NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd.
Section 58 Application
Woodenhouse Compressor Station Cooler Additions
Noise Technical Report
Attachment 11
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR
STATION COOLER ADDITIONS
PROJECT
Noise Technical Report
Prepared by:
Stantec Consulting Ltd.
Calgary, Alberta
Stantec file: 123511442
December 1, 2014
Table of Contents
ABBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................................................... III
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS AND ACRONYMS.............................................................. V
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................1.1
OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................................... 1.1
STUDY AREA BOUNDARIES ............................................................................................ 1.1
1.2.1
Project Disturbance Area........................................................................... 1.2
1.2.2
Local Assessment Area ............................................................................... 1.2
1.2.3
Regional Assessment Area ......................................................................... 1.2
TEMPORAL BOUNDARIES ............................................................................................... 1.4
ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES ..................................................................................... 1.4
1.4.1
Regulatory and Policy Setting ................................................................... 1.4
1.4.2
Influence of Consultation on the Identification of Issues and the
Assessment Process ..................................................................................... 1.5
1.4.3
Significance Thresholds for Noise Effects.................................................. 1.5
2.0
2.1
2.2
PROJECT DESCRIPTION ...............................................................................................2.1
PHYSICAL SETTING .......................................................................................................... 2.1
FACILITY EQUIPMENT...................................................................................................... 2.1
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
METHODOLOGY ..........................................................................................................3.1
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE DESCRIPTORS ....................................................................... 3.1
ALBERTA ENERGY REGULATOR DIRECTIVE 038: NOISE CONTROL ............................ 3.1
3.2.1
Determination of Ambient Sound Levels and Permissible Sound
Levels............................................................................................................. 3.1
3.2.2
Low Frequency Noise Consideration........................................................ 3.2
ASSESSMENT APPROACH .............................................................................................. 3.3
4.0
4.1
4.2
COMPUTER MODELLING .............................................................................................4.1
MODEL PARAMETERS..................................................................................................... 4.1
PREDICTION ACCURACY .............................................................................................. 4.2
5.0
NOISE MITIGATION MEASURES ...................................................................................5.1
6.0
PROJECT NOISE EMISSIONS - MITIGATED ..................................................................6.1
7.0
7.1
7.2
RESULTS – MITIGATED FACILITY ...................................................................................7.1
ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH DIRECTIVE 038 ................................................. 7.1
ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS ON ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT.......................................... 7.3
7.2.1
Significance of Residual Environmental Effects from the Project ......... 7.3
7.2.2
Significance of Residual Cumulative Environmental Effects ................. 7.3
PREDICTION CONFIDENCE ........................................................................................... 7.3
FOLLOW-UP AND MONITORING................................................................................... 7.3
7.3
7.4
i
8.0
CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................8.1
9.0
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................9.1
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1
Table 4-1
Table 6-1
Table 7-1
Summary of ASL and PSL ............................................................................ 3.2
Summary of Noise Propagation Calculation Parameters...................... 4.1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary.......................................... 6.1
Noise Effects for Project Operation and Assessment of
Compliance ................................................................................................. 7.1
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1
Figure 7-1
ii
Acoustic Environment Spatial Boundaries ............................................... 1.3
Predicted Existing and Project Noise Contour......................................... 7.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Abbreviations
AER
Alberta Energy Regulator
ASL
ambient sound level
BSL
basic sound level
CPF
Central Processing Facilities
dB
decibel
dBA
decibel, A-weighted
ERCB
Energy Resources Conservation Board
Hz
Hertz
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
LSA
local study area
Ld
daytime sound level
Leq
continuous equivalent sound level (energy equivalent)
Ln
nighttime sound level
NIA
Noise Impact Assessment
PDC
Planned Development Case
Project
Cooler Addition – Woodenhouse Compressor Station
PSL
permissible sound level
PWL
sound power level (also Lw)
RSA
regional study area
SPL
sound pressure level (also Lp)
Stantec
Stantec Consulting Ltd.
TDR
technical data report
UTM
universal transverse mercator
VC
valued component
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
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Glossary of Technical Terms and Acronyms
Airborne Sound
Sound that reaches the point of interest by propagation through
air.
Ambient Noise
All noises that exist in an area and are not related to a facility.
Ambient noise includes sound from other industrial noise not
subject to this directive, transportation sources, animals, and
nature. Ambient noise is the same as background sound level.
Ambient Sound Level (ASL)
The ASL consists of all noise in the area that is not related to
regulated facilities. This noise includes sound from other
non-regulated industrial facilities, transportation sources, animals
and nature. The ASL does not include any energy-related
industrial component and must be measured without it. The ASL
can be measured when the sound level in an area is not felt to
be represented by the BSLs. The ASL must be measured under
representative conditions. As with comprehensive sound levels,
representative conditions do not constitute absolute worst-case
conditions (i.e., the quietest day in this case) but conditions that
portray typical conditions for the area.
Attenuation
The reduction of sound intensity by various means (e.g., air,
barrier, porous materials, silencers, enclosures, etc.).
Background Sound Level
(i.e., Baseline)
Includes noise from all sources other than the sound of interest
(i.e., sound other than that being measured, for example, sound
from other industrial noise not being measured, transportation
sources, animals, and natural sound).
Bands (octave, 1/3 octave)
A series of electronic filters separate sound into discrete
frequency bands, making it possible to know how sound energy
is distributed as a function of frequency. Each octave band has
a centre frequency that is double the centre frequency of the
octave band preceding it.
Basic Sound Level (BSL)
The A-weighted Leq sound level commonly observed to occur in
the designated land-use categories with industrial presence. The
BSL is assumed to be 5 dBA above the ASL and is set out in
Table 1 of AER 2007.
