Civil Defence Emergency Handbook

Civil Defence Emergency Handbook
8th edition
For enquiries or feedback, you may reach us via the contact details below.
Address
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91 Ubi Avenue 4, Singapore 408827
Telephone 6848 1524
Fascimile
6289 4401
Emailscdf_feedback@scdf.gov.sg
Websitewww.scdf.gov.sg
Copyright © 2016 Singapore Civil Defence Force. All rights reserved.
ii
Contents
2
3
CHAPTER 3
PEACETIME EMERGENCIES
FOREWORD
CHAPTER 1
FIRST AID
First Aid Kit 4
Bleeding5
Fractures6
Burns and Scalds 8
Fits9
Stroke10
Sprains11
Choking12
Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) 15
Automated External Defibrillator (AED) 20
CHAPTER 2
42 Ready Bag
44Stockpiling
45Lightning
46Floods
47Tremors
49Landslides
51 Power outage
52 Typhoons and tropical storms
54Tsunamis
56Earthquakes
58 If you are trapped under debris or rubble
59 If you encounter an unruly crowd
FIRE SAFETY
General tips on fire safety
Household fire safety checklist
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Gas leak
Smoke detectors
Fire Hazards at common areas
When a fire breaks out
Fire in a super high-rise residential building
Fire Extinguishers
Manual call points and hose reels
Escaping through smoke
Casualty evacuation
If you are trapped in a fire
If your clothes catch fire
Tips on preventing vehicle fire
If your vehicle catches fires
90
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
39
40
60
23
41
CHAPTER 4
WARTIME EMERGENCIES
61
63
64
69
Rationing and blood donation
Public Warning System (PWS)
Shelter protection
Defensive precautions
CHAPTER 5
TERRORISM
70
71 Chemical threats
74 Biological threats
77Anthrax
78 Bomb threats
81 In the event of an explosion
83 Dirty bomb threats
85 In-place protection procedures
88 Decontamination procedures
89 Public transport security
BE A COMMUNITY FIRST RESPONDER & MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN TIMES OF CRISIS.
1
Foreword
Dear Reader,
All of us have a part to play in emergency preparedness. Being
prepared may not stop all incidents from happening but it
allows us to respond effectively to emergencies and better
manage the consequences. Indeed, this forms the basis for the
Civil Defence (CD) Emergency Handbook which provides the
community with a handy reference to basic but essential lifesaving skills.
First introduced in 1990, the handbook remains a mainstay
in the SCDF’s public education programmes. To ensure the
handbook’s continued relevance, it is periodically reviewed and
the contents are updated to reflect the latest developments.
In this latest 8th edition, you will find new topics such as what
to do during a fire in super high-rise residential buildings, tips
to prevent a vehicle fire and what to do when you see a crowd
turning unruly. These and other useful emergency procedures
are vividly illustrated in the unfolding pages of this handbook.
The electronic version of the handbook is available for
download on the SCDF website as well as on mobile app stores
under the mySCDF mobile app. Essentially, life-saving skills are
now readily available at our finger tips while on the move.
I would like to encourage everyone to read the handbook and
familiarize yourself with the emergency preparedness skills
and knowledge. Another excellent platform in which you can
acquire civil defence skills is at the Emergency Preparedness
Centre (EPC). Located next to the SCDF Heritage Gallery within
the Central Fire Station, the EPC houses a slew of interactive
and visually stimulating exhibits. This includes its signature 3-D
state-of-the-art virtual reality simulator which offers visitors an
immersive experience of calamities such as earthquake and
tsunami and the safety measures to take in such situations.
2
At the EPC, you will learn how to use a fire extinguisher via a
simulator which discharges water onto a video wall depicting
a few fire scenes and also acquire skills on the CPR procedure.
In fact, I urge you to go one step further and acquire handson training by participating in the Community Emergency
Preparedness Programme conducted at the SCDF Division
Headquarters. With the acquired life-saving skills, you can
render prompt assistance to your loved ones, neighbours
and community during an emergency, prior to the arrival of
the SCDF. Your prompt intervention can prevent a situation
from escalating into a dire consequence and make that vital
difference between life and death.
I would also like to encourage trained members of the public
to download the myResponder mobile app and register
yourself as a Community First Responder to be alerted to
nearby cardiac arrest cases and nearest available AEDs. Even
if you are untrained, you can help to locate and retrieve the
nearest AED or be guided by the SCDF’s 995 call dispatchers to
perform chest compressions on cardiac arrest victims.
Be a Community First Responder to assist those in distress.
Together we can transform Singapore into “A Nation of
Lifesavers” and a best home for all of us.
Eric Yap
Commissioner
Singapore Civil Defence Force
CHAPTER 1
FIRST AID
4 First Aid Kit
5 Bleeding
6 Fractures
8 Burns and Scalds
9 Fits
10 Stroke
11 Sprains
12 Choking
15 Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
20 Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
3
Medical emergencies arising from illnesses and injuries can result
in death or serious complications if not treated immediately. You
can help save a casualty’s life if you are able to render proper
first aid on-site before medical help arrives. Remember, you
should dial 995 only if it is an emergency. Otherwise, dial 1777 for
non-emergency ambulance services.
3
First Aid
First Aid Kit
It is strongly recommended that each household be equipped with a first aid kit.
You can purchase one at a pharmacy. Remember to monitor the expiry dates of the
supplies in your first aid kit on a regular basis and replenish them when necessary.
The first aid kit should be placed somewhere easily accessible to adults yet out of
children’s reach.
EXAMPLES OF ITEMS IN A FIRST AID KIT
4
ITEM
USAGE
Tweezers
Pull out stings and other small foreign objects embedded
in the skin/wounds.
Scissors
Cut dressing and bandages.
Resuscitation face shield
Serve as a protective layer during CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary
Resuscitation).
Thermometer
Measure human body temperature.
Disposable gloves
Protect the rescuer from infection transmitted via blood
and bodily fluids.
Adhesive tape
Secure bandages.
Dressing
Protect the wound from exposure to dirt and other
sources of infection; types include first aid dressing, sterile
eye dressing, adhesive plasters and sterile gauze pads.
Bandages
Triangular bandages for slings and crepe bandages to
wrap around wounds (e.g. a cut on the arm).
First aid kit on a cabinet in the living room
Bleeding
1
2
3
Put on protective gloves or place a barrier between you and
the casualty’s blood.
If there are any foreign objects (e.g. glass fragments)
in the wound, do not press on the object. Avoid
applying direct pressure on the object by building up
padding around it before bandaging.
First Aid
TO STOP THE BLEEDING:
Check if there are any foreign objects (e.g. glass fragments) in
the wound.
