While references are made to material specifications in Part 2 of

Rules for Building and Classing Facilities on Offshore Installations
RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING
FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS
2018
(Updated March 2018 – see next page)
American Bureau of Shipping
Incorporated by Act of Legislature of
the State of New York 1862
 2017 American Bureau of Shipping. All rights reserved.
ABS Plaza
16855 Northchase Drive
Houston, TX 77060 USA
Updates
March 2018 consolidation includes:
• January 2018 version plus Corrigenda/Editorials
R
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Rule Change Notice (2018)
The effective date of each technical change since 1993 is shown in parenthesis at the end of the
subsection/paragraph titles within the text of each Part. Unless a particular date and month are shown, the
years in parentheses refer to the following effective dates:
(2000) and after
(1999)
(1998)
(1997)
1 January 2000 (and subsequent years)
12 May 1999
13 May 1998
19 May 1997
(1996)
(1995)
(1994)
(1993)
9 May 1996
15 May 1995
9 May 1994
11 May 1993
Listing by Effective Dates of Changes from the 2017 Rules
Notice No. 1 (effective on 1 July 2017) to the 2017 Rules, which is incorporated into the 2018 Rules, is summarized
below.
EFFECTIVE DATE 1 July 2017 – shown as (1 July 2017)
(based on the contract date for new construction between builder and Owner)
Part/Para. No.
3-6/17
Title/Subject
Ventilation
Status/Remarks
To specify that manual shutdown of ventilation is to take place from
emergency control station, upon determination of a responsible
operator which system(s) to shutdown, and whether selectively or
simultaneously. (Incorporates Notice No. 1)
EFFECTIVE DATE 1 January 2018 – shown as (2018)
(based on the contract date for new construction between builder and Owner)
Title/Subject
Status/Remarks
3-8/9.3
Part/Para. No.
Fire Integrity of Bulkhead and Decks
To make Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8 of the Facilities
Rules consistent with the fire integrity requirements for Floating
Installations.
3-8/Table 9B
Fire Integrity of Decks Separating
Adjacent Spaces/Areas
To make Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8 of the Facilities
Rules consistent with the fire integrity requirements for Floating
Installations.
3-8/9.9
Helideck
To incorporate provisions for the use of aluminum helidecks.
3-8/9.11
Ventilation
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
3-8/Figure 6
(New)
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A”
Class Divisions
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
3-8/Figure 7
(New)
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B”
Class Divisions
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.9
Helideck
To incorporate provisions for the use of aluminum helidecks.
4-8/9.11.2
Air Balance Ducts
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.3
Ventilation Duct Material
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.4
Ventilation Ducts Passing Through
"A" Class Divisions
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
iii
Part/Para. No.
Title/Subject
Status/Remarks
4-8/Figure 5
(New)
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A”
Class Divisions
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.5
Ventilation of Machinery Spaces of
Category A, Galleys and Hazardous
Areas
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.6
Ventilation of Accommodation
Spaces, Service Spaces or Control
Stations
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.7
Ventilation Ducts Passing through
"B" Class Division
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/Figure 6
(New)
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B”
Class Divisions
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.8
Galley Ventilation
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.9
Main Inlets and Outlets
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
4-8/9.11.12
(Deleted)
Jumper Ducts
To make ventilation requirements consistent among the MODU
Rules, Fixed Installations in Chapter 4, Section 8, and Floating
Installations in Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Rules.
5-1/Table 1
Surveys During Construction
To be consistent with the requirements of 5-1/3.3.4ix).
A3/1.1
<No Title>
To align the requirements with ASTM F3059-15, in line with IACS,
IMO, and USCG policy.
A3/5
Fire Test Requirements
To align the requirements with ASTM F3059-15, in line with IACS,
IMO, and USCG policy.
A3/7
Structural Fire Integrity Test
Procedures
To align the requirements with ASTM F3059-15, in line with IACS,
IMO, and USCG policy.
A3/Table 1
Structural Fire Integrity Matrix
To align the requirements with ASTM F3059-15, in line with IACS,
IMO, and USCG policy.
iv
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Foreword
Foreword
These Rules contain the technical requirements and criteria employed by ABS in the review and survey of
hydrocarbon production facilities that are being considered for Classification and for maintenance of
Classification. It is applicable to Hydrocarbon Production and Processing Systems and associated utility
and safety systems located on fixed (bottom-founded) offshore structures of various types. It also applies
to systems installed on floating installations such as ships shape based FPSOs, tension leg platforms, spars,
semisubmersibles, etc.
There are differences in the practices adopted by the designers of fixed and floating installations. Some of
these differences are due to physical limitations inherent in the construction of facilities on new or
converted floating installations. Recognizing these differences, the requirements for facilities on fixed and
floating installations are specified in separate chapters. Chapter 3 covers requirements for facilities on
floating installations and Chapter 4 covers requirements for facilities on fixed installations.
Facilities designed, constructed, and installed in accordance with the requirements of these Rules on an
ABS classed fixed or floating offshore structure, under ABS review and survey, will be classed and identified
in the Record by an appropriate classification notation as defined herein.
These Rules have been written for world-wide application and as such, compliance with individual requirements
may require comprehensive data, analyses and plans to be submitted to demonstrate the adequacy of the
facility. ABS acknowledges that there is a wide range of documents that may be required for submittal to
satisfy these Rules. It is not the intention of these Rules to impose requirements or practices in addition to
those that have previously proven satisfactory in similar situations.
Design and installation requirements presented in these Rules are based on existing methodologies and
attendant safety factors that are deemed to provide an adequate level of safety. Primarily, the use of such
methods and limits in these Rules reflects what is considered to be the current state of practice in the
design and installation of offshore facilities. The application of these Rules by ABS will not seek to inhibit
the use of any technological approach that can be shown to produce an acceptable level of safety.
These Rules are applicable to the classification of facilities for which applications, or contracts for classification,
are received on or after 1 January 2018.
Changes to Conditions of Classification (1 January 2008)
For the 2008 edition, Chapter 1, “Scope and Conditions of Classification” was consolidated into a generic
booklet, entitled Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) for all units,
installations, vessels or systems in offshore service. The purpose of this consolidation was to emphasize
the common applicability of the classification requirements in “Chapter 1” to ABS-classed offshore units,
pipelines, risers, and other offshore structures, and thereby make “Conditions of Classification” more
readily a common Rule of the various ABS Rules and Guides, as appropriate.
Thus, Chapter 1 of these Rules specifies only the unique requirements applicable to facilities on offshore
installations. These supplemental requirements are always to be used with the aforementioned Rules for
Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
v
Table of Contents
RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING
FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
Scope and Conditions of Classification (Supplement to the ABS
Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and
Structures) .............................................................................................. 1
Section 1
Classification ..........................................................................2
Section 2
Application, System Classification Boundaries, Symbols
and Notations .........................................................................3
Section 3
Rules for Classification ..........................................................6
Section 4
Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify
Alternatives ............................................................................7
Section 5
Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations .......................10
[See also separately published booklet ABS Rules for Conditions of
Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1)]
CHAPTER 2
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations .................... 11
Definitions ............................................................................12
Section 2
References ...........................................................................19
Section 3
Acronyms and Abbreviations ...............................................20
Section 1
vi
CHAPTER 3
Floating Installations............................................................................ 22
Section 1
General ................................................................................31
Section 2
Design Plans and Data ........................................................33
Section 3
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ..................50
Section 4
Process Support Systems....................................................67
Section 5
Marine Support Systems......................................................75
Section 6
Electrical Systems................................................................78
Section 7
Instrumentation & Control Systems .....................................95
Section 8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety ................................104
CHAPTER 4
Fixed Installations .............................................................................. 143
Section 1
General ..............................................................................148
Section 2
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted...............................150
Section 3
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ................167
Section 4
Process and Platform Support Systems ............................168
Section 5
<Intentionally Left Blank>...................................................172
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
CHAPTER 5
Section 6
Electrical Systems.............................................................. 173
Section 7
Instrumentation & Control Systems ................................... 175
Section 8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety ................................ 176
Surveys ............................................................................................... 208
Section 1
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning ............ 210
Section 2
Surveys for Maintenance of Class ..................................... 220
Section 3
Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class .................. 223
APPENDIX 1 Plastic Pipe Installations ................................................................... 226
Section 1
Scope and Conditions of Certification................................ 230
Section 2
Design ................................................................................ 236
Section 3
Installation .......................................................................... 255
Section 4
Manufacturing .................................................................... 258
Section 5
Pipe Bonding Procedure Qualification ............................... 259
Section 6
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of
FRP Piping in Dry Condition
(For Level 1 and Level 2) ................................................... 260
Section 7
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of
Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3) ................................ 262
Section 8
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of
FRP Piping Used in Deluge System (For Level 3
Modified Test – Level 3 WD) (Adopted from USCG
PFM 1-98) .......................................................................... 265
Section 9
Tests by the Manufacturer – Flame Spread ...................... 266
Section 10
Testing on Board................................................................ 267
Annex 1
References ......................................................................... 272
APPENDIX 2 Fire Tests for Non-metallic Hoses .................................................... 274
APPENDIX 3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings .......................................... 276
APPENDIX 4 References, Codes and Standards ................................................... 280
APPENDIX 5 Systems Requirements for Floating Installations ........................... 283
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
vii
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
Chapter1:ScopeandConditionsofClassification(SupplementtotheABSRulesforConditionsofClassification–OffshoreUnitsandStructures)
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
(Supplement to the ABS Rules for Conditions of
Classification – Offshore Units and Structures)
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
Classification .......................................................................................... 2
SECTION 2
Application, System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and
Notations................................................................................................. 3
1
Scope .................................................................................................. 3
3
Classification Boundaries.................................................................... 4
5
Classification Symbols ........................................................................ 4
5.1
Floating Installations ........................................................................ 4
5.3
Fixed Installations ............................................................................ 4
7
Systems not Built Under Survey ......................................................... 4
9
Conversion of Existing Vessels .......................................................... 5
11
Conversion of Existing Structures ....................................................... 5
SECTION 3
Rules for Classification ......................................................................... 6
1
Application .......................................................................................... 6
SECTION 4
Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify Alternatives ......... 7
1
General ............................................................................................... 7
3
Application .......................................................................................... 7
5
Submittals ........................................................................................... 8
7
Risk Evaluation Methodology ............................................................. 8
9
Identification of Hazards ..................................................................... 8
11
Other Requirements............................................................................ 9
SECTION 5
Submission of Plans, Data, and Calculations .................................... 10
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
1
Section 1: Classification
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECTION
1
Classification (1 January 2008)
The requirements for conditions of classification are contained in the separate, generic ABS Rules for
Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).
Additional requirements specific to facilities on offshore installations are contained in the following Sections.
Sec ti on 2: Ap pl i c ati on , S ys t em Cl as s i fi c at i on Bo un da ri e s , S ym bol s a n d N ot ati ons
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECTION
2
Application, System Classification Boundaries,
Symbols, and Notations (1 January 2008)
A listing of Classification Symbols and Notations available to the Owners of vessels, offshore drilling and
production units and other marine structures and systems, “List of ABS Notations and Symbols” is
available from the ABS website “http://www.eagle.org”.
The following classification boundaries, symbols and notations are specific to facilities on offshore installations.
1
Scope (1 July 2012)
The requirements in the Rules are applicable to hydrocarbon production and/or processing facilities located
on floating or fixed offshore installations, and apply to the following systems and associated equipment:
•
Hydrocarbon Production
•
Hydrocarbon Processing
•
Process Support
•
Process Control
•
Marine Support
•
Electrical
•
Instrumentation and Control
•
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
The following ABS Rules and Guide, latest edition, are applicable as referenced therein for systems or
services other than for the hydrocarbon production and processing facilities.
i)
FPI Rules
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Floating Production
Installations
ii)
Offshore Installations Rules
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations
iii)
Steel Vessel Rules
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels
iv)
MODU Rules
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling
Units
Appropriate flag state and port state authorities are to be consulted for their specific requirements.
•
Chapter 2 provides definitions, references, abbreviations and acronyms associated with these Rules.
•
Chapter 3 covers requirements for hydrocarbon production and processing facilities on floating
installations.
•
Chapter 4 covers requirements for hydrocarbon production and processing facilities on fixed installations.
•
Chapter 5 covers requirements for survey during and after construction.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
3
Chapter
Section
3
1
2
Scope and Condition of Classification
Application, System Classification Boundaries, Symbols and Notations
1-2
Classification Boundaries (1 July 2012)
The boundaries for classification where a hydrocarbon production and/or processing facility is installed on
an offshore installation are defined to include the following major items:
i)
ii)
iii)
For floating installations:
a)
Vessel, including hull structure, equipment, and marine machinery, subject to the
requirements of the FPI Rules.
b)
Position Mooring System, according to the requirements of the FPI Rules.
c)
Hydrocarbon Production and/or Processing Facilities (topside), according to the requirements
of these Rules.
For fixed installations:
a)
Structure, subject to the requirements of the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore
Installations (OI Rules).
b)
Hydrocarbon Production and/or Processing Facilities (topside), according to the requirements
of these Rules.
Classification of additional equipment and systems can be provided if requested by the owner.
5
Classification Symbols
5.1
Floating Installations
For floating installations, systems which have been designed, built, installed, and commissioned in accordance
with approved plans to the satisfaction of the ABS Surveyors, and which are deemed to meet the full
requirements of the applicable ABS Rules and Guides, or their equivalent, where approved by the Committee,
for service in specified design environmental conditions, will be classed and distinguished in the ABS Record
by the symbols À A1 followed by the appropriate notation for the system’s intended service.
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System
Floating Production (and Offloading) System
Floating Storage and Offloading System
5.3
(FPSO)
(FPS)
(FSO)
Fixed Installations
For fixed installations, systems which have been designed, built, installed, and commissioned in
accordance with approved plans to the satisfaction of the ABS surveyors, and which are deemed to meet
the full requirements of the applicable ABS Rules and Guides, or their equivalent, where approved by the
Committee for service in specified design environmental conditions, will be classed and distinguished in the
ABS Record by the symbols À A1 followed by the appropriate notation for the system’s intended service:
Offshore Installation – Hydrocarbon Processing
Offshore Installation – Hydrocarbon Production
Note:
7
The mark À (Maltese Cross) signifies that the system was built, installed, and commissioned to
the satisfaction of the ABS Surveyors.
Systems not Built Under Survey
Installations which have not been built under ABS’s survey, but which are submitted for classification, will
be subject to design review and a special classification survey.
Where found satisfactory and thereafter approved by the Committee, they will be classed and distinguished
in the Record by the symbols and special notations described above, but the mark À signifying survey
during construction will be omitted.
Chapter
Section
9
1
2
Scope and Condition of Classification
Application, System Classification Boundaries, Symbols and Notations
1-2
Conversion of Existing Vessels
Modifications of existing floating structures intended for classification as Floating Installations are required
to be converted under ABS design review and survey.
11
Conversion of Existing Structures
Modifications of existing structures intended for classification as Fixed Installations are required to be
converted under ABS design review and survey.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
5
Section 3: Rules for Classification
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECTION
3
Rules for Classification (1 July 2012)
1
Application
These requirements are applicable to features that are permanent in nature and can be verified by plan review,
calculation, physical survey or other appropriate means. Any statement in the Rules regarding other features
is to be considered as guidance to the designer, builder, owner, etc.
Section 4: Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify Alternatives
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECTION
4
Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify
Alternatives
1
General (1 July 2012)
The requirements detailed herein provide an alternative route for an owner to obtain and maintain ABS
Class. Any alternatives to the requirements of these Rules may be specially considered by ABS on the
basis of a risk assessment submitted for review.
3
i)
In case of such alternatives, ABS approval will be contingent upon a demonstration of fitness for
purpose and equivalent level of safety in accordance with the principles of ABS Guides and Rules,
as well as recognized codes and standards.
ii)
Risk acceptance criteria are to be developed in line with the principles of the ABS Rules and will
be subject to ABS approval. In instances where a direct alternative recognized code or standard is
used, ABS verification of compliance with the standard will be considered demonstration of fitness
for purpose.
iii)
The ABS publication, Guidance Notes on Risk Assessment Application for the Marine and Offshore
Oil and Gas Industries, provides an overview of risk assessment techniques and additional information.
Application (1 July 2012)
A risk-based approach may be applicable either to the installation as a whole or to individual systems,
subsystems, equipment or components.
i)
The boundaries of the components and systems of the installation to which a risk-based assessment
is applied are to be logical.
ii)
As appropriate, account must be given to remote hazards outside the bounds of the system under
consideration. Such account is to include incidents relating to remote hazards impacting on or
being influenced by the system under consideration.
iii)
ABS will consider the application of risk-based techniques in the design of the installation, surveys
during construction, and surveys for maintenance of class.
iv)
Portions of the installation not included in the risk assessment are to comply with the applicable
parts of the ABS Rules and Guides.
v)
The following are the responsibility of the owner/operator:
a)
Proposed risk acceptance criteria
b)
Hazard identification
c)
Risk assessment
d)
Risk mitigation and management
e)
Compliance of the system under consideration with the applicable requirements of Flag and
Coastal State
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
7
Chapter
Section
5
1
4
Scope and Condition of Classification
Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify Alternatives
1-4
Submittals (1 July 2012)
As a minimum, the following documents are to be submitted to ABS for review and approval for classification
purpose:
7
i)
Proposed risk acceptance criteria
ii)
Methodology for risk assessment
iii)
Details of risk assessment
iv)
Risk mitigation and/or management measures, wherever applicable
Risk Evaluation Methodology (1 July 2012)
The risk assessment is to consider the installation in all anticipated operating modes.
The designer or owner is to apply a structured and systematic risk assessment process to identify all foreseeable
incidents specific to his installation, making full consideration of the likelihood of occurrence of the incidents
and their consequence.
ABS review and approval of the methodology selected by the designer or owner is required.
While various techniques/methods may be applied, the Owner is to justify the suitability and appropriateness
of the particular method(s) selected. Some typical methods include:
i)
Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
ii)
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
iii)
Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
iv)
Process Hazards Analysis (PHA)
v)
Safety Reviews
vi)
Checklists
vii)
Experience from previous analyses
Where risk assessment techniques are used to cover only part of an installation, the designer or owner is to
clearly define the boundary or extent of the item(s) being considered. The extent of the boundary is to subject
to review and approval by ABS.
9
Identification of Hazards
The Owner is to identify and consider all hazards that may affect his Installation or any part thereof. The
Owner is to apply a systematic process to identify such situations where a combination or sequence of
events could lead to an Incident, with consideration given to all foreseeable causes (initiating events).
The risk assessments are to consider, at a minimum, the following:
i)
Fire and Explosion
ii)
Hydrocarbon Release
iii)
Blow-out
iv)
Structural Failure
v)
Loss of Stability
vi)
Loss of Station Keeping /Mooring
vii)
Loss of Electrical Power
viii)
Toxicity
Chapter
Section
11
1
4
Scope and Condition of Classification
Recognition of Risk Based Techniques to Justify Alternatives
ix)
Extreme Weather
x)
Environmental Factors.
xi)
Dropped Objects
xii)
Ship & Helicopter Collision
1-4
Other Requirements
Where it is intended that risk-based techniques are used as a basis for compliance with Flag and Coastal
State requirements, the owner is directed to contact the Administration, either directly or through ABS, to
obtain an understanding as to the extent to which the Administration is prepared to consider alternatives to
such requirements. The Administration may require additional hazards to be considered.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
9
Section 5: Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations
CHAPTER
1
Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECTION
5
Submission of Plans, Data, and Calculations
A generic list of plans and data to be submitted for facilities on floating installations is included in Chapter 3,
Section 2.
A generic list of plans and data to be submitted for facilities on fixed installations is included in Chapter 4,
Section 2.
It should be noted that due to the varying configurations of offshore facilities, all or portions of these
requirements may be applicable to a given installation.
Chapter 2: Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
CHAPTER
2
Definitions, References, Acronyms and
Abbreviations (1 July 2012)
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
Definitions............................................................................................. 12
SECTION 2
References ............................................................................................ 19
1
References ........................................................................................ 19
SECTION 3
Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................. 20
1
Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................ 20
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
11
Section 1: Definitions
CHAPTER
2
Definitions, References, Acronyms and
Abbreviations
SECTION
1
Definitions
The following definitions, references, abbreviations and acronyms are provided to clarify the use of terms
in the context of these Rules.
1ooN – (2017) One out of the number (N) of detectors in the voting system in a specific area that is in alarm
2ooN – (2017) Two out of the number (N) of detectors in the voting system in a specific area that are in alarm
Abnormal Condition – A condition which occurs in a process system when an operating variable (flow,
pressure, temperature, etc.) ranges outside of its normal operating limits.
Accommodation Spaces (Living Quarters)
•
Spaces used for public spaces, lavatories, cabins, offices, hospitals, cinemas, games and hobbies rooms,
pantries containing no cooking appliances, and similar spaces.
•
Public Spaces are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls, dining rooms, lounges
and similar permanently enclosed spaces.
Adequate Ventilation – (2017) Adequate ventilation is ventilation (natural or artificial) that is sufficient to
prevent the accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentrations above 20 percent
of their lower explosive limit (LEL).
Basis of Safety – (2017) The documented approach detailing the methodology used to identify and quantify
hazards and the implementation of the needed safeguards to protect personnel, equipment and the environment.
Blockage Ratio – (2017) The ratio of the available cross section (A)/tested cross section (S).
FIGURE 1
Blockage Ratio (2017)
Classified Area – A location in which flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities
sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures (see the MODU Rules, API RP 500 or API RP 505 for
additional details).
Closed Drains – Rigid piping drains from process components, such as pressure vessels, piping, liquid relief
valves etc., to a closed drain tank without any break to atmosphere.
Completed Wells – Wells fitted with Christmas trees attached to the wellhead, such that the flow of fluids
into and out of the reservoir may be controlled for production purposes.
12
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
2
1
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Control Stations – Spaces containing:
i)
Radio or main navigation equipment
vi)
Fire recording or fire control equipment
ii)
Central Process Control Rooms
vii)
iii)
Dynamical positioning control
system
Fire-extinguishing system serving
various locations
viii)
Emergency source of power
iv)
Centralized ballast control station
ix)
CO2 Bottle Room
v)
Battery Room
x)
Fire Pumps
Corridors – Passageways, generally with rooms or compartments opening onto them. For the fire protection
purposes, lobbies are considered parts of corridors.
Critical Equipment – Refers to vessels, machinery, piping, alarms, interlocks, and controls determined by
management to be vital in preventing the occurrence of a catastrophic release.
Divisions – Divisions formed by bulkheads and decks which are constructed of steel or other equivalent
material, suitably stiffened, and designed to withstand and prevent the passage of smoke and flame for the
duration of the one-hour standard fire test. Divisions are classified as follows:
i)
“A” Class Divisions – Insulated with approved non-combustible materials such that the average
temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 139°C (250°F) above the original
temperature, nor will the temperature, at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180°C
(324°F) above the original temperature, within the time listed below:
Class “A-60”:
60 minutes
Class “A-30”:
30 minutes
Class “A-15”:
15 minutes
Class “A-0”:
0 minutes
This division is to remain intact with the main structure of the vessel, and is to maintain its structural
integrity after one (1) hour. Structural Integrity means that the structure will not fall under its own
weight, nor will it crumble or break upon normal contact after exposure to the fire.
ii)
“B” Class Divisions – Divisions formed by bulkheads, decks, ceilings or linings which are designed
to withstand and prevent the passage of flame for at least the first half hour of the standard fire
test. They are to have an insulation value such that the average temperature of the unexposed side
will not rise more than 139°C (250°F) above the original temperature, nor will the temperature at
any one point, including any joint, rise more than 225°C (405°F) above the original temperature,
within the time listed below:
Class “B-15”:
15 minutes
Class “B-0”:
0 minutes
“B” class divisions, unless specified in the design, are not required to be load bearing or maintain
their structural integrity beyond 30 minutes of exposure. The only requirement outside of the design
specification is to prevent the passage of flames for 30 minutes and maintain thermal requirements
as described above.
iii)
“C” Class Divisions – Divisions constructed of approved non-combustible materials. They need
meet neither requirement relative to the passage of smoke and flame, nor limitations relative to the
temperature rise. The only requirement is that they do not add to the fire.
iv)
“H” Class Divisions – (2017) Divisions formed by bulkheads and decks that are constructed of
steel or other equivalent material, suitably stiffened, and are designed to withstand and prevent the
passage of smoke and flame for the 120-minute duration of a hydrocarbon fire test for H rated
divisions. “H” class divisions are to be insulated so that a) the average temperature of the unexposed
face will not increase by more than 139°C (250°F) above the initial temperature within the time listed
below, and b) the temperature at any point on the unexposed face, including any joint, will not
increase more than 180°C (324°F) above the initial temperature, within the time listed below:
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
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Chapter
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Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Class “H-120”: 120 minutes
Class “H-60”:
60 minutes
Class “H-0”:
0 minutes
This division is to remain intact with the main structure of the vessel, and is to maintain its
structural integrity after two (2) hours. Structural Integrity means that the structure will not fall
under its own weight, nor will it crumble or break upon normal contact after exposure to the fire.
Penetration systems through H rated divisions are to be subjected to a hydrocarbon fire test for H
rated divisions as noted above. The temperature rise is to be no more than 180°C (324°F) above
the initial temperature for the time rating of system (i.e., 60 minutes for H-60).
v)
“J” Class Divisions – (2017) Divisions formed by bulkheads and decks that are constructed of
steel or other equivalent material, suitably stiffened, and are designed to withstand and prevent the
passage of smoke and flame for the duration of a jet fire test for J rated divisions. “J” class
divisions are to be insulated so that a) the average temperature of the unexposed face will not increase
by more than 139°C (250°F) above the initial temperature within the times are listed below, and b)
the temperature at any point on the unexposed face, including any joint, rise more than 180°C
(324°F) above the initial temperature during the fire test within the times are listed below:
Class “J-120”: 120 minutes
Class “J-60”: 60 minutes
Class “J-15”: 15 minutes
Penetration systems through J rated divisions are to be subjected to a jet fire test for J rated
divisions as noted above. The temperature rise is to be no more than 180°C (324°F) at any point
on the unexposed face above the initial temperature for the time rating of system (i.e., 30 minutes
for J-30).
Escape Route – This is a designated path used by personnel to evade an immediate danger and ultimately
leads to a temporary refuge or muster station.
Explosive Mixture – A vapor-air or gas-air mixture that is capable of being ignited by an ignition source
that is at or above the ignition temperature of the vapor-air or gas-air mixture.
Fire Wall – A wall designed and constructed to remain structurally intact under the effects of fire and
insulated so that the temperature on the unexposed side will remain below a specified temperature for a
determined amount of time.
Fired Vessel – A vessel in which the temperature of the fluid is increased by the addition of heat supplied
by a flame within the vessel. Specifically for hydrocarbon services, there are two (2) types of fired vessels:
i)
Direct Fired Vessel – A vessel in which the temperature of process hydrocarbon fluids is increased
by the addition of heat supplied by a flame. The flame is applied directly to the fluid container.
The combustion takes place in the heater.
ii)
Indirect Fired Vessel – A vessel in which the energy is transferred from an open flame or product
of combustion (such as exhaust gases from turbines, engines, or boilers) to the hydrocarbon,
through a heating medium, such as hot oil. The heating medium is usually non-combustible or has
a high flash point. The combustion may, but does not necessarily, take place in the heater.
Fixed Installation – A bottom-fixed offshore facility permanently affixed to the sea floor. The term
includes, but is not limited to, fixed platforms, guyed towers, jack-ups, converted fixed installations, etc.
Flammable Fluid – Any fluid, regardless of its flash point, capable of feeding a fire, is to be treated as
Flammable Fluid. Aviation fuel, diesel fuel, hydraulic oil (oil based), lubricating oil, crude oil and
hydrocarbon, are to be considered flammable fluids.
14
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Chapter
Section
2
1
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Flash Point – The minimum temperature at which a combustible liquid gives off vapor in sufficient
concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used,
as determined by the test procedure and apparatus specified in NFPA 30. Ignitable Mixture means a
mixture that is within the flammable range (between the upper and lower limits) and is therefore capable of
propagation of flame away from the source of ignition.
Floating Installation – An offshore facility designed to provide hydrocarbon processing and/or hydrocarbon
storage, and offload hydrocarbons. The term Floating Installation is used to generically identify a buoyant
facility that is site-specific. This installation is securely and substantially moored so that it cannot be
moved without a special effort. The term includes, but not limited to Tension Leg Platforms (TLP), Spar
Buoy, Permanently Moored Shipshape Hulls and Semisubmersibles.
Hazardous Area – See “Classified Area”.
High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) – An efficient option to replace a mechanical safety
device; an example is a pressure safety valve, with instruments, valves and logic.
Hydrocarbon – Organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon, whose densities, boiling points, and freezing
points increase as their molecular weights increase. Although composed of only two elements. Hydrocarbons
exist in a variety of compounds because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for
itself. The smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous; the largest are solids. Petroleum is a mixture
of many different hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbon Fire Test for H Rated Divisions – (2017) A test in which specimens of the relevant bulkheads
or decks are exposed, in a test furnace, to temperatures corresponding to the hydrocarbon fire timetemperature curve as defined by the U.K. Department of Energy/Norwegian Petroleum Directorate Interim
Hydrocarbon Fire Resistance Test for Elements of Construction for Offshore Installations. The testing set
up is to follow the arrangements as given in the FTP Code, Annex 1, Part 3. Penetration through H rated
divisions are to be tested in accordance with the above listed standards.
Hydrocarbon Fire Test for Insulation for Structural Steel – (2017) A test in which specimens of steel
structural elements are exposed to flame immersion, in a test furnace, in accordance with ISO TR 834-3
using the hydrocarbon time temperature curve as defined by the U.K. Department of Energy/Norwegian
Petroleum Directorate Interim Hydrocarbon Fire Resistance Test for Elements of Construction for Offshore
Installations.
Ignition Temperature – The minimum temperature required, at normal atmospheric pressure, to initiate the
combustion of an ignitable mixture.
Inert Gas – A gaseous mixture, such as flue gas, containing insufficient oxygen to support the combustion of
hydrocarbons.
Insulation for Structural Steel – (2017) Materials which are used to preserve the structural strength of steel
when exposed to a hydrocarbon (pool) fire for a given time and maximum allowable temperature. The
thickness requirements of the insulation material will be based on the following criteria: a) Maximum
temperature of the steel during the time of protection, b) The duration of protection, and c) The physical
arrangement of the steel; this is given as a ratio of the heated perimeter of a cross section of the structural
element (beam or hollow section) over the area of the cross section of the structural element (Hp/A ratio).
The rating of the insulation is to be given as follows: HC / Structural Steel / “critical temperature” (degrees
centigrade) / “period of resistance” (minutes). For example: HC / Structural Steel / 400 / 60 means that
structural steel would be no more than a 400°C temperature rise in 60 minutes when exposed to a
hydrocarbon (pool) fire.
Interim Class Certificate – A temporary representation to classification. The Interim Class Certificate is
generally issued by the Surveyor attending commissioning of the facility and verification of compliance
with these Rules. Issuance of an Interim Class Certificate is subject to the terms and conditions found therein.
Jet Fire – (2017) A fire resulting from the combustion of a flammable fluid continuously released under
pressure with some significant momentum in a particular direction or directions. The flammable fluid
(fuel) can be one phase (gaseous or liquid) or two phase (both gaseous and liquid). This type of fire is
usually fueled by hydrocarbons; however, any flammable fluid can produce a jet fire.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
15
Chapter
Section
2
1
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Jet Fire Rating for Insulation on Structural Steel – (2017) Materials which are used to preserve the
structural strength of steel when exposed to a jet fire for a given time and maximum allowable temperature.
The thickness requirements of the insulation material will be based on the following criteria: a) Maximum
allowable temperature of the steel, b) The duration of protection required, and c) The physical arrangement
of the steel this is given as a ratio of the heated perimeter of a cross section of the structural element (beam
or hollow section) over the area of the cross section of the structural element (Hp/A ratio).
The rating of the insulation is to be given as follows: JF / Structural Steel / “critical temperature” (degrees
centigrade) / “period of resistance” (minutes). For example: JF / Structural Steel / 300 / 30 means that
structural steel would see no more than a 300oC temperature rise in 30 minutes when exposed to an ISO
22899 jet fire.
Jet Fire Test for Insulation for Structural Steel – (2017) A test of the insulation material is tested as per
ISO 22899 with the web as noted in Part 1, section 6.7. Tests without the web cannot be used to show that
the insulation material is acceptable or to provide data points for a linear regression. The duration of jet
fire testing can range from 15 minutes (minimum) and upward with no maximum.
Jet Fire Test for J Rated Divisions – (2017) A test of the insulation material is tested as per ISO 22899.
Tests without the web (as noted in Part 1, section 6.7) can be accepted; however, the material can then only
be used on flat plate construction (i.e., cannot be used on corrugated divisions). The duration of jet fire
testing can range from 15 minutes (minimum) and upward with no maximum.
Penetrations for use through a J rated fire division are to be tested in a webless fire recirculation box such
that the jet fire directly impinges upon the penetration system. Thermocouples on the penetration are to be
located as per the Fire Test Procedures Code, Annex 1, Part 3 as appropriate.
Joiner Arrangement – Construction details showing the combination of all structural fire protection materials.
For example, a detail showing the connection of the ceilings to decks, ceilings to bulkheads, bulkheads to
bulkheads, bulkhead construction details, deck construction details, etc.
Jumper Ducts – Openings in bulkheads (usually in the top half) used for air balance or return air.
Lower Explosive Limit (L.E.L.) – The lowest concentration of combustible vapors or gases, by volume in
mixture with air, which can be ignited at ambient conditions.
Machinery Spaces of Category A are spaces, and trunks to such spaces, which contain:
i)
Internal combustion engine(s) used for main propulsion; or
ii)
Internal combustion engine(s) used for other purposes where such machinery has, in the aggregate, a
total power, or combined rating of 375 kW (500 hp) or more; or
iii)
Any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit
Manned Facility – A facility with permanent occupied living accommodations or one that requires
continuous presence of personnel for more than 12 hours in successive 24-hour periods.
Marine Support Systems – For floating installations, those functions required for maintaining the normal
operations of a vessel (or MODU), such as power generation, propulsion, navigation, HVAC, water treating,
etc.
These functions are neither directly nor indirectly related to the hydrocarbon production and process systems.
Non-ducted Return – Means of re-circulating conditioned air back to the air handler without the use of a
dedicated duct.
Open Drains – Gravity drains from sources which are at or near atmospheric pressure, such as open deck
drains, drip pan drains, and rain gutters.
Operating Conditions – A set of conditions (i.e., flowrates, compositions, temperatures and pressures)
chosen for normal operation of a production facility at a particular point in the life of an oil or gas field.
Other Machinery Spaces (versus Machinery Spaces of Category A) – All spaces, other than machinery spaces
of Category A, containing machinery, boilers and other fired processes, oil fuel units, steam and internal
combustion engines, generators and major electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigerating, stabilizing,
ventilation and air-conditioning machinery and similar spaces; and trunks to such spaces.
16
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Chapter
Section
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1
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Pad Gas – Gas added to the vapor space of a vessel or tank to prevent an explosive or ignitable vapor-air
mixture from forming.
Process Areas –Areas where processing equipment is located. This includes wellhead/manifold areas.
Process Design Conditions – A set of conditions used to design process components and systems.
Process Support Systems – Utility and auxiliary systems that complement the hydrocarbon production and
process systems. A typical list of such systems is included in Chapter 3, Section 4 and Chapter 4, Section 4.
These systems do not directly handle hydrocarbons.
Produced Fluids – Fluids coming out of completed wells, which may consist of oil, water, gas, and condensable
vapor.
Production Facilities – For the purpose of these Rules, Production Facilities are typically the processing,
safety and control systems, utility and auxiliary equipment, for producing hydrocarbon liquid and gas
mixtures from completed wells or other sources.
These facilities are generally inclusive from the inlet flange of the well fluid flowline above the water level
to the point at which the departing pipeline enters the water. The facilities also include the safe disposal
and/or collection of produced oil, gases and water.
For a floating installation with the storage and offloading capability to shuttle tanker, the production
facility is terminated at the inlet flange discharge into the storage tank. The storage tank and offloading
piping/electrical systems arrangement are considered marine systems.
Sanitary and Similar Spaces – Communal sanitary facilities such as showers, baths, lavatories, etc., and
isolated pantries containing no cooking appliances. Sanitary facilities which serve a space and with access
only from that space are to be considered a portion of the space where they are located.
Service Spaces (High Risk) – Lockers, storerooms, and working spaces in which flammable materials are
stored, such as galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, paint rooms and workshops other than those
forming part of the machinery space.
Service Spaces (Low Risk) – Lockers, storerooms, and working spaces in which flammable materials are
not stored, such as drying rooms and laundries.
Severe Environment – An environment in which regularly occurring conditions of wind, sea condition, ice,
etc., would impede the orderly evacuation of an offshore facility.
Shut-in Condition – A condition resulting from a shutting-in of the facility (See API RP 14C) caused by
the occurrence of one or more undesirable events.
Shut-in Tubing Pressure (SITP) – Pressure exerted by the well due to closing of the master valve.
Stairways – Interior stairways, lifts and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery
spaces) and enclosures thereto. In this context, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level is to be
regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door. Stairways penetrating only one
level are required to be enclosed in “A” class bulkheads at one level. If penetrating more than one level,
the requirement is for complete enclosure at all levels.
Standard Fire Test – A test in which specimens of the relevant bulkheads or decks are exposed in a test
furnace to temperatures corresponding to the standard time-temperature curve and as defined by Annex 1
of Part 3 of the IMO Fire Test Procedures (FTP) Code.
Steel or Equivalent Material – For any material or combination of materials to be considered as equivalent
to steel, the following four requirements are to be met:
i)
Non combustibility: The material is to be tested to the applicable section of the FTP Code, and
approved as such.
ii)
Integrity against the passage of flame of smoke: The material is to be tested to the IMO FTP
A.754(18) standards, and approved as such.
iii)
Smoke and Toxicity: The material is to be tested to the IMO FTP standard, and approved as such.
iv)
Structural Integrity: Based on its area of use, whether required to be load bearing or maintaining
integrity, the material is to perform similarly to steel in similar situations. (For example, if
required to be “A” class, material is to remain stable after the standard fire test of one hour.)
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
17
Chapter
Section
2
1
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Definitions
2-1
Suitably Stiffened – Stiffened according to requirements of the IMO FTP Code. When suitably stiffened, a
bulkhead may be considered to be “A” class without having to be tested. If, however, a bulkhead is not
stiffened according to the requirement of the IMO FTP Code, the bulkhead is to be tested.
Transient Condition – A temporary and short-lived condition (such as a surge) that usually does not cause
an upset condition.
Upset Condition – A condition that occurs in a process component or system when an operating variable
deviates substantially from its normal operating limits. If left unchecked, this condition can result in a
threat to safety and may cause shutting-in of the process.
Ventilation – Adequate – Natural or artificial ventilation that is sufficient to prevent the accumulation of
significant quantities of explosive mixtures in concentrations above 25% of their lower explosive limit
(LEL).
Well Characteristics – The conditions of a well or reservoir defined by depth, temperature, shut-in pressure,
flow rate, well fluid composition, etc.
Well Fluid Properties – The properties of a particular fluid stream defined by gas-oil ratio, flowing
pressure and temperature, viscosity, density (API Gravity), composition, etc.
Zone – (2017) A defined area within the protected premises. An area from which a signal can be received,
an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.
Zone Boundary – (2017) An approach limit at a distance from a zone within which there is an increased
risk of hazards due to the crossing of gases beyond the limit. A structural component designed to contain
fire to a specified space within a zone.
18
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 2: References
CHAPTER
2
Definitions, References, Acronyms and
Abbreviations
SECTION
2
References
1
References (2014)
In addition to the ABS Rules, and Guides as listed in 1-2/1, the additional requirements of the following
Guides, codes or standards are referenced in these Rules:
•
ABS Guidance Notes on Review and Approval of Novel Concepts (Novel Concepts Guide)
•
ABS Guide for Risk Evaluations for the Classification of Marine-Related Facilities
•
ABS Guidance Notes on Risk Assessment Applications for the Marine and Offshore Oil and Gas Industries
•
ABS Guide for Well Test Systems
•
ABS Guide for Certification of Lifting Appliances
•
ABS Guide for Surveys Using Risk-Based Inspections for the Offshore Industry (RBI Guide)
•
ABS Guide for Surveys Based on Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM Guide)
•
AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction
•
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
•
API – American Petroleum Institute
•
ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
•
ASNT – American Society for Nondestructive Testing
•
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
•
AWS – American Welding Society
•
ICEA – Insulated Cable Engineers Association
•
IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission
•
IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
•
IACS – International Association of Classification Societies
•
ISA – International Society of Automation
•
ISO – International Organization for Standardization
•
NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers
•
NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association
•
NFPA – National Fire Protection Association
•
TEMA – Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association
ABS is prepared to consider other recognized codes, standards, alternative design methodology and industry
practice, on a case-by-case basis, with justifications as indicated in Chapter 1, Section 4 of these Rules.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
19
Section 3: Acronyms and Abbreviations
CHAPTER
2
Definitions, References, Acronyms and
Abbreviations
SECTION
3
Acronyms and Abbreviations
1
Acronyms and Abbreviations (2014)
The following acronyms and abbreviations are used in these Rules:
20
•
BPVC
Boiler and Pressure Vessle Code
•
CoC
Certificate of Conformity
•
ESD
Emergency Shutdown
•
FMEA
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
•
FMECA
Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis
•
FGS
Fire and Gas Detection & Alarm System
•
F&G
Fire and Gas
•
H2 S
Hydrogen Sulfide
•
HAZOP
Hazard and Operability
•
HAZID
Hazard Identification
•
HIPPS
High Integrity Process Protection Systems
•
HVAC
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System
•
ITP
Inspection and Test Plans
•
LEL
Lower Explosive Limits
•
LSL
Level Safety Low
•
MAC
Manufacturer’s Affidavit of Compliance
•
MAC
Manual Call Point
•
MTR
Material Test Report
•
NDE
Nondestructive Examination
•
P&ID
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
•
PSH
Pressure Safety High
•
PSV
Pressure Safety Valve
•
PQR
Procedure Qualification Records
•
RT
Radiographic Examination
•
SAC
Safety Analysis Checklist
•
SAFE
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation
•
SAT
Safety Analysis Tables
•
SSV
Surface Safety Valve
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
2
3
Definitions, References, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and Abbreviations
•
USV
Underwater Safety Valve
•
UT
Ultrasonic Examination
•
UTS
Ultimate Tensile Strength
•
WPS
Welding Procedure Specifications
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
2-3
21
Chapter 3: Floating Installations
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
General .................................................................................................. 31
1
Scope ................................................................................................31
3
Applicability .......................................................................................31
5
Conditions of Classification ...............................................................31
7
Design Considerations ......................................................................31
Recognized Standards .................................................................. 31
7.3
Alternative Basis of Design ............................................................ 32
7.5
Design Conditions.......................................................................... 32
Design Plans and Data ......................................................................... 33
1
Submissions of Design Plans and Data............................................33
3
Details ...............................................................................................36
5
Facility Documentation......................................................................36
7
9
22
7.1
5.1
Project Specifications .................................................................... 36
5.3
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings................ 36
5.5
Area Classifications and Ventilation Drawings ............................... 36
5.7
Escape and Egress Route ............................................................. 36
5.9
Muster Locations ........................................................................... 36
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ...............................37
7.1
General .......................................................................................... 37
7.3
Process Flow Sheets ..................................................................... 37
7.5
Heat and Mass Balance................................................................. 37
7.7
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's) ................................... 37
7.9
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts and
Cause and Effect Matrix ................................................................ 38
7.11
Packaged Process Units ................................................................ 38
7.13
Process Equipment Documentation............................................... 38
7.15
Process Piping Specifications ........................................................ 40
7.17
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems ............................. 41
7.19
Flare and Vent System .................................................................. 41
7.21
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems..................... 41
7.23
Subsea Production Systems (Optional) ......................................... 41
7.25
Nonstandard Components ............................................................. 41
Process Support Systems.................................................................42
9.1
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's) ................................... 42
9.3
Equipment Documentation ............................................................ 42
9.5
Piping Specifications...................................................................... 42
9.7
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines ................................... 42
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Cranes (Optional) .......................................................................... 42
9.11
Nonstandard Components............................................................. 43
11
Marine Support Systems................................................................... 43
13
Electrical Systems............................................................................. 43
15
17
SECTION 3
9.9
13.1
Electrical One-Line Diagrams ........................................................ 43
13.3
Short-circuit Current Calculations .................................................. 43
13.5
Coordination Study ........................................................................ 44
13.7
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors .......... 44
13.9
Specifications and Data Sheets for Distribution Transformers ...... 44
13.11
Details of Storage Batteries ........................................................... 44
13.13
Details of Emergency Power Source ............................................. 45
13.15
Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation
Practices........................................................................................ 45
13.17
Switchboard, Distribution Boards and Motor Control Centers ....... 45
13.19
Panelboard .................................................................................... 46
13.21
Installations in Classified Areas ..................................................... 46
Instrumentation and Control Systems............................................... 46
15.1
General Arrangements .................................................................. 46
15.3
Instrumentation List ....................................................................... 46
15.5
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems..................................... 46
15.7
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems ........... 46
15.9
Programmable Electronic Systems ............................................... 46
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety ............................................... 47
17.1
Firewater System .......................................................................... 47
17.3
Deluge Systems (Water Spray for Process Equipment) ................ 47
17.5
Foam Systems (for Crude Storage Tanks) .................................... 47
17.7
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems ................................................. 47
17.9
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms ...................... 47
17.11
Fire Control and Life Saving Equipment Plan ................................ 47
17.13
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems.................................. 48
17.15
Fire and Gas Cause and Effect Chart ........................................... 48
17.17
Insulation of Hot Surfaces ............................................................. 48
19
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting ...................... 49
21
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel .............................. 49
23
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures and Manual ..................... 49
25
Modifications ..................................................................................... 49
TABLE 1
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements ................ 33
TABLE 2
Major Equipment Plans/Calculations and Technical
Documentation for Class Requirements ................................. 39
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ............................... 50
1
General ............................................................................................. 50
1.1
Scope ............................................................................................ 50
1.3
Process Safety Principle................................................................ 50
1.5
Governmental Regulations ............................................................ 50
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
23
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
24
Process Design .................................................................................50
3.1
Design Basis .................................................................................. 50
3.3
Process Design Conditions ............................................................ 50
3.5
Process Flow Sheets ..................................................................... 51
Facility Layout ...................................................................................51
5.1
General Arrangement .................................................................... 51
5.3
Accommodation Spaces (Living Quarters) .................................... 52
5.5
Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Stations ........................................... 52
5.7
Wellhead Areas ............................................................................. 53
5.9
Storage Tanks and Slop Tanks ..................................................... 53
5.11
Fired Vessels ................................................................................. 53
Packaged Process Units ...................................................................53
7.1
General .......................................................................................... 53
7.3
Skid Structures .............................................................................. 54
7.5
Drip Pans ....................................................................................... 54
Major Equipment Requirements .......................................................54
9.1
Process Vessels ............................................................................ 54
9.3
Process Heat Exchangers ............................................................. 55
9.5
Process Electric Heater ................................................................. 55
9.7
Fired Vessels (Heaters) ................................................................. 55
9.9
Atmospheric Storage Tanks .......................................................... 56
9.11
Compressors ................................................................................. 56
9.13
Pumps ........................................................................................... 57
9.15
Scraper Launchers/Receivers ....................................................... 57
9.17
Flare and Vent Structures .............................................................. 57
Process Piping Systems ...................................................................57
11.1
General .......................................................................................... 57
11.3
Thermal Relief ............................................................................... 57
11.5
Isolation Valves ............................................................................. 58
11.7
Flexible Hoses ............................................................................... 58
11.9
Plastic Pipe Installations ................................................................ 58
Piping and Instrumentation Design ...................................................59
13.1
Process Control System ................................................................ 59
13.3
Safety System ............................................................................... 59
Pressure Relieving and Hydrocarbon Disposal Systems .................60
15.1
Pressure Relief Systems ............................................................... 60
15.3
Pressure/Vacuum Venting System for Atmospheric and Low
Pressure Storage Tanks ................................................................ 61
15.5
Flares and Vents............................................................................ 61
Spill Containment, Open and Closed Drain Systems .......................63
17.1
Spill Containment........................................................................... 63
17.3
Open Drain Piping ......................................................................... 63
17.5
Sealing of Open Drains.................................................................. 64
17.7
Segregation of Open Drain Systems ............................................. 64
17.9
Closed Drain Systems ................................................................... 65
17.11
Overboard Discharges from the Production Treatment Plan ......... 65
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
19
21
SECTION 4
19.1
General.......................................................................................... 65
19.3
Structural Design of Deck Modules and Supports ......................... 65
Subsea Production............................................................................ 66
21.1
General.......................................................................................... 66
21.3
Flowlines and Manifolds ................................................................ 66
21.5
Wellheads and Subsea Equipment ............................................... 66
TABLE 1
Fuel and Ignition Sources ....................................................... 52
FIGURE 1
Typical FRP/GRP Arrangement in a Process Piping
Layout ..................................................................................... 58
Process Support Systems ................................................................... 67
1
General ............................................................................................. 67
3
Equipment Requirements ................................................................. 67
5
7
SECTION 5
Structural Modules ............................................................................ 65
3.1
Pressure Vessels .......................................................................... 67
3.3
Heat Exchangers ........................................................................... 67
3.5
Pumps ........................................................................................... 67
3.7
Compressors ................................................................................. 68
3.9
Prime Movers (Internal Combustion Engines and Turbines) ......... 68
3.11
Cranes (Optional) .......................................................................... 70
System Requirements....................................................................... 70
5.1
Utility/Instrument Air System ......................................................... 70
5.3
Fuel/Instrument Gas System ......................................................... 70
5.5
Segregation of Piping Systems ..................................................... 71
5.7
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel ....................................................... 71
5.9
Purging System for Process Equipment ........................................ 71
5.11
Fuel Oil System ............................................................................. 71
5.13
Hydraulic System .......................................................................... 72
5.15
Lubricating Oil System................................................................... 72
5.17
Chemical Injection System ............................................................ 73
5.19
Heating and Cooling Systems ....................................................... 74
5.21
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution Storage .......................................... 74
5.23
Control of Static Electricity............................................................. 74
Drilling Systems ................................................................................ 74
Marine Support Systems ..................................................................... 75
1
General ............................................................................................. 75
3
Equipment Requirements ................................................................. 75
5
3.1
Pressure Vessels .......................................................................... 75
3.3
Heat Exchangers ........................................................................... 75
System Requirements....................................................................... 75
5.1
Pipe System Interconnections ....................................................... 75
5.3
Oil Storage Tank Purging and Blanketing Systems ....................... 76
5.5
Oil Storage Tanks Venting System ................................................ 76
5.7
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel ....................................................... 76
5.9
Flammable Liquid Storage Facility Arrangement ........................... 76
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
25
SECTION 6
Electrical Systems ................................................................................ 78
1
Applicability .......................................................................................78
3
General .............................................................................................78
5
Design Considerations ......................................................................78
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
26
5.1
Equipment and Enclosures ............................................................ 78
5.3
Selection of Materials .................................................................... 78
5.5
Equipment Grounding (Earthing) Arrangements ............................ 78
5.7
System Grounding (Earthing) ........................................................ 79
5.9
Distribution and Circuit Protection.................................................. 79
Rotating Electrical Machinery ...........................................................79
7.1
General .......................................................................................... 79
7.3
Temperature Rating ....................................................................... 79
7.5
Moisture Condensation Protection ................................................. 80
7.7
Temperature Detection .................................................................. 80
Transformers .....................................................................................80
9.1
General .......................................................................................... 80
9.3
Transformer Supplying Services Other than Oil or Gas
Production ..................................................................................... 80
Switchgear ........................................................................................80
11.1
Application ..................................................................................... 80
11.3
Construction, Assembly and Components ..................................... 80
11.5
Switchboards ................................................................................. 82
11.7
Motor Controllers ........................................................................... 82
11.9
Battery Charging Panels ................................................................ 83
11.11
Switchgear Supplying Services Other than Oil and Gas
Production ..................................................................................... 83
Wire and Cable Construction ............................................................83
13.1
General .......................................................................................... 83
13.3
Conductor Type ............................................................................. 83
13.5
Insulation ....................................................................................... 83
13.7
Cable Flame Retardancy ............................................................... 84
13.9
Fire Resistant Property .................................................................. 84
Hazardous Areas ..............................................................................84
15.1
General .......................................................................................... 84
15.3
Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas .................................... 84
15.5
Area Classifications and Electrical Installations ............................. 84
15.7
Wiring Methods in Hazardous Areas ............................................. 85
Ventilation .........................................................................................85
17.1
General .......................................................................................... 85
17.3
Ventilation of Enclosed Classified Spaces ..................................... 85
17.5
Ventilation of Non-classified Spaces.............................................. 86
Cable Support and Installation ..........................................................86
19.1
Mechanical Protection ................................................................... 86
19.3
Splicing .......................................................................................... 86
Power Source Requirements ............................................................87
21.1
Unmanned Facilities ...................................................................... 87
21.3
Manned Facilities ........................................................................... 87
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
23
Emergency Source of Power ............................................................ 88
25
Battery Systems ................................................................................ 88
27
Short Circuit Current Calculations and Coordination Study.............. 88
29
SECTION 7
27.1
General.......................................................................................... 88
27.3
Short Circuit Capacity .................................................................... 88
27.5
Coordination .................................................................................. 88
Protection from Ignition by Static Charges ....................................... 88
TABLE 1A
Degree of Protection (Indicated by the First
Characteristic Numeral) .......................................................... 89
TABLE 1B
Degree of Protection (Indicated by the Second
Characteristic Numeral) .......................................................... 90
TABLE 1C
NEMA Enclosures ................................................................... 91
TABLE 2
Size of Ground (Earth)-continuity Conductors and
Grounding (Earthing) Connections ......................................... 93
TABLE 3
Clearance and Creepage Distance for Switchboards,
Distribution Boards, Chargers, Motor Control Centers
and Controllers ........................................................................ 94
Instrumentation and Control Systems ............................................... 95
1
Applicability ....................................................................................... 95
3
5
7
9
1.1
General.......................................................................................... 95
1.3
Installation ..................................................................................... 95
Components ...................................................................................... 96
3.1
Environmental Considerations....................................................... 96
3.3
Suitability of Computer Based Equipment ..................................... 96
3.5
Electrical Variations ....................................................................... 96
3.7
Loss of Power ................................................................................ 96
Instruments ....................................................................................... 96
5.1
Temperature .................................................................................. 96
5.3
Pressure ........................................................................................ 96
5.5
Level .............................................................................................. 97
Alarm Systems .................................................................................. 97
7.1
Characteristics ............................................................................... 97
7.3
Independence................................................................................ 97
7.5
Visual and Audible Alarms............................................................. 97
7.7
Acknowledgement of Alarms ......................................................... 97
7.9
Disconnection and Resumption of Alarm Functions ...................... 98
7.11
Summary Alarms ........................................................................... 98
7.13
Built-in Testing ............................................................................... 98
7.15
Adjustable Set-points .................................................................... 98
Control and Monitoring...................................................................... 98
9.1
General.......................................................................................... 98
9.3
Loss of Signal ................................................................................ 98
9.5
Display of Parameters ................................................................... 98
9.7
Logic Circuit Features ................................................................... 98
9.9
Overrides ....................................................................................... 99
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
27
11
13
15
17
19
Safety Systems .................................................................................99
11.1
General .......................................................................................... 99
11.3
Independence ................................................................................ 99
11.5
Activation ....................................................................................... 99
11.7
Resumption of Operation ............................................................... 99
11.9
Override of Safety Provisions ...................................................... 100
11.11
Adjustable Set-points ................................................................... 100
Shutdown Systems .........................................................................100
13.1
General ........................................................................................ 100
13.3
Safety Analysis ............................................................................ 100
13.5
Emergency Shutdown.................................................................. 100
Computer-based Systems for Alarm, Control and Safety
Systems ..........................................................................................101
15.1
General ........................................................................................ 101
15.3
Independence .............................................................................. 101
15.5
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)/Failure Mode, Effect
and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) ................................................. 101
15.7
Visual Display of Alarms .............................................................. 101
15.9
Memory Capacity and Response Time ........................................ 101
15.11
Data Loss and Corruption ............................................................ 101
15.13
Local Area Network (LAN) ........................................................... 102
15.15
Power Supply Disruption ............................................................. 102
15.17
Parameters and Program Changes ............................................. 102
15.19
Multiple Points of Control ............................................................. 102
Relief Valves ...................................................................................102
17.1
General ........................................................................................ 102
17.3
Provisions for Testing .................................................................. 102
17.5
Block Valve Locking Devices ....................................................... 102
Shutdown Valves, Blowdown Valves and Diverter Valves .............103
TABLE 1
SECTION 8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety ............................................... 104
1
Applicability .....................................................................................104
3
General ...........................................................................................104
5
28
Electrical Variations.................................................................96
3.1
Scope .......................................................................................... 104
3.3
Governmental Authority ............................................................... 104
Fire Fighting Systems .....................................................................104
5.1
Firewater Systems ....................................................................... 104
5.3
Dry Chemical Systems ................................................................ 114
5.5
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems ................................................ 114
5.7
Paint Lockers and Flammable Materials Storerooms .................. 118
5.9
Helicopter Facilities...................................................................... 118
5.11
Emergency Control Station .......................................................... 118
5.13
Operation after Facility Total Shutdown ....................................... 119
5.15
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers ................................... 119
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
7
9
11
13
15
17
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems................................... 121
7.1
General........................................................................................ 121
7.3
Design – General ........................................................................ 122
7.5
Fire Detection Design .................................................................. 123
7.7
Combustible Gas Detection ......................................................... 124
7.9
Toxic Gas Detection Design ........................................................ 127
7.11
General Installation Requirements .............................................. 128
7.13
General Maintenance, Inspection, and Test Requirements ......... 128
Structural Fire Protection ................................................................ 129
9.1
General........................................................................................ 129
9.3
Fire Integrity of Bulkhead and Decks ........................................... 129
9.5
Wellhead Areas ........................................................................... 132
9.7
Fired Vessels............................................................................... 132
9.9
Helideck....................................................................................... 132
9.11
Ventilation.................................................................................... 133
9.13
Penetrations ................................................................................ 137
9.15
Materials/Certification .................................................................. 137
9.17
Protection of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces and
Control Stations ........................................................................... 138
Muster Areas ................................................................................... 139
11.1
General........................................................................................ 139
11.3
Materials ...................................................................................... 139
11.5
Muster Stations ........................................................................... 139
Means of Escape ............................................................................ 139
13.1
General........................................................................................ 139
13.3
Materials ...................................................................................... 140
13.5
Escape Routes ............................................................................ 140
13.7
Marking and Lighting of Escape Routes ...................................... 140
13.9
Escape Route Plan ...................................................................... 140
Lifesaving Requirements ................................................................ 140
15.1
General........................................................................................ 140
15.3
Lifeboat Embarkation Areas ........................................................ 140
15.5
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment ......................................... 140
15.7
Means of Embarkation ................................................................ 141
Personnel Safety Equipment and Safety Measures ....................... 142
17.1
Fireman’s Outfits ......................................................................... 142
17.3
Guard Rails ................................................................................. 142
17.5
Insulation of Hot Surfaces ........................................................... 142
TABLE 1
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers ........................... 119
TABLE 2
Classification and Placement of Portable and
Semi-portable Extinguishers ................................................. 120
TABLE 3
Voting of Detectors ............................................................... 123
TABLE 4
Fire Detector Location ........................................................... 124
TABLE 5
Confirmed Gas Detection and Applied Voting Principles ..... 125
TABLE 6
Combustible Gas Detection Location ................................... 127
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
29
30
TABLE 7
Voting Principles with Reduced Number of Unwanted
Alarms/Actions ......................................................................128
TABLE 8
SO2 Gas Detector Set Points ................................................128
TABLE 9A
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads Separating Adjacent
Spaces/Areas ........................................................................129
TABLE 9B
Fire Integrity of Decks Separating Adjacent
Spaces/Areas ........................................................................130
FIGURE 1
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement Two-Pump
Scenario ................................................................................107
FIGURE 2
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Even Power) Scenario .................................107
FIGURE 3
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Uneven Power) Scenario .............................108
FIGURE 4
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump Scenario for Oil Carrier
Converted to Offshore Installation ........................................109
FIGURE 5A
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on a Production Deck
of a FPSO Single Fire with A-60 Fire Wall ............................109
FIGURE 5B
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on a Production Deck
of a FPSO Single Fire with an Adjacent Zone that has
no Liquid Inventory ................................................................110
FIGURE 6
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A” Class Divisions ................134
FIGURE 7
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B” Class Divisions ................136
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 1: General
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
1
General
1
Scope (1 July 2012)
This Chapter defines the minimum criteria for ABS Class applicable to hydrocarbon production and processing
systems, subsystems and equipment on floating installations. See 1-2/1 of these Rules for Scope and Conditions
of Classification.
Terms, definitions, references, abbreviations and acronyms, used in this Chapter are defined in Chapter 2.
3
Applicability
The requirements described in this chapter are applicable to facilities on floating installations of various
configurations that provide hydrocarbon production and processing services. These services may include:
5
•
Well fluid de-pressurization
•
Reinjection
•
Phase separation
•
Transfer
•
Fluid cleaning, treatment and stabilization
•
Storage
•
Dehydration
•
Metering
•
Compression
•
Off-loading of processed hydrocarbon
Conditions of Classification
Refer to the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) and Chapter 1
of these Rules for information on Classification.
7
Design Considerations (1 July 2012)
7.1
Recognized Standards
The submitted design is to be in accordance with the requirements of the Rules and the specified codes
and/or standards as referenced herein.
i)
Designs complying with other international or national standards not listed in Appendix 4 will be
subject to special consideration in accordance with Chapter 1, Section 4 of these Rules.
ii)
ABS advises the designer/manufacturer to contact the ABS Technical office early in the design
phase for acceptance of alternate design codes and/or standards.
iii)
When alternate design codes and/or standards are proposed, justifications can be achieved through
equivalency, gap analysis or appropriate risk analysis/philosophy to demonstrate that the proposed
alternate design code and standard will provide an equivalent level of safety to the recognized
standards as listed in Appendix 4 and are required to be performed in accordance with Chapter 1,
Section 4 of these Rules.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
31
Chapter
Section
7.3
7.5
3
1
3-1
Alternative Basis of Design
Designs based on manufacturer’s standards may also be accepted. In such cases, complete details of the
manufacturer’s standard and engineering justification are to be submitted for review.
i)
The manufacturer will be required to demonstrate by way of testing or analysis that the design criteria
employed results in a level of safety consistent with that of a recognized standard or code of practice.
ii)
Where strain gauge testing, fracture analysis, proof testing or similar procedures form a part of the
manufacturer’s design criteria, the procedure and results are to be submitted for ABS review.
iii)
Historical performance data for production or process systems, subsystems, equipment or
components is to be submitted for justification of designs based on manufacturer’s standards.
iv)
ABS will consider the application of risk evaluations for alternative or novel features for the basis
of design in accordance with Chapter 1, Section 4 of these Rules, as applicable.
Design Conditions
The production and process systems, subsystems, equipment, and/or components are to be designed to account
for all applicable environmental, operational, and test loads, or combination thereof. These include, but are
not limited to, the following:
i)
ii)
32
Floating Installations
General
Environmental Conditions, as applicable
•
Earthquake
•
Wind
•
Ice
•
Temperature
•
Current, waves
•
1, 10, 50, 100 year storm event, as applicable
Operational
•
Static pressure
•
Bending
•
Transient pressure excursion
•
Vibration
•
Temperature excursion
•
•
Fluid static head and properties
Acceleration loads due to movement of
installation
•
Tension
iii)
Transportation
iv)
Installation
v)
Commissioning
vi)
Test Loads
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 2: Design Plans and Data
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
2
Design Plans and Data
1
Submissions of Design Plans and Data (1 July 2012)
The following sections describe the design plans and data submission requirements for ABS classing of
floating installations and associated hydrocarbon production and processing systems, subsystems, equipment
and/or components.
i)
3-2/Table 1 and 3-2/3 through 3-2/23, as applicable, identifies the hydrocarbon production and
processing systems, subsystems, equipment and/or components that require approval for ABS
Classification of the floating installations.
ii)
The submitted design plans and data are to be in accordance with the requirements of these Rules
and the latest edition of the specified codes and/or standards, as referenced herein and Appendix 4,
from contract date.
iii)
The design plans and data, as specified in these Rules, are to be generally submitted electronically to
ABS. However, hard copies will also be accepted.
iv)
All plan submissions originating from designers or manufacturers are understood to be made with
the knowledge of the main contracting party.
v)
For production and processing systems, subsystems, equipment or components not listed in 3-2/Table 1
or 3-2/3 through 3-2/23, the designers or manufacturers should contact the appropriate ABS Technical
Office for guidance on technical and survey requirements and completion of the approval process.
vi)
All plan submissions originating from manufacturers are understood to be made with the cognizance
of the main contracting party. A fee may be charged for the review of plans that are not covered
by the contract of Classification.
It should be noted that due to the varying configurations of offshore production facilities, portions of these
requirements may not be applicable to a given installation.
TABLE 1
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (2014)
ABS technical documentation requirements for classing facilities on floating installations:
1.
Facility Documentation
1.
Project Specifications
2.
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings
3.
Area Classification and Ventilation Drawings
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
33
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
TABLE 1 (continued)
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (2014)
2.
3.
4.
Hydrocarbon Production and Processing Systems
1.
Process Flow Sheets
2.
Heat and Mass Balance
3.
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for all facility systems and subsystems
4.
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (SAFE) Charts
5.
Packaged Process Units
6.
Process Equipment Documentation
7.
Process Piping Specifications
8.
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems
9.
Flare and Vent Systems
10.
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems
11.
Sub-sea Production Systems (Optional)
Process Support Systems
1.
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for each system or subsystem
2.
Equipment Documentation
3.
Process Support Piping Specifications
4.
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines
5.
Cranes (Optional)
Marine Support Systems
See 4-6-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules and 4-2-1/7 of the MODU Rules, as applicable
5.
34
Electrical Installations
1.
Electrical One-line Diagrams
2.
Short-Circuit Current Calculations
3.
Coordination Study
4.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors
5.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Distribution Transformers
6.
Details of Storage Batteries
7.
Details of Emergency Power Source
8.
Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation Practices
9.
Switchboard and Distribution Panel
10.
Panelboard
11.
Installations in Classified Areas
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
TABLE 1 (continued)
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (2014)
6.
7.
8.
9.
Instrumentation and Control Systems
1.
General Arrangements
2.
Data Sheets
3.
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems
4.
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
5.
Programmable Electronic Systems
6.
FMEA or FMECA for Computer-Based Systems
Fire and Gas Detection Systems
1.
FGS Layout Drawings
2.
Cause and Effects Charts
3.
Detector Certificates
4.
Installation Inspection Log
5.
Maintenance Records (including test and calibration)
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
1.
Firewater System
2.
Water Spray (Deluge) Systems for Process Equipment
3.
Foam Systems for Crude Storage Tanks
4.
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
5.
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms
6.
Emergency Control Stations
7.
Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers
8.
Structural Fire Protection (which indicates classification of all bulkheads for: quarters section,
machinery spaces and processing facilities)
9.
HVAC plan (including AHU location, duct layout, duct construction and bulkhead penetration
details
10.
Joiner detail arrangement and structural fire protection material certification
11.
Guard Rails
12.
Escape and Egress Routes (may be included on the fire control plan or separate plan)
13.
Muster Stations
14.
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment Plan (escape routes must be indicated)
15.
Insulation of Hot Surfaces
Specific Arrangements
1.
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting
2.
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
10.
Start-up and Commissioning Manual
11.
Topside Structure and Structural Arrangements
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
35
Chapter
Section
3
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
Details (1 July 2012)
Plans and data for equipment and components are to provide the following, as applicable:
i)
Model and size
ii)
Design specifications, including design codes, standards, and references
iii)
Design parameters: loads, temperature, environmental conditions, etc.
iv)
Design analysis and/or calculations, as applicable
v)
Dimensional details and drawings
vi)
Fabrication details and welding configurations
vii)
Material specifications and material properties
5
Facility Documentation (1 July 2012)
5.1
Project Specifications
Project specifications are to provide the following, but not limited to:
5.3
5.5
i)
Brief descriptions of field location
ii)
Environmental conditions
iii)
Well shut-in pressure
iv)
Well fluid properties
v)
Production plans
vi)
Hydrocarbon (oil/gas) storage and
vii)
Hydrocarbon (oil/gas) transportation arrangements
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings
General arrangement and layout drawings are to show:
i)
Arrangements and locations of living quarters, control rooms, and machinery spaces, including all
entrances, exits and openings to these spaces
ii)
Arrangements and locations of machinery, process equipment, cargo storage, etc.
Area Classifications and Ventilation Drawings
i)
Plans for area classifications and ventilation are to show, as applicable:
ii)
•
Extent of all Class I, Division 1 and 2, areas and spaces; or
•
Extent of all Class 1, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2 areas and spaces
Arrangements for ventilation of enclosed spaces, and
•
Locations of all ventilation inlets and outlets, with respect to the hazardous areas
•
Locations of all entrances, exits and openings, with respect to the hazardous areas
5.7
Escape and Egress Route
Plans showing all escape and egress route on the complete facility.
5.9
Muster Locations
Plans showing all muster locations on the complete facility.
36
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Chapter
Section
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Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
7
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems (1 July 2012)
7.1
General
To evaluate the process safety system, the assumptions as made by the designers and as provided in the
following documents are to be submitted:
•
Project Specification – See 3-2/5.1
•
Process Flow Sheets – See 3-2/7.3
•
Heat and Mass Balance – See 3-2/7.5
Although these documents will not be approved by ABS, they are critical to approval of the facility, and
are to be kept for reference throughout the design review process.
7.3
7.5
7.7
Process Flow Sheets
Process flow sheets are to identify the following, as a minimum:
i)
Each process stream
ii)
Process equipment
iii)
Planned addition
iv)
Symbols used
Heat and Mass Balance
Heat and mass balance specifications for each process stream under normal operating and upset conditions
are to include the following, as a minimum:
i)
Flow rate
ii)
Composition
iii)
Conditions (temperature, pressure, and vapor/liquid ratio)
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's)
P & ID’s diagrams showing:
i)
Design, and operating conditions
ii)
Designation and size of all major process equipment
iii)
Piping class specifications (designation and size) for:
•
Piping
•
Valves
•
Pipe fittings and in-line equipment/components such as strainers, filters, etc.
•
Sensing and control instrumentation,
iv)
Shutdown and pressure relief devices with set points specified
v)
Signal circuits
vi)
Set points for controllers
vii)
Continuity of all line pipes
viii)
Boundaries of skid units and process packages
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts (see 3-2/7.9) are preferably to be submitted in
conjunction with the P & ID’s.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
37
Chapter
Section
7.9
7.11
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts and Cause and Effect Matrix
7.9.1
S.A.F.E. Chart
S.A.F.E. chart is to list all process systems, subsystems, equipment, components and associated
emergency support systems with their required instruments, controls, safety devices, and is to list
the functions to be performed by each device. See API RP 14C and API RP 14J.