Category
A classification of a dwelling unit in relation to transportation
routes used to arrive at a BSL.
Class A Adjustment
An adjustment added to the BSL to account for seasonality of
the activity and the actual ambient sound levels in the area. It
cannot exceed +10 dBA.
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Class B Adjustment
An adjustment added to BSL to account for the duration of the
activity that recognizes that additional if it is temporary in nature.
An adjustment of B1, B2, B3, or B4 may be selected as
applicable.
Continuous Equivalent Sound
Level (Leq)
An energy-average sound level taken over a specified period of
time. It represents the average sound pressure encountered for
the period. The time period is often added as a suffix to the label
(e.g., Leq (24) for the 24-hour equivalent sound level). Leq is
usually A-weighted. A Leq value expressed in dBA is a good,
single value descriptor of the annoyance of noise.
Daytime
The hours from 07:00 to 22:00.
Daytime Adjustment
An adjustment that allows a 10 dBA increase because daytime
sound levels are generally about 10 dBA higher than nighttime
values.
dB - Decibel
A logarithmic scale (unit) associated with a ratio of two
amplitudes. Commonly used in audio systems and sound level
measurements.
dBA - Decibel, A-Weighted
The logarithmic units associated with a sound pressure level,
where the sound pressure signal has been filtered using the A
frequency weighting that mimics the response of the human ear
to sound.
dBC - Decibel, C-Weighted
The logarithmic units associated with a sound pressure level,
where the sound pressure signal has been filtered using the
C frequency weighting scale.
Dwelling Unit
Any permanently or seasonally occupied dwelling with the
exception of an employee or worker dwelling, dormitory, or
construction camp located within an industrial plant boundary.
Trailer parks and campgrounds may qualify as a dwelling unit if it
can be demonstrated that they are in regular and consistent use
during the applicable season.
Emergency
An unplanned event requiring immediate action to prevent loss
of life or property. Events occurring more than four times a year
are not considered unplanned.
Far Field
Describes a region in free space where the sound pressure level
from a source obeys the inverse-square law (the sound pressure
level decreases 6 dB with each doubling of distance from the
source). The far field is that area far enough away from the noise
source that the noise emissions can be treated as if they come
from a single point or line source and the individual components
of the noise source are not apparent as separate sources. This is
typically at a distance of at least three to five times the major
dimensions of the noise sources.
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Frequency
The number of oscillations per second that an acoustic wave or
of a vibrating object exhibits. Frequency is commonly expressed
in Hertz (Hz).
Frequent Aircraft Flyovers
Used in the assessment of categories as part of a site specific
analysis for dwellings that lie within a contour area with a noise
exposure forecast (NEF) 25 or greater, as designated by
Transport Canada. In the absence of any NEF contours for local
airport, Transport Canada is to be contacted for current air
traffic statistics. In this case, to qualify for the BSL adjustment, a
dwelling must be within 5 km of an airport that has a minimum of
nine aircraft takeoffs or landings over the nighttime period.
Heavily Travelled Road
Generally includes highways and any other road where the
average traffic count is at least 10 vehicles per hour over the
nighttime period. It is acknowledged that highways are
sometimes lightly travelled during the nighttime period, which is
usually the period of greatest concern.
Hertz (Hz)
Unit of measurement of frequency, numerically equal to cycles
per second.
Insertion Loss (IL)
A reduction in sound pressure level at a receptor resulting from
the insertion of noise abating element (barrier, silencer, etc.)
Low Frequency Noise (LFN)
Noise in the low frequency range, 20 Hz up to 250 Hz (as per AER
Directive 038).
Near Field
The region or sound field very near to a source, where sound
pressure does not obey the inverse-square law (i.e., 6 dBA loss
per doubling of distance for a point source does not apply).
Usually this region is controlled by the dimension of the source.
For typical energy facilities, fencelines are within near-field of the
facility sources.
Nighttime
The hours from 22:00 to 07:00
Noise
Unwanted sound
Noise Impact Assessment
(NIA)
Assessment of environmental noise effects in an area from an
activity or an installation
Noise Level
Same as Sound Level, except applied to unwanted sounds.
Permanent Facility
Any existing or proposed facility that will be at a location longer
than two months.
Permanently Occupied
Dwelling
A fixed dwelling occupied on a full-time basis.
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
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Permissible Sound Level (PSL)
The maximum sound level that a facility should not exceed at a
point 15 m from the nearest or most impacted dwelling unit. The
PSL is the sum of the BSL, daytime adjustment, Class A
adjustment, and Class B adjustment.
Seasonally Occupied
Dwelling
A fixed dwelling that, while not being occupied on a full-time
basis, is occupied on a regular basis. A regular basis does not
imply a scheduled occupancy but implies use of six weeks per
year or more. The dwelling must not be mobile and should have
some sort of foundation or features of permanence (e.g.,
electrical power, domestic water supply, septic system)
associated with it. Summer cottages or mobile homes are
examples of seasonally occupied dwellings, while a holiday
trailer simply pulled onto a site is not.
Sound
A combination of acoustic waves propagating through a
medium.
Sound Level (SL)
Same as sound pressure level.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
The magnitude of sound pressure expressed ion decibels. SPL
can be weighted using a frequency weighting scale and can
be specified as an overall level or over a frequency interval
(band).
Sound Power Level (PWL)
The magnitude of sound power (the rate with which the
acoustic energy radiates from the source) expressed in decibels.
PWL can be weighted using a frequency weighting scale and
can be specified as an overall level or over a frequency interval
(band).
Spectrum
The description of a sound wave's resolution into its components
of frequency and amplitude.
Tonal Components
A specific tone that is audible over the rest of the noise. The
tonal component is a pronounced peak, clearly obvious when
inspecting the sound spectrum.
