipment. To be effective, insect traps
(sticky tapes or similar devices) should be changed regularly or when loaded with
insects.
d.
Eradication of uncontrolled pests should be carried out by a certified pest control
operator utilizing approved chemicals and methods. Integrated pest management
approaches utilizing the minimal amount of chemical control possible are highly
encouraged.
64
Rationale
The presence of pests increases the likelihood of contamination of food. Properly designed and
installed pest control devices can be used as a means of eliminating pests.
Food premises operators should rely on certified pest control services and emphasize integrated
pest management practices that minimize the reliance on chemical controls, in order to minimize
the risk of contamination of food products by pesticides.
4.3.3
Use of Rodenticides/ Insecticides
a.
Rodenticides and insecticides used in a food premises must be used in such a manner
as to prevent the contamination of food. It is preferable that they not be applied while
food production and preparation are taking place. Where, due to the nature of the food
operation (e.g., 24-hour restaurants) this cannot be adhered to, reliance on traps and
non-spray solutions should be emphasized and open food must be protected from
contamination.
b.
All material used should be identified on a list of approved rodenticides and
insecticides which confirms that these may be used in a commercial premises.
4.3.4
Documentation
a.
Pest control measures shall be documented. Owners/ operators should take note of
information the pest control technician may require for follow-up.
b.
Documentation should include:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
the name of the pest control operator responsible;
the chemicals used for pest control (with the concentrations applied);
the procedures and methods used;
the frequency of application; and
records of inspection and monitoring.
Rationale
To ensure that pests are properly, effectively, and safely eradicated, pest control measures
requiring the application of chemicals in food premises should be carried out only by individuals
certified in pest control operations. Since chemicals used to eradicate pests may also be toxic to
humans, food should be adequately protected while these substances are being applied in the food
premises. To verify that appropriate pest control measures have been undertaken, all aspects
of pest control operations must be documented and monitored.
65
4.4
Use of Chemicals and Toxic Substances
a.
Chemicals, cleaning and disinfecting compounds and other toxic substances kept in a
food premises must be:
i.
ii.
b.
used in compliance with the manufacturer's labelling, directions or
specifications; and
used only in such a manner and under such conditions that the substances do
not contaminate food, food equipment and food contact surfaces, or cause a
health hazard.
The chemicals, cleaning and disinfecting compounds and other toxic substances must
be stored:
i.
ii.
in a compartment separate from food, food contact surfaces and utensils; and
in clearly labelled, non-food containers, which are (where appropriate)
lockable.
Rationale
Special care should be taken when handling dangerous or toxic substances in food premises.
They should be used according to manufacturer's specifications, not only to ensure they function
as intended, but also to ensure worker safety.
To prevent the adulteration of food products, dangerous or toxic chemicals must be kept in
containers which are clearly labelled to identify the contents, and stored in areas separate from
food and food equipment. Locked containers or storage facilities can prevent malicious or
accidental contamination of food.
4.5
Waste Management
4.5.1
Waste, Refuse and Recyclable Materials
Waste, refuse and recyclable materials should be removed from the food premises at a frequency
that will minimize the development of objectionable odours and other conditions that attract or
harbour insects and rodents. Generally, these materials should be removed daily.
a. Requirements for the separation of various solid waste streams as outlined by municipal
regulations and bylaws must be followed.
b. Canada’s Health of Animals Regulations do not allow the feeding of wastes of edible residual
material (ERM) containing meat or meat products to swine, poultry or cattle. ERM is edible
material that remains after, or is not used in, the processing, manufacturing, preparing,
66
serving, or sale of food. This includes “plate waste” or similar wastes generated by food
service facilities.
c. Processors manufacturing products that do not contain meats i.e. bakery, potato chips may
divert ERM to waste feeding for swine, poultry, or cattle providing the manufacturer
registers the material as a feed ingredient under the Feeds Act.
d. Degraded oils from deep fat fryers or other similar equipment must be stored disposed of in
an acceptable manner. Disposing of used oils in municipal or private sewage disposal
systems is prohibited.