7.9.2
Cause and Effect Matrix
Cause and Effect Matrix establishes the relation between the causes of a hazardous event and the
effects of that event. Cause-and-Effect Matrix is to list all causes and the associated resulting
effect or event. Cause-and-Effect Matrix can also uncover the interdependencies between the
initiating causes and the resultant event or events (effect). Cause and Effect Matrix can be in the
form of table, chart, or diagram format.
Packaged Process Units (2017)
Packaged process units include, but are not limited to, the following:
•
Dehydration
•
Vapor recovery
•
Separation
•
Gas compression for fuel or re-injection.
•
Sweetening
•
Water Injection
•
Stabilizing
•
CO2 Injection
Documentation requirements for packaged process units include:
7.13
38
i)
Skid arrangements and assembly drawings
ii)
P & ID’s – See 3-2/7.7
iii)
S.A.F.E. charts and Cause and Effect Matrix – See 3-2/7.9
iv)
Process equipment documentation – See 3-2/7.13
v)
Process piping system documentation – See 3-2/7.15
vi)
Pressure relief and depressurization systems – See 3-2/7.17
vii)
Electrical one-line diagrams – See 3-2/13.1
viii)
Control schematics – See 3-2/15.5
ix)
Structural design calculations for skid units in dry condition with a center of gravity height of more
than 1.5 m (5 ft.), or a maximum operating weight in excess of 10 MT (metric tons) or 22.05 Kips.
Process Equipment Documentation
Complete design specifications including, but not limited to, the following documents for verification of
compliance to recognized codes and/or standards for equipment as listed in 3-2/Table 2, as applicable.
i)
Equipment technical specifications
ii)
Design data (data sheets) such as pressure, temperature, corrosion allowances, service conditions,
external loads etc.
iii)
Design calculations or analysis
iv)
Details of pressure relief arrangement
v)
Dimensional details/drawings covering arrangements and details
vi)
Corrosion allowances
vii)
Material specifications
viii)
Weld details and welding procedure specifications and qualifications
ix)
Extent and method of non-destructive testing
x)
Test pressure
xi)
Factory acceptance test procedures
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
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Design Plans and Data
3-2
TABLE 2
Major Equipment Plans/Calculations and Technical Documentation
for Class Requirements (2016)
A
B
C
HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PROCESS SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Production/Process Pressure Vessels
X
Fired Vessels
X
Heat Exchangers
X
Storage Tanks
X
Meters, Strainers, Filters, And Other Fluid Conditioners
< 254 mm (10 in.) and 10.54 kg/cm2 (150 psi)
≥ 254 mm (10 in.) or 10.54
kg/cm2
(150 psi)
X
X
Pumps
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
X
X
Compressors
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 28.3 m3/min (1000 scfm) or < 100 kW (134 hp)
≥7
kg/cm2
(100 psi) or 28.3
m3/min
(1000 scfm) or ≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Flowlines and Manifolds
X
Scraper Launchers/Receivers
X
Packaged Process Units
X
Flare Systems
X
Subsea Systems
X
PROCESS SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Pressure Vessels
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥7
kg/cm2
(100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
X
Heat Exchangers
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
X
Pumps
X
Air Compressors
X
Engines and Turbines
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Compressors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Packaged Support Systems
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
X
X
39
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
TABLE 2 (continued)
Major Equipment Plans/Calculations and Technical Documentation
for Class Requirements (2016)
A
B
C
MARINE SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
All systems, subsystems, equipment and components are to comply with ABS Steel Vessel Rules or ABS MODU
Rules
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Generators
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Motors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Distribution Transformers
X
Switchboard, MCC, Panelboards
X
Storage Batteries
X
INSTRUMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Panels
X
FIRE PROTECTION & SAFETY SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Fire Pumps
X
Fire Pump Skid Package
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Compressors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Alarm Panels
X
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems (Nozzles, Controls, Bottles, etc.)
X
Fire and Gas Detection Systems (Sensors, Panel, Cables, etc.)
X
EQUIPMENT SKID STRUCTURE
For modules that require design review, see 3-3/7 and 3-2/7.11
X
Index
A
Technical specifications, data sheets, dimensional details/drawings, design calculations/analysis,
including manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance are to be submitted for ABS Engineering review.
B
Manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance to the applicable codes and/or standards are to be submitted
to the satisfaction of the ABS Surveyor.
C
Documentations are to be verified by the attending Surveyor at the location of installation
7.15
40
Process Piping Specifications
Process piping line list including, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Design specifications such as pressure rating, temperature rating, service rating, etc.
ii)
Pipe and fitting material lists
iii)
Sizes
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
7.17
7.19
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems
Pressure relief valves and depressurization systems plans and data including, but not limited to:
i)
Design and capacity calculations
ii)
Sizes and arrangements
iii)
Set points
iv)
Materials
Flare and Vent System
Flare and vent system details including, but not limited to:
i)
Sizing and arrangements
ii)
Gas dispersion analysis including basis of analysis
iii)
Radiant heat intensities
iv)
Design calculations for blow-down rates
v)
Water seals and gas purging systems
vi)
Knockout drum sizing details
vii)
Details of flare tips
viii)
Details of pilots
ix)
Details for ignition system
x)
Details of pressure relief and depressurizations systems
In the case of proprietary flare tips, validation reports to supplement the radiant heat intensity values are to
be specified and submitted.
7.21
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems
Arrangements for spill containment, details of piping connections to all process equipment, and slope of
drains are to be specified and submitted.
7.23
Subsea Production Systems (Optional)
Provide plans and data for subsea production systems including, but not limited to, the following:
7.25
i)
Stress calculations for structural components
ii)
P & ID’s – See 3-2/7.7
iii)
S.A.F.E. charts – See 3-2/7.9
iv)
Equipment technical specifications and data sheets – See 3-2/7.13
v)
Control schematics – See 3-2/15.5
vi)
Assembly drawings
vii)
Installation and operation procedures
Nonstandard Components (2017)
Components not manufactured to a recognized national standard may be considered for acceptance based
on manufacturers’ specified pressure and temperature ratings and on presenting evidence, such as design
calculations or type test data, that they are suitable for the intended purpose as per relevant codes and
standards.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
41
Chapter
Section
9
3
2
Floating Installations
Design Plans and Data
3-2
Process Support Systems (1 July 2012)
As defined in Chapter 2, Section 1 of these Rules, process support systems are utility and auxiliary systems
that complement the hydrocarbon production and process systems.
These systems do not handle hydrocarbons, but serve and support the hydrocarbon production and process
operations, or the drilling operations, as applicable.
A typical list of process support systems includes, but is not limited to, the following:
i)
Utility/Instrument Air System
ii)
Fuel/Instrument Gas System
iii)
Purging System
iv)
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
v)
Inert Gas Supply
vi)
Fuel Oil System
vii)
Hydraulic System
viii)
Chemical Injection System
ix)
Material Handling System (Cranes) (Optional)
x)
Drilling Systems
xi)
Heating & Cooling Systems
Plans and data requirements for process support systems are as follows.
9.1
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's)
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for each process support system. See 3-2/7.7.
9.3
Equipment Documentation
Equipment technical specifications, for each process equipment such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers,
pumps and compressors. See 3-2/7.13.
9.5
Piping Specifications
Submit specifications, materials, sizes, and pressure ratings for all pipes, valves and fittings, and calculations
for pipe wall thickness. See 3-2/7.15.
9.7
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines
Technical specifications for internal-combustion engines and turbines including, but not limited to, the
following:
9.9
42
i)
Types
ii)
Horsepower
iii)
Rated speed/revolutions per minute
iv)
Shutdown arrangements
v)
Manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance verifying compliance with recognized standards
Cranes (Optional)
Technical specifications for cranes including, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Dimensional details/drawings
ii)
Structural design calculations
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
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Design Plans and Data
iii)
Load rating chart
iv)
Test certificates for wire rope
3-2
9.11
Nonstandard Components (2017)
Components not manufactured to a recognized national standard may be considered for acceptance based
on manufacturers’ specified pressure and temperature ratings and on presenting evidence, such as design
calculations or type test data, that they are suitable for the intended purpose as per relevant codes and
standards.
11
Marine Support Systems (1 July 2012)
Submissions are to be as required by the applicable parts of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules. See
Chapter 2 for “Marine Support Systems” definition.
Typical marine support systems include, but are not limited to, the following:
•
Steam Systems
•
Steering Gear System
•
Power Generation
•
Sewage Treatment System
•
Fuel Oil and Lube Oil
•
Helicopter Refueling System
•
Fresh Water
•
•
Ballast and Bilge Systems
Integral Cargo Storage Tank Venting
System
•
Cargo Handling System
•
Drainage System
•
Sea Water System
•
Inert Gas Supply
•
Propulsion and/or Thruster Systems
•
Oil Fired Inert Gas Generator
13
Electrical Systems
13.1
Electrical One-Line Diagrams
Electrical one-line diagrams are to indicate, but not limited to, the following:
13.3
i)
Ratings of generators, transformers, motors, and other loads
ii)
Rated load current of each branch circuit
iii)
Type and size and temperature rating of cables
iv)
Rating or settings of circuit breakers, fuses, and switches
v)
Interrupting capacity of switchgear, motor control centers, and distribution panels
Short-circuit Current Calculations
To establish that the protective devices have sufficient short-circuit breaking and making capacities, data is
to be submitted giving:
i)
The maximum calculated short-circuit current in symmetrical r.m.s. and asymmetrical peak values
available at the main bus bars,
ii)
The maximum allowable breaking and making capacities of the protective device.
iii)
Similar calculations are to be made at other points in the distribution system where necessary, to
determine the adequacy of the interrupting capacities of protective devices.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
43
Chapter
Section
13.5
13.7
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
3-2
Coordination Study
A protective device coordination study is to be submitted and to include the following:
i)
The protective device coordination study is to consist of an organized time-current study of all
protective devices in series.
ii)
The study is to be from the utilization equipment to the source for all circuit protection devices
having different settings or time-current characteristics.
iii)
Where an over-current relay is provided in series and is adjacent to the circuit protection device,
the operating and time-current characteristics of the relay are to be considered for coordination.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors
13.7.1 100 kW and Over
For generators and motors of 100 kW (134 hp) and over, submit the following:
i)
Assembly drawings
ii)
Seating arrangements
iii)
Terminal arrangements
iv)
Designed ambient temperature, temperature rise
v)
Data for complete rating, and class of insulation
vi)
Shafts, coupling, coupling bolts, stator and rotor details
vii)
Weights and speeds for rotating parts
13.7.2 Less than 100 kW
For generators and motors under 100 kW (134 hp), submit nameplate data along with degree of
enclosure.
13.9
Specifications and Data Sheets for Distribution Transformers
Submit the following documents for transformers:
i)
Rating
ii)
Class of insulation
iii)
Rated ambient temperature
iv)
Rated temperature rise
v)
Details of enclosure and standard to which manufactured
Test reports in accordance with the standard of construction are to be made available upon request.
13.11 Details of Storage Batteries
Details of storage batteries are to include, but not limited, the following:
44
i)
Arrangement
ii)
Ventilation
iii)
Corrosion protection
iv)
Types and capacities
v)
Conductors and charging facilities
vi)
Over-current protection
vii)
Reverse current protection
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
3-2
13.13 Details of Emergency Power Source
Submit location, arrangement, and services required to maintain the integrity of the facility in the event of
primary power loss.
13.15 Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation Practices (1 July 2012)
Standards and procedures for wiring practices and details are to be submitted, and are to include, but not
limited to, the following:
i)
Cable supports
ii)
Earthing details and connections
iii)
Bulkhead and deck penetrations
iv)
Cable joints and sealing
v)
Cable splicing
vi)
Watertight and explosion-proof connections to equipment
vii)
Bonding connections
13.17 Switchboard, Distribution Boards and Motor Control Centers (1 July 2012)
i)
Complete list and specifications for:
ii)
iii)
•
Materials
•
Manufacturer’s name
•
Model number
•
Rating, size, and type
•
Testing laboratory’s listing number (if any), or indication of construction standard for components
such as:
-
Switchboard enclosure
-
Circuit breakers
-
All types of fuses
-
Power and control wiring
-
Bus bars
-
Connectors and terminals
-
Power switches
An outline and details of the switchboard, to include:
•
Overall dimensions
•
Front view indicating instrumentation
•
Circuit breakers
•
Switches
•
Drip-shields
•
Hand-rail
•
Securing supporting details
Bracing arrangements and calculations to determine that bus bars and short runs of power cables
are adequately braced to withstand the mechanical forces that the switchboard may be subjected to
under fault conditions.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
45
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
3-2
iv)
A complete wiring schematic, including type of wiring, size, and setting of protective devices.
v)
One-line schematic of the bus bars, indicating rating for each of the horizontal and vertical buses,
the exact connection of circuit breakers to the bus bars, setting of the power circuit breakers and
loads ampacities and power cable sizes, if available.
vi)
Actual bus bar arrangement of the horizontal, vertical, and ground buses, including:
•
Bus bar material
•
Size and rating
•
Separation distances between bus bars
•
Separation distances between bus bars and bare metal parts
vii)
Grounding details
viii)
If applicable, details of metal barriers provided to isolate bus bars, wiring, and associated components
13.19 Panelboard
The information as specified in 3-2/13.17i), ii), v) and vii), as applicable.
13.21 Installations in Classified Areas (2016)
List of all electrical equipment installed in classified areas, together with documentation issued by an
independent accredited testing laboratory certifying suitability for intended services or classified areas. See
4-8-1/5.3.2 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
15
Instrumentation and Control Systems
15.1
General Arrangements
Submit layout plans for local controllers, central controllers, displays, printers, and other instrumentation
and control devices.
15.3
Instrumentation List (1 July 2012)
Submit a listing of instrumentation and control equipment, including monitoring, control, and alarm set points
and ranges.
15.5
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems (2014)
Schematic drawings/details of electrical systems are to include types and sizes of electrical cables and wiring,
voltage rating, service voltage and current, overload and short-circuit protection for the following systems:
i)
Process control panels
ii)
Emergency shutdown (ESD) panels
iii)
Intrinsically safe systems
iv)
Emergency generator or fire pump drive starting circuit
15.7
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Submit system description of hydraulic and pneumatic control systems, including pipe sizes and materials,
pressure ratings, and relief valve settings.
15.9
Programmable Electronic Systems (2014)
Submit the following documentation:
46
i)
Control philosophy
ii)
Schematic alarm
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
iii)
Monitoring and control arrangements
iv)
Failure Modes of the system components
v)
Contingency plans upon failure of systems or system components
3-2
See also API RP 14J.
17
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
17.1
Firewater System (1 July 2012)
Firewater system plans are to include, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Pump and piping arrangements
ii)
Location of isolation valves
iii)
Locations of firewater stations
iv)
Details of fire pumps including pump drivers, pump capacity and pressure
v)
Hydraulic calculations for sizing of fire pump capacity and fire main
17.3
Deluge Systems (Water Spray for Process Equipment)
Submit plans showing the arrangement for firewater piping and spraying nozzles, as well as detailed hydraulic
calculations.
17.5
Foam Systems (for Crude Storage Tanks) (1 July 2012)
Foam system plans are to indicate the arrangement for:
17.7
17.9
i)
Firewater supply
ii)
Foam supply and delivery
iii)
Type of foam and expansion ratio
iv)
Capacity calculations for areas protected.
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems (1 July 2012)
Fixed fire extinguishing plans showing the following:
i)
Arrangement of piping
ii)
Arrangement of spraying nozzles
iii)
Storage of the extinguishing medium
iv)
Details of control and alarm for release of the extinguishing medium
v)
Capacity calculations and discharge time calculations for areas protected
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms
Submit plans and calculations showing details of fixed fire extinguishing systems for the paint lockers and
flammable material storerooms.
17.11 Fire Control and Life Saving Equipment Plan (1 July 2012)
Fire control and life saving equipment plans for the process area are to be submitted.
For a floating installation, additional requirements for the fire control and life saving equipment plan may
also be found in the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules, as applicable.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
47
Chapter
Section
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
3-2
Fire control plan and life saving equipment plans for a process area are to include the following:
i)
Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers. The plan is to show types, quantities and locations of
portable and semi-portable extinguishers for the production facility.
ii)
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems. The plan is to show locations, controls, protected spaces/areas
and types of extinguishing system.
iii)
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems. The plan is to show:
•
The location and type of fire detectors and gas detectors
•
The location of indicating panels
iv)
Emergency Control Stations. The plan is to show location and equipment.
v)
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment. The plan is to show type, capacity, quantity and location.
vi)
Structural Fire Protection. The plan is to show arrangements, locations, and types of firewalls for
buildings and bulkheads installed in or adjacent to the process area.
vii)
Guard Rails and Escape Routes. The plan is to show arrangement of protective guardrails, toe
plates, and means of escape from normally manned spaces.
17.13 Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems (2017)
Plans, data and documents showing following are to be submitted:
i)
Fire and gas detection system philosophy and specifications
ii)
Document justifying detector selection, number and location of fire detectors, and installation, etc.
iii)
General arrangement layout drawing indicating location of fire and gas detectors
iv)
Emergency shutdown (ESD) philosophy
v)
Monitoring and control panel including processor and interface details with PA, process control
room, ESD, emergency control station
vi)
Schematic drawings of fire and gas detection and alarm systems
vii)
Gas dispersion analysis reports
viii)
Fire and explosion analyses reports
ix)
Fire and gas detection certification documents
x)
Fire and gas detector voting/mapping diagrams
xi)
ESD hierarchy
xii)
Cause and effect diagrams
xiii)
PA/GA function description, plans showing location of loudspeakers and centrals
xiv)
Electrical schematic drawings
xv)
NRTL certification document
xvi)
Blowdown Philosophy following confirms gas release
17.15 Fire and Gas Cause and Effect Chart
Relate all fire and gas sensors to shutdowns, operation of fixed systems and fire control plans.
17.17 Insulation of Hot Surfaces
Submit details of insulation and shielding provided for personnel safety and fire protection.
48
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Chapter
Section
19
3
2
Floating Installations
Plans and Particulars to be Submitted
3-2
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting
Submit piping and control arrangements for storage tank venting and inerting systems.
21
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
Submit piping and control arrangements for use of produced gas as fuel, showing details of double wall or
ducting arrangements for the pipe runs in way of the safe space. See also 3-4/5.7.
23
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures and Manual
The manual outlined in 5-1/7 is to be submitted for review as early as possible, prior to the commissioning
of the installation.
25
Modifications
Details of modifications to machinery, piping, process equipment, etc., which may affect classification are
to be submitted for approval. Typically, these include the following, but not limited to:
i)
Equipment changes and modifications, including changes in alarms, instrumentation, and control
schemes
ii)
Facility throughput changes, and changes in feed and product compositions
iii)
Changes in operating conditions, including pressures, temperatures, flow rates, or process conditions
different from those in the original process or mechanical design
iv)
Changes in pressure relief requirements due to factors such as increased process throughput, operation
at higher temperatures or pressures, increased size of equipment, or addition of equipment
v)
Changes to process support systems, such as changes to chemical injection, gas dehydration, etc.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
49
Section 3: Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
3
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
1
General
1.1
Scope (1 July 2012)
This Section defines the minimum criteria applicable to equipment and systems for handling and processing
produced fluids from completed wells.
These requirements address process equipment such as process vessels, heat exchangers, fired vessels (heaters),
compressors and pumps, as well as the associated piping, process control, and process safety systems.
The documentation requirements for design review are given in Chapter 3, Section 2.
1.3
Process Safety Principle (1 July 2012)
The overall process safety principle is that hydrocarbon production and processing systems be designed to
minimize the risk of hazards to personnel, property and environment.
Implementation of this principle to production systems and associated facilities design is intended to:
i)
Prevent an abnormal condition from causing an upset condition
ii)
Prevent an upset condition from causing a release of hydrocarbons
iii)
Safely collect and dispose of hydrocarbon gasses and vapors released
iv)
Prevent formation of explosive mixtures
v)
Prevent ignition of flammable liquids or gases and vapors released
vi)
Limit exposure of personnel to fire hazards
1.5
Governmental Regulations
The designer is directed to governmental regulations or guidance notes, which may exceed these provisions,
depending on the size, type, location, and intended services of the floating installation.
3
Process Design
3.1
Design Basis
Production process design is to be based on production plans, expected well fluid properties, required
pipeline or product custody transfer specifications, and other considerations.
The floating processing drainage, production water discharge and displacement water discharge are to be
in accordance with national/regional regulations. The Administration and the Coastal State are to be
consulted, if necessary.
3.3
Process Design Conditions (1 July 2012)
Process design conditions specified for equipment and systems are to include provision for handling short
term and transient conditions, such as pipeline-riser slugging, cyclic pump operation, or pressure spikes,
and to meet the required product specifications.
Each process equipment or piping element is to be designed for conditions as specified in 3-1/7.5 of these
Rules, as applicable.
50
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
3-3
Due consideration is to be given to the well fluid properties, such as presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S),
carbon dioxide (CO2), etc., for selection of materials. The following standards are to be used for consideration
of various well fluid properties:
3.5
i)
NACE MR 0175/ISO 15156 “Materials for use in H2S containing environment in oil and gas
production” (latest edition) is to be used for design, procurement, and fabrication of equipment and
components that may be exposed to hydrogen sulfide under conditions conducive to Sulfide Stress
Cracking (SSC), as defined by the NACE Standard.
ii)
API RP 55 “Recommended Practices for Oil and Gas Producing and Gas Processing Plant Operations
Involving Hydrogen Sulfide,” or other recognized standards, may be used as reference for the
system design if the system is intended to handle H2S.
Process Flow Sheets (1 July 2012)
Process flow sheets are to indicate all process equipment with associated piping systems, and define operating
conditions for each component.
Each flow stream is to be labeled by composition, flowrates, phase, pressure, and temperature.
5
Facility Layout
5.1
General Arrangement (1 July 2012)
Machinery and equipment are to be arranged in groups or work areas in accordance with API RP 14J.
To enhance the overall safety of personnel, and facility, the following design principles and objectives are
to be followed throughout the development of the facility:
i)
Separation of nonhazardous areas from those classified as hazardous areas
ii)
Minimizing the likelihood of uncontrollable releases of hydrocarbon to the environment
iii)
Minimizing the spread of flammable liquids and gases which may result in a hazardous event and
facilitating rapid removal of any accumulations
iv)
Minimizing the probability of ignition
v)
Minimizing the consequences of fire and explosions
vi)
Preventing fire escalation and equipment damage
vii)
Providing for adequate arrangements for escape and evacuation
viii)
Effective emergency response
ix)
Protection of safety systems, critical systems, subsystems, equipment and/or components from damage
x)
Equipment arrangements are to provide access for inspection and servicing and safe means of
egress from all machinery spaces.
xi)
Additional requirements related to general arrangement and equipment layout are also to consider the
applicable requirements of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules.
xii)
In case of a fire onboard the unit, the means of escape is to permit the safe evacuation of all occupants
to a safe area, even when the structure they occupy can be considered lost in a conflagration.
xiii)
With safety spacing, protective firewalls and equipment groupings, a possible fire from a classified
location is not to impede the safe exit of personnel from the danger source to the lifeboat embarkation
zone or any place of refuge.
xiv)
Equipment items that could become fuel sources in the event of a fire are to be separated from
potential ignition sources by space separation, firewalls or protective walls. See 3-3/Table 1 for
typical fuel and ignition sources.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
51
Chapter
Section
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
3-3
TABLE 1
Fuel and Ignition Sources
Fuel Sources
•
Wellheads and Manifolds
•
Process Piping
•
Separators and Scrubbers
•
Risers and Pipelines
•
Coalesces
•
Vents
•
Gas Compressors
•
Pig Launchers and Receivers
•
Liquid Hydrocarbon Pumps
•
Drains
•
Heat Exchangers
•
Portable Fuel Tanks
•
Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks
•
Chemical Storage Tanks
•
Gas Metering Equipment
•
Laboratory Gas Bottles
•
Oil Treaters (unfired vessels)
•
Sample Pots
Ignition Sources
5.3
5.5
•
Fired Vessels
•
Electrical Equipment
•
Combustion Engines & Gas Turbines
•
Waste Heat Recovery Equipment
•
Living Quarters
•
Mobile phones
•
Flares
•
Lightning
•
Welding Machines
•
Spark Producing Hand Tools
•
Grinding Machines
•
Portable Computers
•
Cutting Machinery or Torches
•
Cameras
•
Static Electricity
•
Non-Intrinsically Safe Flashlights
Accommodation Spaces (Living Quarters) (1 July 2012)
Accommodation spaces or living quarters are to be located outside of hazardous areas and may not be located
above or below crude oil storage tanks or process areas.
i)
“H-60” ratings are required for the bulkheads of permanent living quarters, temporary living quarters
and normally manned modules that face hazardous areas such as wellheads, oil storage tanks, fired
vessels (heaters), crude oil processing equipment, and other similar hazards. If such bulkhead is
more than 33 m (100 ft) from this source, then this can be reduced to an “H-0” rating.
ii)
“A-60” and “A” rated bulkheads may be utilized provided that a risk or fire load analysis was
performed and reviewed by ABS Technical Office, indicating that these bulkheads are acceptable.
See Chapter 3, Section 8.
Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Stations (1 July 2012)
Emergency shutdown (ESD) stations are to be provided for manual activation of the process safety shutdown
system for shutdown of all wells and process systems. These manual activation stations are to be protected
against accidental activation, and conveniently located at the primary evacuation points (i.e., boat landing,
helicopter deck, etc.) and the emergency control stations (see 3-8/5.11 and 4-8/5.9, as applicable).
For design guidance, the following additional locations may be considered appropriate for emergency shutdown
stations:
52
i)
Exit stairway at each deck level
ii)
Main exits of living quarters
iii)
Main exits of production (process) facility deck
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
5.7
3
3
“A-0” firewalls around wellheads are to be used to provide protection from potential uncontrolled
flow from wellheads with shut-in pressures exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psig).
Storage Tanks and Slop Tanks (1 July 2012)
5.9.1
Supported Storage Tanks
Supported storage tanks for crude oil or other flammable liquids are to be located as far as possible
from wellheads. In addition, they are to be located as far as possible from potential ignition sources
such as gas and diesel engines, fired vessels, and buildings designated as unclassified areas, or areas
used as workshops, or welding locations.
5.9.2
Storage and Slop Tanks
i)
For crude storage tanks, slop tanks, and low flash point flammable liquid storage tanks
[flash point of 60°C (140°F) or less], such as methanol storage tanks built as hull or integral
tanks, are to be separated from machinery spaces, service spaces, and other similar source
of ignition spaces by cofferdams of at least 0.76 m (30 in.) wide.
ii)
5.11
3-3
Wellhead Areas
i)
Wellhead areas are to be separated or protected from sources of ignition and mechanical damage.
ii)
5.9
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
Pump rooms, ballast tanks and fuel oil tanks may be considered cofferdams for this purpose.
Fired Vessels (1 July 2012)
5.11.1 Fired Vessels
i)
Fired vessels, such as glycol reboilers, hot oil heaters, etc., are considered ignition sources.
They are to be installed away from wellheads and other unfired hydrocarbon processing
and storage equipment.
ii)
If it is not be possible to comply to the above requirement, particularly when the space of
the process area is limited, causing fired vessels to be located in the unfired process areas,
then the fired vessel is to be surrounded on all sides by a minimum of “A-0” rated firewall,
except on the outboard side of the unit mounted on the perimeter of a platform or FPSO.
5.11.2 Direct Fired Vessels
For direct fired vessels such as crude oil treater that is considered both as fuel and ignition source,
a minimum of “A-0” rated firewall is to be provided as described in 3-3/5.11.1ii), regardless of
where the unit is installed within the production or process areas (Fired or Unfired Process Areas).
7
Packaged Process Units
7.1
General
i)
Packaged process units are considered subsystems of the total production process systems.
ii)
(2017) Subsystems are to comply with 3-3/11, 3-3/13, 3-3/15, 3-3/17, and 3-6/29 for process system
requirements and 3-3/9 for major equipment requirements. For water injection equipment, where a
risk assessment, submitted and reviewed by ABS, demonstrates that the likelihood of hydrocarbons
migrating into the water injection system/equipment is negligible, compliance with requirements
in 3-4/3 is acceptable.
iii)
The electrical installation and instrumentation and control systems are to comply with Chapter 3,
Sections 6 and 7.
iv)
Fire protection systems are to comply with Chapter 3, Section 8 of these Rules.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
53
Chapter
Section
7.3
3
3
9
3-3
Skid Structures
i)
The skid structure is to be sufficiently rigid to support the mounted equipment and piping and, as
required, to permit lifting during shipment without damage to the equipment or piping.
ii)
7.5
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
Structural design calculations for skid units with a center of gravity height of more than 1.5 m (5 ft),
or a maximum operating weight in excess of 10 MT (metric tons) or 22.05 Kips, calculated in dry
conditions, are to be submitted for review.
Drip Pans
i)
Drip pans are to be provided to contain liquid spills and leaks from skid mounted equipment and
piping, and to drain the liquid with adequate slope of 1 cm per meter (l/8 inch per foot) into open
drain systems.
ii)
A minimum 150 mm (6 in.) coaming around the entire perimeter of a skid is to be provided.
iii)
Skid beams that extend above the drip pan may be considered as meeting the coaming requirement,
provided that the drip pan is seal-welded to the skid beams.
iv)
A spill containment with less than 150 mm (6 in.) coaming arrangement is subject to special
consideration.
v)
Calculations showing sufficient spillage containment for the skid are to be submitted for verification.
Major Equipment Requirements
(1 July 2012) This Subsection provides requirements for process equipment that are typically utilized in
floating facilities. Conformance to standards or codes different from those listed will be considered where
applicable.
The design specifications for process equipment are to consider as a minimum, but not limited to, the most
adverse combination of applicable loads listed in 3-1/7.5, as applicable, and is to consist of design plans,
drawings, data, and calculations, as outlined in 3-2/Table 2, to substantiate the design.
9.1
Process Vessels (1 July 2012)
9.1.1
54
General
i)
Pressure vessels are to be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII Division 1 or Division 2 or equivalent
recognized codes and/or standards.
ii)
Consideration will be given to arrangements and details of pressure vessels which can be
shown to comply with other recognized codes and/or standards, provided they are of
equivalent level of safety with the ASME BPVC Code.
iii)
All process vessels are to be suitably supported and properly secured.
9.1.2
Design Load
In addition to the design loads specified in 3-1/7.5, as applicable, the design is also to ensure that
stresses due to external nozzle loads and moments, stresses due to acceleration forces arising out
of the motion of the floating installation, and stresses due to any other applicable external forces,
such as wind, are within the limits allowed by the design code and standard.
9.1.3
Materials
Low melting point or brittle materials such as cast iron, aluminum, brass, copper, or fiberglass, are
not to be utilized in pressure retaining parts of vessels containing flammable or toxic fluids.
9.1.4
Thermal Considerations
Supports and insulation of vessels subject to change in temperature are to be designed to accommodate
the resulting thermal movement.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
9.3
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
3-3
Process Heat Exchangers (1 July 2012)
9.3.1
General
Process heat exchangers with a design pressure in excess of 1.05 kg/cm2 (15 psig) and handling
flammable fluids are subject to the requirements of 3-3/9.1 and the following applicable requirements:
9.3.2
Design Load
See 3-3/9.1.2 for design load requirements.
9.3.3
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Process heat exchangers of tubular design are to conform to applicable sections of ASME Section
VIII, Division 1 or Division 2, TEMA Standards or API Std. 660.
9.3.4
Plate and Frame Exchangers
Plate and frame exchangers may be employed for handling flammable liquid, with the following
restrictions:
9.3.5
9.5
i)
Safety or protective devices are to be provided as required in accordance with API RP 14C.
ii)
Each exchanger is to be provided with an exchanger enclosure, protective wall, shield or
similar barrier, capable of containing spray in case of gasket leakage during operation.
iii)
Each exchanger is to be provided with spill containment and drain capable of handling a
liquid release of at least 10% of the maximum flammable stream flowrates.
Air Cooled Heat Exchangers
Air-cooled heat exchangers are to comply with API Std. 661.
Process Electric Heater (1 July 2012)
9.5.1
General
Process electric heater shells with a shell operating pressure greater than 1.05 kg/cm2 (15 psig) are
to be designed and constructed in accordance with applicable ASME BPVC Code.
9.7
9.5.2
Design Load
See 3-3/9.1.2 for design load requirements.
9.5.3
Over Temperature Protection
Process electric heaters in hydrocarbon service are to be provided with heater element skin high
temperature alarms.
9.5.4
Overpressure Protection
Where the vessel, tank or piping segment containing an electric heater can be isolated, a relief
valve is to be provided for overpressure protection. It is to be sized for a blocked-in condition
with the heater operating at full power.
9.5.5
Low Level, Low Flow or High Temperature Protection
Process electric heaters in liquid service are to be protected by low level, low flow, or high liquid
temperature sensor to shut off electrical input.
Fired Vessels (Heaters) (1 July 2012)
9.7.1
General
i)
All fire-tube type fired vessels, with a shell operating pressure greater than 1.05 kg/cm2
(15 psig), are to be designed in accordance with Section I of ASME BPVC Code.
ii)
9.7.2
Fired vessel (heater) shells, (heater) coils or other equipment designed in accordance with
ASME BPVC Code are to conform to all applicable requirements of 3-3/9.1.
Design Load
See 3-3/9.1.2 for design load requirements.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
55
Chapter
Section
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
9.7.3
Indirect Fired Vessels (Heaters)
i)
Indirect fired water bath heaters with working pressures lower than 1.05 kg/cm2 (15 psig)
are to be designed and fabricated in accordance with API Spec. 12K.
ii)
Similar types of indirect fired vessels (heaters), such as steam bath heaters, are to be in full
compliance with API Spec. 12K.
9.7.4
Direct Fired Vessels (Heaters)
Direct fired vertical or horizontal emulsion treaters are to be designed and constructed in accordance
with API Spec. 12L.
9.7.5
Ignition Control
Where burner ignition or light-off is part of an automatic sequence, the following control functions
are to be provided:
9.7.6
i)
Automatic timed purge interval prior to admitting pilot fuel. Purge may be by fan if
equipped, or by time delay to allow natural draft purge.
ii)
Firing limit on a trial for ignition (15 seconds maximum) on each attempted pilot light-off.
iii)
Confirmation of pilot lighting prior to admitting main burner fuel.
Manual Light-off
i)
Each burner designed for manual light-off of the pilot is to be designed to allow an operator
to light the pilot from a location which limits his exposure to flame flashback, should it occur.
ii)
9.9
Combustion
Combustion air intakes for fired vessels are to be located in, or ducted from, a safe area.
9.7.8
Fired Vessel (Heater) Arrangement
Any fired vessel (heater) installed within a firewall is to be arranged with means of shutdown from
outside the firewall enclosure.
Atmospheric Storage Tanks
9.9.2
56
Burners are to be equipped with a sight-glass suitable for verifying pilot light-off and for
viewing of main flame.
9.7.7
9.9.1
9.11
3-3
General
Atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks for flammable liquids are to be designed and fabricated
in accordance with one of the following standards, as applicable:
i)
3-2-2/9 of the MODU Rules for Semi, Tension Leg Platform (TLP), Deep Draft Caisson
Vessel (DDCV) or Spar type FPS and FOI
ii)
Section 3-2-10 of the Steel Vessel Rules for ship-shape FSO and FPSO
iii)
Section 3-2-3 of the Offshore Installation Rules for fixed installations
Overflows
Any storage tank larger than 20 barrels (2,312 liters) and operating at or near atmospheric pressure
is to be equipped with one or more overflow connections, sized sufficiently to remove all incoming
fluid in excess of the design operating level.
Compressors
Natural gas compressors are to comply with applicable API standards such as:
•
API Std. 617 for centrifugal compressors,
•
API Std. 618 for reciprocating compressors, and
•
API Std. 619 for rotary type positive displacement compressors.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
9.13
9.15
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
3-3
i)
Compressors rated for less than 7 kg/cm2 (100 psig) and 28.3 m3/min (1000 scfm) can be accepted
on the basis of manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance and test reports.
ii)
A fusible plug fire detection system complying with 3-8/7 and 4-8/7 as applicable, and directly
activating the emergency shutdown system, is to be installed in the compressor package.
iii)
The emergency shutdown system is to be interlocked to shutdown the compressor.
Pumps (1 July 2012)
Centrifugal pumps intended for hydrocarbon service are to comply with API Std, 610.
i)
Centrifugal pumps having stuffing box pressures in excess of 14 kg/cm2 (200 psig) are to be
provided with either single-balanced mechanical seals with means to collect and contain seal leakage,
or tandem-balanced mechanical seals with alarm, to indicate primary seal failure.
ii)
Pumps rated for 7 kg/cm2 (100 psig) and 757 liters/min (200 gpm) or less may be accepted for
hydrocarbon service, on the basis of a manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance with the requirement
of API Std. 610.
iii)
Pumps rated above 7 kg/cm2 (100 psig) and 757 liters/min (200 gpm) are to meet the following
requirements:
a)
The manufacturer is to supply a manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance to API Std. 610 to
the ABS Technical Office, regardless of size and is to include documentation on the seal
arrangement of the pump.
b)
The manufacturer is to furnish, in accordance with of API Std. 610, a statement indicating
any system or components not in compliance with the requirements, detailing and clarifying
all deviations to the Standard to the ABS Technical Office. (This is to include alternative
designs or systems that are specified for specific duties).
c)
Survey guidelines are to be in accordance with 5-1/Table 1 of these Rules.
Scraper Launchers/Receivers (1 July 2012)
Closures and barrels for scraper launchers/receivers are to be designed and constructed in accordance with
ASME Section VIII Division 1, or other equivalent recognized standard/code.
i)
Block valves are to be provided for isolation of process elements subject to pressure, to enable
their safe removal when required.
ii)
Means are to be provided to relieve pressure and to confirm the scraper launchers/receivers are not
pressurized before opening the “quick opening closure”.
9.17
Flare and Vent Structures
Flare and vent booms and ground flare structures are to be designed and constructed in accordance with
API RP 2A WSD for secondary structures.
11
Process Piping Systems
11.1
General
Process piping design, selection of valves, fittings and flanges, are to be in accordance with API RP 14E,
ASME B31.3 or other recognized standards.
11.3
Thermal Relief
Sections of piping systems that can be isolated with block valves, while they may be filled with cold liquid
or liquid at near ambient temperature, are to be provided with thermal relief valves. This is to protect the
piping from overpressure caused by solar heating or exposure to fire.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
57
Chapter
Section
11.5
3
3
3-3
Isolation Valves
i)
Block valves are to be provided for isolation of process elements subject to pressure to enable their
safe removal when required.
ii)
11.7
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
Means are to be provided to relieve pressure from the blocked piping segment before removal of
the control element.
Flexible Hoses
i)
Hose assemblies may be installed between two (2) points where flexibility is required, if they will
not be subject to twisting under normal operating conditions.
ii)
Hoses carrying flammable fluids are to be fire-resistant rated for maximum working pressure and
temperature, and reinforced with wire braid or other suitable material.
iii)
(1 July 2012) To be considered fire resistant, hoses for flammable fluid service are to pass industry
recognized fire test such as those listed in API Spec 16C “Specification for Choke and Kill Systems”
(1300°F/704°C – Pressurized full water to normal working pressure for minimum 5 minutes). For
details, see Appendix 2.
For flexible hoses in hydraulic control system, see 3-4/5.13.
iv)
11.9
Burst pressure of the hose is not to be less than three (3) times the relief valve setting.
Plastic Pipe Installations
All non-metallic piping materials used in the piping systems for conveying hydrocarbon fluid must meet
Level 1 fire endurance test, as referenced in Appendix 1 of these Rules, except as modified herein.
For a produced water piping system, a plastic pipe which passes a Level 3 fire endurance test or any equivalent
fire endurance standard (such as the testing specified in Section 10.5.1 of API Spec 16C) may be considered,
provided the following conditions are met:
i)
A metallic isolation valve (ESD Valve), arranged to close in the event of a fire, is to be connected
by metallic piping to hydrocarbon containing vessels, where the failure of the plastic piping would
result in the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. Non-metallic piping materials may only be
used beyond the ESD valve. See 3-3/Figure 1 for reference.
ii)
Fire detection, fire fighting and shutdown systems are provided.
See 3-3/Figure 1 for typical detailed arrangement.
FIGURE 1
Typical FRP/GRP Arrangement in a Process Piping Layout
Produced Water to
Discharge
Wellhead
Gas, Oil &
Water In
Gas Out
Process
Separator
Plate and Frame
Exchanger
Recovered Oil Out
Oil Out
Dirty (Oily) Water Out
ESD Valve
Hydrocyclone
Produced Water to
Discharge
FRP Material
Metallic Material
58
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
3
Floating Installations
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
3-3
13
Piping and Instrumentation Design
13.1
Process Control System
i)
Essential process parameters (such as flow rate, pressure, temperature and liquid level) are to be
automatically monitored and controlled, and the abnormal conditions are to be alarmed with visual
and audible devices.
ii)
13.3
The process control system used to maintain process variables within normal operating ranges is to be
capable of accommodating a reasonable range of abnormal or transient conditions without creating an
upset condition.
Safety System (1 July 2012)
Safety system is to be provided and comply with API RP 14C. Essential elements of the safety system are
to include:
13.3.1 Safety Sensing and Self-acting Devices
i)
The safety system is to be provided with two (2) levels of protection, primary and secondary,
with sensing and self-acting devices, which are functionally different types of devices. They
are to be in addition to process control devices used to maintain normal process parameters.
ii)
The safety system is to be capable to sense process variables. It reacts to a condition outside
acceptable limits by automatically activating an alarm and initiating the necessary protective
response.
iii)
Pressure vessels are generally fitted with pressure control valves to protect against
overpressure. Additionally, they are to be fitted with a safety system device such as Pressure
Safety High (PSH) (primary) and a Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) (secondary).
iv)
Loss of any single control or safety system component is not to cause an unsafe condition.
Example: If a production separator liquid outlet control valve sticks open, a Level Safety
Low (LSL) can protect against gas blow-by.
v)
(2016) Where High Integrity Process Protection Systems (HIPPS) are used, the design is
to comply with the local regulations and the owner’s risk tolerance criteria, whichever is more
restricted. If these risk tolerance criteria are not available to perform analyzes per the guidance
in Annex E, then as a minimum, the overall system performance including instrumented
safeguards is to provide safety integrity level 3 (SIL-3) performance in accordance with
ISA S84.01 Standard based on Section 4.2.6 of API Std 521. Use of these systems will only
be considered up to the inlet of the low pressure shutoff valve upstream of the first stage
separator/heater.
Additional applications of HIPPS other than those listed above, may be considered by ABS.
13.3.2 Fire Detection
A fusible plug system, or other means of automatically detecting fire, is to provide a shutdown
signal for production facilities, as per 3-8/7.1 and API RP 14C, Appendix C.
13.3.3 Gas Detection
Combustible and hydrogen sulfide gas detectors are to be provided, as per 3-8/7.3, to initiate
alarms and shutdowns.
13.3.4 Process Emergency Shutdowns (ESD)
i)
An emergency shutdown (ESD) system with manual stations is to be provided, in accordance
with 3-3/5.5 and API RP 14C, Appendix C, to shut down the flow of hydrocarbon from
all wells and pipelines, and to terminate all production and injection activities of the facility.
ii)
The emergency shutdown system is to be automatically activated by:
a)
The detection of an abnormal operating condition by flowline pressure sensors and
sensors on any downstream component through which the pipeline fluids flow;
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b)
The detection of fire in the wellhead and process areas;
c)
The detection of combustible gas at a 60% level of the lower explosive limit (LEL);
d)
The detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas at a level of 50 ppm.
Emergency shutdown (ESD) valves for flowlines and pipelines are to be located as far
away from the facility as practical. (See 3-8/5.11 and 4-8/5.9, as applicable).
13.3.5 Safety Analysis
i)
Safety Analysis Tables (SAT) and Safety Analysis Checklists (SAC), in accordance with
API RP 14C, are to be used to verify that the safety devices provided to protect each process
component and piping segment are adequate.
ii)
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (SAFE) Charts are to be prepared to show the integration
of all safety devices and self-protected equipment into a complete facility safety system.
15
Pressure Relieving and Hydrocarbon Disposal Systems
15.1
Pressure Relief Systems
15.1.1 Pressure Relief Valves
i)
Pressure relief valves are to be installed in accordance with API RP 14C to protect all
vessels and pressure-rated equipment from overpressurization.
ii)
Pressure relief valves are to be sized and installed in accordance with API RP 520 and
ASME Section VIII, Division 1 Appendix M.
iii)
If block valves are installed in the relieving lines, means are to be provided to ensure that
pressure relief valves are not isolated from the protected equipment.
iv)
The practice of locking open block valves to eliminate the need for higher design pressures
or additional relief protection is allowed if:
a)
Closure of the valve would not result in the pressure rising more than 1.5 times
the design pressure of the equipment or component under consideration, or
b)
Can be otherwise demonstrated that the proposed installation is safe and would
not, in any circumstance, planned or unplanned, inadvertent or intentional, result
in a risk to personnel or facilities.
See also 3-7/17.5 of these Rules for reference on block valve locking devices.
15.1.2 Gas Service
i)
Pressure relief valves in hydrocarbon gas service are to discharge to one or more closed relief
headers for atmospheric discharge at either a flare or vent. Such flare or vent discharges
are to meet the requirements of 3-3/15.5.
ii)
Pressure relief headers are to be sized to handle the maximum anticipated discharges that
could occur at any time.
iii)
Relief header sizing is to be sufficient so that excessive back-pressure does not develop,
which may prevent any pressure relief valve from relieving at its design rate.
iv)
Where necessary, separate high and low pressure relief headers are to be employed to meet
this requirement.
15.1.3 Liquid Service
i)
Pressure relief valves in liquid hydrocarbon service are to discharge to a lower pressure
system such as a tank, pump suction, sump vessel, or closed drain system.
ii)
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Discharges to drip pans or other open drains are to be limited to small volume thermal
releases.
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15.1.4 Rupture Discs (2016)
The use of rupture discs/pin actuated valves is limited to the following:
i)
In gas or gas/liquid service, rupture discs/pin actuated valves may be utilized only as backup
to pressure relief valves and they are sized for the maximum relieving conditions.
ii)
In liquid service, rupture discs/pin actuated valves may be utilized only as backup to pressure
relief valves that are sized for the maximum relieving condition. They may be installed as
primary relief devices for non-flammable, non-hazardous liquids at relieving pressures no
greater than 10.5 kg/cm2 (150 psig).
iii)
In applications where use of other relieving devices is not practical, requests for such
exceptions will be specially considered by ABS. In hydrocarbon services, rupture discs/pin
actuated valves may be utilized as primary relief devices on the low pressure side only for
the tube rupture scenario for the protection of shell and tube heat exchangers.
15.1.5 Vapor Depressurizing (1 July 2012)
i)
An emergency vapor depressurizing system is to be provided for all equipment processing
light hydrocarbon with operating pressures of 17.5 kg/cm2 (250 psig) and above, as specified
in API Std. 521.
15.3
15.5
ii)
To gain rapid control of a situation in which the source of a fire is the leakage of flammable
fluids from the equipment to be depressurized, the equipment is to be depressurized to
7 kg/cm2 (100 psig).
iii)
In cases where the equipment is handling high pressure and large inventories of hydrocarbon,
and depressurizing to 100 psig is impractical, it is acceptable to depressurize to 50% of
the equipment design pressure if such depressurization is achieved within 15 minutes.
This is provided the equipment has been designed with ample margin of safety to prevent
the vessel from failing due to overheating.
iv)
Calculations, showing the maximum allowable temperature of the equipment would not
exceed the equipment rated temperature, are to be submitted for verification. See API
Std. 521 for information on the effect of heat input to uninsulated steel vessels.
Pressure/Vacuum Venting System for Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks
(1 July 2012)
i)
All atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks and similar equipment, such as flotation cells and
atmospheric corrugated plate interception (CPI) separators, are to be provided with pressure and
vacuum relief protection, as required.
ii)
Sizing criteria for pressure and vacuum relief protection is to be in accordance with API Std. 2000.
iii)
Vent lines are to be routed to an atmospheric vent header, or to individual vents. These vent
discharges are to meet the requirements of 3-3/15.5.4.
Flares and Vents
15.5.1 Location
Flares and vents for hydrocarbon gas disposal are to be located with respect to prevailing winds.
This is to limit exposure of personnel, equipment and helicopter traffic to vented gas, flare exhaust,
or flame radiation.
15.5.2 Atmospheric Conditions
i)
Worst-case atmospheric conditions are to be used for radiation and gas dispersion
calculations.
ii)
Flame radiation calculations are normally to assume a strong wind, 32.2 km per hour
(20 miles per hour), or worst-case scenario based on the project specification, distorting
the flame pattern toward the facilities.
iii)
Dispersion calculations are normally to assume still air and low vent velocity as a worst-case
condition.
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15.5.3 Heat Radiation from Elevated Flares
i)
The calculated radiant heat intensity from flaring (including solar radiation), at any deck
level or location where normal maintenance or operating activity could take place, is not
to exceed API Std. 521 recommendations.
ii)
Note:
The flare evaluation or analysis can be based on API Std. 521 method or other recognized
industrial method. However, if an industrial method is selected, a validation study of the
model is to be made available in support of the modeling results:
a)
At the design continuous flaring rate: 1.58 kW/m2 (500 BTU/hr/ft2)
b)
At the design short duration (2 to 3 minutes) maximum flaring rate: 4.73 kw/m2
(1,500 BTU/hr/ft2).
These radiation levels (500 and 1500 BTU/hr/ft2) are only applicable to personnel, and not equipment.
Higher radiation levels may be considered on deck areas if these areas are off-limit to personnel during
normal or emergency operations, respectively.
15.5.4 Atmospheric Discharge
For hydrocarbon vapor disposal by atmospheric dispersion from a vent stack, the vent outlet is to
be of sufficient height or distance from the facilities to accomplish the following:
i)
The calculated radiant heat intensity (including solar radiation) in case of accidental ignition is
not to exceed 4.73 kW/m2 (1500 BTU/hr/ft2) at the maximum venting rate, at any deck
level or location where normal maintenance or operating activity could take place.
ii)
The following concentration of hazardous vapors, calculated in accordance with API Std. 521
or other industrial model, is not to be exceeded at any deck level where normal maintenance
or operating activity could take place, based on the reasonable worst-case conditions (e.g.,
still air and low vent velocity).
H2S:
Combustible Vapors:
10 ppm
20% LEL
iii)
The vent outlet is to be at least 8 m (25 ft) above any immediately adjacent process vessel
or hydrocarbon processing equipment, and at least 3 m (10 ft) above the top of any vessel
or equipment within an 8 m (25 ft) radius of the vent.
iv)
When a short vent stack is used in lieu of a vent boom arrangement as normally found on
the FPSO, the vent outlet is to be provided with devices to prevent the passage of flame
into the system. The pressure drop of the flame arrestor is to be considered in the vent
diameter sizing calculations.
When a dispersion model based on a modeling method other than API Std. 521 is used, a validation
study of the model is to be made available for verification.
15.5.5 Fire Extinguishing Systems for Atmospheric Vent
When a venting system is selected for disposal of hydrocarbon vapors, a vent snuffing system is to
be provided to extinguish vented gases, should they ignite.
15.5.6 Liquid Droplet Scrubbers
i)
Flare scrubber or vent scrubber vessels are to be provided and sized to separate liquid
droplets greater than 450 micrometers in diameter from the maximum calculated gas relieving
rate of the system, in accordance with API Std. 521.
ii)
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Piping between the scrubber and flare or vent is to be self-draining back to the scrubber.
If a piping low point is unavoidable, it is to be equipped with an automatic drain (e.g., a
loop seal type) with connection to the open drain system.
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15.5.7 Ground Flares
i)
Ground flares may be used in place of the high stack flare.
ii)
Ground flares are to be provided with automatic controls which will divert the flow of
flare gas to a vent stack upon detection of flame failure, unless gas dispersion calculations
show that the vapor concentrations do not exceed those specified in 3-3/15.5.4ii) under
flame-out conditions.
iii)
Draining connections are to be provided, to remove accumulated condensate or water to
the open drain system.
15.5.8 Flashback Protection
i)
Burn-back and flashback protection for flares is to be provided by sufficient purge gas
rate maintained from a reliable source, or by a seal drum to prevent air intrusion.
ii)
The purge gas source is to have sufficient gas supply for continuous purging during
production shutdown, or for a complete purging of the flare system before re-ignition of
the flare.
iii)
(1 July 2012) The sizing of a seal drum is to be in accordance with API Std. 521.
15.5.9 Flare Ignition
The flare system is to be provided with means for purging sufficiently (below 5% of oxygen
content) before ignition to prevent explosion inside the flare system.
17
Spill Containment, Open and Closed Drain Systems
17.1
Spill Containment
17.1.1 General
Spill containment is to be provided in areas subject to hydrocarbon liquid or chemical spills, such as
areas around process vessels and storage tanks with drain or sample connections, pumps, compressors,
engines, glycol systems, oil metering units, and chemical storage and dispensing areas.
17.1.2 Containment (1 May 2006)
i)
Spill containment is to utilize curbing or drip edges at deck level, recessed drip pans, and
containment by floor gutters, firewalls or protective walls, or equivalent means to prevent
spread of discharged liquids to other areas and spillover to lower levels.
ii)
17.3
Where equipment is protected by a fixed foam fire extinguishing system, a minimum of
150 mm (6 in.) coaming is to be provided.
Open Drain Piping
17.3.1 General
Each containment area, as well as any other plated deck or skid area subject to rainwater or other
liquid accumulation, is to be equipped with drains connected to an open drain system, and installed
and located so as to prevent the accumulation of standing liquid.
17.3.2 Line Sizing and Arrangement
i)
Open drain piping is to be self-draining with a slope of not less than 1:100.
ii)
Lines are to be sized for gravity drainage without backup or overflow, based on a full drainage
rate from any single source, with consideration given to the maximum rainfall condition.
17.3.3 Cleanouts
Cleanouts or flushing connections are to be provided for removal of sediment or solids from open
drains subject to potential blockage.
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17.3.4 Disposal
Open drains are to be piped individually or collected in one or more piping systems, which are to
convey the fluids, by gravity or pumping, to oily water treatment or final disposal location.
17.5
Sealing of Open Drains
17.5.1 General
Piping drain traps, floor drains with integral drain seal, submerged open-ended pipes, or other
means of utilizing liquid head, are to be provided to prevent vapor release from the sump or drain
vessel to atmosphere.
17.5.2 Drain Seals (1 July 2012)
i)
A seal is to be provided at each open drain location where flammable liquids (diesel fuel,
tube oil, glycol, crude oil, etc.) could be present in an open drain system, except as permitted
by 3-3/17.5.4 below. This is to prevent flammable vapors evolving from the liquids in the
drain system from being released to atmosphere.
ii)
Each such seal is to have a minimum effective water seal height of 3.8 cm (1.5 in.).
17.5.3 Pressure Seals
i)
Where an open drain system is subject to an applied pressure, such as pad gas on the sump
or drain vessel which receives the open drainage, a liquid seal is to be provided on each
drain header or drain line connected to the source of pressure.
ii)
Minimum effective liquid seal height (unless increased by provisions of 3-3/17.5.4 below)
is to be 150 mm (6 in.), or 80 mm (3 in.) over the pad gas pressure, whichever is greater.
iii)
Where such sealing is accomplished by submerging the open end of each line feeding the
sump or drain vessel, the minimum operating liquid level in the vessel is to be maintained
and minimum seal height is to be increased proportionally for submergence in liquids of
specific gravity less than 1.0.
17.5.4 Hot and Dry Climates
For installations located in hot, dry climates, it is recognized that water seals on open drain systems
exposed to ambient conditions are of limited use, since the seals quickly evaporate and are rarely
replenished by rainfall. For such installations, the following provisions apply:
i)
Individual local drain seals per 3-3/17.5.2 above are not required.
ii)
Drain header seals per 3-3/17.5.3 above are to be provided on each open drain line or header
connected to a hydrocarbon containing sump or drain vessel.
iii)
Where pad gas or other imposed pressure is present, the minimum effective seal height is to
be increased by 50 mm (2 in.).
17.5.5 Protection Against Freezing
In areas where drain seals are subject to freezing, means are to be provided to prevent the drain
seal from freezing.
17.7
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Segregation of Open Drain Systems
Drains from classified and unclassified areas are to be separate. When this requirement cannot be met,
drains from classified and unclassified areas or between different zone areas are to be connected or led to a
drain tank in a hazardous area. The following requirements are applicable:
i)
Non-hazardous area drain header is to be equipped with a stop check valve at the safe area bulkhead,
together with a loop seal with a leg length of at least 762 mm (30 in) installed before the inlet to
the drain tank.
ii)
The loop seal is to be so installed as to prevent freezing.
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iii)
Where drainage arrangement is such that the drain header from the classified areas are physically
located lower than the unclassified areas, and there is no possibility of back flow into the safe areas,
the check valve may not be needed.
iv)
Drain outlets within the tank are to discharge against the tank side.
v)
Vent outlets from the subject drain tank are to be led to the main deck, be equipped with a flame
screen, and treated as Zone 1 and/or 2, as applicable.
When pumping systems are used to remove liquids from hazardous areas or from drain tanks mentioned above,
branch suctions from safe and hazardous areas are to be arranged so that such areas cannot be pumped
simultaneously.
17.9
Closed Drain Systems
17.9.1 General
i)
Drains or liquid relief from process vessels, piping or other sources that could exceed
atmospheric pressure are to be hard piped without an atmospheric break to a drain vessel.
ii)
The drain vessel is to be provided with pressure relief valve(s), which are to be sized to
handle the maximum flow of gas or liquid that could occur under blocked outlet condition.
17.9.2 Connection to Open Drain System
Drains or liquid relief from vessels containing non-toxic, non-flammable liquids, may be connected
to an unclassified open drain piping system if the open drain system is sized to accommodate these
additional drains.
17.11 Overboard Discharges from the Production Treatment Plan
i)
Although the overboard discharge from the production treatment plan onboard is not subject to
MARPOL 73/78 (Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil), the discharge is to
conform to the national and/or regional regulations.
ii)
In accordance with MARPOL 73/78, only discharges from machinery space, not from the offshore
processing drainage, production water, or from displacement, are subject to the MARPOL regulations.
See Appendix 5, Unified Interpretations of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 for reference.
19
Structural Modules (1 July 2012)
19.1
General
The structural design of deck modules is to be in accordance with ABS Rules for Building and Classing
Floating Production Installations (FPI Rules) and ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore
Installations (OI Rules), as applicable, and to comply with the following:
19.3
i)
Plans and calculations are to be provided for verification.
ii)
Process liquid weights and dynamic loads due to vessel motions are to be considered.
iii)
If the vessel hull girder deflection has significant effects on the structure, this is to be taken into
account in the design.
Structural Design of Deck Modules and Supports
i)
Structural design of deck modules and module supports are to be designed following guidelines
given in 5A-1-5 of the FPI Rules.
ii)
The design should include a finite element analysis of the deck module and supports considering
loading which produce the most unfavorable effects on the module for pre-service and in-service
conditions.
iii)
The module structures above their supports are to be analyzed and shown explicitly on the drawings
so that the construction of the module supports can be consistent with those assumed in the structural
analysis.
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iv)
Loading criteria to be considered in the design are given in 3-1/7.5 of these Rules.
v)
Linear elastic methods (working stress method) are generally employed in the analysis. The resulting
structural responses are not to exceed the safety criteria given in 5B-3-3/5.3.4 of the FPI Rules.
Acceptance criteria for module supports are given in 5A-1-4/7 of the FPI Rules.
vi)
Fatigue analysis of the modules is generally not required. However fatigue analysis is required for
the deck supports at the module/ship deck interface in accordance with 5A-1-4/7.5 of the FPI Rules.
vii)
Material and Welding are to be in accordance with 5A-1-3/1.13 of the FPI Rules.
21
Subsea Production (1 July 2012)
21.1
General
The subsea productions systems and associated equipment are to comply with API 17s Series and the
requirements of these Rules, as applicable.
21.3
Flowlines and Manifolds
Flowlines and manifolds transporting gas and liquid in two-phase flow are to be designed and sized in
accordance with API RP 14E.
Flowline valves are to be in accordance with API Spec. 6A.
21.5
i)
Flow lines are to be fitted with a remotely operated shutoff valve at the first flange (as close as
possible) on the loading manifold connecting the flexible lines that lead to the installation. These
remote operated valves are to close upon actuation of the ESD System.
ii)
Boarding valves or first shutdown valves on board the installation are to be fire safe and tested to
API Spec 6FA.
Wellheads and Subsea Equipment
Christmas tree assemblies and subsea equipment are not part of the classification boundaries for a normal
production facility. However, the equipment may be classed if desired by the owner. The following
requirements are applicable:
21.5.1 Wellheads
i)
Christmas tree assemblies including tubing head adapters, valves, tees, crosses, and chokes,
are to comply with API Spec. 6A.
ii)
Wellhead surface safety valves (SSV) and underwater safety valves (USV) are to comply
with ISO 10418.
21.5.2 Subsea Equipment and Production Systems
i)
Subsea production systems include, but are not limited to, template, wet or dry tree
assemblies, well manifold, subsea production equipment, riser base or pipeline end manifold,
riser, control pods and umbilicals, chokes and subsea safety valves.
66
ii)
The design of each component is to be in accordance with a recognized standard such as
API 17s Series for subsea production systems.
iii)
The design is to take into consideration the mechanical loads due to buoyancy, pressure
(internal and external), thermal expansion and contraction, and pre-stressing, and
environmental loads due to wave current, ice, and earthquake.
iv)
Subsea completion wells are to be designed for automatic shutdown upon detecting flow
pressure outside a preset level, or upon receiving ESD signals from the topside facilities.
v)
Subsea control system and equipment are to be designed and constructed per requirements
of API 14s Series and 17s Series, where applicable.
vi)
Where well fluid is not received on the installation directly from the well, means are to be
provided to detect the actuation of ESD system, which will enable all subsea valves to
shut-in.
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Section 4: Process Support Systems
CHAPTER
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SECTION
4
Process Support Systems
1
General (1 July 2012)
This Section provides requirements for the design and installation of process support systems on floating
installations.
Process support systems are utility and auxiliary systems that complement the hydrocarbon production and
process systems. See 3-2/9 for list of typical process support systems.
Process and platform support piping design criteria are to be in accordance with API RP 14E, ASME 31.3
or other recognized codes and/or standards.
General arrangement of these systems is to comply with API RP 14J, or other recognized codes and/or
standards.
The documentation requirements for design review are given in Chapter 3, Section 2.
3
Equipment Requirements
The requirements listed below are intended for the equipment of process support systems not covered in
Chapter 3, Section 3.
3.1
3.3
3.5
Pressure Vessels (1 July 2012)
i)
Pressure vessels are to be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the ASME Section
VIII Division 1 or Division 2 or equivalent recognized codes and/or standards.
ii)
The design is also to ensure that stresses due to external nozzle loads and moments, stresses due to
acceleration forces arising out of the motion of the floating installation, and stresses due to any
other applicable external forces, such as wind, are within the limits allowed by the design code.
iii)
Consideration will be given to arrangements and details of pressure vessels that can be shown to
comply with other recognized codes and/or standards, provided they are of equivalent level of safety.
Heat Exchangers (1 July 2012)
i)
Heat exchangers are to be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the ASME Section
VIII Division 1 or Division 2, TEMA Standards, API Std. 660, or API Std. 661, as applicable, or
equivalent recognized codes and/or standards.
ii)
See 3-4/3.1ii) for design requirements.
iii)
See 3-4/3.1iii) for alternatives to recognized codes and/or standards.
Pumps
All pumps for process support service are to comply with a recognized industrial standard such as ANSI,
UL, ASME, etc., and may be accepted on the basis of manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance with a recognized
industrial standard.
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3.7
Compressors
Compressors, such as those used with air or refrigeration systems, are to be designed to a recognized industrial
standard, and may be accepted on the basis of manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance with a recognized
industrial standard.
3.9
Prime Movers (Internal Combustion Engines and Turbines)
3.9.1
General
i)
Engines and turbines are to be designed and constructed in accordance with a recognized
industry standard or code of practice, and be suitable for the full range of possible operating
conditions, including angles of heel and trim, and accelerations due to floating structure
roll, pitch and yaw.
ii)
Additionally, prime movers for emergency services on floating structures are to be shown
suitable for extended periods of operation at the maximum angles of heel, trim, pitch, and roll.
iii)
Gas turbines are to comply with API Std. 616, as applicable.
iv)
Manufacturer’s affidavit verifying compliance with recognized standards are to be submitted.
v)
For engines and turbines of less than 100 kW (134 hp), manufacturer’s affidavit may be
presented and accepted by the attending Surveyor.
3.9.2
Installation
The installation of internal combustion engines and gas turbines is to be approved by ABS, and is
to comply with a recognized standard such as NFPA Std. No. 37, as applicable.
3.9.3
Engines in Classified Areas
i)
Combustion engines are not to be installed in Class 1, Division 1 areas, unless they are
installed in an enclosure of fire resistive construction with adequate ventilation from a
non-classified area.
ii)
3.9.4
68
Spark ignition engines may not be installed in Class 1, Division 2 areas, except when
natural gas fuel is utilized, in accordance with the provisions of NFPA Standard 37. See
3-6/15 for hazardous areas.
Exhaust Manifolds
i)
Exhaust manifolds and piping are to be shielded for ignition prevention and personnel
protection.
ii)
Explosion relief valves or other appropriate protection against explosion are to be provided
in the exhaust and scavenge manifolds.
iii)
The explosion relief valves are to be of the return-seating type.
iv)
The arrangement and location of the valves is to minimize the dangers from emission of
flame.
v)
(2017) Exhaust piping from internal combustion engines and gas turbines is to discharge
into non-hazardous areas. See 3-6/15 for hazardous areas. Internal combustion engines
exhaust piping is to be equipped with spark arresters. Gas turbines exhaust piping need not
be equipped with spark arresters, provided that the following conditions are complied with:
i)
The gas turbine is fueled with gas fuel or alternatively and for short periods only,
with light diesel fuel;
ii)
The gas turbine control system includes a flameout control feature, based on multiple
flame scanners suitably arranged (e.g., according to a 2-out-of-3 voting scheme)
and fail-safe, that shuts-down combustion upon detection of flame failure and
triggers an appropriate purging sequence, to be also automatically implemented
prior to each start up;
iii)
The gas turbine exhaust is not be interconnected with diesel engines exhausts.
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3.9.5
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Process Support Systems
3-4
Air Intakes (1 July 2015)
i)
Air intakes to internal combustion engines and gas turbines are to be not less than 3 m (10 ft)
from hazardous areas.
ii)
An explosion relief valve or other appropriate protection against explosion is to be provided
in the air inlet manifold.
iii)
Automatic air intake shut-off valves or equivalent arrangements are to be provided for all
internal combustion engines in order to prevent the uncontrolled overspeeding of the internal
combustion engine in the event of ingestion of flammable gas. This requirement is
applicable to all internal combustion engines including engines in hazardous areas, engines
in non-hazardous areas and engines installed in enclosed machinery spaces.
Automatic air intake shut-off valves or equivalent arrangements are to be provided in
accordance with 4-1-2/1.3 of the MODU Rules.
3.9.6
Starting Air
i)
Means are to be provided to exclude gas from starting air if the engine is air-started.
ii)
3.9.7
Starting air branch pipes to each cylinder are also to be provided with flame arresters.
Protection of Crankcase and Piston Underside Space
3.9.7(a) Ventilation and Monitoring.
i)
ii)
For a trunk piston type engine, the following are to be provided:
a)
Ventilation is to be provided for the crankcase to prevent accumulation of gas.
b)
Arrangements are to be made so that any blow-by gas may readily reach the vent.
c)
The crankcase vent is to be led to a safe location in the atmosphere through a
flame arrester.
d)
The crankcase is also to be protected by an oil mist detector and gas detecting or
equivalent equipment.
For a cross-head type engine, the following are to be provided:
a)
The crankcase is to be protected by an oil mist detector or bearing temperature
detector.
b)
Gas detection or equivalent equipment is to be provided for the piston underside
space.
3.9.7(b) Explosion Relief Valves.
i)
Where explosion relief valves are fitted, the valves are to be sized based on the expected
detonation pressure resulting from the ignition of fuel oil, fuel gas, and lubricating oil vapors.
ii)
Since the detonation pressure depends on the length of flame travel, it may be necessary to
increase the relief areas, or provide more than one (1) relief valve for each crankthrow.
3.9.7(c) Warning Notice.
i)
To caution against opening a hot crankcase, suitable warning notices are to be fitted,
preferably on a crankcase door on each side of the engine, or on the engine/turbine control
stand.
ii)
The notices are to specify a period of time for cooling after shutdown, (based on the size
of the engine, but not less than 10 minutes in any case) before safely opening the door.
iii)
The notices are to include a caution that the crankcase is not to be opened until adequate
precautions have been taken to insure that no gas remains trapped in the crankcase.
iv)
The notice is also to warn against restarting an overheating engine/turbine until the cause
of overheating has been remedied.
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Chapter
Section
3
4
3.9.8
Floating Installations
Process Support Systems
3-4
Regulators
i)
When the gas pressure on the upstream side of a regulator exceeds 350 mm (14 in) of
H2O, a relief valve is to be installed on the downstream side.
ii)
This relief valve is to discharge to a safe location in the atmosphere through a flame arrester.
iii)
The capacity of the relief valve is to be adequate in venting the volume of gas that would
pass through the regulator if that device should fail.
3.11
Cranes (Optional) (1 July 2012)
Cranes and hoists are to comply with API Spec 2C, API RP 2D, or ABS Guide for Certification of Lifting
Appliances, when requested by the Owner.
5
System Requirements
Process support piping design, selection of valves, fittings, and flanges are to be in accordance with, API
RP 14E, ASME B31.3 or other recognized standards.
For plastic piping, the requirements of Appendix 1 are applicable.
5.1
Utility/Instrument Air System
5.1.1
Arrangement
i)
Utility and instrument air may be supplied by a single air compressor or by a separate
compressor for each service.
ii)
5.3
70
When using a single compressor for both services, controls are to be provided to give priority
to instrument air requirements.
5.1.2
Air Quality
Instrument air is to be oil-free and dried to prevent liquids and dirt from entering pneumatic
instruments.
5.1.3
Piping
i)
Air compressor suctions are to be at least 3 m (10 ft) from hazardous areas.
ii)
Air outlets from compressors are to be fitted with non-return valves and discharged into
air receivers/scrubbers for oil and water removal.
iii)
Instrument piping is to be installed to minimize low points, and provisions are to be included
in the piping to allow removal of condensation.
iv)
Crossovers where air and combustible fluids could be intermixed are not permitted anywhere
in the system.
Fuel/Instrument Gas System
i)
Gas used for fuel or instrument systems is to be passed through a gas scrubber to remove entrained
liquid.
ii)
The instrument gas may also have to be dried to meet requirements of the specific equipment that
will use the gas.
iii)
Gas containing hydrogen sulfide is not to be used as instrument gas.
iv)
Where gas is used for instrument systems, the area classification in way of these instruments is to
be in accordance with API RP 500 or 505.
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Chapter
Section
5.5
3
4
5.9
Cross connection of the piping systems may be made where means are provided for avoiding possible
contamination of the non-hazardous fluid system by the hazardous medium.