Transmission Loss
A measure of the reduction in sound energy during sound
propagation through an element or media, for example: a wall,
porous material, section of a duct, a ventilation louver, etc.
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WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
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Introduction
December 1, 2014
1.0
INTRODUCTION
This assessment focuses on the addition of gas coolers for the two existing compressor units at
the Woodenhouse Compressor Station, located in LSD 07-29-086-01 W5. The Woodenhouse
Compressor Station Cooler Additions Project (the Project) is required to ensure appropriate
discharge temperatures are achievable at all operating conditions due to increasing delivery
requirements and additional upstream compression. The Project will include five cooler bays for
compressor A1, seven cooler bays for compressor B2, and the associated piping and
instrumentation. All proposed modifications and activities will be conducted within the existing
legal boundaries of the compressor station site.
The purpose of this report is to describe data analysis and methods used in establishing noise
emissions from the equipment at the Woodenhouse Compressor Station, performing sound
propagation calculations, and evaluating Project’s compliance with the applicable noise
thresholds. The results of this evaluation will be used to predict adverse project effects and
identify measures required to reduce or avoid potential adverse effects on the acoustic
environment during operations. Information has been gathered from the diagnostic sound level
measurements performed at the compressor station, provincial and federal guidance
documents, and past experience with similar facilities. The results of this acoustic modelling for
the Project will inform the environmental assessment.
Compliance will be evaluated according to Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) Directive 038. This
report addresses operations noise only. Construction activities need not be assessed
quantitatively under AER Directive 038. According to the available information, Woodenhouse
Compressor Station is the only energy facility present in the Project area. Furthermore, there are
no permanent or seasonally-occupied dwellings near the Project. Correspondingly, the
evaluation of the Project’s compliance with AER Directive 038 will be performed at the
Directive-prescribed criteria boundary located at 1.5 km from the Project’s fence line.
1.1
OBJECTIVES
This assessment:




defines and establishes the baseline noise levels for the Project
identifies and quantifies relevant noise emission sources from the Project
describes the modelling approach and noise mitigation measures (if required)
assesses compliance of predicted noise levels with AER Directive 038
1.2
STUDY AREA BOUNDARIES
Study area boundaries were selected based on past projects, guidance from regulators, and
professional judgment. The following study area boundaries have been defined for the Project.
1.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Introduction
December 1, 2014
1.2.1
Project Disturbance Area
Project Disturbance Area (PDA) is defined by the maximum extent of all physical disturbances
associated with the development of the Project. It is generally accepted that the facility’s
fence line defines the PDA boundary (Figure 1-1).
1.2.2
Local Assessment Area
Local Assessment Area (LAA) was established to consider the area in which the Project activities
and facilities would most likely have an adverse effect. LAA boundary was selected at 1.5 km
from the PDA to coincide with the assessment distances (assessment area) required by AER
Directive 038 in remote locations.
1.2.3
Regional Assessment Area
Regional Assessment Area (RAA) was established to consider the area in which the proposed
Project activities and facilities have potential to interact with other energy facilities and human
activities, which could result in adverse cumulative effects. The RAA was derived from past
experiences in dealing with energy facilities. The RAA was chosen as an area extending 5 km
from the proposed Project’s PDA. This spatial extent is seen as adequate for consideration of
potential adverse cumulative effects on the acoustic environment. Assuming that the relevant
thresholds, as prescribed by Directive 038, are met, from a practical stand point beyond this
area, no Project-related adverse effects are predicted.
Figure 1-1 illustrates the acoustic environment spatial boundaries.
1.2
674000
676000
678000
680000
682000
678000
680000
682000
6266000
6264000
6260000
6262000
6264000
6260000
6262000
UTM mN
6266000
6268000
676000
6268000
674000
UTM mE
Legend
Terrain Elevation (m)
980
960
940
920
900
880
860
840
820
800
780
760
740
720
700
680
660
640
620
600
11/04/14
11/04/14
1-1
Acoustic Environment Spatial Boundaries
NOVA Gas Transmission Limited
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Introduction
December 1, 2014
1.3
TEMPORAL BOUNDARIES
Based on the Project schedule at the time of filing, the temporal boundaries for the assessment
are:


Construction: Construction of the Project is proposed to be between July 1, 2015 and
November 1, 2015. Activities during the construction phase include hydro-vac’ing, welding
of pipe, installation of prefabricated electrical building and construction activities.
Operation: The lifespan of the operation phase of the Project is 25 years.
1.4
ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES
Administrative boundaries relevant to the assessment of the acoustic environment generally
pertain to the jurisdiction of the applicable regulatory regime. The applicable noise regulation
for this assessment is provided by NEB Filing Manual 2014 and referenced therein AER
Directive 038.
1.4.1
Regulatory and Policy Setting
The assessment of project noise effects from operations were assessed in accordance with AER
Directive 038. Directive 038 is a receptor-oriented regulation, which specifies the permissible
sound levels (PSLs) at designated receptors. In accordance with Directive 038, the noise
contribution from any new facility must not cause an exceedance of the daytime (07:00 to
22:00) and nighttime (22:00 to 07:00) PSL at any receptor.
For remote areas in the absence of human receptors, the AER sets the nighttime permissible
sound level to 40 dBA at a distance of 1.5 km from the Project fenceline. For daytime periods, a
10-dB adjustment is permitted and the daytime PSL are set at 50 dBA. The PSL requirement
prescribed at 1.5 km from the facility’s PDA is referred to as the boundary criteria.
AER requires that the Project noise effects be assessed cumulatively with existing and approved
energy facilities within the area of assessment (AER 2007). The Directive also contains
recommendations for assessing the low frequency noise (LFN) effects on human receptors.