If there are no foreign objects in the wound:
a. Elevate the injured arm or leg above the heart level.
b. Place a sterile gauze pad over it.
c.
Apply firm direct pressure on the wound using your palm
or fingers.
d. Secure it with a bandage.
Injured arm to be
raised above heart
level
5
First Aid
Fractures
A fracture is a crack in the bone. The skin over the fracture may be intact or torn.
SIGNS OF FRACTURES INCLUDE:
•
Pain and tenderness.
•
Unnatural shape or position of fractured part.
•
Immobility of fractured limb.
•
Swelling.
•
Bruising.
•
Open wound for open fractures, i.e. when the skin over the
fracture is torn.
TO TREAT FRACTURES:
1
2
3
3a
Closed fracture
Calm the casualty down.
Treat bleeding wounds, if any. For open
fractures, stop the bleeding (pg 5) and cover
the exposed bone.
Rest, support and immobilise the injured part in
a position most comfortable for the casualty.
If the casualty has a dislocated shoulder,
fractured upper arm, forearm or wrist, apply the
open arm sling as shown.
Open fracture
Two-step open arm sling
6
First Aid
3b
If the casualty has a fracture in the leg,
bring the uninjured leg (which acts as
a splint) to the injured leg.
Injured leg
Slide the bandages under both legs as shown, and
insert padding between the knees and ankles.
Bandage the legs together as shown and tie a knot on
the side of the uninjured leg.
Bandage above and
below fracture
Insert
padding
Slide bandages
under both legs
Knot on
uninjured leg
4
Figure-of-8
bandage at
ankles and broad
bandage at knees
Seek medical attention or dial 995 for an
ambulance.
7
First Aid
Burns And Scalds
A BURN IS SEVERE IF IT AFFECTS:
•
More than 5% of the casualty’s body surface, i.e. a surface area more than five times the size of casualty’s palm.
•
The casualty’s mouth, throat, eyes, ears and/or genitals.
TO TREAT A BURN OR SCALD, USE THE FOUR CS
Cool the affected part
under cold running water or
immerse it in cold water for at
least 10 minutes; for chemical
burns, wash off the chemicals.
Constricting accessories such
as bracelets, rings, watches
or clothing are to be gently
removed from the injured area
before it starts to swell.
Cover the burned/scalded
area with sterile dressing.
THINGS TO NOTE WHEN TREATING BURNS AND SCALDS
8
•
Do not apply toothpaste, lotion, ointment or fatty substance to the affected area.
•
Do not cover the affected area with cotton wool.
•
Do not break any blisters or remove anything that is sticking to a burn.
Consult a doctor if the burn/
scald is not severe; otherwise,
dial 995 for an ambulance.
Fits
SIGNS OF FITS
•
Uncontrolled movements or body spasms.
•
Casualty falling to the ground.
•
Clenching of teeth.
•
Rolling of eyes.
•
Incontinence or the inability to restrain the discharge of
urine of faeces.
•
Casualty falling asleep once the fits have subsided.
WHEN SOMEONE IS EXPERIENCING AN
EPISODE OF FITS
•
Keep dangerous objects out of the way (e.g. scissors and
other sharp items).
•
Do not restrict the movements of the casualty.
•
Do not place anything in the casualty’s mouth.
•
Treat any injuries once the fits are over.
•
Dial 995 for the casualty to receive medical attention.
First Aid
Fits are episodes of uncontrolled movements of the body.
9
First Aid
Stroke
A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is disrupted and it may lead to
long-term disability. It is therefore important to seek medical help as soon as
possible when someone collapses from stroke.
SIGNS OF STROKE
S
peech – Casualty is unable to speak
clearly or understand the spoken words.
Arms – Casualty is unable to raise both
arms upright.
F
ace – Casualty is unable to smile and
his eye or mouth may be droopy.
Good
Morning
DIAL 995 FOR AN AMBULANCE IMMEDIATELY IF YOU SUSPECT THAT
SOMEONE IS SUFFERING FROM STROKE.
10
Sprains
TREAT SPRAINS (AND STRAINS) USING R.I.C.E.
Rest the sprained joint.
I
ce or apply a cold compress to
the sprain.
First Aid
Sprains occur at joints and involve ligaments, the most common being
sprained ankles. A strain, however, is an injury to the muscles and
tendons especially when they are stretched.
Compress the sprained joint
using a bandage or soft padding.
Elevate the sprained joint.
11
First Aid
Choking
A fully obstructed airway can result in death within minutes if prompt treatment is not
given. Someone who is choking will display the universal sign of distress and he will
be unable to speak, breathe and cough.
Universal sign of
distress when choking
IF THE CASUALTY IS CHOKING WHILE CONSCIOUS, PERFORM THE HEIMLICH MANOEUVRE
1
Stand behind the casualty and place one leg between
the casualty’s legs, making sure the casualty’s legs are
shoulder-width apart.
2
Using one hand, locate the casualty’s navel using the
ring finger and place two fingers above the navel as
shown.
navel
3
12
Using your other hand, tuck your thumb into
your palm and curl your fingers into a fist.
Position your fist as shown and release the three
fingers while keeping the fist in position. Bend the
casualty forward and cover the fist with your other
hand.
6
5
Give five abdominal thrusts in an inwardsupwards motion and look out for any
foreign objects that fall out from the
casualty’s mouth. If nothing emerges from
the casualty’s mouth, continue to give
abdominal thrusts in sets of five (check for
any foreign objects that fall out from the
casualty’s mouth after each set) until the
foreign object is expelled or the casualty
falls unconscious, whichever is earlier.
First Aid
4
If the casualty falls unconscious, support and lay the casualty down. Position him on his back on a firm flat surface.
Shout for help, get someone to dial 995 for an ambulance and another person to get the Automated External
Defibrillator (AED). Start 30 chest compressions (pg 18, step 6). Perform head-tilt-chin-lift to open airway.
Pull down the chin to check for any foreign objects in the mouth. Remove any visible objects with a hooked index
finger of your other hand. Check for normal breathing.
If breathing is present, monitor breathing constantly until ambulance arrives. If not, attempt one mouth-to-mouth
ventilation (pg 19, step 9). If chest does not rise, re-position with the head-tilt-chin-lift procedure. Attempt second
mouth-to-mouth ventilation. If chest still does not rise, this means that the casualty’s airway is still chocked.
Repeat the above steps starting from chest compressions until you are able to give 2 successful mouth-to-mouth
ventilations with chest rise or when the casualty shows signs of life or when the ambulance crew arrives. Once
you can give 2 successful mouth-to-mouth ventilations with chest rise or when casualty shows signs of life, check
for breathing. If the casualty is breathing, monitor breathing constantly until the ambulance arrives. If there is no
breathing, perform Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and use the AED when available.