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
i)
Enclosed spaces located on the production deck having boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion
engines using produced gas as fuel, are to have ventilation systems providing at least 30 air changes
per hour.
ii)
These spaces are to be fitted with gas detection systems to alarm at 20% L.E.L., and to activate
automatic shutdown of the gas supply at 60% L.E.L.
iii)
The automatic shutdown valve is to be located outside the space.
iv)
This valve is also to be activated upon loss of the required ventilation in the enclosed space, and
upon detection of abnormal pressure in the gas supply line.
v)
For produced gas containing hydrogen sulfide, provisions are to be made for gas sweetening, unless
the equipment manufacturer has certified the equipment’s suitability for sour gas application, and
the equipment is located in a freely ventilated, open space.
vi)
To bring fuel gas containing H2S to equipment located in an enclosed machinery space, the sour
gas must be sweetened. Additionally, the machinery space is to be equipped with H2S gas detectors.
The detectors are to be set to alarm at 10 ppm, and to activate the shutdown valve at 50 ppm.
vii)
Burner control systems are to be in accordance with NFPA 8501.
Purging System for Process Equipment
5.9.1
5.9.2
Purging
i)
Process equipment and systems are to be purged prior to initial startup.
ii)
They are also to be purged when being put back into service after shutdown, if there is a
possibility of oxygen entering the system during shutdown.
iii)
Facilities not equipped for storage of liquid hydrocarbon may only require temporary inert
gas storage containers. (For facilities equipped for storage, refer to 3-5/5.3 for floating
installations, and 4-4/7 for fixed installations.
Oxygen Content and Monitor
i)
The oxygen content of the inert gas used is not to exceed 5% by volume.
ii)
5.9.3
5.11
3-4
Segregation of Piping Systems
i)
Piping systems carrying non-hazardous fluids are to be segregated from piping systems that may
contain hazardous fluids.
ii)
5.7
Floating Installations
Process Support Systems
Oxygen monitoring equipment is to be provided to monitor oxygen levels in the inert gas
supply.
Isolating Valves
Shutoff valves are to be fitted at the inlet and outlet of the final pressure regulator in a stored purging
gas system.
Fuel Oil System
This section of these Rules is applicable to all fuel oil systems located on the production deck that supply fuel
to the process equipment.
For fuel oil systems serving marine support functions such as the fuel oil system for the vessel/unit service
generator or for the helicopter deck refueling facility, see the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules for applicable
requirements.
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Section
3
4
Floating Installations
Process Support Systems
3-4
5.11.1 Pumping Arrangements
Fuel oil pumping arrangements are to be completely separate from other pumping systems, and
are not to be connected to other piping systems.
5.11.2 Pump Controls
i)
Fuel oil transfer pumps, fuel oil unit pumps, and other similar fuel pumps are to be fitted
with local and remote controls so they may be stopped in case of an emergency.
ii)
Remote controls are to be located in a space not affected by fire at the pump locations.
5.11.3 Containment
A containment at least 150 mm (6 in.) high is to be provided at unloading and/or offloading stations,
pump areas, and overflow/vent line locations, and arranged to direct a possible leak or spill to the
open drain system.
5.11.4 Valves on Oil Tanks
i)
Where pipelines emanate from oil tanks at such a level that they will be subjected to a static
head of oil from the tank, they are to be fitted with a positive closing valve located at the tank.
ii)
Gray cast iron valves are not to be used as shutoff valves for fuel oil tanks.
iii)
Arrangements are to be provided for closing the tank’s valve locally and from a space not
affected by fire at the fuel oil tank location. This requirement may be omitted if the tank
capacity is less than 132 US gallons (500 liters).
5.11.5 Non-metallic Expansion Joints and Hoses (1 July 2012)
i)
Non-metallic expansion joints and hoses for use in fuel oil systems are only allowed at
machinery connections, provided they are in an easily accessible position, and pass the API
Spec 16C fire test. See Appendix 2 of these Rules for API Spec 16C fire test requirements.
ii)
5.13
Non-metallic expansion joints and hoses are not allowed for connecting runs of pipes for
expansion and deflection purposes in fuel oil systems.
Hydraulic System
This section of these Rules is applicable to all hydraulic oil systems located on the production deck that
supply hydraulic fluid to control systems of process related equipment.
For hydraulic systems that are serving both industrial support and marine support functions, see 3-5/5.1 of
these Rules.
5.15
i)
High flash point hydraulic fluids are to be used, unless a specific system design requires the use of
low flash point fluids.
ii)
When low flash point fluids are used, precautions are to be taken to minimize fire hazard, by insulating
nearby hot surfaces that could ignite a low flash point fluid. See 3-8/17.5 or 4-8/17.5, as applicable.
iii)
(1 July 2012) Non-metallic hoses used for oil based hydraulic fluid in all hydraulic control systems,
except BOP control system, must pass API Spec 16C fire test or equivalent. See Appendix 2 of
these Rules for API Spec 16C fire test requirements.
iv)
Gray cast iron material is not allowed for supply valves on oil based hydraulic storage tank.
Lubricating Oil System
5.15.1 Interconnection
The lubricating oil piping is to be entirely separated from other piping systems.
5.15.2 Valves on Lubricating Oil Storage Tanks
Normally opened valves on lubricating oil storage tanks are to comply with the requirements as those
for fuel oil tanks given in 3-4/5.11.4.
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3-4
5.15.3 Turbines
i)
Automatic Shut-off. Turbines are to be provided with a means of automatically shutting
off the steam or gas turbine fuel supply upon failure of the lubricating oil system.
ii)
iii)
Indicators.
a)
Indicators are to be fitted to allow monitoring of the pressure and temperature of
the water inlet and oil outlet of the oil coolers.
b)
Pressure systems are to be fitted with low-pressure alarm.
c)
Sump and gravity tanks are to be provided with suitable gauges for determining
the level of oil within the tank.
Strainers and Filters.
a)
For auxiliary turbines, a magnetic strainer and fine mesh filter (strainer) are to be
provided in the lubricating oil piping to the turbine.
b)
Strainers are to be so arranged as to prevent, in the event of leakage, spraying oil
onto heated surfaces.
5.15.4 Internal Combustion Engines
i)
Lubricating Oil Pumps. The lubricating oil pump is to be of sufficient capacity for the
maximum output of the engine.
5.17
ii)
Filters. Lubrication oil filter is to be provided and so arranged as to prevent, in case of
leakage, spraying oil onto heated surfaces.
iii)
Low Oil Pressure Alarm. An alarm device with audible and visual signals for failure of
the lubricating oil system is to be fitted.
Chemical Injection System
5.17.1 Materials
i)
The chemical storage tank, pumps, and piping are to be suitable for the chemicals being
handled.
ii)
Affidavit from tank manufacturers confirming the tank material is compatible with the
chemical being stored is to be provided.
iii)
Fiberglass reinforced polyester independent tanks may be considered for non-flammable
chemicals only.
iv)
For metallic tanks containing flammable or combustible fluids, scantling plans and
calculations are to be submitted for review.
v)
Atmospheric and low pressure metallic storage tanks for flammable liquids are to be
designed and fabricated in accordance with 3-2-2/9 of the MODU Rules, Section 3-2-10 of
the Steel Vessel Rules or Section 3-2-3 of the Offshore Installation Rules, as applicable.
vi)
(1 July 2012) Design and construction of non-metallic tanks for non-flammable liquids
are to be in accordance with industry-recognized standards, such as ASME Section X,
API Spec. 12P (FRP) or applicable ASTM standards.
vii)
Alternatively, all tanks may be accepted based on the manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance
with an applicable standard.
5.17.2 Arrangement and Components
i)
For multi-chemical systems, a separate tank or tank compartment is to be provided for each
chemical used.
ii)
Chemical storage tanks are to be provided with atmospheric vents and level glasses.
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3-4
iii)
(2016) Flame arrester is to be provided to flammable or combustible tank vent. The use of
a flame arrester increases the pressure drop of the venting system and this pressure drop is
to be accounted for in the design pressure of the tank. Flame arrester vendor calculations
are to be submitted for verification of tank design pressure as per API Std 2000.
iv)
The discharge of each pump is to be provided with a pressure relief device to return the
chemical to the pump suction or chemical tank.
v)
(2016) Injection lines are to be fitted with non-return valves, and means are to be provided to
automatically shut down single head of the injection pump in the event of process shutdowns.
For systems fitted with Injection Rate Control Device (IRCD), injection lines are to be fitted
with non-return valves, and means are to be provided to automatically close the affected
injection line in the event of process shutdowns. Alternatively, in the event of total process
shutdown of the injection points driven by the same pump, means are to be provided to
automatically shut down the injection pumps.
For multiple head pumps, injection lines are to be fitted with non-return valves, and means
are to be provided to automatically shut down the injection pumps in the event of total
process shutdown of all the injection points driven by the same pump.
5.19
Heating and Cooling Systems
The medium used for heating or cooling any hydrocarbon system is to be contained solely within the classified
area, unless the return line of the heating or cooling system to a non-classified area is provided with means
to detect any hydrocarbon contamination.
5.21
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution Storage
The sodium hypochlorite solution injected into the seawater system to combat the growth of marine organisms
and algae that could foul filters and pipelines is considered highly corrosive.
i)
Stainless steel or GRP storage tank may be considered.
ii)
The solution also produces hydrogen gas; therefore, the storage tanks are to be located in a
well-ventilated open deck area.
5.23
Control of Static Electricity
Refer to 3-6/29.
7
Drilling Systems
See the MODU Rules and the ABS Guide for the Classification of Drilling Systems for applicable requirements
for the drilling, workover, and completion systems.
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Section 5: Marine Support Systems
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
5
Marine Support Systems
1
General (1 July 2012)
Marine support systems are to be in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Vessel Rules or the
MODU Rules, except as modified herein and in Chapter 3, Sections 6, 7 and 8.
See 3-2/11 for list of typical marine support systems.
3
Equipment Requirements (1 July 2012)
3.1
Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels are to be in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules.
3.3
i)
Where applicable, the design is also to ensure that stresses due to external nozzle loads and moments,
stresses due to acceleration forces arising out of the motion of the floating installation, and stresses due
to any other applicable external forces are within the limits allowed by the design code or standard.
ii)
Consideration will be given to arrangements and details of pressure vessels that can be shown to
comply with other recognized codes and/or standards, provided they are of equivalent level of safety.
Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are to be in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules.
i)
See 3-5/3.1i) for design requirements.
ii)
See 3-5/3.1ii) for alternatives to recognized codes and/or standards
5
System Requirements
5.1
Pipe System Interconnections
i)
If a system is serving marine support and industrial functions (i.e., hydraulic power to ballast control
valves, process shutdown valves, etc.), the design criteria of the system are to meet the Steel Vessel
Rules or MODU Rules, as applicable.
ii)
If portions of the system serve only industrial functions and can be isolated from the part serving
marine functions, the less severe industrial criteria can be applied to that part of the system up to,
but not including, the isolating valve.
iii)
For industrial systems design criteria, see 3-3/11.1 and 3-4/1, as applicable.
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Chapter
Section
5.3
5.5
3
5
5.9
i)
The inert gas system is to be designed and constructed in accordance with 5C-1-7/25 of the Steel
Vessel Rules, except as modified below.
ii)
Either inert gas or produced gas is to be used to maintain crude oil storage tanks with a positive
pressure in relation to the surrounding atmosphere, and with an oxygen content not exceeding 5%
by volume in the inert gas supply main to the storage tanks.
iii)
The system is to be capable of maintaining the atmosphere in any part of any storage tank with an
oxygen content not exceeding 8% by volume.
iv)
The storage tanks are to be previously purged with inert gas when produced gas is used for tank
blanketing.
Oil Storage Tanks Venting System
i)
Where pressure/vacuum relief valves are fitted on crude oil storage tanks, pressure relief lines are
to be connected to the low-pressure (less than 2.5 psig) flare header, or vented to a safe location.
The oil storage tanks venting system is to be designed and constructed in accordance with 5C-1-7/11
of the Steel Vessel Rules.
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
i)
Enclosed spaces above decks having boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion engines using
produced gas as fuel, are to have ventilation systems providing at least 30 air changes per hour.
ii)
These spaces are to be fitted with gas detection systems to alarm at 20% L.E.L., and to activate
automatic shutdown of the gas supply at 60% L.E.L.
iii)
The automatic shutdown valve is to be located outside the space. This valve is also to be activated
upon loss of the required ventilation in the enclosed space, and upon detection of abnormal pressure
in the gas supply line.
iv)
For produced gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), provisions are to be made for gas sweetening,
unless the equipment manufacturer has certified the suitability of the equipment for sour gas
application, and the equipment is located in a freely ventilated open space.
v)
To bring fuel gas containing H2S to the equipment located in an enclosed machinery space, the sour
gas must be sweetened.
vi)
Additionally, the machinery space is to be equipped with H2S gas detectors.
vii)
The detectors are to be set to alarm at 10 ppm (part per million), and to activate the shutdown valve
at 50 ppm.
viii)
Use of produced gas as fuel for boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion engines located within
machinery spaces under decks, is to comply with 5C-8-16 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
ix)
For floating installations with no Disconnectable À AMS notation, the dual fuel requirements
listed in 5C-8-16/5 “Special requirements for main boilers” and 5C-8-16/9 “General” of the Steel
Vessel Rules are not applicable.
x)
Burner control systems are to be in accordance with 4-4-1/11 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
Flammable Liquid Storage Facility Arrangement
i)
The storage of flammable liquids having a flash point of 60°C (140°F) or less, such as methanol,
in integral hull tanks requires, in many respects, the application of “Tanker” requirements.
ii)
76
3-5
Oil Storage Tank Purging and Blanketing Systems
On facilities equipped for storage of liquid hydrocarbons, a permanently installed inert gas system is to be
provided for tank purging and blanketing.
ii)
5.7
Floating Installations
Marine Support Systems
Section 5C-1-7 of the Steel Vessel Rules is applicable for pumping, piping, venting and electrical
arrangements.
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5
Floating Installations
Marine Support Systems
3-5
iii)
With regard to the general arrangement and tank locations, cofferdams may be required to prevent
hazardous area delineation in adjacent spaces, and the pumping/piping are to be arranged
independently from all other systems.
iv)
Transfer pumps and piping (including fill, discharge, vent and sounding piping) are not to be located
in, or pass through, the machinery spaces.
See 3-8/5.5 of these Rules for fire protection requirements.
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Section 6: Electrical Systems
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
6
Electrical Systems
1
Applicability
Electrical systems used solely for hydrocarbon processing on floating installations are to meet the requirements
of these Rules. Where electrical systems or equipment are used to supply services other than Oil or Gas
Production, the equipment is also to comply with the relevant ABS Class Rules on the basis of the structural
type of the facility in Appendix 5.
3
General (1 July 2012)
Electrical installations are to comply with these Rules and API RP 14F.
i)
Consideration will be given to the use of other recognized industry or international standards, such
as IEC, provided they are of equivalent level of safety, and the entire system is designed to such
standards.
ii)
For installations classified by class and zone, the requirements of API RP 14FZ is to be in full
compliance.
5
Design Considerations
5.1
Equipment and Enclosures (1 July 2012)
Electrical equipment and enclosures subject to the offshore environment are to be provided with a degree
of protection suitable to the environment or hazard in which they are located, in accordance with API RP
14F or other recognized standard.
5.3
Selection of Materials
Materials of construction are to be selected that are suitable for their intended service and location.
5.5
Equipment Grounding (Earthing) Arrangements
5.5.1
5.5.2
78
Permanent Electrical Equipment
i)
All electrical equipment with metallic enclosures, whose arrangement and method of
installation does not assure positive grounding to the metal hull or equivalent conducting
body, is to be permanently grounded through a separate conductor, and protected against
damage.
ii)
(1 July 2012) Where separate grounding conductors are required, they are to be in accordance
with API RP 14F.
iii)
Systems designed to other recognized standards are to comply with such standards, but in
no case are the separate grounding conductors to be of a cross-sectional area of less than
indicated in 3-6/Table 2.
Lightning Protection (1 July 2012)
Equipment and structure are to be protected against lightning damage in accordance with NFPA
780 or other recognized standard.
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Chapter
Section
5.7
3
6
3-6
System Grounding (Earthing)
(1 July 2012) Where electrical systems are used solely for process facilities, system grounding is to comply
with API RP 14F.
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.9
Floating Installations
Electrical Systems
Vessels with Integral Hull Tanks
If the facility has integral hull tanks containing liquids with a flash point not exceeding 60°C
(140°F), a grounded distribution system is not to be used, except for the following:
i)
Grounded intrinsically safe circuits
ii)
Power supplied control circuits and instrumentation circuits where technical or safety reasons
preclude the use of a system without a grounding connection, provided the current in the
hull is limited to 5 Amperes or less in both normal and fault conditions.
iii)
Limited and locally grounded systems, provided any possible resulting current does not
flow directly through any hazardous areas.
iv)
Alternating current power networks of 1 kV root mean square (r.m.s.) (line to line) and over,
provided any possible resulting current does not flow directly through any hazardous areas.
Ground (Earth) Return Paths Through the Hull
The metal structure of an offshore installation is not to be used as a normal current return for the
electrical distribution system, except for the following systems:
i)
Impressed current cathodic protection
ii)
Limited and locally grounded systems for battery systems for engine starting having a
one-wire system and the ground lead connected to the engine
iii)
Grounded intrinsically safe circuits
Distribution and Circuit Protection
Electrical installations are to comply with API RP 14F as noted herein.
5.9.1
General
i)
All ungrounded conductors and the devices and circuits which they serve are to be protected
against over-current.
ii)
5.9.2
Protective devices are to be provided to guard against overload and short circuit currents,
and to open the circuit if the current reaches a value that will cause excessive or dangerous
temperatures in the conductor or conductor insulation.
Motor Controllers (1 July 2012)
Motor starting and control installations, including overload protection and short circuit protection,
are to be in accordance with API RP 14F.
7
Rotating Electrical Machinery
7.1
General (1 July 2012)
Motors and generators are to be designed, manufactured and tested to NEMA Standard MG-1 or IEC 60034
for performance, manufacture, protection, and construction.
7.3
Temperature Rating (1 July 2012)
i)
Equipment is to be selected for the rated temperature higher than the specified ambient temperature.
If equipment is intended to be used in a space where the equipment’s rated temperature is below
the specified ambient temperature of the space, it is to be used at a derated load.
ii)
The assumed ambient temperature of the space plus the machine’s actual temperature rise at its
derated load is not to exceed the machine’s total rated temperature (rated temperature of the machine
plus rated temperature rise).
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3
6
Floating Installations
Electrical Systems
3-6
Moisture Condensation Protection
i)
All generators and motors 50 hp or more are to be equipped with space heaters, to prevent
accumulation of moisture and condensation when they are idle for appreciable periods.
ii)
The space heaters are to be capable of being electrically isolated.
7.7
Temperature Detection
Generators larger than 500 kVA are to be provided with at least one (1) embedded temperature detector per
phase, at the hot end of the stationary winding, with temperature indication at a manned location.
9
Transformers
9.1
General
i)
Each power transformer is to be provided with a corrosion resistant nameplate indicating the name
of the manufacturer and all pertinent electrical characteristics.
ii)
They are to be constructed and tested to ANSI C57 or equivalent.
iii)
(1 July 2012) Transformers are to be protected in accordance with API RP 14F Section 8.
9.3
Transformer Supplying Services Other than Oil or Gas Production
In addition to the above, transformers supplying services other than oil or gas production are to be selected,
installed, and protected in accordance with their environmental conditions and 4-8-3/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
11
Switchgear
11.1
Application
Main and emergency switchboards, power and lighting distribution boards, motor control centers and motor
controllers, and battery charging panels, are to be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with the
provisions of this Subsection.
11.3
Construction, Assembly and Components
11.3.1 Enclosures
i)
Enclosures and assemblies are to be constructed of steel or other suitable incombustible,
moisture-resistant materials, and reinforced as necessary to withstand the mechanical,
electro-magnetic and thermal stresses which may be encountered under both normal and
short circuit fault conditions.
ii)
Enclosures are to be of the closed type.
iii)
The degree of the protection is to be appropriate for the intended location. See also 3-6/5.1.
iv)
All wearing parts are to be accessible for inspection and be readily renewable.
11.3.2 Bus Bars
11.3.2(a) General. Bus bars are to be sized and arranged so that the temperature rise under the
most severe loading conditions will not affect the normal operation of electrical devices mounted
in the switchboard.
11.3.2(b) Bracing of Bus Bars. Bus bars and circuit breakers are to be mounted, braced, and
located to withstand thermal effects and magnetic forces resulting from the maximum prospective
short circuit current.
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11.3.2(c) Bolted Connections.
i)
Bolted bus bar connections are to be suitably treated (e.g., silver plating) to avoid deterioration
of electrical conductivity over time.
ii)
Nuts are to be fitted with means to prevent loosening.
11.3.2(d) Cable connections.
i)
Soldered connections are not to be used for connecting or terminating any cable of 2.5 mm2
or greater.
ii)
These connections are to be made with of soldered lugs or equivalent.
11.3.2(e) Clearance and creepage. Minimum clearances and creepage distances between live
parts of different potential (i.e., between phases and between phase and ground) are to be in accordance
with API RP 14F or 3-6/Table 3, as appropriate.
11.3.3 Circuit Breakers
11.3.3(a) Compliance with a Standard.
i)
Circuit breakers are to be designed, constructed, and tested to ANSI C37, NEMA AB-1,
IEC 60947-2, or other recognized standard.
ii)
The certificates of tests are to be submitted upon request by ABS.
11.3.3(b) Short Circuit Capacity. Circuit breakers are to have sufficient breaking and making
capacities as specified in the short circuit calculation. See 3-6/27.
11.3.3(c) Isolation.
i)
Circuit breakers are to be mounted or arranged in such a manner that the breakers may be
removed from the front of the switchboard, without first de-energizing the bus bars to
which the breakers are connected.
ii)
Draw-out or plug-in type circuit breakers that are arranged in such a manner that the breaker
may be removed from the front without disconnecting the copper bus or cable connections,
are acceptable for this purpose.
iii)
Alternatively, an isolation switch may be fitted upstream (line or supply side) of the breaker.
11.3.4 Fuses
i)
Fuses are to be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with UL 248 or IEC 60269
or other recognized standard.
ii)
The certificates of tests are to be submitted upon request from ABS.
iii)
The requirements of 3-6/11.3.3(b) and 3-6/11.3.3(c) above are applicable.
iv)
Where disconnecting means are fitted, they are to be on the supply side.
v)
If the switch is not rated to interrupt the circuit under load, it is to be provided with interlock
to prevent opening until the load is de-energized.
11.3.5 Internal Wiring
11.3.5(a) Wires. Internal instrumentation and control wiring is to be of the stranded type and is
to have flame-retarding insulation. They are to be in compliance with a recognized standard.
11.3.5(b) Protection. In general, internal instrumentation and control wiring is to be protected
(by fuse or circuit breaker) against short circuit and overload, with the following exceptions:
i)
Generator voltage regulator circuits
ii)
Generator circuit breaker tripping control circuits, and
iii)
Secondary circuit of current transformer
These circuits, however, except that of the current transformer, may be fitted with short circuit
protection only.
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11.3.5(c) Terminals.
i)
Terminals or terminal rows for systems of different voltages are to be clearly separated
from each other, and the rated voltage is to be clearly marked.
ii)
Each terminal is to have a nameplate indicating the circuit designation.
11.3.6 Circuit Identification
Identification plates for feeders and branch circuits are to be provided, and are to indicate the
circuit designation and the rating or settings of the fuse or circuit breaker of the circuit.
11.5
Switchboards
In addition to the preceding requirements, main and emergency switchboards are to comply with 3-6/11.5.1
and 3-6/11.5.2.
11.5.1 Bus Bars (1 July 2012)
Bus bars for switchboards supplied by generators are to comply with API RP 14F.
11.5.2 Power Generation Switchboards
At minimum, the following equipment and instrumentation are to be provided for switchboards
associated with power generation:
11.7
i)
Voltage Regulators
ii)
Synchronizing Controls
iii)
Synchronizing Relay
iv)
Ground Fault Detection
v)
Prime Mover Speed Control
vi)
Ammeter – with selector switch arranged to measure each phase
vii)
Voltmeter – with a selector switch
viii)
Frequency Meter
ix)
Watt Meter/Power Factor Meter.
x)
Space Heater Pilot Lamp – where required
xi)
Stator Winding Temperature Indicator (500 kVA and larger Generators)
Motor Controllers
In addition to the applicable requirements in 3-6/11.3 above, motor controllers are to comply with the following:
11.7.1 Overload and Under-voltage Protection (1 July 2012)
Overload protection and low-voltage protection, if provided in the motor controllers, are to be in
accordance with API RP 14F, or other appropriate standard.
11.7.2 Disconnecting Means
i)
A circuit-disconnecting device is to be provided for each motor branch circuit so that the
motor and the controller may be isolated from the power supply for maintenance purposes.
ii)
82
The circuit-disconnecting device is to be operable externally.
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Battery Charging Panels
In addition to the applicable requirements in 3-6/11.3 above, battery chargers are to comply with the following:
11.9.1 Battery Charger
Except when a different charging rate is necessary and is specified for a particular application, the
charging facilities are to be such that the completely discharged battery can be recharged to 80 %
capacity in not more than 10 hours.
11.9.2 Reversal of Charging Current
An acceptable means is to be installed, such as reverse current protection, to prevent the battery
charger component failure from discharging the battery.
11.9.3 Instrumentation
The following are to be provided:
i)
Disconnect switch for power supply to the charge
ii)
Indicator light connected to the downstream side of the disconnect switch in i)
iii)
Means for adjusting the voltage for charging
iv)
Voltmeter to indicate the charging voltage, and
v)
Ammeter to indicate the charging current.
11.11 Switchgear Supplying Services Other than Oil and Gas Production
Main and emergency switchboards, power and lighting distribution boards, motor control centers and motor
controllers, and battery charging panels that are used to supply services other than Oil and Gas Production,
are to comply with 4-8-3/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules in addition to the above mentioned sections.
13
Wire and Cable Construction
13.1
General (1 July 2012)
All wires, cables, conduit fittings and wiring devices are to be constructed in accordance with IEEE, ICEA,
IEC, or other recognized standards.
13.3
Conductor Type (1 July 2012)
Conductors are to be of copper, and stranded in all sizes, and are to be in accordance with API RP 14F or other
recognized standards, but in no case are they to be less than the following in cross sectional size:
13.5
i)
1.5 mm2 (2,960 circ. mils) for motor feeder and branch circuit cables
ii)
1.0 mm2 (1,973 circ. mils) for power lighting and control cables
iii)
0.5 mm2 (786.5 circ. mils) for essential or emergency signaling and communications cables,
except for those assembled by the equipment manufacturer, and
iv)
0.375 mm2 (739.3 circ. mils) for telephone cables for non-essential communications services,
except for those assembled by the equipment manufacturer.
Insulation
i)
Conductor insulation is to be rated suitable for a minimum operating temperature of 75°C (167°F)
in wet environments.
ii)
In addition, insulation rating is to be at least 10°C (50°F) higher than the maximum ambient
temperature that the conductor can encounter at its service location.
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Cable Flame Retardancy
13.7.1 Standards
All electric cables are to be at least of a flame-retardant type complying with the following:
i)
Cables constructed in accordance with IEEE, ICEA, IEC, or other recognized standards,
are to comply with the flammability criteria of IEEE Std. 45 or IEC 60332.3 Category A
where installed in trays, bunches, or similar groupings.
ii)
Cables constructed to IEEE Std. 45 are to comply with the flammability criteria of that
standard.
iii)
Cables constructed to IEC Publication 60092 standards are to comply with the flammability
criteria of IEC Publication 60332-3, Category A.
Consideration will be given to special types of cables, such as radio frequency cables, which do
not comply with the above requirements.
13.9
Fire Resistant Property
When electric cables are required to be fire-resistant, they are to comply with the requirements of IEC
Publication 60331.
15
Hazardous Areas
15.1
General
Areas and spaces in which flammable vapors or gases are handled, processed, or stored, are to be classified
in accordance with the following sections and/or API RP 500. Where installations are classified by zone,
API RP 505 may be used in lieu of API RP 500.
15.3
Electrical Installations in Hazardous Areas (1 July 2012)
Electrical installations in classified areas are to be limited to those systems needed to carry out necessary
control, monitoring and power distribution functions, and are to be in accordance with API RP 14F.
15.5
Area Classifications and Electrical Installations
Electrical installations and delineation of classified areas for offshore installations having storage tanks for
liquids with a flash point not exceeding 60°C (140°F), and that are integral with the hull structure, need not
comply with Classification Rules with regard to the hull classification, provided they comply with applicable
requirements as follows:
15.5.1 Area Classification
Delineation of classified areas is to be as follows:
84
i)
Open Decks Over Crude Storage Tanks. Freely ventilated, open and gas tight deck spaces
to the full breadth of the ship and 3 m (10 ft) fore and aft of cargo block to a height of 2.4 m
(8 ft), or to the height of the production deck, are to be considered Class I, Division 2 areas
(Zone 2).
ii)
Enclosed Spaces Adjacent to Crude Storage Tanks. Semi-enclosed or enclosed spaces
immediately adjacent to crude oil storage tanks are to be considered Class I, Division 1 areas
(Zone 1).
iii)
Pump Room. A continuously ventilated (20 air changes per hour) crude oil pump room is
to be considered a Class I, Division 1 (Zone 1) area, provided the failure of ventilation is
alarmed in a manned location.
iv)
Cofferdam. Spaces which are separated by a single bulkhead from crude oil storage tanks
are to be considered Class I, Division 1 (Zone 1) areas.
v)
Crude Storage Tank Vents. Areas of unrestricted ventilation around cargo tank vents are
to be considered Class I Division 1 (Zone 1) areas with a spherical radius of 3 m (10 ft),
and Class I Division 2 (Zone 2) for an additional 7 m (23 ft).
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15.5.2 Electrical Interconnections
i)
Where marine service systems are interconnected with hydrocarbon production systems, a
point in the system 2.4 m (8 ft) above the oil storage tank deck is to be designated as an
electrical system design code demarcation point.
ii)
15.7
Above this point, electrical system design is to be in accordance with this section; below
this point, in accordance with applicable sections of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules.
Wiring Methods in Hazardous Areas
15.7.1 General
i)
Threaded metal conduit, armored cable, metallic sheathed cable, or other approved methods
or cable types, may be installed in Class I, Division 1 (Zone 1) areas.
ii)
Cables with moisture resistant jacket (impervious sheathed) may be installed in Class I,
Division 2 (Zone 2) areas, provided they are protected from mechanical damage.
15.7.2. Splicing
No splices are allowed in classified locations, except in intrinsically safe circuits.
15.7.3 Conduit Installations (1 July 2012)
Conduit wiring systems in classified areas are to be in accordance with API RP 14F.
17
Ventilation (1 July 2017)
17.1
General
i)
Attention is to be given to ventilation inlet and outlet locations and air flow directions in order to
minimize the possibility of cross contamination.
17.3
ii)
Ventilation inlets are to be located in non-classified areas.
iii)
Ventilation for classified spaces is to be completely separate from that for non-classified spaces.
iv)
For engine and turbine air intakes, see 3-4/3.9.
v)
For emergency ventilation systems shutdown, see 3-8/5.11iv)d)1).
Ventilation of Enclosed Classified Spaces
i)
Ventilation of enclosed classified spaces is to be made with under-pressure in relation to adjacent,
less hazardous areas.
ii)
The arrangement of ventilation inlet and outlet openings for the enclosed classified space is to be such
that the entire space is efficiently ventilated, giving special considerations to locations of equipment
which may release gas, and to spaces where gas may accumulate.
iii)
Ventilation inlets are to be from non-classified areas.
iv)
Ventilation outlets are to be led to outdoor locations that are of the same or a less hazardous
classification than the ventilated space.
v)
Ventilating fans are to be of non-sparking construction.
vi)
The capacity of the fan is to be such that the space is adequately ventilated, as defined by API RP 500.
vii)
Means are to be provided for shutdown of ventilation fans and closing external openings from
outside spaces served, in the event of fire or detection of combustible or hydrogen or sulfide gas.
Any enclosed classified spaces are not to have the ventilation system automatically shut down
upon detection of gas inside the space.
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Ventilation of Non-classified Spaces
i)
Ventilation inlets and outlets for non-classified spaces are to be located in non-classified areas.
ii)
Where passing through classified spaces, ducts are to have overpressure in relation to the classified
spaces.
iii)
Enclosed non-hazardous working spaces opening into hazardous locations do not need to be considered
hazardous, provided the arrangements required by 4-3-6/7 of the MODU Rules (6.3.1 of the 1989
IMO MODU Code) or NFPA 496 or IEC 60079-2, are complied with.
iv)
Means are to be provided for shutdown of ventilation fans and closing external openings from outside
the spaces served, in the event of fire or detection of combustible or hydrogen or sulfide gas.
Cable Support and Installation
The cable installation is to be in accordance with the “standard details” submitted in accordance with 3-2/13.15
of these Rules.
19.1
Mechanical Protection
For cables which are not equipped with metal armor or metal sheathing, installation in rigid conduit or
similar structural protection is to be utilized if such cable is employed near walkways, at deck level, near
hoist or crane laydown or work areas, or where equipment maintenance work must be accomplished in a
constrained area.
19.3
Splicing
19.3.1 General
i)
Electrical cables are to be installed in continuous lengths between terminations. However,
approved splices will be permitted for cables of exceptional length, to facilitate their
installation.
ii)
The location and particulars of the splices are to be submitted for review.
19.3.2 Construction
i)
Cable splice is to be made of fire-resistant replacement insulation equivalent in electrical
and thermal properties to the original insulation.
ii)
The replacement jacket is to be at least equivalent to the original impervious sheath, and
is to assure a watertight splice.
iii)
Splices are to be made with an approved splice procedure addressing the following
components:
a)
Connector of correct size and number
b)
Replacement insulation
c)
Replacement jacket
d)
Instructions for use
19.3.3 Hazardous Areas
See 3-6/15.
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Power Source Requirements
This Subsection provides minimum electrical power generation sources for main and emergency modes of
operation.
21.1
i)
It should be noted that the governmental regulations might require reserve main power or an
emergency power source in excess of these requirements.
ii)
Where the main power source is used to supply services other than oil or gas production, the main
power source is to comply with 4-8-2/3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
iii)
Where the Flag Administration permits, the minimum number of required main power sources
may be reduced to one (1) source.
Unmanned Facilities
21.1.1 Main Power
The main power source(s) is to be sufficient to maintain the maximum intended operational loads
of the facility, without need to use the emergency source of power.
21.1.2. Emergency Power
An emergency power source, independent of the facility’s main power, is to be sufficient to supply
services for navigational aids as required by the cognizant Coastal Authority, but not for less than
four (4) days.
21.3
Manned Facilities
21.3.1 Main Power
The main power source(s) is to be sufficient to maintain the maximum intended operational load
of the facility.
21.3.2 Emergency Power
i)
An emergency source of power for systems vital to safety, fire fighting, and protection of
personnel, is to be provided to supply the services as listed herein.
ii)
Where an emergency power supply has been provided for classification/flag state purposes,
this source may also be used to provide emergency loads in production areas, provided
the emergency source of power is adequately sized to supply all of the connected loads.
iii)
Provision for emergency power supply, less than those listed herein, will be considered,
provided adequate technical justification is submitted.
iv)
Loads to be supplied by the emergency source of power are listed in 3-6/21.3.3 and 3-6/21.3.4
below.
21.3.3 Fire Pump
i)
If both fire pumps required by 3-8/5.1.2 of these Rules are electric motor driven, one of
these pumps is to be powered by the emergency source of power.
ii)
The emergency source of power is to have sufficient fuel for at least 18 hours of fire pump
operation.
21.3.4. Other Loads
The following loads are to be powered by the designated emergency source of power:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
Fire detection
Gas detection
Communication
ESD system (if electric)
Paging and alarm system
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
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vi)
vii)
viii)
23
Emergency lighting from all spaces to all
alternative egress points
Electric blowout preventer control system
Navigational aids
3-6
18 hours
18 hours
As required by the applicable Coastal
Authority, but not less than 4 days
Emergency Source of Power (1 July 2012)
An emergency source of power as required by 3-6/21 may be supplied by an emergency generator or
batteries, in accordance with API RP 14F.
Installations supplying services other than oil or gas production are to be in accordance with 4-8-2/5.9
through 4-8-2/5.15 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
25
Battery Systems (1 July 2012)
Battery installations are to comply with API RP 14F, except that equipment inside a battery room needs to
be certified for use in Division 1 or Division 2 only if the battery room is classified Division 1 or 2,
respectively, in accordance with API RP 500.
Ventilation of battery rooms is to be separate from all other ventilation. Arrangements of equivalent safety
will be given special consideration.
27
Short Circuit Current Calculations and Coordination Study
27.1
General
The protection and coordination of power systems are to be in accordance with the ABS Steel Vessel Rules,
ABS MODU Rules, IEC, IEEE 242, or equivalent standard.
27.3
Short Circuit Capacity
The maximum calculated short circuit current available at the main bus bars and at each point in the
distribution system, is to be used to determine the adequacy of the short circuit capacities of the protective
devices and bus bar bracing, as per 3-6/11.3.2(b).
27.5
Coordination
The power system coordination study is to show that the protective devices and their settings are properly
selected to minimize damage to switchgear, transformers, generators, motors, conductors, conductor shielding
and other equipment, as well as undesirable shutdowns.
29
Protection from Ignition by Static Charges
Any ignition hazard due to a difference in electrical potential to ground is to be effectively controlled. This
may require the use of conductive belts, grounding of combustible fluid loading or discharge equipment
and hose, and the grounding of helicopters prior to refueling.
All precautions against ignition due to static electric discharge are to be in accordance with NFPA 77, or
other suitable standard.
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TABLE 1A
Degree of Protection
(Indicated by the First Characteristic Numeral)
Degree of Protection
First
Characteristic
Numeral
Short Description
Definition
0
Non-protected
No special protection
1
Protected against solid objects greater than 50 mm (2 in.)
A large surface of the body, such as a hand
(but no protection against deliberate access).
Solid object exceeding 50 mm (2 in.) in
diameter.
2
Protected against solid objects greater than 12 mm (0.5 in.)
Fingers or similar objects not exceeding 80
mm (3.15 in.) in length. Solid objects
exceeding 12 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter.
3
Protected against solid objects greater than 2.5 mm (0.1 in.)
Tools, wires, etc. of diameter or thickness
greater than 2.5 mm (0.1 in.). Solid objects
exceeding 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) in diameter.
4
Protected against solid objects greater than 1 mm (0.04 in.)
Wires or strips of thickness greater than 1 mm
(0.04 in.). Solid objects exceeding 1 mm
(0.04 in.) in diameter.
5
Dust protected
Ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but
dust does not enter in sufficient quantity to
interfere with satisfactory operation of the
equipment.
6
Dust-tight
No ingress of dust
Designation
The degree of protection is designated as shown in the following examples:
When it is required to indicate the degree of protection by only one characteristic numeral, which shows either degree of
protection against foreign bodies and electrical shock or against liquid, the omitted numeral is to be replaced by the letter X.
Examples
1
IP56
2
The first characteristic numeral of “5”
The second characteristic numeral of “6”
3
IPX5
Degree of protection against only liquid
4
IP2X
Degree of protection against only foreign bodies and electrical shock
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TABLE 1B
Degree of Protection
(Indicated by the Second Characteristic Numeral)
Degree of Protection
Second
Characteristic
Numeral
Short Description
Definition
0
Non-protected
No special protection
1
Protected against dripping water
Dripping water (vertically falling drops) is to
have no harmful effect.
2
Protected against dripping water when tilted up to 15 degrees
Vertically dripping water is to have no harmful
effect when the enclosure is tilted at any angle
up to 15 degrees from its normal position.
3
Protected against spraying water
Water falling as spray at an angle up to 60
degrees from the vertical is to have no harmful
effect.
4
Protected against splashing water
Water splashed against the enclosure from any
direction is to have no harmful effect.
5
Protected against water jets
Water projected by a nozzle against the
enclosure from any direction is to have no
harmful effect.
6
Protected against heavy seas
Water from heavy seas, or water projected in
powerful jets, is not to enter the enclosure in
harmful quantities.
7
Protected against the effects of immersion
Ingress of water in a harmful quantity is not to
be possible when the enclosure is immersed in
water under defined conditions of pressure and
time.
8
Protected against submersion
The equipment is suitable for continuous
submersion in water, under conditions that are
to be specified by the manufacturer.
Note: – Normally this will mean that the
equipment is hermetically sealed. However,
with certain types of equipment, it can mean
that water can enter but only in such a manner
that it produces no harmful effects.
See Designation and examples in 3-6/Table 1A “First Characteristic Numeral”.
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TABLE 1C
NEMA Enclosures
NEMA
Type
No.
1
Type of Enclosure
Characteristics
Intended Use
Typical Offshore
Applications
General Purpose,
Surface Mounting
A general-purpose (NEMA Type 1) enclosure is
designed to meet the latest general specifications for
enclosures of Underwriters’ Laboratories. This
enclosure is intended primarily to prevent accidental
contact with enclosed electrical apparatus. A NEMA
Type 1 enclosure is suitable for general-purpose
application indoors where atmospheric conditions are
normal. It is not dust-tight or watertight.
To prevent
accidental contact
with live parts,
indoors, where
normal atmospheric
conditions prevail.
Lighting panels,
motor control
centers, disconnect
switches, etc., in
unclassified
locations inside
buildings.
1-A
Semi-Dust-tight
A semi-dust-tight enclosure (NEMA type 1-A) is
similar to the Type 1 enclosure, but with addition of a
gasket around the cover.
A NEMA Type 1-A enclosure is suitable for generalpurpose application indoors and provides additional
protection against dust, although it is not dust-tight.
Same as NEMA
Type 1, but in
locations where a
small amount of
dust is prevalent.
Same as NEMA
Type 1.
1-B
General Purpose,
Flush Mounting
A flush-type enclosure (NEMA Type 1.B) is similar to
the Type 1 enclosure, but is designed for mounting in a
wall and is provided with a cover that also serves as a
flush plate.
Same as NEMA
Type 1, but for
flush-type
mounting
applications
Same as NEMA
Type 1 where flush
(versus surface)
mounting is
desired.
2
Drip-tight
A drip-tight enclosure (NEMA Type 2), also referred to
as “Drip-proof”, is similar to the Type 1 generalpurpose enclosure, but with the addition of drip shields
or their equivalent. A Type 2 enclosure is suitable for
application where condensation may be severe.
Note: Drip-tight apparatus may be semi-enclosed
apparatus if it is provided with suitable protection
integral with the apparatus, or enclosed in such a
manner as to exclude effectively falling solid or liquid
material.
Locations where
condensation may
be severe.
No typical offshore
applications
3
Weather-tight
A weather-tight enclosure (NEMA Type 3) is designed
for use outdoors to provide protection against weather
hazards such as rain and sleet.
A NEMA Type 3 enclosure is suitable for application
outdoors.
Outdoors where it
is necessary to
provide protection
against weather
hazards, such as
rain and sleet.
Refer to NEMA
Type 12
applications
Weather-resistant
A weather-resistant enclosure (NEMA Type 3R) is
designed for use outdoors to provide protection against
rain. Rain will not readily interfere with operation of
internal components. NEMA Type 3R provides less
protection than Type 3.
Same as NEMA
Type 3, but in less
severe application
Same as NEMA
Type 3.
4
Watertight
A watertight enclosure (NEMA Type 4) is designed for
outdoor use and is required to meet the hose test as
follows: NEMA Type 4 Enclosures shall be tested by
subjection to a stream of water. A hose with a 1-in.
nozzle shall be used and shall deliver at least 65
gal/min. The water shall be directed on the enclosure
from a distance of not less than 10ft and for a 5-minute
period. During this period, it may be directed in one or
more directions as desired. There shall be no leakage of
water into the enclosure under these conditions.
Outdoor or indoor
locations where
enclosed
equipment might
be subjected to
splashing or
dripping water.
Not suitable for
submersion in
water.
Equipment
enclosures and
junction boxes
subject to winddriven rain or hose
wash-down.
4X
Watertight
A watertight corrosion-resistant (NEMA Type 4X)
enclosure is similar to Type 4 enclosure but is
manufactured from corrosion-resistant materials, such
as glass polyester or stainless steel.
Same as NEMA
Type 4, but
designed for a
more corrosive
environment.
Same as NEMA
Type 4.
3R
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TABLE 1C (continued)
NEMA Enclosures
NEMA
Type
No.
5
6, 6P
7
Type of Enclosure
Intended Use
Dust-tight
A dust-tight (NEMA Type 5) enclosure is provided
with gaskets and is suitable for application in locations
where it is desirable to exclude dirt.
In locations where
it is necessary to
protect the enclosed
equipment against
injurious
accumulation of
dust or lint.
No typical offshore
applications.
Submersible
A submersible enclosure is suitable for applications
where the equipment may be subject to occasional
temporary submersion (NEMA Type 6) and prolonged
submersion (NEMA Type 6P) in water. The design of
the enclosure will depend upon the specified conditions
of pressure and time.
Locations where
the equipment is
subject to
submersion in
water.
Junction boxes
installed in the
splash zone.
Explosion proof,
Class 1
An explosion proof enclosure (NEMA Type 7) is
designed to meet the application requirements in NEC
Art. 500 for Class I locations and is designed in
accordance with the latest specifications of
Underwriters’ laboratories for particular groups of
gases. Certain NEMA 7 enclosures are approved for
several groups (such as Groups B, C, and D). NEMA 7
enclosures are not necessarily suitable for outdoor use.
Locations classified
as Class I, Division
1 or 2 hazardous
locations.
Widely used in
classified locations
when arcing or
high temperature
devices are
utilized.
Explosion, oil-filled, Class I. An explosion proof, oilfilled enclosure (NEMA Type 8) is designed to meet
the application requirements in NEC Art. 500 for Class
I locations and is designed in accordance with the latest
specifications of Underwriters’ laboratories for specific
gases. The apparatus is immersed in oil.
Same as NEMA
Type 7
Not widely utilized
offshore, but
suitable for same
areas as NEMA
Type.7.
A dust-ignition-proof enclosure (NEMA Type 9) is
designed to meet the application requirements in NEC
Art. 500 for Class II locations and is designed in
accordance with the latest specifications of
Underwriters’ Laboratories for particular dusts.
Locations
classified as Class
II hazardous
locations
(containing
combustible dust).
No typical offshore
applications.
A Type 10 enclosure is designed to meet the latest
requirements of the Bureau of Mines and is suitable for
applications in coal mines.
Locations required
to meet the latest
requirements of the
Bureau of Mines.
No typical offshore
applications.
8
9
Dust-ignition
Proof, Class II
10
92
Typical Offshore
Applications
Characteristics
11
Acid-and fume
resistant, oilimmersed
An acid-and fume-resistant (NEMA Type 11)
enclosure is suitable for applications indoors where the
equipment may be subject to corrosive acid or fumes.
The apparatus is immersed in oil.
Locations where
acid or fumes are
present.
No typical offshore
applications.
12
Dust-tight and
Drip-tight
A dust-tight and drip-tight (NEMA Type 12) enclosure
is provided with an oil-resistant synthetic gasket
between the case and the cover. To avoid loss, any
fastener parts are held in place when the door is
opened. There are no holes through the enclosures for
mounting or for mounting controls within the enclosure
and no conduit knockouts or conduit openings.
Mounting feet or other suitable means for mounting are
provided. A NEMA Type 12 enclosure is suitable for
industrial application in locations where oil or coolant
might enter the enclosure. NEMA Type 12 enclosures
are not suitable for outdoor use, but may be modified
to meet Type 3 requirements with the addition of a drip
shield. Enclosures carrying a NEMA 3.12 rating area
superior to those carrying only a NEMA 3 rating.
Indoor locations
where oil or coolant
might enter the
enclosure.
Indoors in areas
protected from the
environment, or
outdoors when
modified, to meet
NEMA Type 3
requirements.
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Section
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Electrical Systems
3-6
TABLE 1C (continued)
NEMA Enclosures
NEMA
Type
No.
Characteristics
Intended Use
Typical Offshore
Applications
An oil-tight and dust-tight (NEMA 13) enclosure is
intended for use indoors primarily to house pilot
devices such as limit switches, push buttons, selector
switches pilot, lights, etc., and to protect these devices
against lint and dust, seepage, external condensation,
and spraying of water, oil or coolant. They have oilresistant gaskets and, when intended for mounting on
the wall or on machines, have mounting means external
to the equipment cavity. They have no conduit
knockouts or unsealed openings providing access into
the equipment cavity. All conduit openings have
provision for oil-tight conduit entry.
Indoor locations
where spraying oil
or coolant might
enter the enclosure.
Indoors in areas
protected from the
environment for
control panels.
Type of Enclosure
13
Oil-tight and
Dust-tight
TABLE 2
Size of Ground (Earth)-continuity Conductors and
Grounding (Earthing) Connections
Type of Grounding Connection
Ground-continuity conductor
in flexible cable or flexible
cord
Cross-sectional Area of Associated
Current Carrying Conductor (A)
Minimum cross-sectional Area of
Copper Grounding Connection
A ≤ 16 mm2
A
A1
A2
16
A ≤ 32
16 mm2
mm2
A > 32 mm2
A3
Ground-continuity conductor
incorporated in fixed cable
mm2 <
A/2
For cables having an insulated ground-continuity conductor
B1a
A ≤ 1.5 mm2
B1b
1.5 mm2 < A ≤ 16 mm2
B1c
16
mm2 <
A ≤ 32
1.5 mm2
A
16 mm2
mm2
A > 32 mm2
B1d
A/2
For cables with bare ground wire in direct contact with the lead sheath
Separate fixed grounding
conductor
B2
A ≤ 2.5 mm2
1 mm2
B2b
2.5 mm2 < A ≤ 6 mm2
1.5 mm2
A ≤ 2.5 mm2
Stranded grounding connection:
1.5 mm2 < A ≤ 1.5 mm2
A for A > 1.5 mm2
C1a
C1b
Note:
Unstranded grounding connection:
2.5 mm2
C2
2.5 mm2 < A ≤ 8 mm2
C3
8 mm2 < A ≤ 120 mm2
C4
A > 120 mm2
4 mm2
A/2
70
mm2
(See note 1)
For grounded distribution systems, the size of grounding conductor need not exceed A/2.
Conversion Table for mm2 to circular mils:
mm2
Circ. mils
mm2
Circ. mils
mm2
Circ. mils
mm2
Circ. mils
1
1,973
2.5
4,933
6
11,841
70
138,147
1.5
2,960
4
7,894
16
31,576
120
236,823
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3-6
TABLE 3
Clearance and Creepage Distance for Switchboards, Distribution Boards,
Chargers, Motor Control Centers and Controllers (1)
Rate Insulation Voltage (V)
Up to 250
Minimum Clearances, mm (in.)
15
Minimum Creepage Distances, mm (in.)
(19/32)
20 (25/32)
From 251 to 660
20 (25/32)
30 (13/16)
Above 660
25 (1)
35 (13/8)
Notes:
1
94
The values in this table apply to clearances and creepage distances between live parts as well as between live parts
and exposed conductive parts, including grounding.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 7: Instrumentation and Control Systems
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
7
Instrumentation and Control Systems
1
Applicability
This Section defines criteria for the instrumentation and control systems for offshore facilities.
The design of these systems is to comply with API RP 14C or other acceptable standards and the additional
criteria contained in this Section.
Statutory governmental regulation or guidance, which may be applicable, is to be taken into consideration.
The documentation pertaining to instrumentation and control systems required for submittal is listed in 3-2/15.
1.1
General (1 July 2012)
This Section defines criteria for the instrumentation and control systems for offshore facilities.
The design of these systems is to comply with API RP 14C or other acceptable standards and the additional
criteria contained in this Section
1.3
i)
The control and instrumentation systems are to provide an effective means for monitoring and
controlling pressures, temperatures, flow rates, liquid levels and other process variables for the
safe and continuous operation of the facilities.
ii)
Where control over the electrical power generation and distribution is required for the operation of
the facilities then the control system should also be arranged to cover this.
iii)
Control and instrumentation systems for process, process support, utility and electrical systems are
to be suitable for the intended application.
iv)
All control and safety shutdown, systems are to be designed for safe operation of the equipment
during start-up, shutdown and normal operational conditions.
v)
It is the intention of this Section to identify systems (either through experience or the application
of the FMEAs) on which safety relies and then to incorporate requirements commensurate with this
the importance of that function.
vi)
The technical requirements included are considered to be consistent and complimentary to the
associated API standards.
vii)
Should the designer wish to apply other techniques (e.g., the Safety Integrity Levels (SILs)
incorporated in IEC 61508), this equivalent approach will be considered.
Installation
1.3.1
Electrical Installations
Electrical installations for instrumentation and control systems are to be in accordance with
Chapter 3, Section 6 and Chapter 4, Section 6 as applicable.
1.3.2
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Control Systems
Piping systems for hydraulic and pneumatic controls are to be in accordance with 3-4/5.13 and
Chapter 4, Section 4 as applicable.
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Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
3
Components
3.1
Environmental Considerations (1 July 2012)
All instrumentation control and safety system components, including alarm and indicator devices, are to be
designed for use in a marine environment, resistant to corrosion, and capable of operating under all anticipated
environmental conditions.
Each component is to be designed and tested for the extremes of pressure and temperature that it can encounter
in service.
3.3
Suitability of Computer Based Equipment
Where safety related functions are performed by computer based equipment then the equipment is to be
tested in accordance with the requirements of 4-9-8/13.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
3.5
Electrical Variations
Electrical and electronic components in AC systems are to be capable of operating satisfactorily under normally
occurring variations in voltage and frequency.
DC system devices are to be capable of operating satisfactorily at minus 15% voltage.
Unless otherwise stated, the variations from the rated value may be taken from 3-7/Table 1.
TABLE 1
Electrical Variations
3.7
Quantity in Operations
Permanent variation
Transient Variation
Frequency
±5%
±10% (5 s)
Voltage
+6%, −10%
±20% (1.5 s)
Loss of Power
i)
Loss of control power (pneumatic, hydraulic or electric) to any device is not to cause the system to
go into an unsafe condition.
ii)
Cause and effect matrices are to demonstrate loss of control power effects.
5
Instruments
5.1
Temperature
All temperature-sensing elements or devices are to be installed in separable socket type thermowells, so
that they can be removed without danger of pressure or fluid release.
5.3
Pressure
i)
Pressure switches supplied as safety devices are to be equipped with test connections to enable
application of an external pressure source without disturbing the switch installation.
96
ii)
Pressure gauges and sensors are to be provided with an isolation valve to permit the safe removal
of the gauge without the need to reduce the pressure in the system.
iii)
The open or closed position of the valve is to be readily identifiable from the position of the handle
or stem.
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Chapter
Section
5.5
3
7
Floating Installations
Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
Level
i)
Liquid or interface level gauges are to be installed to cover the operating range and set points of
level controllers or level switches.
ii)
Direct viewing level gauges in processing or combustible fluid service are to be of the heavy-duty
flat glass type and are to be equipped with self-closing valves at their ends. An equivalent type of
level gauge may also be acceptable.
7
Alarm Systems
7.1
Characteristics
i)
Alarm systems are to be of the self-monitoring type and designed so that a fault in the alarm
system is self-revealing or will cause it to fail to the alarmed condition.
ii)
Additionally, alarms are not to react to normal transient conditions or false signals.
7.3
Independence
Alarm systems are to be independent of control and safety systems, except that common sensors will be
acceptable for non-shutdown related systems.
7.5
Visual and Audible Alarms
i)
Alarms are to be both audible and visual, and are to be provided at the control stations, as required
in this Section.
7.7
ii)
Alarms are to clearly identify the system and service of the faulted system or process components.
iii)
Visual alarms are to be displayed in a distinguishable manner such that alarms for similar process
components or systems are grouped together, and the colors representing a particular function or
condition remain uniform.
iv)
Visual alarms are to flash when first activated.
v)
Audible alarms associated with the process plant are to be of distinctive tone from other alarms
such as fire alarm, general alarm, gas detection, etc., and they are to be of sufficient loudness to
attract the attention of personnel on duty;
vi)
For spaces of unusual high noise levels, a beacon light or similar device, installed in a conspicuous
place is to supplement any of the audible alarms in such spaces; however, red light beacons are
only to be used for fire alarms.
vii)
A fault in the visual alarm circuits is not to affect the operation of the audible alarm circuits.
viii)
For computer-based systems, see 3-7/15.
Acknowledgement of Alarms
i)
Alarms are to be acknowledged by manually changing the flashing display of the incoming alarm
to a steady display and by silencing the audible signal; the steady state light display is to remain
activated until the fault condition is rectified.
ii)
Alarming of other faults that may occur during the acknowledgement process is not to be suppressed
by such action, and is to be alarmed and displayed accordingly.
iii)
Where a centralized control and monitoring station is provided, the silencing of the audible alarm
from an associated remote control station is not to lead automatically to the silencing of the original
alarm at the centralized control and monitoring station.
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Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
7.9
Disconnection and Resumption of Alarm Functions
Alarm circuits may be temporarily disabled for maintenance purposes or during initial plant start-up, provided
such action is clearly indicated at the associated station in control and, where such station is provided, at
the centralized control and monitoring station. However, such alarm is to be automatically re-activated
after a preset time period.
7.11
Summary Alarms
When individual alarms are displayed and alarmed at a centralized control and monitoring station, the
visual alarms may be displayed and alarmed at other associated remote control stations as summary alarms.
7.13
Built-in Testing
Alarm systems are to be provided with effective means for testing all audible and visual alarms and indicating
lamps without disrupting the normal machinery or system operation. Such means are to be fitted in the
associated remote stations.
7.15
Adjustable Set-points
Where means are provided to field adjustable set-points, either locally or remotely, positive indication of
the value of the set-point is to be clearly identified at the control location.
9
Control and Monitoring
9.1
General
Display systems are to comply with 3-7/7.1, 3-7/7.5, 3-7/7.13 and 3-7/7.15
9.3
Loss of Signal
Loss of control signal from a field sensing device required to comply with these Rules is to initiate an alarm
or cause a shutdown.
9.5
Display of Parameters
i)
Operating parameter displays are to be clear, concise, consistent and grouped logically.
ii)
Operating parameter displays are to be included in control stations as required in this Section.
(Note: Further guidance regarding the display of information may be found in the ABS Guidance Notes on
the Application of Ergonomics to Marine Environments)
9.7
98
Logic Circuit Features
i)
When logic circuits are used for sequential start-up or for operating individual process components,
indicators are to be provided at the control console to show the successful completion of the sequence
of operations by the logic-circuit and start-up and operation of the process component.
ii)
If some particular step is not carried out during the sequence, the sequence is to stop at this point,
and such condition is to be alarmed at the control console or, where provided, at the centralized
control and monitoring station.
iii)
Feedback devices are to be employed in order to sense steps carried out during the start-up sequence.
Sequence operation is to stop upon lack of feedback signal.
iv)
Where valves are employed in any start-up sequence, valve condition is to be sensed as valve stem
position and not as a function of control or power signal to the valve.
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Section
9.9
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Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
Overrides
i)
No condition of operation within normal ranges is to require the override of a required protective
device or function.
ii)
Where shutdown functions are bypassed during special operational modes described below,
sensing devices are to be arranged to continue to indicate the condition of each process variable.
iii)
In addition, an indicator for each function is to alert the operator that the shutdown function is
being “bypassed”.
iv)
Provisions to override shutdown functions may include the following:
a)
Calibration. To periodically test or calibrate field sensing device.
b)
Out of Service. To take the vessel or other process component out of service.
c)
Start-up
1)
To allow process conditions to stabilize, automatic bypass of shutdown functions
on start-up may be installed, provided the process variable condition is indicated,
and an automated device is fitted which will return the shutdown function to
operation once the normal process condition has been attained.
2)
The use of timers in association with this required automatic function will be
considered.
11
Safety Systems
11.1
General
i)
Safety systems are to be of the fail-safe type and are to respond automatically to fault conditions
that may endanger the plant or safety of the crew.
ii)
Unless otherwise required in this Section or specially approved, this automatic action is to cause
the plant to take the least drastic action first, as appropriate, by reducing its normal operating output
or switching to a stand-by process component, and last, by stopping it.
iii)
Actuation is to result in audible and visual alarm.
iv)
See also 3-3/13.3 for number of safety levels required.
11.3
Independence
Safety systems are to be completely independent of the control and alarm systems so that a failure in one
of these systems will not prevent the safety system from operating.
11.5
Activation
i)
Each safety action is to be alarmed at the associated remote station.
11.7
ii)
Where a centralized control and monitoring station is fitted, individual alarms are to be provided
at that station; in which case, a summary alarm for the specific safety system will be acceptable at
other associated remote stations.
iii)
When both an alarm and a safety action are required for a specific failure condition the operating
points are to be arranged such that alarm is activated earlier.
Resumption of Operation
Process components that are stopped as a result of a safety action are to be manually reset before their
operation is resumed.
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Section
11.9
3
7
Floating Installations
Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
Override of Safety Provisions
i)
Remote overrides are not to be provided for those safety actions specified in other Sections of
these Rules.
ii)
For safety actions specified in 3-7/9.9, any overrides of safety provisions are to be so arranged that
they cannot go unnoticed, and their activation and condition are to be alarmed and indicated at the
associated remote station.
iii)
The override is to be arranged to preclude inadvertent operation and is not to deactivate alarms
associated with safety provisions.
iv)
The override mechanism to disconnect safety provisions is to be fitted at the associated remote station,
except that where a centralized control and monitoring station is fitted, the override mechanism
may be fitted at the centralized station instead.
11.11 Adjustable Set-points
Where means are provided to the field adjustable set points, either locally or remotely, positive indication
of the value of the set point is to be clearly identified at the control location.
13
Shutdown Systems
13.1
General
i)
Shutdown systems are to comply with the requirements of safety systems given in 3-7/11, except that
systems supplied in accordance with 3-8/5.11 or 4-8/5.9, as applicable, are not to be automatically
actuated and need not be fail safe.
ii)
Additionally, computer-based systems are to comply with the requirements of 3-7/15.
13.3
Safety Analysis
Where alarm and shutdown functions are required, a Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (SAFE) Chart is
to be provided for equipment packages with their own control/shutdown panels, as well as for individual
process equipment protected by a common safety shutdown system.
13.5
Emergency Shutdown
13.5.1 General
i)
Shutdown is to take place within 45 seconds or less as may be considered necessary for
the safety of the plant after activation of the ESD system at a manual ESD station, or after
detection of a trouble condition by an automatic shutdown device.
ii)
Electric circuits essential to ESD that rely on the continued operation of the cable for correct
operation of the system are to be of the fire resisting type (e.g., mineral insulated cable or
complying with IEC 60331).
13.5.2 Emergency Shutdown – Automatic
See 3-3/13.3.
13.5.3 Emergency Shutdown – Manual
i)
See 3-3/5.5.
ii)
100
All electrical circuits used in the manual ESD system are to be dedicated to this purpose
and hard wired.
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Section
3
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Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
15
Computer-based Systems for Alarm, Control and Safety Systems
15.1
General
i)
Computer-based systems are to be designed so that failure of any of the system’s process components
will not cause unsafe operation of the system.
ii)
15.3
Hardware and software serving vital and non-vital systems are to be arranged to give priority to
vital systems.
Independence
Control, alarm and safety shutdown system functions are to be arranged such that a single failure or
malfunction of the electronic computer equipment will not affect more than one of these system functions.
This is to be achieved by dedicated equipment for each of these functions within a single system, or by the
provision of back-up equipment, or by other suitable means considered equal or more effective.
15.5
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)/Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis
(FMECA) (1 July 2012)
Where computer-based systems include safety functions (i.e., safety functions are not backed-up by hardwired safety systems) an FMEA or FMECA is to be performed and submitted for review.
15.7
Visual Display of Alarms
15.7.1 Incoming Signals
i)
In addition to the requirements contained in 3-7/7, alarms are to be presented in an identifiable
manner when displayed by way of a computer monitor (video display unit), and are to appear
in the sequence the incoming signals are received.
ii)
Alarming of incoming fault signals are to automatically appear on the screen to alert the
on-duty personnel, regardless of whether the computer and monitor (video display unit) are
in a mode other than the monitoring mode (i.e., computing or displaying other system’s
mimic or schematic diagrams).
15.7.2 Unrectified Alarms
Alarms associated with faults which have not been rectified may be displayed in a summarized
fashion until all the faults have been dealt with.
15.7.3 Computer Monitor (Video Display Unit)
i)
Displays on the computer monitor (video display unit) are to be clearly visible under ambient
lighting conditions.
ii)
15.9
Data displayed on computer monitors are to be readable by the operator from normal
operating position.
Memory Capacity and Response Time
i)
Computer system’s memory is to be of sufficient capacity to handle the operation of all computer
programs (software) as configured in the computer system.
ii)
The time response for processing and transmitting data is to be such that an undesirable chain of
events may not arise as a result of unacceptable data delay or response time during the computer
system’s worst data overload operating condition (multi-tasking mode).
15.11 Data Loss and Corruption
To preclude the possible loss or corruption of data as a result of power disruption, programs and data
considered to be essential to the operation of a specific system are to be stored in non-volatile memory, or
in volatile memory with a secure un-interruptible power supply (UPS).
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3-7
15.13 Local Area Network (LAN)
For safety systems where an automatic or remote control and monitoring system for specific process
components is arranged to operate in a local area network (LAN), the following is to be complied with:
i)
The network topology is to be configured so that in the case of a failure between nodes, or at a
node, the system on the network remains operational.
ii)
In case of failure of the network controller, the network is to be arranged to automatically switch
to a standby controller. A network controller failure is to be alarmed at the associated remote control
station.
iii)
Safeguards are to be provided to prevent unacceptable data transmission delays (overloading of
network). An alarm is to be activated at the associated remote control stations prior to a critical
network data overload condition. See 3-7/15.9.
iv)
The communication data highway is to be provided in duplicate and is to be arranged so that upon
failure of the on-line highway, the standby data highway is automatically connected to the system.
The standby data highway is not to be used to reduce traffic in the on-line highway.
15.15 Power Supply Disruption
The system’s software and hardware is to be designed so that upon restoration of power supply after power
failure, automatic or remote control and monitoring capabilities can immediately be available after the preestablished computer control access (sign-in) procedure has been completed.
15.17 Parameters and Program Changes
Alteration of parameters that may affect the system’s performance is to be limited to authorized personnel
by means of keyswitch, keycard, password, or other approved methods.
15.19 Multiple Points of Control
Systems with multiple control stations are to be provided with clear indication at each location to identify
the station in control, and are to be provided with procedures to ensure proper transfer of control.
17
Relief Valves
17.1
General
i)
Where spare relief valves are provided, the upstream block valve is to be locked closed and the
downstream block valve is to be locked open to prevent the relief valve from being over-pressurized
due to the leakage of the upstream block valve.
17.3
ii)
The practice of using check valves in lieu of downstream block valves is not permitted.
iii)
The upstream block valve is to have a full bore area equal to or greater than the pressure relief valve
inlet.
iv)
Similarly, the downstream block valve is to have a full bore area equal to or greater than the pressure
relief valve outlet.
Provisions for Testing
i)
Provision is to be made for periodic testing of each relief valve without removing it from the line
or vessel.
ii)
17.5
102
Where necessary, relief valves are to be individually equipped with an inlet block or check valve
and test connection so that an external pressure source can be applied.
Block Valve Locking Devices
Any block valve upstream or downstream of a relief valve or rupture disc is to be equipped with a carseal
or locking device to prevent the relief valve from being isolated while in service.
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Chapter
Section
19
3
7
Floating Installations
Instrumentation and Control Systems
3-7
Shutdown Valves, Blowdown Valves and Diverter Valves
Automatically actuated shutdown, blowdown or diverter valves are to be equipped with position indicators
at the valve operating station, or be of a type that valve position (open or closed) is externally obvious.
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Section 8: Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
CHAPTER
3
Floating Installations
SECTION
8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
1
Applicability
Fire protection and personnel safety features for hydrocarbon processing systems on a floating installation
are to meet the requirements described in this Chapter.
Fire protection systems for vessel service functions on installations are to be in accordance with the Steel
Vessel Rules or MODU Rules, as applicable.
3
General
3.1
Scope
The fire protection and personnel safety features are to comply with this Section and other applicable
industrial standards, as referenced herein. Due to the varying configurations of offshore production facilities,
fire protection requirements will vary accordingly. The documentation requirements for Design Review
are given in 3-2/17 of these Rules.
3.3
Governmental Authority
In addition to ABS Class requirements, depending on the unit’s flag of registry and the unit’s intended area
of operation, the flag state and coastal state may have additional requirements/regulations which are to be
met; therefore, the appropriate governmental authorities are to be consulted for each installation.
5
Fire Fighting Systems
5.1
Firewater Systems
Fixed water fire fighting systems are to be provided as follows:
5.1.1
104
Piping
5.1.1(a) General.
i)
Water fire fighting systems are to be capable of maintaining a continuous supply in the
event of damage to water piping.
ii)
Piping is to be arranged so that the supply of water could be from two (2) different sources.
iii)
Isolation valves are to be provided such that damage to any part of the system would
result in the loss in use of the least possible number of hydrants, water spray branches, or
foam water supplies. In most facility arrangements, this will require a loop type fire main.
iv)
Connections of the primary and standby pump supplies are to be as remote from each
other as possible.
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5.1.1(b) Materials (2009).
i)
Materials rendered ineffective by heat are not to be used in firewater piping systems.
ii)
(1 July 2012) Resilient seated valves may be considered for use in firewater systems,
provided the proposed valves are capable of passing an appropriate fire test acceptable to
ABS (e.g., API Std. 607, ISO 10497).
iii)
Additionally, the valves must be capable of being effectively closed even with the resilient
seat damaged or destroyed, such that leakage through the closed valve is insignificant.
iv)
The leakage rate at the firewater pressure through the closed damaged-seated valves still
permits the firewater to deliver at least two (2) jets of water at the required pressure.
v)
Non-metallic expansion joints may be considered for use in firewater system, provided the
proposed joints are capable of passing a recognized fire test such as ISO 19921/19922:2005.
vi)
Similarly, flexible hoses may be considered for use in firewater systems, provided the
proposed hoses are capable of passing a recognized fire test such as ISO 15540/15541.
vii)
All plastic piping materials are to meet Appendix 1 of these Rules.
viii)
Generally, plastic (GRP/FRP) materials used in firewater systems are to pass Level 1 fire
endurance test. However, a plastic piping material that passes Level 3 fire endurance
requirements in lieu of Level 1 requirements may be considered when conditions listed in
3-8/5.1.1(e) below are fully met and accepted by the Flag Administration.
5.1.1(c) Charging.
i)
The firewater distribution system may be maintained in a charged or dry condition.
ii)
Where a system is maintained dry, relief devices and additional pipe bracing is to be
considered to prevent damage to the piping system due to water hammer when the system
is charged.
iii)
When plastic pipe that passes only Level 3 fire endurance test is used, the firewater system
design is to be pressurized (wet main) or be permanently in a charged condition.
5.1.1(d) Piping Maintenance.
i)
The distribution system is to be maintained such that internal and external corrosion of
the piping is minimized.
ii)
In areas where the system is subject to freezing, steps are to be taken to prevent freezing.
For instance, drains, circulation loops or other means may be provided for cold water
protection.
iii)
If drains are provided, they are to be located at the lowest points in the system.