Quantitatively, the AER Directive 038 includes provisions for assessing noise from Project
operations but not from construction and decommissioning activities. However, the Directive
requires that reasonable measures be implemented to limit noise effects from construction
activities.
1.4
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Introduction
December 1, 2014
1.4.2
Influence of Consultation on the Identification of Issues and the
Assessment Process
The Project is in a remote area of Alberta and is an existing brownfield site. The regulatory regime
and the NEB Section 58 application requirements are well known. Further consultation was not
necessary for the purposes of this acoustic environment assessment.
1.4.3
Significance Thresholds for Noise Effects
An adverse residual effect on the acoustic environment is considered significant if during Project
operation the combined sound levels exceed the limits prescribed by AER Directive 038 (2007). A
combined sound level is a summation of the ambient or baseline sound and the project noise.
1.5
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Introduction
December 1, 2014
1.6
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Description
December 1, 2014
2.0
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1
PHYSICAL SETTING
Woodenhouse Compressor Station is located approximately 80 km north of Wabasca, Alberta in
LSD 07-29-086-01 W5. The Project will be carried out within the existing site boundaries. The
current facility was permitted in 2005, i.e., prior to the issuance of AER Directive 038. The area
around the site is considered remote with limited human activity. The area is heavily forested
and its topography is flat. According to available information, there are no residential receptors
within the LAA. Additionally, there are no other energy facilities present in the RAA.
2.2
FACILITY EQUIPMENT
The equipment currently present at the Woodenhouse Compressor Station includes:




A1 Compressor – centrifugal compressor driven by Mars 100 gas turbine and housed in an
R20 insulated metal building. The associated equipment and systems include:
 Lubrication oil cooler housed in a separate building adjacent to the compressor building
 Compressor building ventilation system (wall vents and wall exhaust fans)
 Combustion air inlet filter house (pulse cleaning, updraft type)
 Combustion exhaust system (currently there is no silencing on the combustion exhaust of
Mars 100 gas turbine)
 Associated suction scrubber, suction piping and discharge piping
B2 Compressor - centrifugal compressor driven by Titan 130 gas turbine and housed in an R20
insulated metal building. The associated equipment and systems include:
 Lubrication oil cooler housed in compressor building
 Compressor building ventilation system (wall vents and wall exhaust fans)
 Combustion air inlet filter house (pulse cleaning, updraft type)
 Combustion exhaust system (currently equipped with standard 14-foot Solar exhaust
silencer)
 Associated suction scrubber, suction piping and discharge piping
Primary Power Unit (PPU) – 350-kW generator set driven by CAT G3508 TAW reciprocating
engine housed in an R16 insulated metal building. The associated equipment and systems
include:
 External radiator
 Building ventilation system including (wall vents and wall exhaust fans)
 Engine exhaust system (equipped with hospital grade muffler)
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) – 250-kW generator set driven by CAT G3508 TAW reciprocating
engine housed in an R16 insulated metal building. The associated equipment and systems
include:
 External radiator
2.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Description
December 1, 2014


Building ventilation system including (wall vents and wall exhaust fans)
Engine exhaust system (equipped with hospital grade muffler)
The proposed Project is to add gas cooling to the Woodenhouse compressor station. This
includes the addition of five cooling bays for compressor A1, seven cooling bays for compressor
B2, and the replacement of the existing PPU and APU with two 600-kW CAT CG132-12 generator
sets. It is understood that during operation, APU will be on standby. All proposed modifications
and activities will be conducted within the existing legal land boundaries of the Woodenhouse
Compressor Station site.
2.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Methodology
December 1, 2014
3.0
3.1
METHODOLOGY
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE DESCRIPTORS
Environmental noise is typically not steady. To account for the time-varying nature of
environmental noise, a single number descriptor known as the continuous equivalent sound level
(Leq) is used. It is defined as a steady continuous sound level over a specified time interval that
has the same acoustic energy as the original time-varying sound. The recorded sound can be
“frequency-weighted” with A and C scales being the most common. The corresponding
weighted Leq values would then be expressed in dBA or dBC (A-weighted and C-weighted
decibels respectively). The A-weighted scale is based on relative loudness of sound at different
frequencies and is meant to reflect the human ear’s response to noise. The C-weighted sound
levels are commonly used in combination with the A-weighted levels to assess the low frequency
noise.
Periods used for Leq measurements and regulatory criteria under Directive 038 are daytime
(07:00 to 22:00) and nighttime (22:00 to 07:00). The daytime Leq is the 15-hour A-weighted energy
equivalent sound level and the nighttime Leq is a 9-hour A-weighted energy equivalent sound
level.
3.2
ALBERTA ENERGY REGULATOR DIRECTIVE 038: NOISE CONTROL
Alberta Energy Regulator Directive 038: Noise Control, published by the ERCB in February 2007,
defines a fixed limit on the amount of noise measured at a receptor location that may be
generated by energy-related facilities. A receptor is defined as a permanent or seasonally
occupied human dwelling. In remote areas, the receptor is effectively defined as any location
1.5 km from a facility fenceline. The noise limit for a receptor is set by calculating a Permissible
Sound Level (PSL) according to the procedures described in detail in Directive 038. For remote
locations, such as the Project, facilities are required to meet the nighttime PSL of 40 dBA at
1.5 km from respective fencelines. For the purpose of this noise assessment under Directive 038,
the Woodenhouse Compressor Station can be classified as being in a remote location as there
are no residences within 1.5 km from its PDA.