13
First Aid
Choking
IF THE CHOKING CASUALTY IS OBESE OR PREGNANT, PERFORM CHEST THRUSTS
1
Stand behind the casualty and place one
leg between the casualty’s legs, making
sure the casualty’s legs are shoulder-width
apart.
2
Slide both arms under the casualty’s arms,
make a fist with your thumb tucked in
(pg 12, Step 3) and position it against the
centre of his breastbone. Cover your fist
with your other hand.
3
Give five thrusts in an inward motion
and follow through steps 5 and 6 of the
Heimlich Manoeuvre (pg 13).
Position fist
and hand at
the centre of
breastbone
14
CPR
First Aid
CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) AT A GLANCE
CPR is a life-saving
technique used to rescue
casualties who have
collapsed from cardiac
arrest. When performed
promptly and correctly,
CPR may restore the
heart function and
increase the casualty’s
chances of survival. You are
encouraged to attend our
Community Emergency
Preparedness Programme
(pg 94) to gain a better
understanding of the CPR
procedure.
Re-check
casualty’s
breathing
!"#"$%&'"($")*+')&,"'"))(
<-)3-.#I(5+")('+#($")*+'5(
Dial 9951 for an ambulance
and retrieve AED
Perform Head-Tilt-Chin Lift
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2$"-#=&'B(
<-)3-.#I(&)((
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2$"-#=&'B(4+')#-'#.I(
-'5(H-&#(1+$(
-%23.-'4"(4$"H(#+(
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Perform CPR2 i.e. 30 chest
compressions followed by 2
breaths and repeat
sequence until AED/
ambulance crew arrives or
the casualty shows signs of
life
All SCDF 995 Operation Centre specialists are trained to provide telephone CPR Instructions. Follow the medical advice
and instructions given by the 995 specialists to administer the CPR procedure.
2
To be complemented by the use of AED when it is available.
1
15
First Aid
WHEN SOMEONE COLLAPSES FROM CARDIAC ARREST:
1
Tap the casualty on his shoulders and shout for his attention;
if the casualty is not responsive, proceed to Step 2.
Hello,
hello,
are you
OK?
16
2 Ask someone nearby to dial 995 for an ambulance and
another person to get the nearest available AED.
CPR
If the casualty is not lying flat on his back, reposition
him while supporting and turning his head, neck and
body at the same time.
5 Maintain an open airway for the casualty and place your
First Aid
3
ear over his mouth and nose. To assess for breathing:
•
Look for chest rise and fall
•
Listen for air escaping when the casualty
exhales
•
Feel for the flow of air from the casualty’s mouth
and nose
If the casualty is breathing, monitor his breathing
constantly and wait for the ambulance crew to arrive.
If the casualty is not breathing, proceed to Step 6 and
commence chest compressions.
4
Open the casualty’s airway by performing the head-tiltchin-lift manoeuvre as shown. This will lift the tongue
off the back of the throat.
17
First Aid
6
Using your hand closer to
the casualty’s feet, locate
the notch as shown by
tracing the lower edge
of the rib cage with your
middle finger. Place your
index finger next to your
middle finger and position
the heel of the other hand
on the breastbone to meet
the index finger as shown.
Trace the lower rib margin with
your middle finger.
7
18
Release the two fingers
and place this hand on top
of the other, interlacing the
fingers from both hands
to secure the position. The
fingers should be kept off
the chest.
CPR
Straighten both elbows
and position your
shoulders directly above
the casualty’s chest.
Lean forward and
use your body
weight to perform
the compressions.
9
Perform 30 compressions. The compressions should be
done at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute and each
compression should be at a depth of about 5cm.
(Note : Sometimes you may hear a cracking sound. Do not be
alarmed. The sound is caused by cartilage or ribs cracking. Even if
this occurs the damage is not serious. The risk of delaying CPR or not
doing CPR is far greater than the risk of a broken rib.)
First Aid
8
Give 2 mouth-to-mouth ventilations. Maintain a head-tiltchin-lift position to open the airway. Pinch the casualty’s nose
with your thumb and index finger to prevent air from escaping.
Seal your lips around the casualty’s mouth. Give 2 short breaths
quickly, one after the other. Observe the chest rise with each
breath. Release the nostrils after each breath. The duration for
each breath is 1 second.
Repeat this sequence of 30 compressions and 2 ventilations until
the ambulance crew arrives or when an AED is available or when
the casualty shows signs of life. After which, recheck the casualty’s
breathing, perform CPR and use AED, if necessary.
You may count the compressions in sets of 5:
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 and
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 10 and
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 15
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 20
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 25
1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 30
Visit SCDF’s ‘mySCDF’ mobile app for a video demonstration on
the CPR procedure and the application of AED (more information
on pg 91).
19
First Aid
AED
Defibrillation increases a casualty’s chances of survival in the event of a
cardiac arrest and it is the only treatment that can restart and restore a
normal rhythm to a heart that has stopped beating.
Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) have thus been installed in
Defibrillation
casualty’s
chances of
survival
in the event
of a
various publicincreases
premisesasuch
as community
clubs,
shopping
centres
and sports
council
to enhance
survival
rates and
of cardiac
cardiac
arrest
and itfacilities
is the only
treatmentthe
that
can restart
restore a
arrest victims.
havethat
alsohas
been
installed
at the lift lobbies of HDB
normal
rhythmAEDs
to a heart
stopped
beating.
blocks in six selected constituencies as part of a pilot initiative. There
are plans to eventually extend the installation across Singapore if
proven useful.
The AED is a computerised medical device that is capable of analysing
the casualty’s heart rhythm and directs the user to deliver an electric
shock AED
to the CANNOT
casualty. Upon
on THE
the AED,
the device will
THE
BEswitching
USED IF
CASUALTY
IS:read
out instructions on how to operate the AED, when to perform CPR and
when
to deliver
shock
the casualty.
Responsive
orahas
pulsetoand/or
breathing.
•
•
An infant below one year old.
Obviously
dead.
THE
AED CANNOT
BE USED IF THE CASUALTY IS:
•
For
aged
between
one to
eight years or weighing less than 25
Responsive
or has
pulse and/or
breathing.
• children
kg, paediatric defibrillation pads (which have reduced energy output)
An infant below one year old.
•
should be used. However, if there are no such pads, adult defibrillation
dead.
padsObviously
can still be
used on children.
•
For children aged between one to eight years or weighing less than 25
kg, paediatric defibrillation pads (which have reduced energy output)
should be used. However, if there are no such pads, adult defibrillation
pads can still be used on children.
