HYGIENE IN THE GALLEY
- good advice for self-assessment aboard
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
1
1.0. Self-assessment in practice
– how do I get going?
6
1.1. Personal hygiene
6
1.2. Provisioning
10
1.3. Prepping
13
1.4. Heat treatment
16
1.5. Cold table
19
1.6. Buffet - heating, arranging and serving food
20
1.7. Chilling
21
1.8. Cleaning and disinfecting
22
1.9. Maintenance
26
2.0. Safe storage of food and waste
30
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PART 2
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FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
Good advice
for self-assessment aboard
When preparing food, there are certain guidelines that everyone in the
galley should bear in mind. The guidelines form the basis for drawing up
a self-assessment programme. If you comply with the guidelines and include
them in good working routines, you will always be on the safe side.
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PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
1.0. Self-assessment in practice
- how do I get going?
In Part 2, we review the practical work on food in the galley.
Here, as the person responsible for meals aboard, you can
get some good insights into how you draw up and implement
a self-assessment programme. The programme should be
drawn up in collaboration with the master. In particular, if it
needs to be based on certain systems, such as ISM/SMS.
When introducing self-assessment it is especially important
to include the master. As the ultimate authority aboard,
he is responsible for self-assessment in the event of PSC
inspections and other audits. So if you make changes to the
self-assessment programme, it is important to notify the master
accordingly. If the self-assessment programme has been incorporated into ISM, there should be procedures telling who is
responsible for making changes.
1.1. Personal hygiene
–Wash hands after you have sneezed or coughed
into your hands (cough into your arm/arm pit).
–Always wash your hands thoroughly after going to the toilet.
We recommend an antibacterial dispenser at the entrance
to the galley and mess.
–Consider using food-grade latex gloves but you still need
to wash your hands.
–Wash hands when you switch from cooking to serving.
How to wash your hands before preparing food for others
(See illustration Part 2, page 9):
–Wet the front and back of your hands before adding soap.
–Spread the soap thoroughly.
–Wash thoroughly for at least 40 seconds.
–Rinse the soap off.
–Use paper to dry your hands.
Anyone who prepares meals on a daily basis must have proper
personal hygiene. Ensure you have clean working clothes every
day and remove all personal jewellery, wristwatches and bracelets so as not to transfer dangerous bacteria to food. Shower
daily and take the lead in setting a good example. If you are
ill, you must not work with food, even though you actually feel
you could. You could then infect others and put the other crew
aboard at risk. See what you can do in Part 1, page 10. Consider
reading more about bacteria and sickness in Part 3.
You have a personal responsibility for good hygiene.
You can ensure this by:
–Being careful with your personal hygiene, especially
by washing hands.
–Changing your work clothing every day.
–Being aware of cuts, sores, etc.
–Being aware of your own health.
Behavioural critical control points (CCP) for inclusion
in the ship’s self-assessment could be:
You must basically not work with food if you have sores, cuts,
infected fingers or boils. If you have, discuss with the master
what you should do. You could perhaps work if you use suitable food-grade gloves which give sufficient protection.
How to ensure good personal hygiene in the galley:
–Always wash hands before starting to work with food
in the galley.
–Always wash hands between work processes, for example
between slicing vegetables and preparing chicken.
6
When working with food, using latex gloves is no substitute
for good hand hygiene.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
If everything is clean when you make ready for the day’s cooking, that is a good place to start.
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How to
Handwash?
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PART 2
WASH HANDS BEFORE AND DURING FOOD HANDLING - SERVING TOO
W
Duration of the entire procedure: 40-60 seconds
0
Wet hands with water;
3
Right palm over left dorsum with
interlaced fingers and vice versa;
6
Rotational rubbing of left thumb
clasped in right palm and vice versa;
9
Dry hands thoroughly
with a single use towel;
1
Apply enough soap to cover
all hand surfaces;
4
Palm to palm with fingers interlaced;
7
2
Rub hands palm to palm;
5
Backs of fingers to opposing palms
with fingers interlocked;
8
Rotational rubbing, backwards and
forwards with clasped fingers of right
hand in left palm and vice versa;
Rinse hands with water;
10
11
Use towel to turn off faucet;
Your hands are now safe.
Source: World Health Organization WHO
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PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
01
LOADING GOODS
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 REFRIGERATED STORES MAX. 8°C (46°F)
PROVISIONING
3 FROZEN STORES LESS THAN -12°C (10°F)
! THERMOMETER IN FREEZER
ROOM/ REFRIGERATOR
BROKEN
CHECK AND PRESERVE
THE FOOD QUALITY
3 FOOD PACKAGING UNBROKEN
3 EXPIRY DATE
3 NEW PACKS AT THE BACK
ON THE SHELVES
CHILL RAPIDLY
! PRODUCT QUALITY POOR
=> COMPLAINT, RETURN
TO SUPPLIER
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 NO STORES ON THE FLOOR
1.2. Provisioning
Regardless of whether provisionings are supplied on contract
under a catering scheme or whether the shipowner and ship do
their purchasing in port, there are certain issues that you and
the responsible master should consider. It is important to ensure
that the supplier complies with current legislation in the area
of food and that you and the master are aware of the quality
requirements when purchasing stores abroad. Pay special attention to delivery of stores that have come a long way and might
not meet the temperature requirements. Transport can mean
that goods require fast, effective sorting. Goods may also have
been packed incorrectly which can reduce their shelf-life and
increase the risk of contamination during transportation. This
is why provisioning always requires great attention in the ship’s
self-assessment programme.
CCP’s on provisioning for inclusion in the ship’s selfassessment could be:
–Check that the temperature of perishable products on receipt
of order is maximum 8° C (46°F) (a higher temperature on the
outer packaging for a short while such as 1-2 hours is acceptable).
–Check that the temperature of frozen products is less than -12° C
(10°F) (a higher temperature on the outer packaging for a short
while such as 1-2 hours is acceptable).
–Note the temperature in your self-assessment schedule.
–Observe the surface of goods and look for signs of taint such as
unpleasant smell, wrong colour, wrong consistency for fresh meat,
for example, and/or slimy surface (sign of decay).
–Check whether the packaging is intact, clean and (for tins)
no bulges, and whether the expiry date has passed.
–Check that the quality of unpackaged fruit and vegetables is
as expected and that the expiry date has not been exceeded.
When the ship loads provisionings aboard, it is important to
check all the products and use the CCP’s in practice. Immediately after delivery of provisionings aboard, you should therefore From the moment the ship receives food and provisionings
aboard, you are responsible for ensuring compliance with
comply with the ship’s self-assessment programme (see the
the temperature requirements. How and what CCP’s you
charts on the CD).
10
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
should check when loading stores must have been decided
and described in the ship’s self-assessment programme.
When goods have been checked and found in order, they
must be stored so they are kept in accordance with the current
temperature requirements.
It is important for you to keep an eye on the temperature of
food products and that it is not too high when you unpack.
Check that the temperature in the cold and freezer rooms
does not rise, so keep doors closed as much as possible.
When all the goods are in place, make it a good habit to
check the temperatures in the cold and freezer room and
in your refrigerators.