5.1.1(e) Additional System Requirements for Level 3 Plastic Pipe. The following additional
requirements are applicable to the plastic material piping that passes Level 3 in lieu of Level 1 fire
endurance tests and is used in the fire main system:
i)
Plastic piping must be located on the exterior perimeter of the vessels/units and shielded
by primary structural members from potential sources of fire that may occur on or
emanate from the vessels/units.
ii)
Plastic piping must be located so that pooling of flammable liquids below the piping is
not possible. A properly designed drainage system may be provided to mitigate the pooling
of flammable liquid below the piping system.
iii)
The firewater system design is to be such that the plastic sections are continuously maintained
in the wet condition.
iv)
The firewater system is to be equipped with an adequate number of isolation and cut-off
valves such that, if a section of the system were to fail, it could be isolated and the remainder
of the system would still be capable of supplying firewater.
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Fire Pumps
5.1.2(a) General.
i)
There are to be at least two (2) independently driven and self-priming fire pumps.
ii)
The fire pumps, together with their respective source of power, fuel supply, electric cables,
lighting, ventilation, piping and control valves, are to be located such that a fire in any
one (1) location will not render both fire pumps inoperable.
iii)
One of the two (2) pumps is to be designated as the primary fire pump, and the other as
the standby fire pump.
iv)
At least one of the pumps is to be diesel engine driven, unless the emergency power supply
can supply the load for an electric motor driven pump (see 3-6/21.3.3). See 4-7-3/1.5 of
the Steel Vessel Rules or 5-2-2/1.1 of the MODU Rules for applicable fire protection
requirements for fire pumps.
5.1.2(b) Capacity.
i)
The primary and standby fire pumps are each to be capable of supplying the maximum
probable water demand for the facility.
ii)
The maximum probable water demand is the total water requirement for protection of the
largest single fire area plus two (2) jets of firewater at a pressure of at least 3.5 kg/cm2 (50 psi).
iii)
Multiple-pump installations will be considered in lieu of a single primary and standby
pump installation, provided they are arranged in such a manner that a fire in one (1) area
would not reduce the available supply of firewater required to handle that fire, or such
that if the largest pump is out of service for maintenance, the available supply of water
would not be reduced below the maximum probable water demand.
iv)
A means is to be provided for periodic testing of each fire pump.
See 3-8/Figure 1 through 3-8/Figure 3 for typical arrangement of fire pumps on newly constructed
floating installations.
v)
For a FPSO conversion from an existing tanker based or a FPS conversion from an existing
MODU (built prior to 1996) based, the capacity of the primary and standby fire pumps is
to be in accordance with this section of the Rules, except that the pressure at the nozzles
for the two (2) jets of firewater is to be at least 2.7 kg/cm2 (40 psi). See 3-8/Figure 4.
vi)
For a typical FPSO arrangement, the maximum probable water demand includes the water
supply to the water spray system for a single fire on the production deck as discussed above,
the water supply to the foam system on the tanker deck below, plus two (2) jets of firewater.
vii)
For detailed requirements of the water spray system, see 3-8/5.1.4.
viii)
To determine the maximum probable water demand, the fire risk areas on the production
deck may be divided into fire zones.
ix)
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a)
If a fire is being considered in a single zone, the water supply for the water spray
system is to be sufficient for that zone and adjacent zones.
b)
The water spray system requirement may be ignored for adjacent zones if these
zones are separated by a firewall (no less than A-60) or by an adequate distance
between process components to justify such zoning. See 3-8/Figure 5A for
reference.
Note that the system emergency shutdown and the equipment blowdown may be considered
a safe alternative to the water spray for low hydrocarbon liquid inventory equipment such
as the gas compressor units. See 3-8/Figure 5B for reference.
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FIGURE 1
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Two-Pump Scenario
Max Probable Demand
(Deluge, Deck Foam, etc...)
Primary Pump
100%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Standby Pump
100%
FIGURE 2
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Even Power) Scenario
First Pump
50%
Max Probable Demand
(Deluge, Deck Foam, etc...)
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Second Pump
50%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Standby Pump
Equal to largest pump (50%)
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FIGURE 3
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Uneven Power) Scenario
First Pump
60%
Max Probable Demand
(Deluge, Deck Foam, etc...)
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Second Pump
40%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Fire Hose
3.5 kg/cm 2 (50psi)
Standby Pump
Equal to largest pump (60%)
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FIGURE 4
Floating Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump Scenario for Oil Carrier Converted to Offshore Installation
Emergency Pump
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Max Probable Demand
(Deluge, Deck Foam, etc...)
First Pump
30%
2.7 kg/cm 2 (40psi)
Second Pump
30%
2.7 kg/cm 2 (40psi)
New
New Third Pump
40%
Existing
New Standby Pump
Equal to largest pump (40%)
FIGURE 5A
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on a Production Deck of a FPSO
Single Fire with A-60 Fire Wall
Fire wall
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FIGURE 5B
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on a Production Deck of a FPSO
Single Fire with an Adjacent Zone that has no Liquid Inventory
No hydrocarbon liquid inventory
Compressor skid w/blowdown
Fire Zones
Fire Zones with Water Spray System Activation
Single Fire
Fire Wall
5.1.2(c) Operability and Control.
i)
Pump(s) with sufficient capacity for process water spray systems is (are) to be provided
with automatic starting.
ii)
In addition to the pump automatic starting requirement, pump driver starters are to be
provided with means for local and remote operation from a permanently manned station or
a fire control station.
iii)
Pump discharge control valves, used to separate the section of the firewater service system
and the fire pump(s), are to be fitted in an easily accessible location outside of the pump
space.
iv)
Diesel-driven fire pumps may be provided with electrical or pneumatic starting and control
systems.
v)
Diesel drives using electrical starting and control systems are to be maintained in a
weather-protected enclosure.
vi)
Alternative means of protecting electrical starting and control systems will be considered.
5.1.2(d) Pump Drivers.
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i)
Pump drivers may include diesel engines, natural gas engines, or electric motors.
ii)
(2017) The pump drivers are to be in general accordance with API RP 14G with respect
to their types and installation requirements. Where the driver is a diesel engine ≥ 100 kW,
the engine is to have alarms and safeguards in compliance with 4-8-2/Table 1 of the Steel
Vessel Rules or 7-1-6/Table 1 of the MODU Rules. Alternative recognized industry standards
may be considered on a case-by-case basis.
iii)
Fuel tanks, fuel lines to engines, and power cables and starters for electric motors, are to
be protected against fire and mechanical damage.
iv)
Where diesel and natural gas engine fire pumps are considered, the arrangements are to
comply with requirements of 3-4/3.9, 3-6/21.3.3, and 3-6/23.
v)
For electrical motor-driven fire pumps, see 3-6/7 and 3-6/21.3.3 for applicable requirements.
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5.1.2(e) Fuel Systems.
i)
Fuel systems are to comply with the requirements of 3-4/5.11.
ii)
Fuel supply for diesel engines is to be sufficient for 18 hours operation.
5.1.2(f) Lift Columns.
5.1.3
i)
Water lift columns are to be encased in pipe for protection against wave action and
mechanical damage, and the protective pipes are to be securely attached to the structure in
order to lessen wave action damage.
ii)
Corrosion allowance is to be considered when the water lift column is designed.
iii)
Where pipes for lift columns pass through floating structures, penetrations are to be made
by approved methods to maintain the watertight integrity of the structure.
iv)
Intake strainers constructed of corrosion-resistant materials are to be fitted at the suction
end of the fire pump’s water lift column.
Firewater Stations
5.1.3(a) General.
i)
Firewater stations are to be located so that each station will be readily accessible in the
event of a fire.
ii)
All materials that comprise the firewater station and the access to firewater stations are to
be of steel or equivalent material which would not be rendered ineffective by heat.
iii)
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be considered, provided all conditions listed
in Appendix 3 are fully met and are accepted by the Flag Administration.
5.1.3(b) Arrangement.
i)
Firewater stations are to be located on the perimeter of process areas.
ii)
The stations and their arrangements are to provide at least two (2) jets of water not emanating
from the same fire station to reach any part of the production facility that may be exposed
to fire.
iii)
The firewater stations are also to be arranged to provide protection against fire damage or
mechanical damage, operation free from interference by other emergency activities, and
effective co-ordination with other stations.
5.1.3(c) Monitors and Nozzles.
i)
Monitors are to be sized for a minimum flow of 1,892 liters/min. at 7.3 kg/cm2 (500 gpm
at 100 psig).
ii)
Nozzles are to be adjustable from straight stream to full fog and to have a nozzle diameter
of at least 12 mm (0.5 in.).
iii)
Monitors and nozzles are to be of corrosion-resistant materials and/or be protected with a
suitable coating to protect the equipment from the offshore environment.
iv)
All nozzles are to incorporate means for a shut-off.
5.1.3(d) Hoses.
i)
Fire hoses located on the production deck are to be of a non-collapsible type mounted on
reels, and are to be certified by a competent independent testing laboratory as being
constructed of non-perishable material to recognized standards.
ii)
The hoses are to be of material resistant to oil and chemical deterioration, mildew and rot,
and exposure to the offshore environment.
iii)
Hoses are to be sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any location in the areas
where they may be required to be used.
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iv)
Each hose is to be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings.
v)
Unlike collapsible hoses, which require more space for handling, the maximum length of
hose reels used on the production deck may be as long as 30 m (100 ft).
vi)
All indoor fire stations (i.e., quarters areas, machinery spaces, office spaces, etc.), where
required, are to be provided with collapsible hoses.
vii)
The maximum length of collapsible hoses is not to exceed 23 m (75 ft).
Water Spray (Deluge) Systems for Process Equipment
5.1.4(a) General.
i)
A fixed water spray system is to be installed for the process equipment.
ii)
The intent of the water spray system is to keep the process equipment cool and reduce the
risk of escalation of a fire.
iii)
Water spray systems are to be capable of being actuated both automatically by a fire detection
system and manually.
iv)
Installations are generally to be in accordance with NFPA Standard 15, or other equivalent
standard such as API RP 2030.
v)
Deluge isolation valves are to be located in a safe area and outside the fire zone they protect.
vi)
Consideration will be given to the use of manual actuation alone, provided that the combined
volume of process and storage vessels is less than 15 m3 (530 ft3), and the installation is
manned on a 24-hour basis and the manual actuation station is readily accessible.
5.1.4(b) Materials.
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i)
All requirements in 3-8/5.1.1(b) are applicable, except the requirements for plastic piping
materials, which are modified and listed below.
ii)
Plastic piping materials are to meet Appendix 1 of these Rules.
iii)
Generally, plastic (GRP/FRP) materials used in water spray systems are to pass Level 1 fire
endurance test.
iv)
However, a plastic piping material that passes Level 3 Modified Test – Level 3 WD fire
endurance requirements in lieu of Level 1 requirements may be considered when the
following design conditions are fully met and accepted by the Flag Administration:
a)
Plastic piping is installed in open deck or semi-enclosed locations.
b)
The water spray piping system must meet the Level 3 fire endurance requirements
as specified in Appendix 1.
c)
In addition to meeting the Level 3 fire endurance requirements, the water spray
piping system must meet the requirements of the wet/dry fire endurance testing
specified in Appendix 1, Section 8.
d)
Other wet/dry fire endurance test methods that may be equivalent to or more
severe than the methods described in Appendix 1, Section 8, will be considered on
a case-by-case basis.
e)
An automatic fire detection system is to be installed in areas protected by the water
spray system.
f)
The water spray system is to be designed to activate automatically upon detection
by the automatic fire detection system.
g)
Each section or area served by a water spray system is to be capable of being
isolated by one (1) water supply valve only. The stop valve in each section is to
be readily accessible, and its location clearly and permanently indicated.
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h)
The design of the water spray system is to be such that upon fire detection, the
time required to have water flowing through the hydraulically most remote nozzle
is less than one (1) minute. This requirement will be verified by system testing at
the time of installation and at subsequent annual inspections.
i)
The water spray system piping is to be located downstream of the water supply valve.
j)
All piping upstream of the water supply valve is to meet the requirements for fire
main and water spray systems as specified in Appendix 1, or be of metallic material.
5.1.4(c) Process Equipment.
i)
Process equipment, including hydrocarbon vessels, heat exchangers, fired heaters and other
hydrocarbon handling systems, are to be protected with a water spray system.
ii)
The system is to be designed to provide a water density of 10.2 liters/min/m2 (0.25 gpm/ft2)
of exposed surface area for uninsulated vessels, or 6.1 liters/min/m2 (0.15 gpm/ft2) of
exposed surface area for insulated vessels.
iii)
Process equipment support structure, including saddles, skirt, legs, but not secondary deck
structure members, is to be protected with a water spray system designed to provide a
water density of 4.1 liters/min/m2 (0.10 gpm/ft2).
iv)
(2017) Alternatively, the use of intumescent coatings may be acceptable in protecting the
support structure, provided the selection of the fire rating of the coating is based on the
results from a risk analysis and/or fire load calculation which must be reviewed and
accepted by ABS. The analysis are to demonstrate that the proper rating of insulation for
structural steel is provided to protect the steel when exposed to the expected hydrocarbon
(pool) fire and/or jet fire.
v)
The condition (intactness) of the coatings will be the subject of surveyor inspection during
attendance of the unit following normal survey intervals.
vi)
For gas-handling equipment, such as gas compressor skids, where the hydrocarbon liquid
inventory is kept minimal, a water spray system is not required if the equipment is provided
with an automatic blowdown upon the process shutdown.
5.1.4(d) Wellhead Areas.
i)
Wellheads with maximum shut-in tubing pressures exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psi) are to be
protected with a water spray system.
ii)
The water spray system is to be designed to provide a minimum water density of
20.4 liters/min/m2 (0.50 gpm/ft2) based on the protection of wellheads, ESD valves, and
critical structural components including the firewall.
5.1.4(e) Turret Areas (Internal Turret).
5.1.5
i)
Internal turrets with swivel pressure ratings exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psi) are to be protected
with a water spray system.
ii)
Turret areas, including the swivel and its associated equipment, are to be protected by a
water spray system designed to provide a minimum water density of 20.4 liters/min/m2
(0.50 gpm/ft2).
Foam Systems for Crude Storage Tanks
i)
Deck foam systems are to be provided for all facilities storing crude oil in integral storage
tanks, in accordance with 3-4-1/5.3.1 and 5C-1-7/27 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
ii)
Where process equipment is located or supported above crude storage areas such that deck
foam system application might be obstructed by steel supporting members, foam applicators
or fixed systems may be considered as an alternative.
iii)
Deck foam system coverage in way of process equipment supports is to be no less effective
than for other cargo deck areas.
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Dry Chemical Systems
For production facilities with no liquid hydrocarbon storage capabilities and limited hydrocarbon liquid
retention in processing equipment, dry chemical hose reel units may be used for fire fighting in lieu of
firewater station required by 3-8/5.1.3.
Design of the dry chemical systems is to be in accordance with NFPA Standard 17.
5.5
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
A fixed fire fighting system complying with 3-8/5.5.1, 3-8/5.5.3 or 3-8/5.5.4 is to be provided in each
enclosed space and enclosed skid module containing the following equipment:
i)
Internal combustion machinery, including diesel and gas engines, having a total power output of
not less than 750 kW (1000 hp).
ii)
Oil or gas-fired boilers and other processes such as incinerators and inert gas generators.
iii)
Oil fuel units. An oil fuel unit is defined as any equipment such as pumps, filters and heaters, used
for the preparation and delivery of fuel oil to oil-fired boilers (including incinerators and inert gas
generators), internal combustion engines or gas turbines at a pressure of more than 1.8 bar (26 psi).
iv)
Settling tanks for boilers.
v)
Gas compressors
vi)
Transfer pumps for crude oil and flammable liquid with low flash point (below 60°C~140°F) such
as methanol. See 5C-1-7/29 of the Steel Vessel Rules for reference.
If a fixed foam system is to be used for the methanol pump room and methanol tank space, the
type of foam selected is to be suitable for use with methane (alcohol-resistant foams).
5.5.1
Gas Extinguishing Systems (2017)
5.5.1(a) General
i)
Storage. Pressure containers required for the storage of gas fire extinguishing mediums,
other than steam, are to be located outside the protected spaces. When the gas fire
extinguishing medium is stored outside a protected space, it is to be stored in a room and
is to be used for no other purposes. Any entrance to such a storage room is to preferably
be from the open deck and is to be independent of the protected space. If the storage
space is located below deck, it is to be located no more than one deck below the open
deck and is to be directly accessible by a stairway or ladder from the open deck. Spaces
which are located below deck or spaces where access from the open deck is not provided
are to be fitted with a mechanical ventilation system designed to take exhaust air from the
bottom of the space, and is to be sized to provide at least 6 air changes per hour. Access
doors are to open outwards, and bulkheads and decks including doors and other means of
closing any opening therein which form the boundaries between such rooms and adjoining
enclosed spaces are to be gastight. The boundaries of the room is to have fire-rated integrity
equivalent to that of a control station (see 3-8/9). The ventilation for the storeroom is to
be independent of all other spaces.
ii)
Quantity of the Medium. Where the quantity of gas fire extinguishing medium is required
to protect more than one space, the quantity of medium available need not be more than
the largest quantity required for any one space so protected.
The volume of air receivers converted to free air volume is to be added to the gross volume
of the protected space when calculating the necessary quantity of the gas fire extinguishing
medium. Alternatively, a discharge pipe from the safety relief valves or other pressure
relief devices may be fitted and led directly to the open air.
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iii)
iv)
3-8
Controls.
a)
Automatic release of gas fire extinguishing medium is not permitted, except as may
be specifically approved based on the use of a gas fire extinguishing medium that
does not give off toxic gases, liquid or other substances that would endanger
personnel, see 3-8/5.5.2.
b)
The means of control of any fixed gas fire extinguishing system are to be readily
accessible and simple to operate and are to be grouped together in as few
locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in a protected
space. At each location, there are to be clear instructions relating to the operation
of the system, having regard to the safety of personnel.
c)
Where a fixed gas fire extinguishing system is used, openings which may admit
air to, or allow gas to escape from a protected space, are to be capable of being
closed from outside of the protected space.
Alarms.
a)
Means are to be provided for automatically giving audible warning of the release
of gas fire extinguishing medium into any protected spaces in which personnel
normally work or to which they have access. The pre-discharge alarm is to
automatically activate (e.g., by opening of the release cabinet door). The alarm is
to operate for the length of time needed to evacuate the space, but in no case less
than 20 seconds before the medium is released.
b)
Small spaces (such as small compressor rooms, paint lockers, lamp stores, etc.)
with only a local release need not be provided with such an alarm.
c)
Alarms may be pneumatically (by the extinguishing medium or by air) or electrically
operated. If electrically operated, the alarms are to be supplied with power from
the main and an emergency source of power. If pneumatically operated by air,
the air supplied is to be dry and clean and the supply reservoir is to be fitted with
a low pressure alarm. The air supply may be taken from the starting air receivers.
Any stop valve fitted in the air supply line is to be locked or sealed in the open
position. Any electrical components associated with the pneumatic system are to
be powered from the main and an emergency source of electrical power.
d)
For gas smothering systems that protect the machinery space (containing the
main source of power), instead of the power supply arrangements required above
for electrically operated alarms and electrical components associated with
pneumatic alarms, an uninterruptible power supply which is supplied with power
from the emergency switchboard is to be provided.
5.5.1(b) Carbon Dioxide Systems.
i)
In addition to the requirements in 3-8/5.5.1(a) above, the design philosophy of CO2 fire
extinguishing systems is to be in compliance with a single standard/code (i.e., Chapter 5 of the
International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code), NFPA 12, or other recognized fire
code).
ii)
Once a standard is chosen for a design basis, the standard is to be used throughout the design,
and criteria from other standards may not be used.
iii)
Precautions are to be made to prevent the inadvertent release of the gas fire extinguishing
medium into spaces which are required, see 3-8/5.5.1(a)iv), to be provided with means to
automatically give an audible warning of the release of gas fire extinguishing medium.
For this purpose, the following arrangements are to be complied with:
a)
Two separate controls are to be provided at each release location for releasing the
gas fire extinguishing medium into a protected space and to ensure the activation
of the alarm. One control is to be used for opening the valve of the piping which
conveys the gas into the protected space and a second control is to be used to
discharge the gas from its storage containers. Positive means are to be provided
so the controls can only be operated in that order.
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b)
The two controls are to be located inside a release box clearly identified for the
particular space. If the box containing the controls is to be locked, a key to the box
is to be in a break-glass type enclosure conspicuously located adjacent to the box.
c)
Systems are to be designed so that opening of the door to the gas fire extinguishing
medium release mechanism will not cause an inadvertent blackout condition in
machinery spaces.
Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems (2017)
Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems equivalent to those specified in 3-8/5.5.1 are to be submitted for
approval, based on the guidelines specified in the IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended by MSC/Circ.
1267 and this Subparagraph.
Clean agent fire extinguishing mediums are to be accepted by the governmental authorities.
Fire extinguishing systems using Halon 1211, 1301, and 2402 and perfluorocarbons are prohibited.
The use of a fire-extinguishing medium, which either by itself or under expected conditions of use
gives off toxic gases, liquids and other substances in such quantities as to endanger persons, is not
permitted.
This clean agent fire extinguishing medium is not to decompose measurably in extinguishing a
fire. As such, hazardous, corrosive or toxic decomposition products are not to be found during and
after discharge in such quantities as to endanger persons.
5.5.2(a) Fire Suppression Agent. The agent is to be recognized as a fire extinguishing medium
by NFPA Standard 2001 or other recognized national standard. The minimum extinguishing
concentration for net volume total flooding of the protected space at the lowest expected operating
temperature, but not greater than 0°C (32°F), is to be determined by an acceptable cup burner test.
The minimum design concentration is to be at least 30% above the minimum extinguishing
concentration and is to be verified by full-scale test (see 4-7-3/3.13.2 of the Steel Vessel Rules).
The fire extinguishing agent is to be acceptable for use in occupied spaces by U.S. EPA or other
recognized national organization. The concentrations for cardiac sensitization NOAEL (No Observed
Adverse Effect Level), LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) and ALC (Approximate
Lethal Concentration) are to be submitted.
5.5.2(b) Fire Tests. The system is to pass the fire tests in the Appendix of the IMO MSC/Circ.
848, as amended by MSC/Circ. 1267. The testing is to include the system components.
The system is to pass an additional fire test (Appendix of MSC/Circ. 848) with the agent storage
cylinder at the lowest expected operating temperature, but not greater than 0°C (32°F).
5.5.2(c) System Components. The system is to be suitable for use in a marine environment. Major
components (valves, nozzles, etc.) are to be made of brass or stainless steel, piping is to be corrosion
resistant (stainless steel or galvanized) and the material is to have a melting point of not less than
927°C (1700°F).
The system and its components are to be designed, manufactured and installed in accordance with
recognized national standards.
Containers and associated pressure components are to be designed based upon an ambient temperature
of 55°C (131°F).
Minimum wall thickness for distribution piping is to be in accordance with 4-7-3/Table 2 of the
Steel Vessel Rules (Columns A or B, as applicable).
5.5.2(d) System Installation
i)
116
Storage. As far as practicable, the fire suppression agent is to be stored outside the protected
space in a dedicated storeroom. The storeroom is to be in accordance with 4-7-3/3.1.9 of
the Steel Vessel Rules, except that when mechanical ventilation is provided, the location
of the exhaust duct (suction) is dependent on the density of the agent relative to air.
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3-8
When allowed by the flag Administration, the fire suppression agent may be stored inside
the protected space. In addition to the related instructions from the flag Administration,
the installation is to be in accordance with paragraph 11 of IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended
by MSC/Circ. 1267.
In the case of new installation in existing units, the storage of the fire suppression agent
within a low fire risk space with a net volume at least two (2) times greater than the net
volume of the protected space may be specially considered, based on the type of agent
and the possible hazards for the personnel within the space.
ii)
Alarm. An audible and visual pre-discharge alarm in accordance with 3-8/5.5.1 and
paragraph 6 of IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended by MSC/Circ. 1267 is to be provided.
See also 3-8/5.5.2(d)iv)f) for the alarm when the automatic actuation function is provided.
iii)
Controls. Except as otherwise permitted herein, two independent manual control
arrangements are to be provided, one of them being positioned at the storage location and
the other in a readily accessible position outside of the protected space.
iv)
Automatic Actuation. Automatic actuation is not permitted when the protected space is
normally occupied by personnel. Further, where the unit (offshore facility) is permanently
moored at a specific site, the automatic actuation is not to interferes with the safe ability
for the unit (offshore facility) to be kept afloat at site, which means control of ballast and
bilge systems, mooring system, navigation lights to avoid collision, radio communication,
in addition to the operation of the process ESD system.
If the protected space is normally unmanned and may be entered occasionally for brief
periods such as for repairs or maintenance or other purpose, automatic actuation may be
allowed in addition to manual actuation, provided that the following conditions are complied
with:
a)
The egress from the protected space is horizontal. Exit doors from the spaces are
to be outward-swinging self-closing doors (i.e., opening in the direction of escape
routes) which can be opened from the inside, including when the doors are locked
from the outside.
b)
Notices are prominently posted at the entrance to the space to show that the space
is protected by an automatic activation system. The sign is also to indicate that
the manual release of the system remains enabled and the space is to be vacated
immediately when the release alarm sounds.
Additionally, a notice plate is to be posted in the vicinity of the inhibit switch
near the entrance to the space indicating “personnel inside” to avoid inadvertent
manual release of the fire extinguishing system while a person may be inside the
space for some reasons.
c)
A inhibit switch is provided near the entrance to disable the automatic release
feature of the system. The switch is to have an indicator of its status such as red pilot
light to indicate when the switch is activated (automatic release feature disabled).
A sign is to be posted near the switch indicating that the automatic release feature
is to be disabled when the space is occupied and that the automatic actuation is to
be enabled when leaving the space.
d)
When the automatic release feature is disabled, all other controls, alarms, etc., are
to remain activated.
e)
An indicator at the control console is provided to indicate when the automatic
release feature has been disabled.
f)
The medium release warning alarm is to operate for the length of time needed to
evacuate the space, but in no case less than 30 seconds for space exceeding 170 m3
(6000 ft3) and 20 seconds for spaces 170 m3 (6000 ft3) or less before the medium
is released.
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g)
v)
5.5.3
3-8
The automatic release of a clean agent system is to be approved by the unit’s flag
Administration.
Nozzles. The nozzle type, maximum nozzle spacing, maximum height and minimum
nozzle pressure are to be within the limits to provide fire extinction as tested and verified
in the appropriate fire test.
Foam Systems
5.5.3(a) Fixed High Expansion Foam Systems. Fixed high expansion foam systems are to be in
accordance with Chapter 6 of the FSS Code or other recognized fire code such as NFPA 11A.
Note reference is made to the IMO MSC/Circular 670.
5.5.3(b) Fixed Low Expansion Foam Systems.
5.5.4
5.7
i)
Fixed low expansion foam systems may be installed in machinery spaces in addition to the
required fixed fire extinguishing system.
ii)
Fixed low expansion foam systems are be in accordance with Chapter 6 of the FSS Code
or other recognized fire code such as NFPA 11. Note reference is made to the IMO MSC/
Circular 582.
Fixed Water Spray Systems
Fixed water spray systems are to be in accordance with Chapter 7 of the FSS Code or other recognized
fire code such as NFPA 15.
Paint Lockers and Flammable Materials Storerooms
Paint lockers and flammable material storerooms located on the production decks with deck area in excess
of 4 m2 (43 ft2) are to be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing system.
One of the following systems is to be provided:
i)
CO2 system designed for 40% of the gross volume of the space
ii)
Dry powder system designed for at least 0.5 kg/m3 (0.03 lb/ft3)
iii)
Water spray system designed for 5 liters/min/m2 (0.12 gpm/ft2). The water spraying systems may
be connected to the unit’s fire main system.
iv)
Systems other than those mentioned above may also be considered.
For paint lockers and flammable material storerooms located on the installation but not on the production
deck, see the MODU Rules or Steel Vessel Rules for applicable comments.
5.9
Helicopter Facilities
For fire fighting requirements of helicopter facilities, refer to the MODU Rules or Steel Vessel Rules for
applicable comments.
5.11
Emergency Control Station
i)
At least two (2) emergency control stations are to be provided.
118
ii)
One of the stations is to be located in a normally manned space such as the process control room,
or near the drilling console if the facility is fitted with drilling and workover systems.
iii)
The other is to be at a suitable location outside of the hazardous area.
iv)
The emergency control stations are to be provided with the following:
a)
Manually operated switches for actuating the general alarm system
b)
An efficient means of communication with locations vital to the safety of the installation
c)
Manual activation of all well and process system shutdowns (3-3/13.3.4 and 3-3/5.5)
d)
Means for shutdown, either selectively or simultaneously, of the following equipment, except
for electrical equipment listed in 3-8/5.13: (1) ventilating systems, except for prime movers,
(2) main generator prime movers, (3) emergency generator prime movers.
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3-8
Operation after Facility Total Shutdown
The following services are to be operable after total shutdown of a facility:
i)
Emergency lighting required for evacuation from service/accommodation spaces and machinery
spaces to embarkation stations. This includes lighting at all control stations, stowage positions for
firemen’s outfits, helicopter landing deck, alleyways, stairways and exits, embarkation station deck,
launching appliances, and the area of water where they are to be launched, etc. The lighting is to
be provided for thirty minutes.
ii)
General alarm
iii)
Blowout preventer control system if fitted on the installations
iv)
Public address system
v)
Distress and safety radio communications
vi)
All equipment in exterior locations that is capable of operation after activation of the prime mover/
ventilation shutdown system, is to be suitable for installation in Class I, Division 2 (Zone 2) locations.
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
i)
Locations, types and quantities of fire extinguishers provided for the production deck area are to
be in accordance with 3-8/Table 1 and 3-8/Table 2.
ii)
For areas not specifically addressed in these tables, NFPA Standard 10 is to be followed.
TABLE 1
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (1 July 2012)
CLASSIFICATION
TYPE & SIZE
WATER
LITERS
(GALLONS)
FOAM
LITERS
(GALLONS)
A-II
9 (2.5)
9 (2.5)
CARBON DIOXIDE
KILOGRAMS
(POUNDS)
DRY CHEMICAL
KILOGRAMS
(POUNDS)
5 (11) (1)
B-II
9 (2.5)
5 (11)
5 (11)
B-III
45 (12)
15.8 (35)
B-IV
76 (20)
22.5 (50) (2)
9.0 (20)
22.5 (50)
B-V
152 (40)
45 (100) (2)
22.5 (50) (2)
C-II
5 (11)
5 (11)
C-III
15.8 (35)
9.0 (20)
C-IV
22.5 (50) (2)
13.5 (30)
Notes:
1
Must be approved as a Type A, B, and C extinguisher
2
For outside use only, double the quantity of agent that must be carried.
Classification of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are designated by types as follows:
A
For fires in combustible materials, such as wood
B
For fires in flammable liquids and greases
C
For fires in electrical equipment
Size of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
•
Fire extinguishers are designated by size, where size II is the smallest and size V is the largest.
•
Size II is a portable extinguisher.
•
Sizes III, IV and V are semi-portable extinguishers.
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3-8
TABLE 2
Classification and Placement of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (2016)
SPACE
CLASSIFICATION
QUANTITY & LOCATION
SAFETY AREAS
Main control room
C-II
2 near the exit (See Note 1 on the next page)
Stairway and elevator enclosure
B-II
Within 3 m (10 ft) of each stairway on each deck level
Corridors
A-II
1 in each main corridor, not more than 45 m (150 ft.) apart
Lifeboat embarkation & lowering
stations
--
None required
Radio room
C-II
2 near the exit (See Note 1)
Paint storerooms
B-II
1 outside each room in vicinity of exit (See Note 2 on the next
page)
Storerooms
A-II
1 for every 232 m2 (2500 ft2) or fraction thereof, located in
vicinity of exits, either inside or outside of spaces (See Note 2)
Workshop and similar spaces
C-II
1 outside each space in vicinity of an exit (See Note 2)
B-II
2 required in each space
B-V
1 required in each space
B-II
1 for every 745 kW (1,000 brake horsepower) but not less than 2
nor more than 6 in each space
B-III
1 required in each space
Internal combustion engines or gas
turbines
B-II
1 outside the space containing engines or turbines in vicinity of
exit (See Note 2)
Electric emergency motors
or gas turbines
C-II
1 outside the space containing motors or generators in vicinity of
exit (See Note 2)
ENCLOSED MACHINERY SPACES
Gas/oil-fired boilers: spaces
containing gas/oil-fired boilers,
either main or auxiliary, or their fuel
oil units
Internal combustion or gas turbine
machinery spaces
ENCLOSED AUXILIARY SPACES
Steam drive auxiliary
--
None required
Fuel tanks
--
None required
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TABLE 2 (continued)
Classification and Placement of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (2016)
SPACE
CLASSIFICATION
QUANTITY & LOCATION
MISCELLANEOUS AREAS
Cranes with internal combustion
engines
B-II
1 required in vicinity of crane cab exit
Production areas
B-III or B-IV
(See Note 3)
Drilling areas
B-III or B-IV
(See Note 3)
Open areas
Turret areas for internal turret
B-II
1 for every 3 internal combustion or gas turbine engines
C-II
1 for every 2 electric generators and motors of 3.7 kW (5 hp) or
greater
B-III or B-IV
One for each level of turret area
CHEMICALS AND FUELS WITH FLASH POINT BELOW 60°C~140°F
Pump room
B-II
1 required in vicinity of exit
(See Note 4)
Storage tank area
B-V
1 required on open deck capable of reaching the storage tanks,
tank vents, and transfer connections
(See Note 4 and Note 5)
Notes:
1
One of which must be placed inside (dry chemical extinguishers not recommended for these applications).
2
Vicinity is intended to mean within 1 m (3 ft).
3
(2016) One B-III or B-IV extinguisher is to be provided at every entrance to any escape route. B-III or B-IV fire
extinguishers are also to be so located that no point along escape routes, passageways, and accessible areas is more
than 15.24 m (50 ft) from an extinguisher.
4
For methanol, foam extinguishers may be considered if the extinguishers are of the polar solvent type foam
(alcohol-resistant type)
5
(1 July 2012) Not applicable to integral crude oil tanks protected by a deck foam system as per 3-8/5.1.5.
7
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems (2017)
7.1
General
The purpose of this Subsection is to define the requirements for fire and gas detection systems installed in
the process areas of offshore production facilities. These systems are to be designed to detect fire, smoke,
and combustible or toxic gas release events to alert personnel of these events.
The design, installation and operation of the fire and gas detection systems in accommodations, deckhouses,
hull, machinery spaces, and spaces for marine systems are to be in accordance with the Steel Vessel Rules
and MODU Rules as required by FPI Rules. Conversions to offshore facilities for oil and gas production
will comply with the MODU Rules or the Steel Vessel Rules and have the existing fire and gas detection
systems reviewed by the same requirements. Process fire and gas detection systems control and display
equipment installed outside of the process area will continue to be subject to these Rules.
Fire and gas detection systems for the process areas are to comply with these Rules and API RP 14C, API
RP 14F, API RP 14FZ, API RP 14G, and API RP 55 as applicable. Documents required for submittal are
listed in 3-2/17.13
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Design – General
Detectors are to be installed to provide coverage over the entire process area where potential for fire or gas
releases exist to monitor potential fire and gas release.
Guidance Note: The design of fire and gas detection systems is dependent on a combination of
prescriptive requirements and applicable safety studies. Fire and gas detection systems design
considers potential combustible and toxic gas release and fire scenarios, detector performance
characteristics, mitigation response and the damage tolerance. The installation and operation of the
detector system must meet manufacturer recommended requirements.
The following are general requirements for fire and gas detection systems for process area:
i)
The main fire detection panel and the main gas detection panel are to be located in a continuously
manned space. The fire detection and gas detection can be a combined system with one main panel.
ii)
Any sub panels’ functions are to be duplicated in the main panel.
iii)
Fire and gas detectors and other I/O devices (including but not limited to manual alarm stations,
deluge activation stations, beacons, horns, speakers, etc.) are to be grouped into separate areas
based on their detection and isolation philosophy.
iv)
The activation of any detector or manually operated call point is to initiate a visual and audible
fire detection alarm signal at the control panel and indicating units. If the signals have not been
acknowledged within 2 minutes, an audible fire alarm is to be automatically sounded throughout
the crew accommodation and service spaces, control stations and machinery spaces of category A.
This alarm sounder system need not be an integral part of the detection system.
v)
Fire alarm, gas alarm, supervisory signals, and trouble signals are to be distinctively annunciated
and indicated on fire and gas detection systems panel(s) showing the type of alarm and the location.
vi)
At least two independent power supplies are to be provided for the fire and gas detection system,
one from main source of power and one from emergency source of power. Refer to 4-7-3/11.3 of
the Steel Vessel Rules.
vii)
Fire and gas detection and alarm systems are to allow testing and calibration of the detectors
without interrupting other systems.
viii)
The system shall be arranged to automatically reset to the normal operating condition after alarm
and fault conditions are cleared.
ix)
If addressable system are used, it needs to be arranged in such a way that any fire, damage, failure,
etc., cannot result in loss of detection capability.
7.3.1
Design Factors for Detector and Coverage
Gas Dispersion analysis is to be submitted considering the following:
i)
122
Release scenarios are to be based on but not limited to the following factors:
•
Gas composition determines the potential toxicity of the released gas, gas density and
the potential overpressure to be generated from its ignition
•
Phase may have considerable influence on detector selection and in particular mist.
Recent studies have shown that hydrocarbon mists are often more hazardous than
combustible gas
•
Flash point
•
Release orientation
•
Likelihood of release
•
Environmental conditions such as sun, snow, fog, wind direction, wind speed, rain,
and detector beam blocking
•
Material release conditions (release direction, heavier/lighter than air)
•
Process equipment location
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ii)
3-8
Detectors and associated components are to be designed and installed considering, but not
limited to the following:
•
Avoidance of spurious alarms
•
Voltage variation and transients
•
Ambient temperature
•
Vibration
•
Humidity
•
Shock
•
Corrosion
•
Weather protection
•
Marine environment
•
Location
7.3.2
Cause & Effect charts along with voting architecture logic (if provided) and hierarchical shutdown
logic are to be submitted for review.
7.5
Fire Detection Design
7.5.1
Requirements for Fire Detection
i)
Fire detection equipment is to be certified by NRTL to requirements specified by NFPA 72
or other recognized fire detection standard.
ii)
All areas (open, semi enclosed or enclosed) are to be provided with automatic fire detection
such that all potential fire outbreak points are continuously monitored.
iii)
Determination of fire detection coverage for each area (open, semi enclosed or enclosed)
shall be based on flame size, smoke characteristics and temperature (heat) rise.
iv)
Activation of any detector is to provide audible and visible indication at the alarm panel.
v)
The fire detection system is to sound an alarm and initiate necessary shutdown functions
for the facility in accordance with 3-3/13.3.4.
vi)
In high noise areas (≥ 85 db) audible alarms are to be supplemented by light signals
(flashing or rotating).
vii)
When voting system is used for confirmed fire, then applied voting principles are to comply
with the following:
Voting of detectors may be used to reduce the number of unwanted alarms/actions, but
should not reduce the ability of the system to respond to a real incident.
TABLE 3
Voting of Detectors (2017)
*
Type
Alarm Defined by
N Detectors
Minimum Number of
Detectors per Area
Voting Nomenclature*
Smoke
2
3
2 out of N (N ≥ 3)
Flame
1
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
Flame
2
3
2 out of N (N ≥ 3)
Heat
1
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
Number of detectors required for alarm out of number of detectors in area.
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7.5.2
3-8
Arrangement and Installation of Detectors
Detectors are to be arranged and installed as follows:
i)
Flame detectors are to be arranged such that they have a clear line of sight to detect fire
hazards within their effective field of view.
ii)
Flame detectors will be positioned to avoid flame detection in an adjacent area or the facility
flare.
iii)
Flame detectors are to be installed to avoid restricted views.
iv)
Flame detectors should be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
v)
Fusible plugs and fusible loops where used must meet API 14C and 14G requirements
vi)
For offshore production facilities, 3-8/Table 4 provides guidance for the selection of detectors.
Note: This table is guidance; local conditions may require an alternate choice.
TABLE 4
Fire Detector Location (2017)
Area
Detection Type
Hazardous Areas
Wellhead
Flame, Heat
Drill floor (when drilling package is installed)
Flame
Battery rooms
Smoke
Degasser room, shale shaker room, active mud tank room, , (When drilling package is
installed), hazardous pump room
Process area, turret, offloading area,
Flame, Heat
Flame
Non Hazardous Areas
Mechanically ventilated utility areas, control rooms, drillers cabin, switchgear room,
instrument rooms, local equipment room, telecommunication or public address room,
HVAC rooms, electrically driven crane engine room
Smoke
Driller’s cabin
Smoke
Turbine hoods, fuel oil storage, mud processing, water injection treatment area, diesel
engine room.
Generator area, turbine enclosures, diesel engine room
Air compressor rooms
Flame, Heat, Smoke
Smoke, Heat
Sack or bulk storage area, crane engine rooms, workshops,
Paint Store
7.5.3
Flame, Heat
Heat
Flame, Heat
Positioning of Detectors
Refer to International Code for Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code) 2.4.2 for position of detectors.
Refer to API 14C and 14G for the process area fire detectors (flame detectors and fusible plugs).
7.7
Combustible Gas Detection
7.7.1
Requirements for Combustible Gas Detection
i)
All areas (open, semi enclosed or enclosed) are to be provided with combustible gas
detection such that all potential combustible gas releases in process area and potential gas
migration area are continuously monitored.
ii)
124
An audible and visual alarm is to be activated at the alarm panel when sensing a low level
gas concentration (20 percent LEL) and when sensing a high level gas concentration (60
percent LEL).
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iii)
3-8
Main principles for action initiated upon gas detection are as follows:
a)
Sensing a high level gas concentration (not greater than 60 percent LEL) or gas
detector system malfunction is to initiate automatic process safety shutdown
functions according to shut down philosophy (see 3-3/13.3).
b)
Gas detectors are to be provided at fresh air inlets to non-classified areas.
c)
Ventilation and damper of non-hazardous spaces are to be automatically shut
down upon confirmed gas detection in HVAC inlet.
d)
Ventilation shutdown philosophy of enclosed hazardous spaces upon gas detection
is to be based on risk assessment. In general:
e)
•
Any enclosed hazardous space is NOT to have the ventilation system
automatically shut down upon detection of gas inside the space.
•
Ventilation shutdowns to enclosed hazardous spaces are to be manually
operated.
Gas detectors installed in the air inlet to engine and other fired equipment are to
shut engine air inlet valves upon confirmed detection.
iv)
Audible and visual gas alarm signals are to be distinctive from any other signal on the facility.
v)
Confirmed gas detection can either be one high level detection or as per voting scheme
(if provided).
vi)
When voting system is used, confirmed gas detection and applied voting principles are to
comply with the following:
TABLE 5
Confirmed Gas Detection and Applied Voting Principles (2017)
*
Type
Alarm Defined by
N Detectors
Minimum Number of
Detectors per Area
Voting Nomenclature*
Low Level Gas
2
3
2 out of N (N ≥ 3)
Low Level Gas
w/Faulty Detector
1
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
High Level Gas
1
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
Faulty detectors vote as alarmed
7.7.2
Performance Requirements
Combustible gas detectors are to be certified by NRTL for hazardous area and to a recognized gas
detection standard.
7.7.3
Combustible Gas Detector Mapping and Set Points
Combustible gas detectors must meet the following requirements:
i)
A gas cloud must be detected within its originating zone and the detectors must detect gas
at low alarm levels before the gas cloud crosses its zone boundaries.
ii)
Modules with high congestion, numerous leak sources or high pressure leak sources have
a higher risk potential and will require additional detectors to mitigate this additional risk.
iii)
Gas detectors should not be placed in close proximity to potential high pressure release
point but instead farther away to allow the gas cloud to form.
iv)
Detectors must be chosen to optimally detect the hazardous gas that may be present.
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7.7.4
Floating Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
3-8
Point Detector Spacing
The point detector spacing listed below is based on the following:
i)
The detector spacing listed below in 3-8/7.7.4(a) is applied in the absence of quantitative
studies which support an alternate detector mapping [see also 3-8/7.3.1 and 3-8/7.7.5iv)]
for gas dispersion analysis).
ii)
Detectors are to be located such that a cloud of given size and concentration cannot exist
without encompassing at least one detector or detection path.
iii)
Where gas dispersion modeling is conducted in order to determine the projected cloud
size, results are to be submitted to ABS for review.
Applications which cannot tolerate these limitations must conduct quantitative studies to determine
detector locations which meet performance requirements.
7.7.4(a) Point Detector Default Grid Spacing
Open Process Areas*
Enclosed and Occupied
Process Areas**
Enclosed, Congested, and
Occupied Process Areas***
5 m (16.4 ft)
5 m (16.4 ft)
4 m (13.0 ft)
Point Detectors
*
Open process deck with no more than 1 bulkhead, no overhead ceiling
**
Confined vented volume with obstructions accounting for no more than a 0.3 blockage ratio
*** Confined vented volume with obstructions accounting for more than a 0.3 blockage ratio
7.7.4(b) Point Detector Set Points. The following requirements are applicable:
Point Detectors
Maximum Low Alarm
Maximum High Alarm
General
20% LEL
50% LEL
Turbine Enclosures
10% LEL
15% LEL
7.7.4(c) Open Path Detectors. The following requirements are applicable.
7.7.5
126
Open Path Detectors
Maximum Low Alarm
Maximum High Alarm
General
1 LELm
2 LELm
Air Inlets
≤ 1 LELm
≤ 2 LELm
Process Area Detector Layout
i)
For heavier-than-air gases, detectors are to be located beneath the potential leak source and
at least 0.45 m (18 in.) above deck. Additional gas detectors are to be provided at skid
boundary and/or zone boundary.
ii)
Additional gas detectors are to be provided where the natural ventilation is blocked or
obstructed due to congestion, solid decks, partitions, etc.
iii)
As an alternative, gas dispersion analysis demonstrating an alternative layout provides
equivalent coverage will be considered.
iv)
Detectors are to be located such that a cloud of given size and concentration cannot exist
without encompassing at least one detector or detection path.
v)
Where gas dispersion modeling is conducted in order to determine the projected cloud
size, results are to be submitted to ABS for review.
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7.7.6
Layout of Detectors in Enclosed/Semi Enclosed Areas
Combustible gas detectors are to be located at potential leak points in enclosed or semi enclosed
areas where a gas accumulation may build up.
7.7.7
Combustible Gas Detector Selection
3-8/Table 6 provides typical locations of combustible gas detectors.
TABLE 6
Combustible Gas Detection Location (2017)
Detector
Location
Area/Room
Gas
Applicable Sensor
Wellhead Area (Naturally
Ventilated)
Area
Methane, Propane, Pentane,
Ethane
Point Detector, Open Path
Manifold Area
Area
Methane, Propane, Pentane,
Ethane
Point Detector, Open Path
Compressor/Turbine Enclosures/
Fired Equipment
Air Inlet, turbine
enclosure
Methane, Propane, Pentane,
Ethane, Oil Mist
Point Detector, Oil Mist
Detector
Compressor Seal
At each
compressor seal
Methane, Propane, Pentane,
Ethane
Point Detector
Pump seals
Methane, Propane, Pentane,
Ethane
Point Detector, Open Path
Area
Methane, Propane, Process Gases
Point Detector, Open Path
Area, Inlet,
Exhaust
Methane, Propane, Process Gases
Point Detector, Open Path
Hydrocarbon Pumps
Process Area (Naturally Ventilated)
Process Area Mechanically
Ventilated
Utility Area (mechanically ventilated
skid enclosures, hazardous areas)
Enclosure Air
Intakes
Methane
Point Detector, Open Path
Control Rooms
Inlet Air, Entry
Doors
Methane
Point Detector
7.9
Toxic Gas Detection Design
7.9.1
Toxic Gas Detection Requirements
i)
The detection system must meet the requirement of API 14C and RP55and the detectors
are certified to meet the requirements of ANSI/ISA S12.15 Part I.
ii)
Install H2S detection systems where H2S is present in the well fluid in excess of 20 ppm.
iii)
Gas concentrations of 10 ppm will activate an audible alarm. In high noise areas (≥ 85 db)
audible alarms will be supplemented by light signals (flashing or rotating).
iv)
Sensing a gas concentration of 50 ppm or gas detector system malfunction is to activate an
alarm (audible and visual) and initiate automatic process safety shutdown functions.
v)
Toxic gas detectors should be installed no more than 0.9 m (36 in.) above the floor (deck).
vi)
The sensor should be installed no less than 0.3 m (12 in.) above the floor (deck) to reduce
the probability of wetting during area wash-downs,
vii)
Hydrogen sulfide detectors are to be laid out on a grid pattern in enclosed and nonenclosed areas with a minimum of one detector for each 37 m2 (400 ft2) of floor area or
fractional part thereof according to API 14C.
viii)
Voting of detectors may be used to reduce the number of unwanted alarms/actions, but
should not reduce the ability of the system to respond to a real incident. When voting
system is used, confirmed gas detection and applied voting principles are to comply with
the following:
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TABLE 7
Voting Principles with Reduced Number of Unwanted Alarms/Actions (2017)
Type
Alarm Defined by
N Detectors
Minimum Number of
Detectors per Area
Voting Nomenclature*
Low Level Gas
2
3
2 out of N (N ≥ 3)
Low Level Gas
w/Faulty Detector
2
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
High Level Gas
1
2
1 out of N (N ≥ 2)
*
Faulty detectors vote as alarmed
**
Number of detectors required for alarm out of number of detectors in zone.
7.9.2
Detector Installation Requirements
A H2S detector should be installed, and maintained in accordance with ANSI/ISA S12.15, Part II
with additional electrical requirements found in API 14F.
7.9.3
SO2 Gas Detectors
In hydrocarbon processing, the most likely toxic gas to be found is hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The
flaring of hydrocarbon inventories containing H2S results in sulfur dioxide (SO2) as a combustion
byproduct, although SO2 can be found in the process stream. In contrast to other gas detectors,
toxic gas detectors must be installed near the expected point of release. The set points for SO2 are
to be in accordance with API 14C and other recognized standards.
TABLE 8
SO2 Gas Detector Set Points (2017)
7.11
Point Detectors
Maximum Low Alarm
Maximum High Alarm
SO2**
2 ppm
5 ppm
General Installation Requirements
7.11.1 Installation Standards
Fire and gas detection system is to be installed per the standards listed in 3-8/7.3 and per the
manufacturer’s specifications.
7.11.2 Installation Verification
Once detector installation is complete the following items are to be verified by ABS Surveyor.
i)
Detectors of the specified type are installed in the location and the height specified on the
drawings.
ii)
Confirm that there are no obstructions which would hamper the operation of the detector.
iii)
Confirm that the detector can be readily maintained without the uses of scaffold and
where it is impossible, an alternate method should be provided.
7.11.3 Electrical Installation
The installation of all wiring, cable, and equipment are to be in accordance with Chapter 3, Section 7.
7.13
128
General Maintenance, Inspection, and Test Requirements
Fire and gas detection systems detection system is to be tested, inspected and calibrated in accordance with
the manufacturer’s recommended practice and verified by an ABS Surveyor.
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9
Structural Fire Protection
9.1
General
The term “structural fire protection” refers to the passive method of providing fire protection to the
spaces/compartments of the unit through the usage of fire divisions and the limitation of combustibles in
the construction materials.
9.3
i)
Maintaining the adequacy of the fire division includes proper protection of penetrations in those
divisions, which includes electrical, piping, or ventilation systems penetrations.
ii)
The structural fire protection requirements of this section are intended to address the need for fire
protection of boundaries separating new and/or existing areas/spaces onboard the installation from
the process facility equipment.
iii)
For ship shape FPSOs, SOLAS requirements will be followed along with any additional or more
stringent items in the IMO MODU Code.
iv)
Existing spaces that do not share common boundaries with the process facility equipment are to be
treated based on the requirements that were in effect at the time of construction.
v)
Newly built spaces that do not share common boundaries with the process facility equipment and
all portable/temporary living quarters are to comply with the latest Rule requirements.
Fire Integrity of Bulkhead and Decks (2018)
i)
The minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks is to be as prescribed in 3-8/Table 9A and
3-8/Table 9B.
ii)
Windows and sidescuttles that face the production facilities are to possess a fire rating equivalent
to the bulkheads in which they are fitted.
TABLE 9A
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads Separating Adjacent Spaces/Areas
Spaces
Control Stations including Central
Process Control Rooms
(1)
Corridors
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
H-60
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
B-0
A-0
A-0
*
C
A-0
A-0
*
*
B-0
A-0
(d)
C
B-0
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
Accommodation Spaces
(3)
C
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
Stairways
(4)
Service Spaces
(low risk)
(5)
Machinery Spaces of Category A
(6)
Other Machinery Spaces
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-0
(b)
(b)
C
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
B-0
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
H-60
H-60
*
H-60
(d)
(d)
----
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
----
*
(d)
*(a)
(7)
Process Areas, Storage Tank
Areas, Wellhead/manifold Areas
(8)
Hazardous Areas
(9)
Service Spaces
(high risk)
(10)
Open Decks
(11)
Sanitary and Similar Spaces
(12)
A-0
H-60
(a)
(d)
A-0
H-0
(a) (c)
(d)
(Symmetrical)
----
(d)
(c)
C
Please see the notes under 3-8/Table 9B for further interpretations.
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TABLE 9B
Fire Integrity of Decks Separating Adjacent Spaces/Areas (2018)
Space →
above
Space
below ↓
Control Stations including
Central Process Control Rooms
(1)
Corridors
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
*
(d)
A-0
*
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
Accommodation Spaces
(3)
A-60
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
X
A-0
A-0
*
*
Stairways
(4)
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
--
H-60
(d)
Service Spaces
(low risk)
(5)
Machinery Spaces of
Category A
(6)
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
*(a)
A-60
H-60
Other Machinery Spaces
(7)
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*(a)
H-0
(a)
Process Areas, Storage Tank
Areas, Wellhead/manifold
Areas
(8)
H-60
H-60
H-60
H-60
H-60
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
----
----
H-60
(d)
X
H-60
(d)
Hazardous Areas
(9)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
----
----
A-0
--
A-0
Service Spaces
(high risk)
(10)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
Open Decks
(11)
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
----
----
*
--
*
Sanitary and Similar Spaces
(12)
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
H-60
A-0
*
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(c)
*
Notes:
(a)
If a space contains an emergency power source or components of an emergency power source, and adjoins a space
containing a unit’s service generator or components of a unit’s service generator, the boundary bulkhead or deck
between those spaces is to be an A-60 class division.
(b)
(2018) For clarification as to which note applies, see 5-1-1/5.5 and 5-1-1/5.9 of the MODU Rules.
(c)
Where spaces are of the same numerical category and subscript (c) appears in the tables, a bulkhead or deck of the
rating shown is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose. For example, in category (10), a
galley next to another galley does not require a bulkhead, but a galley next to a paint room requires an A-0 bulkhead.
(d)
If the results of a Risk Analysis or Fire Load Analysis (reviewed and accepted by ABS) justify such, an “A-60” fire
division may be used in lieu of an “H-60” bulkhead. An “A-0” wall used in conjunction with a water curtain system
designed to provide a density of at least 6.1 liters/min/m2 (0.15 gpm/ft2) of exposed surface area may be used as an
equivalent means of meeting the “A-60” class division.
(e)
Intumescent coatings may be acceptable in providing the “H” rating. The intumescent coating used is to have limited
flame spread properties, low smoke development and low heat generation. In addition, an assessment is to be made of
the toxicity of gases emitted in the event of a fire. The condition (intactness) of the coatings will be the subject of
surveyor inspection during attendance of the unit following normal survey intervals.
*
Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is to be of steel or equivalent material, but is not required to be
of an A-class standard. However, where a deck is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes, and vent ducts,
such penetrations are to be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke.
Where an X appears in the table, the configuration is not allowed.
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3-8
“B” Class Divisions
i)
All bulkheads required to be “B” class divisions are to extend from deck to deck and to
the deckhouse side or other boundaries, unless continuous “B” class ceilings or linings are
fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, in which case the bulkhead may terminate at the
continuous ceiling or lining.
ii)
In corridor bulkheads, ventilation openings may be permitted only in and under the doors
of cabins, public spaces, offices and sanitary spaces. These openings are to be provided
only in the lower half of the door.
iii)
Where such an opening is in or under a door, the total net area of such opening(s) is not to
exceed 0.05 m2 (0.5 ft2).
iv)
When such an opening is cut in a door, it is to be fitted with a grille constructed of noncombustible materials. Such openings are not to be provided in a door in a division forming
a stairway enclosure.
9.3.2
Stairways
Stairways are to be constructed of steel or equivalent material.
9.3.3
Stairway Protection
i)
Stairways that penetrate only a single deck are to be protected at least at one level by “A”
or “B” class divisions and self-closing doors so as to limit the rapid spread of fire from
one deck to another.
ii)
Personnel lift trunks are to be protected by “A” class divisions.
iii)
Stairways and lift trunks that penetrate more than a single deck are to be surrounded by
“A” class divisions and protected by self-closing doors at all levels.
iv)
Self-closing doors are not to be fitted with hold-back hooks. However, hold-back
arrangements incorporating remote release fittings of the fail-safe type may be utilized.
9.3.4
Draft Stops
Air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, paneling or linings are to be divided by close-fitting draft
stops spaced not more than 14 m (46 ft) apart.
9.3.5
Insulation Materials
i)
Except for insulation in refrigerated compartments, insulation material, pipe and vent duct
lagging, ceilings, linings and bulkheads are to be of non-combustible material.
9.3.6
ii)
Insulation of pipe fittings for cold service systems and vapor barriers and adhesives used
in conjunction with insulation need not be non-combustible, but they are to be kept to a
minimum and their exposed surfaces are to have low flame spread characteristics.
iii)
In spaces where penetrations of oil products are possible, the surfaces of the insulation are
to be impervious to oil or oil vapors.
iv)
The framing, including grounds and the joint pieces of bulkheads, linings, ceilings and
draft stops, are to be of non-combustible material.
Exposed Surfaces
i)
All exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures, and surfaces in concealed or
inaccessible spaces in accommodation and service spaces and control stations, are to have
low flame spread characteristics.
ii)
Exposed surfaces of ceilings in accommodation and service spaces and control stations
are to have low flame spread characteristics.
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9.3.7
Floating Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
Veneers
i)
Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may have combustible veneers, provided the thickness of
such veneers does not exceed 2 mm (0.08 in.) within any space other than corridors stairway
enclosures and control stations where the thickness is not to exceed 1.5 mm (0.06 in.).
ii)
9.5
9.7
9.9
Alternatively, veneers that have a calorific value not exceeding 45 mJ/m2 (0.57 BTU/in2)
of the area for the thickness used may be accepted irrespective of the thickness of those
veneers.
9.3.8
Deck Coverings
Primary deck coverings, if applied, are to be of an approved material which will not readily ignite
or give rise to toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures.
9.3.9
Paints, Varnishes and Other Finishes
Paints, varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces are not to offer an undue fire
hazard and are not to be capable of producing excessive quantities of smoke.
Wellhead Areas
i)
“A-0” firewalls are to be used to provide protection from potential uncontrolled flare front
wellheads with shut-in pressure exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psi).
ii)
These firewalls are independent of the requirements for structural fire protection of spaces.
iii)
The intent of these firewalls is to provide protection for escape routes, temporary refuges, lifeboat
embarkation stations, fire pumps and potential fire hazards.
iv)
The dimensions of the firewall and distance from the wellhead are to be determined based on the
results from fire load calculations or other recognized method. See 3-3/5.7.
Fired Vessels
i)
“A-0” firewalls are to be used to provide protection from potential fire hazard of fired vessels.
ii)
These firewalls are independent of the requirements for structural fire protection of spaces.
iii)
The intent of these firewalls is to provide protection for escape routes, temporary refuges, lifeboat
embarkation stations, fire pumps and potential fire hazards.
iv)
The dimensions of the firewall and distance from the direct-fired heaters are to be determined
based on the results from fire load calculations or other recognized method. See 3-3/5.11.
Helideck (2018)
i)
All helidecks are to be constructed of steel or other material which provides equivalent structural
and fire integrity properties to that of steel.
ii)
Helidecks which form the deckhead (roof) of the accommodations are to be insulated to an “A-60”
class standard.
iii)
If the helideck is located less than one (1) meter above the deckhouse top, the helideck is to be
constructed to an “A” class standard.
iv)
Deckhouse roofs (below the helideck) are to have no openings.
v)
If the Administration permits aluminum or other low melting point metal construction that is not
made equivalent to steel, the following provisions are to be satisfied:
a)
132
3-8
If the helideck is cantilevered over the side of the unit, after each fire that may have an
effect on the structural integrity of the helideck or its supporting structures, the helideck is
to undergo a structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use; and
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b)
9.11
3-8
If the helideck is located above the unit’s deckhouse or similar structure, the following
conditions are to be satisfied:
•
The deckhouse top and bulkheads under the helideck are to have no openings;
•
Windows under the helideck are to be provided with steel shutters;
•
After each fire on the helideck or supporting structure the helideck is to undergo a
structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use.
Ventilation (2018)
Standards for ventilation are to be in accordance with the requirements contained in this Paragraph.
Ventilation systems are to be designed with an intent on maintaining structural fire divisions.
9.11.1 Non-Ducted HVAC Systems
i)
Non-ducted HVAC systems (i.e., those that use the plenum (concealed space between the
ceiling and overhead deck) for return air) are discouraged.
ii)
The use of a non-ducted system will need prior review of the design philosophy, taking into
consideration the movement of smoke between spaces and the maintenance of “smoke-free”
escape routes. Prior design approval is mandatory before construction of such a system.
9.11.2 Air Balance Ducts
i)
The use of air balance ducts (“jumper ducts”) is not allowed in “A” Class Division or “B”
Class Divisions that are required to extend deck to deck, except for openings as permitted
in accordance with 4-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv).
ii)
Air balance ducts are also not to serve corridors, except for openings as permitted in
accordance with 4-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv).
iii)
Air balance ducts between adjacent spaces are only acceptable in “C” class divisions.
iv)
In addition to air balancing openings as permitted in 3-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv), air balancing
ducts (jumper ducts) may be fitted only when all the following conditions are complied
with:
i)
The air balancing ducts are connecting two service spaces or service space with a
machinery space other than a Category A machinery space or two machinery
spaces other than Category A machinery spaces
ii)
The spaces connected are located outside the accommodation deckhouse.
iii)
The air balance duct is 3 mm (0.19 in.) thick, 900 mm (35.4 in.) long (preferably
450 mm (17.7 in.) on each side) and fitted with a fire damper close to the boundary
penetrated.
iv)
The fire damper is to be automatically operated upon detection of smoke in any
of the spaces connected and remotely operated from a normally manned control
station where the fire-detection main indicator board for the spaces concerned is
located. In addition, the fire damper is to be capable of being closed locally.
9.11.3 Ventilation Duct Material
Ventilation ducts are to be of a noncombustible material, unless they are no more than 2 m (6.6 ft)
long and have a cross-sectional area no more than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) and:
i)
Are of a material which has a low fire risk
ii)
Are used only at the end of the ventilation device
iii)
Are not situated less than 600 mm (23.5 in.), measured along the duct, from its penetration
of any “A” or “B” class division, including continuous “B” class ceilings
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3-8
9.11.4 Ventilation Ducts Passing Through "A" Class Divisions
Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area greater than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) penetrating
“A” class divisions are to be steel or lined with a steel sheet sleeve that:
i)
Are at least 3 mm (0.118 in.) thick and at least 900 mm (35.4 in.) long (preferably 450 mm
(17.7 in.) on each side of the division), provided with fire insulation having the same fire
integrity as the division; and
ii)
Those exceeding 0.075 m2 (0.81 ft2), except those serving hazardous areas, are to also
have automatic fire damper capable of being closed manually from both sides of the
bulkhead or deck and with a position indicator which shows whether the damper is open
or closed. The fire dampers are not required where ducts pass through spaces surrounded
by “A” class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided those ducts have the same
fire integrity as the divisions which they penetrate.
iii)
For control stations, where the duct line serves other category spaces, a fire damper is to be
provided regardless of size.
Ventilation ducts less than or equal to 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) penetrating “A” class divisions are to be
steel or lined with steel sheet sleeves that are at least 3 mm (0.12 in.) thick and at least 200 mm
(7.88 in.) long (preferably 100 mm (3.93 in.) on each side of bulkhead or, in the case of the deck,
wholly laid on the lower side of the deck pierced) and provided with fire insulation having the same
fire integrity as the division. See 3-8/Figure 6 below.
FIGURE 6
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A” Class Divisions (2018)
(1) “A-0” Class
(2) “A-15”, “A-30”, “A-60” Class
steel sleeve
t mm
Division
L

L
L
Division
L
steel duct
S > 750
cm2
L mm (in.)
 mm (in.)
t mm (in.)
Automatic Damper**
450 (17.7)
450 (17.7)
3.0 (0.12)
Required *
750 cm2 ≥ S > 200 cm2
450 (17.7)
450 (17.7)
3.0 (0.12)
Not required
200 cm2 ≥ S
min. 100 (3.94)
min. 100 (3.94)
3.0 (0.12)
Not required
*
Not required if duct passes through spaces surrounded by "A" class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided
the duct has the same fire integrity as the divisions it pierces.
**
Automatic fire damper capable of being closed manually from both sides of the division.
S = Sectional area of duct
9.11.5 Ventilation of Machinery Spaces of Category A, Galleys and Hazardous Areas
Ventilation systems include the air handling units and/or fans, associated supply, return and/or
exhaust ducting, and miscellaneous components.
Ventilation systems for machinery spaces of category A, galleys, and hazardous areas are to be
separated from each other and from the ventilation systems serving other spaces.
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Attention is to be given to ventilation inlet and outlet locations and airflow in order to minimize
the possibility of cross contamination. Ventilation inlets are to be located in non-hazardous areas
and as far as practicable from the boundaries of any hazardous area, but to a distance not less than
1.5 m (5 ft). Ventilation for hazardous areas is to be completely separate from that for non-hazardous
areas.
Ducts serving hazardous areas are to not pass through accommodation spaces, service spaces, or
control spaces.
Ducts provided for the ventilation of machinery spaces of category A and galleys are not to pass
through accommodation spaces, control stations or service spaces unless:
i)
Constructed of steel at least 3 mm (0.12 in.) thick for ducts 300 mm (12 in.) wide or less,
and at least 5 mm (0.20 in.) for ducts 760 mm (30 in.) wide and over.
a)
The minimum thickness is to be interpolated for widths or diameters between
300 and 760 mm (12 and 30 in.);
ii)
Fitted with an automatic fire damper close to the boundaries penetrated;
iii)
Insulated to “A-60” standard from the machinery space or galleys to a point at least 5 m
(16.4 ft) beyond each fire damper; and
iv)
The ducts are to be suitably supported and stiffened;
or
v)
Constructed of steel in accordance with 3-8/9.11.5 i) and 3-8/9.11.5 iv) above; and
vi)
Insulated to “A-60” standard throughout the accommodation spaces, service spaces or control
stations.
9.11.6 Ventilation of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces or Control Stations
Ducts provided for ventilation of accommodation and service spaces or control stations are not to pass
through machinery spaces of Category A, hazardous areas or galleys. However, a relaxation from
this requirement, except for the ducts passing through hazardous areas, will be considered, provided:
i)
The ducts where they pass through a machinery space of category A or a galley are
constructed of steel in accordance with 3-8/9.11.5 i) and 3-8/9.11.5 iv).
ii)
Automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries penetrated; and
iii)
The integrity of the machinery space or galley boundaries is maintained at the penetrations;
or
iv)
The ducts where they pass through a machinery space of category A or a galley are
constructed of steel in accordance with 3-8/9.11.5 i) and 3-8/9.11.5 iv); and
v)
Are insulated to “A-60” standard within the machinery space or galley.
9.11.7 Ventilation Ducts Passing through "B" Class Division
Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area greater than or equal to 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2)
penetrating “B” class bulkheads are to be steel or lined with steel sheet sleeves at least 1.8 mm
thick and at least 900 mm (35.4 in.) long (preferably 450 mm (17.7 in.) on each side of the
division). Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area less than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) are
to be steel or lined with steel sheet sleeves at least 1.8 mm (0.07 in.) thick and at least 200 mm
(7.88 in.) long (preferably 100 mm (3.93 in.) on each side of division). See 3-8/Figure 7 below.
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FIGURE 7
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B” Class Divisions (2018)
(1) Steel Duct
(2) Non-steel (non-combustible) Duct
Division
Gap to be kept minimum
(max. 2.5 mm (0.10 in.)
t ≥ 1.8 mm (0.07 in.)
L
Steel sleeve
t ≥ 1.8 mm (0.07 in.)
=
450 mm for sectional area of 200 cm2 or more
=
100 mm for sectional area of less than 200 cm2
L
L
9.11.8 Galley Ventilation
9.11.8(a) Relaxation from Separation of Galley Ventilation. The galley ventilation system may
also serve other spaces associated to the galley (pantry with no cooking appliances, provisions
store, dry goods store, scullery room) if all the following conditions are satisfied:
i)
The galley and the associated space have a common boundary,
ii)
The associated space is surrounded by A-rated divisions,
iii)
An automatic fire damper with manual closures from both sides and fitted with position
indicator is to be installed at the common boundary penetrated, regardless of the size of
the duct,
iv)
The fire damper is to be connected to the Air-conditioning and Heating Unit (AHU) control
panel such that upon loss of power to the AHU fan, the fire damper closes,
v)
Fire detection in accordance with the requirements of 3-8/7.1 is to be installed in the
associated space, such that upon detection of fire, the AHU shuts down and the fire damper
in the common bulkhead closes, and
vi)
At least one means of egress for the associated space, independent from the galley egress,
is to be provided.
9.11.8(b) Galley Exhaust Ducts. Where they pass through accommodation spaces or spaces
containing combustible materials, the exhaust ducts from galley ranges are to be of equivalent fire
integrity to “A” class divisions. Each such exhaust duct is to be fitted with the following:
i)
A grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
ii)
A fire damper located in the galley end of the duct which is automatically and remotely
operated and, in addition a remotely operated fire damper located in the exhaust end of
the duct;
iii)
Arrangements, operable from within the galley, for shutting off the exhaust fans; and
iv)
Fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.
9.11.9 Main Inlets and Outlets
The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems are to be capable of being closed from
outside the spaces being ventilated.
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9.11.10 Means of Stopping Ventilation
i)
Power ventilation of accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations, machinery
spaces and hazardous areas is to be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible
position outside the space being served.
ii)
The accessibility of this position in the event of a fire in the spaces served is to be specially
considered.
iii)
The means provided for stopping the power ventilation serving machinery spaces or
hazardous areas is to be entirely separate from the means provided for stopping ventilation of
other spaces.
9.11.11 Prevention of Ingress of Flammable, Toxic or Noxious Gases
The ventilation of the accommodation spaces and control stations is to be arranged in such a way
as to prevent the ingress of flammable, toxic or noxious gases, or smoke from surrounding areas.
9.13
Penetrations
All penetrations through bulkheads and decks are to have the same fire integrity as the bulkhead and deck
through which they penetrate. This is to be accomplished using ABS-established procedures with materials
that have been approved by a major governmental maritime administration, or by approved procedures that
have been tested.
9.15
Materials/Certification (2017)
All materials used in the construction of structural fire divisions and protection of the penetrations are to be
certified for the fire rating in which they are fitted.