4.5.2
Sewage and Other Liquid Waste
Sewage waste systems and other non-sewage liquid conveyance and disposal systems should be
flushed clean on a periodic basis or as required by approval documents.
4.6
General Maintenance Schedules
Surfaces, such as floors, walls, and ceilings should be cleaned at a frequency that will prevent the
accumulation of dust, dirt, food residue, and other debris.
5.1
Hygiene and Communicable Diseases
All operators and personnel of food premises are responsible for ensuring that food products are
handled (throughout storage, preparation, display, service, and presentation) in a manner which
prevents contamination.
5.2
Training
Food handlers should be trained in safe food handling techniques which are appropriate for their
level of responsibility. Review sessions should be done on a regular basis.
67
5.3
Clothing
All personnel in food preparation areas shall wear clean outer garments. If food preparation
causes the clothing to become soiled, the clothing should be changed as necessary.
5.4
Aprons
Food handlers that change work stations from raw food preparation activities to ready-to-eat
activities should remove any soiled clothing, such as aprons.
5.5
Hair
Personnel involved in food preparation and any person entering a food preparation or storage
area should wear hair restraints such as clean hats or a hair nets. Where required, beards should
be completely covered with beard nets.
5.6
5.7
Personal Habits
a.
Food handlers who engage in activities which may result in the transfer of bacteria
(e.g., sneezing, touching hair/ eyes/ mouth/ nose, etc.), must wash their hands before
resuming food service activities and food handling.
b.
Food handlers shall not smoke while handling food, utensils, or food surfaces.
c.
Smoking within food service establishments is prohibited except in designated areas
and under conditions as noted in the NS Smoke-Free Places Act and Regulations 2002.
Handwashing
Food handlers are to thoroughly wash their hands before commencing work. In particular, food
handlers shall wash their hands each time after using the washroom, when returning from a
break, after snacking or eating, after handling raw food products, or after any other activity or
instance where hands may become soiled.
a. A thorough hand washing includes vigorously rubbing together the surfaces of the
lathered hands and exposed arms for at least 20 seconds followed by a thorough rinsing
with warm clean water.
68
b. In addition to the procedure outlined in (a), it is recommended that a nail brush and soap
be used to clean underneath the nails, followed by a thorough rinsing with warm clean
water. Particular attention should be given to the tips of the fingers and between all
fingers. This is particularly important after using the washroom.
5.8
Personal Effects and Jewelry
Food handlers should remove their watches, rings, and jewelry before working with food. Loose
fitting jewelry (e.g., earrings) which could become detached and contaminate food should not be
worn while engaging in food handling activities.
5.9
Illness and Disease
a.
The operator of a food premises shall ensure that all personnel who come into contact
with food are free from any symptomatic signs of illness or communicable disease that
is transmissible through food. If a food handler is suffering from an illness or
communicable disease, managers are responsible for ensuring appropriate action is
taken, which may include excluding that individual from activities that involve the
handling of food or food contact surfaces, or authorizing the individual's absence from
the work place.
b.
Personnel suffering from a communicable disease have a responsibility to advise
management. Personnel suffering from a temporary illness must obtain medical leave
or, depending on the nature of the illness, be reassigned to work that will not result in
contamination of the food.
c.
When returning to work after medical leave or illness, food handlers should have
written clearance from the treating physician, particularly in the case of diagnosed,
reportable communicable diseases.
d.
Generally, a person is considered to be suffering from a communicable disease in the
following situations:
i.
ii.
iii.
they have one or more of the symptoms associated with an acute gastrointestinal illness, such as diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice and/ or sore throat
with fever;
they are suspected of causing or being exposed to a confirmed communicable
disease outbreak; or
they live in the same household as a person who is diagnosed with a
communicable disease.
69
Rationale
Several types of communicable diseases can be transmitted through the ingestion of food. The
role of the food handler is critical in eliminating the opportunity for pathogenic microorganisms
to be transferred to the food.
Food handlers can carry communicable diseases, especially if they themselves have been infected
or are in contact with persons or objects that may carry the harmful microbes of those diseases.
Consequently, food handlers may spread these diseases throughout the food premises if they
do not maintain an appropriate level of personal hygiene and avoid habits that may
contaminate food.