3.2.1
Determination of Ambient Sound Levels and Permissible Sound Levels
Detailed method for PSL determination is prescribed in Directive 038. The PSL is determined by
the following equation:
Permissible Sound Level (PSL) = Basic Sound Level (BSL) + Class A adjustment + Class B adjustment
3.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Methodology
December 1, 2014
Under Directive 038, the facilities in remote areas are required to meet the nighttime PSL of
40 dBA and the daytime PSL of 50 dBA, Leq. In such locations, no Class A or B adjustments are
applicable and therefore the Basic Sound Levels (BSL) are equal to PSL. Directive 038 advises
that the average nighttime ambient sound level (ASL) is 5 dB below the BSL listed in the Directive.
Correspondingly, the nighttime ASL were identified at 35 dBA at all receptors.
For daytime hours, a 10-dB daytime adjustment is applied. Daytime ASL is 45 dBA and daytime
PSL is 50 dBA. It should be noted that nighttime and daytime ASL as defined above are not
measured ambient sound levels but average levels (regulatory prescriptions) found in rural
Alberta and used when calculating cumulative sound levels. There is no significant nearby
presence of non-energy industrial facilities. Correspondingly, ASL prescribed by Directive 038 are
applicable at all receptors.
Table 3-1 provides a summary of ASL and PSL established for this assessment.
Table 3-1
Summary of ASL and PSL
Receptor
Locations at 1.5 km from
PDA (fence line)
3.2.2
Nighttime ASL
Leq (dBA)
Nighttime PSL
Leq (dBA)
Daytime
Adjustment
(dBA)
Daytime ASL
Leq (dBA)
Daytime PSL
Leq (dBA)
35
40
10
45
50
Low Frequency Noise Consideration
Directive 038 recommend that, in addition to the overall, A-weighted sound levels, an
assessment of low frequency noise (LFN) should be performed to gauge the community
response to noise in terms of annoyance and/or possible sleep disturbance. The conditions that
are required for LFN concern are:


A clear tonal component exists at a frequency below 250 Hz
The difference between the overall C-weighted sound level and the overall A-weighted
sound level exceeds 20 dB (i.e., dBC minus dBA > 20 dB)
The current Project is located in a remote area with no residential receptors present within the
LAA. Furthermore, the facility’s noise emissions were not observed or expected to have the
associated low frequency tonality. Correspondingly, the LFN noise effects need not be assessed.
3.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Methodology
December 1, 2014
3.3
ASSESSMENT APPROACH
This noise assessment used a method consistent with the requirements of Directive 038. The
approach used to assess the potential noise effects during normal operations of the Project is:
1. Define the PSLs and ASLs in accordance with Directive 038 for all receptors
2. Create a noise model based on the existing operation and Project facility’s layout and
equipment noise emissions
3. Predict noise levels at the receptors locations along the 1.5 km criteria boundary from the
facility’s fence lines
4. Determine cumulative sound levels for the Project at the identified receptors by combining
predicted sound levels with the established ASL
5. Assess compliance of cumulative sound levels with PSL
6. Evaluate the Project’s compliance with the AER Directive 038
3.3
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Methodology
December 1, 2014
3.4
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Computer Modelling
December 1, 2014
4.0
COMPUTER MODELLING
Sound propagation calculations used in this assessment were in accordance with ISO 9613 Part 1
and 2 Standards (ISO 1993; ISO1996). ISO 9613 is commonly used among noise practitioners and
is accepted by the AER. Calculations under ISO 9613-2 account for mild inversion and/or
downwind condition (winds from source to receiver of 3 to 11 km/h) and therefore calculations
under this standard meet the requirements of Directive 038 in regard to the meteorological
effects. The calculation parameters are summarized in Section 4.1.
Propagation calculation were performed using Cadna/A (v.4.2.1.140) computer program from
DataKustik, a noise modeling software package incorporating ISO 9613 algorithms.
The model accounted for the following factors:






Geometric spreading
Ground absorption
Screening effects
Atmospheric absorption
Noise sources characteristics – intensity, location, elevations and directivity
Atmospheric effects of downwind conditions and/or mild temperature inversion
4.1
MODEL PARAMETERS
The modelling parameters used in the assessment are summarized in Table 4-1 below:
Table 4-1
Summary of Noise Propagation Calculation Parameters
Model Parameters
Model Setting
Temperature
10 °C
Relative Humidity
70 %
Number of reflections
2
Propagation Standard
ISO 9613-1, ISO 9613-2
Ground Conditions and Attenuation Factor
Ground absorption (G) 0.35 inside the PDA and 0.85
outside PDA
Receptor Height
1.5 m above grade
Topography
not included, flat ground assumed
Foliage Attenuation
none (conservative)
Operating Conditions
Full Load, 100% Throughput
4.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Computer Modelling
December 1, 2014
Meteorological factors, such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, affect sound
propagation. Effects of wind and atmospheric stability on outdoor sound propagation during
various weather conditions can cause large variations in project-related sound levels when
measured at a receptor location. Upwind sound propagation, or propagation during unstable
atmospheric conditions, typically results in lower receptor levels, while downwind conditions and
stable atmosphere tends to increase receptor levels. ISO 9613 algorithms used in this assessment
simulate downwind propagation under a mildly developed temperature inversion (both of
which enhance sound propagation) and provide a reasonably conservative assessment of
potential effects.
The compressor station is set in a heavily forested area. Correspondingly, the ground absorption
constant G was set to 0.85 (soft, absorptive ground) outside of facility’s PDA and 0.35 (hard,
gravel) within the PDA.
4.2
PREDICTION ACCURACY
Overall prediction accuracy depends on two factors: the accuracy of the noise source data
and the accuracy of the sound propagation model.