9.15.1 Certification of Standard Fire Rated Materials
All A, B, and C rated fire divisions, division penetration systems, structural fire protection insulation,
thermal insulation, joiner bulkheads, doors, HVAC ducts, flooring materials, windows, fire dampers,
joiner materials, etc., are to be certified in accordance with the International Code for Application
of Fire Test Procedures (Resolution MSC.307(88)) (FTP Code).
9.15.2 Certification of Hydrocarbon Rated Fire Protection Materials
9.15.2(a) Division Ratings – H and J Ratings. Initial Product Design Assessment (PDA) certificates
will not be issued on the basis of test reports which are more than 5 years old when submitted to
ABS. If the approval depends on several test reports with different dates, the date of the oldest
report governs.
ABS will renew a PDA certificate of a product without retesting provided that the test report is not
more than 15 years old and that no alteration of components or construction has been made to the
product. If a J rated division insulation material is the same as an H rated division insulation
material, the retesting of the H rated division will be accepted instead of a jet fire retest for the
reissuance of PDA certificate for the material.
Penetration systems (piping, electrical, HVAC, windows, etc.) through H and J rated fire divisions
will be subject to the same certification and retesting requirements as divisions.
9.15.2(b) Insulation for Structural Steel. The initial Product Design Assessment (PDA) certificates
will not be issued on the basis of test reports which are more than 5 years old when submitted to
ABS. If the approval depends on several tests with different dates, the date of the oldest test governs.
ABS will renew a PDA certificate of a product without retesting provided that the initial testing is
not more than 15 years old and that no alteration of components or construction has been made to
the product.
For renewal of a PDA certificate more than 15 years after the initial fire tests, confirmatory
testing of a representative sample of at least four (4) structural elements is to be done. This is to
be done such that the age of the confirmatory fire test is no more than 15 years old when the PDA
certificate is reissued. Where a material has a “jet fire rating for insulation on structural steel”, the
retesting of the “insulation for structural steel” will be accepted instead of a jet fire retest for the
reissuance of PDA certificate.
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9.15.3 Period of Grace for Currently Certified Hydrocarbon Rated Fire Protection Materials
In order to allow for the orderly retesting of hydrocarbon rated fire protection materials, PDA
certificates that are valid at the publishing of the new Rule requirements (1 January 2017) for
retesting will be valid until 1 January 2022 subject to normal PDA certificate renewal procedures.
9.17
Protection of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces and Control Stations (2017)
9.17.1 Protection from Hazardous Areas Associated with Drilling Activities
In addition to the requirements of 3-8/9.3, accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations,
in general, are not to be located adjacent to hazardous areas associated with drilling activities.
However, where this is not practicable, an engineering evaluation is to be performed to verify that
the level of fire protection and blast resistance of the bulkheads and decks separating these spaces
from the hazardous areas are adequate for the likely hazard. A Risk Analysis is to be submitted for
review addressing the possible fire and explosion hazardous and identifying the worst foreseen hazards
(fire and/or explosion). Depending on the type of hazard as determined from the risk analysis a
Fire Load Analysis and/or a Blast Analysis are to be submitted for review with the mitigation measures
(where needed) to allow safe operations.
9.17.1(a) Where a blast analysis is needed based on the risk analysis, the analysis is to show for
the worst foreseen blast scenario that the space is protected.
i)
Minor plastic deformation of the spaces’ structure is acceptable.
ii)
Attention is to be paid to penetrations through the bulkheads such as doors and HVAC
openings.
iii)
No penetration of the blast overpressure is allowed to enter the space through the division
panels. Overpressures of 0.07 bar (1 psi) are allowable through penetrations of the division.
The point of measurement of the overpressure is where the overpressure enters the open air
of the space. Unmanned service spaces can have higher overpressures through penetrations
if justified.
iv)
Windows subject to blast overpressures are to remain intact.
For simplified blast analysis, the overpressure values in API RP 2FB, table C.6.4.1 may be used.
Justification for the level of congestion (congested / non-congested) that an area has must be
provided. Justification on the duration of the assumed blast impulse must be provided.
9.17.1(b) Where a fire analysis is needed based on the risk analysis, the analysis is to show that
for the worst foreseen fire scenario the following internal temperature and structural criteria:
i)
ii)
The temperature of the protected side of the fire division (bulkhead or deck) does not increase
more than:
a)
139°C (282°F) on average above ambient temperature for the time period of the
event, but need not exceed 120 minutes and
b)
180°C (356°F) at any point above ambient temperature for the time period of the
event, but need not exceed 120 minutes
The structure of the division (bulkhead or deck) is to remain intact with the main structure
of the vessel, and is to maintain its structural integrity for two (2) hours. Structural
Integrity means that the structure will not fall under its own weight, nor will it crumble or
break upon normal contact after exposure to a fire lasting two (2) hours.
Buildings with bulkheads and decks that are H-120 Class fire divisions facing hazardous areas
would not need a fire analysis; thus, only blast loads would need to be considered. Division sides
not facing the fire hazard but which share a common edge with a division that faces the hazard are
to have a 3 meter extension of the H-120 Class fire rated division.
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9.17.2 Protection from Production Areas, Storage Tanks Areas, Wellhead/Manifold Areas
In addition to the requirements of 3-8/9.3, accommodation spaces, service spaces, and control stations,
in general, are not to be located adjacent to the hazardous area zones of production areas, storage
tanks areas, or wellhead/manifold areas. However, where this is not practicable, an engineering
evaluation is to be performed to verify that the level of blast resistance of the bulkheads and decks
separating these spaces from the production areas, storage tanks areas, or wellhead/manifold areas
are adequate for the likely hazard. A blast analysis is to be submitted for review. The analysis is to
demonstrate that in the worst foreseen scenario, the structural integrity of the bulkhead or deck.
9.17.2(a) The blast analysis is to show that the bulkheads and decks can withstand the expected
worse case blast scenario such that the follow criteria are met:
i)
Minor plastic deformation of the spaces’ structure is acceptable.
ii)
Attention is to be paid to penetrations through the bulkheads such as doors and HVAC
openings.
iii)
No penetration of the blast overpressure is allowed to enter the space through the division
panels. Overpressures of 0.07 bar (1 psi) are allowable through penetrations of the division.
The point of measurement of the overpressure is where the overpressure enters the open air
of the space. Unmanned service spaces can have higher overpressures through penetrations
if justified.
iv)
Windows subject to blast overpressures are to remain intact.
9.17.2(b) For simplified blast analysis, the overpressure values in API RP 2FB, table C.6.4.1 may
be used. Justification for the level of congestion (congested/non-congested) that an area has must
be provided. Justification on the duration of the assumed blast impulse must be provided.
9.17.2(c) Accommodations spaces cannot be located above or below process areas, storage tanks
areas, or wellhead/manifold areas regardless of the results of any analysis. (See 3-3/5.3, 3-8/Table 9B).
11
Muster Areas
11.1
General
All units are to have a designated muster station(s) where personnel can gather prior to entering the lifeboats.
11.3
Materials
i)
All materials that comprise the muster stations routes are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
11.5
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be considered, provided all conditions listed in
Appendix 3 are fully met and are accepted by the Flag Administration.
Muster Stations
i)
The muster station is to be of sufficient area to accommodate the number of personnel to be gathered.
ii)
The muster station is to be located in a safe location with respect to the processing equipment.
iii)
The muster station may be a meeting room inside the accommodations or may be part of the lifeboat
embarkation station.
13
Means of Escape
13.1
General
i)
The escape route requirements of the applicable Rules and/or Regulations are to apply along with
the requirements of 3-8/13.3, 3-8/13.7 and 3-8/13.9.
ii)
In the absence of escape route requirements by the applicable Rules and/or Regulations, the
requirements of 3-8/13.3 through 3-8/13.9 apply.
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Materials
i)
All materials that comprise the escape routes are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
13.5
Floating Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be considered, provided all conditions listed in
Appendix 3 are fully met and are accepted by the Flag Administration.
Escape Routes
i)
At least two (2) means of escape are to be provided for all continuously manned areas, and areas
that are used on a regular working basis.
ii)
The two (2) means of escape must be through routes that minimize the possibility of having both
routes blocked in an emergency situation.
iii)
Escape routes are to have a minimum width of 0.71 m (28 in.).
iv)
Dead-end corridors exceeding 7 m (23 ft) in length are not permitted.
v)
Dead-end corridors are defined as a pathway which (when used during an escape) has no exit.
13.7
Marking and Lighting of Escape Routes
Escape route paths are to be properly identified and provided with adequate lighting.
13.9
Escape Route Plan
i)
An escape route plan is to be prominently displayed at various points in/of the facility.
ii)
Alternatively, this information may be included in the Fire Control or Fire/Safety Plan.
15
Lifesaving Requirements
15.1
General
i)
The lifesaving appliance requirements of the applicable governmental regulations are to apply
along with the requirements of 3-8/15.5.5 and 3-8/15.5.6.
15.3
ii)
In the absence of lifesaving appliance requirements by the applicable Regulations, or if no Regulations
exist, the requirements of 3-8/15.3 and 3-8/15.5 apply.
iii)
Where the words “of an approved type” are indicated, the equipment is to meet the requirements
of SOLAS or equivalent standard.
iv)
Launching appliances for lifeboats and liferafts are also to meet the requirements of SOLAS or
equivalent standard.
Lifeboat Embarkation Areas
i)
All materials that comprise the lifeboat embarkation platform are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
15.5
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be considered, provided all conditions listed in
Appendix 3 are fully met and are accepted by the Flag Administration.
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment
15.5.1 Lifeboats
i)
Lifeboats of an approved type are to be provided, with a total capacity to accommodate
twice the total number of people onboard the subject unit.
ii)
140
They are required to be installed on at least two (2) sides of the installation, in safe areas in
which there will be accommodation for 100%, in case one of the stations becomes inoperable.
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15.5.2 Liferafts
i)
Inflatable liferafts of an approved type are to be provided onboard such that their total
capacity is sufficient to accommodate the total number of people expected to be onboard
the facility.
ii)
Liferafts are to be placed in or next to areas where personnel may be working, in sufficient
quantity to hold the maximum number of people that might be present in the area at any
one (1) time.
15.5.3 Life Buoys
i)
At least four (4) life buoys of an approved type, with floating water lights, are to be provided.
ii)
One (1) ring life buoy is to be placed in a suitable rack on each side of the structure in an
acceptable location.
iii)
Multi-level structures may require the placement of additional life buoys.
15.5.4 Life Jackets
i)
At least one (1) life jacket of an approved type, is to be provided for each person on a manned
facility.
ii)
Life preservers/work vests are to be stored in readily accessible locations.
iii)
Life jackets numbering the same quantity as the maximum aggregate capacity of each life
boat station must be stored next to the lifeboat station.
15.5.5 Work Vests
When personnel baskets are used to transfer personnel from the facility to work boats, or vice versa, a
work vest is to be provided and kept with the personnel basket for each person riding in the basket.
15.5.6 Breathing Apparatus
i)
For operations involving hydrogen sulfide, each person expected on the facility is to be
provided with a self-contained breathing apparatus of an approved type for escape purposes.
15.7
ii)
The breathing apparatus for maintenance personnel is to have a minimum of thirty (30)
minutes air supply.
iii)
A designated safe area with proper supply of air is also to be provided and shown on the
fire control/safety plan.
Means of Embarkation
15.7.1 General
i)
The means of embarkation requirements of the applicable Rules and/or Regulations are to
apply.
ii)
In the absence of means of embarkation requirements by the applicable Rules and/or
Regulations, the requirements of 3-8/15.7.2 below apply.
15.7.2 Means of Embarkation
i)
Each facility is to have means of embarkation to allow personnel to leave the facility in an
emergency. These are in addition to the equipment described in 3-8/15.
ii)
The means of embarkation are to consist of at least two (2) fixed ladders or stairways,
widely separated, and extending from the main and cellar decks to the water line.
iii)
The ladders or stairways will preferably be located near lifeboat-launching stations.
iv)
Ladder construction is to be in accordance with the appropriate governmental authority,
or other recognized standard.
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17
Personnel Safety Equipment and Safety Measures
17.1
Fireman’s Outfits
All fireman’s outfits and equipment are to be of an approved type (i.e., equipment is to meet the requirements
of SOLAS or equivalent standard).
The requirements below are in addition to those required by the applicable Rules and/or Regulations.
17.1.1 Fireman's Outfit
i)
A minimum of two (2) sets of fire-fighting outfits and equipment is to be provided and
stowed in a suitable container.
ii)
The protective clothing is to be made of a material that will protect the skin from radiant
heat of a fire, and be water-resistant.
iii)
Boots and gloves are to be made of rubber or other electrically non-conducting material.
iv)
The protective helmet is to be of rigid construction to resist impact, and be equipped with
a face shield.
v)
The fireman’s outfits or sets of personal equipment are to be stored as to be easily accessible
and ready for use, and where more than one (1) fireman’s outfit or more than one (1) set
of personal equipment is carried, they are to be stored in widely separated positions.
vi)
One of the outfits should be readily accessible from the helicopter deck.
17.1.2 Breathing Apparatus
i)
A minimum of two (2) self-contained breathing apparatus, of an approved type is to be
provided and stowed with the fireman’s outfits.
17.3
17.5
ii)
There is to be an adequate number of spare compressed air charges.
iii)
The breathing apparatus is to have a minimum of thirty (30) minutes air supply.
Guard Rails
i)
The perimeter of all open deck areas, walkways around accommodation spaces, catwalks and openings,
are to be protected with guardrails.
ii)
The height of the guard rails is to be at least 1 m (39.5 in.) above the deck, except where this height
would interfere with normal operation, in which case, a lesser height may be considered if adequate
protection is provided.
iii)
The opening below the lowest course of the guardrails is not to exceed 230 mm (9 in.).
iv)
The other courses are not to have more than 380 mm (15 in.) of clear opening.
v)
Toe plates are to be provided at the base of all guardrails.
Insulation of Hot Surfaces
17.5.1 Personal Protection
All exposed surfaces with which personnel are likely to come in contact are to have temperatures
that do not exceed 71°C (160°F). If this cannot be achieved, then the exposed surfaces are to be
insulated or shielded.
17.5.2 Spillage Protection
Surfaces with temperatures in excess of 204°C (400°F) are to be protected from contact with
liquid hydrocarbon spillage and mist.
17.5.3 Combustible Gases
Surfaces in excess of 482°C (900°F) are to be protected from contact with combustible gases.
17.5.4 Protection of Insulation
Insulation is to be protected from weather, oil spillage, mechanical wear, and physical damage.
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Chapter 4: Fixed Installations
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
General ................................................................................................ 148
1
Scope .............................................................................................. 148
3
Applicability ..................................................................................... 148
5
Conditions of Classification ............................................................. 148
7
Design Considerations .................................................................... 148
7.1
Recognized Standards ................................................................ 148
7.3
Alternative Basis of Design.......................................................... 149
7.5
Design Conditions ....................................................................... 149
Design Plans and Data....................................................................... 150
1
Submissions of Design Plans and Data.......................................... 150
3
Details ............................................................................................. 153
5
Facility Documentation.................................................................... 153
7
9
5.1
Project Specifications .................................................................. 153
5.3
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings ............. 153
5.5
Area Classifications and Ventilation Drawings ............................ 153
5.7
Escape and Egress Route ........................................................... 153
5.9
Muster Locations ......................................................................... 153
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ............................. 154
7.1
General........................................................................................ 154
7.3
Process Flow Sheets ................................................................... 154
7.5
Heat and Mass Balance .............................................................. 154
7.7
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's) ................................. 154
7.9
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts and
Cause and Effect Matrix .............................................................. 155
7.11
Packaged Process Units ............................................................. 155
7.13
Process Equipment Documentation ............................................ 155
7.15
Process Piping Specifications ..................................................... 157
7.17
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems .......................... 158
7.19
Flare and Vent System ................................................................ 158
7.21
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems .................. 158
7.23
Sub-sea Production Systems (Optional) ..................................... 158
7.25
Nonstandard Components........................................................... 158
Process and Platform Support Systems ......................................... 159
9.1
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) ................................. 159
9.3
Equipment Documentation .......................................................... 159
9.5
Piping Specifications ................................................................... 159
9.7
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines ................................ 159
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Cranes (Optional) ........................................................................ 160
9.11
Nonstandard Components ........................................................... 160
11
Marine Support Systems.................................................................160
13
Electrical Systems ...........................................................................160
15
17
SECTION 3
9.9
13.1
Electrical One-Line Diagrams ...................................................... 160
13.3
Short-circuit Current Calculations ................................................ 160
13.5
Coordination Study ...................................................................... 161
13.7
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors ........ 161
13.9
Specifications and Data Sheets for Transformers ....................... 161
13.11
Details of Storage Batteries ......................................................... 161
13.13
Details of Emergency Power Source ........................................... 162
13.15
Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation
Practices ...................................................................................... 162
13.17
Switchboard, Distribution Boards and Motor Control Centers ...... 162
13.19
Panelboard .................................................................................. 163
13.21
Installations in Classified Areas ................................................... 163
Instrumentation and Control Systems .............................................163
15.1
General Arrangements ................................................................ 163
15.3
Instrumentation List ..................................................................... 163
15.5
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems ................................... 163
15.7
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems .......... 163
15.9
Programmable Electronic Systems .............................................. 164
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety .............................................164
17.1
Firewater System ......................................................................... 164
17.3
Water Spray Systems for Process Equipment ............................. 164
17.5
Foam Systems for Helicopter Facilities with Refueling
Capabilities and for Crude Oil Storage Tanks
(if provided) .................................................................................. 164
17.7
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems ................................................ 164
17.9
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms .................... 164
17.11
Fire Control and Lifesaving Equipment Plan ................................ 165
17.13
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems ................................ 165
17.15
Fire and Gas Cause and Effect Chart .......................................... 165
17.17
Insulation of Hot Surfaces ............................................................ 165
19
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting ....................165
21
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel ............................165
23
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures Manual ..........................165
25
Maintenance of Class Modifications ...............................................166
TABLE 1
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements ..............150
TABLE 2
Major Equipment Plans, Calculations and Technical
Documentation for Class Requirements ...............................156
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ............................. 167
1
General ...........................................................................................167
1.1
144
Scope .......................................................................................... 167
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
SECTION 4
Process and Platform Support Systems .......................................... 168
1
General ........................................................................................... 168
3
1.1
Scope .......................................................................................... 168
1.3
Applicability ................................................................................. 168
Equipment Requirements ............................................................... 168
3.1
5
7
9
Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers ..................................... 168
System Requirements..................................................................... 168
5.1
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel ..................................................... 168
5.3
Fuel Storage for Helicopter Facilities ........................................... 168
5.5
Sewage Treatment Systems ....................................................... 169
5.7
Vent System ................................................................................ 169
5.9
Drainage System ......................................................................... 170
Crude Oil and Flammable Liquid Storage Facility Arrangement .... 170
7.1
Tank Venting Systems ................................................................ 170
7.3
Storage Tank Purging and Blanketing Systems .......................... 170
7.5
Inert Gas Supply.......................................................................... 171
7.7
Oil Fired Inert Gas Generators .................................................... 171
Platform Drilling Systems ................................................................ 171
SECTION 5 ................................................................................................................. 172
SECTION 6 Electrical Systems ................................................................................. 173
1
Applicability ..................................................................................... 173
3
Transformers ................................................................................... 173
5
Switchgear ...................................................................................... 173
7
Hazardous Areas ............................................................................ 173
9
Power Source Requirements .......................................................... 173
11
9.1
Unmanned Facilities .................................................................... 173
9.3
Manned Facilities ........................................................................ 173
9.5
Manned Facilities in Severe Environments.................................. 173
Emergency Source of Power .......................................................... 174
11.1
General........................................................................................ 174
11.3
Location ....................................................................................... 174
11.5
Operability ................................................................................... 174
SECTION 7
Instrumentation and Control Systems ............................................. 175
SECTION 8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety............................................... 176
1
General ........................................................................................... 176
3
1.1
Scope .......................................................................................... 176
1.3
Governmental Authority ............................................................... 176
1.5
Applicability ................................................................................. 176
Requirements for Fire Fighting Systems ........................................ 176
3.1
Unmanned Platforms ................................................................... 176
3.3
Manned Production Platforms ..................................................... 176
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
145
5
5.1
Firewater System ......................................................................... 176
5.3
Dry Chemical Systems ................................................................ 184
5.5
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems ................................................ 185
5.7
Fire Fighting Requirements Pertaining to Specific Locations ....... 189
5.9
Emergency Control Station .......................................................... 190
5.11
Operation after Facility Total Shutdown ....................................... 191
5.13
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers ................................... 191
7
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems...................................194
9
Structural Fire Protection ................................................................194
11
13
15
17
146
Fire Fighting Systems .....................................................................176
9.1
General ........................................................................................ 194
9.3
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks ......................................... 194
9.5
Wellhead Areas ........................................................................... 198
9.7
Fired Vessels ............................................................................... 198
9.9
Helideck ....................................................................................... 198
9.11
Ventilation .................................................................................... 199
9.13
Penetrations ................................................................................ 203
9.15
Materials/Certification .................................................................. 203
Muster Areas ...................................................................................203
11.1
General ........................................................................................ 203
11.3
Materials ...................................................................................... 203
11.5
Muster Stations ............................................................................ 203
Means of Escape ............................................................................203
13.1
General ........................................................................................ 203
13.3
Materials ...................................................................................... 204
13.5
Escape Routes ............................................................................ 204
13.7
Marking and Lighting of Escape Routes ...................................... 204
13.9
Escape Route Plan ...................................................................... 204
Lifesaving Requirements ................................................................204
15.1
General ........................................................................................ 204
15.3
Lifeboat Embarkation Areas ........................................................ 204
15.5
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment ......................................... 204
15.7
Means of Embarkation ................................................................. 205
Personnel Safety Equipment and Safety Measures .......................206
17.1
Fireman’s Outfits.......................................................................... 206
17.3
Guard Rails .................................................................................. 206
17.5
Insulation of Hot Surfaces ............................................................ 207
TABLE 1
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers ...........................191
TABLE 2
Classification and Placement of Portable and
Semi-portable Extinguishers .................................................192
TABLE 3A
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads Separating Adjacent
Spaces/Areas ........................................................................195
TABLE 3B
Fire Integrity of Decks Separating Adjacent
Spaces/Areas ........................................................................196
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
FIGURE 1
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement Two-pump
Scenario ................................................................................ 179
FIGURE 2
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement Multiple-pump
(Even Power) Scenario ......................................................... 179
FIGURE 3
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement Multiple-pump
(Uneven Power) Scenario ..................................................... 180
FIGURE 4A
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on Process Area of a
Fixed Installation Single Fire with A-0 Fire Wall .................. 180
FIGURE 4B
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on Process Area of a
Fixed Installation Single Fire with an Adjacent Zone
that has no Liquid Inventory .................................................. 181
FIGURE 5
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A” Class Divisions ................ 200
FIGURE 6
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B” Class Divisions ................ 202
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
147
Section 1: General
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
1
General
1
Scope (1 July 2012)
This Chapter defines the minimum criteria for ABS Class applicable to hydrocarbon production and
processing systems, subsystems and equipment on fixed installations. See 1-2/1 of these Rules for Scope
and Conditions of Classification.
In the case of existing units (i.e., SEDU – Self-elevating Drilling Units) built to meet the MODU Rules,
consideration may be given for marine systems on such units to continue to meet the MODU Rules, when
these units are converted to a fixed platform.
Terms, definitions, references, abbreviations and acronyms, used in this Chapter are defined in Chapter 2.
3
Applicability
The requirements described in this Chapter are applicable to facilities on fixed installations of various
configurations that provide hydrocarbon production and processing services. These services may include:
5
•
Well fluid de-pressurization
•
Reinjection
•
Phase separation
•
Transfer
•
Fluid cleaning, treatment and stabilization
•
Storage
•
Dehydration
•
Metering
•
Compression
•
Off-loading of processed hydrocarbon
Conditions of Classification
Refer to the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) and
Chapter 1 of these Rules for information on Classification.
7
Design Considerations (1 July 2012)
7.1
Recognized Standards
The submitted design is to be in accordance with the requirements of these Rules and the specified codes
and/or standards as referenced herein.
148
i)
Designs complying with other international or national standards not listed in Appendix 4 will be
subject to special consideration in accordance with Chapter 1, Section 4 of these Rules.
ii)
ABS advises the designer/manufacturer to contact the ABS Technical office early in the design
phase for acceptance of alternate design codes and/or standards.
iii)
When alternate design codes and/or standards are proposed, justifications can be achieved through
equivalency, gap analysis or appropriate risk analysis/philosophy to demonstrate that the proposed
alternate design code and/or standard will provide an equivalent level of safety to the recognized
standards as listed in these Rules and are required to be performed in accordance with Chapter 1,
Section 4 of these Rules.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
7.3
7.5
4
1
Fixed Installations
General
4-1
Alternative Basis of Design
Designs based on manufacturer’s standards may also be accepted. In such cases, complete details of the
manufacturer’s standard and engineering justification are to be submitted for review.
i)
The manufacturer will be required to demonstrate by way of testing or analysis that the design
criteria employed results in a level of safety consistent with that of a recognized standard or code
of practice.
ii)
Where strain gauge testing, fracture analysis, proof testing or similar procedures form a part of the
manufacturer’s design criteria, the procedure and results are to be submitted for ABS review.
iii)
Historical performance data for production or process systems, subsystems, equipment or components
is to be submitted for justification of designs based on manufacturer’s standards.
iv)
ABS will consider the application of risk evaluations for alternative or novel features for the basis
of design in accordance with Chapter 1, Section 4 of these Rules, as applicable.
Design Conditions
The production and process systems, subsystems, equipment, and/or components are to be designed to account
for all applicable environmental, operational, and test loads, or combination thereof. These include, but are
not limited to, the following:
i)
ii)
Environmental Conditions, as applicable
•
Earthquake
•
Temperature
•
Ice
•
1, 10, 50, 100 year storm event, as applicable
•
Wind
Operational
•
Static pressure
•
Tension
•
Transient pressure excursion
•
Bending
•
Temperature excursion
•
Vibration
•
Fluid static head and properties
iii)
Transportation
iv)
Installation
v)
Commissioning
vi)
Test Loads
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
149
Section 2: Design Plans and Data
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
2
Design Plans and Data
1
Submissions of Design Plans and Data (1 July 2012)
The following sections describe the design plans and data submission requirements for ABS Classing of
fixed installations and associated hydrocarbon production and processing systems, subsystems, equipment
and/or components.
i)
4-2/Table 1 and 4-2/3 through 4-2/23, as applicable, identifies the hydrocarbon production and
processing systems, subsystems, equipment and/or components that require approval for ABS
Classification of the floating installations.
ii)
The submitted design plans and data are to be in accordance with the requirements of these Rules
and the latest edition of the specified codes and/or standards, as referenced herein and Appendix 4,
from contract date
iii)
The design plans and data, as specified in these Rules, are to be generally submitted electronically to
ABS. However, hard copies will also be accepted.
iv)
All plan submissions originating from designers or manufacturers are understood to be made with
the knowledge of the main contracting party.
v)
For production and processing systems, subsystems, equipment or components not listed in
4-2/Table 1 or 4-2/3 through 4-2/23, the designers or manufacturers should contact the appropriate
ABS Technical Office for guidance on technical and survey requirements and completion of the
approval process.
vi)
All plan submissions originating from manufacturers are understood to be made with the cognizance
of the main contracting party. A fee may be charged for the review of plans that are not covered
by the contract of Classification.
It should be noted that due to the varying configurations of offshore production facilities, portions of these
requirements may not be applicable to a given installation.
TABLE 1
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (1 July 2012)
ABS technical documentation requirements for classing facilities on fixed installations:
1.
150
Facility Documentation
1.
Project Specifications
2.
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings
3.
Area Classification and Ventilation Drawings
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
TABLE 1 (continued)
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (1 July 2012)
2.
3.
4.
Hydrocarbon Production and Processing Systems
1.
Process Flow Sheets
2.
Heat and Mass Balance
3.
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for facility and each system or subsystem
4.
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (SAFE) Charts
5.
Packaged Process Units
6.
Process Equipment Documentation
7.
Process Piping Specifications
8.
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems
9.
Flare and Vent Systems
10.
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems
11.
Sub-sea Production Systems (Optional
Process Support Systems
1.
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for each system or subsystem
2.
Equipment Documentation
3.
Process Support Piping Specifications
4.
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines
5.
Cranes (Optional)
Marine Support Systems
See 4-6-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules and 4-2-1/7 of the MODU Rules, as applicable
5.
Electrical Installations
1.
Electrical One-line Diagrams
2.
Short-Circuit Current Calculations
3.
Coordination Study
4.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors
5.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Distribution Transformers
6.
Details of Storage Batteries
7.
Details of Emergency Power Source
8.
Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation Practices
9.
Switchboard and Distribution Panel
10.
Panelboard
11.
Installations in Classified Areas
12.
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
13.
Programmable Electronic Systems
14.
FMEA or FMECA for Computer-Based System
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
151
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
TABLE 1 (continued)
Design Plans and Data Submission Requirements (1 July 2012)
6.
7.
8.
152
Instrumentation and Control Systems
1.
General Arrangements
2.
Data Sheets
3.
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
1.
Firewater System
2.
Water Spray (Deluge) Systems for Process Equipment
3.
Foam Systems for Crude Storage Tanks
4.
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
5.
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms
6.
Emergency Control Stations
7.
Portable and Semi-Portable Extinguishers
8.
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems
9.
Fire and Gas Cause and Effect Chart
10.
Structural Fire Protection (which indicates classification of all bulkheads for: quarters section,
machinery spaces and processing facilities)
11.
HVAC plan (including AHU location, duct layout, duct construction and bulkhead penetration
details
12.
Joiner detail arrangement and structural fire protection material certification
13.
Guard Rails
14.
Escape and Egress Routes (may be included on the fire control plan or separate plan)
15.
Muster stations
16.
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment Plan (escape routes must be indicated)
17.
Insulation of Hot Surfaces
Specific Arrangements
1.
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting
2.
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
9.
Start-up and Commissioning Manual
10.
Topside Structure and Structural Arrangements
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Details (1 July 2012)
Plans and data for equipment and components are to provide the following, as applicable:
i)
Model and size
ii)
Design specifications, including design codes, standards, and references
iii)
Design parameters: loads, temperature, environmental conditions, etc.
iv)
Design analysis and/or calculations, as applicable
v)
Dimensional details and drawings
vi)
Fabrication details and welding configurations
vii)
Material specifications and material properties
5
Facility Documentation (1 July 2012)
5.1
Project Specifications
Project specifications are to provide the following, as a minimum:
5.3
5.5
i)
Brief descriptions of field location
ii)
Environmental conditions
iii)
Well shut-in pressure
iv)
Well fluid properties
v)
Production plans
vi)
Hydrocarbon (oil/gas) transportation arrangements
General Arrangement and Equipment Layout Drawings
General arrangement and layout drawings are to show:
i)
Arrangements and locations of living quarters, control rooms, and machinery spaces, including all
entrances, exits and openings to these spaces.
ii)
Arrangements and locations of machinery, process equipment, cargo storage, etc.
Area Classifications and Ventilation Drawings
i)
Plans for area classifications and ventilation are to show, as applicable:
ii)
•
Extent of all Class I, Division 1 and 2, areas and spaces; or
•
Extent of all Class 1, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2 areas and spaces
Arrangements for ventilation of enclosed spaces, and
•
Locations of all ventilation inlets and outlets, with respect to the hazardous areas
Locations of all entrances, exits and openings, with respect to the hazardous areas.
5.7
Escape and Egress Route
Plans showing all escape and egress route on the complete facility.
5.9
Muster Locations
Plans showing all muster locations on the complete facility.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
153
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
7
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems (1 July 2012)
7.1
General
To evaluate the process safety system, the assumptions as made by the designers and as provided in the
following documents are to be submitted:
•
Project Specification – See 4-2/5.1
•
Process Flow Sheets – See 4-2/7.3
•
Heat and Mass Balance – See 4-2/7.5
Although these documents will not be approved by ABS, they are critical to approval of the facility, and
are to be kept for reference throughout the design review process.
7.3
7.5
7.7
Process Flow Sheets
Process flow sheets are to identify the following, as a minimum:
i)
Each process stream
ii)
Process equipment
iii)
Planned addition
iv)
Symbols used
Heat and Mass Balance
Heat and mass balance specification for each process stream under normal operating and upset conditions
are to include the following, as a minimum:
i)
Flow rate
ii)
Composition
iii)
Conditions (temperature, pressure, and vapor/liquid ratio)
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID's)
P & ID’s diagrams showing:
i)
Design, and operating conditions
ii)
Designation and size of all major process equipment
iii)
Piping class specifications (designation and size) for:
•
Piping
•
Valves
•
Pipe fittings and in-line equipment/components such as strainers, filters, etc.
•
Sensing and control instrumentation
iv)
Shutdown and pressure relief devices with set points
v)
Signal circuits
vi)
Set points for controllers
vii)
Continuity of all line pipes
viii)
Boundaries of skid units and process packages.
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts (see 4-2/7.9) are preferably to be submitted in
conjunction with the P & ID’s.
154
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
7.9
7.11
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts and Cause and Effect Matrix
7.9.1
S.A.F.E. Chart
S.A.F.E. chart is to list all process systems, subsystems, equipment, components and associated
emergency support systems with their required instruments, controls, safety devices, and is to list
the functions to be performed by each device. See API RP 14C and API RP 14J.
7.9.2
Cause and Effect Matrix
Cause and Effect Matrix establishes the relation between the causes of a hazardous event and the
effects of that event. Cause-and-Effect Matrix is to list all causes and the associated resulting
effect or event. Cause-and-Effect Matrix can also uncover the interdependencies between the
initiating causes and the resultant event or events (effect). Cause and Effect Matrix can be in the
form of table, chart, or diagram format.
Packaged Process Units
Packaged process units include, but are not limited to, the following:
•
Dehydration
•
Stabilizing
•
Separation
•
Vapor recovery
•
Sweetening
•
Gas compression for fuel or re-injection
Documentation requirements for packaged process units include:
7.13
i)
Skid arrangements and assembly drawings
ii)
P & ID’s – See 4-2/7.7
iii)
S.A.F.E. Charts and Cause and Effect Matrix – See 4-2/7.9
iv)
Process equipment documentation – See 4-2/7.13
v)
Piping system documentation – See 4-2/7.15
vi)
Pressure relief and depressurization systems – See 4-2/7.17
vii)
Electrical one-line diagrams – See 4-2/13.1
viii)
Control schematic – See 4-2/15.5
ix)
Structural design calculations for skid units in dry condition with a center of gravity height of more
than 1.5 m (5 ft) or a maximum operating weight in excess of 10 MT (metric ton) or 22.05 Kips.
Process Equipment Documentation
Complete design specification including, but not limited to, the following documents for verification of
compliance to recognized codes and/or standards for equipment as listed in 4-2/Table 2, as applicable:
i)
Equipment technical specifications
ii)
Design data (data sheets) such as pressure, temperature, corrosion allowance, service conditions,
external loads etc.
iii)
Design calculations or analysis
iv)
Details of pressure relief arrangement
v)
Dimensional details/drawings covering arrangements and details
vi)
Corrosion allowances
vii)
Material specifications
viii)
Weld details and welding procedure specifications and qualifications
ix)
Extent and method of non-destructive testing
x)
Test pressure
xi)
Factory acceptance test procedures
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
155
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
TABLE 2
Major Equipment Plans, Calculations and Technical Documentation
for Class Requirements (2016)
A
B
C
HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PROCESS SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Production/Process Pressure Vessels
X
Fired Vessels
X
Heat Exchangers
X
Storage Tanks
X
Meters, Strainers, Filters, and Other Fluid Conditioners
< 254 mm (10 in.) and 10.54 kg/cm2 (150 psi)
≥ 254 mm (10 in.) or 10.54
kg/cm2
(150 psi)
X
X
Pumps
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
X
X
Compressors
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 28.3 m3/min (1000 scfm) or < 100 kW (134 hp)
≥7
kg/cm2
(100 psi) or 28.3
m3/min
(1000 scfm) ≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Flowlines and Manifolds
X
Scraper Launchers/Receivers
X
Packaged Process Units
X
Flare Systems
X
Subsea Systems
X
PROCESS SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Pressure Vessels
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥7
kg/cm2
(100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
X
Heat Exchangers
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
X
Pumps
X
Air Compressors
X
Engines and Turbines
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Compressors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Packaged Support Systems
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
156
X
X
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
TABLE 2 (continued)
Major Equipment Plans/Calculations and Technical Documentation
for Class Requirements (2016)
A
B
C
MARINE SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
All systems, subsystems, equipment and components are to comply with ABS Steel Vessel Rules or ABS MODU Rules
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Generators
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Motors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Distribution Transformers
X
Switchboard, MCC, Panelboards
X
Storage Batteries
X
INSTRUMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Panels
X
FIRE PROTECTION & SAFETY SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Fire Pumps
Fire Pump Skid Package
X
X
Couplings/Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Compressors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Alarm Panels
X
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems (Nozzles, Controls, Bottles, etc.)
X
Fire and Gas Detection Systems (Sensors, Panel, Cables, etc.)
X
EQUIPMENT SKID STRUCTURE
For modules that require design review, see 3-3/7 and 4-2/7.11
X
Index
A
Technical specifications, data sheets, dimensional details/drawings, design calculations/analysis,
including manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance are to be submitted for ABS Engineering review.
B
Manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance to the applicable codes and/or standards are to be submitted
to the satisfaction of the ABS Surveyor.
C
Documentations are to be verified by the attending Surveyor at the location of installation
7.15
Process Piping Specifications
Process piping line list to include, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Design specifications, such as pressure rating, temperature rating, service rating, etc.
ii)
Pipe and fitting material lists
iii)
Sizes
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Section
4
2
iv)
7.17
7.19
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Calculations for pipe wall thickness, etc.
Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems
Pressure relief valves and depressurization systems plans and data including, but not limited to:
i)
Design and capacity calculations
ii)
Sizes and arrangements
iii)
Set points
iv)
Materials
Flare and Vent System
Flare and vent system details including, but not limited to:
i)
Sizing and arrangements
ii)
Gas dispersion analysis including basis of analysis
iii)
Radiant heat intensities
iv)
Design calculations for blow-down rates
v)
Water seals and gas purging systems
vi)
Knockout drum sizing details
vii)
Details of flare tips
viii)
Details of pilots
ix)
Details for ignition system
x)
Details of pressure relief and depressurizations systems
In the case of proprietary flare tips, validation reports to supplement the radiant heat intensity values are to
be specified and submitted.
7.21
Spill Containment, Closed and Open Drain Systems
Arrangements for spill containment, details of piping connections to all process equipment, sealing, and
slope of drains are to be specified and submitted.
7.23
Sub-sea Production Systems (Optional)
Provide the following for subsea production systems to include, but not limited to, the following:
7.25
158
i)
Stress calculations for structural components
ii)
P & ID’s – See 4-2/7.7
iii)
S.A.F.E. charts – See 4-2/7.9
iv)
Equipment technical specifications and data sheets – See 4-2/7.13
v)
Control schematics – See 3-2/15.5
vi)
Assembly drawings
vii)
Installation and operation procedures
Nonstandard Components (2017)
Components not manufactured to a recognized national standard may be considered for acceptance based
on manufacturers’ specified pressure and temperature ratings and on presenting evidence, such as design
calculations or type test data, that they are suitable for the intended purpose as per relevant codes and
standards.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
9
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Process and Platform Support Systems (1 July 2012)
Process and platform support systems include, but are not limited to, the following:
i)
Utility/Instrument Air System
ii)
Fuel/Instrument Gas System
iii)
Use of produced gas as fuel for process equipment
iv)
Purging System
v)
Fuel Oil System
vi)
Lubricating Oil System
vii)
Crude Oil Storage and Flammable Liquid Facility
viii)
Drainage System
ix)
Hydraulic System
x)
Sewage Treatment System
xi)
Chemical Injection System
xii)
Helicopter Refueling System
xiii)
Vent System
xiv)
Drain System
xv)
Platform Drilling Systems
xvi)
Heating and Cooling System
Plans and data requirements for process support systems are as follows:
9.1
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s)
Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P & ID’s) for each process support system. See 4-2/7.7.
9.3
Equipment Documentation
Equipment technical specifications, data sheets, drawings and supporting design calculations for each
equipment component such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps and compressors. See 4-2/7.13.
9.5
Piping Specifications
Piping specifications, materials, sizes and pressure ratings for all pipes, valves and fittings, calculations for
pipe wall thickness, and line list with design conditions. See 4-2/7.15.
9.7
Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines
Technical specifications for internal-combustion engines and turbines to include, but not limited to the
following:
i)
Types
ii)
Horsepower
iii)
Rated speed/revolutions per minute
iv)
Shutdown arrangements
v)
Manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance verifying compliance with recognized standards
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Chapter
Section
9.9
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Cranes (Optional)
Technical specifications for cranes to include, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Dimensional details/drawings
ii)
Structural design calculations
iii)
Load rating chart
iv)
Test certificates for wire rope
9.11
Nonstandard Components (2017)
Components not manufactured to a recognized national standard may be considered for acceptance based
on manufacturers’ specified pressure and temperature ratings and on presenting evidence, such as design
calculations or type test data, that they are suitable for the intended purpose as per relevant codes and
standards.
11
Marine Support Systems (1 July 2012)
Submissions are to be as required by the applicable parts of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules. See
Chapter 2, Section 1 for “Marine Support Systems” definition.
Typical marine support systems include, but are not limited to, the following:
•
Steam Systems
•
Sewage Treatment System
•
Power Generation
•
Helicopter Refueling System
•
Fuel Oil and Lube Oil
•
Integral Cargo Storage Tank Venting System
•
Fresh Water
•
Drainage System
•
Cargo Handling System
•
Inert Gas Supply
•
Sea Water System
•
Oil Fired Inert Gas Generator
13
Electrical Systems
13.1
Electrical One-Line Diagrams
Electrical one-line diagrams are to indicate, but not limited to, the following:
13.3
160
i)
Ratings of generators, transformers, motors, and other loads
ii)
Rated load current of each branch circuit
iii)
Type and size and temperature rating of cables
iv)
Rating or settings of circuit breakers, fuses, and switches
v)
Interrupting capacity of switchgear, motor control centers, and distribution panels
Short-circuit Current Calculations
To establish that the protective devices on the main and emergency switchboards have sufficient shortcircuit breaking and making capacities, data are to be submitted giving:
i)
The maximum calculated short-circuit current in symmetrical r.m.s. and asymmetrical peak values
available at the main bus bars
ii)
The maximum allowable breaking and making capacities of the protective device
iii)
Similar calculations are to be made at other points in the distribution system where necessary, to
determine the adequacy of the interrupting capacities of protective devices.
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Chapter
Section
13.5
13.7
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Coordination Study
A protective device coordination study is to be submitted to include the following:
i)
The protective device coordination study is to consist of an organized time-current study of all
protective devices in series.
ii)
The study is to be from the utilization equipment to the source for all circuit protection devices
having different settings or time-current characteristics for long-time delay tripping, short-time
delay tripping, and instantaneous tripping, where applicable.
iii)
Where an over-current relay is provided in series and is adjacent to the circuit protection device,
the operating and time-current characteristics of the relay are to be considered for coordination.
Specifications and Data Sheets for Generators and Motors
13.7.1 100 kW and Over
For generators and motors of 100 kW (134 hp) and over, submit the following:
i)
Assembly drawings
ii)
Seating arrangements
ii)
Terminal arrangements
iv)
Designed ambient temperature, temperature rise
v)
Data for complete rating, and class of insulation
vi)
Shafts, coupling, coupling bolts, stator and rotor details
vii)
Weights and speeds for rotating parts
13.7.2 Less than 100 kW
For generators and motors under 100 kW (134 hp), submit nameplate data along with degree of
enclosure.
13.9
Specifications and Data Sheets for Transformers (1 July 2012)
Submit the following documents for transformers:
i)
Rating
ii)
Class of insulation
iii)
Rated ambient temperature
iv)
Rated temperature rise
v)
Details of enclosure and standard to which manufactured
Test reports in accordance with the standard of construction are to be made available upon request.
13.11 Details of Storage Batteries
Details of storage batteries are to include, but not limited, the following:
i)
Arrangement
ii)
Ventilation
iii)
Corrosion protection
iv)
Types and capacities
v)
Conductors and charging facilities
vi)
Over-current protection
vii)
Reverse current protection
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Section
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Design Plans and Data
4-2
13.13 Details of Emergency Power Source
Submit location, arrangement, and services required to maintain the integrity of the facility in the event of
primary power loss.
13.15 Standard Details of Wiring Cable and Conduit Installation Practices (1 July 2012)
Standards and procedures for wiring practices and details are to be submitted, and are to include, but not
limited to, the following:
i)
Cable supports
ii)
Earthing details and connections
iii)
Bulkhead and deck penetrations
iv)
Cable joints and sealing
v)
Cable splicing
vi)
Watertight and explosion-proof connections to equipment
vii)
Bonding connections
13.17 Switchboard, Distribution Boards and Motor Control Centers (1 July 2012)
i)
Complete list and specifications for:
ii)
iii)
162
•
Materials
•
Manufacturer’s name
•
Model number
•
Rating, size, and type
•
Testing laboratory’s listing number (if any), or indication of construction standard for components
such as:
-
Switchboard enclosure
-
Circuit breakers
-
All types of fuses
-
Power and control wiring
-
Bus bars
-
Connectors and terminals
-
Power switches
An outline and details of the switchboard, to include:
•
Overall dimensions
•
Front view indicating instrumentation
•
Circuit breakers
•
Switches
•
Drip-shields
•
Hand-rail
•
Securing supporting details
Bracing arrangements and calculations to determine that bus bars and short runs of power cables
are adequately braced to withstand the mechanical forces that the switchboard may be subjected to
under fault conditions.
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Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
iv)
A complete wiring schematic, including type of wiring, size, and setting of protective devices.
v)
One-line schematic of the bus bars, indicating rating for each of the horizontal and vertical buses,
the exact connection of circuit breakers to the bus bars, setting of the power circuit breakers and
loads ampacities and power cable sizes, if available.
vi)
Actual bus bar arrangement of the horizontal, vertical, and ground buses, including:
•
Bus bar material
•
Size and rating
•
Separation distances between bus bars
•
Separation distances between bus bars and bare metal parts
vii)
Grounding details
viii)
If applicable, details of metal barriers provided to isolate bus bars, wiring, and associated components
13.19 Panelboard
The information as specified in 4-2/13.17i), ii), v) and vii) as applicable.
13.21 Installations in Classified Areas
List of all electrical equipment installed in classified areas, together with documentation issued by an
independent accredited testing laboratory certifying suitability for intended services.
15
Instrumentation and Control Systems
15.1
General Arrangements
Submit layout plans for local controllers, central controllers, displays, printers, and other instrumentation and
control devices.
15.3
Instrumentation List (1 July 2012)
Submit a list of instrumentation and control equipment, including monitoring, control, and alarm set points
and ranges.
15.5
Schematic Drawings – Electrical Systems (1 July 2012)
Schematic drawings/details of electrical systems are to include types and sizes of electrical cables and wiring,
voltage rating, service voltage and current, overload and short-circuit protection for the following systems:
15.7
i)
Process control panels
ii)
Emergency shut-down (ESD) panels
iii)
Intrinsically safe systems
iv)
Fire and gas detection and alarm panels
v)
Fire alarm circuits
vi)
Emergency generator or fire pump drive starting circuit
Schematic Drawings – Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Submit system description of hydraulic and pneumatic control systems, including pipe sizes and materials,
pressure ratings, and relief valve settings.
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Chapter
Section
15.9
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Programmable Electronic Systems (1 July 2012)
Submit the following documentation:
i)
Control philosophy
ii)
Schematic alarm
iii)
Monitoring and control arrangements
iv)
Redundancy arrangements
v)
Failure modes of the system components
See also API RP 14J.
17
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
17.1
Firewater System (1 July 2012)
Firewater system plans are to include, but not limited to, the following:
i)
Pump and piping arrangements
ii)
Location of isolation valves
iii)
Locations of firewater stations
iv)
Details of fire pumps including pump drivers, pump capacity and pressure
v)
Hydraulic calculations for sizing of fire pump capacity and fire main.
17.3
Water Spray Systems for Process Equipment
Submit plans showing the arrangement for firewater piping and spraying nozzles, as well as detailed hydraulic
calculations.
17.5
Foam Systems for Helicopter Facilities with Refueling Capabilities and for Crude Oil
Storage Tanks (if provided) (1 July 2012)
Foam system plans are to indicate the arrangement for:
17.7
17.9
164
i)
Firewater supply
ii)
Foam supply and delivery
iii)
Type of foam and expansion ratio
iv)
Capacity calculations for areas protected
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems (1 July 2012)
Fixed fire extinguishing plans are to show the following:
i)
Arrangement for piping
ii)
Arrangement for spraying nozzles
iii)
Storage of the extinguishing medium
iv)
Details of control and alarm for release of the extinguishing medium
v)
Capacity calculations and discharge time calculations for areas protected
Paint Lockers and Flammable Material Storerooms
Submit plans and calculations showing details of fixed fire extinguishing systems for the paint lockers and
flammable material storerooms.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
17.11 Fire Control and Lifesaving Equipment Plan (1 July 2012)
Submit a fire control and lifesaving equipment plan. The plan is to include the following:
i)
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers. The plan is to include type(s), quantities, and locations
of portable and semi-portable extinguishers for the platform.
ii)
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems. The plan is to show locations, controls, protected spaces/areas
and types of extinguishing systems.
iii)
Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems. The plan is to show:
•
The location and type of fire detectors and gas detectors
•
The location of indicating panel
iv)
Emergency Control Stations. The plan is to include location and equipment.
v)
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment. The plan is to show types, capacity, quantity and location.
vi)
Structural Fire Protection. The plan is to show arrangements, locations and types of fire walls.
vii)
Guard Rails and Escape Routes. The plan is to show arrangement of protective guard rails, toe
plates and means of escape from normally manned spaces.
17.13 Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems
Plans are to indicate:
i)
Locations and details of power supplies
ii)
Sensors
iii)
Annunciation and indicating equipment
iv)
Set points of alarm systems
v)
Data sheets for detectors
17.15 Fire and Gas Cause and Effect Chart
Relate all fire and gas sensors to shutdowns, operation of fixed systems and fire control plans.
17.17 Insulation of Hot Surfaces
Submit details of insulation and shielding provided for personnel safety and fire protection.
19
Arrangements for Storage Tank Venting and Inerting
Submit arrangements for storage tank venting and inerting systems if the fixed installation has the crude
storage capability.
21
Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
Submit piping and control arrangements for use of produced gas as fuel, showing details of double wall or
ducting arrangements for the pipe runs in way of the safe space.
23
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures Manual
The manual outlined in Chapter 5, Section 1 is to be submitted for review as early as possible, prior to the
commissioning of the platform.
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Chapter
Section
25
4
2
Fixed Installations
Design Plans and Data
4-2
Maintenance of Class Modifications
Details of modifications to machinery, piping, process equipment, etc., which may affect classification, are
to be submitted for approval. Typically, these include the following:
166
i)
Equipment changes and modifications, including changes in alarms, instrumentation, and control
schemes
ii)
Facility throughput changes and changes in feed and product compositions
iii)
Changes in operating conditions, including pressures, temperatures, flow rates, or process conditions
different from those in the original process or mechanical design
iv)
Changes in pressure relief requirements due to factors such as increased process throughput, operation
at higher temperatures or pressures, increased size of equipment, or addition of equipment
v)
Changes to process support systems, such as changes to chemical injection, gas dehydration, etc.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 3: Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
3
Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
1
General
1.1
Scope (1 July 2012)
The minimum criteria applicable to systems, subsystems, equipment and/or components for handling and
processing produced hydrocarbons from completed wells are defined in Chapter 3, Section 3 of these Rules.
These requirements address process equipment such as process vessels, heat exchangers, fired heaters,
compressors and pumps, as well as the associated piping, process control, and process safety systems.
The documentation requirements for design review are given in Chapter 4, Section 2.
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167
Section 4: Process and Platform Support Systems
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
4
Process and Platform Support Systems
1
General
1.1
Scope (1 July 2012)
This Section provides requirements for the design and installation of process and platform support systems
on fixed installations.
Process support systems are utility and auxiliary systems that complement the hydrocarbon production and
process systems. See 4-2/9 for list of typical process support systems.
Process and platform support piping design criteria are to be in accordance with API RP 14E, ASME B31.3
or other recognized codes and/or standards.
General arrangement of these systems is to comply with API RP 14J, or other recognized codes and/or standard.
The documentation requirements for design review are given in Chapter 4, Section 2.
1.3
Applicability
Process support systems and platform support systems for fixed installations are to meet the requirements
of Chapter 3, Section 4, except as modified below.
3
Equipment Requirements
3.1
Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
The designer of a fixed installation may not have to address issues arising from the motion of the floating
installation.
The design of pressure vessels and heat exchangers for a fixed installation is to ensure that stresses due to
external nozzle loads and moments, and stresses due to any other applicable external forces such as wind
or seismic activity are within the limits allowed by the code. (See also 3-4/3.1 and 3-4/3.3.)
5
System Requirements
Platform piping design, selection of valves, fittings, are to be in accordance with API RP 14E, ASME B31.3,
or other recognized standards.
5.1
Use of Produced Gas as Fuel
The requirements of 3-4/5.7 are applicable to all enclosed spaces, including spaces located on the production
deck, that have boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion engines using produced gas as fuel.
5.3
Fuel Storage for Helicopter Facilities
5.3.1
Location
i)
Fuel storage and transfer facilities are to be remote or suitably isolated from areas that contain
a source of vapor ignition, and are not to be located in the approach path of the helicopter.
ii)
168
The storage and transfer area is to be permanently marked as an area where smoking and
open flames are not permitted.
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Chapter
Section
4
4
5.3.2
5.3.3
Fixed Installations
Process and Platform Support Systems
Tank Construction
i)
Fuel storage tanks are to be of approved metal construction.
ii)
For pressurized tanks, the criteria for pressure vessels in 4-4/3.1 above are to be followed.
iii)
The design and fabrication of atmospheric or low-pressure tanks are to be in accordance
with Section 3-2-3 of the Offshore Installation Rules.
iv)
Alternatively, the criteria for deep tanks as per the Steel Vessel Rules may be followed.
v)
Special attention is to be given to the design, mounting, securing arrangement, and electrical
bonding of the storage tank and the fuel transfer system.
Tank Vents
i)
Tank vents are to be sized in accordance with API Standard 2000, “Venting Atmospheric
and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks”.
ii)
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.7
Vent outlets are to be located so that vapors will disperse freely.
Remote Control
i)
Storage tank outlet valves are to be provided with a means of remote closure in case of fire.
ii)
Gray cast iron valves are not to be used as shutoff valves for fuel oil tanks.
iii)
Means are also to be provided for remote shutdown of the fuel transfer unit.
Containment (2015)
i)
A containment of at least 150 mm (6 in.) high is to be provided around the fuel storage area,
including the pumping unit and associated piping, to contain spillage and retain fire
extinguishing agents. Where the pumping unit or any other unit such as dispenser/coalescer
unit is remote from the tank, a separate coaming around each unit is to be provided.
ii)
5.3.6
4-4
If the installation is designed with the fuel storage tank(s) cantilevered from the platform and
arranged to be jettisoned, containment will not be required around the fuel storage tank.
Drain
Drainage is to be provided for the area enclosed by the containment and is to comply with the
following:
i)
The area within the containment is to be sloped toward the drain line.
ii)
The drain line is to be led to a holding tank complying with 4-4/5.3.2 and 4-4/5.3.3.
iii)
The drain line cross-sectional area is to be at least twice that of the fuel storage tank outlet
connection.
Containment with No Drainage
Containment not provided with drainage arrangements in accordance with the above is to be sized
to contain the full volume of the fuel storage tank plus 150 mm (6 in.) of foam.
5.5
Sewage Treatment Systems
Government Authority is to be consulted for requirements of sewage discharge to the sea.
5.7
Vent System
i)
Vent pipes are to be fitted to all tanks and are to be located at the highest part of the tank.
ii)
Vents for fuel oil tanks are to be led to the weather.
iii)
Where tanks are to be filled by pump pressure, the aggregate area of the vents in the tank is to be
at least 125% of the effective area of the filling line.
iv)
Vent outlets from fuel oil tanks are to be fitted with corrosion-resistant flame screens having a
clear area through the mesh not less than the required area of the vent pipe and are to be located
where the possibility of ignition of gases issuing from the vent outlets is remote.
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Chapter
Section
5.9
7
4
4
Fixed Installations
Process and Platform Support Systems
4-4
Drainage System
i)
Efficient means are to be provided for draining water from all enclosed spaces where leakage or
accumulation of water may be critical for structural strength or operation of equipment.
ii)
Drains from hazardous and non-hazardous areas are to be separated. See 3-4/5.5 and also 3-3/17.7 for
reference.
iii)
Attention is to be directed to Governmental Authority requirements relative to the drain discharge
to sea.
Crude Oil and Flammable Liquid Storage Facility Arrangement
The requirements of this Subsection apply to fixed installations that have storage capability for crude oil or
flammable liquids, such as methanol, with a flash point of 60°C (140°F) or less. See 4-8/5.5 or 4-8/5.7.4
for applicable fire protection requirements.
7.1
7.3
Tank Venting Systems
i)
Where pressure/vacuum relief valves are fitted on crude oil storage tanks, pressure relief lines are
to be connected to the low-pressure (less than 2.5 psig or 0.17 kg/cm2) flare header, or vented to a
safe location.
ii)
The outlets of high velocity vents or free flow vents are to be located not less than 10 m (33 ft)
from the air intakes and openings to spaces containing the sources of ignition.
iii)
Free flow vents are to be fitted with flame arresters.
Storage Tank Purging and Blanketing Systems
7.3.1
7.3.2
Purging and Blanketing
i)
On facilities equipped for storage of liquid hydrocarbons, a permanently installed inert
gas system is to be provided for purging and tank blanketing.
ii)
Either inert gas or produced gas is to be used to maintain crude oil storage tanks with a
positive pressure in relation to the surrounding atmosphere.
iii)
The storage tanks are to be previously purged with inert gas when produced gas is used
for tank blanketing.
iv)
Inert gas and produced gas used for tank blanketing are to be in accordance with
4-4/7.3.2, 4-4/7.3.3, 4-4/7.3.4, below and 4-4/7.5 and 4-4/7.7.
Oxygen Content and Monitor
i)
The oxygen content of the inert gas used is not to exceed 5% by volume.
ii)
7.3.3
Capacity and Pressure
i)
The inert gas source is to be capable of supplying gas at a rate not less than 125% of the
highest possible oil transfer rate.
ii)
7.3.4
170
Oxygen monitoring equipment is to be provided to monitor oxygen levels in the inert gas
supply as well as in the storage facilities.
The system is to be designed so that the maximum pressure which can be exerted on the
tank(s) does not exceed 0.24 kg/cm2 (3.5 psi).
Isolating Valves
Shutoff valves are to be fitted on both the suction and discharge connections for each blower, or at
the inlet and outlet of the final pressure regulator in a stored gas system.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
7.5
4
4
Fixed Installations
Process and Platform Support Systems
4-4
Inert Gas Supply
7.5.1
General
The inert gas may be treated flue gas from boiler(s) or from a separate inert gas generator. In all
cases, automatic combustion control suitable for operation under all service conditions is to be fitted.
The following specific requirements apply.
7.5.2
Demister
Demisters or equivalent devices are to be provided to minimize carryover of water from the scrubber
and the deck water seal.
7.5.3
Gas-regulating Valve
The gas-regulating valve is to be arranged to close automatically when any of the following conditions
occur:
7.5.4
7.7
9
i)
Loss of water pressure to deck seal(s)
ii)
Loss of control power
Blowers
When two (2) blowers are provided, the total required capacity of the inert gas system is preferably
to be divided equally between the two (2) blowers, and in no case is one (1) blower to have a capacity
less than 1/3 of the total capacity required.
Oil Fired Inert Gas Generators
7.7.1
Fire Protection
The space in which any oil fired inert gas generator is situated is to be protected with a fixed fire
extinguishing system. See also 4-8/5.5.
7.7.2
Venting
Arrangements are to be made to vent the inert gas from oil fired inert gas generators to the atmosphere
when the inert gas produced is off specification (e.g., during starting-up or in case of equipment
failure).
7.7.3
Fuel Oil Shutdown
Automatic shutdown of the fuel oil supply to inert gas generators is to be arranged on predetermined
limits being reached with respect to low water pressure or low water flow rate of the cooling and
scrubbing arrangement, and with respect to high gas temperature.
Platform Drilling Systems (1 July 2012)
See the MODU Rules and the ABS Guide for the Classification of Drilling Systems for applicable requirements
for the drilling, workover, and completion systems.
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Section 6: Electrical Systems
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
6
Electrical Systems
1
Applicability
Electrical installations for all fixed installations are to meet the requirements of Chapter 3, Section 6, except
as modified as follows herein. They need not meet the requirements of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules.
3
Transformers
Fixed platforms need not comply with 3-6/9.3.
5
Switchgear
Fixed platforms need not comply with 3-6/11.11.
7
Hazardous Areas
Fixed platforms need not comply with 3-6/15.5.
9
Power Source Requirements
Fixed platforms need not comply with 3-6/21, provided they comply with the requirements listed below.
This Subsection details minimum electrical power generation for operation. It is to be noted that governmental
regulations may require reserve main power or an emergency power source in excess of these requirements.
9.1
9.3
Unmanned Facilities
9.1.1
Main Power
The main power source(s) is to be sufficient to maintain the maximum intended operational loads
of the facility without need to use the emergency source of power.
9.1.2
Emergency Power
An emergency power source, independent of the facility’s main power, is to be sufficient to supply
services for navigational aids as required by the local Coastal Authority, but not for less than four (4).
Manned Facilities
9.3.1
9.5
Main Power
The main power source(s) is to be sufficient to maintain the maximum intended operational load
of the facility.
Manned Facilities in Severe Environments
In areas of severe environment (See Chapter 2, Section 1), sources of power for systems vital to safety, such
as firefighting and protection of personnel from severe environmental effects, are to include at least the
following:
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9.5.1
Main Power
Two (2) main generators, each is to be capable of maintaining the operation of essential equipment
on the platform.
9.5.2
Emergency Power
i)
An emergency source of power for systems vital to safety, firefighting and protection of
personnel, is to be provided to supply the services as listed herein.
9.5.3
ii)
Provision for emergency power supply less than those listed herein will be considered,
provided adequate technical justification is submitted.
iii)
Loads to be supplied by the emergency source of power are listed in 4-6/9.5.3 and 4-6/9.5.4:
Fire Pump
i)
Where both fire pumps, required by 4-8/5.1.2 of these Rules, are electric motor-driven,
one of these pumps is to be powered by the emergency source of power.
ii)
9.5.4
The emergency source of power is to have sufficient fuel for at least 18 hours of fire pump
operation.
Other Loads
The following loads are to be powered by the designated emergency source of power:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
11
4-6
Fire detection
Gas detection
Communication
ESD system (if electric)
Paging and alarm system
Emergency lighting from all spaces to all
alternative egress points
Electric blowout preventer control system
Navigational aids
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
18 hours
As required by the applicable Coastal
Authority, but not less than 4 days
Emergency Source of Power
Manned facilities on fixed installations in severe environment need not comply with 3-6/23, provided they
comply with the requirements listed below.
11.1
General
An emergency source of power as required by 4-6/9 may be supplied by an emergency generator (3-6/23)
or batteries (3-6/25). Installations are to be in accordance with section 5.6 of API RP 14F and the following:
11.3
Location
i)
The emergency power source is to be self-contained on the same platform or structure as the loads
it supplies (unless the power source and loads are each on fixed platforms connected by a permanent
means such as a bridge).
ii)
11.5
Operability
i)
Boundaries of spaces containing the emergency source(s) of power are to be insulated to not less
than A-60 when these boundaries are common with any machinery space or hazardous area.
ii)
174
The emergency power source is to be installed in a safe space that is to be outside the space containing
the main power source and other machinery spaces.
Emergency source of power is to be capable of starting and/or operating independently, whether
hydrocarbon production and processing facilities are on stream or shut down.
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Section 7: Instrumentation and Control Systems
CHAPTER
4
Fixed Installations
SECTION
7
Instrumentation and Control Systems
(SEE CHAPTER 3, SECTION 7)
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Section 8: Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
CHAPTER
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Fixed Installations
SECTION
8
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
1
General
1.1
Scope
The fire protection and personnel safety features are to comply with this Section, NFPA Standards and
Recommended Practices, and API RP 14G, as referenced herein.
Due to the varying configurations of offshore production facilities, fire protection requirements will vary
accordingly.
This Section provides requirements for manned production facilities. The documentation requirements for
design review are given in Chapter 4, Section 2.
1.3
Governmental Authority
In addition to ABS Class requirements, depending on the unit’s flag of registry and the unit’s intended area
of operation, the coastal state may have additional requirements/regulations which may need to be met;
therefore, the appropriate governmental authorities are to be consulted for each installation.
1.5
Applicability
Fire protection and personnel safety features for fixed platforms and self-elevating drilling units (SEDU)
which convert into fixed platforms are to meet this Section of these Rules.
3
Requirements for Fire Fighting Systems
The following are minimum requirements for fire fighting systems on fixed facilities:
3.1
Unmanned Platforms
i)
Portable fire extinguishers per 4-8/5.13
ii)
Fire detection systems per 4-8/7
3.3
Manned Production Platforms
All applicable requirements of Chapter 4, Section 8 of these Rules.
5
Fire Fighting Systems
5.1
Firewater System
Fixed water fire fighting systems are to be provided as follows:
5.1.1
176
Piping
5.1.1(a) General.
i)
Water fire fighting systems are to be capable of maintaining a continuous supply in the
event of damage to water piping.
ii)
Piping is to be arranged so that the supply of water could be from two (2) different sources.
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iii)
Isolation valves are to be provided such that damage to any part of the system would result in
the loss in use of the least possible number of hydrants, water spray branches, or foam water
supplies. In most facility arrangements this will require a loop type fire main.
iv)
Connections of the primary and standby pump supplies are to be as remote from each
other as possible.
5.1.1(b) Materials (2009).
i)
Materials rendered ineffective by heat are not to be used in firewater piping systems.
ii)
(1 July 2012) Resilient seated valves may be considered for use in firewater systems, provided
the proposed valves are capable of passing an appropriate fire test acceptable to ABS
(e.g., API 607, ISO 10497).
iii)
Additionally, the valves must be capable of being effectively closed even with the resilient
seat damaged or destroyed, such that leakage through the closed valve is insignificant.
iv)
The leakage rate at the firewater pressure through the closed damaged-seated valves still
permits the firewater to deliver at least two (2) jets of water at the required pressure.
v)
Non-metallic expansion joints may be considered for use in firewater systems, provided the
proposed joints are capable of passing a recognized fire test such as ISO 19921/19922: 2005.
vi)
Similarly, flexible hoses may be considered for use in firewater systems, provided the
proposed hoses are capable of passing a recognized fire test such as ISO 15540/ 15541.
vii)
All plastic piping materials are to meet Appendix 1 of these Rules.
viii)
Generally, plastic (GRP/FRP) materials used in firewater systems are to pass Level 1 fire
endurance test. However, a plastic piping material that passes Level 3 fire endurance
requirements in lieu of Level 1 requirements may be considered when conditions listed in
4-8/5.1.1(e) below are fully met.
5.1.1(c) Charging.
i)
The firewater distribution system may be maintained in a charged or dry condition.
ii)
Where a system is maintained dry, relief devices and additional pipe bracing is to be
considered to prevent damage to the piping system due to water hammer when the system is
charged.
iii)
When plastic pipe that passes only Level 3 fire endurance test is used, the firewater system
design is to be pressurized (wet main) and permanently in a charged condition.
5.1.1(d) Piping Maintenance.
i)
The distribution system is to be maintained such that internal and external corrosion of
the piping is minimized.
ii)
In areas where the system is subject to freezing, steps are to be taken to prevent freezing.
For instance, drains, circulation loops or other means may be provided for cold water
protection.
iii)
If drains are provided, they are to be located at the lowest points in the system.
5.1.1(e) Additional System Requirements for Level 3 Plastic Pipe. The following additional
requirements are applicable to the plastic material piping that passes Level 3 in lieu of Level 1 fire
endurance tests and is used in the fire main system.
i)
Plastic piping must be located on the exterior perimeter of the platform and shielded by
primary structural members from potential sources of fire that may occur on or emanate
from the platform.
ii)
Plastic piping must be located so that pooling of flammable liquids below the piping is
not possible. A properly designed drainage system may be provided to mitigate the
pooling of flammable liquid below the piping system.
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Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
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iii)
The firewater system design is to be such that the plastic sections are continuously maintained
in the wet condition.
iv)
The firewater system is to be equipped with an adequate number of isolation and cut-off
valves such that, if a section of the system were to fail, it could be isolated and the
remainder of the system would still be capable of supplying firewater.
Fire Pumps
5.1.2(a) General.
i)
(1 July 2012) There are to be a minimum of two (2) independently driven and self-priming
fire pumps.
ii)
The fire pumps, together with their respective source of power, fuel supply, electric cables,
lighting, ventilation, piping and control valves, are to be located such that a fire in any one
(1) location will not render both fire pumps inoperable.
iii)
One of the two (2) pumps is to be designated as the primary fire pump, and the other as
the standby fire pump.
iv)
At least one of the pumps is to be diesel engine driven, unless the emergency power supply
can supply the load for an electric motor driven pump.
v)
Fire pump installations are to be in accordance with NFPA 20, or an equivalent standard.
5.1.2(b) Capacity.
178
i)
The primary and standby fire pumps are each to be capable of supplying the maximum
probable water demand for the facility.
ii)
The maximum probable water demand is the total water requirement for protection of the
largest single fire area plus two (2) jets of firewater at a pressure of at least 5.3 kg/cm2 (75 psi).
iii)
Multiple pump installations will be considered in lieu of a single primary and/or standby
pump installation, provided they are arranged in such a manner that a fire in one (1) area
would not reduce the available supply of firewater required to handle that fire, or such
that if the largest pump is out of service for maintenance, the available supply of water
would not be reduced below the maximum probable water demand.
iv)
A means is to be provided for periodic testing of each fire pump.
v)
For a typical fixed platform arrangement, the maximum probable water demand includes
the water supply to the water spray system for a single fire on the production area as discussed
above, plus two (2) jets of firewater. For detailed requirements of the water spray system,
see 4-8/5.1.4 below.
vi)
To determine the maximum probable water demand, the fire risk areas on the production
deck may be divided into fire zones.
a)
If a fire is being considered in a single zone, the water supply for the water spray
system is to be sufficient for that zone and adjacent zones.
b)
(1 July 2012) The water spray system requirement may be ignored for adjacent
zones if these zones are separated by a firewall (no less than A-60) or by an adequate
distance between process equipment to justify such zoning. See 4-8/Figure 4A
for reference.
vii)
(1 July 2012) Note that the system emergency shutdown and the equipment blowdown
may be considered a safe alternative to the water spray for low hydrocarbon liquid inventory
equipment such as compressor units. See 4-8/Figure 4B for reference.
viii)
See 4-8/Figure 1 through 4-8/Figure 3 for typical arrangement of fire pumps on fixed
installations.
