Quality levels of organic coffee seedlings in black and white

 Vol. 10(9), pp. 886-894, 26 February, 2015
DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2014.9393
Article Number: 7EDED5550996
ISSN 1991-637X
Copyright ©2015
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR
African Journal of Agricultural
Research
Full Length Research Paper
Quality levels of organic coffee seedlings in black and
white nonwoven fabric (NWF) containers of
various sizes
Carla Liegi Lonardoni Gomes de Oliveira* and Édison Miglioranza
Graduate Program in Agronomy, State University of Londrina, CCA/PGAGRO, Highway Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445,
Km 380, Campus, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
Received 1 December, 2014; Accepted 17 February, 2015
The introduction of organic production in coffee growing has demanded an increase for information on
seedling production with standard of quality. Hence, the purpose of the present work was to evaluate
how the amount of organic substrate in black and white nonwoven fabric (NWF) bags in four different
sizes influences the quality index of Coffea arabica L. seedling produced in an organic system. The
quality parameters evaluated were leaf area; number of leaves; plant height; collar diameter; dry matter
of leaves, stalk, root and total. Whereas the parameters of quantity were the relation between shoot dry
matter and root dry matter (RSR); the relation between shoot height and stem diameter (RHD) and the
Dickson Quality Index (DQI). Seedlings produced in 1200 mL black containers presented the best
results in most of the evaluated parameters. Seedlings produced in 410 mL containers presented
Dickson Quality Index of 0.2, which is the index described by other authors as the adequate standard of
quality for seedlings.
Key words: Coffea arabica L., Dickson quality index, Agropote®, organic composite.
INTRODUCTION
Brazil is the greatest grower, exporter and the second
greatest consumer of coffee in the world (USDA, 2014).
Coffee growing in Brazil has economic and social
relevance. In 2013, Brazil exported around 32 million
bags of coffee for U$5.27 billion, generating an estimate
number of eight million jobs. Coffee cultivated area in the
country is 2.311 million hectares with 6.69 billion coffee
plants (CONAB, 2014; BRASIL, 2014).
In this context, coffee production without the use of
chemical pesticides and fertilizers in Brazil – that is
organic coffee – (Figueira and Lima-Filho, 2012) has
increased each year (Della-Lucia et al., 2007), and it
continues with high levels of increase (Caixeta and
Pedini, 2002).
In order for the production chain of organic coffee to
work properly, it is necessary that crops be healthy and
economically viable. One of the basic items for the
success of coffee crops is the use of good quality
seedlings (Favarin et al., 2003). Villar-Salvador et al.
(2004) state that the influence of this quality is
*Corresponding author. E-mail: carlaliegi@hotmail.com/emiglior@uel.br
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 International License
de Oliveira and Miglioranza
determined by the growth rate of a specific genotype,
which determines how adapted it is to the environmental
conditions, at transplanting and stress resistance.
During production of organic seedlings, Ministry of
Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA) Normative
Instruction n. 007, of 17 May 1999, and Law 10831/03
determine that seeds and seedlings must come from
organic systems and, in the absence of those, the grower
may use products existing in the market as long as they
have been previously evaluated by the certifying
institution and do not include genetically modified
organisms – GMO/transgenics (BRASIL, 1999; 2003).
However, due to the shortage of seeds and registered
nurseries, the normative instruction still allows for the use
of seeds and seedlings obtained from conventional
growing methods (Moura et al., 2007), as long as the
period necessary for the conversion of conventional to
organic crop be waited. This way, the introduction of
organic production in coffee growing demanded an
increase for information on seedling production.
There are various factors that may influence the initial
development of coffee growing in the field, such as the
seedlings production process and, specially, the
container and substrate used (Vallone et al., 2009).
Amongst the containers used in conventional coffee
seedling production in Brazil, one can first list black
polyethylene bags and black hard plastic tubes (Vallone
et al., 2010). Both types of containers present a few
disadvantages, such as the contamination of the
environment by the plastic bags when they are not
properly discarded and, in the case of the tubes, the need
for returning them to the nursery personnel.
Recently, growers started using bags made of white
nonwoven fabric (NWF) called Agropote® as an
alternative for the production of seedlings with standard
of quality for they present favorable morphological and
physiological characteristics responsible for the fast
growth of seedlings.