5.10
a.
Injuries
Personnel with open wounds should not participate in food handling activities. This
applies to persons who have a lesion containing pus that is open and draining, and is:
i.
ii.
iii.
b.
5.11
on the hands or wrists, unless an impermeable cover protects the lesion and a
single-use glove is worn over the affected area;
on the arms, unless the lesion is protected by an impermeable cover; or
on other parts of the body, unless the lesion is covered with a dry, tight-fitting
bandage.
Personnel with cuts and/or bandages should wear vinyl gloves or refrain from handling
foods entirely.
Visitors
Any visitor to a food preparation area should observe the same hygiene and dress code as food
handlers, including handwashing and hair restraint policies. They should refrain from coming
into proximity or contact with food and food equipment, and from any activities that could
contaminate food.
6.1
Education and Training
6.2
Educational Programs
Those persons engaged in food operations who come directly into contact with food should be
trained in food hygiene to a level appropriate to the operations they are to perform.
70
6.3
Mandatory Educational Programs
a.
Mandatory educational programs are required for managers/ supervisors of food
establishments, or a designated person in their absence.
b.
The programs should be based on the level of food safety risk in the food premises.
The criteria to measure the level of risk can include items such as:
i.
ii.
iii.
c.
the number of meals served daily,
the type of clientele (i.e., higher risk populations), and
the type of menu items or the complexity of the processes used (i.e., preparedfrom-scratch menu items versus preparation or reheating of pre-packaged,
ready-to-eat foods).
These programs should be described relative to the expected learning outcomes and
certification standards. (See Section 6.5.1 in this Code.)
Rationale
Food safety is dependent on many factors. Safety depends not only on the environment but also
on the ways in which food is handled by employees. Training is fundamentally important as food
handlers are constantly making decisions and taking actions which could affect food safety.
One of the best assurances that an operator of a food premises can have that the food or food
product will be safe, is the employment of personnel that have the necessary knowledge and
skills to process and handle products in a safe and sanitary manner. Moreover, all personnel
should be familiar with their role and responsibility in protecting food from contamination.
6.4
Training Programs
6.3.1
Responsibility
a.
The Department of Agriculture will only recognize food safety training programs that
have been authorized by a National Food Safety Training Certification Group or
otherwise deemed acceptable by the Department.
b.
The certification of the trainer delivering food safety training programs is the
responsibility of the regulatory authority.
c.
The training of operators or food handlers can be undertaken by a third party who is
authorized by the regulatory agency.
71
Rationale
All regulatory authorities provide education programs, since they play an important role in
achieving compliance with food safety regulations. In Nova Scotia, food handler education
programs are mandatory as outlined in Section 6.2 of the Code. The Department also offers
educational programs to the general public or not-for-profit organizations involved with limited
food preparation.
6.3.2
Food Handler Training
Every operator of a food establishment must ensure that food handlers have the necessary
knowledge and skills to enable them to handle food hygienically.
6.3.3
Continuing Educational Training
Every food premise should promote food safety education through ongoing training, which may
include additional classroom instruction, on-the-job training, food safety certification from a
recognized program of instruction, seminars, and employee meetings.
Rationale
Studies have demonstrated that the quality of food handling techniques improves for the six
months following a formalized training program. However, after that period, food handling
practices can deteriorate to pre-education levels.
It is recognized that inspections by a regulatory authority or by an internal inspecting body can
help alleviate this problem by re-emphasizing the principles of good food handling practices.
Food safety is too important to rely solely upon monitoring and auditing conducted by the
regulatory authority. The food industry should take responsibility for adequately preparing food
handlers to fulfill their job requirements and to significantly contribute to a safe food industry.
6.3.4
Time Expiration of Training Programs
Certification resulting from training courses should be valid for five years after completion of the
course. After five years, operators or food handlers should be required to participate in a
refresher or updating course.
72
6.4
Components of Food Safety Training Courses
6.4.1
Certification Programs
Courses should meet the learning outcomes described in Section 6.5 of this Code, and
participants should be able to demonstrate competencies through standard testing recognized by
the regulatory authority having jurisdiction.