When loading stores, it is also important to:
–7`egdWkagg`bSU]S^^TajWeS`VfdS`ebadfbSU]SY[`Y
–5ZWU]fZSfXaaVbSU]SY[`YegUZSehSUgg_bSU]WV_WSf
is intact.
PART 2
–EadfS`VefadWbdaVgUfeeWbSdSfW^keafZWkVa`af
contaminate each other, also in the cold/freezer room.
–6[efd[TgfWYaaVecg[U]^kfafZW[dbdabWdb^SUWe[`fZW
freezer and cold rooms and dry stores.
–6[efd[TgfWbdaVgUfeSUUadV[`YfafZW[dWjb[dkVSfW ?ahW
products on shelves forward in all rooms and always place
the newest products at the back of the shelves.
–5ZWU]fZSf`aV[dfkTajWeadV[dfkbSU]SY[`YYWf[`fafZW
freezer/cold rooms or dry stores.
–@WhWd]WWbS`kfZ[`YV[dWUf^ka`fZWVWU][`XaaVUa`fS[`Wde
or pans (everything must be raised at least 15 cm (6 inches)
above the deck to allow space for cleaning).
–5a`e[VWdZWShkeWSe[`TSViWSfZWdiZW`V[efd[Tgf[`Y
your goods aboard and secure them accordingly.
–3^iSkedW\WUf[fW_e[XkagUS`e_W^^adeWWfZSffZWkSdW`af
in order.
Do not accept goods that are not intact or have been transported at too high a temperature.
Check the expiry date and for signs of poor quality and use self-assessment to impose demands on the supplier.
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PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
02
PREPARATION
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 CLEAN CLOTHES AND NON-SLIP SHOES
CLEAN ROUTINES
3 NO RINGS, WATCHES AND JEWELLERY
! LACK OF CLEAN CLOTHES/
CLOTHS
USE CLEAN WORK CLOTHING/
EQUIPMENT
3 PROTECT AGAINST CUTS AND SORES
! COVER CUTS AND SORES
=> USE LATEX GLOVES
3 CLEAN DISHCLOTHS/TEA TOWELS
3 CLEAN UTENSILS AND EQUIPMENT
WASH HANDS
! USE SOAP & PAPER DISPENSERS
(NOT BAR SOAP & HAND
TOWELS)
! HOT WASH CLOTHES AT 90°C
(194°F)
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
03
PREPPING RAW PRODUCTS
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 RINSE SOIL OFF VEGETABLES
! USE SEPARATE SINK IF POSSIBLE
RAW INGREDIENTS
3 KEEP RAW PRODUCTS SEPARATE
CLEAN, RINSE
AND SCRAPE/PEEL
3 CLEAN BETWEEN WORK PROCESSES
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 CHANGE CHOPPING BOARDS AND KNIVES
04
PREPPING RAW PRODUCTS
FOR HOT/COLD FOOD
COOKING
3 SWITCH BETWEEN COLOURED
CLEAN CHOPPING BOARDS
KEEP RAW INGREDIENTS
SEPARATE
3 KEEP WORK TABLES AND KNIVES CLEAN
3 WASH HANDS BETWEEN WORK
PROCESSES
3 PLACE IN REFRIGERATOR
WHILE WAITING
3 SPECIAL CARE WITH MINCED MEAT,
POULTRY, EGGS AND FISH
3 CLEAN UTENSILS FOR COLD FOOD
(E.G. MEAT SLICER)
12
RINSE IN
CLEAN WATER
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
! REFRIGERATOR NEEDED TO
DEFROST, PREPPING AND
PERISHABLE INGREDIENTS
AVOID SPREADING
BACTERIA
! BLUNT KNIVES
! CHOPPING BOARDS BROKEN
=> CHANGE TO COLOURED
CHOPPING BOARDS
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
! SUSPICION OF TEMPERATURE
VARIATION IN THE FRIDGE
AND FREEZER (POSSIBLE
THERMOMETER FAILURE)
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
1.3. Prepping
Some food products are highly perishable and therefore
require greater attention, especially during preparation.
Clean chopping boards, knives and a high level of personal
hygiene are essential.
The following food products require a high level
of hygiene and extra attention (read also Part 3):
–DSi_WSffS]W`Xda_dWXd[YWdSf[a`[eZ[YZ^kbWd[eZST^W
because it very quickly offers perfect conditions for bacteria
to grow. In just a short while, bacteria in a hot galley can
turn into a bacteria bomb.
–FZWeS_WSbb^[WefadSibag^fdk EbWU[S^SffW`f[a`eZag^V
be paid to the raw meat, beacuse in the production during
slaugther, offal can contaminate meat and thus transfer
dangerous bacteria. Raw meat must always be prepared
under special hygienic conditions by always using clean
chopping boards, knives, and washing hands carefully
during preparation.
to multiply. But only acidic and very sugary marinades provide conservation. Do not reuse marinades for other dishes.
–7YYe_gefS^iSkeTW]WbfeWbSdSfWXda_afZWdXaaVe
because there can be bacteria on the shells and inside the
eggs. Eggs require a high degree of hygiene, so always wash
hands thoroughly if using fresh eggs and after touching
them. All dishes containing fresh eggs must be heated to at
least 75°C (167°F). Boiled and fried eggs served with liquid
yolks should only be cooked using eggs from countries, which
take active measures against salmonella. If there is doubt
about eggs’ country of origin, always use sufficient heat so
that the yolk sets.
–BSefWgd[lWVWYYeeZag^VdWb^SUWdSiWYYe[`V[eZWefZSf
may not have been cooked through. Do not serve dishes in
which egg mixtures are liquid but ensure that all eggs have
been cooked to 75°C (167°F) and have set. If eggs are in
a recipe, for example for an uncooked dessert, always use
pasteurized eggs. If it is not possible to procure pasteurized
eggs, you should avoid serving uncooked desserts.
–8dWeZ¿eZ_gefS^iSkeTW]Wbfa`[UWadSf$’5%'’8S`V
for a maximum of 24 hours unless it is frozen fish. Shellfish –HWYWfST^Wei[fZh[e[T^WV[dfeZag^VTWbdWbSdWVTkfZW_and seafood require similar precautions.
selves and preferably in a sink reserved for the job. If there
are enough sinks in the galley, then use the same one for
–?[`UWV_WSfS`V_[`UWV¿eZZShWSYdWSfWdegdXSUWSdWS prepping every time. Or set aside a sink for prepping so you
When meat and fish are minced and finely chopped, it gets
are certain that for example dirt from root vegetables and the
easier spoiled because the bacteria have a greater surface
intestines of fish do not come into contact with fresh ingrearea to multiply on. All minced meats and fish must only
dients. Remember also to clean the sink between cleaning
be kept for a maximum of 24 hours at 2°C (35°F). Mixed
vegetables and other foods such as fish. Always rinse fresh
forcemeat should be used immediately and never left to the
fruit and vegetables under running water before use. The fact
next day.
that it comes packaged in plastic provides no guarantee.