The sound power levels for B2 compressor and the PPU were calculated using the diagnostic
measurements performed on site. Subsequently, the calculated sound power levels were
adjusted to reflect a full load condition using commonly accepted engineering methods. The
sound power levels for A1 compressor and the APU were calculated using the available vendor
noise data for the equipment and augmenting it with engineering calculations. At the time of
the measurements, the Titan 130 gas turbine (B2 compressor) was operating at approximately
75% load, the PPU was operating at 60% load. Mars 100 gas turbine (A1 compressor) and the
APU were not operating. The sound power levels for the new gas coolers were calculated using
equipment vendor noise data.
Overall, the established sound power levels are expected to be conservative by up to 2 dB.
The ISO 9613 sound propagation algorithms have a published accuracy of +/-3 dB over source
receiver distances between 100 m and 1000 m. The accuracy for the distances up to or over
1.5 km is not stated. The ISO 9613 model also produces results representative of meteorological
conditions enhancing sound propagation (e.g., downwind and temperature inversion
conditions). These conditions do not occur all the time, therefore, the model predictions are
expected to be conservative. The developed noise model was validated using the fenceline
measurements taken at compressor station during the diagnostic survey. The results from
validation showed the model to be conservative by 1 to 3 dB.
4.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Computer Modelling
December 1, 2014
Furthermore, to account for the level of uncertainty in the noise predictions, conservative
assumptions regarding the Project have been made where practical. These include the
assumptions that downwind conditions exist 100% of the time or that all normally operated
equipment operate at full load and 100% throughput during the night.
Overall, the predicted sound levels attributable to the Woodenhouse Compressor Station at the
far-field locations are expected to be higher than the actual sound levels.
4.3
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Computer Modelling
December 1, 2014
4.4
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Noise Mitigation Measures
December 1, 2014
5.0
NOISE MITIGATION MEASURES
The following noise mitigation measures are required to achieve the Project’s compliance with
AER Directive 038 and thus ensure that the Project’s noise effects are not significant.
1. Install combustion exhaust silencer on Mars 100 gas turbine (A1 compressor) with the
acoustic performance as shown below. The required performance can be achieved with a
standard Solar silencer for Mars 100 gas turbines.
Octave Band CF (Hz)
Required Dynamic Insertion
Losses (dB)
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
1
5
10
18
27
32
26
15
0
2. Limit the noise emissions from the new replacement PPU so that these do not exceed the
current PPU present on site with the overall noise emissions as shown below.
Sound Level Frequency Weighting
dBA
dBC
Maximum Permitted Overall Sound Power Levels for the
Replacement PPU and APU(dB)
109
115
The noise emission restrictions as shown above are feasible and can be practically achieved.
The maximum overall sound power level for the PPU and APU of 109 dBA is equivalent to the
sound level of 59 dBA at 122 m (400 feet).
5.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Noise Mitigation Measures
December 1, 2014
5.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
6.0
PROJECT NOISE EMISSIONS - MITIGATED
The sound power levels associated with the Project equipment – current and proposed - are
shown in Table 6-1 below. The sound power levels shown in the table were calculated on the
basis of the diagnostic measurements, equipment vendor data, and using commonly accepted
engineering methods for estimating machinery noise emissions (Bies and Hansen 2003).
Table 6-1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary
LEVELS AT OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES (Hz) / PWL
(dB re 1 pW)
Source
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
dBA
dBC
A1 Compressor and Associated Piping (current)
Unit A1 Compressor
Building Roof
121
118
105
102
99
93
97
94
77
103
121
Unit A1 Compressor
Building Walls
109
107
104
97
90
84
82
89
72
95
111
Unit A1 Compressor
Building Equipment
Door
99
96
94
86
78
70
70
79
66
85
100
Unit A1 Compressor
Building Exhaust Fans
101
101
93
80
75
73
73
77
62
83
103
Mars 100 Building
Ventilation Inlets louvers (1.0 mW X 1.3
mH)
94
93
93
90
86
82
82
92
80
95
99
Mars 100 Building
Ventilation Inlets louvers (1.8 mW X 2.6
mH)
99
98
98
95
90
87
87
97
84
99
104
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Exhaust
125
125
118
113
108
98
96
97
102
110
127
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Lube Oil Cooler
Discharge openings
108
106
102
97
94
90
85
79
74
96
109
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Lube Oil Cooler inlet
openings
106
105
101
97
94
90
86
81
77
96
108
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Exhaust Duct
Breakout
116
115
109
105
103
98
90
74
60
104
118
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Exhaust Stack B/O PWL
117
116
110
106
104
99
91
75
61
105
119
6.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
Table 6-1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary
LEVELS AT OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES (Hz) / PWL
(dB re 1 pW)
Source
Mars 100 Gas Turbine
Silenced Combustion
Air Inlet
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
dBA
dBC
109
111
110
101
74
53
54
79
65
97
114
Mars 100 Suction
Piping (building to
valve) for Unit A1
Compressor
95
91
88
89
90
92
93
83
76
97
99
Mars 100 Suction
Piping (valve to