6.4.2 Course Content
The course content of food safety educational programs may be generic to all aspects of food safety.
Given the diversity of the food industry and the influx of new technologies and food science
discoveries, consideration should be given to educational courses that are tailor made to address
specific food venues or operations such as those developed by foodservice chain operations.
Rationale
When course content is specific, both educators and trainers can ensure that the principles
taught are relevant to the people in attendance and the work they do. This approach increases
knowledge retention and program success rates.
6.4.3
Course Selection
Educational programs may originate from institutions, industry, or regulatory authorities,
provided these programs satisfy the requirements of the learning criteria and are recognized by
the regulatory authority.
Rationale
While a wide variety of training programs are appropriate, the objective is to harmonize
standards, so that training and certification are applicable across jurisdictions.
6.5
Learning Outcomes
6.5.1
Operators
The person in charge shall hold a certificate confirming his/ her successful completion of a
training program which verifies his/her knowledge of the following aspects of food safety:
a.
The relationship between the prevention of food borne disease and the personal
hygiene of a food employee.
b.
The responsibility of the person in charge for preventing the transmission of foodborne
73
disease by a food employee who has a disease or medical condition that may cause
foodborne disease.
c.
The importance of time/ temperature in maintaining the safety of potentially hazardous
food and preventing foodborne illness.
d.
The hazards involved in the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs,
fish, fruits, and vegetables.
e.
The required times/ temperatures for safely cooking potentially hazardous food, such
as meats, poultry, eggs, and fish.
f.
The required times/ temperatures for safe refrigerated storage, hot holding, cooling,
cooking, and reheating of potentially hazardous food.
g.
The relationship between the prevention of foodborne illness and the management and
control of the following:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
h.
cross-contamination;
hand contact with ready-to-eat foods;
handwashing and personal hygiene; and
the importance of maintaining a clean food premises which is in a state of good
repair.
The relationship between food safety and the provision of equipment that is:
i.
ii.
sufficient in number and capacity; and
properly designed, constructed, located, installed, operated, maintained, and
cleaned.
i.
Correct procedures for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and food contact surfaces of
equipment.
j.
Knowledge of the source(s) of water used in the establishment, and measures taken to
assure that it remains protected from contamination, such as providing protection from
backflow and precluding the creation of cross-connections.
k.
The correct handling of poisonous or toxic materials and allergens in the food
premises and the procedures necessary to assure that such materials are safely stored,
dispensed, used, and disposed of according to law.
l.
Knowledge of critical control points in the operation, and ability to explain steps taken
to assure that the points are controlled in accordance with the requirements of the
regulatory authority.
m.
The responsibilities, rights, and authorities assigned by local law or the appropriate
code to the food employee, person in charge, and regulatory authority.
74
6.5.2
a.
Food Handlers
Educational courses and programs provided to food handlers should be designed to
effectively meet or exceed the learning objectives outlined below, including
knowledge of:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
b.
the food handler's role and responsibility in protecting food from contamination
and deterioration;
the main properties of common foods;
the main types of microorganisms, their sources, the physical and chemical
factors that affect their growth, reproduction, activity and death, and the
difference between harmful and harmless microorganisms;
the common causes of foodborne illnesses, their characteristics, and the
procedures and practices that will prevent and control their incidence;
the basic elements of HACCP; and
the allergenic properties of certain foods.
Operators should maintain records indicating which employees have taken courses, the
dates, and any relevant additional information.
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Potentially Hazardous Foods
Appendix B: Time/Temperature Control -- Raw Animal Foods
Appendix C: Typical Food Allergies
I.
Strategies to Prevent Adverse Reactions
II.
Prevention Notes for Consumers and Restaurant Staff
Appendix D: Recall Manuals
Appendix E: Selected Information Sources
75
APPENDIX A:
Potentially Hazardous Foods
While many foods can be hazardous under specific circumstances, this review is provided to
supply background information about the factors involved those foods which have the greatest
potential to be hazardous.
Potentially hazardous foods are generally defined as foods in a form or state which are capable of
supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious and/ or toxigenic microorganisms.