–?Sd[`SfWVdSi_WSf_gefS^iSkeTW]WbfSfS_Sj[_g_
of 5°C (41°F). Marinade can be used to tenderise meat or
give it extra flavour but only use stainless steel or hard plastic
bowls, not plastic bags. Marinade containing for example
lemon juice and vinegar are acidic which reduces the pH
at the meat surface. The acid makes it difficult for bacteria
It can be hard on the hands always to be washed and
touching food. Some food can cause allergic reactions, such
as citrus fruits, shellfish, fish, meat (especially when vacuum
packed) and certain vegetables. Reactions may be burning
sensation, rash or itching. Detergents and disinfectants can
also cause allergies.
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PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
CCP’s for prepping in the ship’s self-assessment
could be:
–FZadagYZZS`ViSeZ[`YS`VdW_ahS^aX\WiW^^WdkS`V
wristwatches.
–FZadagYZZS`ViSeZ[`YiZW`ei[fUZ[`YXda_a`WbdaVgUf
to another, for example after having cracked eggs.
–GeWXadUW_WSf[__WV[SfW^kS`V[X[`fWddgbfWVXadWjS_b^W
by provisionings arriving aboard while mixing it, always put
it in the refrigerator.
–GeWbSefWgd[lWVWYYeiZW`_[j[`Yi[fZ_[^]fa_S]W
custard, etc., or in uncooked desserts needing raw eggs.
–5^WS`V[eZU^afZeS`VfWSfaiW^eS`VU^WS`iad]U^afZ[`Y
–BdWbSdWXaaVSeU^aeWfafZWf[_WaXeWdh[`YSebaee[T^W
–A`^kfS]WXaaVagfaXfZWdWXd[YWdSfadiZW`[f[edWcg[dWV
–GeWU^WS`_SUZ[`WdkUZabb[`YTaSdVeS`V]`[hWeS`V
paper for drying after washing.
–EWbSdSfWkagddSibdaVgUfeiZ[^WbdWbb[`YSeiW^^SeS^^
your work processes, and for example keep soiled and clean
ingredients separate.
–GeWV[ŇWdW`fUa^agdWVUZabb[`YTaSdVeXadWjS_b^WdWV
for meat, blue for fish, green for vegetables and yellow for
poultry, and possibly brown for bread, and white for other
things.
–GeW_[`UWV_WSfS`V¿eZi[fZ[`$&Zagde
(must be correctly stored before use).
14
–3^iSkeVWXdaefXaaV[`fZWdWXd[YWdSfad 8dalW`bdaVgUfe
that have been frozen in bulk take a long time to defrost.
–6WXdaef_WSfW Y UahWdWVS`V[`SbS`SffZWTaffa_aXfZW
refrigerator so that meat juice does not drip on to other
products and always cook food immediately after defrosting.
–6ageWfZW_[UdaiShWfaVWXdaefTgfS^iSkeUaa]XaaV
immediately after it has been in the microwave. It must not
go back into the refrigerator or stand at room temperature
after defrosting in the microwave.
–B^S`SVSkadfia[`SVhS`UWiZW`_WSfZSefaTWVWXdaefWV
or marinated. Only use food-grade packaging to marinate.
–=WWbSe_gUZV[dfagfaXfZWYS^^WkSebaee[T^WegUZSe
soiled packaging and scrub soiled vegetables separately
in the same sink every time, to avoid dirt to be spread in
the galley.
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05
COOKING/HEATING
USE A ROASTING
THERMOMETER
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
COOKING TEMPERATURE
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 FOLLOW DIRECTIONS FOR
ROASTING MEAT
! PROBE THERMOMETER
MISSING
3 COOK MINCED MEAT THOROUGHLY
3 CHECK FOR LIGHT, CLEAR JUICES
FROM ROAST POULTRY
3 REHEAT FOOD TO MIN. 75°C (167°F)
AT CORE
HEAT UP
! TEST THERMOMETER
AT LEAST ANNUALLY
! ROASTING THERMOMETER
BROKEN
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 STIR THOROUGHLY
3 CHILL PRE-PREPARED FOOD
IN SMALL PORTIONS
1.4. Heat treatment
When cooking, you must keep temperatures under control.
So make sure you always have surface thermometers and one
or more roasting thermometers to hand (remember they must
be cleaned and disinfected every time you use them; consider
using alcohol wipes). If you lack thermometers in the galley or
they are broken, report it immediately to the master for new
ones to be ordered (see Part 3, Appendix 5). Thermometers
are essential for being able to check your food products
aboard.
CCP’s for cooking in the ship’s self-assessment could be:
–3^^dSibdaVgUfefZSfSdWTW[`YUaa]WV_gefdWSUZS_[`[mum core temperature of 75°C (167°F).
–3^iSkegeWSdaSef[`YfZWd_a_WfWdS`VW`egdWfZSffZW
whole product or dish is heated to the core temperature
throughout.
–Ef[dfZWeSgUWadefWifaV[efd[TgfWfZWZWSfiZW`
measuring the temperature.
16
–3^^XaaVfZSfSdWTW[`YdWZWSfWV_gefTWZWSfWVfaSUadW
temperature of at least 75°C (167°F).
–;XdWZWSf[`YXaaV[`fZW_[UdaiShWahW`a`^kgeWbSU]SY[`Y
that is approved for the microwave.
–DWYSdV^WeeaXfZWfkbWS^^fZWd_a_WfWde_gefTWUS^[TdSfWV
every six or twelve months.
Exceptions to the rule. Bacteria are normally only to be found
on the surface of a whole piece of meat, such as roast beef.
The core of a whole piece of meat is generally sterile and you
can therefore roast the meat and leave it medium done inside
although pork must never be eaten raw. When preparing
pork, the meat juices should preferably be clear and the juices
should not be raw and pink. If roasts served rare such as
roast beef are preferred aboard, this is something you should
decide on together with the master and write up in your
self-assessment programme. We do however still recommend
being careful and that you trust your supplier totally.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
Bacteria die on being heated to
at least 75°C (167°F), but the
spores are still in the food. They
can multiply if the right conditions
for oxygen, water and temperature
unfortunately are, or become, ideal.
Note temperature
and initials
SELF-ASSESSMENT- Temperature monitoring
for deliveries and storage
Ship: ______________
MM/YYYY: _________
CHECKS ON DELIVERY DAY
Chilled goods on loading < 8°C
(46°F) Frozen goods on loading <12°C (10°F) (only delivery day)
Daily check:
Cold room < 5°C (41°F) (perishables,
raw ingredients and cooked food)
Freezer room < -18°C (0°F)
(frozen products)
Cold room < 5°C (41°F) (perishable food, raw ingredients and cooked food)
Refrigerator 1
Refrigerator 2
Refrigerator 3
Other storage
Fruit and vegetables <13°C (55°F)
Done by (initials)
Remarks re. fluctuations or
mechanical failure
Advisory example of self-assessment schedule (temperature chart)
17
PART 2
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Sliced cold cuts must never reappear on the buffet so only make small portions
at a time. Sliced cold cuts last a shorter time than whole pieces of ham, etc.