The NWF is a material made from polypropylene and
viscose based fabric (standard NBR-13370) (ABINT,
2013). Amongst its main characteristics are the facts that
it is non-toxic and semipermeable, besides being
classified as a biodegradable product due to be made
with polypropylene in which the additive was added
oxybiodegradable PDQ-H®, which degrade in a much
shorter time than ordinary plastics. Its degradation time in
the environment runs from six months to one year
(ABINT, 2013).
Previous studies have been published by Matiello et al.
(2008) and evaluated the formation and direct planting of
coffee seedlings in NWF containers. Nasser et al. (2010)
studied the development and quality of coffee seedlings
(Coffea arabica L.) produced in conventional plastic bacs,
tubes and NWF bags.
Regarding the substrate, the most common mixture in
the production of coffee seedlings using conventional
polyethylene bags was formed by soil (70%) and cattle
manure (30%), enriched with chemical fertilizers (Dias et
887
al., 2009). Cunha et al. (2006) state that the substrate
used must contain biological, physical, and chemical
characteristics that fulfill the plant’s needs. Besides, the
individual cost of the seedling must be considered in
relation to its final cost (Dias et al., 2009).
Figueira and Lima-Filho (2012) state that, in organic
agriculture, chemical products are substituted by
byproducts that come from recycled vegetal and animal
organic materials. Hence, the use of cattle, sheep and
poultry manure has the potential for composing
substrates to be used when preparing coffee seedlings
for they are one of the most common sources of essential
micro and macronutrients needed for the good
development of seedlings. In one of the first technical
standards adopted for coffee growing, Souza (1996)
already stated that the substrate used in the formation of
seedlings should be composed of soil (50%) and manure
(50%).
For the organic production of coffee seedlings, the
requirements for organic growing imposed by MAPA
must be fulfilled. Besides, preventive measures regarding
the construction and maintenance of the nurseries must
be adopted so that one can get healthy and good quality
seedlings (Moura et al., 2005).
The objective of the present work was to evaluate how
the volume of organic substrate in white and black NWF
bags influence the development and quality index of C.
arabica L. seedlings produced in an organic system.
The Dickson Quality Index (DQI) is considered a good
indicator amongst the parameters of quality of seedlings,
especially when it takes into account the robustness and
the balance in the distribution of phytomass in the
seedlings. Therefore, the DQI results are important
parameters to be used when evaluating the quality of
seedlings (Fonseca et al., 2002).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out from December 2012 to June 2013,
in the seedling production sector in the Agrarian Sciences Center at
the State University of Londrina (UEL), in Londrina-PR. The region
is located at 23° 23’S latitude, 51° 11’W longitude and altitude of
566 m. According to the classification of Köppen, the environment
is humid subtropical (Cfa).
Pre-sowing was carried out in December 2012 with seedlings of
cultivar ‘Iapar 98’ at the cotyledonary-leaf stage, known as ‘orelhade-onça’ (ear of Brazilian jaguar), which had been sown in sand
beds. The seedlings were placed in raised beds in a nursery
covered with shade cloths with shade percentage of 50% and
equipped with an automated irrigation system of micro sprinklers of
flow rate of 75 L h-1 that were run six times a day for 10 min.
The containers were made with NWF of two colors: 1) black and
2) white; of four different sizes: T1) 8 cm x 15 cm (220 mL); T2) 10
cm x 18 cm (410 mL); T3) 12 cm x 21 cm (750 mL) and T4) 14 cm x
24 cm (1200 mL). The substrate used was a mixture of 50% soil a+
50% organic composite (mixture of cattle, poultry and sheep
manure), both taken from the Farm School of UEL. Soil testing is
shown in Table 1.
The experimental design was completely randomized in a
factorial scheme with four sizes of NWF bags in two colors, with 4
repetitions and 30 plants per plot. Seedlings growth and quality
888
Afr. J. Agric. Res.
Table 1. Soil analysis and the organic compound. Londrina, 2013.
Parameter
P (mg/dm-3)
K (cmolc dm-3)
Ca (cmolc dm-3)
-3
Mg (cmolc dm )
Ca/Mg (cmolc dm-3)
Al (cmolc dm-3)
C (g/kg-1)
OM (g/kg-1)
-3
BS (cmolc dm )
CEC (cmolc dm-3)
PBS %
pH CaCl
pH SMP
pH
Soil
1,87
0,09
3,80
1,32
5,12
0,05
0,54
0,94
5,21
9,82
53,05
5,00
4,61
5,30
Organic composite
847,85
10,98
16,49
4,48
20,97
0
5,22
9,00
31,95
34,49
92,63
7,10
2,54
7,10
OM = organic matter; BS = base saturation; CEC = cation exchange capacity; V =
percentage base saturation; pH SMP = potential acidity.