Such foods include, but are not limited to, milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish,
shellfish (edible mollusca and crustaceans), or any other ingredients.
Other foods that fall into the "potentially hazardous" category include certain baked goods (e.g.,
cream filled products), cooked vegetables, and cut/ sliced fruit and vegetables. Not included are
foods which have a pH level of 4.6 or below and foods which have a water activity of 0.85 or
less.
This section is adapted from the Guidelines for Production, Distribution, Retailing and Use of
Refrigerated Pre-packaged Foods with Extended Shelf Life. Guideline No. 7, Health Protection
Branch, Health Canada, March 1, 1992.
1.
What are potentially hazardous foods?
The term "potentially hazardous" is used in a microbiological, not a chemical, or toxicological
sense. It should be understood that the term "potentially hazardous" refers largely to foods that
are prone to temperature abuse (i.e., they may be kept at temperatures warmer than 40C (400F)
when they must be refrigerated, or kept at temperatures cooler than 600C (1400F) when they must
be kept hot).
Exposure to temperature abuse could occur due to inadvertent delays during preparation by the
food processor (or food service operator), during transportation, marketing, or handling by the
consumer.
2.
What is pH and water activity?
The pH of a food product is a scale by which the acidity and/or alkalinity of a product is
measured. By definition it denotes the hydrogen ion concentration or, more simply, the acidity
level of the product. The lower the pH number, the more acid is in the product. pH values range
from 0 to 14. Potentially hazardous foods have a pH greater than 4.6 which favours growth of
food poisoning organisms.
The term water activity, denoted by the symbol Aw, refers to the amount of water in the food
product that is available to the growing microorganism. Water activity has been defined as the
ratio of the water vapour pressure of the food and the vapour pressure of pure water at the same
76
temperature. For this reason, water activity values range from 0 to 1 but never exceed 1.
Potentially hazardous foods have water activity values favouring growth of food poisoning
organisms (i.e., greater than 0.85).
3.
What are the general characteristics of these potentially hazardous food products?
Potentially hazardous foods are low-acid (pH > 4.6) and high water activity (Aw > 0.85) foods,
and include those products marketed as ready-to-eat refrigerated foods. Such products generally
do not receive sufficient heat to kill spore-forming microorganisms (e.g., Clostridium botulinum
and others) which may be present in the raw ingredients.
Typical packaging may include loose wrapping on supporting paperboard or Styrofoam trays,
hermetically sealed containers such as glass jars, metal cans, plastic containers, plastic pouches
or paperboard containers. The shelf-life of some of these products may have been extended by
vacuum or modified atmosphere-packaging. Typically, these products are retailed in the
refrigerated dairy, meat, or delicatessen sections of food stores.
4.
Are all raw foods potentially hazardous?
No. Raw foods are considered potentially hazardous if they support the growth of food poisoning
organisms. Foodborne illness is generally caused by infectious and/or toxigenic microorganisms.
Raw meats, raw fish, raw eggs, and unpasteurized milk must be cooked, pasteurized or otherwise
prepared in order to kill any food poisoning and spoilage bacteria they may carry.
5.
What kinds of foods are excluded from the potentially hazardous foods category?
Foods which do not fall into the potentially hazardous category are:
a. Frozen foods which remain frozen up to the time of cooking.
b. Commercially canned, shelf stable foods which are safely stored in their original intact
containers at normal room temperatures (e.g., canned pâté, canned corned beef or canned
vegetables). Once the container has been opened, these foods are potentially hazardous
because all contaminating bacteria can grow rapidly in the absence of competing
microflora.
c. Acidified foods (pH < 4.6) such as sauerkraut, pickles, etc., and/ or low-moisture (Aw <
0.85) foods such as peanuts and cereals.
6.
Why are bean sprouts and raw mushrooms considered potentially hazardous?
On a few occasions, bean sprouts have been responsible for food poisoning, as a result of
contamination with and subsequent growth of Salmonella, Bacillus cereus or Klebsiella.