SELF-ASSESSMENTTemperature checks
on heating/chilling
Tick the date
and initial
Ship: _______________
MM/YYYY: _________
Heating/reheating min. 75°C (162°F) on cooking (enter product or dish, e.g. today's special) - CHECK AT LEAST WEEKLY
Keep hot >65°C (149°F) on the buffet (enter product or dish e.g. today's special) - CHECK AT LEAST WEEKLY
Keep cold < 5°C (41°F) on the buffet (enter product or dish e.g cold cuts) - CHECK AT LEAST WEEKLY
Chilling from hot <10°C (50°F) after buffet (from 65°C (149°F) to 10°C (50°F) in max 3 hrs) (enter product or dish e.g. today's special) - CHECK AT LEAST EVERY SECOND DAY
Done by (initials)
Advisory example of self-assessment schedule (temperature chart)
18
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
06
SERVING
MAX. 3 HOURS
ON THE BUFFET
PART 2
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
HOT/COLD BUFFET FOOD
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 AT ROOM TEMPERATURE, MAX.
3 HOURS ON THE BUFFET, INCL PREP/
SERVING TIME
! SURFACE THERMOMETER
MISSING
! SURFACE THERMOMETER
BROKEN
3 CLEAN TABLES, DISHES AND CROCKERY/
CUTLERY
3 USE PAPER TO WIPE BOWLS
3 KEEP HOT AT MIN. 65°C (149°F)
3 KEEP COLD AT 5°C (41°F) OR LESS
WASH HANDS
! BUFFET HEATING/CHILLING
PLATES MISSING
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 SMALL PORTIONS AT A TIME
– ALSO FOR SLICED COLD CUTS, ETC.
1.5. Cold table
Most ships get salted, smoked and cooked meat products,
which have either already been sliced or packed as whole
pieces and supplied frozen. You cannot check them visually
when they come aboard. So it is extra important to check
these goods when they are defrosted. Deliveries of such
products are therefore always a matter of trust.
When working with cold cuts, if possible you should always
arrange them so the different types of cold cuts do not touch
each other. Proper hygiene and good hand washing are
important, for example, when moving from arranging fresh
vegetables to cold cuts, especially in a hot galley. All the
routines working with cold cuts should be written into your
self-assessment programme.
CCP’s for the cold table in the ship’s self-assessment
could be:
–BdWbSdWS^^kagdUa^VV[eZWeeS`Vi[UZWeTdWSVS`VTgffWd
etc., as close to the time of serving and keep as cold as
possible.
–Ei[fUZTWfiWW`fZWV[ŇWdW`fUa^agdWVUZabb[`YTaSdVe
and clean them as you proceed. Switch to a clean knife
when you use a chopping board of another colour.
–EWbSdSfWkagdiad]bdaUWeeWeVWbW`V[`Ya`fZWbdaVgUf
and type of food.
–;XkaggeWS_WSfe^[UWd[f_gefTWUa_b^WfW^kV[eSeeW_T^WV
and cleaned between each work process, for example if
you have sliced cold cuts and then use the machine to slice
cucumbers, it must be washed down. Never let it stand
unwashed in a hot galley all day and then use it again.
–GeWfZWe_S^^Wefbadf[a`ebaee[T^WS`V`WhWd_[j“new
and old” when filling dishes and bowls.
–3^iSkegeWbSefWgd[lWVWYYeiZW`_S][`YVWeeWdfeiZ[UZ
need raw eggs. If you make for example dessert cream,
it must be chilled as quickly as possible.
–IZW`ge[`Y¿eZS`VeZW^^¿eZ[`V[eZWe_S]WegdWkag
comply with the use-by date.
–@WhWddWgeWXaaVfZSfZSeTWW`a`fZWTgŇWfg`^Wee[fUS`
be heated to at least 75°C (167°F).
–5addWUfgeWaX^WXfahWdeXadWjS_b^WkagUS`geWeS^_a`
leftovers in a flan and it is heated up to a core temperature
of 75°C (167°F). This ensures that you kill all the microorganisms but remember that the spores are still in the dish.
Consider making a procedure for correct storage and reuse
of leftovers (see Part 3, Appendix 4).
19
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
1.6. Buffet - heating, arranging and serving food
Regardless of whether food is being served on the buffet
(often on larger ships) or as in an ordinary household (often
on smaller ships), there are clear rules for how food should be
kept hot at a certain temperature when it is on the table for
some time. For example, if bowls are served on a table in the
mess, it is important that food does not stand waiting for too
long.
CCP’s in the ship’s self-assessment could be:
–3^^XaaVeZag^VTWZWSfWVfa)'’5#()’8XadeWdh[`Y You must be able to document this in your self-assessment
programme when you have decided to take notes every
time or if you have decided to take random samples. Be
extra careful with food that can cause problems, for example
if you serve flans made with fresh egg.
–GeWSbdaTWfZWd_a_WfWdfafS]WUadWfW_bWdSfgdWeS`V
in a stew, for example, stir it well to distribute the heat.
–KagUS`W[fZWdgeWZafb^SfWeadiSfWdTSfZea`fZWTgŇWf
–3^^ZafXaaVa`fZWTgŇWf_gefZShWSUa`efS`ffW_bWdSfgdW
of at least 65°C (149°F). Check the temperature and note
it in your self-assessment chart.
–;Xi[b[`YaŇeb[^^ea`fZWWVYWaXV[eZWeS`VTai^egeW
paper and not a dishcloth.
–?S]WegdWfZWdWSdWegŋU[W`feWdh[`Yfa`Yeebaa`eWfU so that crew do not touch the food or dishes. Maintain
good hygiene at meal times and at table.
–;Xea_WfZ[`YYWfeeb[^fi[bW[fgbcg[U]^kS`VfZadagYZ^k
–@WhWd_[j´`WiS`Va^VµS`VgeWe_S^^Tai^e-S^eafa
reduce food waste.
–6a`af]WWb^WXfahWde >WXfahWdeUS`a`^kTWdWgeWV[X
reheated to at least 75°C (167°F). For example, if reheating
a stew, it must be heated to 75°C (167°F) before serving.
–A`^kgeW^WXfahWdUa^VUgfe[XfZWkUS`TWZWSfWVfa)'’5
(167°F). Cold cuts are often unsuitable for reheating when
they have been a long time on the buffet, for example
because the vitamins will have degraded.
–A`^keShW^WXfahWde[`XaaVYdSVWbSU]SY[`Y @WhWddWZWSf
leftovers in used packaging.
–>[_[ffZWf[_WXadTgŇWf 8aaVeZag^Va`^kefS`VagfXad
a maximum of three hours from being taken from and
replaced in the refrigerator. This requires that the hot food
has been kept at a minimum of 65°C (149°F) the whole
time and the cold food at a maximum of 5°C (41°F).
–;`kagdeW^XSeeWee_W`fbdaYdS__WkageZag^VVWU[VWZai
to handle leftovers from the buffet. Consider making
a procedure for correct storage and reuse of leftovers
(see Part 3, Appendix 4).
–;Xea_Wa`Wbaefba`WZ[e_WS^bdWbSdWS`S^dWSVkUZ[^^WV
portion on a plate and reheat it in the microwave if you have
one aboard.
Food should only stand out for a maximum of three hours from being taken from
and replaced in the refrigerator. This requires that the hot food has been at least
65°C (149°F) and the cold food at a maximum of 5°C (41°F) the whole time.