TDM(g)
DQI =
HGT(cm) + ShootDM(g)
DIAM(mm)
RootDM(g)
Figure 1. Dickson Quality Index Formula (DQI).
evaluations started 94 days after transplanting (DAT). The following
characteristics were determined: leaf area (LA) expressed in cm2,
estimated with leaf area measurer LI-COR model LI 3000; b)
number of leaves (NL); c) shoot height (HGT), expressed in cm,
measured with a millimetric ruler, from the collar to the terminal bud;
d) collar diameter (DIAM), expressed in mm, measured using a 0.01
mm precision digital caliper; e) leaves dry mass (LDM), stalk dry
mass (SDM) and roots dry mass (RDM), expressed in grams,
determined inside a greenhouse with forced air circulation at 75°C;
f) total dry mass (TDM), expressed in grams, obtained by the sum
of the dry masses of leaves, stalk and root; g) relation between
shoot dry matter and root dry matter (RSR); h) relation between
shoot height and stem diameter (RHD); i) Dickson Quality Index
(DQI)( Figure 1), obtained through the formula of Figure 2 (Dickson
et al., 1960).
The data was subject to analysis of variance by the F test and
the averages were compared by the Tukey range test at 5%
probability. For evaluated characteristics in each category of
container color and volume, polynomial models were tested for the
effect of time in days after transplanting (DAT) by means of
regression analysis. The criteria for the choice of the model were
the relevance by the F test at 5% probability of error that presented
higher value of the coefficient of determination (R2).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the analysis of variance regarding the
evaluated parameters can be found in Table 2, where the
relevant effect of volume and color of the containers can
be observed in most of the evaluated characteristics.
Only RHD did not present relevant effect for the size of
the NWF seedling heat mat, whereas for the color of the
mats, parameters HGT, DIAM, RootDM, RHD and DQI
did not present relevant effect. Hence, every other
characteristic presented relevant interaction with the
sizes and colors at 5% probability level by F test. Marana
et al. (2008) when evaluating quality and growth index for
coffee seedling in tubes also observed that RSR did not
present relevant interaction amongst the studied
substrates and doses of slow release fertilizers.
Table 3 presents the averages of the variables
analyzed in seedlings considering the volume of the
containers by the Tukey range test. Amongst all the
evaluated characteristics, only RHD did not show
relevant difference for the different volumes of NWF
containers. The same was observed by Pereira et al.
(2013) when RHD did not preset statistical difference on
its numbers. The foresaid authors reached the average
value of 7.36 for RHD and characterize such value as
excessive growth for seedlings of coffee canephora in
height. In the present work, RHD values vary from 6.21 to
6.46.
As a result, while observing the time in T, considering
all variables in relation to the volumes of the containers,
test F was carried out to determine the level of the
equations. A positive linear effect was observed for
characteristics DIAM and LDM, whereas for all other
characteristics, the effect was quadratic positive (Figure 2
and Table 2).
The 1200 mL container presented the highest statistical
difference for all characteristics, and only with DIAM,
RoodDM and RSR there were no differences considering
volumes 750 and 1200 mL (Tables 3, 4 and Figure 2).
de Oliveira and Miglioranza
889
Figure 2. Variation of HGT (a), DIAM (b), NL(c), LA (d), LDM (e), SDM
(f), RootDM (g), TDM (h) and DQI (i) of C. arabica L. seedlings
considering the volumes of the NWF containers in the seven
conducted evaluations. Key:
220 mL 410 mL 750 mL 1200
mL, HGT: height; DIAM: collar diameter; NL: number of leaves; LA:
leaf area; LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry mass; RDM: roots dry
mass; TDM: total dry mass; DQI: Dickson Quality Index.
In general, all parameters showed an increase in values
with the increase of the volume of the containers, the
color being irrelevant. Vallone et al. (2010) evaluated
different containers and substrates in the production of
coffee seedlings and concluded that larger containers
provide for more developed seedlings.
Gülcü et al. (2010) evaluated morphological
characteristics, such as height, collar diameter, fresh and
dry weight of shoot and root, and the shoot/root relations
in seedlings of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. in polyethylene
containers with variation in length and substrate
composition. The best results indicated that the greater
the length of the container, the better the quality of the
seedlings. Therefore, the authors concluded that the best
seedlings were produces in 11 cm x 30 cm containers,
and the best substrate was formed by forest soil.