Clostridium botulinum spores occur frequently in cultivated mushrooms. In laboratory
experiments, it has been shown that Clostridium botulinum, if present, will grow and produce
toxin in raw mushrooms which have been tightly wrapped and stored at room temperatures. It
77
has therefore been recommended that raw mushrooms be refrigerated, and that packaging allow
free exchange of air.
7.
What are the concerns about extending the shelf-life of modified atmospherepackaged or vacuum-packaged and sous-vide type foods?
The concerns are that pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes, if
present, may grow during the extended shelf-life of these refrigerated products. These and other
microorganisms are capable of growth and/or toxin production under the conditions created by
the new technologies without any obvious signs of spoilage in the food itself.
Several measures can be taken to minimize these concerns. The items should not be used after the
date (shelf life code) provided by the manufacturer; they should be continually stored at 40C or
less before being used, and any items remaining in a partially used container should be treated
like any other potentially hazardous food (i.e., generally the products should be used within 10
days after opening).
8.
What factors in general control the growth of food poisoning organisms in food?
Factors controlling the growth of disease-causing microorganisms include: water activity (Aw),
acidity (pH), temperature, time, the surrounding atmosphere, and other factors. An understanding
of these factors is important in food processing as this knowledge can be used to assure food
safety.
Potentially hazardous foods require careful monitoring of temperatures. In many cases,
adherence to proper temperature control – either refrigeration at 40C (400F) or less, or heating
above 600C (1400F) – is the sole means of preventing, or at least limiting, the growth of food
poisoning microorganisms.
9.
Why is the water activity of a food product so important?
Water activity is important in foods because it is a major factor in determining whether a
microorganism will or will not grow and reproduce. Different microorganisms have
characteristic minimum, optimum, and maximum water activity values permitting growth. One
can prevent growth of pathogens by adjusting the water activity of a given food to a value below
the minimum water activity permitting growth.
Supplementary Note
High risk foods are non-acidic or slightly acidic, moist, and protein-rich foods. These food
products require a number of complex control steps to ensure product safety (i.e., proper
temperature requirements at various stages of preparation). These foods include meat and meat
products, milk and milk products, eggs, poultry, fish and shellfish, as well as gravies, puddings,
custards, cream-filled baked goods, potato and other starch-based salads, cream-based soups,
and sauces.
78
Medium risk foods are food products which require a certain step to minimize potential health
risk (i.e., proper cold holding techniques). These foods include packaged vegetables, cooked
cereals, soft cheeses, fresh, uncooked meat, and meat sandwich spreads.
Low risk foods are food products which do not pose significant health hazards by themselves.
These products include ready-to-eat foods, peanut butter, bread, crackers, butter, dry cereals,
and all foods in cans and flexible pouches until the cans or pouches are opened.
79
APPENDIX B:
Time/Temperature Control - Raw Animal Foods
Pathogen reduction involves a time-temperature relationship. The following minimum guidelines
should be adhered to. Other time-temperature regimens might be suitable, if it can be
demonstrated, with scientific data, that the regimen results in a safe food.
NOTE: To kill microorganisms, food should be held at a sufficient temperature for a sufficient
time. Cooking is a scheduled process in which each of a series of continuous temperature
combinations can be equally effective. For example, in cooking a beef roast, the microbial
lethality achieved at 121 minutes after it has reached 540C (1300F) is the same lethality attained
as if it were cooked for 3 minutes after it has reached 630C (1450F).
Critical Step
Refrigeration
Freezing:
Parasite Reduction:
Raw Fish
Cooking:
Food mixtures containing poultry, eggs, meat,
fish, or other potentially hazardous foods
Pork, Lamb, Veal, Beef (whole cuts)
Rare Roast Beef
Poultry
Stuffing in Poultry
Ground Meat1
Eggs2
Fish3
Reheating
Holding Hot Foods
Cooling
1.
2.
3.