20
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
Hot leftovers should be chilled from 65°C (149°F) to 10°C
(50°F) within a maximum of three hours. If it is sizzling hot,
allow to cool to room temperature before refrigerating.
07
CLEARING AWAY
USE LEFTOVERS CORRECTLY
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
CHILLING HOT/COLD FOOD
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 CHILL HOT FOOD IN SMALL PORTIONS
IN THE COLD ROOM
! FOOD-GRADE CONTAINERS
MISSING
3 PLACE LEFTOVERS IN THEIR OWN
CONTAINERS, DO NOT MIX WITH FRESH
FOOD
! REFRIGERATOR CHILLS
INSUFFICIENT OR UNEVEN
3 KEEP LEFTOVERS SERVED ON THE NIGHT
TRAY COVERED AND SEPARATED FROM
FRESH FOOD
CHILL RAPIDLY
! REFRIGERATOR FOR NIGHT
TRAY MISSING
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 THROW AWAY BUFFET SCRAPS
3 ONLY USE LEFTOVERS THAT CAN BE
HEATED TO 75°C (167˚F)
1.7. Chilling
–IZW`kagdWbSU]SYW[fW_ead[XkagiS`ffaeShW^WXfahWde
they must be properly hygienically handled. The utensils
you use must be absolutely clean in advance. Always
remember to put sticky labels with dates on packs when
repacking your products or saving leftovers in boxes.
–IZW`UZ[^^[`YkageZag^VTWST^WfaVaUg_W`ffZSfkagd
CCP’s for chilling in the ship’s self-assessment could be:
food has been cooled from 65°C (149°F) to 10°C (50°F)
–6[h[VW^SdYWbadf[a`eaXXaaV[`e_S^^Wdbadf[a`e 8aaVfZW`
within a maximum of three hours. Use a thermometer in the
cools faster, because of an increased surface.
process and at specific intervals note the temperature on
–3^^aieUS^V[`YZafaddWZWSfWVV[eZWefaUaa^XadSiZ[^W
your chart (chart on CD).
before refrigeration.
–3^^XaaVS`VV[eZWe_gefTWdWXd[YWdSfWVfaS_Sj[_g_aX
–4WSiSdWfZSfhWdkZafXaaVb^SUWV[`fZWdWXd[YWdSfadUS`
5°C (41°F).
make the temperature of the refrigerator rise rapidly, so keep –>[_[ffZWf[_WXadTgŇWf 8aaVeZag^Va`^kefS`VagfXad
an eye on your refrigerator temperature.
a maximum of three hours from being taken from and re–5a`fS[`WdeS`VÀSffdSkeadTai^efZSfUa_W[`Ua`fSUfi[fZ placed in the refrigerator. This requires maximum temperature
food must be clean.
of 5°C (41°F) the whole time.
–DWXd[YWdSfWVadXdalW`XaaVeZag^VTW]WbfeWbSdSfWS`V`af
be tightly packed to prevent the risk of cross contamination.
Chilling food can often be a problem if there is insufficient
refrigeration capacity aboard. Galleys are often small without
room for extra refrigerators. If you have the space, talk to the
master to see whether it is possible to have extra refrigerator
capacity solely for chilling food.
21
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
08
CLEANING
SCRUB AND DISINFECT
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
GOOD WASHING HABITS
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 FOLLOW THE CLEANING PLAN
! APPROVED FOOD-GRADE
DETERGENTS MISSING
3 CHECK DISHWASHER RINSE CYCLE
IS 80°C (176°F)
3 CLEAN WITH HOT SOAPY WATER
BEFORE DISINFECTING
3 PUT WORK CLOTHING, DISHCLOTHS
AND TEA TOWELS OUT FOR WASHING
3 CLEAN WASTE BINS DAILY
! STORE DETERGENTS
APART FROM FOOD
THOROUGHLY
CLEAN
! DISHWASHER BROKEN
! DISHWASHER MISSING
– WASH WITH DOUBLE
OR TRIBLE SINK SYSTEM
! NO WRITTEN SELF-ASSESSMENT
1.8. Cleaning and disinfecting
It must be easy to clean and disinfect. So the galley and mess
should be practically organized. Deck, tables and bulkheads
should have smooth surfaces that are easy to clean and that
can tolerate frequent washing and disinfection.
Always consider which detergents you use in your daily
cleaning. If possible, buy and use detergents which do not
bgffZWW`h[da`_W`fS`VkagdZWS^fZSfd[e] @7H7DgeW
products if you do not know whether they could be harmful
to health. If the product comes with a datasheet, read it careThere are no detailed regulations for how to carry out cleaning fully before use. Save all datasheets for your self-assessment,
and disinfecting. The responsible person in the galley decides so you can always document your cleaning and the use of
how it should be done and describes the systematic routines products and disinfectants (see chart on CD). You can also
in the self-assessment programme. However, it is important
find the products in the ship’s chemical database Health and
for utensils and for example mixers and meat slicers to be
Safety at Sea.
cleaned and disinfected at least once every working day or
immediately after use.
Cleaning and disinfecting workplaces, machinery
and equipment should be done in six stages:
For the following reasons, it is necessary to have high
1. Remove all visible dirt for example with a scraper, brush
standards of cleaning:
or broom with scraper blade (for the deck). Use gloves.
2. Use hot water with a measured dose of suitable detergent
–8aaVdW_`S`feUS`Ua`fS[`ZSd_Xg^TSUfWd[SS`V_gefTW
to remove dirt. Read the directions on the datasheet/label.
removed to prevent food poisoning.
3. After cleaning, wash down the areas with clean water
–FabdWhW`fbWefeXda_Sdd[h[`Y
and take care to remove all soap remnants.
–FaUgffZWd[e]aXXadW[Y`TaV[WebZke[US^^kUa`fS_[`Sf[`Y
4. Use disinfectants at the correct dilution. Follow the
food.
directions on the packaging.
–Fabda_afWSiSdW`WeeaXZkY[W`WS_a`YefYS^^WkbWdea``W^ 5. Wring out a clean cloth rinsed in clean water with
and crew.
disinfectant to dry off surfaces so there are no detergent
–FaUdWSfWSb^WSeS`fiad][`YW`h[da`_W`fS`VfafS]WfZW
residues on tables and surfaces that are in direct contact
lead by setting a good example for the rest of the crew.
with food. Cleaned surfaces should be visibly dry.
6. Your detergents and disinfectants should be stored
separately from food to prevent contamination.
22
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
CCP’s for cleaning in the ship’s self-assessment could be:
–5^WS`fZW_WSfe^[UWdfZadagYZ^kfS]W[fSbSdfSe_gUZ
as you can and then disinfect it.
–5^WS`WhWdkiZWdWfZadagYZ^kS`VgeWZafiSfWdS`V
suitable soap.
–8a^^aifZWV[dWUf[a`eXad_[j[`YefdW`YfZahWdVae[`YZSe
no effect, pollutes the environment and costs money.
–3ha[V_[j[`YV[ŇWdW`fVWfWdYW`fefZ[eUS`USgeWba[ea`age
vapours - check the datasheet.