ground) for Unit A1
Compressor
105
101
90
89
97
92
91
82
72
98
106
Discharge piping
(building to valve) for
Unit A1 Compressor
106
106
93
93
96
99
102
96
84
106
109
Discharge Piping
(valve to ground) for
Unit A1 Compressor
102
101
90
89
92
93
96
89
78
100
105
Discharge Piping
(yard) for Unit A1
Compressor
106
105
92
94
97
96
100
94
83
104
109
Inlet Scrubber for Unit
A1 Compressor
102
95
83
83
93
86
84
76
68
93
101
B2 Compressor and Associated Piping (current)
Unit B2 Compressor
Building Walls
115
111
104
101
96
95
90
92
78
100
115
Unit B2 Compressor
Building Roof
114
113
104
100
99
91
82
76
61
99
115
Unit B2 Compressor
Building Exhaust Fans
97
89
89
97
93
92
91
87
79
97
102
Unit B2 Compressor
Building Vent
Openings - Inlet Louver
with 2" filters
93
89
83
76
71
71
73
70
61
79
93
Titan 130 Gas Turbine
Exhaust
94
91
90
93
87
85
81
93
82
96
99
Titan100 Gas Turbine
Lube Oil Cooler inlet
opening
123
122
110
110
109
102
92
85
68
109
124
Titan 130 Gas Turbine
Lube Oil Cooler
Discharge Opening
101
99
93
88
86
84
80
84
73
90
102
6.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
Table 6-1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary
LEVELS AT OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES (Hz) / PWL
(dB re 1 pW)
Source
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
dBA
dBC
Titan 130 Gas Turbine
Silenced Combustion
Air Inlet
104
100
90
90
100
96
97
90
79
102
106
Titan130 Gas Turbine
Exhaust Stack
Breakout
102
99
95
92
92
91
88
88
79
96
104
Suction Piping
(building to raiser) for
Unit B2 Compressor
109
109
105
95
75
50
49
77
74
92
111
Suction Piping for Unit
B2 Compressor
96
92
90
92
95
99
101
94
86
105
105
Discharge Piping
(building to valve) for
Unit B2 Compressor
107
107
95
96
101
105
110
106
93
113
114
Discharge Piping
(valve to ground) for
Unit B2 Compressor
103
102
92
92
97
99
104
99
87
107
108
Discharge Piping
(building to valve) for
Unit B2 Compressor
106
104
92
95
100
100
106
102
90
109
111
Discharge Piping (yard
piping from main shutoff valve to mainline)
for Unit B2 Compressor
104
103
93
100
104
103
108
103
90
112
112
Inlet Scrubber for Unit
B2 Compressor
103
96
85
86
98
92
92
86
77
99
104
Prime Power Unit
Building Roof
91
94
94
87
83
79
76
71
62
86
98
Prime Power Unit
Building wall
96
99
99
92
88
84
82
76
68
91
103
Prime Power Unit
Building underside
89
96
96
90
83
81
77
68
58
87
99
Prime Power Unit
Building Exhaust Fans
(east wall)
95
101
98
95
93
93
90
83
78
97
104
102
96
91
95
87
89
87
80
67
94
102
PPU (current)
Prime Power Unit
exhaust muffler
6.3
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
Table 6-1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary
LEVELS AT OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES (Hz) / PWL
(dB re 1 pW)
Source
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
dBA
dBC
Prime Power Unit
exhaust Top of Stack
(TOS)
98
95
94
99
89
87
84
76
67
94
102
Prime Power Unit North
Ventilation Inlet (on
filter)
87
89
94
92
94
94
88
80
73
97
100
104
104
106
108
104
102
99
93
85
107
113
Auxiliary Power Unit
Building Roof
86
95
91
87
83
83
79
69
60
87
97
Auxiliary Power Unit
Building walls
91
100
95
91
88
87
84
74
65
92
102
101
101
104
106
102
100
97
91
82
105
111
Auxiliary Power Unit
Radiator Cooler
96
102
99
95
93
92
89
82
77
97
105
Auxiliary Power Unit
exhaust muffler
101
94
76
72
72
89
91
94
86
98
101
Auxiliary Power Unit
exhaust Top of Stack
(TOS)
97
93
79
76
74
87
88
90
86
95
98
Auxiliary Power Unit
South Ventilation Inlet
(on filter)
79
88
86
85
87
90
88
80
74
94
95
113
111
108
101
93
88
86
92
75
99
115
Prime Power Unit
Radiator Cooler
APU (current)
Auxiliary Power Unit
Building Exhaust Fans
(east wall)
Mechanical Skid (Current)
Mechanical Skid
Cooling Fans
Five Cooler Bays for Compressor A1 (Future)
Cooler Inlet
96
99
101
95
94
91
85
78
67
96
104
Cooler Discharge
94
100
100
93
92
88
81
74
62
93
104
Cooler Plenum
95
101
99
92
90
87
80
73
61
92
104
6.4
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
Table 6-1
Project Station Sound Power Level Summary
LEVELS AT OCTAVE BAND CENTER FREQUENCIES (Hz) / PWL
(dB re 1 pW)
Source
31.5
63
125
250
500
1000
2000
4000
8000
dBA
dBC
Seven Cooler Bays for Compressor B2 (Future)
Cooler Inlet
97
101
102
96
95
93
86
79
69
97
106
Cooler Discharge
95
102
101
94
93
90
82
75
64
95
105
Cooler Plenum
96
103
100
93
91
89
81
74
63
93
105
New PPU and APU (replacement, maximum allowed noise emissions – Section 5.0)
Replacement PPU
Overall Levels
108
109
109
110
106
104
101
94
87
109.0
115.5
Replacement APU
Overall Levels
108
109
109
110
106
104
101
94
87
109.0
115.5
The sound power levels for the sources shown in Table 6-1 are viewed as conservative and the
corresponding receptor sound level predictions are expected to be higher than the actual
levels.
6.5
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Project Noise Emissions - Mitigated
December 1, 2014
6.6
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Results – Mitigated Facility
December 1, 2014
7.0
RESULTS – MITIGATED FACILITY
7.1
ASSESSMENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH DIRECTIVE 038
The results presented in this section reflect the equipment sound power levels shown in Table 6-1
and the noise modelling parameters as outlined in Table 4-1.
In remote areas under Directive 038 requires that energy facilities comply with the nighttime PSL
of 40 dBA at a distance of 1.5 km from the Project’s fence line (PDA). Facility sound levels were
predicted along the entire1.5 km boundary around the compressor station. The location with the
highest predicted sound levels was identified and noise mitigation measures (Section 5) were
developed to ensure compliance with AER Directive 038. The corresponding combined sound
levels were determined by adding the facility noise to the established ambient sound levels.