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FIGURE 1
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Two-pump Scenario
Max Probable Demand
Primary Pump
100%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Standby Pump
100%
FIGURE 2
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Even Power) Scenario
First Pump
50%
Max Probable Demand
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Second Pump
50%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Third Pump
50%
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FIGURE 3
Fixed Installation Fire Pump Arrangement
Multiple-pump (Uneven Power) Scenario
First Pump
60%
Max Probable Demand
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Fire Hose
5.3 kg/cm 2 (75psi)
Second Pump
40%
Fire Rated Bulkhead
Standby Pump
Equal to largest pump (60%)
FIGURE 4A
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on Process Area of a Fixed Installation
Single Fire with A-0 Fire Wall
Fire wall
Quarters
Heliport
Fire wall
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FIGURE 4B
Typical Fire Zones Arrangement on Process Area of a Fixed Installation
Single Fire with an Adjacent Zone that has no Liquid Inventory
Fire wall
No hydrocarbon liquid inventory
Compressor skid w/blowdown
Quarters
Heliport
Fire Zones
Fire Zones with Water Spray System Activation
Single Fire
Fire Wall
5.1.2(c) Operability and Control.
i)
Pump(s) with sufficient capacity for process water spray systems is (are) to be provided
with automatic starting.
ii)
In addition to the pump automatic starting requirement, pump driver starters are to be
provided with means for local and remote operation from a permanently manned station or a
fire control station.
iii)
Pump discharge control valves, used to separate the section of the firewater service system
and the fire pump(s), are to be fitted in an easily accessible location outside of the pump
space.
iv)
Diesel-driven fire pumps may be provided with electrical or pneumatic starting and control
systems.
v)
Diesel drives using electrical starting and control systems are to be maintained in a
weather-protected enclosure.
vi)
Alternative means of protecting electrical starting and control system will be considered.
5.1.2(d) Pump Drivers.
i)
Pump drivers may include diesel engines, natural gas engines, or electric motors.
ii)
(2017) The pump drivers are to be in general accordance with API RP 14G with respect
to their types and installation requirements. Where the driver is a diesel engine ≥ 100 kW,
the engine is to have alarms and safeguards in compliance with 4-8-2/Table 1 of the Steel
Vessel Rules or 7-1-6/Table 1 of the MODU Rules. Alternative recognized industry standards
may be considered on a case-by-case basis.
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iii)
Fuel tanks, fuel lines to engines, and power cables and starters for electric motors, are to
be protected against fire and mechanical damage.
iv)
Where diesel and natural gas engine fire pumps are considered, the arrangements are to
comply with requirements of 3-4/3.9 and Chapter 4, Section 6.
v)
For electrical motor-driven fire pumps, see Chapter 4, Section 6 for applicable requirements
5.1.2(e) Fuel Systems.
i)
Fuel systems are to comply with the requirements of Chapter 4, Section 4 and 3-4/5.11.
ii)
Fuel supplies for diesel engines are to be sufficient for 18 hours operation.
5.1.2(f) Lift Columns.
5.1.3
i)
Water lift columns are to be encased in pipe for protection against wave action and
mechanical damage, and the protective pipe is to be securely attached to the structure in
order to lessen wave action damage.
ii)
Corrosion allowance is to be considered when the water lift column is designed.
iii)
Where pipes for lift columns pass through floating structures, penetrations are to be made
by approved methods to maintain the watertight integrity of the structure.
iv)
Intake strainers constructed of corrosion-resistant materials are to be fitted at the suction
end of the fire pump’s water lift column.
Firewater Stations
5.1.3(a) General.
i)
Firewater stations are to be located so that each station will be readily accessible in the
event of a fire.
ii)
All materials that comprise the firewater station and the access to firewater stations are to
be of steel or equivalent material which would not be rendered ineffective by heat.
iii)
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be used if the layout is designed in accordance
with Appendix 3, and provided that the FRP grating is approved as meeting the applicable
criteria defined in same.
5.1.3(b) Arrangement.
i)
Firewater stations are to be located on the perimeter of process areas.
ii)
The stations and their arrangements are to provide at least two (2) jets of water not emanating
from the same fire station to reach any part of the production facility that may be exposed
to fire.
iii)
The firewater stations are also to be arranged to provide protection against fire damage or
mechanical damage, operation free from interference by other emergency activities, and
effective coordination with other stations.
5.1.3(c) Monitors and Nozzles.
182
i)
Monitors are to be sized for a minimum flow of 1,892 liters/min. at 7.3 kg/cm2 (500 gpm
at 100 psig).
ii)
Nozzles are to be adjustable from straight stream to full fog and to have a nozzle diameter
of at least 12 mm (0.5 in.).
iii)
Monitors and nozzles are to be of corrosion-resistant materials, and/or be protected with a
suitable coating to protect the equipment from the offshore environment.
iv)
All nozzles are to incorporate means for a shut-off.
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5.1.3(d) Hoses.
5.1.4
i)
Fire hoses located outside, in the production area, are to be of a non-collapsible type
mounted on reels, and are to be certified by a competent independent testing laboratory as
being constructed of non-perishable material to recognized standards.
ii)
The hoses are to be of material resistant to oil and chemical deterioration, mildew and rot,
and exposure to the offshore environment.
iii)
They are to be sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any location in the areas
where they may be required to be used.
iv)
Each hose is to be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings.
v)
The maximum length of hose is not to exceed 30 m (100 ft).
vi)
For hoses located in the living quarters areas, machinery spaces, or other enclosed areas,
consideration is to be given to providing semi-automatic hose racks to permit one-man
operation.
Water Spray (Deluge) Systems for Process Equipment
5.1.4(a) General.
i)
A fixed water spray system is to be installed for the process equipment.
ii)
The intent of the water spray system is to keep the process equipment cool and reduce the
risk of escalation of a fire.
iii)
Water spray systems are to be capable of being actuated both automatically by a fire detection
system and manually.
iv)
Installations are generally to be in accordance with NFPA Standard 15, or other equivalent
standard such as API Publication 2030.
v)
Deluge isolation valves are to be located in a safe area and outside the fire zone they protect.
vi)
Consideration will be given to the use of manual actuation alone, provided that the combined
volume of process and storage vessels is less than 15 m3 (530 ft3), and the installation is
manned on a 24-hour basis and the manual actuation station is readily accessible.
5.1.4(b) Materials. All requirements in 4-8/5.1.1(b) are applicable, except the requirements for
plastic piping materials, which are modified and listed below.
Plastic piping materials are to meet Appendix 1 of these Rules. Generally, plastic (GRP/FRP)
materials used in water spray systems are to pass Level 1 fire endurance test. However, a plastic
piping material that passes Level 3 Modified Test- Level 3 WD fire endurance requirements in lieu
of Level 1 requirements may be considered when the following design conditions are fully met.
i)
Plastic piping is installed in open deck or semi-enclosed locations.
ii)
The water spray piping system must meet the Level 3 fire endurance requirements as specified
in Appendix 1.
iii)
In addition to meeting the Level 3 fire endurance requirements, the water spray piping system
must meet the requirements of the wet/dry fire endurance testing specified in Appendix 1,
Section 8. Other wet/dry fire endurance test methods that may be equivalent to or more severe
than the methods described in Appendix 1, Section 8 will be considered on a case-by-case
basis.
iv)
An automatic fire detection system is to be installed in areas protected by the water spray
system.
v)
The water spray system is to be designed to activate automatically upon detection by the
automatic fire detection system.
vi)
Each section or area served by a water spray system is to be capable of being isolated by
one (1) water supply valve only. The stop valve in each section is to be readily accessible,
and its location clearly and permanently indicated.
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vii)
The design of the water spray system is to be such that upon fire detection, the time required
to have water flowing through the hydraulically most remote nozzle is less than one (1)
minute. This requirement will be verified by system testing at the time of installation and
at subsequent annual inspections.
viii)
The water spray system piping is to be located downstream of the water supply valve. All
piping upstream of the water supply valve is to meet the requirements for fire main and
water spray systems as specified in Appendix 1, or be of metallic material.
5.1.4(c) Process Equipment.
i)
Process equipment, including hydrocarbon vessels, heat exchangers, fired heaters and other
hydrocarbon handling systems, are to be protected with a water spray system.
ii)
The system is to be designed to provide a water density of 10.2 liters/min/m2 (0.25 gpm/ft2)
of exposed surface area for uninsulated vessels, or 6.1 liters/min/m2 (0.15 gpm/ft2) of exposed
surface area for insulated vessels.
iii)
Process equipment support structure, including saddles, skirt, legs, but not secondary deck
structural members, is to be protected with a water spray system designed to provide a water
density of 4.1 liters/min/m2 (0.10 gpm/ft2).
iv)
(2017) Alternatively, the use of intumescent coatings may be acceptable in protecting the
support structure, provided the selection of the fire rating of the coating is based on the
results from a risk analysis and/or fire load calculation which must be reviewed and
accepted by ABS. The analysis are to demonstrate that the proper rating of insulation for
structural steel is provided to protect the steel when exposed to the expected hydrocarbon
(pool) fire and/or jet fire.
v)
The condition (intactness) of the coatings will be the subject of surveyor inspection during
attendance of the unit following normal survey intervals.
vi)
For gas-handling equipment, such as gas compressor skids, where the hydrocarbon liquid
inventory is kept minimal, a water spray system is not required if the equipment is provided
with an automatic blowdown upon the process shutdown.
5.1.4(d) Wellhead Areas.
5.1.5
5.3
i)
Wellheads with maximum shut-in tubing pressures exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psi) are to be
protected with a water spray system.
ii)
The water spray system is to be designed to provide a minimum water density of 20.4
liters/min/m2 (0.50 gpm/ft2) based on the protection of wellheads, ESD valves, and critical
structural components including the firewall.
Accommodation Sprinkler Systems
i)
For existing fixed installations where passive protection requirements are not fully met,
the accommodation spaces are to be protected by an automatic wet pipe sprinkler system
supplied from the firewater system.
ii)
Design of the system is to be based on NFPA Standard 13 requirements for light hazard
occupancies, or other acceptable standards such as Chapter 8 of the International Code for
Fire Safety Systems (FSS Code).
iii)
Fresh water is normally to be provided to fill the sprinkler piping. However, the system
may be charged with seawater if precautions are taken to eliminate sediment and marine
growth in the system.
Dry Chemical Systems
For production facilities with no liquid hydrocarbon storage capabilities and limited hydrocarbon liquid
retention in processing equipment, dry chemical hose reel units may be used for fire fighting in lieu of
firewater station required by 4-8/5.1.3 above.
Design of the dry chemical systems is to be in accordance with NFPA Standard 17.
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Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
A fixed fire fighting system complying with 4-8/5.5.1, 4-8/5.5.3 or 4-8/5.5.4 is to be provided in each enclosed
space and enclosed skid module containing the following equipment:
i)
Internal combustion machinery, including diesel and gas engines, having a total power output of
not less than 750 kW (1000 hp)
ii)
Oil- or gas-fired boilers and other processes such as incinerators and inert gas generators
iii)
Oil fuel units. An oil fuel unit is defined as any equipment such as pumps, filters and heaters, used
for the preparation and delivery of fuel oil to oil-fired boilers (including incinerators and inert gas
generators), internal combustion engines or gas turbines at a pressure of more than 1.8 bar (26 psi).
iv)
Settling tanks for boilers
v)
Gas compressors
vi)
Transfer pumps for crude oil (storage facilities) and flammable liquid with low flash point (below
60°C~140°F) such as methanol.
vii)
If a fixed foam system is to be used for the methanol pump room and methanol tank space, the
type of foam selected is to be suitable for use with methane (alcohol-resistant foams).
5.5.1
Gas Extinguishing Systems (2017)
5.5.1(a) General
i)
Storage. Pressure containers required for the storage of gas fire extinguishing mediums,
other than steam, are to be located outside the protected spaces. When the gas fire
extinguishing medium is stored outside a protected space, it is to be stored in a room and
is to be used for no other purposes. Any entrance to such a storage room is to preferably
be from the open deck and is to be independent of the protected space. If the storage
space is located below deck, it is to be located no more than one deck below the open
deck and is to be directly accessible by a stairway or ladder from the open deck. Spaces
which are located below deck or spaces where access from the open deck is not provided
are to be fitted with a mechanical ventilation system designed to take exhaust air from the
bottom of the space, and is to be sized to provide at least 6 air changes per hour. Access
doors are to open outwards, and bulkheads and decks including doors and other means of
closing any opening therein which form the boundaries between such rooms and
adjoining enclosed spaces are to be gastight. The boundaries of the room is to have firerated integrity equivalent to that of a control station (see 4-8/9). The ventilation for the
storeroom is to be independent of all other spaces.
ii)
Quantity of the Medium. Where the quantity of gas fire extinguishing medium is required
to protect more than one space, the quantity of medium available need not be more than
the largest quantity required for any one space so protected.
The volume of air receivers converted to free air volume is to be added to the gross volume
of the protected space when calculating the necessary quantity of the gas fire extinguishing
medium. Alternatively, a discharge pipe from the safety relief valves or other pressure
relief devices may be fitted and led directly to the open air.
iii)
Controls.
a)
Automatic release of gas fire extinguishing medium is not permitted, except as may
be specifically approved based on the use of a gas fire extinguishing medium that
does not give off toxic gases, liquid or other substances that would endanger
personnel, see 4-8/5.5.2.
b)
The means of control of any fixed gas fire extinguishing system are to be readily
accessible and simple to operate and are to be grouped together in as few
locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in a protected
space. At each location, there are to be clear instructions relating to the operation
of the system, having regard to the safety of personnel.
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c)
iv)
4-8
Where a fixed gas fire extinguishing system is used, openings which may admit
air to, or allow gas to escape from a protected space, are to be capable of being
closed from outside of the protected space.
Alarms.
a)
Means are to be provided for automatically giving audible warning of the release
of gas fire extinguishing medium into any protected spaces in which personnel
normally work or to which they have access. The pre-discharge alarm is to
automatically activate (e.g., by opening of the release cabinet door). The alarm is
to operate for the length of time needed to evacuate the space, but in no case less
than 20 seconds before the medium is released.
b)
Small spaces (such as small compressor rooms, paint lockers, lamp stores, etc.)
with only a local release need not be provided with such an alarm.
c)
Alarms may be pneumatically (by the extinguishing medium or by air) or electrically
operated. If electrically operated, the alarms are to be supplied with power from
the main and an emergency source of power. If pneumatically operated by air,
the air supplied is to be dry and clean and the supply reservoir is to be fitted with
a low pressure alarm. The air supply may be taken from the starting air receivers.
Any stop valve fitted in the air supply line is to be locked or sealed in the open
position. Any electrical components associated with the pneumatic system are to
be powered from the main and an emergency source of electrical power.
d)
For gas smothering systems that protect the machinery space (containing the
main source of power), instead of the power supply arrangements required above
for electrically operated alarms and electrical components associated with
pneumatic alarms, an uninterruptible power supply which is supplied with power
from the emergency switchboard is to be provided.
5.5.1(b) Carbon Dioxide Systems.
5.5.2
186
i)
In addition to the requirements in 4-8/5.5.1(a) above, the design philosophy of CO2 fire
extinguishing systems is to be in compliance with a single standard/code (i.e., Chapter 5 of
the FSS Code, NFPA 12, or other recognized fire code).
ii)
Once a standard is chosen for a design basis, the standard is to be used throughout the design,
and criteria from other standards may not be used.
iii)
Precautions are to be made to prevent the inadvertent release of the gas fire extinguishing
medium into spaces which are required, see 4-8/5.5.1(a)iv), to be provided with means to
automatically give an audible warning of the release of gas fire extinguishing medium.
For this purpose, the following arrangements are to be complied with:
a)
Two separate controls are to be provided at each release location for releasing the
gas fire extinguishing medium into a protected space and to ensure the activation
of the alarm. One control is to be used for opening the valve of the piping which
conveys the gas into the protected space and a second control is to be used to
discharge the gas from its storage containers. Positive means are to be provided
so the controls can only be operated in that order.
b)
The two controls are to be located inside a release box clearly identified for the
particular space. If the box containing the controls is to be locked, a key to the box
is to be in a break-glass type enclosure conspicuously located adjacent to the box.
c)
Systems are to be designed so that opening of the door to the gas fire extinguishing
medium release mechanism will not cause an inadvertent blackout condition in
machinery spaces.
Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems (2017)
Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems equivalent to those specified in 4-8/5.5.1 are to be submitted for
approval, based on the guidelines specified in the IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended by MSC/Circ.
1267 and this Subparagraph.
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Clean agent fire extinguishing mediums are to be accepted by the governmental authorities.
Fire extinguishing systems using Halon 1211, 1301, and 2402 and perfluorocarbons are prohibited.
The use of a fire-extinguishing medium, which either by itself or under expected conditions of use
gives off toxic gases, liquids and other substances in such quantities as to endanger persons, is not
permitted.
This clean agent fire extinguishing medium is not to decompose measurably in extinguishing a
fire. As such, hazardous, corrosive or toxic decomposition products are not to be found during and
after discharge in such quantities as to endanger persons.
5.5.2(a) Fire Suppression Agent. The agent is to be recognized as a fire extinguishing medium
by NFPA Standard 2001 or other recognized national standard. The minimum extinguishing
concentration for net volume total flooding of the protected space at the lowest expected operating
temperature, but not greater than 0°C (32°F), is to be determined by an acceptable cup burner test.
The minimum design concentration is to be at least 30% above the minimum extinguishing
concentration and is to be verified by full-scale test (see 4-7-3/3.13.2 of the Steel Vessel Rules).
The fire extinguishing agent is to be acceptable for use in occupied spaces by U.S. EPA or other
recognized national organization. The concentrations for cardiac sensitization NOAEL (No Observed
Adverse Effect Level), LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) and ALC (Approximate
Lethal Concentration) are to be submitted.
5.5.2(b) Fire Tests. The system is to pass the fire tests in the Appendix of the IMO MSC/Circ.
848, as amended by MSC/Circ. 1267. The testing is to include the system components.
The system is to pass an additional fire test (Appendix of MSC/Circ. 848) with the agent storage
cylinder at the lowest expected operating temperature, but not greater than 0°C (32°F).
5.5.2(c) System Components. The system is to be suitable for use in a marine environment. Major
components (valves, nozzles, etc.) are to be made of brass or stainless steel, piping is to be corrosion
resistant (stainless steel or galvanized) and the material is to have a melting point of not less than
927°C (1700°F).
The system and its components are to be designed, manufactured and installed in accordance with
recognized national standards.
Containers and associated pressure components are to be designed based upon an ambient temperature
of 55°C (131°F).
Minimum wall thickness for distribution piping is to be in accordance with 4-7-3/Table 2 of the
Steel Vessel Rules (Columns A or B, as applicable).
5.5.2(d) System Installation
i)
Storage. As far as practicable, the fire suppression agent is to be stored outside the protected
space in a dedicated storeroom. The storeroom is to be in accordance with 4-7-3/3.1.9 of
the Steel Vessel Rules, except that when mechanical ventilation is provided, the location
of the exhaust duct (suction) is dependent on the density of the agent relative to air.
When allowed by the flag Administration, the fire suppression agent may be stored inside
the protected space. In addition to the related instructions from the flag Administration,
the installation is to be in accordance with paragraph 11 of IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended
by MSC/Circ. 1267.
In the case of new installation in existing units, the storage of the fire suppression agent
within a low fire risk space with a net volume at least two (2) times greater than the net
volume of the protected space may be specially considered, based on the type of agent
and the possible hazards for the personnel within the space.
ii)
Alarm. An audible and visual pre-discharge alarm in accordance with 4-8/5.5.1 and
paragraph 6 of IMO MSC/Circ. 848 as amended by MSC/Circ. 1267 is to be provided.
See also 4-8/5.5.2(d)iv)f) for the alarm when the automatic actuation function is provided.
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iii)
Controls. Except as otherwise permitted herein, two independent manual control
arrangements are to be provided, one of them being positioned at the storage location and
the other in a readily accessible position outside of the protected space.
iv)
Automatic Actuation. Automatic actuation is not permitted when the protected space is
normally occupied by personnel. Further, where the unit (offshore facility) is permanently
moored at a specific site, the automatic actuation is not to interferes with the safe ability
for the unit (offshore facility) to be kept afloat at site, which means control of ballast and
bilge systems, mooring system, navigation lights to avoid collision, radio communication,
in addition to the operation of the process ESD system.
If the protected space is normally unmanned and may be entered occasionally for brief
periods such as for repairs or maintenance or other purpose, automatic actuation may be
allowed in addition to manual actuation, provided that the following conditions are complied
with:
a)
The egress from the protected space is horizontal. Exit doors from the spaces are
to be outward-swinging self-closing doors (i.e., opening in the direction of escape
routes) which can be opened from the inside, including when the doors are locked
from the outside.
b)
Notices are prominently posted at the entrance to the space to show that the space
is protected by an automatic activation system. The sign is also to indicate that
the manual release of the system remains enabled and the space is to be vacated
immediately when the release alarm sounds.
Additionally, a notice plate is to be posted in the vicinity of the inhibit switch
near the entrance to the space indicating “personnel inside” to avoid inadvertent
manual release of the fire extinguishing system while a person may be inside the
space for some reasons.
c)
A inhibit switch is provided near the entrance to disable the automatic release
feature of the system. The switch is to have an indicator of its status such as red pilot
light to indicate when the switch is activated (automatic release feature disabled).
A sign is to be posted near the switch indicating that the automatic release feature
is to be disabled when the space is occupied and that the automatic actuation is to
be enabled when leaving the space.
v)
5.5.3
188
d)
When the automatic release feature is disabled, all other controls, alarms, etc., are
to remain activated.
e)
An indicator at the control console is provided to indicate when the automatic
release feature has been disabled.
f)
The medium release warning alarm is to operate for the length of time needed to
evacuate the space, but in no case less than 30 seconds for space exceeding 170 m3
(6000 ft3) and 20 seconds for spaces 170 m3 (6000 ft3) or less before the medium
is released.
g)
The automatic release of a clean agent system is to be approved by the unit’s flag
Administration.
Nozzles. The nozzle type, maximum nozzle spacing, maximum height and minimum
nozzle pressure are to be within the limits to provide fire extinction as tested and verified
in the appropriate fire test.
Foam Systems
5.5.3(a) Fixed High Expansion Foam Systems. Fixed high expansion foam systems are to be in
accordance with Chapter 6 of the FSS Code or other recognized fire code such as NFPA 11A.
Note reference is made to the IMO MSC/Circular 670.
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5.5.3(b) Fixed Low Expansion Foam Systems.
5.5.4
5.7
i)
Fixed low expansion foam systems may be installed in machinery spaces in addition to the
required fixed fire extinguishing system.
ii)
Fixed low expansion foam systems are be in accordance with Chapter 6 of the FSS Code
or other recognized fire code such as NFPA 11. Note reference is made to the IMO MSC/
Circular 582.
Fixed Water Spray Systems
Fixed water spray systems are be in accordance with Chapter 7 of the FSS Code or other recognized
fire code such as NFPA 15.
Fire Fighting Requirements Pertaining to Specific Locations
5.7.1
5.7.2
Paint Lockers and Flammable Materials Storerooms
Paint lockers and flammable material storerooms are to be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing
system. One of the following systems may be considered:
i)
CO2 system designed for 40% of the gross volume of the space
ii)
Dry powder system designed for at least 0.5 kg /m3 (0.03 lb/ft3)
iii)
Water spray system designed for 5 liters/min/m2 (0.12 gpm/ft2). The water spraying systems
may be connected to the unit’s fire main system.
iv)
Systems other than those mentioned above may also be considered.
Galley Range Hoods
i)
An automatic fire extinguishing system is to be provided for galley range hoods.
ii)
5.7.3
Design and installation of range hood systems are to be in accordance with NFPA
Standard 96.
Helicopter Facilities
5.7.3(a) Helicopter Decks with no Refueling Capabilities
i)
Firewater Stations.
a)
At least two (2) firewater stations are to be provided.
b)
These fire stations are to be located so that the water supply would come from two
(2) different directions.
c)
Normally, they are located at the access routes to the helicopter deck.
d)
The firewater stations may consist of hoses with adjustable nozzles and detachable
applicators.
e)
Adjustable nozzles are designed to provide both solid stream and water spray.
f)
The hose stream discharge from each firewater station is to be sufficient to reach
any part of the helicopter deck.
ii)
Extinguishers. The helicopter deck area is to be protected by two (2) approved dry chemical
extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 45 kg (100 lb).
iii)
Back-up System.
a)
An additional back-up fire fighting system, consisting of CO2 extinguishers of total
capacity of not less than 18 kg (40 lbs) or equivalent, is to be provided.
b)
One of these extinguishers is to be equipped so as to enable it to reach the engine
area of any helicopter using the deck.
c)
The back-up system is to be located where the equipment would not be vulnerable
to the same damage as the equipment required in 4-8/5.7.3(a)i) and 4-8/5.7.3(a)ii)
above.
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5.7.3(b) Helicopter Decks with Refueling Capabilities
i)
ii)
iii)
5.7.4
5.9
190
Fire Fighting Equipment.
a)
A fire fighting system as described in 4-8/5.7.3(a)i) through 4-8/5.7.3(a)iii) above
is to be provided for the helideck area.
b)
An additional dry chemical extinguisher is to be provided for the fuel storage area,
having a capacity of 13.5 kg (30 lbs).
Foam System.
a)
A foam fire extinguishing system is to be provided to protect the helicopter landing
area and the fuel storage area.
b)
The foam system may be an independent system, or be arranged to proportion
foam into the firewater stations described in 4-8/5.7.3(a)i) above.
c)
The helicopter landing area is the area contained within a circle of diameter D,
where D is the distance in meters (feet) across the main rotor and tail rotor in the
fore and aft line of a helicopter, with a single main rotor, and across both rotors
for a tandem rotor helicopter, or the full area of the deck, whichever is less.
d)
The fuel storage area includes the fuel storage tank and the dispensing hose reel.
e)
The foam system is to be capable of delivering foam solution at a rate of 6.0
liters/min/m2 (0.15 gpm/ft2) for protein foam, or 4.1 1iters/min/m2 (0.10 gpm/ft2) for
aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) of the areas protected, for at least 5 minutes.
Fueling System. The arrangement of the helicopter fueling system is to be in accordance
with Chapter 4, Section 4.
Foam Systems for Crude Storage Tanks
i)
For fixed installations with crude oil storage capabilities, a fixed foam system is to be
provided for all crude storage tanks. Chapter 14 of the FSS Code may be used as design
guidance.
ii)
If process equipment is located or supported above crude storage areas in such a manner
that a deck foam system may be obstructed by steel supporting members, foam applicators
or fixed systems may be considered as an alternative.
iii)
Deck foam system coverage in way of process equipment supports is to be no less effective
than other tank deck areas.
Emergency Control Station
i)
At least (2) two emergency control stations are to be provided.
ii)
One of the stations is to be located in a normally manned space such as the process control room,
or near the drilling console if the facility is fitted with drilling and work over systems.
iii)
The other is to be at a suitable location outside of the hazardous area.
iv)
The emergency control stations are to be provided with the following:
a)
Manually operated switches for actuating the general alarm system
b)
An efficient means of communication with locations vital to the safety of the installation
c)
Manual activation of all well and process system shutdowns (3-3/13.3.4 and 3-3/5.5)
d)
Means for shutdown, either selectively or simultaneously, of the following equipment,
except for electrical equipment listed in 4-8/5.11 below:
1)
Ventilating systems, except for prime movers
2)
Main generator prime movers
3)
Emergency generator prime movers
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Operation after Facility Total Shutdown
The following services are to be operable after a facility’s total shutdown:
i)
Emergency lighting required for evacuation from service/accommodation spaces and machinery
spaces to embarkation stations. This includes lighting at all control stations, stowage positions for
firemen’s outfits, helicopter landing deck, alleyways, stairways and exits, embarkation station deck,
launching appliances, and the area of water where they are to be launched, etc. The lighting is to
be provided for thirty minutes.
ii)
General alarm
iii)
Blowout preventer control system if fitted on the installations
iv)
Public address system
v)
Distress and safety radio communications
vi)
All equipment in exterior locations which is capable of operation after activation of the prime
mover/ventilation shutdown system, is to be suitable for installation in Class I, Division 2 (Zone 2)
locations.
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
Locations, types, and quantities of fire extinguishers provided for the production deck area are to be in
accordance with 4-8/Table 1 and 4-8/Table 2.
For areas not specifically addressed in these tables, NFPA Standard 10 is to be followed.
TABLE 1
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (1 July 2012)
CLASSIFICATION
TYPE & SIZE
WATER
LITERS
(GALLONS)
FOAM
LITERS
(GALLONS)
A-II
9 (2.5)
9 (2.5)
B-II
9 (2.5)
CARBON DIOXIDE
KILOGRAMS
(POUNDS)
DRY CHEMICAL
KILOGRAMS
(POUNDS)
5 (11) (1)
5 (11)
5 (11)
B-III
45 (12)
15.8 (35)
B-IV
76 (20)
22.5 (50) (2)
9.0 (20)
22.5 (50)
B-V
152 (40)
45 (100) (2)
22.5 (50) (2)
5 (11)
5 (11)
C-II
C-III
15.8 (35)
9.0 (20)
C-IV
22.5 (50) (2)
13.5 (30)
Notes:
1
Must be approved as a Type A, B, and C extinguisher
2
For outside use only, double the quantity of agent that must be carried.
Classification of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are designated by types as follows:
A
For fires in combustible materials, such as wood
B
For fires in flammable liquids and greases
C
For fires in electrical equipment
Size of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers
•
Fire extinguishers are designated by size, where size II is the smallest and size V is the largest.
•
Size II is a portable extinguisher.
•
Sizes III, IV and V are semi-portable extinguishers.
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TABLE 2
Classification and Placement of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (2016)
SPACE
CLASSIFICATION
QUANTITY & LOCATION
SAFETY AREAS
Main control room
C-II
2 near the exit (See Note 1 on the next page)
Stairway enclosure
B-II
Within 3 m (10 ft) of each stairway on each deck level
Corridors
A-II
1 in each main corridor, not more than 45 m (150 ft.) apart
Lifeboat embarkation & lowering
stations
Radio room
--
None required
C-II
2 near the exit (See Note 1)
A-II
One in each room occupied by more than 4 persons
ACCOMMODATIONS
State rooms (cabins)
Toilet spaces, lockers small
storerooms, pantries
--
None required
SERVICE SPACES
Galleys
A, B, C-II
1 A-B-C fire classed for every 232 m2 (2500 ft2) or fraction
thereof, suitable for hazards involved
Paint storerooms
B-II
1 outside each room in vicinity of exit (See Note 2 on the next
page)
Storerooms
A-II
1 for every 232 m2 (2500 ft2) or fraction thereof, located in
vicinity of exits, either inside or outside of spaces (See Note 2)
Workshop and similar spaces
C-II
1 outside each space in vicinity of an exit (See Note 2)
Gas/oil-fired boilers: spaces
containing gas/oil-fired boilers,
B-II
2 required in each space
either main or auxiliary, or their fuel
oil units
B-V
1 required in each space
Internal combustion or gas turbine
machinery spaces
B-II
1 for every 745 kW (1,000 brake horsepower) but not less than 2
nor more than 6 in each space
B-III
1 required in each space
ENCLOSED MACHINERY SPACES
192
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TABLE 2 (continued)
Classification and Placement of Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers (2016)
SPACE
CLASSIFICATION
QUANTITY & LOCATION
ENCLOSED AUXILIARY SPACES
Internal combustion engines or gas
turbines
B-II
1 outside the space containing engines or turbines in vicinity of
exit (See Note 2)
Electric emergency motors
or gas turbines
C-II
1 outside the space containing motors or generators in vicinity of
exit (See Note 2)
Steam drive auxiliary
--
None required
Fuel tanks
--
None required
MISCELLANEOUS AREAS
Helicopter landing decks
B-V
1 at each access route
Helicopter fueling facilities
B-IV
1 at each fuel transfer facility
Cranes with internal combustion
engines
B-II
1 required in vicinity of crane cab exit
Production areas
B-III or B-IV
(See Note 3)
Drilling areas
B-III or B-IV
(See Note 3)
Open areas
B-II
1 for every 3 internal combustion or gas turbine engines
C-II
1 for every 2 electric generators and motors of 3.7 kW (5 hp) or
greater
CHEMICALS AND FUELS WITH FLASH POINT BELOW 60°C~140°F
Pump room
B-II
Storage tank area
B-V
1 required in vicinity of exit
(See Note 4)
1 required on open deck capable of reaching the storage tanks,
tank vents, and transfer connections
(See Note 4 and Note 5)
Notes:
1
One of which must be placed inside (dry chemical extinguishers not recommended for these applications).
2
Vicinity is intended to mean within 1 m (3 ft).
3
(2016) One B-III or B-IV extinguisher is to be provided at every entrance to any escape route. B-III or B-IV fire
extinguishers are also to be so located that no point along escape routes, passageways, and accessible areas is more
than 15.24 m (50 ft) walking distance from an extinguisher.
4
For methanol, foam extinguishers may be considered if the extinguishers are of the polar solvent type foam
(alcohol-resistant type)
5
(1 July 2012) Not applicable to integral crude oil tanks protected by a deck foam system as per 4-8/5.7.4.
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Fire and Gas Detection and Alarm Systems (2017)
The systems are to comply with requirements of 3-8/7.
9
Structural Fire Protection
9.1
General
The term “structural fire protection” refers to the passive method of providing fire protection to the
spaces/compartments of the unit through the usage of fire divisions and the limitation of combustibles in
the construction materials.
9.3
i)
Maintaining the adequacy of the fire division includes proper protection of penetrations in those
divisions, which includes electrical, piping, or ventilation systems penetrations.
ii)
The structural fire protection requirements of this Subsection are intended to address the need for
fire protection of boundaries separating new and/or existing areas/spaces onboard the installation
from the process facility equipment.
iii)
In addition, it is the intention of these guidelines to ensure that separate accommodations platforms,
where attached to the production facility via a bridge, are sufficiently protected so they may serve
as the emergency muster area or “safe haven” for personnel on the facility.
iv)
Existing spaces that do not share common boundaries with the process facility equipment are to be
treated based on the requirements that were in effect at the time of construction.
v)
Newly built spaces that do not share common boundaries with the process facility equipment and
all portable/temporary living quarters are to comply with the latest Rule requirements.
vi)
Spaces/Compartments that have been newly built or that have been modified internally either to
enlarge or to change the function of that space (category change) are to comply with the latest Rule
requirements.
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks
i)
The minimum fire integrity of bulkheads and decks is to be as prescribed in 4-8/Table 3A and
4-8/Table 3B.
ii)
194
Windows and sidescuttles that face the production facilities are to possess a fire rating equivalent
to the bulkheads in which they are fitted.
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TABLE 3A
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads Separating Adjacent Spaces/Areas
Spaces
Control Stations including Central
Process Control Rooms
(1)
Corridors
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
A-15
A-60
A-15
H-60
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
B-0
A-0
A-0
*
C
A-0
A-0
*
*
B-0
A-0
(d)
C
B-0
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
Accommodation Spaces
(3)
C
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
Stairways
(4)
Service Spaces
(low risk)
(5)
Machinery Spaces of Category A
(6)
Other Machinery Spaces
B-0
A-0
B-0
A-0
(b)
(b)
C
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(b)
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
B-0
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
H-60
H-60
*
H-60
(d)
(d)
----
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
----
*
(d)
*(a)
(7)
Process Areas, Storage Tank
Areas, Wellhead/manifold Areas
(8)
Hazardous Areas
(9)
Service Spaces
(high risk)
(10)
Open Decks
(11)
Sanitary and Similar Spaces
(12)
A-0
H-60
(a)
(d)
A-0
H-0
(a) (c)
(d)
(Symmetrical)
----
(d)
(c)
C
Please see the notes under 4-8/Table 3B for further interpretations.
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TABLE 3B
Fire Integrity of Decks Separating Adjacent Spaces/Areas (2018)
Space→
above
Space
below ↓
Control Stations including
Central Process Control Rooms
(1)
Corridors
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
*
(d)
A-0
*
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
Accommodation Spaces
(3)
A-60
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
X
A-0
A-0
*
*
Stairways
(4)
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
A-60
A-60
*
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
--
H-60
(d)
Service Spaces
(low risk)
(5)
Machinery Spaces of
Category A
(6)
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
A-60
*(a)
A-60
H-60
Other Machinery Spaces
(7)
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
*(a)
H-0
(a)
Process Areas, Storage Tank
Areas, Wellhead/manifold
Areas
(8)
H-60
H-60
H-60
H-60
H-60
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
----
----
H-60
(d)
X
H-60
(d)
Hazardous Areas
(9)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-60
A-0
----
----
A-0
--
A-0
Service Spaces
(high risk)
(10)
A-60
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
A-0
H-60
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
Open Decks
(11)
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
----
----
*
--
*
Sanitary and Similar Spaces
(12)
A-0
A-0
*
A-0
*
A-0
A-0
H-60
A-0
*
A-15
A-0
A-0
A-0
*
A-60
A-0
H-60
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(c)
(d)
(d)
(c)
*
Notes:
(a)
If a space contains an emergency power source or components of an emergency power source, and adjoins a space
containing a unit’s service generator or components of a unit’s service generator, the boundary bulkhead or deck
between those spaces is to be an A-60 class division.
(b)
(2018) For clarification as to which note applies, see paragraph 5-1-1/5.5 and 5-1-1/5.9 of the MODU Rules.
(c)
Where spaces are of the same numerical category and subscript (c) appears in the tables, a bulkhead or deck of the
rating shown is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose. For example, in category (10), a
galley next to another galley does not require a bulkhead, but a galley next to a paint room requires an A-0
bulkhead.
(d)
If the results of a Risk Analysis or Fire Load Analysis (reviewed and accepted by ABS) justify such, an “A-60”
fire division may be used in lieu of an “H-60” bulkhead. An “A-0” wall used in conjunction with a water curtain
system designed to provide a density of at least 6.1 liters/min/m2 (0.15 gpm/ft2) of exposed surface area may be
used as an equivalent means of meeting the “A-60” class division.
(e)
Intumescent coatings may be acceptable in providing the “H” rating. The intumescent coating used is to have
limited flame spread properties, low smoke development and low heat generation. In addition, an assessment is to
be made of the toxicity of gases emitted in the event of a fire. The condition (intactness) of the coatings will be the
subject of surveyor inspection during attendance of the unit following normal survey intervals.
*
Where an asterisk appears in the tables, the division is to be of steel or equivalent material, but is not required to be
of an A-class standard. However, where a deck is penetrated for the passage of electric cables, pipes, and vent
ducts, such penetrations are to be made tight to prevent the passage of flame and smoke.
Where an X appears in the table, the configuration is not allowed.
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Fixed Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
4-8
“B” Class Divisions
i)
All bulkheads required to be “B” class divisions are to extend from deck to deck and to
the deckhouse side or other boundaries, unless continuous “B” class ceilings or linings are
fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, in which case the bulkhead may terminate at the
continuous ceiling or lining.
ii)
In corridor bulkheads, ventilation openings may be permitted only in and under the doors
of cabins, public spaces, offices and sanitary spaces. These openings are to be provided
only in the lower half of the door.
iii)
Where such an opening is in or under a door, the total net area of such opening(s) is not to
exceed 0.05 m2.
iv)
When such an opening is cut in a door, it is to be fitted with a grille constructed of noncombustible materials. Such openings are not to be provided in a door in a division forming
a stairway enclosure.
9.3.2
Stairways
Stairways are to be constructed of steel or equivalent material.
9.3.3
Stairway Protection
i)
Stairways, that penetrate only a single deck, are to be protected at least at one level by
“A” or “B” class divisions and self-closing doors so as to limit the rapid spread of fire
from one deck to another.
ii)
Personnel lift trunks are to be protected by “A” class divisions.
iii)
Stairways and lift trunks that penetrate more than a single deck are to be surrounded by
“A” class divisions and protected by self-closing doors at all levels.
iv)
Self-closing doors are not to be fitted with hold-back hooks. However, hold-back
arrangements incorporating remote release fittings of the fail-safe type may be utilized.
9.3.4
Draft Stops
Air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, paneling or linings are to be divided by close-fitting draft
stops spaced not more than 14 m apart.
9.3.5
Insulation Materials
i)
Except for insulation in refrigerated compartments, insulation material, pipe and vent duct
lagging, ceilings, linings and bulkheads are to be of non-combustible material.
9.3.6
ii)
Insulation of pipe fittings for cold service systems and vapor barriers and adhesives used
in conjunction with insulation need not be non-combustible, but they are to be kept to a
minimum and their exposed surfaces are to have low flame spread characteristics.
iii)
In spaces where penetrations of oil products are possible, the surfaces of the insulation are
to be impervious to oil or oil vapors.
iv)
The framing, including grounds and the joint pieces of bulkheads, linings, ceilings and
draft stops, are to be of non-combustible material.
Exposed Surfaces
i)
All exposed surfaces in corridors and stairway enclosures, and surfaces in concealed or
inaccessible spaces in accommodation and service spaces and control stations, are to have
low flame spread characteristics.
ii)
Exposed surfaces of ceilings in accommodation and service spaces and control stations
are to have low flame spread characteristics.
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9.3.7
Fixed Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
Veneers
i)
Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may have combustible veneers, provided the thickness of such
veneers does not exceed 2 mm within any space other than corridors stairway enclosures
and control stations where the thickness is not to exceed 1.5 mm.
ii)
9.5
9.7
9.9
Alternatively, veneers that have a calorific value not exceeding 45 mJ/m2 of the area for
the thickness used may be accepted irrespective of the thickness of those veneers.
9.3.8
Deck Coverings
Primary deck coverings, if applied, are to be of an approved material which will not readily ignite
or give rise to toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures.
9.3.9
Paints, Varnishes and Other Finishes
Paints, varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces are not to offer an undue fire
hazard and are not to be capable of producing excessive quantities of smoke.
Wellhead Areas
i)
“A-0” firewalls are to be used to provide protection from potential uncontrolled flare front
wellheads with shut-in pressure exceeding 42 kg/cm2 (600 psi).
ii)
These firewalls are independent of the requirements for structural fire protection of spaces.
iii)
The intent of these firewalls is to provide protection for escape routes, temporary refuges, lifeboat
embarkation stations, fire pumps and potential fire hazards.
iv)
The dimensions of the firewall and distance from the wellhead are to be determined based on the
results from fire load calculations or other recognized method. See 3-3/5.5.
Fired Vessels
i)
“A-0” firewalls are to be used to provide protection from potential fire hazard of fired vessels.
ii)
These firewalls are independent of the requirements for structural fire protection of spaces.
iii)
The intent of these firewalls is to provide protection for escape routes, temporary refuges, lifeboat
embarkation stations, fire pumps and potential fire hazards.
iv)
The dimensions of the fire wall and distance from the direct fired heaters are to be determined
based on the results from fire load calculations or other recognized method. See 3-3/5.9.
Helideck (2018)
i)
All helidecks are to be constructed of steel or other material which provides equivalent structural
and fire integrity properties to that of steel.
ii)
Helidecks which form the deckhead (roof) of the accommodations are to be insulated to an A-60
class standard.
iii)
If the helideck is located less than one (1) meter above the deckhouse top, the helideck is to be
constructed to an “A” class standard.
iv)
Deckhouse roofs (below the helideck) are to have no openings.
v)
If the Administration permits aluminum or other low melting point metal construction that is not
made equivalent to steel, the following provisions are to be satisfied:
a)
198
4-8
If the helideck is cantilevered over the side of the unit, after each fire that may have an
effect on the structural integrity of the helideck or its supporting structures, the helideck is
to undergo a structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use; and
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b)
9.11
4-8
If the helideck is located above the unit’s deckhouse or similar structure, the following
conditions are to be satisfied:
•
The deckhouse top and bulkheads under the helideck are to have no openings;
•
Windows under the helideck are to be provided with steel shutters;
•
After each fire on the helideck or supporting structure the helideck is to undergo a
structural analysis to determine its suitability for further use.
Ventilation (2018)
Standards for ventilation are to be in accordance with the requirements contained in this Paragraph.
Ventilation systems are to be designed with an intent on maintaining structural fire divisions.
9.11.1 Non-Ducted HVAC Systems
i)
Non-ducted HVAC systems (i.e., those that use the plenum (concealed space between the
ceiling and overhead deck) for return air) are discouraged.
ii)
The use of a non-ducted system will need prior review of the design philosophy, taking into
consideration the movement of smoke between spaces and the maintenance of “smoke-free”
escape routes. Prior design approval is mandatory before construction of such a system.
9.11.2 Air Balance Ducts (2018)
i)
The use of air balance ducts (“jumper ducts”) is not allowed in “A” Class Division or “B”
Class Divisions that are required to extend deck to deck, except for openings as permitted
in accordance with 4-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv).
ii)
Air balance ducts are also not to serve corridors, except for openings as permitted in
accordance with 4-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv).
iii)
Air balance ducts between adjacent spaces are only acceptable in “C” class divisions.
iv)
In addition to air balancing openings as permitted in 4-8/9.3.1 ii), iii) and iv), air balancing
ducts (jumper ducts) may be fitted only when all the following conditions are complied
with.
a)
The air balancing ducts are connecting two service spaces or service space with a
machinery space other than a Category A machinery space or two machinery
spaces other than Category A machinery spaces
b)
The spaces connected are located outside the accommodation deckhouse.
c)
The air balance duct is 3 mm (0.12 in.) thick, 900 mm (35.4 in.) long (preferably
450 mm (17.7 in.) on each side) and fitted with a fire damper close to the
boundary penetrated.
d)
The fire damper is to be automatically operated upon detection of smoke in any
of the spaces connected and remotely operated from a normally manned control
station where the fire-detection main indicator board for the spaces concerned is
located. In addition, the fire damper is to be capable of being closed locally.
9.11.3 Ventilation Duct Material (2018)
Ventilation ducts are to be of a noncombustible material, unless they are no more than 2 m (6.6 ft)
long and have a cross-sectional area no more than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) and:
i)
Are of a material which has a low fire risk
ii)
Are used only at the end of the ventilation device
iii)
Are not situated less than 600 mm (23.5 in.), measured along the duct, from its penetration
of any “A” or “B” class division, including continuous “B” class ceilings
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9.11.4 Ventilation Ducts Passing Through "A" Class Divisions (2018)
Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area greater than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) penetrating
“A” class divisions are to be steel or lined with a steel sheet sleeve that:
i)
Are at least 3 mm (0.118 in.) thick and at least 900 mm (35.4 in.) (35.4 in.) long (preferably
450 mm (17.7 in.) on each side of the division), provided with fire insulation having the
same fire integrity as the division; and
ii)
Those exceeding 0.075 m2, (0.81 ft2), except those serving hazardous areas, are to also
have automatic fire damper capable of being closed manually from both sides of the bulkhead
or deck and with a position indicator which shows whether the damper is open or closed.
The fire dampers are not required where ducts pass through spaces surrounded by “A”
class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided those ducts have the same fire
integrity as the divisions which they penetrate.
iii)
For control stations, where the duct line serves other category spaces, a fire damper is to
be provided regardless of size.
Ventilation ducts less than or equal to 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) penetrating “A” class divisions are to be
steel or lined with steel sheet sleeves that are at least 3 mm thick and at least 200 mm (7.88 in.)
long (preferably 100 mm (3.93 in.) on each side of bulkhead or, in the case of the deck, wholly laid on
the lower side of the deck pierced) and provided with fire insulation having the same fire integrity as
the division. See 3-8/Figure 5 below.
FIGURE 5
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “A” Class Divisions (2018)
(1) “A-0” Class
(2) “A-15”, “A-30”, “A-60” Class
steel sleeve
t mm
Division
L

L
L
Division
L
steel duct
S > 750
cm2
L mm (in.)
 mm (in.)
t mm (in.)
Automatic Damper**
450 (17.7)
450 (17.7)
3.0 (0.12)
Required *
750 cm2 ≥ S > 200 cm2
450 (17.7)
450 (17.7)
3.0 (0.12)
Not required
200 cm2 ≥ S
min. 100 (3.94)
min. 100 (3.94)
3.0 (0.12)
Not required
*
Not required if duct passes through spaces surrounded by "A" class divisions, without serving those spaces, provided
the duct has the same fire integrity as the divisions it pierces.
**
Automatic fire damper capable of being closed manually from both sides of the division.
S = Sectional area of duct
9.11.5 Ventilation of Machinery Spaces of Category A, Galleys and Hazardous Areas (2018)
Ventilation systems include the air handling units and/or fans, associated supply, return and/or
exhaust ducting, and miscellaneous components.
Ventilation systems for machinery spaces of category A, galleys, and hazardous areas are to be
separated from each other and from the ventilation systems serving other spaces.
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Attention is to be given to ventilation inlet and outlet locations and airflow in order to minimize
the possibility of cross contamination. Ventilation inlets are to be located in non-hazardous areas
and as far as practicable from the boundaries of any hazardous area, but to a distance not less than
1.5 m (5 ft). Ventilation for hazardous areas is to be completely separate from that for non-hazardous
areas.
Ducts serving hazardous areas are to not pass through accommodation spaces, service spaces, or
control spaces.
Ducts provided for the ventilation of machinery spaces of category A and galleys are not to pass
through accommodation spaces, control stations or service spaces unless:
i)
Constructed of steel at least 3 mm (0.12 in.) thick for ducts 300 mm (12 in.) wide or less,
and at least 5 mm (0.20 in.) for ducts 760 mm (30 in.) wide and over.
The minimum thickness is to be interpolated for widths or diameters between 300 and
760 mm (12 and 30 in.);
ii)
Fitted with an automatic fire damper close to the boundaries penetrated;
iii)
Insulated to “A-60” standard from the machinery spaces or galleys to a point at least 5 m
(16.4 ft) beyond each fire damper; and
iv)
The ducts are to be suitably supported and stiffened;
or
v)
Constructed of steel in accordance with 4-8/9.11.5 i) and 4-8/9.11.5 iv) above; and
vi)
Insulated to “A-60” standard throughout the accommodation spaces, service spaces or control
stations.
9.11.6 Ventilation of Accommodation Spaces, Service Spaces or Control Stations (2018)
Ducts provided for ventilation of accommodation and service spaces or control stations are not to pass
through machinery spaces of Category A, hazardous areas, or galleys. However, a relaxation from
this requirement, except for the ducts passing through hazardous areas, will be considered, provided:
i)
The ducts where they pass through a machinery space of category A or a galley are
constructed of steel in accordance with 4-8/9.11.5 i) and 4-8/9.11.5 iv).
ii)
Automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries penetrated; and
iii)
The integrity of the machinery space or galley boundaries is maintained at the penetrations;
or
iv)
The ducts where they pass through a machinery space of category A or a galley are
constructed of steel in accordance with 4-8/9.11.5 i) and 4-8/9.11.5 iv); and
v)
Are insulated to “A-60” standard within the machinery space or galley.
9.11.7 Ventilation Ducts Passing through "B" Class Division (2018)
Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area greater than or equal to 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2)
penetrating “B” class bulkheads are to be steel or lined with steel sheet sleeves at least 1.8 mm thick
and at least 900 mm (35.4 in.) long (preferably 450 mm (17.7 in.) on each side of the division).
Ventilation ducts having an internal cross-sectional area less than 0.02 m2 (0.22 ft2) are to be steel
or lined with steel sheet sleeves at least 1.8 mm (0.07 in.) thick and at least 200 mm (7.88 in.) long
(preferably 100 mm (3.93 in.) on each side of the division). See 4-8/Figure 6 below.
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FIGURE 6
Ventilation Ducts Penetrating “B” Class Divisions (2018)
(1) Steel Duct
(2) Non-steel (non-combustible) Duct
Division
Gap to be kept minimum
(max. 2.5 mm (0.10 in.)
t ≥ 1.8 mm (0.07 in.)
L
Steel sleeve
t ≥ 1.8 mm (0.07 in.)
=
450 mm for sectional area of 200 cm2 or more
=
100 mm for sectional area of less than 200 cm2
L
L
9.11.8 Galley Ventilation (2018)
9.11.8(a) Relaxation from Separation of Galley Ventilation. The galley ventilation system may
also serve other spaces associated to the galley (pantry with no cooking appliances, provisions
store, dry goods store, scullery room) if all the following conditions are satisfied:
i)
The galley and the associated space have a common boundary,
ii)
The associated space is surrounded by A-rated divisions,
iii)
An automatic fire damper with manual closures from both sides and fitted with position
indicator is to be installed at the common boundary penetrated, regardless of the size of
the duct,
iv)
The fire damper is to be connected to the Air-conditioning and Heating Unit (AHU) control
panel such that upon loss of power to the AHU fan, the fire damper closes,
v)
Fire detection in accordance with the requirements of 3-8/7.1 is to be installed in the
associated space, such that upon detection of fire, the AHU shuts down and the fire
damper in the common bulkhead closes, and
vi)
At least one means of egress for the associated space, independent from the galley egress,
is to be provided.
9.11.8(b) Galley Exhaust Ducts. Where they pass through accommodation spaces or spaces
containing combustible materials, the exhaust ducts from galley ranges are to be of equivalent fire
integrity to “A” class divisions. Each such exhaust duct is to be fitted with the following:
i)
A grease trap readily removable for cleaning;
ii)
A fire damper located in the galley end of the duct which is automatically and remotely
operated and, in addition a remotely operated fire damper located in the exhaust end of
the duct;
iii)
Arrangements, operable from within the galley, for shutting off the exhaust fans; and
iv)
Fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.
9.11.9 Main Inlets and Outlets
The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems are to be capable of being closed from
outside the spaces being ventilated.
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9.11.10 Means of Stopping Ventilation
i)
Power ventilation of accommodation spaces, service spaces, control stations, machinery
spaces and hazardous areas is to be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible
position outside the space being served.
ii)
The accessibility of this position in the event of a fire in the spaces served is to be specially
considered.
iii)
The means provided for stopping the power ventilation serving machinery spaces or
hazardous areas is to be entirely separate from the means provided for stopping ventilation
of other spaces.
9.11.11 Prevention of Ingress of Flammable, Toxic or Noxious Gases
The ventilation of the accommodation spaces and control stations is to be arranged in such a way
as to prevent the ingress of flammable, toxic or noxious gases, or smoke from surrounding areas.
9.13
Penetrations
All penetrations through bulkheads and decks are to have the same fire integrity as the bulkhead and deck
through which they penetrate. This is to be accomplished using an ABS accepted procedure with approved
materials or by a procedure that has been tested by an approved testing facility and approved by a major
governmental maritime administration.
9.15
Materials/Certification
All materials used in the construction of structural fire divisions and protection of the penetrations are to be
certified for the fire rating in which they are fitted. This includes structural fire protection and thermal
insulation, joiner bulkheads, doors, HVAC ducts, flooring materials, windows, fire dampers, etc.
11
Muster Areas
11.1
General
All units are to have a designated muster station(s) were personnel can gather prior to entering the lifeboats.
11.3
Materials
i)
All materials that comprise the muster stations routes are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
11.5
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be used if the layout is designed in accordance with
Appendix 3, and provided that the FRP grating is approved as meeting the applicable criteria defined
in same.
Muster Stations
i)
The muster station is to be of sufficient area to accommodate the number of personnel to be gathered.
ii)
The muster station is to be located in a safe location with respect to the processing equipment.
iii)
The muster station may be a meeting room inside the accommodations or may be part of the lifeboat
embarkation station.
13
Means of Escape
13.1
General
i)
Arrangement of escape routes is to be in accordance with the requirements contained in this
Subsection.
ii)
Escape routes are to be arranged to provide the most direct route to an area of temporary refuge or
safe haven.
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Materials
i)
All materials that comprise the escape routes are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
13.5
Fixed Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be used if the layout is designed in accordance with
Appendix 3, and provided that the FRP grating is approved as meeting the applicable criteria as
defined in same.
Escape Routes
i)
At least two (2) means of escape are to be provided for all continuously manned areas and areas
that are used on a regular working basis.
ii)
The two (2) means of escape must be through routes that minimize the possibility of having both
routes blocked in an emergency situation.
iii)
Escape routes are to have a minimum width of 0.71 m (28 in.).
iv)
Dead-end corridors exceeding 7 m (23 ft) in length are not permitted.
v)
Dead-end corridors are defined as a pathway which (when used during an escape) has no exit.
13.7
Marking and Lighting of Escape Routes
Escape route paths are to be properly identified and provided with adequate lighting.
13.9
Escape Route Plan
i)
An escape route plan is to be prominently displayed at various points of the facility.
ii)
Alternatively, this information may be included in the Fire Control or Fire/Safety Plan.
15
Lifesaving Requirements
15.1
General
i)
Lifesaving appliances and equipment are to be in accordance with the requirements contained in
this Subsection.
15.3
ii)
Lifesaving Appliances and equipment are to be provided, taking into account the arrangement of
the installation and its area of operation.
iii)
Where the words “of an approved type” are indicated, the equipment is to meet the requirements of
SOLAS or equivalent standard.
iv)
Launching appliances for lifeboats and liferafts are also to meet the requirements of SOLAS or
equivalent standard.
Lifeboat Embarkation Areas
i)
All materials that comprise the lifeboat embarkation platform are to be of steel or equivalent material.
ii)
15.5
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) grating may be used if the layout is designed in accordance with
Appendix 3, and provided that the FRP grating is approved as meeting the applicable criteria defined
in same.
Lifesaving Appliances and Equipment
15.5.1 Lifeboats (1 July 2007)
i)
Lifeboats of an approved type with an aggregate capacity to accommodate the total number
of persons onboard are to be provided and installed in safe areas on two (2) sides of the
installation.
ii)
204
The installation of lifeboats on one (1) side of the installation can be considered based on
the submittal of a detailed risk analysis. Items to be addressed in such a risk analysis are to
include, but are not limited to:
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Fixed Installations
Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
4-8
a)
Prevailing and worst-case environmental conditions
b)
Likely location of personnel onboard the facility
c)
Consequences from all fire and explosion hazards onboard the facility
d)
Egress routes from locations on the platform where personnel are normally
employed or living
e)
Location of other LSA (liferafts)
f)
Probability of casualties other than fire and explosion incidents including marine
collisions.
15.5.2 Liferafts
i)
Inflatable liferafts of an approved type are to be provided onboard such that their total capacity
is sufficient to accommodate the total number of people expected to be onboard the facility.
ii)
Liferafts are to be placed next to areas where personnel may be working, in sufficient quantity
to hold the maximum number of people that might be present in the area at any one time.
15.5.3 Life Buoys
i)
At least four (4) life buoys of an approved type, with floating water lights, are to be provided.
ii)
One (1) ring life buoy is to be placed in a suitable rack on each side of the structure in an
acceptable location.
iii)
Multi-level structures may require the placement of additional life buoys.
15.5.4 Life Jackets
i)
At least one (1) life jacket of an approved type is to be provided for each person on a manned
facility.
ii)
Life preservers/work vests are to be stored in readily accessible locations.
iii)
Life jackets numbering the same quantity as the maximum aggregate capacity of each life
boat station must be stored next to the lifeboat station.
15.5.5 Work Vests
When personnel baskets are used to transfer personnel from the facility to work boats, or vice
versa, a work vest is to be provided and kept with the personnel basket for each person riding in
the basket.
15.5.6 Breathing Apparatus
i)
For operations involving hydrogen sulfide, each person expected on the facility is to be
provided with a self-contained breathing apparatus of an approved type for escape purposes.
15.7
ii)
The breathing apparatus for maintenance personnel is to have a minimum of thirty (30)
minutes air supply.
iii)
A designated safe area with proper supply of air is also to be provided and shown on the
fire control/safety plan.
Means of Embarkation
15.7.1 General
i)
The means of embarkation requirements of the applicable Rules and/or Regulations are to
apply.
ii)
In the absence of means of embarkation requirements by the applicable Rules and/or
Regulations, the requirements of 4-8/15.7.2 below apply.
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4-8
15.7.2 Means of Embarkation
i)
Each facility is to have means of embarkation to allow personnel to leave the facility in an
emergency. These are in addition to the equipment described in 4-8/13.
ii)
The means of embarkation are to consist of at least two (2) fixed ladders or stairways, widely
separated, and extending from the main and cellar decks to the water line.
iii)
The ladders or stairways will preferably be located near lifeboat-launching stations.
iv)
Ladder construction is to be in accordance with the appropriate governmental authority,
or other recognized standard.
17
Personnel Safety Equipment and Safety Measures
17.1
Fireman’s Outfits
All fireman’s outfits and equipment are to be of an approved type (i.e., equipment is to meet the requirements of
SOLAS or equivalent standard).
The requirements below are in addition to those required by the applicable Rules and/or Regulations.
17.1.1 Fireman's Outfit
i)
A minimum of two (2) sets of fire-fighting outfits and equipment is to be provided and
stowed in a suitable container.
ii)
The protective clothing is to be made of a material that will protect the skin from radiant
heat of a fire, and be water-resistant.
iii)
Boots and gloves are to be made of rubber or other electrically non-conducting material.
iv)
The protective helmet is to be of rigid construction to resist impact, and be equipped with
a face shield.
v)
The fireman’s outfits or sets of personal equipment are to be stored as to be easily accessible
and ready for use, and where more than one (1) fireman’s outfit or more than one (1) set
of personal equipment is carried, they are to be stored in widely separated positions.
vi)
One of the outfits should be readily accessible from the helicopter deck.
17.1.2 Breathing Apparatus
i)
A minimum of two (2) self-contained breathing apparatus of an approved type is to be
provided and stowed with the fireman's outfits.
17.3
206
ii)
There is to be a sufficient number of spare compressed air charges.
iii)
The breathing apparatus is to have a minimum of thirty (30) minutes air supply.
Guard Rails
The perimeter of all open deck areas, walkways around accommodation spaces, catwalks and openings, are
to be protected with guardrails.
i)
The height of the guard rails is to be at least 1 m (39.5 in.) above the deck, except where this height
would interfere with normal operation, in which case a lesser height may be considered if adequate
protection is provided.
ii)
The opening below the lowest course of the guardrails is not to exceed 230 mm (9 in.).
iii)
The other courses are not to have more than 380 mm (15 in.) of clear opening.
iv)
Toe plates are to be provided at the base of all guardrails.
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Fire Protection and Personnel Safety
4-8
Insulation of Hot Surfaces
17.5.1 Personal Protection
i)
All exposed surfaces with which personnel are likely to come in contact are to have
temperatures that do not exceed 71°C (160°F).
ii)
If this cannot be achieved, then the exposed surfaces are to be insulated or shielded.
17.5.2 Spillage Protection
Surfaces with temperatures in excess of 204°C (400°F) are to be protected from contact with liquid
hydrocarbon spillage and mist.
17.5.3 Combustible Gases
Surfaces in excess of 482°C (900°F) are to be protected from contact with combustible gases.
17.5.4 Protection of Insulation
Insulation is to be protected from weather, oil spillage, mechanical wear, and physical damage.
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Chapter 5: Surveys
CHAPTER
5
Surveys
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning......................... 210
1
General ...........................................................................................210
3
Surveys During Construction ..........................................................210
3.1
General ........................................................................................ 210
3.3
Surveys at Vendor's Shop ........................................................... 210
3.5
Module Fabrication ...................................................................... 217
3.7
Module Assembly ........................................................................ 217
5
Commissioning and Start-up Surveys ............................................217
7
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures and Manual ...................218
7.1
Functional Testing Procedures .................................................... 218
7.3
Start-up Procedure ...................................................................... 219
TABLE 1
SECTION 2
Surveys for Maintenance of Class .................................................... 220
1
General ...........................................................................................220
3
Commissioning ...............................................................................220
5
Surveys ...........................................................................................220
7
SECTION 3
208
Surveys During Construction ................................................212
5.1
Annual Survey ............................................................................. 220
5.3
Special Survey ............................................................................. 220
5.5
Timing of Surveys ........................................................................ 220
5.7
Continuous Survey Program ........................................................ 220
5.9
Survey Based on Preventative Maintenance Techniques ............ 220
Maintenance Records .....................................................................221
7.1
Annual Survey ............................................................................. 221
7.3
Special Survey ............................................................................. 221
7.5
Inspection Plan ............................................................................ 222
9
Modifications ...................................................................................222
11
Damage and Repairs ......................................................................222
13
Certification on Behalf of Coastal States ........................................222
Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class ................................ 223
1
General ...........................................................................................223
3
Requirements for Risk Based Survey .............................................223
5
Surveys ...........................................................................................224
5.1
General ........................................................................................ 224
5.3
Initial Survey ................................................................................ 224
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5.5
Annual Survey ............................................................................. 224
5.7
Special Survey ............................................................................ 224
7
Notification and Availability for Survey............................................ 224
9
Modifications ................................................................................... 225
11
Damage and Repairs ...................................................................... 225
13
Certification on Behalf of Coastal and Flag States ......................... 225
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Section 1: Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
CHAPTER
5
Surveys
SECTION
1
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
1
General (1 July 2012)
This Section provides the survey requirements during construction and start-up (commissioning) of facility
installed on an offshore installation. The technical documentation requirements for review are given in
Chapter 3, Section 2 and Chapter 4, Section 2.
3
Surveys During Construction
3.1
General (1 July 2012)
During construction of systems, subsystems, equipment, and/or components for an offshore production
facility, ABS Surveyors are to have access to manufacturers’ or fabricators’ facilities to witness construction
and/or testing as required by these Rules, and the applicable design codes and/or standards.
The manufacturer/fabricator is to contact the ABS Surveyor to make necessary arrangements to examine
systems, subsystem, equipment, and/or components.
If the ABS Surveyor finds reason to recommends repairs or additional surveys, notice will be immediately
given to the Owner or his representative so that appropriate action may be taken.
3.3
Surveys at Vendor's Shop (1 July 2012)
Survey requirements for equipment and packaged units at vendor's shop are summarized in 5-1/Table 1.
Each vendor is required to have an effective quality system, which is to be verified by the attending Surveyor
prior to the start of fabrication.
3.3.1
Pre-fabrication Meeting
When the Surveyor’s attendance at the manufacturer’s plant and at the assembly site is required by
the applicable ABS Rules, the manufactured/assembled system and/or equipment will be verified
for satisfactory compliance with the codes and/or standards, and the requirements of this Rule.
It is recommended pre-fabrication or kick-off meeting between the manufacturer/fabricator and
ABS-designated Surveyor(s) is scheduled in order to, but not limited to:
210
i)
Confirm and/or establish the main point of contacts (PoC) for the manufacturer and ABS
ii)
Review the project quality plans
iii)
Review proposed manufacturing specification
iv)
Review project manufacturing and delivery schedules
v)
Review and confirm project “hold-points”
vi)
Review any proposed sub-contractor lists and/or qualifications
vii)
Confirm specification, drawings and/or documentation associated with the manufacturing
process
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3.3.2
Surveys
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
5-1
ABS Survey
ABS Surveyor’s attendance is typically for the following purposes, but not limited to:
i)
To confirm that the facilities to manufacture, fabricate or repair of systems, subsystem,
equipment or and/or components have and maintain an effective quality control program
covering design, procurement, manufacturing and testing, as applicable, and meeting the
requirements of a recognized standard applied to their products.
ii)
To qualify or verify welder’s qualifications to the extent deemed necessary by the attending
ABS Surveyor.
iii)
To qualify or verify welding procedure specifications (WPS) and corresponding weld
procedure qualification records (PQR) to the extent deemed necessary by the attending
ABS Surveyor
iv)
To review and verify material certificates/documentation or material test reports (MTR’s)
v)
To survey fit-up prior to major weldments
vi)
To survey final weldments
vii)
To witness, as far as deemed necessary, nondestructive examination tests of welds and to
review records of nondestructive examinations
viii)
To review records of post-weld heat treatment, in particular for piping subjected to
pressurized sour service and subject to NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 requirements
ix)
To verify dimensions are as shown on approved drawings
x)
To check dimensional tolerances and alignment of mating surfaces
xi)
To witness pressure and/or proof-load testing of equipment and as a unit, as applicable
and as specified in the fabrication procedures
xii)
To witness final testing and functional testing of subassemblies and completed units, as
specified in the fabrication procedures
xiii)
To verify all purged and pressurized systems, motor controllers, SCR banks, consoles and
instrumentation and control panels are in compliance with approved drawings
xiv)
To carry out other survey activities as agreed upon during prefabrication meeting
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5-1
TABLE 1
Surveys During Construction (2018)
A
B
C
D
E
Specific Test(s)
HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PROCESS SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Production/Process Pressure Vessels
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4i)
Storage Tanks
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4v), vi)
Heat Exchangers
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4i)
Fired Vessels
X
X
X
Packaged Process Units
X
X
X
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4i)
X
5-1/3.3.4i), ii),
vii), viii), x)
Meters, Strainers, Filters and Other Fluid Conditioners
< 254 mm (10 in.) and 10.54 kg/cm2 (150 psi)
≥ 254 mm (10 in.) or 10.54 kg/cm2 (150 psi)
X
--5-1/3.3.4i)
Pumps
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
≥7
kg/cm2
X
(100 psi) or 757 liters/min (200 gpm)
X
X
X
X
--5-1/3.3.4ii)
Compressors
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 28.3 m3 (1000 scfm)
X
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 28.3 m3 (1000 scfm)
--5-1/3.3.4iii)
Couplings
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Flowlines and Manifolds
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4vii)
Scraper Launchers/Receivers
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4i)
Flare Systems
X
X
Subsea Systems
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4vii)
X
X
X
X
5-1/3.3.4i), viii)
PROCESS SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT
Pressure Vessels
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
--5-1/3.3.4i)
Heat Exchangers
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥7
kg/cm2
(100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
X
X
X
--5-1/3.3.4i)
Rotating Equipment
Pumps
X
---
Air Compressors
X
---
X
---
Engines and Turbines
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
5-1/3.3.4iv)
Couplings
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
X
Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
212
X
X
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Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
5-1
TABLE 1 (continued)
Surveys During Construction (2018)
A
B
C
D
X
X
X
X
E
Specific Test(s)
PROCESS SUPPORT SYSTEMS and EQUIPMENT (continued)
Packaged Support Systems
< 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and 93.3°C (200°F)
≥ 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) or 93.3°C (200°F)
X
--5-1/3.3.4i), ii),
vii), viii), x)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
Generators
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
--5-1/3.3.4viii)
Motors
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
--5-1/3.3.4viii)
Couplings
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Distribution Transformers
X
Switchboard, MCC, Panrelboards
X
Storage Batteries
-----
X
---
X
---
INSTRUMENT and CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control Panels
FIRE PROTECTION & SAFETY EOUIPMENT
Fire Pumps
X
5-1/3.3.4ii)
Fire Pump Skid Package
X
---
Couplings
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Gears
< 100 kW (134 hp)
X
≥ 100 kW (134 hp)
X
Alarm Panels
X
----
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems (Nozzles, Controls, Bottles, etc.)
X
See MODU
Section 7-1-8
Fire and Gas Detection Systems (sensors, Panel, Cables, etc.)
X
---
EQUIPMENT SKID STRUCTURE
For modules that require design review, see 3-3/7.3 and 3-2/7.11 or
4-2/7.11
X
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5-1
TABLE 1 (continued)
Surveys During Construction (2018)
Index
A
ABS attendance at vendor's shop to verify materials for compliance with drawings/specification and their traceability
record, and to review welding and NDE specifications and procedures, and welder and NDE personnel qualification
records.
B
ABS attendance at vendor's shop during critical phases of fabrication such as fit-up, alignment, and NDT examination,
etc.
C
ABS attendance at vendor's shop to witness and report on pressure testing.
D
ABS attendance at vendor's shop to witness and report on operational tests to verify proper functioning of equipment.
E
Exempt from ABS survey and testing when vendor or manufacturer has provided manufacturer’s affidavit of compliance
(MAC) that equipment or component is designed, manufactured, and tested in accordance with an applicable code
or standard.