–GeWfZWd[YZfVWfWdYW`fVWe[Y`WVfaV[eea^hWfZWV[dfiZW`
washing the floor.
–3^iSkeiSeZVai`fZWVWU]i[fZU^WS`iSfWdfadW_ahW
detergent and use a squeegee to remove the water.
–DW_W_TWdfZSfkageZag^Va`^kgeWUZW_[US^V[e[`XWUfS`fe
on clean surfaces since the effect is lost on dirty surfaces.
–GeWTa[^[`YiSfWdiZWdWfZ[eUS`dWb^SUWUZW_[US^
disinfectants, for example on chopping boards.
–5a`e[VWdge[`YSefWS_U^WS`Wda`^SdYWSdWSe
that can tolerate being cleaned with steam.
PART 2
–@WhWdgeWefda`YWdVWfWdYW`fefZS``WUWeeSdk
–7`egdWkagXdWcgW`f^kU^WS`S`VV[e[`XWUfS^^efadSYW
rooms such as dry stores, cold and freezer rooms, for
example before each time the ship arrive at port.
–7`egdWkagdWb^SUWV[eZU^afZeS`VfWSfaiW^eVS[^k
- run the washing machine regularly so you always
have clean dish cloths and tea towels available.
–7`egdWkagU^WS`Uaa]WdZaaVeS`VYdWSeW¿^fWdedWYg^Sd^k
- dirt forms the perfect place for microorganisms to grow.
Unmaintained cooker hood reduces suction and forms
condensation that can drip down onto food.
–FZW_WeeS`VYS^^WkSdWSYW`WdS^^keZag^VS^eaTW
thoroughly cleaned.
–6dSigbSU^WS`[`Yb^S`XadfZWYS^^WkS`VXa^^ai[f >SdYW
ships with several galley staff can draw up a checklist with
“who does what” in the self-assessment programme as
documentation.
23
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
1.8.1. Biofilm
Thorough daily cleaning with suitable soap and water is
generally sufficient. However, surfaces and places that are
in daily contact with food can be more problematic. These
surfaces should also be cleaned with a disinfectant to kill the
bacteria effectively. But disinfectants only kill bacteria that are
exposed to disinfectant.
Biofilm can be ticking bombs for contamination and are thus
a risk for food safety. Remember to thoroughly clean and
V[e[`XWUf7H7DKI:7D7[`fZWYS^^WkfZSf[eS^^egdXSUWe
that look clean, all corners, the floor, refrigerators, freezer and
store rooms, etc.
1.8.2. Cleaning procedures
If they are not killed, bacteria can unfortunately encapsulate
themselves and hide behind a slimy layer called biofilm. Biofilms, consisting of bacteria, food residues and the slimy layer
can prevent the disinfectant contacting the bacteria.
Biofilms arise when food residues are not removed. A thin
layer is sufficient for bacteria to reproduce and build up the
slimy layer, which the bacteria use to protect itself from being
killed. It is sticky and without effective cleaning, it really sticks
to surfaces such as stainless steel, plastic utensils and wooden
chopping boards, and for example the interior of meat slicers
and rubber seals and on all surfaces that are not cleaned
daily, such as corners, joints, cracks and nooks. Biofilm cannot
be seen with the naked eye and can appear on surfaces
that look perfectly clean. The danger of biofilms is that they
can contain many bacteria that under normal conditions
reproduce in a very short time. There is no danger of food
contamination as long as the bacteria remain encapsulated.
But very little is required to break the biofilm, thus enabling
the bacteria to be transferred to clean food.
24
Planning and undertaking systematic cleaning make it possible to always maintain a high standard of hygiene aboard,
especially in the galley area. Systematic cleaning can meet all
the requirements for the galley’s self-assessment programme.
Which is why everyone who does the cleaning should have
signed up to a written cleaning plan.
As the responsible person in the galley, you should
ensure that you:
–;`fdaVgUWUSddkagfS`V_S[`fS[`SU^WS`[`Yb^S`XadS^^
areas and all equipment relating to the galley and mess.
–5a__g`[USfWfZWb^S`S`VWjb^S[`[feafZSfWhWdkTaVk
working in the galley understands it.
–FZWdWefaXfZWUdWi_gefZShWS`g`VWdefS`V[`YaXU^WS`[`Y
You could for example post the cleaning plan on a notice
board in the mess or corridor outside so that everyone can
see when cleaning is done.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
25
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
09
DAILY ROUTINES
WASTE AND MAINTENANCE
YOUR CCP’S
YOUR SELF-ASSESSMENT
MONITORING
NOTIFY MANAGER IF:
3 KEEP FOOD AND WASTE SEPARATE
! RUBBER MATS MISSING USED
AS SWAY GEAR (NOT EGG
TRAYS)
CHECK:
3 TEMPERATURE IN FREEZER/COLD
ROOMS AND DISHWASHER
CARRY OUT
SELF-ASSESSMENT
3 THERMOMETER CONDITION
! CRACKED TILES IN GALLEY
OR STORAGE
! DEFECT UTENSILS
3 EQUIPMENT CONDITION
3 COOKER HOOD EXHAUST CAPABILITY
! DEFECT WELDS
3 PESTS AND PEST CONTROL
! DEFECT THERMOMETERS
3 ALL LASHINGS AND SWAY GEAR
! POOR JOINTS
! POOR COOKER HOOD
EXHAUST
! PESTS VISIBLE
1.9. Maintenance
Nothing in daily use lasts forever and this also comes to the
inventory and equipment in the galley. Peeling paint, cracked
tiles or uncared chopping boards can collect a lot of grime
and bacteria. So the responsible person in the galley should
also take care to notify the master if things have defects or
are in poor condition. Undertaking proper self-assessment
also requires the galley to be properly maintained. This also
makes it easier to clean.
Typical places that become worn and the need for
general maintenance:
–EUdSb[`YS`VdWbS[d[`YbS[`fiad]UW[^[`YeTg^]ZWSVeVaade
and equipment).
–5dSU]WVf[^WeS`VUdSU]e[`UaSf[`YeTg^]ZWSVeS`VVWU]
–5dSU]eTWfiWW`\a[`feefS[`^WeeefWW^S`VbaadiW^Veiad]
tables and equipment).
–E[Y`eaXdaf[`iaaViad]S`V^WS][`YbadfZa^We
–Dgefa`[da`¿jfgdWeS`VWcg[b_W`f
–;`egŋU[W`f!baadWjZSgefhW`f[^Sf[a`S`VZaaVe
–DaSef[`YS`VegdXSUWfZWd_a_WfWde
26
–6[eZiSeZWdfW_bWdSfgdWfaa^ai –5a^V!XdWWlWddaa_S`VdWXd[YWdSfadfW_bWdSfgdWefaaZ[YZ
–Iad`iaaVW`S`VefS[`^WeeefWW^gfW`e[^e
–Iad`iaaVW`UZabb[`YTaSdVeadZWSh[^keUadWVb^Sef[U
chopping boards.
–BWefUa`fda^UZW_[US^eS`fba[ea`Ua`fS[`Wde_ageWfdSbe
cockroach traps).