20
First Aid
TO PREPARE THE CASUALTY
1
2
3
4
5
Paste the defibrillation pads onto the casualty’s bare chest; tear or
cut off any obstructing fabric if necessary.
Remove/push aside any jewellery or accessories on the casualty’s
chest. Remove any patches (e.g. medicated patch) if they interfere
with the placement of the defibrillation pads.
Place defibrillator pads
four fingers away from
pacemaker
Shave excess hair on the casualty’s chest to ensure that the
defibrillation pads stick well to the skin (Note: There is a
disposable shaver in the AED kit).
Dry the casualty’s chest area of any perspiration and moisture as
these can reduce contact between the defibrillation pads and the
skin.
If there is any pacemaker, place defibrillation pads four fingers
away from the pacemaker. In the meantime, ensure that
continuous CPR is performed on the casualty.
21
First Aid
AED
APPLY THE DEFIBRILLATION PADS (WITH
CPR IN PROGRESS):
•
Follow the instructions on the packet and remove the pads.
•
Peel off the backing and paste the pads as shown; ensure
they are pasted down well with no air pockets.
You may now turn on the AED. Follow the AED’s voice prompted
instructions and perform CPR (pg 16) as required until the
ambulance crew arrives or the casualty shows signs of life. Once the
casualty shows signs of life, check for breathing. If the casualty is not
breathing, continue with CPR and use the AED. If the casualty is
breathing, monitor his breathing constantly until the ambulance
crew arrives.
22
Paste the
defibrillation pads
onto the casualty
as shown.
First Aid
CHAPTER 2
FIRE SAFETY
4
2
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
39
40
General tips on fire safety
Household fire safety checklist
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Gas leak
Smoke detectors
Fire Hazards at common areas
When a fire breaks out
Fire in a super high-rise residential building
Fire Extinguishers
Manual call points and hose reels
Escaping through smoke
Casualty evacuation
If you are trapped in a fire
If your clothes catch fire
Tips on preventing vehicle fire
If your vehicle catches fire
23
Fires can cause major loss of lives and property if preventive
measures are not adopted. Learning to identify fire hazards and
removing them can minimise the risk of fires occurring.
23
23
Fire Safety
General Tips On Fire Safety
FIRE IS BEST PREVENTED BY ELIMINATING FIRE HAZARDS
•
Do not leave cooking unattended; turn off all the cooking appliances and unplug them when not in use.
•
Keep stove-tops, cooker hoods and ovens clean and free of grease.
•
Avoid wearing clothes with long loose sleeves when working near heat sources.
•
Keep flammable liquids (e.g. cooking oil and wine) and combustible materials (e.g. paper and batteries) away from heat sources
such as the stove.
•
Do not throw burning embers (e.g . hot charcoal) and cigarette butts into rubbish chutes without fully extinguishing them first.
•
Do not place window curtains or any combustible materials near praying altars, stoves or lighted materials.
•
Keep lighted candles away from paper or cardboard decorations, curtains and furnishings; they should be placed in stable
holders on heat-resistant surface so that they will not fall over.
•
Do not overload electrical outlets and always switch off electrical appliances when they are not in use.
•
Check for broken wires and exposed wiring; if any are found, have the wires replaced immediately.
•
Keep lighters, matches and candles away from children.
•
Children playing with sparklers must be closely supervised by adults; sparklers should be lit at arm’s length and unused ones are
to be sealed in boxes and kept away from heat sources.
FIRE IS BEST PREVENTED BY ELIMINATING FIRE HAZARDS
24
Household Fire Safety Checklist
Electrical wiring
and components
Flammable
materials and
sources of heat
Preparing your
home against
fire
Yes
No
Do all electrical plugs have the SAFETY mark?
p
p
Are all electrical outlets safely loaded with only about one to two
plugs per socket?
p
p
Are all switches off when equipment and appliances are not in use?
p
p
Are all wires in the house in good condition? (i.e. without broken
insulation and exposed wiring)
p
p
Are all wires laid in the open with none running under rugs, over
hoods and through door openings?
p
p
Are the television sets placed more than 50cm away from combustible materials?
p
p
Are candles and oil lamps placed on a stable surface with measures
taken to prevent them from being knocked over easily?
p
p
Are matches, lighters and sparklers kept away from heat sources and
children?
p
p
Are flammable liquids (e.g. cooking oil and wine) and combustible
materials kept far away from heat sources such as the stove, heat appliances, lit joss sticks and candles?
p
p
Are cooking appliances (e.g. cooker hood) and the stove clean, free
from grease and in good working condition?
p
p
Are flammable liquids kept in approved containers, clearly labelled
and stored in ways such that they cannot be knocked over easily?
p
p
Is the LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) cylinder kept in a well-ventilated
area?
p
p
Is the supply hose connecting the LPG cylinder to the stove/gas appliances in good condition, tightly fitted and without leakages?
p
p
Is the common corridor outside the house unobstructed by discarded
items (e.g. mattresses, furniture etc)?
p
p
Does your house have a PSB-approved fire extinguisher?
p
p
Do all of your family members and occupants of the house know what
number to dial in case of fire or other emergencies?
p
p
Fire Safety
HOUSEHOLD FIRE SAFETY CHECKLIST
If you answered ‘no’ to any
of the questions in the
checklist, it is recommended
that you rectify those areas
as soon as possible to
prevent fires from occurring
in your house.
25
Fire Safety
LPG
FOR SAFE HANDLING OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG)
•
Ensure
that your
LPG dealer conducts
the 5-point safety
check of (includesGAS
the hose,
•FOR
SAFE
HANDLING
OF LIQUEFIED
PETROLEUM
(LPG)
regulator, hose clips, cylinder and joints/connections) on your LPG system at least
once a year.
•
Always keep gas cylinders upright; never store them horizontally.
•
Keep the gas cylinder away from open flames, heat sources and electrical outlets.
•
Ensure that there are no naked flames nearby when changing the gas cylinder
•
Store no more than one spare cylinder at any time, and the spare should be kept
upright in a ventilated cabinet.
•
Keep windows open and the kitchen well ventilated while cooking; never leave
cooking unattended or place flammable items near the flame.
•
Turn off the gas supply at the regulator before leaving for overseas trips.
•
Replace the gas tubing/hoses upon the expiry dates marked on the tubing/hose and
replace the regulators every 5 years.
•
If you fail to ignite the stove after switching on the gas valve, it is advisable to turn off the gas valve and open all the doors and windows to ventilate the kitchen for a while before trying to ignite again. This will prevent ignition of the flammable LPG cloud that is surrounding you.