The quality of the seedlings is necessary for the
success of cultures that demand a growing stage in
nurseries. The influence of such quality has been studied
considering the performance of such seedlings in the field
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Afr. J. Agric. Res.
Table 2. Analysis of variance of variables HGT, DIAM, NL, LA, LDM, SDM, RootDM, TDM, RSR, RHD e DQI of C. arabica L.
seedlings in NWF seedling heat mats (Londrina, 2013).
F test
V
C
T
VxC
VxT
CxT
DF
3
1
7
3
21
7
HGT (cm)
**
NR
(R²=0.95)
NR
**
NR
DIAM (mm)
**
NR
(R²=0.92)
NR
**
*
NL
**
**
(R²=0.98)
NR
**
NR
LA (cm²)
**
**
(R²=0.98)
NR
**
NR
Teste F
V
C
T
VxC
VxT
CxT
GL
3
1
7
3
21
7
SDM (g)
**
**
(R²=0.98)
NR
**
*
RootDM (g)
**
NR
(R²=0.96)
NR
**
NR
TDM (g)
**
**
(R²=0.96)
NR
**
*
RSR
**
**
(R²=0.56)
NR
NR
NR
LDM (g)
**
**
(R²=0.95)
NR
**
*
HAD
NR
NR
(R²=0.38)
NR
NR
NR
DQI
**
NR
(R²=0.96)
NR
**
NR
** (p<0.01) e * (p<0.05), NR = non-relevant, V: volume; C: color; T: time; DF: degree of freedom; HGT: height; DIAM: collar diameter;
NL: number of leaves; LA: leaf area; LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry mass; RDM: roots dry mass; TDM: total dry mass; RSR:
relation between shoot dry matter and root dry matter; RHD: relation between shoot height and stem diameter; DQI: Dickson Quality
Index.
Table 3. Averages of variables HGT, DIAM, NL, LA, LDM, SDM, RootDM, TDM, RSR, RHD e DQI of C.
arabica L. seedlings in NWF seedling heat mats (Londrina, 2013).
Averages
8 × 15 cm
10 × 18 cm
12 × 21 cm
14 × 24 cm
Black
White
CV (%)
Averages
8 × 15 cm
10 × 18 cm
12 × 21 cm
14 × 24 cm
Black
White
CV (%)
HGT (cm)
16.02d
18.11c
19.96b
a
21.00
18.93a
18.63a
6.70
SDM (g)
0.30d
0.41c
0.54b
0.64a
a
0.49
0.46b
18.64
DIAM (mm)
2.59c
2.90b
3.14a
3.25a
3.00a
2.94a
8.01
RootDM (g)
0.35c
0.43b
0.52a
0.54a
0.45a
0.47a
21.11
NL
10.30d
11.33c
12.40b
12.95a
11.90a
11.59b
7.82
TDM (g)
1.50d
2.12c
2.95b
3.39a
2.59a
2.39b
18.30
LA (cm²)
178.10d
246.48c
349.60b
404.44a
301.62a
287.69b
10.54
RSR
3.43c
4.17b
4.90a
5.39a
4.81a
4.14b
27.55
LDM (g)
0.84d
1.27c
1.88b
2.20a
1.64a
1.45b
20.60
RHD
6.21a
6.24a
6.34a
6.46a
6.29a
6.33a
15.63
DQI
0.15d
0.20c
0.26b
0.28a
0.23a
0.22a
19.49
Averages followed by different letters in the same column differ from one another being relevant by the Tukey range
test at 5%. CV: coefficient of variation; HGT: height; DIAM: collar diameter; NL: number of leaves; LA: leaf area;
LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry mass; RDM: roots dry mass; TDM: total dry mass; RSR: relation between shoot
dry matter and root dry matter; RHD: relation between shoot height and stem diameter; DQI: Dickson Quality Index.
and is a consequence of the time the seedlings have
lived from nursery until planting (Del Campo; Navarro;
Ceacero, 2010). In this context, the concept of ‘target
seedlings’, which present a minimum standard of quality
in order to be planted in the field, has been discussed
and applied to the eucalyptus culture (Close, 2012).
There is lack of studies applied to coffee seedlings, even
though coffee growing presents high importance due to
the fact it is a perennial culture.