Temperature Requirement
40C (400F) or less
minus 180C (00F) or less
minus 200C (minus 40F) for 7 days or,
minus 350C (minus 310F) in a blast freezer for
15 hours
Internal Temperature of 740C (1650F) for at
least 10 minutes
Internal temperature of 700C (1580F)
Internal temperature of 630C (1450F) for 3
minutes
Internal temperature of 850C (1850F) for 15
seconds
740C (1650F)
700C (1580F)
630C (1450F) for 15 seconds
700C (1580F)
740C (1650F)
600C (1400F)
600C (1400F) to 200C (680F) within 2 hours
200C (680F) to 40C (400F) within 4 hours
This category includes chopped, ground, flaked, or minced, beef, pork, or fish.
Customers requiring a runny yolk egg must recognize that pathogens are not destroyed
until yolk has completely coagulated.
Customers preferring to consume raw marinated fish and raw molluscan shellfish should
be aware that it should be cooked to assure safety.
80
APPENDIX C:
I.
Typical Food Allergies
Strategies to Prevent Adverse Reactions
To help the industry deal with typical food allergies, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency
circulated a memo to food manufacturers, importers, distributors and their associations, on
March 31, 1998. The text of that memo is reprinted below, with permission.
Labelling of Foods Causing Allergies and Sensitivities
Numerous incidents of allergic and sensitivity reactions to both domestic and imported foods are
being reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The purpose of this letter is to
inform you of the potentially serious consequences of such adverse reactions and to highlight the
importance of developing strategies to prevent their occurrence.
A variety of foods contain ingredients that can cause adverse reactions in hypersensitive
individuals. Most adverse food reactions are caused by the following foods and their derivatives:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
peanuts
tree nuts (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts [filberts], macadamia nuts, pecans,
pine nuts, pistachios, walnuts)
sesame seeds
milk
eggs
fish, crustaceans (e.g. crab, crayfish, lobster, shrimp) and shellfish (e.g. clams, mussels,
oysters, scallops)
soy
wheat
sulphites
If these foods or their derivatives are not labelled or are incorrectly labelled, or if inadvertent
carry-over occurs during manufacturing, the results can be serious and sometimes fatal.
Although this list represents the foods causing the most common and serious reactions, a wide
variety of other foods have been reported to cause adverse reactions in certain individuals. The
Canadian Food and Drug Regulations require almost all pre-packaged foods to have a complete
list of ingredients and components (ingredients of ingredients).
It is your responsibility to ensure that the foods you manufacture, import, sell or distribute are safe
and meet the labelling requirements of this legislation. CFIA urges you to ensure that the above
foods are included in the ingredient list on your labels when present as ingredients or
components. To further assist consumers in making safe food choices, the CFIA encourages you
to identify the plant source of ingredients, such as hydrolysed plant proteins, starches, modified
starches and lecithin (e.g., hydrolysed soy protein, wheat starch, modified wheat starch, and soy
lecithin).
81
The CFIA recognizes the efforts by many members of the food industry to improve the accuracy
of ingredient declarations and to implement controls to reduce carry-over of ingredients. As food
safety is paramount to consumers, the food industry, and government, the CFIA also urges you
to develop strategies, such as an allergen prevention plan, to manage the risks associated
with those foods known to cause severe adverse reactions.
Part of your strategy should include a thorough evaluation of your manufacturing and ingredient
control procedures. It is also your responsibility to ensure that all pre-packaged foods you import
are fully and correctly labelled, and preferably are sourced from suppliers having an allergy
prevention plan in place.
Undeclared ingredients may occur in foods as a result of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
carry-over of product through incomplete cleaning of food contact surfaces and utensils,
sometimes because of poor equipment design;
inappropriate use of rework containing allergenic ingredients;
ingredient changes, substitutions or additions not reflected on the label;
incorrect labels put onto products;
incorrect or incomplete list of ingredients;
unknown ingredients in raw materials;
misrepresentation of common names to describe products/ingredients (e.g. mandelonas
for reformed, re-flavoured peanut); and/ or
labelling exemptions under the Food and Drug Regulations.
The CFIA recognizes that despite all possible precautions, the presence of allergenic ingredients
cannot always be avoided. In order to assist consumers with food sensitivities, the Canadian
government, in consultation with industry and allergy groups, developed a policy on
precautionary labelling, e.g., "may contain peanuts". This policy allows the food industry to
voluntarily label products which may inadvertently contain substances capable of causing severe
adverse reactions. Precautionary labelling, however, must be truthful and must not be used in lieu
of adherence to good manufacturing practices.