3.3.3
General Testing Requirements (2016)
Where production or processing systems, subsystems, equipment or components listed above are
indicated as being tested under survey, the following list indicates general testing references:
SYSTEMS or EQUIPMENT
3.3.4
ASME Section VIII Div. 1/ Div. 2/ or equivalent
Pumps
API Std. 610
Compressors
API Std. 617, 618, 619
Gas Turbines
API Std. 616
Couplings
API Std. 671 (ISO 10441) or equivalent
Gears
API Std. 613 or API Std. 677 or equivalent
Storage Tanks
API Std. 620
Piping Systems
API RP 14E, ASME B31.3
Electrical Systems
API RP 14F
Instrument and Control Systems
API RP 554
Specific Testing Requirements
The following specific tests, are to be witnessed by the Surveyor. Other tests required by project
specifications may also be witnessed and reported on by the Surveyor.
i)
ii)
214
TESTING REFERENCES
Pressure Vessels
Pressure Vessels
a)
Each vessel is to be subjected to a hydrostatic test which at every point in the
vessel is at least equal to 1.3 times the maximum allowable working pressure.
b)
For pressure vessels that cannot be hydraulically tested, a pneumatic test equal to
1.1 times the maximum allowable working pressure is to be performed.
Pumps
a)
Each pressure casing or pressure-retaining part is to be hydrostatically tested with
water at ambient temperature at a minimum of 1.5 times the maximum allowable
casing pressure.
b)
An operational test of the pump is to be performed to demonstrate satisfactory
performance.
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iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
Compressors
a)
Pressure and operational tests in accordance with the requirements of 5-1/3.3.4ii),
are to be performed.
b)
Each compressor intended for toxic or flammable gas service is to be pressurized
with an inert gas to the rated discharge pressure.
c)
The casing is to be held at the test pressure for a minimum of 30 minutes to check
for gas leaks, when subjected to a soap-bubble test or to other approved leak test.
Gas Turbines
a)
Pressure and operational tests in accordance with the requirements of 5-1/3.3.4ii),
are to be performed.
b)
See API Std. 616 for details of the mechanical running test.
Low Pressure Storage Tanks – 0.011 to 1.05 kg/cm2 (2.5 oz/in2 to 15 psi) for Crude or
Flammable Fluids (with Flash Points < 60°C or 140°F) (2.5 oz/in2 to 15 psi) or (0.0109
to 1.05 kg/cm2)
a)
Depending on the design of the tank, each storage tank is to be subjected to a
combination hydrostatic-pneumatic test, or a completely hydrostatic test.
b)
If the tank has not been designed to be filled with liquid to the tank, the tank is
filled with water to its high liquid design level, and a test pressure of 1.25 times,
design pressure of the vapor space is applied to the vapor space.
c)
If the tank has been designed to be filled with liquid to the tank top, it is to be
hydrostatically tested with a pressure under the topmost point equal to 1.25 times
the vapor space design pressure.
d)
Partial vacuum tests are to be conducted for tanks that are designed to withstand
the partial vacuum.
Atmospheric Storage Tanks for Crude or Flammable Fluids with Flash Points less than 60°C
a)
vii)
viii)
5-1
Atmospheric storage tanks are to be hydrostatically tested to the maximum liquid
head to which the tank is to be subjected.
Piping Systems
a)
All piping systems are to be hydrostatically leak-tested prior to being placed into
service. The test pressure is to be 1.5 times the design pressure, or 3.5 kg/cm2
(50 psig), whichever is greater.
b)
Where it is necessary to perform a pneumatic leak test, the test pressure is to be
1.1 times the design pressure.
c)
All joints, including welds, are to be left uninsulated and exposed for examination
during leak testing.
Electrical Systems (Generators & Motors)
a)
Check windings for dryness. It is recommended that space heating be operated
for a sufficient time prior to start-up to assure dryness.
b)
Measurement of stator insulation resistance to the motor or generator frame is to be
made with an instrument applying a minimum of 600 volts across the insulation.
The suggested minimum insulation resistance is 2.0 megohms; new or rebuilt
machines should provide at least 10 megohms in insulation resistance readings.
c)
If generators are to be operated in parallel, check their phase rotation and the
synchronizing circuits for proper operation.
d)
Check motor starter overload relay heater elements for proper sizing.
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ix)
x)
xi)
216
5-1
e)
Check circuit breaker trip settings and fuse sizes.
f)
Jog motors to check for proper direction of rotation, but only after uncoupling
any loads which might be damaged by reverse rotation.
g)
Check motor-to-load and generator-to-prime mover alignments.
h)
Perform an insulation test of all electrical circuits to verify that cables are not
damaged during installation.
i)
Verify all components are properly grounded.
j)
After motors and generators are started, check for abnormal line currents, vibration,
and high bearing temperatures.
k)
Witness full-load heat run and saturation curve tests for the first unit of a particular
design.
Electrical Systems (Switchboards)
a)
Check all bus-bars for correct sizing and spacing.
b)
Check all components for correct voltage and current rating.
c)
Verify all components are properly grounded.
d)
The various circuits of switchboard and panelboard assemblies are to be tested by
conducting dielectric strength test and insulation resistance measurements.
e)
Satisfactory tripping and operation of all relays, contactors and various safety devices
is to be demonstrated.
Instrument and Control System
a)
Witness calibration of all pressure, level and temperature switches necessary for
functioning of controls in accordance with SAFE Charts.
b)
Review calibration records of all other instruments.
c)
Verify all instruments used as pressure-retaining parts have correct pressure ratings.
d)
Verify all electrical/electronic instruments to be installed in a hazardous location
are suitable for that environment.
e)
Verify all electrical/electronic instruments are properly grounded.
f)
Verify all electrical circuits are installed in a 'fail safe' manner, that is, all circuits
in normal working state are to be electrically continuous, and non-continuous when
in an abnormal state.
g)
Check logic functions with normal voltage applied to the control circuits, but
preferably with the power circuits not energized.
h)
Check each sensor and end device individually for proper operation before
incorporating them into the system.
i)
(2014) Check that each detector is of the specified type, is installed at the specified
location and height, there are no obstructions which would affect operation and
that the detectors can be accessed for maintenance with equipment that will be on
board during operations. These satisfaction of these requirements for each detector
are documented in the Installation Inspection Log (see 3-2/Table 1).
Fire Extinguishing System – See ABS MODU Rules 7-1-8
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
3.5
3.7
5
5
1
Surveys
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
5-1
Module Fabrication
Where equipment and components are assembled as skid mounted units or modules, the Surveyor is to inspect:
i)
Fit-up
ii)
Piping connections
iii)
Electrical connections
iv)
Witness pressure test
v)
Functional tests of the completed assembly in accordance with approved plans
Module Assembly (1 July 2012)
Survey during assembly is to be carried out in accordance with approved procedures, and to include the
following where applicable:
i)
All piping assembly is to be verified for compliance with approved drawings and procedures.
ii)
All welds are to be visually inspected, and non-destructive testing (NDT) carried out as required.
iii)
Upon completion of assembly, the affected sections are to be hydrostatically tested to 1.5 times
the design working pressure.
iv)
All electrical assembly is to be verified for compliance with the approved drawings and procedures.
v)
Proper support for all cables and proper sealing of cable entries to equipment are to be verified.
vi)
Upon completion of all assembly, the affected sections of the equipment and cabling are to be
insulation satisfactorily tested in accordance with approved procedures. All grounding is also to be
verified for completion and appropriate connections.
vii)
All instrumentation assembly is to be verified for compliance with the approved drawings and
procedures. All tubing supports are to be verified. Upon completion, all systems are to be
satisfactorily functional tested in accordance with approved procedures.
viii)
All mechanical equipment assembly is to be verified for compliance with the approved drawings
and procedures, including the grounding of the equipment. Upon completion, all equipment is to
be satisfactorily functional tested in accordance with approved procedures.
Commissioning and Start-up Surveys (1 July 2012)
The start-up and commissioning of all hydrocarbon production systems are to be satisfactorily verified by
an attending the Surveyor. The scope of the survey is to include the following, but not limited to:
i)
The start-up and commissioning are to be performed in accordance with the approved procedures.
ii)
Verify personnel safety precautionary measures to be taken during commissioning, which are to
include checks of operational readiness of all lifesaving, fire and gas detection, fire fighting equipment,
ESD systems, unobstructed escape routes, etc.
iii)
Verify establishment of communication procedures prior to commissioning.
iv)
Verify that emergency procedures are provided to deal with any contingencies such as spillage, fire,
and other hazards. If necessary, drills are to be carried out to confirm the readiness of these procedures.
v)
Verify start-up and testing of all support utility systems, including main and auxiliary sources for
the process system, prior to commissioning.
vi)
Verify proper assembly and testing of the entire process system, prior to commissioning. This is
to include testing of the entire system for leaks, of the process control functions and the emergency
shutdown system.
vii)
Verify purging of the entire production system of oxygen to an acceptable level, prior to the
introduction of hydrocarbons into the production system.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
217
Chapter
Section
7
5
1
Surveys
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
5-1
viii)
Verify the introduction of hydrocarbon into the process system, and the system’s capability to control
the flow of the well affluent in the system in a stabilized manner, without undue control upsets.
ix)
Verify the starting up of the flare system, if applicable, including precautions taken to eliminate
the risk of explosion or fire. The functional capability of the flare system is to be verified.
x)
Verify that the post-commissioned process system is in satisfactory functioning order for a duration
of at least 12 hours.
xi)
Equipment required to be verified but not used during the start-up and commissioning is to be
identified for verification at the next annual survey.
Start-up and Commissioning Procedures and Manual
The start-up and commissioning manual is to include, at minimum, the procedures listed in 5-1/7.1 and 5-1/7.3.
7.1
Functional Testing Procedures
During commissioning, the following systems are to be functionally tested in accordance with approved
procedures.
7.1.1
Piping and Equipment
i)
Pressure/Leak Test
ii)
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
218
Purging
Utility Systems
i)
Power Generation (Main & Emergency)
ii)
Process Support Facilities
iii)
Instrument Air
iv)
Cooling Water
Fire Fighting and Safety Systems
i)
Fire Pumps
ii)
Fixed Fire Fighting Systems
iii)
Manual Equipment
iv)
Lifesaving Equipment
Detection and Alarm
i)
Fire Detection
ii)
Gas Detection
iii)
Fire and Gas Panel
iv)
ESD Systems
Process Systems
i)
Flare (pilot, ignition, snuffing and flare operational tests)
ii)
Instrumentation and Control (wellhead control and process control system)
iii)
Safety Shutdown Valves
iv)
Process Components
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Chapter
Section
7.3
5
1
Surveys
Surveys During Construction and Commissioning
5-1
Start-up Procedure
A step-by-step procedure is to be followed for the displacement of air or other fluid from the process systems
prior to start-up. The Surveyor is to be permitted access to suitable vantage points to verify that the startup procedures are satisfactorily accomplished. The Surveyor is to observe the facilities operating at the
initial production capacity for at least a 12 hour period of uninterrupted normal operation. As applicable,
the Surveyor is also to observe the facilities operating at various capacities under various conditions.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
219
Section 2: Surveys for Maintenance of Class
CHAPTER
5
Surveys
SECTION
2
Surveys for Maintenance of Class
1
General
The provisions of this Section contain survey requirements for the maintenance of classification for facilities
installed on an offshore installation.
For modifications, the documentation requirements for review are given in 3-2/25 or 4-2/25.
3
Commissioning
For purposes of this Section, the commissioning date will be the date on which a Surveyor issues the Interim
Classification Certificate for the offshore facilities.
5
Surveys
5.1
Annual Survey
To maintain classification of the facilities, an annual survey is to be carried out by a Surveyor within three
months before of each anniversary date of the initial Classification Survey.
5.3
Special Survey
A Special Survey of the facilities is to be carried out within five (5) years of the initial Classification Survey,
and at five-year intervals thereafter.
5.5
Timing of Surveys
Required surveys are to be completed within three (3) months of their due dates, unless extended by agreement
with ABS.
Any part of an offshore installation may be offered for survey prior to the due date when so desired, in
which case the survey will be credited as of that date.
5.7
Continuous Survey Program
A continuous survey program may be arranged whereby all required surveys are carried out on a continuing
basis.
5.9
Survey Based on Preventative Maintenance Techniques
A properly conducted preventative maintenance/condition monitoring plan may be credited as satisfying
the requirements of Special Continuous Survey. This plan must be in accordance with Appendix 7-A-14,
“Surveys Based on Preventative Maintenance Techniques” of the ABS Rules for Survey After Construction
(Part 7).
220
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Chapter
Section
7
5
2
Surveys
Surveys for Maintenance of Class
5-2
Maintenance Records
Maintenance records are to be kept and made available for review by the attending Surveyor. The maintenance
records are to be reviewed to establish the scope and content of the required Annual and Special Surveys
which are to be carried out by a Surveyor.
During the service life of the facilities, maintenance records are to be updated on a continuing basis.
The operator is to inform ABS of any changes to the maintenance procedures and their frequencies, as may
be caused, for example, by changes or additions to the original equipment.
The Surveyor may determine during his periodic survey if the changes are sufficient to warrant review by
the ABS technical staff.
7.1
7.3
Annual Survey
At each Annual survey, in addition to a general review of the maintenance records, the Surveyor is to verify
the effectiveness of the following items by visual examination and operational testing, as appropriate.
i)
Examination of corrosion protection system
ii)
Examination and testing of remote shutdown arrangements for fuel and ventilation equipment
iii)
Examination and testing of safety shutdown devices
iv)
Examination and testing of emergency control stations
v)
External examination and testing of safety relief valves
vi)
External examination during operation of all machinery, pumps and pumping arrangements, including
valves, cocks and pipes
vii)
Examination of preventative maintenance records
viii)
Examination of fire hoses, nozzles, and spanners at each fire station
ix)
Examination of fire protection system, including fire water pumps and related piping, hydrants,
control valves and alarm systems
x)
Operational check of fire protection systems, including fire pumps, water spray systems, and alarm
and detection systems
xi)
Examination of personnel protection, rescue and escape systems and devices, including alarm devices
and emergency lighting for escape routes, landing platforms, etc.
xii)
General examination of structure, piping, electrical systems and machinery foundations for damage,
deterioration, or hazard. (i.e., flare tower or ground flare, production systems, power generation, etc.)
xiii)
Examination of enclosed hazardous areas, including ventilation, electric lighting, electric fixtures
and instrumentation
xiv)
Verification of the integrity of explosion-proof equipment
xv)
Operational test of emergency lighting systems, navigation and obstruction lights
xvi)
External examination of boilers, separators, and similar process equipment and associated relief valves
xvii)
Examination of steam-generating units
Special Survey
The Special Survey is to include all items listed under the Annual Survey with the following additions:
i)
Checking and weighing the contents of fixed fire protection systems, including the capability and
stability of storage foam liquids. Blowing through and ensuring that piping for fixed fire extinguishing
systems is not choked.
ii)
Non-explosion proof electric motors are to be examined, including automatic power disconnect to
motors that are arranged to shut down in case of loss of ventilation.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
221
Chapter
Section
7.5
5
2
Surveys
Surveys for Maintenance of Class
5-2
iii)
Gauging of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and storage tanks, as considered necessary
iv)
Internal examination of pressure vessels, pumps, compressors, and safety relief valves
v)
Random thickness gauging of process piping, as considered necessary
vi)
Hydrostatic testing of process related piping systems to 1.25 times the maximum allowable working
pressure as considered necessary.
vii)
Lube oil examination record review
viii)
Measurement of the insulation resistance of generators and motors
ix)
Running of generators of under load, separately and in parallel
x)
Examination of cable runs, bus ducts, insulators, etc.
xi)
Testing of circuit breakers, relays, etc.
xii)
Examination of electrical equipment and circuits for possible damage or deterioration
xiii)
Vibration checks of rotating machinery
xiv)
Internal examination of steam and gas turbines, as considered necessary
xv)
Testing of protective devices for engines, turbines, and gas compressors
xvi)
Internal examination of diesel engines and gas engines rated 1000 hp output and above, as considered
necessary
xvii)
Operational check of process control equipment.
Inspection Plan
The requirements of 5-2/7.1 and 5-2/7.3 above are intended to define the general scope of required surveys.
Due to the varied nature and purposes of offshore installations, it is not considered practicable to establish
a firm schedule of requirements.
The Annual and Special Surveys are to be carried out in accordance with the reviewed inspection plan to
confirm the fitness of the facility for continued operation.
9
Modifications
When it is necessary to carry out any modifications to the machinery, piping, process equipment, etc., which
may affect classification, the details of such modifications are to be submitted for review.
If ABS determines that the modification will affect classification, the facility to be modified will be subject
to the review, testing and inspection requirements of the Rules.
11
Damage and Repairs
If an offshore installation that has been classed suffers any damage to machinery, piping, process equipment,
etc., which may affect classification, ABS is to be notified and the damage examined by a Surveyor.
Details of intended repairs are to be submitted for approval, and the work is to be carried out to the satisfaction
of the Surveyor.
13
Certification on Behalf of Coastal States
When ABS is authorized to perform surveys on behalf of a governmental authority, and when requested by
the Owner, items as specified by the governmental authority or Owner will be surveyed. Reports indicating
the results of such surveys will be issued accordingly.
222
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Section 3: Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class
CHAPTER
5
Surveys
SECTION
3
Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class
1
General (1 July 2012)
The provisions of this Section contain survey requirements specific to the maintenance of classification for
facilities installed on an offshore installation for which inspection plans have been developed using risk
based techniques.
While this Section provides risk based survey requirements as an alternative for maintenance of Class, some
Subsections on the Classification Process contained in the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification –
Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) and Chapter 1 of these Rules remain applicable.
Where no specific references or guidance are given in this Section, the relevant requirements of Sections 1-1-3
through 1-1-14 of the above-referenced Part 1 and Chapter 1, Sections 2 though 5 of these Rules remain
valid.
Due to the varied nature and purposes of offshore installations, and the varied contents of inspection plans
developed as part of an Owner’s risk based approach to Classification, it is not considered practicable to
establish a firm schedule of survey requirements in this Section for maintenance of Class.
Where modifications to the facilities are to be carried out after issuance of the Classification Certificate, all
documentation requirements for review as defined in 3-2/23 or 4-2/21 of these Rules remain the same.
Further, the design documentation described in 3-2/1 or 4-2/1 is to be available to the attending Surveyor at
the time of the modifications.
3
Requirements for Risk Based Survey
Where the risk based approach is to be adopted, the Owner’s proposed maintenance and inspection plans,
including details of frequency and extent of activities, are to be submitted for review.
i)
Where these plans deviate from the Survey requirements of Chapter 5, Section 2, the risk assessment
methodology required below is to specifically address these deviations, which are not to result in
an unacceptable level of safety or integrity of the facilities.
ii)
In addition to the maintenance and inspection plans noted above, the following documentation is to be
submitted to ABS at least six (6) months before the plan is to be put into effect. This documentation
is to establish, at a minimum:
a)
The basis and methodology employed in the risk based techniques;
b)
The means by which the technique is used to establish maintenance plans;
c)
The means by which the technique is used to update and modify maintenance and inspection
plans;
d)
The means by which the following items are to be controlled:
1)
Accident and Non-Conformity Reporting
2)
Overdue Inspections/Surveys
3)
Internal Audits and Management Reviews
4)
Control, Storage and Retention of Documents and Data
5)
Change Procedures for ABS approved plans
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
223
Chapter
Section
5
3
Survey Requirements
Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class
5-3
Where the risk based approach is to be adopted on facilities installed on a floating installation, the risk
assessment on which the inspection and maintenance plan is based is to be site-specific. If the installation
is to be relocated, the risk assessment is to be reviewed by the Owner and resubmitted to ABS for approval.
5
Surveys
5.1
General
i)
To credit a Special Survey based on risk based inspection techniques, the facilities are to be subject
to a continuous survey program, whereby the survey of all applicable items is to be carried out on
a continuous basis over the five-year special survey cycle. If this program includes a preventative
maintenance/condition monitoring plan, this plan is to be in accordance with Appendix 7-A-14,
“Surveys Based on Preventative Maintenance Techniques” of the ABS Rules for Survey After
Construction (Part 7).
5.3
ii)
The inspection plan detailing the timing and extent of activities will be reviewed to establish the
scope and content of the Annual and Special Surveys which are required to be carried out by a
Surveyor, who will also monitor the Owner’s in-house quality management system required by
5-3/3ii)d) above.
iii)
During the service life of the facilities, maintenance and inspection records are to be updated on a
continuing basis and be available for reference by the attending Surveyor.
iv)
The operator is to inform ABS of any changes to the maintenance procedures and their frequencies,
as may be caused, for example, by changes, additions, or deletions to the original equipment.
Initial Survey
i)
An Initial Survey is to be carried out to confirm that systems and plans required by 5-3/3 have
been properly implemented.
ii)
5.5
5.7
Annual Survey
i)
An Annual Survey is to be carried out by a Surveyor within three months before or after each
anniversary date of the initial/renewal Classification Survey.
ii)
The survey is to be carried out in accordance with the approved risk based inspection plan to
confirm the fitness of the facility for continued operation.
iii)
Where the inspection plan specifically applies ABS Rules, the applicable items listed in 5-2/7.1 of
this Chapter are to be complied with.
Special Survey
i)
A Special Survey of the facilities is to be carried out within five years of the initial Classification
Survey and at five-year intervals thereafter.
ii)
7
The survey is to be carried out a minimum of three (3) months after the date of implementation of
the approved plans, but no later than concurrently with the next due annual survey.
The survey is to include all items in the approved risk based inspection plan listed under the Annual
Survey, confirmation of the completion of the continuous survey program and where the inspection
plan specifically applies ABS Rules, the applicable items listed in 5-2/7.3 of this Chapter are to be
complied with.
Notification and Availability for Survey (1 July 2012)
The requirements of 1-1-8/3 of the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures
(Part 1) notwithstanding, the maintenance and inspection plan required by 5-3/3 is to be structured as to
confirm that all ABS survey activity is carried out during the annual and special surveys.
224
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Chapter
Section
9
5
3
Survey Requirements
Risk Based Surveys for Maintenance of Class
5-3
i)
If it is not possible for ABS survey activity to be carried out during the annual and special surveys,
in case of a planned/unplanned maintenance shutdown, or as a result of serious damage, adequate
notification for Surveyor attendance is to be given by the owners.
ii)
If the situations noted above occurs within two (2) months outside of the beginning or end of an
annual survey window, due consideration may be given for the Annual Survey to be brought
forward or postponed to coincide with the maintenance period.
iii)
If an Annual Survey is brought forward, the next due Annual Survey is to be carried out within 18
months of completion of that survey.
Modifications (1 July 2012)
When it is intended to carry out any modifications to the machinery, piping, process equipment, etc., which
may affect classification, the details of such modifications are to be submitted for review.
If ABS determines that the modification will affect classification, the facility to be modified will be subject
to the review, survey and testing requirements of the Rules and/or the applicable design codes and standards.
11
Damage and Repairs (1 July 2012)
If an offshore installation suffers any damage to machinery, piping, process equipment, etc., which may
affect classification, ABS is to be notified and the damage examined by a Surveyor.
13
i)
Details of intended repairs are to be submitted for approval, and the repair is to be carried out to
the satisfaction of the Surveyor.
ii)
When machinery, piping, or process equipment suffers unexpected failure, and is subsequently repaired
or replaced without Surveyor attendance, details of the failure, including damaged parts where
practicable, are to be retained on board for examination by the Surveyor during the next scheduled
visit.
iii)
Alternatively, the part or parts may be landed ashore for further examination and testing as required.
iv)
If failures noted above are deemed to be a result of inadequate or inappropriate maintenance, the
maintenance and inspection plan is to be amended and resubmitted for approval.
Certification on Behalf of Coastal and Flag States
When ABS is authorized to perform surveys on behalf of a governmental authority, and when requested by
the Owner, items as specified by the governmental authority or Owner will be surveyed. Reports indicating
the results of such surveys will be issued accordingly.
Where the periodicity and types of surveys on behalf of a governmental authority differ from those
required by the applicable Sections of this Chapter, the Coastal or Flag State requirements take precedence.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
225
Appendix 1: Plastic Pipe Installations
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
CONTENTS
SECTION 1
Scope and Conditions of Certification ............................................. 230
1
Applicability .....................................................................................230
3
Documents to be Submitted............................................................230
5
SECTION 2
226
3.1
General ........................................................................................ 230
3.3
System Plans ............................................................................... 230
3.5
Contents of System Plans ........................................................... 231
3.7
Booklet of Standard Details ......................................................... 231
3.9
Material Specifications ................................................................. 231
3.11
Design Data and Calculations ..................................................... 231
3.13
Test Reports ................................................................................ 231
3.15
Installation Manual ....................................................................... 232
3.17
Operations Manual ...................................................................... 232
3.19
Maintenance Manual ................................................................... 232
3.21
Additional Documentation ............................................................ 232
Survey, Inspection and Testing ......................................................232
5.1
General ........................................................................................ 232
5.3
Inspection and Testing in Manufacturing Phase .......................... 233
5.5
Inspection and Testing during Installation .................................... 234
5.7
Conditions for Surveys after Construction ................................... 235
Design ................................................................................................. 236
1
Internal Pressure .............................................................................236
1.1
Using Testing Methods ................................................................ 237
1.3
Using Design Strain Method ........................................................ 238
3
External Pressure ...........................................................................238
5
Axial Strength ..................................................................................239
7
Bending Strength ............................................................................240
9
Axial Compressive Strength (Buckling) ..........................................241
11
Biaxial Stress Ratio of Pipes, Fittings and Joints............................241
13
Temperature....................................................................................242
15
Material Compatibility......................................................................242
17
Environmental Conditions ...............................................................242
19
Impact Resistance ..........................................................................243
21
Hydraulic Design .............................................................................243
23
Ship Motions ...................................................................................243
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
25
27
25.1
Design Conditions ....................................................................... 243
25.3
Material Properties ...................................................................... 244
25.5
SIFs and Flexibility Factors ......................................................... 245
25.7
Allowable Stresses and Deflections ............................................ 245
25.9
Stress Analysis Calculations ....................................................... 246
Fire Endurance ............................................................................... 248
27.1
Level 1 ......................................................................................... 248
27.3
Level 2 ......................................................................................... 249
27.5
Level 3 ......................................................................................... 249
27.7
Level 3 Modified Test .................................................................. 249
27.9
Fire Endurance Coating............................................................... 249
29
Flame Spread ................................................................................. 249
31
Electrical Conductivity ..................................................................... 250
33
SECTION 3
Stress Analysis ............................................................................... 243
31.1
Rating .......................................................................................... 250
31.3
Non-homogeneous Conductivity ................................................. 250
31.5
Design Requirements .................................................................. 250
Marking ........................................................................................... 251
TABLE 1
Biaxial Stress Ratios ............................................................. 241
TABLE 2
Electrical Conductivity Risk Assessment Guidelines ............ 251
TABLE 3
Fire Endurance Requirements Matrix ................................... 252
FIGURE 1
Flowchart of FRP Pipe Mechanical Design .......................... 236
FIGURE 2
Stress Analysis Flowchart ..................................................... 244
Installation .......................................................................................... 255
1
Supports .......................................................................................... 255
1.1
Spacing ....................................................................................... 255
1.3
Bearing ........................................................................................ 256
1.5
Heavy Components ..................................................................... 256
1.7
Working of the Hull on a Floating Installation .............................. 256
1.9
Thermal Expansion ..................................................................... 256
3
External Loads ................................................................................ 256
5
Pipe Connections ............................................................................ 256
7
5.1
General Requirements ................................................................ 256
5.3
Procedure and Personnel Qualifications ..................................... 257
Electrical Conductivity ..................................................................... 257
7.1
Resistance Measurement ............................................................ 257
7.3
Grounding (Earthing) Wire........................................................... 257
9
Shell Connections on Floating Installations .................................... 257
11
Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations ................................................... 257
13
Application of Fire Protection Coatings........................................... 257
TABLE 1
Typical Support Spacing Values (fluid SG = 1.0) ................. 255
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227
SECTION 4
Manufacturing ..................................................................................... 258
SECTION 5
Pipe Bonding Procedure Qualification ............................................. 259
1
Procedure Qualification Requirements ...........................................259
3
SECTION 6
1.3
Re-qualification ............................................................................ 259
Procedure Qualification Testing ......................................................259
3.1
Test Assembly ............................................................................. 259
3.3
Pipe Size ..................................................................................... 259
3.5
Bonding Operator Qualification .................................................... 259
1.1
Furnace Test Temperature .......................................................... 260
1.3
Furnace Temperature Control ..................................................... 260
1.5
Furnace Temperature Measurement ........................................... 260
Test Specimen ................................................................................260
3.1
Pipe Joints and Fittings................................................................ 260
3.3
Number of Specimens ................................................................. 261
3.5
End Closure ................................................................................. 261
3.7
Orientation ................................................................................... 261
3.9
Insulation ..................................................................................... 261
3.11
Moisture Condition of Insulation .................................................. 261
5
Test Condition .................................................................................261
7
Acceptance Criteria .........................................................................261
7.1
During the Test ............................................................................ 261
7.3
After the Test ............................................................................... 261
7.5
Alternative Tests .......................................................................... 261
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of
Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3)................................................ 262
1
Test Method ....................................................................................262
3
228
Joint Bonding Parameters ........................................................... 259
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of FRP
Piping in Dry Condition (For Level 1 and Level 2) .......................... 260
1
Test Method ....................................................................................260
3
SECTION 7
1.1
1.1
Burner .......................................................................................... 262
1.3
Pipe up to 152 mm (6 in.) OD ...................................................... 262
1.5
Pipes more than 152 mm (6 in.) OD ............................................ 262
1.7
Burner Type and Arrangement .................................................... 262
1.9
Burner Position ............................................................................ 262
Test Specimen ................................................................................262
3.1
Pipe Length ................................................................................. 262
3.3
Pipe Joints and Fittings................................................................ 262
3.5
Number of Specimens ................................................................. 263
3.7
End Closure ................................................................................. 263
3.9
Moisture of Insulation................................................................... 263
3.11
Orientation ................................................................................... 263
3.13
Relief Valve ................................................................................. 263
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
5
7
Test Conditions ............................................................................... 263
5.1
Sheltered Test Site ...................................................................... 263
5.3
Water-filled .................................................................................. 263
5.5
Water Temperature ..................................................................... 264
Acceptance Criteria......................................................................... 264
7.1
During the Test ............................................................................ 264
7.3
After the Test ............................................................................... 264
TABLE 1
Qualification of Piping installations of Different Sizes ........... 263
FIGURE 1
Fire Endurance Test Burner Assembly ................................. 264
FIGURE 2
Fire Endurance Test Stand with Mounted Sample ............... 264
SECTION 8
Tests by the Manufacturer – Wet/Dry Fire Endurance Testing of
FRP Piping Used in Deluge System (For Level 3 Modified Test –
Level 3 WD) (Adopted from USCG PFM 1-98) .................................. 265
1
General ........................................................................................... 265
SECTION 9
Tests by the Manufacturer – Flame Spread ..................................... 266
1
Test Method .................................................................................... 266
SECTION 10 Testing Onboard ................................................................................ 267
1
Documentation and Receiving Inspection ...................................... 267
3
Handling and Storage ..................................................................... 267
5
Visual Inspection ............................................................................. 267
7
Resin/Adhesive Degree of Cure ..................................................... 270
9
Documentation of Site Bonding ...................................................... 270
11
Repair Methods ............................................................................... 270
13
System Hydrostatic Test ................................................................. 270
15
Maintenance ................................................................................... 270
15.1
Impact Damage ........................................................................... 270
15.3
Erosion ........................................................................................ 271
15.5
Earthing Cables ........................................................................... 271
15.7
Chalking/“Fiber Bloom” ................................................................ 271
15.9
Scale Deposits ............................................................................ 271
15.11
System Failures ........................................................................... 271
15.13
Flange Damage/Cracks ............................................................... 271
TABLE 1
Defects Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Action .............. 268
ANNEX 1 References ................................................................................................ 272
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
229
Section 1: Scope and Conditions of Certification
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
1
Scope and Conditions of Certification (2014)
1
Applicability
This Appendix specifies the technical documentation and provides requirements for design, manufacturing,
installation and maintenance of offshore fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) piping installations used in offshore
topside modules.
3
Documents to be Submitted
3.1
General
For certifying FRP piping installations according to this Appendix, the documentation submitted to ABS is
to include plans, reports, calculations, drawings and other documentation necessary to demonstrate the
adequacy of the design of the FRP piping installations. Specifically, required documentation is to include
the items listed in this Section.
The documentation is generally to be submitted electronically to ABS. However, hard copies will also be
accepted.
All plan submissions originating from manufacturers are understood to be made with the cognizance of the
main contracting party. A fee may be charged for the review of plans that are not covered by the contract
of certification.
3.3
230
System Plans
The following plans, whenever applicable to FRP piping installations, are to be submitted for review:
•
Propulsion machinery space arrangement, including locations of fuel oil tanks
•
Booklet of standard details
•
Ballast system
•
Bilge and drainage systems
•
Boiler feed water and condensate systems
•
Compressed air system
•
Cooling water systems
•
Exhaust piping (for boilers, incinerators and engines)
•
Fixed oxygen-acetylene system
•
Fuel oil systems, including storage tanks, drip trays and drains
•
Helicopter refueling system, fuel storage tank and its securing and bonding arrangements
•
Hydraulic and pneumatic systems
•
Lubricating oil systems
•
Sanitary system
•
Sea water systems
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 1
3.5
Plastic Pipe Installations
Scope and Conditions of Certification
•
Vent, overflow and sounding arrangements
•
Steam systems
•
Steam piping analyses
•
Tank venting and overflow systems
•
All FRP piping installations not covered above
A1-1
Contents of System Plans
FRP piping installation plans are to be diagrammatic and are to include the following information:
•
Types, sizes, materials, construction standards and pressure and temperature ratings of piping components
other than pipes
•
Materials, outside diameter or nominal pipe size and wall thickness or schedule of pipes
•
Design pressure and design temperature, test pressure
•
Maximum pump pressures and/or relief valve settings
•
Flash point of flammable liquids
•
Instrumentation and control
•
Legend for symbols used
3.7
Booklet of Standard Details
The booklet of standard details, as indicated in A1-1/3.3, is to contain standard practices to be used in the
construction of the offshore installation, typical details of such items as bulkhead, deck and shell penetrations,
welding details, pipe joint details, etc. This information may be included in the system plans, if desired.
3.9
Material Specifications
Documentation for all materials of the major components of FRP piping installations is to indicate that the
materials satisfy the requirements of the pertinent specifications and standards. Material tests, if required,
are to be performed to the satisfaction of ABS.
3.11
Design Data and Calculations
Information is to be submitted for the FRP piping installations that describes the material data, models and
variability, long-term degradation data and models, methods of material system selection, analysis and design
that were employed in establishing the design. The estimated design life of the FRP piping installations is
to be stated. Where model testing is used as the basis for a design, the applicability of the test results are to
depend on the demonstration of the adequacy of the methods employed, including enumeration of possible
sources of error, limits of applicability and methods of extrapolation to full-scale data. It is preferable that
the procedures be reviewed and agreed upon before material and component model testing is performed.
Calculations are to be submitted to demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed design and are to be presented
in a logical and well-referenced fashion, employing a consistent system of units.
3.13
Test Reports
Test reports including procedures for and records of the required testing are to be submitted to ABS. The
test records are, as a minimum, to include an accurate description of the scope of tests, the subjects being
tested, the setup of testing facilities, the methods and procedures of tests, the test results and the reasons for
and disposition of any failures during a test. Records of tests are also to contain the names of the Owner
and the test contractor, the date, time and test duration.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
231
Appendix 1
Section 1
3.15
Plastic Pipe Installations
Scope and Conditions of Certification
A1-1
Installation Manual
A manual is to be submitted describing procedures to be employed during the installation of FRP piping
installations. It is also to demonstrate that the methods and equipment used to meet the specified requirements.
The qualification of the installation manual is to include procedures related to:
•
Quality assurance plan and procedures
•
Procedures and methods to evaluate impact and installation damage tolerance
•
Nondestructive testing procedures
•
Repair procedures to be followed should any damage occurred during installation
•
System pressure test procedures and acceptance criteria
•
Electric conductivity test procedures and acceptance criteria (as applicable)
3.17
Operations Manual
An operations manual is to be prepared to provide a detailed description of the operating procedures to be
followed for expected conditions. The operations manual is to include procedures to be followed during
start-up, operations, shutdown conditions and anticipated emergency conditions. This manual is to be
submitted to ABS for record and file.
3.19
Maintenance Manual
A maintenance manual providing detailed procedures for how to ensure the continued operating suitability
of the FRP piping installation is to be submitted to ABS for approval. Complete records of inspections,
maintenance and repairs of FRP piping installations are to be provided for ABS.
3.21
Additional Documentation
When certification under the other regulation described in Section 1-1-5 of the ABS Rules for Conditions
of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) is requested, submission of additional documentation
may be required.
5
Survey, Inspection and Testing
5.1
General
5.1.1
Scope
This Subsection pertains to inspection and survey of FRP piping installations at different phases,
including:
•
Manufacturing
•
Installation
•
Testing after installation
The phases of manufacturing covered by this Subsection include fabrication of FRP pipes and
bonds, pressure test, fire endurance test, flame spread test, exterior corrosion barrier test and electrical
conductivity test, as applicable. The phases of installation include preparation, transportation,
installation, system pressure test, electric conductivity test, as applicable, and survey of the asbuilt installation. The post-installation phase includes survey for continuance of certification,
accounting for damage, failure and repair.
5.1.2
232
Quality Control and Assurance Program
A quality control and assurance program compatible with the type, size and intended functions of
the FRP piping installation is to be developed and submitted to ABS for review. The quality control
and assurance program, as appropriate, is to consist of methods and procedures for evaluating FRP
piping installation performance, including static internal pressure, elevated temperature, erosion
resistance, electric conductivity and fire performance properties, as well as optional vessel motion,
water, impact and low temperature. ABS will review, approve and, as necessary, request modification
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 1
Plastic Pipe Installations
Scope and Conditions of Certification
A1-1
of this program. The Operator and Manufacturer are to work with ABS to establish the required
hold points on the quality control program to form the basis for all future inspections at the fabrication
yard and surveys of the FRP piping installations. If required, Surveyors may be assigned to monitor
the manufacturing of FRP piping installations and assure that competent personnel are carrying
out all tests and inspections specified in the quality control program. It is to be noted that the
monitoring provided by ABS is a supplement to and not a replacement for inspections to be carried
out by the Operator or Manufacturer.
5.3
5.1.3
Access and Notification
During manufacturing and installation, ABS representatives are to have access to FRP piping
installations at all reasonable times. ABS is to be notified as to when and where the FRP piping
installation may be examined. If ABS finds occasion to recommend repairs or further inspection,
notice will be given to the Operator or Manufacturer or their representatives.
5.1.4
Identification of Materials
The Manufacturer is to maintain a data system of material for FRP piping installations. Data
concerning place of origin and results of relevant material tests are to be retained and made readily
available during all stages of manufacturing, installation and after-installation testing.
Inspection and Testing in Manufacturing Phase
5.3.1
Material Quality
The physical properties of FRP and its raw materials are to be consistent with the specific application
and operational requirements of FRP piping installations. Suitable allowances are to be added for
possible degradation of the physical properties in the subsequent installation and operation activities.
Verification of the material quality is to be done by the Surveyor at the manufacturing plant, in
accordance with the requirements of this Appendix. Alternatively, materials manufactured to
recognized standards or proprietary specifications may be accepted by ABS, provided such standards
give acceptable equivalence with the requirements of this Appendix.
5.3.2
Manufacturing Procedure Specification and Qualification
A manufacturing specification and qualification procedure is to be submitted for acceptance before
production start. The manufacturing procedure specification is to state the type and extent of testing,
the applicable acceptance criteria for verifying the properties of the materials and the extent and
type of documentation, record and certificate. All main manufacturing steps from control of received
raw material to shipment of finished FRP piping, including all examination and checkpoints, are to
be described. ABS will survey formed FRP piping installations for their compliance with the
dimensional tolerances, chemical composition and mechanical properties required by the design.
5.3.3
Nondestructive Testing
A system of nondestructive testing is to be included in the manufacturing specification of FRP
piping installations. The minimum extent of nondestructive testing is to be in accordance with a
recognized design code. All nondestructive testing records are to be reviewed and approved by
ABS. Additional nondestructive testing may be requested if the quality of manufacturing is not in
accordance with industry standards.
5.3.4
Manufacturing Records
A data book of the record of manufacturing activities is to be developed and maintained so as to
compile as complete a record as is practicable. The pertinent records are to be adequately prepared
and indexed in order to assure their usefulness, and they are to be stored in a manner that is easily
recoverable.
The manufacturing record is to include, as applicable, the following:
•
Manufacturing specification and qualification procedures records
•
Material trace records
•
Training and certification of workforce personnel
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
233
Appendix 1
Section 1
Plastic Pipe Installations
Scope and Conditions of Certification
•
Fabrication specifications
•
Structural dimension check records
•
Records of completion of items identified in the quality control program
•
Assembly records
•
Pressure testing records
•
Fire endurance testing records
•
Flame spread testing records
•
Electrical conductivity testing records
•
Coating material and external corrosion testing records
•
Nondestructive testing records
•
Marking, packing, handling and transportation records
A1-1
After manufacturing, these records are to be retained by the Operator or Manufacturer for future
reference. The minimum time for record retention is not to be less than the greatest of the following:
5.5
234
•
Warranty period
•
Time specified in manufacturing agreements
•
Time required by statute or governmental regulations
Inspection and Testing during Installation
5.5.1
Specifications and Drawings for Installation
The specifications and drawings for installation are to be detailed and prepared giving the descriptions
of and requirements for the installation procedures to be employed. The requirements are to cover
the final design, verification and acceptance criteria for installation, as well as system pressure
test, integrity of FRP piping installations, fire protection coatings and electric conductivity test.
The drawings are to be detailed enough to demonstrate the installation procedures step-by-step.
The final installation results are to be included in the drawings.
5.5.2
Installation Manual
Qualification of installation manual is specified in A1-1/3.15.
5.5.3
Testing After Installation
System pressure test after installation, as well as fire protection coating and electric conductivity test, as
applicable, are to be conducted to verify that requirements specified in this Appendix are satisfied.
5.5.4
Final Inspection
A final inspection of the installed FRP piping installation is to be completed to verify that it satisfies
the approved specifications used in its manufacturing and the requirements of this Appendix.
5.5.5
Inspection for Special Cases
Portions of the FRP piping installation may require inspection after the occurrence of any conditions
that might adversely affect the stability, structural integrity or safety of the FRP piping installation.
Damage that affects or may affect the integrity of the FRP piping installation is to be reported at
the first opportunity by the Operator for examination by ABS. All repairs deemed necessary by
ABS are to be carried out to the Surveyor satisfaction.
5.5.6
Notification
The Operator is to notify ABS on all occasions when parts of FRP piping installations not ordinarily
accessible are to be examined. If at any visit a Surveyor should find occasion to recommend
repairs or further examination, this is to be made known to the Operator immediately in order that
appropriate action may be taken.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 1
5.7
Plastic Pipe Installations
Scope and Conditions of Certification
A1-1
Conditions for Surveys after Construction
5.7.1
Damage, Failure and Repair
5.7.1(a) Examination and Repair. Damage, failure, deterioration or repair of the installation or
its elements, which affects certification, is to be submitted by the Owners or their representatives
for examination by the Surveyor at the first opportunity. All repairs are to be carried out to the
Surveyor satisfaction.
5.7.1(b) Repairs. Where repairs to FRP piping installations or elements connected thereto, which
may affect certification, are planned in advance to be carried out, a complete repair procedure,
including the extent of the proposed repair and the need for Surveyor’s attendance, is to be
submitted to and agreed upon by the Surveyor reasonably in advance. Failure to notify ABS in
advance of the repairs may result in suspension of certification until such time as the repair is
redone or evidence is submitted to satisfy the Surveyor that the repair was properly carried out.
The above is not intended to include maintenance and overhaul in accordance with recommended
manufacturer’s procedures and established practice and which does not require ABS approval.
However, any repair as a result of such maintenance and overhauls which affect or may affect
certification is to be noted in the unit’s log and submitted to the Surveyors, as required by
A1-1/5.7.1(a).
5.7.1(c) Representation. Nothing contained in this Section or in a rule or regulation of any
government or other administration, or the issuance of any report or certificate pursuant to this
Section or such a rule or regulation is to be deemed to enlarge upon the representations expressed
in 1-1-1/1 through 1-1-1/7 of the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and
Structures (Part 1), and the issuance and use of any such reports or certificates are to be governed
in all respects by 1-1-1/1 through 1-1-1/7.
5.7.2
Notification and Availability for Survey
The Surveyors are to have access to certified FRP piping installations at all reasonable times. For
the purpose of Surveyor monitoring, monitoring Surveyors are to also have access to certified
units at all reasonable times. Such access may include attendance at the same time as the assigned
Surveyor or during a subsequent visit without the assigned Surveyor. The Owners or their
representatives are to notify the Surveyors for inspection on all occasions when parts of FRP
piping installations not ordinarily accessible are to be examined.
The Surveyors are to undertake all surveys on certified systems upon request, with adequate
notification, of the Owners or their representatives and are to report thereon to the Committee.
Should the Surveyors find occasion during any survey to recommend repairs or further examination,
notification is to be given immediately to the Owners or their representatives in order that appropriate
action may be taken. The Surveyors are to avail themselves of every convenient opportunity for
carrying out periodical surveys in conjunction with surveys of damages and repairs in order to
avoid duplication of work.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
235
Section 2: Design
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
2
Design
1
Internal Pressure (2014)
A pipe is to be designed for an internal pressure not less than the design pressure of the system in which it
will be used. The maximum sustained internal pressure, Pint, for a pipe is to be verified by testing methods
or be determined by a combination of testing and calculations methods, which are to be submitted to ABS
for approval. The design flowchart in A1-2/Figure 1 may be used in the mechanical design of FRP pipes.
FIGURE 1
Flowchart of FRP Pipe Mechanical Design (2014)
236
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
1.1
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Using Testing Methods
A recognized standard, such as ASTM D2992 Procedure B, is to be used as the testing method in order to
determine the maximum sustained long-term hydrostatic pressure of FRP pipes. Testing temperature is to
be 65°C or higher. The maximum sustained internal pressure is to be obtained by the following equation:
Pint = 0.667f3Pq
Pint = 0.667f3f1PLTHP
where
Pint
=
maximum sustained internal pressure, MPa
Pq
=
qualified pressure, MPa
=
f1PLTHP, as specified in ASTM D2992
PLTHP =
long-term hydrostatic pressure, MPa
f1
=
factor to represent the 97.5% Lower Confidence Limit (LCL) of PLTHP based on a
design life of 20 years.
f3
=
de-rating factor to account for non-isotropic properties of FRP, always less than or
equal to 1.0; default value of 0.7 for 55-degree filament wound pipes and 1.0 for
isotropic materials. See also A1-2/25.3 for further information.
Alternatively, short term burst testing per ASTM D1599 is another acceptable testing method. A minimum
of two samples is to be burst tested and the lower value is to be defined as the burst pressure, Pburst. The
maximum sustained internal pressure, Pint, can be defined as:
Pint = 0.25Pburst
where
Pint
=
Pburst =
maximum sustained internal pressure, MPa
burst pressure, MPa
From the burst testing data, the short-term hoop stress can be determined by:
σsh =
Pburst D
2t r
σsh
=
where
short-term hoop stress due to internal pressure, MPa
Pburst =
burst pressure, MPa
D
=
mean structural diameter, mm
=
Di + 2t – tr
Di
=
inside diameter, mm
t
=
total wall thickness, mm
tr
=
average reinforced thickness of the wall (i.e., excluding the thickness of linear and
added thickness for fire protection), mm
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
237
Appendix 1
Section 2
1.3
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Using Design Strain Method
The following design strain based method is to be used to calculate Pint:
σh =
ε f Eh
η
Pint =
2 f 3t r σ h
D
σh
=
allowable hoop stress due to internal pressure, MPa
εf
=
long-term failure strain, default value of 0.00375
η
=
safety factor, default value of 1.5, as specified in A1-2/25.7
Eh
=
hoop tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
Pint
=
maximum sustained internal pressure, MPa
f3
=
de-rating factor, as specified in A1-2/1.1
where
D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
3
External Pressure (2014)
External pressure is to be considered for any installation that may be subject to vacuum conditions inside
the pipe or a head of liquid on the outside of the pipe, such as green water effects. A pipe is to be designed
for an external pressure not less than the sum of the pressure imposed by the maximum potential head of
liquid outside the pipe plus full vacuum, 1 bar (1 kgf/cm2, 14.5 psi), inside the pipe. The maximum external
pressure for a pipe is to be determined by dividing the collapse test pressure by a safety factor of 3.
The collapse test pressure is to be verified by testing methods or be determined by a combination of testing
and calculation methods, which are to be submitted to ABS for approval. A recognized standard, such as
ASTM D2925, is to be used as the testing method and the following equation is to be used to calculate the
allowable external pressure:
2 E fh  t r  3
Pc =
 
η D
where
Pc
=
allowable external pressure, MPa
Efh
=
hoop flexural modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
η
=
safety factor, default value of 3.0
D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
This equation assumes the pipe is adequately supported, but it does not take into account any additional
stiffness from stiffener rings which can be employed. If stiffener rings are employed to increase the allowable
external pressure, an alternate equation acceptable to ABS may be used.
238
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Appendix 1
Section 2
5
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Axial Strength (2014)
The sum of the axial stresses due to pressure, weight, expansion, and other dynamic and sustained loads is
not to exceed the allowable stress in the axial direction. The allowable axial strength is to be determined by
a combination of testing and calculation methods, which are to be submitted to ABS for approval.
Since many FRP components are non-isotropic materials, the allowable axial stress may differ from the
allowable hoop stress. For 55-degree filament wound pipe, the allowable axial stress will actually vary
depending upon the magnitude of the hoop stress. Therefore, it is normally necessary to perform two tests
to accurately determine the allowable axial stresses of FRP components:
i)
ASTM D2105 test for a pure short-term axial stress (hoop-to-axial stress ratio is 0 to 1)
ii)
ASTM D1599 or ASTM D2992 pressure testing for the case when hoop-to-axial stress ratio (short
term and long term, respectively) is 2 to 1.
Strain estimates are also a valid tool for determining the pure axial strength, where hoop-to-axial stress
ratio is 0 to 1, of a non-isotropic FRP component. The following design strain calculations are to be used to
determine the short-term axial strength:
σsa = Kaεf-sEt
where
σsa
=
design strain based axial strength (short term), MPa
Ka
=
factor to account for degree of anisotropy, typically 0.5 for 55 degree filament wound
laminates and 1.0 for isotropic laminates (Eh = Et) as specified in A1-2/25.3
εf-s
=
short-term failure strain, default value of 0.012
Eh
=
hoop tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
Et
=
axial tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
From these tests and calculations, the allowable axial stresses can be determined from the following equations.
For the allowable pure axial stress where hoop-to-axial stress ratio is 0 to 1:
σa =
=
σ saσ qs
ησ sh
0.5rσ qs
η
where
σa
=
allowable axial stress when hoop-to-axial stress ratio is 0 to 1, MPa
σsa
=
ASTM D2105 axial strength or design strain based axial strength (short-term) as
obtained above for pure axial strength, MPa
σsh
=
short-term hoop strength due to internal pressure obtained from ASTM 1559 burst
test, as specified in A1-2/1, MPa
η
=
safety factor, default value of 1.5 as specified in A1-2/25.7
r
=
2σsa/σsh, bi-axial stress ratio (see also A1-2/11)
σqs
=
Pq
=
qualified pressure, MPa
=
f1PLTHP, as specified in ASTM D2992
Pq D
2t r
, MPa
PLTHP, f1, D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
239
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
For the allowable axial stress where hoop-to-axial stress ratio is 2 to 1:
where
σa1h2 = σqs
for r ≤ 1.0
σa1h2 = 0.5rσqs
for r > 1.0
σa1h2 =
allowable axial stress when hoop-to-axial stress ratio is 2 to 1, MPa
σqs and r are as defined above.
7
Bending Strength (2014)
The sum of the bending (also called axial flexural) stresses due to pressure, weight, expansion and other
dynamic and sustained loads is not to exceed the allowable bending stress. The allowable bending strength
is to be determined by a combination of testing and calculation methods, which are to be submitted to ABS
for approval.
Bending strength is a more complicated mechanical property since extensive long-term testing data is
limited. A recognized standard, such as ASTM D2925 or ASTM D790 modified for pipes, is to be used as
the testing method.
Design strain based method is also a valid tool for determining the short-term bending strength of a nonisotropic FRP component, which can be obtained by:
σsb = εf-sEb
where
σsb
=
design strain based axial strength (short-term), MPa
εf-s
=
short-term failure strain, default value of 0.012
Eb
=
bending (axial flexural) modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
From these tests and calculations, the allowable bending stress can be determined by:
σb =
=
σ sbσ qs
ησ sh
0.5rbσ qs
η
where
σb
=
allowable bending stress, MPa
σsb
=
ASTM D2925 or D790 bending strength or design strain based bending strength
(short-term) as obtained above, MPa
σsh
=
short-term hoop strength due to internal pressure, as specified in A1-2/1, MPa
rb
=
2σsb/σsh
η
=
safety factor, default value of 1.5 as specified in A1-2/25.7
σqs is as defined in A1-2/5.
240
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
9
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Axial Compressive Strength (Buckling) (2014)
Axial compressive strength is to be considered in systems where these types of stresses can be generated.
Examples include axially-restrained straight runs of pipe with thermal expansion and vertical runs of pipe
supported from underneath.
The allowable axial compressive stress is to be determined by the following method:
σac = k
π 2 D 2 Ea
8ηL2
where
σac
=
allowable axial compressive stress, MPa
k
=
10-6
D
=
mean structural diameter, as specified in A1-2/1.1, mm
Ea
=
axial tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
L
=
unsupported length of pipe (center to center distance between supports), m
η
=
safety factor, default value of 3.0; combined loading conditions may require a higher
safety factor
In the above equation, the moment of inertia is estimated as πD3tr/8 and the reinforced area as πDtr, where
D and tr are defined in A1-2/1.1.
11
Biaxial Stress Ratio of Pipes, Fittings and Joints (2014)
The biaxial stress ratio is used to define the mechanical properties of non-isotropic materials, such as FRP
pipes, fittings and joints. The failure and design envelopes can be established based on the given biaxial
stress ratio of the individual FRP piping components. The biaxial stress ratio of pipes, fittings or joints is to
be selected from the default values given in A1-2/Table 1 if no reliable data are available, or is to be
determined according to the following equation:
r=
2σ sa
σ sh
where
r
=
biaxial stress ratio
σsa
=
ASTM D2105 axial strength or design strain based axial strength (short-term) as
obtained above in A1-2/5 for pure axial strength of FRP pipes, MPa
σsh
=
short-term hoop strength of FRP pipes due to internal pressure, as specified in
A1-2/1, MPa
TABLE 1
Biaxial Stress Ratios (2014)
Component
Default Biaxial Stress Ratio, r
55-degree Filament Wound Pipe
0.5
Filament Wound Fittings, primarily hoop wound
0.45
Laminated Fittings with bidirectional reinforcement
1.9
Adhesive Bonded Joints
1.0
Laminated Joints with bidirectional reinforcement
2.0
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
241
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
For fittings and joints, the pressure induced responses are much more complex than those in plain pipes.
Appropriate experimental or analytical methods are to be adopted to determine the short term axial and
hoop strengths.
Note that the biaxial stress ratio defined in this Appendix is not the same as, nor has any relationship to, the
coefficient of correlation in ASTM D2992.
13
Temperature (2014)
The maximum allowable working temperature of a pipe is to be in accordance with the Manufacturer’s
recommendations, but in every instance, is to be at least 20°C (36°F) lower than the minimum heat distortion
temperature (HDT) of the pipe material, determined according to ISO 75 method A or equivalent. The
minimum HDT is not to be less than 80°C (176°F) unless calculations and testing are shown to validate a
product with an HDT below this value.
At elevated temperatures, degradation of material properties is to be considered. In general, FRP materials
have stable mechanical properties up to 65°C (150°F). Above this temperature, FRP materials may show
some degradation. At the HDT, the material properties may be 50% or less than the ambient temperature
properties.
Where low temperature services are considered, special attention is to be given with respect to material
properties. Some testing has shown FRP to have stable mechanical properties to as low as -40°C (-40°F).
15
Material Compatibility (2014)
The piping material is to be compatible with the fluids being conveyed or in which it is immersed. Both the
internal and external surfaces of the piping components are to include a corrosion barrier suitable for the
application. Typically, this corrosion barrier is at least 0.5 mm thick on the interior and at least 0.25 mm
thick on the exterior. However, interior corrosion barriers of 2.5 mm thickness or more may be needed for
certain corrosive applications. The Manufacturer is to submit data to ABS to support their corrosion barrier
thickness.
If a sodium hypochlorite solution is used in the seawater system to combat the growth of marine organisms
and algae that could foul filters and pipelines, then data is to be submitted to ABS to support the use of
FRP in this service. Sodium hypochlorite is a very aggressive chemical. However, at the concentrations
(<100 ppm) and temperatures (<52°C or 125°F) typically used for control of marine growth, many FRP
products are suitable for exposure to this solution. Storage tanks may require special manufacturing techniques
[such as a 2.8 mm (0.110 in.), liner and a special liner cure system and reinforcement] since the concentration
of sodium hypochlorite can be much higher. Other precautions for storage tanks, such as a pigmented UVinhibited exterior gel coat to prevent UV exposure, may also need to be considered.
17
Environmental Conditions (2014)
The piping material is to be suitable for the environmental conditions of the application, which may
include the following: exposure to UV rays, exposure to salt air and exposure to oil and grease.
All piping components are to have an external corrosion barrier suitable for the application. Typically, an
external corrosion barrier of 0.25 mm that contains UV absorbers and veil reinforcement is suitable for
protecting the structural cage from UV rays and exposure to salt air, oil and grease. A synthetic veil material
may provide better protection than a C-glass or E-glass veil. This external corrosion barrier thickness is not
in addition to the external corrosion barrier thickness specified in A1-2/15. The Manufacturer is to submit
data to ABS to support their corrosion barrier thickness.
242
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
19
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Impact Resistance (2014)
FRP pipes and joints are to meet a minimum resistance to impact in accordance with a recognized national
or international standard such as ISO14692-2, Clause 6.4.3 or an equivalent standard. ASTM D256 may also
be considered. However, this standard only reports an impact resistance. The average minimum required
impact resistance is to be 961 J/m of width (18 ft-lbf/in of width) per Test Method E or a value acceptable
to the Surveyor.
The minimum structural wall thickness for any pipe is to be 3 mm. 5 mm is strongly recommended for
more robustness. Thickness of 6 mm or more may be required for certain fire protection applications.
21
Hydraulic Design (2014)
The inside pipe diameter is to be selected to attain the necessary fluid flow for the application. Velocities
are to be limited to values that prevent the unacceptable pressure loss, cavitation, erosion, noise and abrasion.
For typical FRP applications, the average liquid fluid velocity is between 1 and 5 meters/second with
intermittent excursions up to 10 m/s. For gas flows, the average gas velocity is between 1 and 10 m/s with
intermittent excursions up to 20 m/s.
For information on pressure surges and water hammer, refer to A1-2/25.
23
Ship Motions (2014)
Ship motions and their effect on deflections and stresses on the FRP piping installation are to be considered.
Ship motions from 1) lifting and transportation of ship hull or topside module, 2) daily wave action, and 3)
storm wave action are to be considered. Inertial loads from ship motions are also to be considered. Flexure
of the hull due to racking is also to be considered.
25
Stress Analysis (2014)
A stress analysis is to be performed on the FRP piping installation. The degree of detail of this stress analysis is
to be determined based on the complexity of the piping installation, the design conditions and the level of
criticality of the system. The flowchart in A1-2/Figure 2 summarizes the stress analysis procedures for
FRP pipes.
25.1
Design Conditions
For simple stress analysis calculations, the following design conditions are required inputs:
•
Pipe sizes and wall thickness
•
Design and installation temperature
•
Design pressure
•
Support spacing (center to center distance between supports)
For a more detailed flexibility analysis, the following design conditions are required inputs:
•
Detailed piping installation geometry, including valves and other in-line components
•
Proposed support locations and types
•
Combined loading cases, normally consisting of at least one sustained condition case, one free thermal
run, one sustained thermal case and any occasional load cases
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
243
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
FIGURE 2
Stress Analysis Flowchart (2014)
Collect design
conditions
Define combined loading cases,
typically at least one sustained
condition case, one free thermal case,
one sustained (with thermal case) and
one occasional load case (if any)
Design temperature, installation
temperature, design pressure, piping
installation geometry, proposed
support locations (and types, if known)
Define mechanical
properties
Axial tensile modulus
Hoop tensile modulus
Shear modulus
Density
Poisson's ratio
Coefficient of thermal expansion
Define SIFs and
flex factors
Refer to BS7159:1989 Section 7
Refer to ISO14692 (2002) Part 3 Annex D
Calculate stresses,
forces and
deflections
25.3
Material Properties
The following mechanical properties are required inputs:
ρ
=
density
ν
=
Poisson’s ratio (hoop-to-axial strain resulting from an axial stress)
Ea, Et =
axial tensile modulus (Young’s modulus in the axial direction)
Eh
=
hoop tensile modulus (Young’s modulus in the hoop direction)
G
=
shear modulus
Ct
=
thermal expansion coefficient (axial direction)
Other properties which may be required are:
Eb
=
bending modulus (axial flexural modulus)
Efh
=
hoop flexural modulus
Manufacturers generally optimize the performance of FRP pipes for internal pressure where the ratio of
loading is 2:1 (twice as much hoop loading as axial loading). A filament winding angle of 55 degrees is
typically optimal for this condition. This is one of the reasons why FRP materials are non-isotropic. It is
therefore important for the designer to specify at least three modulus values (axial, hoop, shear), one
Poisson’s ratio (axial-to-hoop strain resulting from a hoop stress or hoop-to-axial strain resulting from an
axial stress) and one thermal expansion coefficient (axial direction). There is also a thermal expansion
coefficient in the hoop direction, but this is normally not required for FRP piping design.
244
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Typical values for a 55-degree filament wound pipe are as follows:
ν
=
Ea, Et =
0.30 to 0.40 (hoop-to-axial strain resulting from an axial stress)
9 to 12 GPa
Eh
=
15 to 22 GPa
G
=
7 to 11 GPa
Ct
=
0.000018 m/m°C (axial direction)
Eb
=
9 to 12 GPa
Efh
=
15 to 22 GPa
Because of the non-isotropic nature of FRP materials, the equation for determining the maximum sustained
internal pressure includes a de-rating factor. Further information on this de-rating factor can be obtained
from ISO14692-3, Clause 7.2.
Another factor is included in the equation for calculating the short-term axial strength. A single short-term
failure strain is recommended in this document. However, this one value may not be viable for both shortterm hoop and axial loadings. While a value of 0.012 may be suitable for hoop stresses, a 55-degree
filament wound pipe may have only 0.006 for axial stresses. The Ka factor is meant to account for this.
25.5
SIFs and Flexibility Factors
Stress Intensification Factors (SIFs) and Flexibility Factors are required for a detailed flexibility analysis of
the piping installation. The designer is to reference BS7159:1989 Section 7 or ISO14692-3, Annex D.
25.7
Allowable Stresses and Deflections
Since FRP is a non-isotropic material, there is often more than one allowable stress. As a minimum, there
are three allowable stresses which are to be considered: 1) allowable axial stress, 2) allowable hoop stress,
and 3) allowable bending stress.
Since FRP is a much lower modulus material than steel, it is often necessary to design support spacing not
only on stress, but also deflection. For deflection, the allowable vertical deflection between supports is to
be 12.5 mm (0.50 in.) or 0.5% of the span, whichever is less.
25.7.1 Sustained Loads
When calculating stresses due to sustained loads, the default safety factor of 1.5 is to be used for
internal pressure (A1-2/3), axial stresses (A1-2/5), and bending stresses (A1-2/7). Sustained loads
are to include: internal pressure, external pressure, vacuum, piping weight, insulation/fire protection
weight, fluid weight, inertia loads due to motion during operation (e.g., daily wave action),
sustained environmental loads (such as ice and snow) and other sustained loads.
25.7.2 Thermal Loads
Because of the self-limiting nature of thermal expansion loads, when calculating stresses due to
thermal conditions, the default safety factor is to be 1.2 for internal pressure, axial stresses and
bending stresses (A1-2/3, A1-2/5, and A1-2/7, respectively).
25.7.3 Occasional Loads
When calculating stresses due to occasional loads, the default safety factor is to be 1.12 for internal
pressure, axial stresses and bending stresses (A1-2/3, A1-2/5, and A1-2/7, respectively). Occasional
loads are to include: internal pressure from hydrotesting, pressure surges from water hammer,
pressure surges from safety valve releases, transient equipment vibrations, impact, inertia loads
from motion during transportation, occasional environmental loads (such as wind from storms),
overpressures from blasts and other occasional loads. Some occasional loads may not need to be
considered as acting concurrently.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
245
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
25.7.4 Reduction of Allowable Stresses
Certain design conditions may necessitate a reduction in the allowable stress values. These may
include severe corrosive conditions, elevated temperatures and cyclic loading conditions.
For a design cycle life of 7,000 cycles or less, the design may be considered as static and a reduction of
allowable stresses due to fatigue concerns is not necessary.
25.9
Stress Analysis Calculations
The following stresses are to be considered in a stress analysis:
•
Hoop stress due to internal pressure
•
Axial stress due to internal pressure
•
Axial compressive stress due to thermal expansion
•
Bending stress due to dead weight
•
Bending stress due to thermal and pressure expansion
•
Hoop flexural stress due to vacuum
•
Any other stresses due to sustained, thermal or occasional loads.
Deflection due to dead weight is also to be calculated.
25.9.1 Hoop Stress due to Internal Pressure
σhp =
PD
2t r
σhp
=
hoop stress due to internal pressure, MPa
P
=
design pressure, MPa
where
D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
25.9.2 Axial Stress due to Internal Pressure
σap =
PD
4t r
σap
=
axial stress due to internal pressure, MPa
P
=
design pressure, MPa
where
D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
25.9.3 Axial Compressive Stress Due to Thermal Expansion (with Constrained Ends)
σac = Ct∆TEt
where
246
σac
=
axial compressive stress due to thermal expansion, MPa
Ct
=
axial thermal expansion coefficient, as specified in A1-2/25.3, mm/mm°C
∆T
=
design temperature change, °C
Et
=
axial tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
25.9.4 Bending Stress due to Dead Weight (2-span Beam Equation)
σab = k
Mc
Ir
where
σab
=
bending stress due to dead weight, MPa
k
=
1000
M
=
9.8woL2/8, N-m
wo
=
pipe (with internal fluid) mass per unit length, kg/m
L
=
support spacing, m
c
=
mean structural radius, mm
=
D/2
=
reinforced moment of inertia, mm4
=
π[(Di+2tr)4 – Di4]/64
Ir
D, t, Di and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
25.9.5 Thermal Expansion
TE = o kCt∆T
where
TE
=
thermal expansion, mm
o
=
initial length, m
k
=
1000
Ct
=
thermal expansion coefficient, as specified in A1-2/25.3, mm/mm°C
∆T
=
design temperature change, °C
25.9.6 Pressure Expansion
PE = k
Pc  1
ν 


−

t r  2 E t E h 
where
PE
=
pressure expansion, mm/m
k
=
1000
P
=
design pressure, MPa
c
=
mean structural radius, as specified in A1-2/25.9.4, mm
tr
=
average reinforced wall thickness, as specified in A1-2/1.1, mm
Et
=
axial tensile modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
ν
=
Poisson’s ratio
Eh
=
hoop tensile modulus, as specified in see A1-2/25.3, MPa
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
247
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
25.9.7 Bending Stress Due to Expansion
σab =
kMc
Ir
σab
=
bending stress due to expansion, MPa
k
=
1000
M
=
bending moment created from expansion, N-m
c
=
mean structural radius, as specified in A1-2/25.9.4, mm
Ir
=
reinforced moment of inertia, as specified in A1-2/25.9.4, mm4
where
25.9.8 Hoop Flexural Stress Due to Vacuum and/or External Pressure
 tr 

D
3
σhfc = 2 E fh 
where
σhfc
=
hoop flexural stress due to vacuum and/or external pressure, MPa
Efh
=
hoop flexural modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
D and tr are specified in A1-2/1.1.
25.9.9 Wind Loads
Refer to ASCE7-88 or other suitable standards for calculating forces and stresses due to wind loads.
25.9.10 Deflection Due to Dead Weight (2-span beam equation)
∆s =
5kwo L4s
925E b I r
∆s
=
deflection due to dead weight, mm
k
=
9.8 × 109
wo
=
pipe (with internal fluid) mass per unit length, kg/m
Ls
=
support spacing, m
Eb
=
bending modulus, as specified in A1-2/25.3, MPa
Ir
=
reinforced moment of inertia, as specified in A1-2/25.9.4, mm4
where
27
Fire Endurance
(2017) Fire endurance requirements for pipes based on system and location are specified in A1-2/Table 3.
Pipes and their associated fittings whose functions or integrity are essential to the safety of the installation
are to meet the fire endurance requirements described below. The fire endurance rating code L1, L1W, L2,
L2W, L3, or L3-WD is to be assigned to FRP piping components upon the satisfaction of the fire endurance
testing described below.
27.1
248
Level 1 (2017)
Level 1 will ensure the integrity of the system during a full scale hydrocarbon fire, and is particularly applicable
to systems where loss of integrity may cause outflow of flammable liquids and worsen the fire situation. Piping
having passed the fire endurance test specified in Appendix 1, Section 6 for a minimum duration of one hour
without loss of integrity in the dry condition is considered to meet Level 1 fire endurance standard (L1).
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Level 1W – Piping systems similar to Level 1 systems except these systems do not carry flammable fluid or
any gas and a maximum 5% flow loss in the system after exposure is acceptable. The flow loss must be
taken into account when dimensioning the system.
27.3
Level 2 (2017)
Level 2 intends to ensure the availability of systems essential to the safe operation of the installation after a
fire of short duration, allowing the system to be restored after the fire has been extinguished. Piping having
passed the fire endurance test specified in Appendix 1, Section 6 for a minimum duration of 30 minutes
without loss of integrity in the dry condition is considered to meet Level 2 fire endurance standard (L2).
Level 2W – Piping systems similar to Level 2 systems except a maximum 5% flow loss in the system after
exposure is acceptable. The flow loss must be taken into account when dimensioning the system.
27.5
Level 3
Level 3 is considered to provide the fire endurance necessary for a water-filled piping installation to survive a
local fire of short duration. The system’s functions are capable of being restored after the fire has been
extinguished. Piping having passed the fire endurance test specified in Appendix 1, Section 7 for a minimum
duration of 30 minutes without loss of integrity in the wet condition is considered to meet Level 3 fire
endurance standard (L3).
27.7
Level 3 Modified Test
Level 3 modified test for deluge systems is considered to provide the fire endurance necessary for a piping
installation to survive a local fire of short duration, with a simulated dry condition and subsequent flowing
water condition. The system’s functions are capable of being restored after the fire has been extinguished.
Piping having passed the fire endurance test specified in Appendix 1, Section 8 for a minimum duration of
5 minutes in dry condition and 25 minutes in wet condition without loss of integrity is considered to meet
the Wet/Dry fire endurance standard (L3-WD).