26
Purchase your LPG and PSB-approved accessories from authorised dealers.
Gas Leak
l
Put out all flames and turn off the gas stove, gas valves and regulators.
l
Open all windows and doors to ventilate the area.
l
Keep a safe distance from the gas leak area.
l
Do not use a naked flame.
l
Do not turn on/off any switches or appliances.
l
Do not use a cell phone in the vicinity.
l
Call your authorised dealer from a safe distance to report the gas leak immediately.
If you are using piped gas, call 1800-752-1800 from a safe distance.
Fire Safety
IF YOU SMELL A GAS LEAK:
IF YOUR WOK OR OTHER COOKWARE CATCHES FIRE
l
Cover it with a wet cloth and the fire will be extinguished; do not pour water into it
as the fire will spread.
l
Turn off the gas supply immediately.
27
Fire Safety
Smoke Detectors
28
In fatal fires, more people die from smoke inhalation than from burns. A smoke detector automatically emits an
alarm sound upon detection of smoke and will thus help increase your chances of surviving a fire.
TIPS ON SMOKE DETECTORS
•
Install smoke detectors on the ceiling near sleeping areas, the
kitchen and other places where fire is likely to occur.
•
Test your smoke detectors regularly based on the manufacturer’s
instructions.
•
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on cleaning the smoke
detectors regularly.
•
Ensure that smoke detectors have their batteries changed yearly
or when indicated by the device, whichever is earlier.
Fire Hazards At Common Areas
l
Stacked boxes and goods along corridors, escape passageways and staircases.
l
Discarded newspapers, furniture, cartons and other refuse at lift lobbies.
These fire hazards can also seriously hamper fire-fighting efforts, fire evacuation and conveyance of patients during
a medical emergency.
Fire Safety
You can make your environment a safer place to live and work in by looking out for fire hazards at common areas,
examples of which include:
If you are an owner, operator or part of the management of shopping centres, public entertainment premises and
supermarkets, avoid exceeding the permissible occupant load of your building as too large a crowd will adversely
affect evacuation procedures during emergencies.
IF YOU DISCOVER A FIRE HAZARD
You may report it to the SCDF via the:
l
Fire Hazard Reporting line at 1800 280 0000.
l
Fire Hazard Report Form available at www.scdf.gov.sg
on the top right hand corner of the homepage under
‘Feedback’.
l
Fire Safety Feedback module within mySCDF mobile app
(more information on page 91).
29
Fire Safety
When A Fire Breaks Out
IF YOU DISCOVER A FIRE
•
Do not panic.
•
Alert others of the fire by shouting.
•
Evacuate the room/area and try to get everyone out of the
premises without endangering yourself.
•
If possible, close the door of the affected room to contain the fire.
•
Dial 995 for the SCDF.
•
Turn off gas mains if you can reach them.
•
Activate the fire alarm at the nearest manual call point (pg 33).
•
Evacuate the building in an orderly manner via the stairs; do not
use the lift.
•
Do not return to the building until the authorities announce that it
is safe to do so.
Fight the fire only if you are able to and without endangering
yourself and others. Ways of extinguishing a fire include:
•
Using water on burning papers, wood and fabrics but never on
flammable liquids such as oil, as this will cause the fire to spread.
•
Using a suitable fire extinguisher (pg 32).
•
Using a hose reel (pg 33).
Note : As a rule of thumb, it is safe for occupants of residential
buildings to stay in their respective residential units with the windows
and doors closed unless they stay on the fire floor, or two floors
immediately above the fire floor. SCDF will conduct evacuation for
occupants from the fire floor and two floors above the fire floor.
30
Fire In A Super High-Rise Residential Building
Fire Safety
WHAT IF A FIRE BREAKS OUT IN A SUPER HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING?
A super high-rise residential building refers to a building with more than 40 storeys.
If the fire is small, extinguish it. Otherwise,
l Alert others.
l Dial 995 to inform SCDF.
l Activate the nearest fire alarm.
24
7
Always stay safe:
Do not use lift but evacuate the area via the exit stairs immediately. If you’re
too far from the first floor, proceed to the nearest refuge floor.
What is a refuge floor?
A refuge floor is a special floor that serves as a safe holding area so that residents
do not have to travel many floors down to leave the building in case of a fire.
The unique design of a refuge floor includes:
l
Natural ventilation.
l
Made of fire-resistant materials.
l
Generally one refuge floor is provided at an interval of not more than 20 storeys.
GENERALLY
at
EVERY
20
NATURAL
VENTILATION
You may identify a refuge floor by the sign “Fire Emergency Holding Area”
displayed on the wall immediately outside the staircase at the refuge floor
and inside the staircase.
FLOORS
REFUGE
FLOOR
What is a fire lift?
A fire lift is a special lift designed to support fire-fighting and firefighter-led
evacuation operations during a fire. Equipped with emergency power supply,
it could be manually operated by the SCDF firefighters during a fire emergency.
Super high-rise residential buildings should have at least two fire lifts. This requirement
was incorporated in the Fire Code in 2013. In the event of a fire, do not use any lift unless
you are guided by the firefighters or trained first repsonders. You should evacuate via the
exit staircases.
31
Fire Safety
Fire Extinguishers
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
TYPE
EFFECTIVE AGAINST FIRES INVOLVING:
Water
Combustible materials e.g. paper, cloth, wood, plastics etc; not to be used against oil fires as
this will cause the fire to spread.
Carbon dioxide
Flammable liquids and gases and live electricity; also used to fight fires involving
combustible materials.
Dry chemical powder
Similar to carbon dioxide extinguishers, but also effective against fires involving combustible
metals e.g. sodium, potassium and magnesium.
TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER, USE THE P.A.S.S. METHOD
P
ull out the safety pin as
instructed on the label.
Aim the nozzle at the base of
the fire.
Squeeze the lever.
S
weep the fire using the
extinguisher’s discharge.
It is recommended that each household has at least one PSB-approved Dry Chemical Power fire extinguisher weighing
1.5kg or more. Such a fire extinguisher can be used to extinguish many types of household incipient fires. The list of
authorised fire extinguisher dealers and servicing workshops are listed on the SCDF website@www.scdf.gov.sg (under
Building Professionals, Fire Safety Permit and Certification, Servicing Portable Fire Extinguishers).
Note: The SCDF is not linked to any fire extinguisher distributor and does not support the door-to-door sale of fire extinguishers.
32
Manual Call Points And Hose Reels
Fire Safety
In the event of a fire, break the glass of the nearest manual call point to activate the fire
alarm system that will be sounded throughout the building. This will alert all occupants
to the fire and prompt them to evacuate the premises.