Table 7-1 summarizes the maximum expected sound levels at 1.5 km from the compressor
station. The results presented in Table 7-1 demonstrate the Project’s compliance with Directive
038. The highest predicted sound level along the criteria boundary is 38.3 dBA. The noise
emissions from the facility were assumed to remain substantially constant and unchanged from
daytime to nighttime hours. Therefore, predicted facility contributions during the daytime and
nighttime are the same.
Table 7-1
Noise Effects for Project Operation and Assessment of Compliance
Ambient Sound
Level
(dBA)
Highest predicted
sound levels at
1.5 km from PDA
Facility Noise
Contribution
(dBA)
Combined
Sound Level
(dBA)
Permissible
Sound Level
(dBA)
Day
Night
Day
Night
Day
Night
Day
Night
Meets
Directive
038?
45
35
38.3
38.3
45.8
40.0
50
40
Yes
Figure 7-1 shows the predicted noise contour map for the facility. This confirms the facility’s
compliance with Directive 038 along the entire1.5 km criteria boundary.
7.1
678000
680000
682000
6268000
676000
6268000
674000
35d
6266000
6266000
A
dB
30
BA
4 0dB
35dBA
6260000
dB
A
6260000
30
6262000
6262000
30d
BA
6264000
BA
6264000
UTM mN
4 5d
A
674000
676000
678000
680000
682000
UTM mE
Legend
Terrain Elevation (m)
980
960
940
920
900
880
860
840
820
800
780
760
740
720
700
680
660
640
620
600
11/04/14
11/04/14
7-1
Predicted Existing and Project Noise Contour
NOVA Gas Transmission Limited
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Results – Mitigated Facility
December 1, 2014
7.2
ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS ON ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT
The addition of the Project’s residual effects to the residual effects from present facility and
licensed future projects will not result in adverse cumulative effects on acoustic environment. In
fact, the addition of the Project and the implementation of noise mitigation measures will result
in reduced noise emissions from the facility and thus reduced effects on the area’s acoustic
environment.
Currently, the combustion exhaust of Mars 100 gas turbine is unsilenced and it is the most
dominant noise source associated with the facility. Implementing the recommended noise
control measure for this source will substantially decrease overall noise emissions from the facility.
7.2.1
Significance of Residual Environmental Effects from the Project
With implementation of the mitigation and environmental protection measures, the Project
residual effects in the LAA are assessed to be not significant.
7.2.2
Significance of Residual Cumulative Environmental Effects
No overlaps are expected between the Project effects and the effects of other industrial
sources. The cumulative residual effects are assessed to be not significant.
7.3
PREDICTION CONFIDENCE
The noise assessment prediction accuracy (see Section 4.2) depends on two factors: the
accuracy of the noise source data and the accuracy of the sound propagation model. The
sound power level data used in this assessment are based on field measurements and
manufacturer’s data. The confidence in regard to noise source data is therefore high.
The noise propagation calculations were performed in accordance with ISO 9613 Par 1 and 2
standards (ISO 1993, ISO 1996). ISO 9613 standards are widely used by acoustic practitioner. The
confidence in the validity of sound level predictions using ISO 9613 algorithms is high.
The conclusion regarding the prediction of significance of residual effects on the acoustic
environment is therefore made with a high level of confidence. No additional risk analysis is
required to be conducted.
7.4
FOLLOW-UP AND MONITORING
Given the high confidence in effects assessment and the remoteness of the area, follow-up
monitoring is not required. Generally, the requirement for comprehensive sound level monitoring
at a receptor under Directive 038 is complaint-driven.
7.3
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Results – Mitigated Facility
December 1, 2014
7.4
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Conclusions
December 1, 2014
8.0
CONCLUSIONS
This assessment has been conducted to predict the noise effects associated with the
Woodenhouse Compressor Station Cooler Additions Project. Noise assessments have been
performed in accordance with the requirements of AER Directive 038. The sound level
predictions were based on the diagnostic equipment measurements performed during a field
visit in September 2014 to the Woodenhouse Compressor Station, equipment vendor noise data,
and the use of internationally accepted sound propagation algorithms.
The key findings of this noise effect assessment include:



Noise effects from the operations phase of the Project with noise emissions as detailed in
Section 6 and noise mitigation measures as specified in Section 5 were found to be in
compliance with the AER Directive 038 (AER 2007)
Addition of gas cooling to the station and the associated noise control measures required for
compliance will result in lower noise levels in the area and reduced noise effects
No adverse residual environmental effects of a change to the acoustic environment during
operation of the Project are expected
8.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
Conclusions
December 1, 2014
8.2
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
References
December 1, 2014
9.0
REFERENCES
Alberta Energy Regulator (AER). 2007. Directive 038 Noise Control. February 2007. Calgary, AB.
Bies and Hansen. 2003. Bies, D.A. and Hansen, C.H. 2003. Engineering Noise Control Theory and
Practice, Third Edition. New York, United States of America.
DataKustik (DataKustik GmbH). 2013. Cadna/A Computer Aided Noise Abatement Model,
Version 4.3.143. Munich, Germany.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1993. International Standard ISO 9613-1,
Acoustics Attenuation of Sound during Propagation Outdoors. Part 1: Calculation of
Absorption of Sound by the Atmosphere. Geneva, Switzerland.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1996. International Standard ISO 9613-2,
Acoustics Attenuation of Sound during Propagation Outdoors. Part 2: General Method of
Calculation. Geneva, Switzerland.
9.1
WOODENHOUSE COMPRESSOR STATION COOLER ADDITIONS PROJECT
NOISE TECHNICAL REPORT
References
December 1, 2014
9.2
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