In order to evaluate the DQI considering the size of the
de Oliveira and Miglioranza
891
Table 4. Equations of regression of the parameters studied in the quality of C. arabica L. seedlings in
NWF seedling heat mats of different volumes, in relation to the evaluation periods (Londrina, 2013).
Parameter
HGT
Volume (mL)
220
410
750
1200
Equations of regression
y1 = -0.0004x2 + 0.1803x + 9.3349
y2 = -0.0004x2 + 0.1654x + 9.7113
y3 = -0.0004x2 + 0.1329x + 10.433
y4 = -5E-05x2 + 0.0455x + 12.505
R²
0.9755
0.9705
0.8881
0.876
DIAM
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 0.0106x + 2.2978
y2 = 0.0092x + 2.317
y3 = 0.0061x + 2.3509
y4 = 0.0042x + 2.2152
0.9605
0.9089
0.8637
0.7839
NL
220
410
750
y1 = -2E-05x2 + 0.052x + 8.4309
y2 = -7E-05x2 + 0.051x + 8.5003
y3 = -0.0001x2 + 0.0517x + 7.8512
0.9523
0.9889
0.9753
1200
220
410
750
1200
y4 = -1E-04x2 + 0.0445x + 7.3416
y1 = -0.0134x2 + 4.9702x + 98.383
y2 = -0.0057x2 + 3.2068x + 121.03
y3 = -0.002x2 + 1.4271x + 138.7
2
y4 = -0.0023x + 1.1507x + 99.392
0.8981
0.9732
0.987
0.859
0.9446
LDM
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 0.0197x + 0.4046
y2 = 0.0182x + 0.2437
y3 = 0.0082x + 0.5378
y4 = 0.0054x + 0.3607
0.946
0.9584
0.929
0.8767
SDM
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 3E-05x2 + 0.0011x + 0.18
y2 = 2E-05x2 + 0.0019x + 0.1251
y3 = 6E-06x2 + 0.0027x + 0.1178
y4 = 8E-06x2 + 0.001x + 0.1329
0.9763
0.9803
0.9607
0.9158
RootDM
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 3E-05x2 + 0.0007x + 0.1785
y2 = 3E-05x2 - 0.0003x + 0.231
2
y3 = 1E-05x + 0.0011x + 0.1839
y4 = 2E-05x2 - 1E-17x + 0.19
0.9598
0.9585
0.9416
0.9333
TDM
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 0.0001x + 0.0124x + 1.1044
y2 = 9E-05x2 + 0.0133x + 0.8074
y3 = -3E-06x2 + 0.0164x + 0.6816
y4= 2E-05x2 + 0.0068x + 0.67
0.9623
0.9708
0.9491
0.9027
DQI
220
410
750
1200
y1 = 2E-05x2 - 0.0002x + 0.1419
y2 = 1E-05x2 + 6E-05x + 0.1141
y3 = 4E-06x2 + 0.0009x + 0.0877
2
y4 = 4E-06x + 0.0003x + 0.0862
0.9636
0.9611
0.9193
0.9028
LA
2
HGT: height; DIAM: collar diameter; NL: number of leaves; LA: leaf area; LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry
mass; RDM: roots dry mass; TDM: total dry mass; DQI: Dickson Quality Index.
NWF bags, the volume of 1200 mL, with greater
dimensions (14 cm x 24 cm), was the one that presented
the best result in relation to the index of value 0.28 (Table
3, Table 4 and Figure 2). Hunt (1990) recommended as
DQI standard the minimum value of 0.20. Hence, it is
interesting observing the seedlings that reached such
value, with a substrate value of 410 mL.
Marana et al. (2008) reached DQI valuest hat vary
892
Afr. J. Agric. Res.
Figure 3. Variation of DIAM (a), LDM (b), SDM (c) and TDM (d) of C. arabica L. seedlings
considering the colors of the NWF containers in the seven conducted evaluations. Key:
Black
White, DIAM: collar diameter; LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry mass; TDM: total dry mass.
between 0.04 and 0.21 for coffee seedlings produced in
tubes. Silva et al. (2012) when evaluating Eucalyptus
urophylla × Eucaliptus grandis seedlings in relation to the
substrates at 90 days after staking reached maximum
values of DQI 0.19 with vermiculite and coconut fiber
based substrate at the same proportion (1:1).