To put out the fire, you may use a fire extinguisher or a hose reel.
TO OPERATE A HOSE REEL
1
2
3
When activated, the manual call
point will sound the fire alarm.
Turn on the hose reel valve in an anti-clockwise direction.
Pull the hose and run it to the fire.
Turn on the water at the nozzle and direct it at the base of
the fire.
To turn on the hose reel
Note: Timely evacuation is a fire situation is important. When the fire alarm is sounded, one should take it seriously and immediately evacuate the
premises.
33
Fire Safety
Escaping Through Smoke
34
In a fire incident, there are typically more casualties who suffer from smoke inhalation than burns.
IF YOU ARE IN A SMOKE-LOGGED ROOM
•
Cover your nose and mouth with a wet cloth and avoid inhaling through the mouth.
•
Get down, keep close to the ground and crawl towards the point of escape under the smoke.
Casualty Evacuation
HUMAN CRUTCH
FIREMAN’S LIFT
Used when the casualty is conscious and able to walk
with some assistance. Hold him firmly around the
waist and use your shoulders to support his arm while
allowing his body weight to rest on you.
Used for lightweight casualties. Stoop low, bend the
casualty over your shoulders and lift him up. Secure the
casualty’s leg with your arm as shown for more stability.
Fire Safety
When stretchers are not available or cannot be improvised, you may need to transport casualties by methods such
as those listed below. You are recommended to undergo our Community Emergency Preparedness Programme
(pg 94) for a better understanding on these casualty evacuation methods. You may risk injuring yourself and your
practice partner if you attempt the following on your own.
35
Fire Safety
36
PIGGYBACK
CRADLE
Used when the casualty is lightweight, conscious and
able to hold on to you.
Used when the casualty is a child or a lightweight adult.
Slip your arms beneath the casualty’s shoulder blades and
knees to ensure that casualty will be in the most
comfortable position.
If You Are Trapped In A Fire
2
3
4
Enter a safe room, preferably one which has open windows,
good ventilation and overlooks a road.
Shut the door behind you and seal the gap beneath the door
with a blanket, rug or other fabrics to prevent smoke from
entering the room.
Fire Safety
1
Go to the window, shout for help to alert others of the fire and
dial 995 for the SCDF if you are able to.
Stay calm and do not attempt to jump out of the building.
37
Fire Safety
If Your Clothes Catch Fire
STOP, DROP AND ROLL
1
3
38
Stop running and remain calm.
2
Drop to the floor immediately.
Roll over from side to side while covering your face with your hands to smother the flames.
Tips on Preventing Vehicle Fire
Primary cause of vehicle fires in Singapore is due to ignition sources such as:
lOverheating.
l
Electrical faults within the engine compartment.
EQUIP YOUR VEHICLE WITH A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
l
Most vehicle fires start smaII but develop rapidly due to the presence of flammables such as petrol, diesel and
lubricants.
l
Equip your vehicle with a fire extinguisher so that you can extinguish an incipient fire before it spreads.
l
For a step-by-step guide on how to operate a fire extinguisher, please see page 32 of this handbook, visit the
SCDF website @ www.scdf.gov.sg or download the ‘mySCDF’ mobile application.
Fire Safety
PRIMARY CAUSE OF VEHICLE FIRE
PREVENTIVE TIPS
l
Prevent your vehicle from catching fire by servicing it regularly at authorised vehicle workshops.
l
During each servicing session, do ensure that the vehicle’s electrical, engine and fuel systems are checked for
any defect.
l
Outside of the scheduled servicing period, you are encouraged to conduct visual checks for any sign of oil
leakage.
39
Fire Safety
If Your Car Catches Fire
WHEN YOU OBSERVE SMOKE OR FLAMES COMING FROM YOUR VEHICLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
40
Slow down, signal and drive to the side of the road.
Turn off the engine and evacuate from the vehicle immediately.
Dial 995 for help.
If there is a fire extinguisher in the vehicle, use it to put out the
fire while it is still small without putting yourself and others in
danger.
If the fire grows big, move away from the vehicle to a safe area
and wait for the arrival of the SCDF.
Warn oncoming traffic of the burning vehicle and keep
onlookers and others away from the fire.
Fire Safety
CHAPTER 3
PEACETIME EMERGENCIES
42
44
45
46
47
49
51
52
54
56
58
59
Ready Bag
Stockpiling
Lightning
Floods
Tremors
Landslides
Power outage
Typhoons and tropical storms
Tsunamis
Earthquakes
If you are trapped under debris or rubble
If you see a crowd gathering and turning unruly
41
Though most natural occurrences and disasters (e.g. floods,
lightning, storms and tsunamis) are beyond our control, we are still
able to increase our chances of survival by acquiring the necessary
knowledge and skills to ensure our safety in such emergencies.
39
41
Peacetime Emergencies
Ready Bag
42
The Ready Bag contains important items that will help you in an emergency and
you should bring it along with you when you are required to evacuate your home.
Every member of your family should know where the Ready Bag is kept and it is
recommended that its storage location is easily accessible even in the dark (e.g.
during power outages).
THE READY BAG SHOULD CONTAIN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS:
ESSENTIAL ITEMS
USAGE
Torchlight without batteries
In case of power outage and when evacuating in the dark.
Batteries
For powering the torchlight and radio; pack extra batteries and do not fit batteries
into the devices until needed, as leaving them there may result in leakage or rust.
Essential personal medication
For any existing medical condition of yours and your family, e.g. asthma, heart
problems etc.
Waterproof folder containing photocopies of important
documents e.g. NRIC, insurance policies
For administrative purposes should the original documents be destroyed in the
fire/emergency.
Whistle
To call for help or alert others; shouting may be tiring, ineffective and may even
cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of smoke and dust in some cases.
First aid kit
To treat any minor injuries.
Childcare supplies and other special care items
To meet the needs of any special individuals in the family, e.g. infants.
N95 Mask
To protect you and your family from excessive exposure to from pollutants and
air-borne infections. Please see link https://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/
home/pressRoom/Current Issues/2014/haze/faq--use-of-masks-and-availability-ofmasks.html for more information on the use of N95 mask.
•
A list of personal contact numbers, including telephone numbers of family members.
•
Cash.
•
Bottled water and dry foodstuff.
•
A set of spare clothing, e.g. T-shirt and track pants.
•
A list of emergency numbers, e.g. 995, 999, telephone numbers of the utility companies, insurance companies etc.
POINTS TO NOTE ON THE READY BAG:
•
You may have more than one Ready Bag, e.g. one for each
family member.
•
Do not pack bulky items into the Ready Bag as it may hamper
movement during an emergency.