–BdWhW`f[a`S`VefadSYW
–ISefWYd[`VWdS`VVdS[` If a problem occurs which requires repairs, it must be dealt
with immediately. If several problems occur at the same time,
follow a priority plan which can be included as part of the
galley’s self-assessment programme.
All units must be audited at least once a year.
Faults and deficiencies must be reported to the
master or the maintenance officer.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
PRIORITY
VERY URGENT
URGENT
Urgent repairs or repairs in next port.
Purchase spares at next port.
Repair when there are no
other urgent tasks.
Refrigerators, freezers, ventilation in cold room, hot plates,
cold plates, saucepans, pans, thermometers, dishwasher,
wash basin, kitchen sink, table surfaces, blocked drains,
chopping boards, knives and other utensils and prevention
of pests.
Bulkheads, deck, ceilings,
store rooms, joints, welds,
broken tiles/equipment (not
in daily use).
NOT URGENT
Areas and equipment not
important for hygiene or
safety.
Example of a written priority plan included in the self-assessment programme.
1.9.1 Pests
Animals that come into contact with food aboard can spread
disease and cause allergies in humans. Pests such as rats,
mice and insects can get into stores and the galley. Especially
in the tropics, cockroaches can get aboard because they are
brought in with packaged food. Special action may have to
be taken depending on the pests involved. So pests should
always be reported to the shipowner which can contact
specialists or other experts for advice and guidance.
–FZdaiagf3>>VS_SYWVS`VUa`fS_[`SfWVXaaVbdaVgUfe Be alert to signs of dirt or droppings from pests on the
surface of your foods even though they look fine.
–5^WS`fZadagYZ^ki[fZSbbdabd[SfWVWfWdYW`feiZWdWbWefe
have been, also to remove chemical/poison residues.
Please refer to documentation on pests at uk.seahealth.dk.
There is guidance on hygiene certificates for ships (pdf) from
December 2008.
So you should be aware of the following:
–KageZag^VUa`fSUffZW_SefWd[XkagV[eUahWdea_WfZ[`Y
suspicious so that preventative action can be taken in good
time.
–8[`VagfZaifZWS`[_S^eYWf[`S`VbdWhW`ffZW_Xda_
getting in anymore. This could for example be by installing
netting or repairing holes in the bulkhead. If you have to
use chemicals to combat pests, you should be very aware
of preventing chemicals from getting into contact with food
products used in cooking.
27
PART 2
28
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
SELF-ASSESSMENT - Jobsheet for maintenance and repairs
1RWHRQLQVSHFWLQJIRUPDLQWHQDQFHRIZRUNLQJDUHDV¿[WXUHVDQGHTXLSPHQW
Date
dd.mm.
yyyy
Fault /deficiency / problem
area / fixtures / equipment
Corrective action
PART 2
Ship:_________________
Urgent
Please
X
00<<<<BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB
Contacted
Date:
Reminder
Date:
Done
by
Init.
Advisory example of maintenance chart
29
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
2.0. Safe storage
of food and waste
2.1. Dry stores
The ideal temperature for storing dry goods, corn products
and flour is 13°C (55°F), alternatively room temperature.
–FZWdW_gefTWW`agYZeZW^hWeS`V`aefadWea`fZWÀaad The shelves front should be elevated to keep goods in
place during high seas.
–FZW^aiWefeZW^XfaTWb^SUWVSf^WSef#'U_([` above the deck.
–@abS^^Wfea`fZWVWU]e[`UW[f_gefTWWSekfaU^WS`
the floor.
30
–FZWdaa__gefTWhW`f[^SfWVeafZWS[d[eVdkS`VU^WS`
and mould is directed away from the food products.
–A`S^a`YfagdiZW`fZWeZ[b_[YZfTWahWdefaU]WVf[`e
of conserves can in exceptional cases be placed in a separate room. Arrange this with the master.
–8aaV_gef`WhWdTWefadWV[`daa_eiZWdWfZWdWSdWV[WeW^
fumes or pipe running through with the risk of oil leaks or
water from drains.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
2.2. Freezer/cold room storage
2.3. Storing fruit and vegetables
Refrigerators (perishable supplies, raw materials
and prepared food) always less than 5°C (41°F).
–FZWUa^Vdaa_S`VdWXd[YWdSfade_gefTW]WbfU^WS`
and tidy.
–FZW[VWS^abWdSf[`YfW_bWdSfgdW[`SdWXd[YWdSfad[e$&’5
(34-39°F).
–BWd[eZST^WXaaVUag^VTW,UZ[^^WVdWSVk_WS^eadbdWbSdWV
ingredients, meat, poultry, marinating meat and poultry,
eggs, sliced cold cuts, salads, cheese, sandwiches, fresh
pasta, cheesecakes, desserts, minced meat, fish, minced fish
and fresh dairy products.
–3eWbSdSfWdWXd[YWdSfad[edWcg[dWVXadfZW`[YZffdSk[`
the mess so that crew do not enter the galley.
The ideal temperature for storing fruits and vegetables
is between 8 and 13°C (46-55°F).
–8dg[fS`VhWYWfST^We_SkTWUa`fS_[`SfWVi[fZTSUfWd[S
from the soil. They must be stored separately and away
from other food in a cool room or somewhere with good
ventilation.
–3fSfW_bWdSfgdWfZSf[eeg[fST^WXadfZWbdaVgUf
–8dg[fS`VhWYWfST^We_gef`afTW]Wbf[`Sdaa_iZWdW
there is, or can be, diesel fumes.
Freezer storage (frozen products) -18°C (0°F) and colder.
–8dWWlWde_gefTW]WbfU^WS`S`Vf[Vk
–FZW[VWS^abWdSf[`YfW_bWdSfgdWXadSXdWWlWd[eTWfiWW`
-18°C (0°F) and -21°C (-6°F).
–8dalW`bdaVgUfe_gefTWWSekfaSUUWee
–8dalW`XaaVeeZag^VTWgeWVi[fZ[`%(_a`fZeVWbW`V[`Y
on the type of product.
–FZWVSfWefS_b_gefTWU^WSdeafZSf`WibdaVgUfe
are placed at the back and the oldest at the front. This
means that the oldest products will be used before their
expiry date.
–BdWbSdWVXaaVegUZSe^WXfahWdefZSfZShWTWW`XdalW`
should be used within 1 month.
–8dalW`YaaVeeZag^VTWb^SUWV[`SXdWWlWd[__WV[SfW^k
on delivery.
2.4. Work tables and working positions
The risk of work injury from moving or lifting can be
minimized for example by adjusting the height of tables
and shelves so that things do not have to be lifted so far,
too low or too high. In some places, equipment such as
trolleys can be used depending on the size of the galley.
It is especially heavy lifting and bad working positions that
cause physical damage to the body. Good work processes
can prevent incorrect and monotonous, repetitive lifting.
See also the sector specific guidance about the galley at
uk.seahealth.dk.
Physical wear and tear can be avoided by:
–EgŋU[W`febSUW
–3ha[VZWShkS`VdWbWSfWV^[Xf[`Y[`Si]iSdViad][`Ybae[f[a`e
–HSdkkagdiad][`Ybae[f[a`iZW`efS`V[`Ya`SZSdVÀaad
all day.