Pereira et al. (2013), when evaluating seedlings that
came from four distinct nurseries located in the south of
the capital of the state of Espírito Santo, reached DQI
values that vary from 0.21 and 0.70. Whereas Binotto
(2007), while studying the relations between growth
variables and Dickson Quality Index in eucalyptus and
pine seedlings reached DQI values of 0.5 for E. grandis
120 days after emergence and 0.25 for Pinus elliotti 175
days after emergence.
Regarding the colors of the NWF bags in Table 3 and
Figure 3, it can be observed that black bags presented
greater relevant differences for most of the parameters.
Furuta (1960) was pioneer in studies relating the color of
the containers with seedlings development. In his study,
Flex crenata rotundifolia seedlings presented better
results in light color containers.
For the interactions between the volume and color of
the containers, none of the evaluated characteristics
presented relevant effect (Table 2). For the interaction of
the volume of the containers with the seven conducted
evaluations, only RSR and RHD were not relevant,
whereas all other characteristics presented relevant
effect, demonstrating that the time factor (DAT) imposes
differences to the growth of the plants in the different
sizes of the bags. Regarding the interaction of the color
with
the
seven
conducted
evaluations,
only
characteristics DIAM, LDM, SDM and TDM presented
relevant effect. TDM values vary from 1.50 to 3.39. While
Maranata et al. (2008) obtained values for the same
parameter between 0.16 and 1.86; one can observe the
superiority of the values obtained in seedlings produced
in NWF seedling heat mats with organic substrate.
When analyzing the behavior of the functions in Graphs
a and b in Figure 3 and Table 3, for the size of the
containers, it can be observed that points for maximum
growth were reached and correspondent to the evaluated
days, which vary from 21 cm for HGT and 3.25 mm for
DIAM. Such points did not influence the values for RHD
so no relevant difference between the sizes existed.
Binotto (2007) state that the variable height is only
efficient to indicate the quality of seedlings when it is
analyzed together with the collar of the diameter.
According to Graph b in Figure 3 and Table 5, it can be
observed that the values for diameter at 115 DAT were
de Oliveira and Miglioranza
893
Table 5. Equations of regression of the parameters studied in the quality of C. arabica L.
seedlings in NWF seedling heat mats of different colors, in relation to the evaluation
periods (Londrina, 2013).
Parameter
Color
Black
White
Equations of regression
y1 = 0.0081x + 2.277
y2 = 0.007x + 2.3098
R²
0.8838
0.9248
LDM
Black
White
y1 = 0.0145x + 0.3409
y2 = 0.0112x + 0.4398
0.9624
0.9348
SDM
Black
White
y1 = 2E-05x2 + 0.002x + 0.1212
y2 = 2E-05x2 + 0.0014x + 0.1515
0.9751
0.976
TDM
Black
White
y1 = 7E-05x2 + 0.0121x + 0.8109
y2 = 4E-05x2 + 0.0122x + 0.8262
0.9674
0.9552
DIAM
DIAM: collar diameter; LDM: leaf dry mass; SDM: stalk dry mass; TDM: total dry mass.
smaller, which can be explained due to the fact of the
evaluation of the work be carried out in the destructive
method, always evaluating different plants at each
evaluated period. Because NWF is a material of easy
degradation and presenting high porosity, at the first
evaluation carried out (94 DAT), it was observed that the
220 mL and 410 mL containers already presented
exposed small lateral roots.
At 157 DAT, black containers of all sizes presented
exposed lateral roots, whereas this fact was not observed
in white containers. In NWF 220 mL bags of both colors –
black and white – intertwined roots were present amongst
the bags. It was also observed the presence of ‘piãotorto’, or the twisting of the main root of the coffee
seedling when in contact with the bottom of the container
in 220 mL and 410 mL bags.
At 199 DAT, it was observed that lateral roods in all
sizes containers and independently of the color were very
firm, hard and intertwined amongst the bags. At 220 DAT,
only 1200 mL bags presented seedlings with the first pair
of plagiotropic branches, due to its bigger volume and
consequent providing the seedling with greater nutrient
levels for its formation, therefore resulting in greater
growth and stronger seedlings.
Due to the fact that coffee is a perennial culture, the
production of healthy seedlings, well developed and with
high standard of quality is a factor of extreme importance
for coffee growing. Therefore, in the present work, it was
observed that black 1200 mL NWF bags presented the
best results for the evaluated parameters. It is important
to highlight that coffee seedling in 410 mL containers
presented the minimum value required by the DQI for
good quality seedlings.
Conflict of Interest
The authors have not declared any conflict of interest.
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