Accurate and complete labelling of foods will reduce the need for costly food recalls. It will also
assist Canadians with severe food sensitivities to make safe choices from a wider variety of
foods in the marketplace.
For further information, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency office nearest you.
II.
Prevention Notes for Consumers and Restaurant Staff
Should consumers who have food allergies and/ or who are the parents of children who have
food allergies wish to purchase products that are not supplier packaged and/ or do not carry an
ingredient list, it is suggested that they request a copy of the ingredient list or recipe. Should they
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have any doubts, it is recommended that they review the ingredient list or recipe with their
physician prior to purchasing such a product.
Restaurants can obtain a Restaurant Warning Card which is designed to alert restaurant staff to
consumer allergies. It is intended to help to minimize misunderstandings and mistakes. To
receive more information about this, please contact:
National Allergy/ Asthma Information Association
295 The West Mall, Suite 118
Toronto, Ontario M9C 4Z4
Tel: (416) 621-4571
Fax: (416) 621-5034
Tollfree: (800) 611-7011
Website: http://aaia.ca/en/index.htm
Canadian Restaurant and Food Services Association
316 Bloor Street West
Toronto, Ontario M5S 1W5
Tel: (416) 923-8416
Fax: (613) 923-1450
Tollfree: (800) 387-5649
Website: http://www.crfa.ca
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APPENDIX D:
Recall Manuals
1.
Food Recall and Emergency Response – Recall Plans
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (National Headquarters)
1400 Merivale Road
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0Y9
Tel: 1-800-442-2342
Fax: (613) 228-6601
Website:
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/recarapp/recarappe.shtml#rp
2.
Supply Chain Food Product Recall Manual
Food and Consumer Products Manufacturers of Canada
885 Don Mills Road, Suite 301
Don Mills, Ontario M3C 1V9
Tel: (416) 510-8024
Fax: (416) 510-8043
Email: info@fcpmc.com
Website: www.fcpmc.com
3.
Successfully Managing Product Recalls/ Withdrawals
Grocery Manufacturers of America
1350 I (Eye) Street, NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC
20005
Tel: (202) 639-5900
Fax: (202) 639-5932
Email: info@gmaonline.org
Website: www.gmabrands.com
4.
Recall Programs – Dairy Establishments (Chapter 10, Prerequisite Programs)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
1400 Merivale Road
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0Y9
Tel: 1-800-442-2342
Fax: (613) 228-6601
Website:
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/dailai/man/estman/contentse.shtml
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APPENDIX E:
1.
Selected Information Sources
Compositional Standards for Meat Products
The Meat Inspection Regulations of the Canada Meat Inspection Act contain precise information
concerning compositional standards for meat products ranging from ground meat and sausage to
stews, dinners and shortening - see Schedule 1.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
1400 Merivale Road
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225-2342
Fax: (613) 228-6601
Toll-free: 1-800-442-2342
Website: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/meavia/meaviae.shtml
2.
Food Safety Enhancement Program – HACCP Generic Models
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
1400 Merivale Road
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Tel: (613) 225-2342
Fax: (613) 228-6601
Toll-free: 1-800-442-2342
Website: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/polstrat/haccp/modele.shtml
3.
Managing Food Safety: A Manual for the Voluntary Use of HACCP Principles for
Operators of Foodservice and Retail Establishments (2006)
U. S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
10903 New Hampshire Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002
Tollfree: (888) INFO-FDA (463-6332)
Website:
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/RetailFoodProtection/ManagingFoodSafetyHACC
PPrinciples/Operators/default.htm
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4.
NSF Standards
NSF International maintains a comprehensive listing of standards for food equipment, from food
carts to dispensing freezers, dinnerware to dishwashers. Publications are for sale on their
website.
NSF International
P.O. Box 130140
Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0140
Tel: 734-769-8010
Toll free: 888-NSF-9000
Fax: 734-669-0196
Email: info@nsf.org
Website: www.nsf.com
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