–9WfZW^biZW`^aSV[`YefadWeeafZSfkagSdW`afWjbaeWV
to repeated lifting or pulling.
–3eeWeeiZWfZWdefadWeUS`TWZS`V^WVeSXW^kSeeWee
transport routes and your own safety when stores have
to be transported every day from storage to the galley.
–;`YW`WdS^fZWdagfWeiZWdWkagUSddkZWShk[fW_e_gef
be level, tidy and well-lit and the flooring must be stable
and non-slip.
31
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
2.5. Work tables and chopping boards
The surfaces on which food is placed must be kept in good
condition and be easy to clean and disinfect. The only
materials that should be used in the galley are stainless steel,
porcelain and food grade plastic. Wood is unsuitable for table
tops and for preparing food on.
It is only with clean chopping boards that you can be certain
that there will be no cross-contamination, that means no
bacteria pass from one raw product to another. If the galley
has coloured chopping boards, then use them. Do not wait
but wash chopping boards immediately after use so that they
are always ready the next time you need them.
If there are no coloured chopping boards for raw ingredients
in the galley, always use a clean chopping board. Use a chopping board for fresh vegetables and another for raw meat,
poultry, fish and shellfish. When a chopping board is worn
or heavily scored, it can be difficult to clean it and so it should
be replaced. If a wooden chopping board splits because of
frequent washing, it should be replaced.
Wooden chopping boards are usually used to protect sharp knives
and the table top. But only food grade hard plastic chopping boards
should be used.
Red plastic chopping board for red meat, yellow for poultry, blue for fish and shellfish, and green for vegetables,
and possibly brown for bread.
32
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
2.6. Kitchen sink and dishwashing
2.7. Cooker hood and exhaust
A galley should always have at least one kitchen sink with
running water. Is the sink outside the galley, it is important
to wash hands and clean the sink before handling food and
wash hands, switching from one raw ingrediens to another.
Sinks and other facilities for rinsing food products must have
a sufficient supply of hot and/or cold drinking water and they
must be kept clean. A hot water supply is not critical if a sink
is only being used for rinsing raw products with dirt on.
Breathing in the fumes from cooking meat and fish on a
frying pan or deep fryer can damage the airways. The fumes
contain carcinogenic substances and they can be hazardous
to health if exposed to them over a long period of time.
In large galleys, it can be a good idea to divide the sinks, for
example one for raw ingredients with dirt on, a sink for prepping, and a sink for dishwashing only. A sign by the kitchen
sink can indicate what it is to be used for. In a small galley,
the sink can be used for equipment, washing up and rinsing
ingredients, provided that all activities can be done effectively
and without affecting food safety.
Wet work where hands frequently are in contact with food
can give rise to food-related allergic reactions on the skin. If
you often have your hands in water, it removes the natural oils
from the skin, and softening of the skin. This breaks down the
skin’s natural protection and when that happens, it is easier to
get an allergic reaction.
We therefore recommend:
1. Food-grade gloves e.g. latex (with cotton gloves inside),
also when cleaning.
2. making it a fixed routine to use hand cream on your hands
after you finish work in the galley and washing up.
Breathing the steam from dishwashers can also be harmful to
health because inhaling the substances in the steam can in
time be damaging to the airways and lungs. Daily exposure to
this can cause respiratory irritation and in worst case allergy.
Using an industrial dishwasher releases large quantities of
water vapour when the machine is opened after rinsing. In
the same way, steam is released when an ordinary dishwasher
is opened before the cutlery and crockery are dry. Steam
should be removed using local exhaust or a hood.
When you use sprays, e.g. to clean ovens and cookers,
and then heat them, there is the risk of inhaling hazardous
vapours. Follow the instructions for the use of personal
protection equipment from the programme Health and
Safety at Sea.
The cooker hood must be kept clean so that fumes from
frying and smoke from cleaning cookers can be removed.
Grease filters must be regularly removed and washed in the
dishwasher and deposits of grease on the outside of cooker
hood should be wiped off. All cleaning procedures should be
entered in the galley’s self-assessment programme.
Effective cooker hood is important because constant
exposure to vapour from the cooker or steam from
the dishwasher can harm the airways and cause allergy.
33
PART 2
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
2.8. Mixers and slicers
Machinery such as mixers and meat slicers are required to
have guards and provide proper protection. Mixers must be
fitted with a guard and there must be an arrangement so that
it can only run with the guard down. With the guard up, it
is supposed to stop automatically. Meat slicers must have a
system to prevent them from starting if the guard is removed.
All machines in the galley must be bolted down so that it is
safe to move around the galley. If machines are small, they
should be lashed down securely. There should be detailed
instructions for how machinery should be used, and directions
for cleaning if they have to be disassembled and assembled
again afterwards safely and correctly.
The mixer and meat slicer must have safety systems that
prevent them from starting with the guard removed.
2.9. Waste disposal
Food waste must not be kept in a room where food is stored.
Daily routines that follow the shipowners/ship’s waste procedures must ensure that waste is removed and stored during
the day. As a minimum, waste must be removed from the
galley at the end of the working day.
A waste disposal plan can also be helpful for sorting waste
at source. If there is enough room, waste can be sorted into
food remnants, plastic, metal, paper/cardboard and other
flammable items.
Waste in the galley should be placed in bins with lids and
should be of a suitable size. They must be kept in good
condition and be easy to clean and disinfect.
>SdYWbWVS^T[`eSdWdWUa__W`VWVe[`UWafZWdi[eWkagZShW
to touch the lid of the waste bin with your hands. Waste bins
can be a serious source of contamination.
Bins used for storing waste must have lids. When removing the
waste bags, it should be possible to tie the tops to prevent pests.
Bags should be placed in plastic bins or in some other way
raised from the deck to prevent them standing directly on it.
Garbage facilities must be constructed and run in such a
way that they can be kept clean and prevent access by pests.
This is to protect against contamination of food, drinking
water, equipment and rooms. The areas for indoor storage of
waste, for example on long tours, must be in a separate closed
room and not located close to where new stores are typically
loaded. Waste can also be stored outside the accommodation
in containers with lids and not at the same place as where
stores are hoisted aboard. There must be access to a hose
for washing down the garbage store.
A kitchen sink waste grinder should only be used for food
waste that is suitable for being ground and washed out with
the waste water. Some food wastes are not suitable for being
ground, for example tendons from meat, large pieces of fish
skin from skinning fish and vegetables/fruit with long fibres
such as banana skins and green waste from fresh leeks. It
must be safe to use the grinder so there cannot be an accident;
for example a wooden tamper can be used to prevent fingers
coming close to the grinder’s rotor blades.
EWWS^ea?3DBA>3``WjHXadSVWeUd[bf[a`aXiSefW
disposal.
FOR SHIP AND GALLEY
PART 2
Waste from the day’s meals can be stored in large pedal-operated metal bins so there is no need to touch the lid.
35
Seahealth Denmark
Amaliegade 33 B
DK-1256 Copenhagen K
www.seahealth.dk