•
Check expiry dates of perishable items in the bag and replace
them when needed.
•
Periodically replace batteries with new ones and do not place
them inside devices e.g. torchlight.
Peacetime Emergencies
OPTIONAL ITEMS FOR THE READY BAG INCLUDE:
The Ready Bag should
be portable and not too
heavy or bulky.
43
Peacetime Emergencies
Stockpiling
Stocking up on essential food items can help you and your loved ones survive an emergency. Routinely stock up on
items according to your needs and preferences and replace those which have expired. The quantities should last for
two weeks’ consumption and they will vary depending on the size of your family.
ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF FOODSTUFF PER PERSON FOR 2 WEEKS
Rice and oil
Canned food
Dry rations
Beverages
44
•
3kg of rice
•
1 bottle of cooking oil
•
14 assorted cans of vegetables, meat, fish and beans
(about 400g per can)
•
2 packets of assorted biscuits (about 210g each)
•
15 packets of instant noodles
•
1-2 tins of milk powder (dependent on age of infant)
•
1 packet of sugar (500g)
Lightning
IF YOU ARE AT HOME
IF YOU ARE IN THE OPEN
•
•
Do not stay on high ground.
•
Seek shelter in a building or vehicle;
if that is not possible, seek shelter in a
low-lying area such as a thick growth of
small trees and crouch into a ball on the
ground.
•
Do not ride on a bicycle, motorcycle or
golf cart; if you are travelling on them,
get off them as soon as possible and
seek shelter.
•
Spread out if you are in a group.
•
Avoid holding metal objects and
standing under tall trees or near metal
fences, pipes and rails.
•
Avoid using handphone, electrical
appliances and electronic equipment.
•
Head for shore if you are in open water.
Avoid taking a shower or bath; plumbing
and bathroom fixtures can conduct
electricity.
•
Avoid using a corded telephone unless
it is an emergency; cordless and mobile
phones are safe to use.
•
Unplug electrical appliances and other
electronic items e.g. computers; power
surges caused by lightning can damage
these items.
Peacetime Emergencies
When there is a thunderstorm, stay indoor by seeking shelter in your home, in a building or vehicle and stay away from
metal objects and fixtures.
45
Peacetime Emergencies
Floods
46
When there is a flood, move to higher ground.
IF YOU ARE AT HOME
IF YOU ARE IN A VEHICLE
•
•
Be alert to signs of flooding.
•
Do not drive around barricades as they are
put up for your safety.
•
If the vehicle stalls in rapidly rising waters,
abandon it immediately and try to get to
higher ground.
•
Do not walk through moving water as a mere
15cm high of moving water can make you fall;
if you must, use a stick to check the firmness
of the ground in front of you and try to walk
in stagnant water.
•
Dial 995 for the SCDF or 999 for the Police if
help is needed.
•
•
Stay put but grab your Ready Bag (pg 42) and
be prepared to evacuate immediately when
advised to do so by the authorities.
If you think that it is dangerous to remain
at home, dial 995 or 999 (giving your name
and address) and evacuate immediately,
moving to higher ground away from open
areas, streams and storm drains.
Tune in to the local radio stations for updates
from the authorities.
Tremors
IF YOU ARE INDOORS
1
2
3
4
5
Keep calm and stay away from windows, display shelves,
lighting fixtures or anything that may fall on you and cause
injury.
Take cover under a sturdy table, preferably made of wood or
other strong materials.
When the tremors stop, get out from under the table and
switch off all gas and electrical appliances; do not touch any
damaged electrical wiring.
6
If there are new cracks:
a. Call the Building & Construction Authority (BCA) at 6325 7191
or 6325 7393 if you are in a non-HDB building;
Do not use matches on other naked flames as there might be
a gas leakage caused by the tremors. Dial 1800 752 1800 to
report a gas pipe leakage if you smell one.
Check your surroundings for any new cracks and other
structural defects on building elements such as walls, columns
and beams. Evacuation is only necessary when there are visible
signs of structural defects on building elements (e.g. new
cracks).
Peacetime Emergencies
To date, tremors felt in Singapore have all been due to earthquakes in the region and there are no records of a tidal surge
affecting the island. The Meteorological Services Division, the SCDF and the Police will take immediate action should there
be indications of such ground movements posing a threat to Singapore.
b. Call the Essential Maintenance Service Unit (EMSU) serving
your area; if you are in a HDB estate, the number can be
found at the lift lobby.
7
8
Tune in to the local radio or television stations for updates on
the tremor situation.
Avoid dialling 995 or 999 to prevent the jamming of
emergency lines; call the SCDF or Police only if there is an
emergency.
47
Peacetime Emergencies
IF YOU ARE OUTDOORS
1
2
3
Stay away from buildings and overhead electrical cables.
Remain in the open until the tremors stop.
IF THERE IS A NEED TO EVACUATE
1
2
3
If you are driving, stop as soon as it is safe and
remain in your vehicle. Avoid stopping near trees,
buildings, bridges, overpasses or overhead electrical
cables.
4
5
6
48
Switch off all lights and electrical appliances.
Turn off all gas appliances and taps.
Gather family members together.
Grab your Ready Bag(s).
Lock up your house.
Leave the building in an orderly manner via the staircases;
do not use the lifts.
Landslides
SIGNS OF SLOPE FAILURE
•
New cracks in and bulging or misalignment of the earth.
•
Tilted trees, fences and utility poles along slopes.
•
Accumulation of water behind retaining walls or new locations of water
breaking through the ground surface.
•
Erosion or washing away of vegetation and top soil on the slope.
•
Upheaval of ground at or near the bottom of the slope.
Peacetime Emergencies
Landslides are typically preceded by irregularities in slope profile. Should you notice any signs of slope
failure listed below, it is recommended that you engage a professional engineer to inspect, assess and
recommend solutions to rectify the problem.
WHEN A LANDSLIDE OCCURS AND DEBRIS FLOWS
•
If it is safe to do so, turn off gas, electricity and water
supplies as they may cause additional damage.
•
Inform your neighbours.
•
Grab your Ready Bag(s) and evacuate immediately if it is
safe; move out of the path of the landslide.
•
If you are driving, be especially alert and look out for
collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks and other signs of a
possible debris flow.
•
If you or others are trapped, dial 995 or 999 and if possible
tune in to the radio or television for updates on the
landslide situation.
•
Wait for rescue and stay calm and alert.
49
Peacetime Emergencies
50
AFTER A LANDSLIDE
•
Stay away from the affected area, building structures and electrical cables as there may be more landslides.
•
Direct rescuers to the locations of injured and trapped persons near the affected area; do not enter the hazard area.