27.9
Fire Endurance Coating (2014)
When a fire-protective coating of pipes and fittings is necessary for achieving the fire endurance standards
required, the following requirements apply:
29
i)
Pipes are generally to be delivered from the Manufacturer with the protective coating applied, with
onsite application limited to that necessary for installation purposes (i.e., joints). See A1-3/13 regarding
the application of the fire protection coating on joints.
ii)
The fire protection properties of the coating are not to be diminished when exposed to salt water,
oil or bilge slops. It is to be demonstrated that the coating is resistant to products likely to come in
contact with the piping.
iii)
In considering fire protection coatings, such characteristics as thermal expansion, resistance against
vibrations and elasticity are to be taken into account.
iv)
The fire protection coatings are to have sufficient resistance to impact to retain their integrity.
v)
For electrically conductive systems, refer to A1-2/31.
Flame Spread
All pipes except for those fitted on open decks and within tanks, cofferdams, void spaces, pipe tunnels and
ducts are to have low flame spread characteristics. The test procedures in IMO Resolution A.653 (16),
modified for pipes as indicated in Appendix 1, Section 9, are to be used for determining the flame spread
characteristics. Piping materials giving average values for all of the surface flammability criteria not
exceeding the values listed in IMO Resolution A.653 (16) (surface flammability criteria of bulkhead, wall
and ceiling linings) are considered to meet the requirements for low flame spread.
Alternatively, flame spread testing in accordance with ASTM D635 may be used in lieu of the IMO flame
spread test, provided such test is acceptable to the Administration. Under the ASTM D635 test method, the
FRP pipe may be considered self-extinguishing if none of the ten (or no more than one of the twenty)
specimens have burned to the 100-mm (3.9 in.) mark.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
249
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
31
Electrical Conductivity (2014)
31.1
Rating
Electric conductivity or electrostatic dissipative properties of FRP piping is to be rated according to the
requirements of ISO 14692-2, Clause 6.6 and Annex G.
Where electrically conductive pipe is required, the resistance per unit length of the FRP pipes and fittings
is not to exceed 105 Ohm/m (3.28 × 104 Ohm/ft), and the requirements associated with rating (classification)
code C1a, C2a, or C3 are to be satisfied.
31.3
Non-homogeneous Conductivity
Homogenously conductive systems, such as conductive coatings that cover the entire exterior or carbonloaded resins that allow the resin to conduct, are preferred over non-homogenous systems.
Pipes and fittings that use discrete conductive filaments to achieve electrical conductivity are to be protected
against the possibility of spark damage to the pipe wall. There are to be no electrically isolated discrete
conductive filaments in the piping installation.
31.5
Design Requirements
31.5.1 Conductivity of Internal Fluids
Piping conveying fluids with conductivity less than 1000 pS/m (pico-siemens per meter) is to be
internally electrically conductive and is to provide an adequate electrical path to ground. Natural
gasoline, motor and aviation gasoline, diesels, kerosene, heating oils, lubricating oils and jet fuels
typically have conductivities lower than 1000 pS/m (usually they are less than 50 pS/m). Seawater
and crude oil typically have conductivities higher than 1000 pS/m (deionized water, for example,
is about 106 pS/m).
31.5.2 Hazardous Areas
If the FRP pipes pass through hazardous areas defined in Chapter 2, Section 1 of the Rules, then the
pipes are either 1) to be externally electrically conductive and are to provide an adequate electrical path
to ground or 2) are to be evaluated for risk assessment to determine the need for electrical conductivity.
If electrical conductivity is required and if any of the pipes or components are insulated or have
fire protection on the exterior, then the insulation/fire protection is also to be externally electrically
conductive and is to have an adequate electrical path to ground. In such a situation, it may be
acceptable to use non-conductive FRP pipes, provided the insulation/fire protection is electrically
conductive and has an adequate electrical path to ground. Data on the insulation/fire A1-2/Table 2
is to be used as a guideline for a risk assessment method to determine the need for electrical
conductivity. Guidelines for both internal and external charge-generating mechanisms are included.
Data from the risk assessment is to be submitted to ABS for review and approval.
Weak external charge-generating mechanisms include, but are not limited to, tribocharging. Moderate
external charge-generating mechanisms include, but are not limited to, tank washing operations. Strong
external charge-generating mechanisms include, but are not limited to, cargo tank cleaning/purging/
loading operations and an efflux of a two-phase fluid past the FRP pipe. An example may include
a gas with condensed droplets leaking from a nearby steam or hydrocarbon pipe.
Changing atmospheric conditions, particularly near strong thunderstorms, have the possibility of
being moderate to strong external charge-generating mechanisms. However, in the case of lightning,
it is more likely that the lightning strike itself provides a more significant ignition source than any
discharge that could occur from the FRP pipes, whether electrically conductive or not.
Tank washing operations that use crude oil washing (COW) techniques (with dry crude oil) or
small water washing machines can help minimize their charge-generating potential.
Isolated metal objects of significant size that are in close proximity to earthed objects (both fixed
and mobile, including personnel) are to be given particular attention since these can contribute to
the potential creation of an incentive discharge.
250
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
33
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
Marking (2014)
FRP pipes and other components are to be permanently marked with identification in accordance with a
recognized standard. Identification is at least to include:
i)
Manufacturer’s information
ii)
Standard to which the pipe or fitting is manufactured
iii)
Material with which the pipe or fitting is constructed
vi)
Nominal diameter
v)
Pressure rating (maximum sustained internal pressure)
vi)
Fire endurance rating
vii)
Electric conductivity rating
TABLE 2
Electrical Conductivity Risk Assessment Guidelines (2014)
Service Conditions
Guidelines
Internal chargegenerating
mechanisms
Piping that contains fluids with conductivities
greater than 1000 pS/m
No internal conductivity requirement.
Piping that may contain fluids with
conductivities less than 1000 pS/m
Piping is to have a resistance from inside to
outside the pipes of 105 ohms per meter or less.
Conductive piping and all isolated metal objects
of significant size are to be earthed with a
maximum resistance to earth of 106 ohms.
External chargegenerating
mechanisms
Piping not located in hazardous areas.
No conductivity requirement.
Piping located in hazardous areas that may be
exposed to weak external charge-generating
mechanisms during normal operations
No conductivity requirement except all isolated
metal objects of significant size are to be earthed
with a maximum resistance to earth of 108 ohms.
Piping located in hazardous areas that may be
exposed to moderate external charge-generating
mechanisms
Piping is to have a resistance of 105 ohms per
meter or less. Conductive piping and all isolated
metal objects of significant size are to be earthed
with a maximum resistance to earth of 108 ohms.
Piping located in hazardous areas that may be
exposed to strong external charge-generating
mechanisms
Piping is to have a resistance of 105 ohms per
meter or less. Piping and all isolated metal
objects of significant size are to be earthed with a
maximum resistance to earth of 106 ohms.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
251
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
TABLE 3
Fire Endurance Requirements Matrix (2017)
PIPING
INSTALLATIONS
LOCATION
A
B
C
D E
F
G
HYDROCARBON & CARGO (Flammable cargoes with flash point ≤ 60°C (140°F))
1
Cargo lines
NA
NA
L1
0
NA
2
Crude oil washing lines
NA
NA
L1
0
NA
3
Vent lines
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
3a
Process lines
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
3b
Produced water lines
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
INERT GAS
4
Water seal effluent line
NA
NA
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
(1)
(1)
5
Scrubber effluent line
0
0
NA
NA
NA
6
Main line
0
0
L1
NA
NA
7
Distribution lines
NA
NA
L1
0
NA
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS [flash point > 60°C (140°F)]
8
Cargo lines
X
X
L1
NA(3)
0
9
Fuel oil
X
X
L1
NA(3)
0
10
Lubricating oil
X
X
L1
NA
NA
11
Hydraulic oil
X
X
L1
0
0
SEA WATER (See Note 1)
12
Bilge main and branches
L1(7)
L1(7)
L1
NA
0
13
Fire main
L1
L1
L1
NA
NA
13a
Water spray (Deluge)
L1
L1
L1
NA
NA
14
Foam system
L1W
L1W
L1W
NA
NA
15
Sprinkler system
L1W
L1W
L3
NA
NA
16
Ballast
L3
L3
L3
0
0
17
Cooling water, essential
L3
L3
NA
NA
NA
services
18
Tank cleaning services, fixed
NA
NA
L3
0
NA
machines
19
Nonessential systems
0
0
0
NA
0
FRESH WATER
20
Cooling water, essential
L3
L3
NA
NA
0
services
21
Condensate return
L3
L3
L3
NA
NA
22
Nonessential systems
0
0
0
NA
0
SANITARY/DRAINS/SCUPPERS
23
Deck drains (internal)
L1W
L1W
NA
NA
0
24
25
Sanitary drains (internal)
Scuppers and discharges
(overboard)
VENTS/SOUNDING
26
Water tanks/dry spaces
27
Oil tanks [flash-point > 60°C
(140°F)]
MISCELLANEOUS
28
Control air
29
Service air (non-essential)
30
Brine
31
Auxiliary low pressure steam
[Pressure ≤ 7 bar (7 kgf/cm2,
100 psi)]
252
H
I
J
K
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
L1(2)
L1(2)
X
L1(2)
L3(10)
0(1)
0(1)
NA
NA
0(1)
0(1)
0
0
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
L1(6)
L1(2)
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
NA
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NA
X
X
L1W
L3
L2
NA
L1
L1/L3(11)
L1/LWD(11)
L1W
L3
L2
L2W
0
0
NA
L3(2)
0
0
0
0
0
0
L3
L3
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(4)
(4)
0
0(1,8)
0
0(1,8)
NA
0(1,8)
NA
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0(1,8)
0
0
0
X
0
X
0
X
0
X(3)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
X
L1(5)
0
0
L2W
L1(5)
0
0
L2W
L1(5)
0
NA
0(9)
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
L1(5)
0
0
0(9)
L1(5)
0
0
0(9)
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
TABLE 3 (continued)
Fire Endurance Requirements Matrix (2017)
Locations
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Category A machinery spaces
Other machinery spaces
Cargo pump rooms
Not needed
Not needed
Cargo tanks
Fuel oil tanks
Ballast water tanks
Cofferdams, void spaces, pipe tunnels and ducts
Accommodation, service and control spaces
Open decks
Abbreviations
L1
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 60 minutes, in accordance with
Appendix 1, Section 6
L2
Fire endurance test in dry conditions, 30 minutes, in accordance with
Appendix 1, Section 6
L3
Fire endurance test in wet conditions, 30 minutes, in accordance with
Appendix 1, Section 7
LWD Fire endurance test in dry condition, 5 minutes, and in wet condition
25 minutes, in accordance with Appendix 1, Section 7 and Appendix 1,
Section 8
0
No fire endurance test required
NA Not applicable
X
Metallic materials having a melting point greater than 925°C
(1700°F).
Notes:
1
Where nonmetallic piping is used, remotely controlled valves are to be provided at the installation’s side. These
valves are to be controlled from outside the space.
2
Remote closing valves are to be provided at the cargo tanks and hydrocarbon liquid and gas retaining components
as applicable.
3
When cargo tanks contain flammable liquids with a flash point greater than 60°C (140°F), “0” may replace “NA”
or “X”.
4
(2017) For drains serving only the space concerned, “0” may replace “L1W”.
5
When controlling functions are not required by statutory requirements, “0” may replace “L1”.
6
For pipe between machinery space and deck water seal, “0” may replace “L1”.
7
For passenger vessels, “X” is to replace “L1”.
8
Scuppers serving open decks in positions 1 and 2, as defined in Regulation 13 of the International Convention on
Load Lines, 1966, are to be “X” throughout unless fitted at the upper end with the means of closing capable or
being operated from a position above the freeboard deck in order to prevent down-flooding.
9
For essential services, such as fuel oil tank heating and ship’s whistle, “X” is to replace “0”.
10
Metallic ESD valves are to be provided together with fire detection, fire fighting and shutdown system
11
(2014) Lower level of fire resistant tests (Level 3 and Level WD) may be considered for the fire water ring main
and deluge systems, provided the system arrangement meet the following:
Firewater Ringmain System Arrangements:
i)
The firewater system is to be permanently in a charged condition (wet main).
ii)
FRP piping must be located on the exterior perimeter of the vessels/units and shielded by primary
structural members from potential sources of fire that may occur on or emanate from the vessels/units.
iii)
FRP piping must be located so that pooling of flammable liquids below the piping is not possible. A
properly designed drainage system may be provided to mitigate the pooling of flammable liquid below
the piping installation.
iv)
The firewater system is to be equipped with an adequate number of isolation and cut-off valves such that,
if a section of the system were to fail, it could be isolated and the remainder of the system would still be
capable of supplying firewater.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
253
Appendix 1
Section 2
Plastic Pipe Installations
Design
A1-2
TABLE 3 (continued)
Fire Endurance Requirements Matrix (2017)
Water Spray (Deluge) Systems for Process Equipment System Arrangements:
i)
FRP piping is installed in open deck or semi-enclosed locations.
ii)
The water spray piping installation must meet the Level 3 fire endurance requirements as specified in
Appendix 1, Section 7.
iii)
In addition to meeting the Level 3 fire endurance requirements, the water spray piping installation must
meet the requirements of the wet/dry fire endurance testing specified in Appendix 1, Section 8. Other
wet/dry fire endurance test methods that may be equivalent or more severe than the methods described in
Section 8 will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
iv)
An automatic fire detection system is to be installed in areas protected by the water spray system.
v)
The water spray system is to be designed to activate automatically upon detection by the automatic fire
detection system.
vi)
Each section or area served by a water spray system is to be capable of being isolated by one water supply
valve only. The stop valve in each section is to be readily accessible and its location clearly and permanently
indicated.
vii)
The design of the water spray system is to be such that upon fire detection, the time required to have
water flowing through the hydraulically most remote nozzle is less than one minute. This requirement
will be verified by system testing at the time of installation and at subsequent annual inspections.
viii)
The water spray system piping is to be located downstream of the water supply valve.
A risk analysis, subject to the approval of the Surveyor, may also be proposed to justify the use of Level 3 for
firewater ring mains and Level WD for water spray (deluge) systems.
254
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 3: Installation
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
3
Installation
1
Supports
1.1
Spacing (2017)
Selection and spacing of pipe supports in shipboard systems are to be determined as a function of allowable
stresses and maximum deflection criteria. Support spacing is not to be greater than the pipe manufacturer’s
recommended spacing. The selection and spacing of pipe supports are to take into account pipe dimensions,
length of the piping, mechanical and physical properties of the pipe material, mass of pipe and contained fluid,
external pressure, operating temperature, thermal expansion effects, loads due to external forces, thrust forces,
water hammer and vibrations, and other applicable loads to which the system may be subjected. Combinations
of these loads are to be taken into consideration for the design. Typical support spacing values for FRP
pipes carrying water with specific gravity of 1.0 are listed in A1-3/Table 1.
TABLE 1
Typical Support Spacing Values (fluid SG = 1.0) (1) (2014)
Pipe Size
Support Spacing (m)
25
2.0 to 3.2
40
2.4 to 3.6
50
2.6 to 3.9
80
2.9 to 4.4
100
3.1 to 4.8
150
3.5 to 5.0
200
3.7 to 5.8
250
4.0 to 6.5 (2)
300
4.2 to 7.1 (2)
350
4.8 to 7.7 (2)
400
4.8 to 8.2 (2)
450
4.8 to 8.7 (2)
500
5.5 to 9.0 (2)
600
6.0 to 9.0 (2)
Notes:
1
Support spacing values are highly dependent upon the wall thickness of
the pipe and its mechanical properties. Actual support spacing values may
be outside the ranges in this table. SG = Specific Gravity, 1.0 for water.
2
Many designs limit support spacing to 6.0 meters (19.7 ft.) or less.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
255
Appendix 1
Section 3
Plastic Pipe Installations
Installation
A1-3
1.3
Bearing (2014)
Each support is to evenly distribute the load of the pipe and its contents over the full width of the support.
The minimum support width (mm) is to be greater than or equal to (30D)0.5, where D is the mean structural
diameter, in mm, as specified in A1-2/1. In lieu of this equation, an equation acceptable to ABS is to be used.
Measures, such as padding between the FRP pipe and steel support, are to be taken to minimize wear of the
pipes where they come in contact with the supports.
1.5
Heavy Components (2014)
Heavy components in the piping installation, such as valves and expansion joints, are to be adequately
supported. If necessary, independent support of the heavy component is to be provided.
1.7
Working of the Hull on a Floating Installation (2014)
The supports are to allow for relative movement between the pipes and the installation’s structure, properly
accounting for the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion and deformations of the installation’s
hull and its structure.
Most designs of FRP piping installation do not require the use of expansion joints, due to the low modulus
value of FRP. One possible exception to this is for connections between modules or for connections between
two independently supported structures. In these cases, the movement of the modules provides the axial
force necessary to engage the expansion joint.
1.9
Thermal Expansion
When calculating the thermal expansion, the system’s working temperature and the temperature at which
assembling is performed are to be taken into account.
3
External Loads
When installing piping, allowance is to be made for temporary point loads, where applicable. Such allowances
are to include at least the force exerted by a load (person) of 980 N (100 kgf, 220 lbf) at midspan on any
pipe more than 100 mm (4 in.) nominal diameter. Pipes are to be protected from mechanical damage where
necessary.
5
Pipe Connections
5.1
General Requirements (2014)
The following general principles are applicable to all pipe connections:
i)
The strength of fittings and joints is not to be less than the design strength of the system.
ii)
Pipes may be joined using adhesive bonded, welded (also called laminated, butt-welded, compositewelded, or secondary overlay), flanged or other types of joints.
iii)
Tightening of flanged or mechanically coupled joints is to be performed in accordance with
Manufacturer’s instructions.
iv)
Adhesives, when used for joint assembly, are to be suitable for providing a permanent seal between
the pipes and fittings through the temperature and pressure range of the intended application.
v)
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are to be employed on the pipe connections prior to
hydrotest to ensure reliability.
These methods include:
256
•
Visual inspection
•
Degree of cure (nondestructive)
•
Joint thickness measurements
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 3
Plastic Pipe Installations
Installation
A1-3
More complicated methods include:
•
Acoustic emissions
•
Ultrasonic testing
•
Radiographic testing
Not all methods may be applicable to each type of pipe connection. For example, adhesive-bonded
connections do not allow for visual inspection, degree of cure, or thickness measurements since
the bonded area is enclosed once the connection is complete.
5.3
Procedure and Personnel Qualifications
Joining techniques are to be in accordance with the Manufacturer’s installation guidelines. Personnel performing
these tasks are to be qualified to the satisfaction of the ABS, and each bonding procedure is to be qualified
before shipboard piping installation commences. Requirements for joint bonding procedures are in Appendix 1,
Section 5.
7
Electrical Conductivity
Where electrically conductive pipe is required by A1-2/31, installation of the pipe is to be in accordance
with the following:
7.1
Resistance Measurement (2014)
The resistance to earth (ground) from any point in the system is not to exceed 1 megohm. The resistance is
to be checked in the presence of the Surveyor.
7.3
Grounding (Earthing) Wire
Where used, grounding (earthing) wires or bonding straps are to be accessible for inspection.
The Surveyor is to verify that they are in visible locations.
9
Shell Connections on Floating Installations (2014)
Where FRP pipes are permitted in systems connected to the shell of the installation, the valves and the pipe
connection to the shell are to be in accordance with applicable ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel
Vessels (Steel Vessel Rules) in the case of ship-type installations, or ABS Rules for Building and Classing
Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU Rules) requirements for other installations. See 4-6-3/7.9 or 4-2-2/21,
respectively.
11
13
Bulkhead and Deck Penetrations
i)
The integrity of watertight bulkheads and decks is to be maintained where FRP pipes pass through
them.
ii)
Where FRP pipes pass through “A” or “B” class divisions, arrangements are to be made to ensure
that fire endurance is not impaired. These arrangements are to be tested in accordance with IMO
Resolution. A.754(18), Recommendation on Fire Resistance Tests for “A”, “B” and “F” Class
Divisions, as amended.
iii)
If the bulkhead or deck is also a fire division and destruction by fire of FRP pipes may cause
inflow of liquid from the tank, a metallic shutoff valve operable from above the bulkhead deck is
to be fitted at the bulkhead or deck.
Application of Fire Protection Coatings
Where required by fire endurance criteria in A1-2/27, fire protection coatings are to be applied on the joints
after performing hydrostatic pressure tests of the piping installation (see Appendix 1, Section 10). The fire
protection coatings are to be applied in accordance with the Manufacturer’s recommendations, using a
procedure approved in each particular case.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
257
Section 4: Manufacturing
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
4
Manufacturing (2014)
Preferably, the Manufacturer is to have a quality system and be certified in accordance with 1-1-A2/5.3
and 1-1-A2/5.5 of the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1)
or ISO 9001. The quality system is to consist of elements necessary to ensure that pipes and components are
produced with consistent and uniform mechanical and physical properties in accordance with the applicable
requirements specified in this Appendix or recognized standards, and is to include the following tests:
i)
Samples of pipe are to be tested to determine the short-term and long-term hydrostatic design strength.
These samples are to be selected randomly from the production facilities.
ii)
For piping that requires fire endurance testing and flame spread testing, representative samples of
pipe are to be tested to verify their performances.
iii)
For piping that is required to be electrically conductive, representative samples of pipe are to be
tested to determine electrical resistance per unit length.
iv)
Random samples of pipe are to be tested to determine the suitability of its external corrosion barrier.
If the manufacturer does not have a certified quality system, the tests listed above will be required using
samples from each batch of pipes being supplied for use aboard the facility.
Regardless of whether the Manufacturer has a certified quality system, for piping installations with a pressure
rating above 32 bar (32 kgf/cm2, 464 psi), each length of pipe is to be tested at the Manufacturer’s production
facility (shop test) to a hydrostatic pressure not less than 1.5 times the maximum allowable internal pressure
of the pipe (see A1-2/1). For systems at or below 32 bar (32 kgf/cm2, 464 psi), 5% or a selection satisfactory
to the Surveyor, is to be tested at the Manufacturer’s production facility (shop test) to a hydrostatic pressure
not less than 1.5 times the maximum allowable internal pressure of the pipe (see A1-2/1).
258
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 5: Pipe Bonding Procedure Qualification
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
5
Pipe Bonding Procedure Qualification
1
Procedure Qualification Requirements
1.1
Joint Bonding Parameters
To qualify joint bonding procedures, the tests and examinations specified herein are to be successfully
completed. The procedure for making bonds is to include the following:
i)
Materials used
ii)
Tools and fixtures
iii)
Environmental requirements
iv)
Joint preparation requirements
v)
Cure temperature
vi)
Dimensional requirements and tolerances
vii)
Test acceptance criteria for the completed assembly
1.3
Re-qualification
Any change in the bonding procedure that will affect the physical and mechanical properties of the joint
will require the procedure to be re-qualified.
3
Procedure Qualification Testing
3.1
Test Assembly
A test assembly is to be fabricated in accordance with the procedure to be qualified and is to consist of at
least one pipe-to-pipe joint and one pipe-to-fitting joint. When the test assembly has been cured, it is to be
subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure at a safety factor of 2.5 times the design pressure of the test
assembly for not less than one hour. No leakage or separation of joints is to be allowed. The test is to be
conducted so that the joint is loaded in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions.
3.3
Pipe Size
Selection of the pipes used for test assembly is to be in accordance with the following:
3.5
i)
When the largest size to be joined is 200 mm (8 in.) in nominal outside diameter or smaller, the
test assembly is to be the largest pipe size to be joined.
ii)
When the largest size to be joined is greater than 200 mm (8 in.) in nominal outside diameter, the
size of the test assembly is to be either 200 mm (8 in.) or 25% of the largest piping size to be joined,
whichever is greater.
Bonding Operator Qualification
When conducting performance qualifications, each bonder and each bonding operator are to make up test
assemblies, the size and number of which are to be as required above.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
259
Section 6: Tests bythe Manufacturer– FireEndurance Testing of FRPPiping in DryCondition (ForLevel 1 and Level2)
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
6
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance
Testing of FRP Piping in Dry Condition
(For Level 1 and Level 2)
1
Test Method
1.1
Furnace Test Temperature
The specimen is to be subjected to a furnace test with fast temperature increase similar to that likely to
occur in a fully-developed liquid hydrocarbon fire. The time/temperature is to be as follows:
1.3
i)
At the end of 5 minutes
945°C (1733°F)
ii)
At the end of 10 minutes
1033°C (1891°F)
iii)
At the end of 15 minutes
1071°C (1960°F)
iv)
At the end of 30 minutes
1098°C (2008°F)
v)
At the end of 60 minutes
1100°C (2012°F)
Furnace Temperature Control
The accuracy of the furnace control is to be as follows:
i)
During the first 10 minutes of the test, variation in the area under the curve of mean furnace
temperature is to be within ±15% of the area under the standard curve.
ii)
During the first 30 minutes of the test, variation in the area under the curve of mean furnace
temperature is to be within ±10% of the area under the standard curve.
iii)
For any period after the first 30 minutes of the test, variation in the area under the curve of mean
furnace temperature is to be within ±5% of the area under the standard curve.
iv)
At any time after the first 10 minutes of the test, the difference in the mean furnace temperature
from the standard curve is to be within ±100°C (±180°F).
1.5
Furnace Temperature Measurement
The locations where the temperatures are measured, the number of temperature measurements, and the
measurement techniques are to be approved by ABS.
3
Test Specimen
3.1
Pipe Joints and Fittings (2014)
The test pipe is to be prepared with the joints, fittings, and fire protection coatings, if any, intended for use
in the proposed application. All joint types are to be tested, as they are the primary points of failure.
It is recognized that the joint may be the primary point of failure and therefore a straight pipe-to-pipe joint
may be considered representative of all bends, elbows and tees of equal or greater wall thickness, provided
the construction and constituent materials are the same. If only a straight pipe-to-pipe joint is tested, then
both the joint and a straight section of pipe are to be included in the test and exposed to the test conditions.
260
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 6
Plastic Pipe Installations
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of FRP Piping in Dry Condition
(For Level 1 and Level 2)
A1-6
3.3
Number of Specimens (2014)
The number of specimens is to be sufficient to test typical joints and fittings, including joints between nonmetal and metal pipes and metal fittings to be used. The requirements in A1-7/3.5 may be used, subject to
the review and approval of ABS.
3.5
End Closure
The ends of the specimen are to be closed. One of the ends is to allow pressurized nitrogen to be connected.
The pipe ends and closures may be outside the furnace.
3.7
Orientation
The general orientation of the specimen is to be horizontal, and it is to be supported by one fixed support,
with the remaining supports allowing free movement. The free length between supports is not to be less
than eight times the pipe diameter.
3.9
Insulation
Most materials will require a thermal insulation to pass this test. The test procedure is to include the insulation
and its covering.
3.11
Moisture Condition of Insulation
If the insulation contains or is liable to absorb moisture, the specimen is not to be tested until the insulation
has reached an air dry condition, defined as equilibrium with an ambient atmosphere of 50% relative humidity
at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F). Accelerated conditioning is permissible, provided the method does not alter the
properties of the component material. Special samples are to be used for moisture content determination
and conditioned with the test specimen.
These samples are to be so constructed as to represent the loss of water vapor from the specimen having
similar thickness and exposed faces.
5
Test Condition
A nitrogen pressure inside the test specimen is to be maintained automatically at 0.7 ± 0.1 bar (0.7 ± 0.1
kgf/cm2, 10 ± 1.5 psi) during the test. Means are to be provided to record the pressure inside the pipe and
the nitrogen flow into and out of the specimen in order to indicate leakage.
7
Acceptance Criteria
7.1
During the Test
During the test, no nitrogen leakage from the sample is to occur.
7.3
After the Test (2017)
After termination of the furnace test, the test specimen and its fire protective coating, if any, are to be allowed
to cool to ambient temperature in still air, and then tested to the maximum allowable pressure of the pipes
as defined in A1-2/1 and A1-2/3. The pressure is to be held for a minimum of 15 minutes without leakage.
Pipes without leakage qualify as Level 1 or 2 depending on the test duration. Pipes with negligible leakage
(i.e., not exceeding 5% flow loss) qualify as Level 1W or Level 2W depending on the test duration. Where
practicable, the hydrostatic test is to be conducted on bare pipe (i.e., coverings and insulation removed) so
that any leakage will be visible.
7.5
Alternative Tests
Alternative test methods and/or test procedures considered to be at least equivalent, including open pit testing
method, may be accepted in cases where the pipes are too large for the test furnace.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
261
Section 7: Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3)
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
7
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance
Testing of Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3)
1
Test Method
1.1
Burner
A propane multiple burner test with a fast temperature increase is to be used.
1.3
Pipe up to 152 mm (6 in.) OD
For piping up to and including 152 mm (6 in.) OD, the fire source is to consist of two rows of 5 burners, as
shown in A1-7/Figure 1. A constant heat flux averaging 113.6 kW/m2 (36,000 BTU/hr-ft2) ± 10% is to be
maintained 12.5 ± 1 cm (5 ± 0.4 in.) above the centerline of the burner array. This flux corresponds to a
premix flame of propane with a fuel flow rate of 5 kg/hr (11 lb/hr) for a total heat release of 65 kW (3700
BTU/min.). The gas consumption is to be measured with an accuracy of at least ±3% in order to maintain a
constant heat flux. Propane with a minimum purity of 95% is to be used.
1.5
Pipes more than 152 mm (6 in.) OD (2014)
For piping greater than 152 mm (6 in.) OD, one additional row of burners is to be included for each 51 mm
(2 in.) increase in pipe diameter. A constant heat flux averaging 113.6 kW/m2 (36,000 BTU/hr-ft2) ± 10%
is still to be maintained at the 12.5 ± 1 cm (5 ± 0.4 in.) height above the centerline of the burner array. The
fuel flow is to be increased as required to maintain the designated heat flux.
1.7
Burner Type and Arrangement
The burners are to be of type “Sievert No. 2942” or equivalent which produces an air mixed flame. The
inner diameter of the burner heads is to be 29 mm (1.14 in.). See A1-7/Figure 1. The burner heads are to be
mounted in the same plane and supplied with gas from a manifold. If necessary, each burner is to be
equipped with a valve to adjust the flame height.
1.9
Burner Position
The height of the burner stand is also to be adjustable. It is to be mounted centrally below the test pipe with
the rows of burners parallel to the pipe’s axis. The distance between the burner heads and the pipe is to be
maintained at 12.5 ± 1 cm (5 ± 0.4 in.) during the test. The free length of the pipe between its supports is to
be 0.8 ± 0.05 m (31.5 ± 2 in.). See A1-7/Figure 2.
3
Test Specimen
3.1
Pipe Length
Each pipe is to have a length of approximately 1.5 m (5 ft).
3.3
Pipe Joints and Fittings (2014)
The test pipe is to be prepared with the joints, fittings, and fire protection coatings, if any, intended for use
in the proposed application. All joint types are to be tested, as they are the primary points of failure.
262
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Section 7
Plastic Pipe Installations
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3)
A1-7
It is recognized that the joint may be the primary point of failure and therefore a straight pipe-to-pipe joint
may be considered representative of all bends, elbows and tees of equal or greater wall thickness, provided
the construction and constituent materials are the same. If only a straight pipe-to-pipe joint is tested, then
both the joint and a straight section of pipe are to be included in the test and exposed to the test conditions.
3.5
Number of Specimens (2014)
The number of pipe specimens is to be in accordance with A1-7/Table 1. An alternative to this table may
be presented to ABS, supported by a predictive model to prove it is sufficient to test all typical joints and
fittings, including joints between the FRP and metal pipes, if any. Any alternate is to be reviewed and accepted
by ABS.
TABLE 1
Qualification of Piping installations of Different Sizes (2014)
Size Tested
mm (in.)
Approved Minimum Size
mm (in.)
Approved Maximum Size
mm (in.)
0 to 50 (0 to 1.97)
Size Tested
Size Tested
>50 to 152 (>1.97 to 5.98)
Size Tested
152 (5.98)
>152 to 300 (>5.98 to 11.8)
Size Tested
300 (11.8)
>300 to 600 (>11.8 to 23.6)
Size Tested
600 (23.6)
>600 to 900 (>23.6 to 35.4)
Size Tested
900 (35.4)
>900 to 1200 (>35.4 to 47.2)
Size Tested
1200 (47.2)
3.7
End Closure
The ends of each pipe specimen are to be closed. One of the ends is to allow pressurized water to be connected.
3.9
Moisture of Insulation
If the insulation contains or is liable to absorb moisture, the specimen is not to be tested until the insulation
has reached an air dry condition, defined as equilibrium with an ambient atmosphere of 50% relative humidity
at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F). Accelerated conditioning is permissible, provided the method does not alter the
properties of the component material. Special samples are to be used for moisture content determination,
and conditioned with the test specimen.
These samples are to be so constructed as to represent the loss of water vapor from the specimen having
similar thickness and exposed faces.
3.11
Orientation
The pipe samples are to rest freely in a horizontal position on two V-shaped supports. The friction between
pipe and supports is to be minimized. The supports may consist of two stands, as shown in A1-7/Figure 2.
3.13
Relief Valve
A relief valve is to be connected to one of the end closures of each specimen.
5
Test Conditions
5.1
Sheltered Test Site
The test is to be carried out in a sheltered test site in order to prevent any draft influencing the test.
5.3
Water-filled
Each pipe specimen is to be completely filled with de-aerated water to exclude air bubbles.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
263
Appendix 1
Section 7
Plastic Pipe Installations
Tests by the Manufacturer – Fire Endurance Testing of Water-filled FRP Piping (For Level 3)
A1-7
5.5
Water Temperature
The water temperature is not to be less than 15°C (59°F) at the start, and is to be measured continuously
during the test. The water is to be stagnant and the pressure maintained at 3 ± 0.5 bar (3.1 ± 0.5 kgf/cm2,
43.5 ± 7.25 psi) during the test.
7
Acceptance Criteria
7.1
During the Test
During the test, no leakage from the sample(s) is to occur, except that slight weeping through the pipe wall
may be accepted.
7.3
After the Test
After termination of the burner test, the test specimen and its fire protective coating, if any, are to be allowed
to cool to ambient temperature, and then tested to the maximum allowable pressure of the pipes as defined
in A1-2/1 and A1-2/3. The pressure is to be held for a minimum of 15 minutes without significant leakage
[i.e., not exceeding 0.2 liters/min. (0.05 gpm)]. Where practicable, the hydrostatic test is to be conducted on bare
pipe (i.e., coverings and insulation removed) so that any leakage will be visible.
FIGURE 1
Fire Endurance Test Burner Assembly
50
90
+
70
+
+
70
70
+
70
420
+
70
+
+
70
32
70
+
85
+
70
+
90
50
20
60
100
20
a) Top View
100
b) Side View of
one Burner
FIGURE 2
Fire Endurance Test Stand with Mounted Sample
1500 ± 100
800 ± 50
125 ± 10
264
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section8:TestsbytheManufacturer–Wet/DryFireEnduranceTestingofFRPPipingUsedinDelugeSystem(ForLevel3ModifedTest–Level3WD)(AdoptedfromUSCGPFM1-98)
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
8
Tests by the Manufacturer – Wet/Dry Fire
Endurance Testing of FRP Piping Used in Deluge
System (For Level 3 Modified Test –
Level 3 WD) (Adopted from USCG PFM 1-98)
1
General
The wet/dry fire endurance testing is to consist of conducting the Level 3 fire endurance testing specified
in Appendix 1, Section 7, with the following modifications:
i)
For the first five (5) minutes of the test, the piping is to be maintained in the dry condition at
atmospheric pressure in lieu of containing stagnant water.
ii)
After completion of the first five (5) minutes of the test, the pipe specimen is to be completely
filled with flowing water.
iii)
Air is to be bled from the opposite end of the piping via a test connection, until a steady flow of
water at the specified flow rate and pressure is observed.
iv)
The flow rate should not exceed the minimum pressure and flow rate that will be observed at the
hydraulically most remote nozzle of the specific deluge system installation. The elapsed time
between first introducing water to the test specimen until the specified flow rate and pressure is
obtained is not to exceed one minute. Testing at the specified flow rate and pressure will qualify
the piping for all flow rates greater than that specified in the test.
v)
The total test time including dry and wet time shall be 30 minutes.
All other requirements of Level 3 testing are to be followed without deviation.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
265
Section 9: Tests by the Manufacturer – Flame Spread
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
SECTION
9
Tests by the Manufacturer – Flame Spread
1
Test Method
Flame spread of FRP piping is to be determined by IMO Resolution A.653(16) entitled “Recommendation
on Improved Fire Test Procedures for Surface Flammability of Bulkhead, Ceiling, and Deck Finish Materials”,
with the following modifications:
266
i)
Tests are to be performed on each pipe material and size.
ii)
The test sample is to be fabricated by cutting pipes lengthwise into individual sections, and assembling
the sections into a test sample as representative as possible of a flat surface. A test sample is to
consist of at least two sections. The test sample is to be at least 800 ± 5 mm (31.5 ± 0.2 in.) long.
All cuts are to be made normal to the pipe wall.
iii)
The number of sections that must be assembled to form a test sample is to correspond to the nearest
integer number of sections which makes up a test sample with an equivalent linearized surface
width between 155 mm (6 in.) and 180 mm (7 in.). The surface width is defined as the measured
sum of the outer circumference of the assembled pipe sections that are exposed to the flux from
the radiant panel.
iv)
The assembled test sample is to have no gaps between individual sections.
v)
The assembled test sample is to be constructed in such a way that the edges of two adjacent sections
coincide with the centerline of the test holder.
vi)
The individual test sections are to be attached to the calcium silicate backing board using wire
(No. 18 recommended) inserted at 50 mm (2 in.) intervals through the board, and tightened by twisting
at the back.
vii)
The individual pipe sections are to be mounted so that the highest point of the exposed surface is
in the same plane as the exposed flat surface of a normal surface.
viii)
The space between the concave unexposed surface of the test sample and the surface of the calcium
silicate backing board is to be left void.
ix)
The void space between the top of the exposed test surface and the bottom edge of the sample holder
frame is to be filled with a high temperature insulating wool if the width of the pipe segments extend
under the side edges of the frame holding the sample.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Section 10: Testing Onboard
APPENDIX
1
SECTION
10 Testing Onboard (2014)
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
Documentation and Receiving Inspection
The following information is to be made available by the Manufacturer to the users:
•
Quantity and description of components and spools
•
Pressure ratings of components and spools
•
Nominal dimensions and overall dimensions of components and spools
•
System drawings identifying spools and site weld locations
•
Any installation requirements for the components and spools
•
Any handling and storage requirements for the components and spools
•
Any special requirements for the components and spools
All piping components are to be visually inspected according to the requirements in this Section. Bonding
kits are to be inspected to ensure that all the necessary materials are available, that the kits are in good
condition and that the kits are stored properly prior to usage.
3
Handling and Storage
FRP piping components can be susceptible to mechanical damage due to impact and improper handling.
All personnel involved in handling and storage are to be properly trained.
Lifting, loading, unloading and storage are to be performed in accordance with procedures agreed upon between
ABS, the Manufacturer and the installer. Neither chains nor steel wires are to be used for handling. Steel
clamps are to be used only when proper padding or protection is provided between the steel clamp and the
FRP pipe.
5
Visual Inspection
A1-10/Table 1 is to be used for visual inspection acceptance criteria and corrective action.
If discrepancies or disagreements occur over the visual inspection requirements, an independent third party
acceptable to the Surveyor and installer may perform a second inspection and recommend a corrective action.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
267
Appendix 1 Plastic Pipe Installations
Section 10 Testing Onboard
A1-10
TABLE 1
Defects Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Action (2014)
Name
Definition
Criteria
Corrective Action
Air bubble
Air entrapment within and
between the plies of
reinforcement, usually spherical
in shape. Normally found at or
near the inner surface of the
laminate.
Diameter of bubble is to be less
than or equal to 1.5 mm (1/16 in.).
If it is larger than 1.5 mm
(1/16 in.), no more than 2 bubbles
per square inch are allowed.
Bubbles 1/16 in. diameter or
smaller may be accepted as-is.
Larger bubbles shall be rejected
or repaired.
Thermal decomposition
evidenced by distortion or
discoloration of the laminate.
Acceptable if burn is not in the
structural layer.
If burn is not in the structural
layer, then either accept as-is or
resin-coat the area. If burn is in
the structural layer, then either
remove (by grinding) the
damaged area or reapply a
laminate to maintain structural
integrity or reject the part.
Chip
A small piece broken off an edge
or surface. If reinforcing fibers
are broken, then refer to a “crack”.
Area of damage must be less
than 10 × 10 mm (3/8 in. × 3/8 in.).
Either resin coat area or lightly
grind area and then reapply
CSM and/or veil.
Crack
An actual separation of the
laminate visible on opposite
surfaces and extending through
the thickness.
Acceptable if crack is only a
surface crack and does not extend
below the surface coating.
For surface cracks, either accept
as-is or re-coat. For deeper
cracks, cracks should be filled
with adhesive. If structural
integrity is in question (crack
extends to depth of filament
winding or woven roving), part
should be rejected.
Crazing
Fine hairline cracks, normally at
or underneath the surface.
Acceptable up to 25 mm (1 in.)
in length.
Accept as-is for cracks up to
25 mm (1 in.) in length. For
longer cracks, lightly grind the
surface to remove the crack and
re-surface with veil and/or resin.
Dry spot
Area of incomplete surface film
where the reinforcement has not
been wetted with resin, leaving
exposed glass reinforcement
None permitted.
Dry spot may be resin coated,
but must be visually inspected
after cure.
Fracture
Rupture of laminate surface with
or without complete penetration.
Majority of fibers broken.
None permitted.
Damaged area to be removed by
grinding and a laminate to be
reapplied to maintain structural
integrity. Fractures discovered as
a result of hydrotesting that cannot
be repaired shall be rejected.
Light area with or without
broken fibers.
Areas larger than 10 mm (3/8 in.)
diameter are not permitted.
Resin coat area or lightly grind
area and reapply CSM(1) and/or
veil. Larger areas of damage
may be surface prepped and
wrapped with a laminate of
CSM(1) (and WR(2) if necessary).
Laminate sequence of part does
not match the specification.
Laminate sequence must meet or
exceed the required minimum
for the application.
Laminate sequence that is
deemed inadequate for the
application shall either be
reinforced with the necessary
additional plies or shall be
removed and replaced.
Incorrect dimensions or
misaligned components.
Overall system dimensions must
be maintained. Misaligned parts
must not be overstressed.
If possible, make up difference
elsewhere in the system.
Otherwise, components may
have to be removed and rewelded.
Burn (delamination)
Impact Damage
Incorrect Laminate
Sequence
Incorrect Spool
Dimensions
268
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1 Plastic Pipe Installations
Section 10 Testing Onboard
A1-10
TABLE 1 (continued)
Defects Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Action (2014)
Name
Definition
Lack of Adhesive
Criteria
Corrective Action
Bonded area has lack of
adhesive which creates a disbondment between the parts
being joined.
Bond area must be adequate for
the design conditions.
When the de-bonded area is
greater than 30% of the total
bond area, the part is to be
rejected. Smaller de-bonded
areas may be evaluated for
overall integrity and either
accepted or rejected.
Barcol hardness reading below
the required minimum.
Barcol hardness must be at or
above the required minimum.
If after 24 hours Barcol hardness
is not achieved, the part may be
allowed to cure at ambient
temperature for another 24 hours
or may be post-cured to accelerate
the cure. If after 48 hours Barcol
hardness is not achieved, the part
shall be rejected.
Pit (Pinhole)
Small crater in the inner surface
of a laminate, with its width
approximately of the same order
of magnitude as its depth.
Diameter of pits to be less than
0.8 mm (1/32 in.) and depth to be
less than the thickness of the
liner.
If there are no damaged fibers
and pits meet the criteria, then
accept as-is. Otherwise, part may
need to be rejected.
Restriction
(Excess Adhesive)
Excess adhesive on the internal
wall of a pipe/fitting causing a
restriction.
Any obstruction shall be less than
5% of the inside diameter and no
more than 10 mm in height.
If accessible, excess adhesive is
to be carefully ground. If not
accessible, part is to be removed
and replaced.
Small mark caused by improper
handling, storage, and/or
transportation. If reinforcing
fibers are broken, then damage is
considered a “Crack”.
Area of damage shall not affect
the fibers and shall not be larger
than 10 × 10 mm (3/8 in. × 3/8 in.)
If damaged area is 3/8 in. × 3/8 in.
or smaller, then accept as-is.
Larger areas with only surface
damage (no fiber damage) shall
be resin coated if coating has
been damaged. Larger areas with
fiber damage shall be lightly
ground and reapplied with
CSM(1) and/or WR(2).
After surface preparation, parts
to be bonded have an uneven
wall thickness possibly causing
air voids in the bond.
Allowable eccentricity is
0.002 × ID, but no more than
0.3 mm
Part shall be rejected and replaced.
Weeping
Minor liquid penetration through
the laminate during pressure
testing.
None permitted.
Area shall either be lightly ground
and then reapplied with a laminate
of CSM(1) and WR or damaged
part shall be removed and
replaced.
Weld Sparks
Minor breakdown of outer surface
due to effects of close-proximity
welding.
See “Scratch”.
See “Scratch”.
Low Barcol Hardness
Scratch
Uneven Wall
Thickness for
Adhesive Bond
Notes:
1
CSM – Chopped Strand Mat
2
WR – Woven Roving
3
For defects such as cracks, pits, and scratches, if a number of these defects occur in a small area, the corrective
action may be modified to the satisfaction of the Surveyor to take this into account.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
269
Appendix 1 Plastic Pipe Installations
Section 10 Testing Onboard
7
A1-10
Resin/Adhesive Degree of Cure
The degree of cure of resins and adhesives is to be checked to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. The frequency
of testing is to be agreed between the installer and the Surveyor.
The degree of cure is to be determined in accordance with one of the following methods:
9
i)
Glass transition temperature (Tg) by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) according to ISO11357-2
or by HDT according to ASTM E2092. The Tg is to be 30°C (86°F) above the maximum design
temperature when measured according to DSC and 20°C (68°F) above the maximum design
temperature when measured according to HDT.
ii)
Residual styrene monomer content testing according to ISO 4901. The residual styrene content is
to be no more than 2% (mass fraction) of the resin weight.
iii)
Barcol hardness testing according to ASTM D2583. The Barcol hardness readings are to be at
least 90% of the value specified by the manufacturer or adhesive/resin supplier.
Documentation of Site Bonding
All pipes, fittings, flanges, spools and related items are to be installed by qualified FRP pipefitters or with
qualified supervision. All bonding is to be performed by qualified FRP bonders.
Documentation of the qualification of supervisors, pipefitters and bonders is to be made available to the
Surveyor.
The following documentation is to be maintained on each site weld during the installation process:
11
•
Identification of bonder(s) who performed the site weld bonding
•
Identification of inspector(s) who inspected the site weld bonding
•
Acceptance of visual inspection of the site bonding
•
Acceptance of the degree of cure of the site bonding
•
Traceability of the resin/adhesive used for the site bonding
Repair Methods
A1-10/Table 1 is to be used to determine any necessary repairs during the installation phase of the project.
13
System Hydrostatic Test
Piping installations are to be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure of not less than 1.5 times the design
pressure, but no more than 1.5 times the rated pressure of the lowest rated component in the system, to the
satisfaction of the Surveyor. For piping required to be electrically conductive, grounding (earthing) is to be
checked and random resistance testing is to be conducted to the satisfaction of the Surveyor.
15
Maintenance
15.1
Impact Damage
FRP piping is normally more susceptible to impact damage than traditional carbon steel piping because of
the relative brittleness of the resin. Lower impact energy levels may cause surface cracks or deeper cracks
that would not be experienced in carbon steel systems. Extra care is to be taken with thin wall FRP piping
[3 mm (0.118 in.) or less] that does not offer any significant resistance to impact damage.
270
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1 Plastic Pipe Installations
Section 10 Testing Onboard
A1-10
15.3
Erosion
Particulates in the fluid may cause erosion of the piping from inside. Generally, higher particulate contents,
larger particulate sizes and higher fluid velocities all increase the potential for erosion. Visual and/or ultrasonic
inspections may be used to evaluate the effect of erosion on an FRP piping installation. If there is a reduction
of structural wall thickness of more than 20% of the original structural wall thickness, then replacement of
the affected section is to be considered. Reductions of less than this amount may be accepted, but future
monitoring may be required.
15.5
Earthing Cables
Earthing cables connecting electrically conductive FRP systems to ground may be subject to corrosive attack
in a salt air environment. Although the required maximum resistance to ground can be very high (usually
106 ohms from any point to ground), corrosive attack on the earthing cables can affect this resistance. Visual
inspection of the earthing connections or a conductivity test using a megohmmeter may be used to determine
the effectiveness of the connection. If the measured resistance is below the accepted value, then the earthing
cable is to be repaired or replaced.
15.7
Chalking/“Fiber Bloom”
In FRP systems with no external corrosion barrier or where there has been damage to the external corrosion
barrier, exposure to UV rays can affect the surface of the FRP piping. One phenomenon known as “fiber
blooming” (which is a whitening of the surface glass fibers) occurs when this happens. Piping installations
with effective external corrosion barriers are normally protected from this effect. If chalking or fiber blooming
has occurred and the effect has penetrated the outer surface layer of the piping, then consideration is to be
given to repairing or replacing the affected piping.
15.9
Scale Deposits
In some water systems, particularly salt water systems, there can be a scale buildup on the inside surface of
the FRP piping over time. Normally, this has a greater potential to occur when the piping is exposed to
stagnant water for long periods of time (several weeks or more). Systems operating even at very low
velocities are less likely to have scale buildup. FRP is normally inert to marine life in that it offers neither
nourishment nor toxic effects. Visual inspection (via measurement of flow rate) may be used to determine
if scale buildup is occurring. If there is a reduction in inside diameter of more than 10 mm or 5%, then
consideration is to be given to cleaning the piping installation. Mechanical methods involving water jetting
may be considered. Hypochlorination by electrolytic decomposition or continuous chlorination may be
considered to prevent scale buildup.
15.11 System Failures
System failures, such as burst pipes, can occur if the FRP piping installation is subjected to pressures,
temperatures or other loads above its design limits. Any failures of this type are to be replaced.
15.13 Flange Damage/Cracks
FRP flanges can be susceptible to cracks. These cracks can develop due to a number of reasons, but are
usually due to overtorqueing of the flanges. There is a greater potential for this to occur against raised-face
flanges. Visual inspection is to be used to determine the presence of any cracks. If any leakage occurs, the
flange is to be repaired or replaced.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
271
Annex 1: References
APPENDIX
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
ANNEX
1
References (2014)
Standards/codes acceptable to ABS are not limited to the following references.
When updates of the referenced documents are available, they are as far as possible to be used.
Which standards/codes to be followed during design, manufacturing, transportation, storage, installation,
testing, operation, amendment, decommission, etc., is generally to be agreed upon between Local Authorities,
Owners, Operators, Clients and Contractors.
ABS claims the right to reject documents, procedures, etc., where standards/codes are judged misused, for
instance, by “shopping around”.
ABS
American Bureau of Shipping
Code No.
ABS Plaza, 16855 Northchase Drive,
Houston, TX 77060, USA
Year
Title
Steel Vessel Rules
2014
Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels
MODU Rules
2014
Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
Code No.
272
Year
100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700
West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA
Title
ASTM D 256
2004
Standard Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of
Plastics
ASTM D 257
1999
Standard Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials
ASTM D 635
2003
Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of
Plastics in a Horizontal Position
ASTM D 790
2003
Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced
Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
ASTM D 1599
1999
Standard Test Method for Resistance to Short-Time Hydraulic Failure Pressure of
Plastic Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
ASTM D 2105
2001
Standard Test Method for Longitudinal Tensile Properties of Fiberglass (GlassFiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe and Tube
ASTM D 2444
1999
Standard Test Method for Determination of the Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic
Pipe and Fittings by Means of a Tup (Falling Weight)
ASTM D 2583
2001
Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a
Barcol Impressor
ASTM D 2925
2001
Standard Test Method for Beam Deflection of Fiberglass (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Thermosetting Resin) Pipe Under Full Bore Flow
ASTM D 2992
2001
Standard Practice for Obtaining Hydrostatic or Pressure Design Basis for
“Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe and Fittings
ASTM E 2092
2004
Standard Test Method for Distortion Temperature in Three-Point Bending by
Thermomechanical Analysis
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 1
Annex
1
Plastic Pipe Installations
References
ASCE
American Society of Civil Engineers
Code No.
ASCE 7-88
Year
1992
Title
Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
BSI
British Standards Institute
Code No.
BS 7159
2 Park Street
London, W18 2BS, United Kingdom
Year
1989
Title
Code of practice for design and construction of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP)
piping systems for individual plants or sites
IMO
International Maritime Organization
Code No.
1801 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, Virginia 20191
Year
4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom
Title
MSC.61 (67)
International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures
Resolution A.653 (16)
Recommendation on improved fire test procedures for surface flammability of
bulkhead, ceiling and deck finish materials
Resolution A.753 (18)
Guidelines for the application of plastic pipes on ships
Resolution A.754 (18)
Recommendation on fire resistance tests for “A”, “B” and “F” class divisions
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
Code No.
Year
1, rue de Varembé, Case postale 56
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
Title
ISO 75-3
2004
Plastics – Determination of temperature of deflection under load – Part 3: Highstrength thermosetting laminates and long-fibre-reinforced plastics
ISO 4901
1985
Reinforced plastics based on unsaturated polyester resins – Determination of
residual styrene monomer content
ISO 11357-2
1999
Plastics – Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) – P art 2: Determination of glass
transition temperature
ISO 14692
2002
Petroleum and natural gas industries – Glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) piping
ISO 9001
2000
Quality management systems – Requirements
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
273
Appendix 2: Fire Tests for Non-metallic Hoses
APPENDIX
2
Fire Tests for Non-metallic Hoses (2009)
API Spec. 16C “Specifications for Choke and Kill Systems”
Fire Test
1. Flexible Choke and Kill Lines shall withstand a 5 to 30 minute fire test as described in paragraphs 2 through 6.
The lines shall not have visible leakage under nominal working pressure as a result of the Fire Test during the
test period.
2. The fire test shall consist of direct exposure to flame or to radiation within a furnace. The temperature
indicated by thermocouples at the end of the time period, shall be equal to or higher than 704°C (1300°F).
3
Thermocouples are to be positioned around the flexible line within 25.4 mm (1 in.) of the outer surface of the
line or end fittings. At least one thermocouple near the flexible line, and one thermocouple near the surface of
the end fitting shall reach 704°C (1300°F).
4
The flexible line must be pressurized full of water. The line may be tested horizontally, or vertically, according
to the choice of the manufacturer.
5. The test sample shall be a minimum of 2.5 m (10 feet) in length. At least 1.25 m of the flexible line and one
end fitting shall be exposed to fire or radiation.
6
After exposure to the fire, the line must remain pressurized either until a cool down, or if a leak occurs after
the test period, until the pressure is reduced to one atmosphere. The line must not burst during this period.
API Spec. 16D “Specifications for Control Systems for Drilling Well Control
Equipment”
Flame Tests
The control lines, and any component of the control lines to a surface mounted BOP stack or diverter located in a
division 1 area, as defined by API 500 (Area Classification) shall be capable of containing the normal operating
pressure in a flame temperature of 1093°C (2000°F) for a period of three minutes without leakage (includes end
connections).
Where hoses are used to connect the control system to the well control equipment, flame resistance test shall be
conducted on a typical specimen in the following manner:
1. The test specimen shall be fitted with pressure end coupling and installed in a test facility capable of
maintaining a 2000°F (±100) flame temperature over at least 180 angle degrees of the test specimen inclusive
of approximately 305 mm (12 in.) of the specimen length, including one end connection.
2
The specimen is to be connected to a regulated water pressure source equal to normal operating pressure.
3. Thermocouples shall be located within the flame area to ensure that the test temperature is maintained at the
end coupling, the coupling to hose transition and at a point along the hose at least 152 mm (6 in.) from the
hose-to-coupling transition.
4. Deliverable hoses typical of successful test specimens shall be permanently identified in a manner to permit
tracing of the test specimen and test facility. The control system manufacturers shall be responsible for
maintaining hose compliance certifications on hoses which they supply in accordance with this specification.
274
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 2
Fire Tests for Non-metallic Hoses
A2
TABLE 1
Non-Metallic Hose Requirements (2009)
Floating Installation
Systems
Service
Non flammable fluids, compressed air and gas
Marine Support
Burst Pressure
4 × MAWP
Flammable fluids, FO, LO, Hydraulic oil
Process and Process Support
ISO 15540/15541
3 × MAWP
Flammable fluids, FO, LO, Hydraulic oil,
Hydrocarbon and gas
Choke and kill
Hydraulic oil for BOP controls
None
SV or MODU Rules
Fire water and deluge
Non-flammable fluids, compressed air and gas
Fire Test
None
API Spec 16C
2.5 × MAWP
3 × MAWP
API Spec 16D
Burst Pressure
Fire Test
Fixed Installation
Systems
Service
Non-flammable fluids, compressed air and gas
Process, Process and Platform
Support
Hydraulic oil for BOP control
None
API Spec 16C
Fire water and deluge
Choke and kill
Note:
3 × MAWP
Flammable fluids, FO, LO, Hydraulic oil,
Hydrocarbon and gas
ISO 15540/15541
2.5 × MAWP
API Spec 16C
3 × MAWP
API Spec 16D
MAWP: Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
275
Appendix 3: Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings
APPENDIX
3
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings
(1 July 2012)
1
General
1.1
(2018)
FRP gratings may be used in other machinery spaces, cargo areas, and on-deck areas. FRP gratings are not
accepted in accommodation, service, control spaces, and areas where smoke and toxicity is a concern. The
floor plating and gratings in Category A machinery spaces is to be made of steel. Refer to Appendix 3, Table 1.
FRP gratings are to meet the performance requirements of and are to be tested in accordance with ASTM
F3059-15, Standard Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Gratings Used in Marine
Construction and Shipbuilding.
1.3
These requirements are not intended to eliminate any other design criteria or requirement pertaining to the
material, construction, or performance of the FRP gratings in the non-fire condition.
3
FRP Grating Material Systems
3.1
All fire integrity, flame spread, smoke, and toxicity testing, where required, shall be conducted on each material
system.
3.3
Changes in either the type, amount, and/or architecture, of either the reinforcement materials, resin matrix,
coatings, or manufacturing processes shall require separate testing in accordance with the procedures below.
Manufacturers should provide evidence, such as enrollment in a follow-up program, that the FRP gratings
being installed are the same as those which were tested and approved.
5
Fire Test Requirements* (2018)
5.1
Structural Fire Integrity
The structural fire integrity matrix in Appendix 3, Table 1 establishes the structural fire integrity characteristics
that FRP gratings are to have based on location and service. Where a specific application satisfies more
than one block in the matrix, the highest level of fire integrity is required. The test procedures required to
qualify FRP gratings to one of four levels are described in A3/7. The location and service of the FRP
gratings are to be determined on the basis of the following considerations for each of the four performance
levels:
5.1.1
276
Level 1 (L1)
FRP gratings meeting the L1 performance criteria are intended to be satisfactory for use in escape
routes or access for firefighting, emergency operation or rescue, after having been exposed to a
significant hydrocarbon or cellulosic fire incident. In addition, they are also acceptable for the
services and functions described for levels L2 and L3.
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 3
5.3
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings
A3
5.1.2
Level 2 (L2)
FRP gratings meeting the L2 performance criteria are intended to be satisfactory for use in open
deck areas where groups of people are likely to assemble, such as temporary safe refuge or lifeboat
embarkation areas. In addition, they are also acceptable for the services and functions described
for level L3.
5.1.3
Level 3 (L3)
FRP gratings meeting the L3 performance criteria are intended to be satisfactory for use in egress
routes and any areas that may require access for firefighting, rescue or emergency operations
during exposure to or shortly after exposure to a transitory hydrocarbon or cellulosic fire.
5.1.4
Level 0 (L0)
L0 FRP gratings shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E84 with a flame spread index not to
exceed 20 and a smoke developed index not to exceed 450. L0 FRP gratings have no fire integrity.
L0 FRP gratings may be used for personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms, or access
areas in cargo holds and tanks.
* Note:
The structural fire integrity requirements are intended for self-supporting personnel platforms or walkways, and
are not intended for grating overlaid on steel decking or used in other applications such as pipe guards, sea chest
screenings, safety guards, etc.
Flame Spread
All FRP gratings are to have low flame spread characteristics as determined by the following test procedure:
5.3.1
Tested to ASTM E84 with a flame spread rating not to exceed 20.
5.5
Smoke Generation
All FRP gratings are to have low smoke characteristics as determined by the following test procedure:
5.5.1
Tested to ASTM E84 with a smoke developed index limit not to exceed 450.
7
Structural Fire Integrity Test Procedures (2018)
Structural fire integrity tests are to be in accordance with ASTM F3059-15 according to the structural fire
integrity performance levels (L1, L2, L3, L0).
9
Structural Fire Integrity Matrix
TABLE 1
Structural Fire Integrity Matrix (2018)
Location
Machinery Spaces of Category A(1)
Service
Fire Integrity
Steel Grating
-
Walkways or areas which may be used for escape, or access for
firefighting, emergency operation or rescue
L1(2)
Personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas other
than those described above
L3
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L1
Walkways or areas which may be used for escape, or access for
firefighting, emergency operation or rescue
L1
Personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas other
than those described above
L0
Cargo Tanks
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L0(3, 6)
Fuel Oil Tanks
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L0(3)
Other Machinery Spaces
Cargo Pump Rooms
Cargo Holds
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
277
Appendix 3
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings
A3
TABLE 1 (continued)
Structural Fire Integrity Matrix (2018)
Location
Service
Fire Integrity
Ballast Water Tanks
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L0(4)
Cofferdams, void spaces, double
bottoms, pipe tunnels, etc.
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L0(4)
Accommodation, service, and
control spaces
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
Not permitted
Lifeboat embarkation or temporary
safe refuge stations in open deck
areas
All personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas
L2
Operational areas and access routes for deck foam firefighting systems
on tank vessels
L2
Walkways or areas which may be used for escape, or access for
firefighting systems and AFFF hose reels, emergency operation, or
rescue on MODUs and production platforms including safe access to
tanker bows
L2
Walkways or areas which may be used for escape, or access for
firefighting, emergency operation or rescue other than those described
above
L3(5)
Personnel walkways, catwalks, ladders, platforms or access areas other
than those described above
L3
Open Decks or semi-enclosed areas
Notes:
11
1
(2018) Machinery spaces of category A is as defined in 4-1-1/3.3 and 5-1-1/3.9.2(6).
2
If the machinery space does not contain any internal combustion machinery, other oil-burning, oil-heating, or oilpumping units, fuel oil filling stations, or other potential hydrocarbon fire sources, and has not more than 2.5 kg/m2
(0.51 lb/ft2) of combustible storage, gratings of L3 integrity may be used in lieu of L1.
3
If these spaces are normally entered when underway, gratings of L1 integrity are to be required.
4
If these spaces are normally entered when underway, gratings of L3 integrity shall be required.
5
(2018) Vessels fitted with deck foam or dry powder firefighting systems require gratings of L2 integrity for the
firefighting system operational areas and access routes.
6
With regard to the use of FRP/GRP grating inside LNG/LPG tanks, although the gratings are not to be used at
cryogenic temperatures, the manufacturer has to demonstrate the suitability for the intended purpose showing that
low temperature does not affect the material characteristics when used.
Other Authorized Uses (2018)
11.1
The ABS Surveyor may authorize the use of FRP gratings without Main Office approval in applications
where structural fire integrity of the FRP gratings is not a concern, provided they meet the applicable flame
spread and smoke generation requirements set forth in A3/5.3 and A3/5.5. Applications where the use of
FRP gratings have been authorized in the past, without any structural fire integrity requirements, include
the following:
278
i)
Sea chest coverings;
ii)
Small sundeck awnings and supports;
iii)
Lifeboat bilge flooring;
iv)
Electrical control flooring;
v)
Pipe guards on deck, in cargo holds, and in engine rooms;
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 3
Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings
A3
vi)
Removable guards over hawse holes, anchor hawse pipes, and scuppers;
vii)
Personnel barriers, such as protection for electrical panels; and
viii)
Ship staging and work platforms (Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
requirements may also apply).
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
279
Appendix 4: References, Codes and Standards
APPENDIX
4
References, Codes and Standards (2014)
The latest edition of the following codes and standards are applicable and referenced in these Rules.
Reference
API RP 2A-WSD
API RP 2D
API RP 14C
API RP 14E
API RP 14F
API RP 14FZ
API RP 14G
API RP 14J
API RP 17A
API RP 55
API RP 500
API RP 505
API RP 520
API Std. 521
API RP 554
API Spec 2C
API Spec 6A
API Spec 6FA
API Spec 12K
API Spec 12L
API Spec 16C
API Spec 16D
API Spec 17D
API Std 607
API Std 610
API Std 616
API Std 617
API Std 618
API Std 619
API Std 620
API Std 660
API Std 661
API Std 2000
API RP 2030
280
Title
Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms – Working Stress Design
Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes
Analysis, Design, Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems on Offshore
Production Platforms
Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems
Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for fuel and floating offshore Petroleum Facilities
for unclassed and class 1, division 1 and division 2 locations.
Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for fixed and floating offshore petroleum Facilities
for unclassed and Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2 locations
Fire Prevention and Control on Open Type Offshore Production Platforms
Design and Hazards Analysis for Offshore Production Facilities
Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems
Oil and Gas Producing and Gas Processing Plant Operations Involving Hydrogen Sulfide
Classification of Location for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I,
Division 1 and Division 2
Classification of Location for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I,
Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2
Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries
Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems
Process Instrument and Control
Offshore Cranes
Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment
Fire Test for Valves
Specification for Indirect-Type Oil Field Heaters
Specification for Vertical and Horizontal Emulsion Treaters
Choke and Kill Systems
Specification for Control Systems for Drilling Well Control Equipment and Control Systems for
Diverter Equipment
Design and Operation of Subsea Production Systems-Subsea Wellhead and Tree Equipment
Fire Test for Quarter-turn Valves and Valves Equipped with Nonmetallic Seats
Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries
Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services
Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas
Industry Services
Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services
Rotary-Type Positive-Displacement Compressors for Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Natural Gas
Industries
Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Application of Fixed Water Spray Systems for Fire Protection in the Petroleum and
Petrochemical Industries
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 4
References, Codes and Standards
Reference
ASME B31.3
ASME B31.4
ASME B31.8
ASME Sec II, Part A, B, C, D
ASME Sec V
ASME Sec VIII, Div 1
ASME Sec VIII, Div 2
ASME Sec IX
ASME Sec X
ASTM D635
ASTM D2444
ASTM E84
ASTM E119
ASTM E140
ASTM E695
IEC 60331
IEC 60332-3-10
IEC 60034
IEC 60079-2
IEC 60092
IEC 60269
IEC 60947-2
IEC 61508
IEEE 45
IEEE Std 242
IMO FTP Code
IMO MODU Code
IMO MSC Circ 582
IMO MSC Circ 670
IMO MSC Circ 848
IMO Res. A.653(16)
IMO Res. A.754(18)
IMO Res. MSC 61(67)
ISA 92.0.01
ISO 75
ISO 9001
ISO 10418
ISO 10497
ISO 15540
ISO 15541
A4
Title
Process Piping
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
Materials
Nondestructive Examination
Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Alternative Rules - Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
Standard Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Plastics in a
Horizontal Position
Standard Test Method for Determination of the Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and
Fittings by Means of a Tub (Falling Weight)
Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials
Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials
Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers
Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and Scleroscope Hardness
Standard Method for Measuring Relative Resistance of Wall, Floor, and Roof Construction to
Impact Loading
Test for Electric cables under fire conditions
Tests on electric and optical fiber cables under fire conditions: Test for vertical flame spread of
vertically-mounted bunched wires or cables – Apparatus
Rotating Electrical Machines
Electric Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmosphere
Electrical Installations in Ships
Low Voltage Fuses
Low Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear
Functional Safety of E/E/PE Safety-related Systems
Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard
Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial & Commercial Power
Systems
Fire Test Procedures
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
Guidelines for the Performance and Testing Criteria, and Surveys of Low-Expansion Foam
Concentrates for Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems
Guidelines for the Performance and Testing Criteria, and Surveys of High-Expansion Foam
Concentrates for Fixed Fire-Extinguishing Systems
Revised Guidelines for the Approval of Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems, as
Referred to in SOLAS 74, for Machinery Spaces and Cargo Pump Rooms
Recommendation on Improved Fire Test Procedure s for Surface Flammability of Bulkhead,
Ceiling and Deck Finish Materials
Recommendation on Fire Resistance Tests for “A”, “B” and “F” Class Divisions
International Code for Application of Fire Test Procedures
Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Toxic Gas-Detection Instruments: Hydrogen Sulfide
Plastics – Determination of Temperature of Deflection Under Load
Quality Management Systems – Requirements
Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries -- Offshore Production Installations -- Analysis, Design,
Installation and Testing of Basic Surface Process Safety Systems
Testing of Valves – Fire Type-testing Requirements
Ships and Marine Technology – Fire Resistance of Hose Assemblies – Test Methods
Ships and Marine Technology – Fire Resistance of Hose Assemblies – Requirements for the Test
Bench
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
281
Appendix 4
References, Codes and Standards
Reference
ISO 19921
ISO 19922
MARPOL 73/78-Annex I
NACE MR0175/ISO 15156
NEMA MG-1
NFPA 10
NFPA 11
NFPA 12
NFPA 13
NFPA 15
NFPA 17
NFPA 20
NFPA 30
NFPA 37
NFPA 72
NFPA 77
NFPA 96
NFPA 496
NFPA 780
SOLAS, 1974 Chap II-2
UL 248
UK DOE/NPD
USCG PFM 1-98
USCG PFM 2-98
282
A4
Title
Ships and Marine Technology – Fire Resistance of Metallic Pipe Components with Resilient and
Elastomeric Seals – Test Methods
Ships and Marine Technology – Fire Resistance of Metallic Pipe Components with Resilient and
Elastomeric Seals – Requirements Imposed on the Test Bench
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil
and gas production
Rotating Electric Machinery
Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
Standard for Low-Expansion Foam
Standard for Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
Installation of Sprinkler Systems
Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems
Standard for Dry Chemical Systems
Standard for Installation of Stationary Pumps
Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines
National Fire Alarm And Signaling Code
Recommended Practice on Static Electricity
Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
Standard for Purged and Pressurized Enclosed for Electrical Equipment
Standard for Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
IMO – Consolidated Text of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
Low Voltage Fuses
Interim Hydrocarbon Fire Resistance Test for Elements of Construction for Offshore Installation
Policy File Memorandum on the Fire Performance Requirements for Plastic Pipe per IMO
Resolution A.753(18)
Policy File Memorandum on the Use of Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Gratings and Cable Trays
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
Appendix 5: Systems Requirements for Floating Installations
APPENDIX
5
Systems Requirements for Floating Installations
Semisubmersible, TLP or
DDCV (Spar) based Hull
Shipshaped Hull
Process System, Process Support Systems &
Process Electrical Systems
Facilities
Rules
Facilities
Rules
Process Safety & Fire Systems, Hazardous Area Equipment,
Process Elect Ties to Marine Systems
Steel Vessel
Rules
Marine Piping and Electrical Systems,
Firefighting Systems for Accommodation,
Machinery Spaces and Helicopter Facility
ABS RULES FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FACILITIES ON OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS . 2018
MODU
Rules
283