•
Dial 995 or 999 to report any emergencies.
•
Seek clearance and follow instructions from relevant authorities before returning to affected houses.
•
Report structural defects to the:
• Building&ConstructionAuthority(BCA) at 6325 7191 or 6325 7393 for non-HDB buildings.
• EssentialMaintenanceServiceUnitforHDBblocks;thetelephonenumbercanbefoundattheHDBblock’sliftlobby.
•
Tune in to the radio or television for updates on the situation.
•
Replant damaged ground as soon as possible to reduce the risk of flash floods and recurring landslides.
Power Outage
WHEN A POWER OUTAGE OCCURS
•
Retrieve your Ready Bag, turn on the torchlight and tune in to the
battery operated radio for updates on the situation.
•
If people are trapped in the lift during a power outage:
• Donotdial995or999unlessthereisalife-threateningsituationora
need for the emergency medical services.
• For HDB estates, call the Essential Maintenance Service Unit for help
(the telephone number can be found at the lift lobby).
• Forcondominiumsandnon-HDBbuildings,callthemanagementoffice.
•
If you are trapped in the lift, stay calm, press the alarm button and
wait for help to arrive; do not attempt to force open the lift doors.
•
If you are driving and the street lights go off, keep your
headlights turned on at all times and drive slowly.
Peacetime Emergencies
It is recommended that you pack a torchlight, radio and spare batteries in your Ready Bag (pg 42)
in case of power outages. Matches and candles are not advisable as they may be difficult to handle
without adequate lighting. The Ready Bag will therefore need to be stored somewhere easy to reach
even in the dark.
51
Peacetime Emergencies
Typhoons And Tropical Storms
52
Avoid travelling overseas during the typhoon season of your destination country. It is recommended that you keep
yourself updated on the country’s weather watch to avoid being caught in a typhoon or tropical storm while outdoors.
You may also wish to stock up on food and water in the event that you are trapped indoors due to a storm.
WHEN A TYPHOON OR TROPICAL STORM STRIKES IN YOUR AREA
•
Evacuate if directed by local authorities; otherwise, seek
shelter indoors immediately.
•
Secure or move outdoor items such as toys, bicycles,
potted plants and heavy objects into the apartment and
away from the windows.
•
Close all doors and windows; draw the curtains across
windows to minimise glass fragments from flying in should
the windows shatter.
•
If a window breaks, place a mattress against the broken
pane and push a piece of heavy furniture against it.
Get hold of a torchlight and a first aid kit to prepare for any
possible power outage and injuries cause by the storm.
•
Set your freezer to its lowest temperature to minimise food
spoilage in the event that the power supply is cut off.
•
Tune in to a portable radio for updates on the situation.
•
If possible, check for fire, electrical and gas hazards (pg 25)
within the apartment during the storm.
•
If the storm becomes severe, move to an area in the apartment
which is least exposed to external glass windows and lie down
or hide under a sturdy table.
•
Do not step outdoors when the storm appears to have
stopped; the winds may pick up again after a short period of
calm.
•
When the storm is declared to be over, check for broken glass,
fallen trees, broken power cables and other hazards in your
area.
•
Dial for the area’s emergency ambulance if there are cases of
severe injury.
Peacetime Emergencies
•
53
Peacetime Emergencies
Tsunamis
Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes in the sea that induce movements in the sea floor. The risk of
Singapore being affected directly by a tsunami is very low due to the protection provided by surrounding
landmasses such as Peninsular Malaysia in the north and Borneo in the east. Nonetheless, Singapore
has established a seismic monitoring system since the mid 1990s which is managed by the Meteorological
Services Division, to alert its population to such an emergency situation.
WARNING SIGNS OF AN INCOMING TSUNAMI
•
Tremors and ground movements at the beach or near the ocean.
•
Sudden receding of the shoreline and sea level, sometimes by a kilometre or more.
shore
sea
54
•
Once you experience either or both warning signs of an incoming
tsunami, run to higher ground immediately; do not approach the
beach to investigate or wait for the tsunami warning to be given.
•
If you are advised to evacuate, do so immediately.
•
Do not stay in low-rise buildings in the coastal area if a tsunami
warning is activated.
•
Move inland quickly to higher ground; if there is no time for that, seek
refuge in the upper floors of high-rise, reinforced concrete buildings.
•
If you are on a boat or similar vessel that is far from the shore, move it
out to deeper waters; if you are near the pier, it may be safer to leave
the vessel there and move to higher ground.
•
Do not assume that it will be safe to go out into the open after the first
wave as there may be subsequent waves.
Peacetime Emergencies
IF YOU ENCOUNTER A TSUNAMI
55
Peacetime Emergencies
Earthquakes
During earthquakes, most injuries occur when people attempt to leave or move around buildings while the earth is
still shaking. In fact, collapsing walls, flying glass and falling objects are the greatest causes of injury and death during
earthquakes. While Singapore does not experience earthquakes, it is important that you follow the guidelines below to
increase your chances of survival should you encounter an earthquake overseas.
IF YOU ARE INDOORS
IF YOU ARE OUTDOORS
•
When the shaking starts, drop to the ground
and take cover under a sturdy table or furniture
immediately; hold on until the shaking is over.
•
Minimise your movement and stay away from
buildings, street lights and utility wires.
•
Stay put in the open until the shaking stops.
If no furniture is available to serve as shelter, move
to a safe place nearby (e.g. an inside corner of a
building or an interior wall away from windows,
mounted shelves or anything that can fall and hurt
you) and crouch down while covering your face and
head with your arms.
•
If you are driving:
•
•
Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you are sure
that it is safe to exit; if you must leave the building
after the shaking stops, do not use the lifts in case of
aftershocks, power outage or other damages.
• Stop as soon as it is safe and away from
buildings, trees, overhead bridges and electrical
cables.
• Stay in the vehicle and tune in to the radio for
situation updates.
8
Crouch down in a
safe place while
covering your face
and head.
56
Do not use the
lifts as they may
malfunction due to
aftershocks.
Peacetime Emergencies
WHEN THE EARTHQUAKE HAS STOPPED
•
Expect aftershocks any time from the next few hours to even months after the
initial shockwave; each time you feel one, crouch down beside a safe interior
wall or an inside corner and cover your face and head with your arms.
•
Do a quick check in your area for damage and get everyone to evacuate if
there are visible structural defects.
•
Help injured and trapped people, if any, and dial the local emergency services
number for assistance and direct rescuers to them.
•
If possible, turn off the gas and electrical mains and be alert to smells of gas
leakage, spilled chemicals and flammable liquids.
•
Look out for signs of fire; put out small fires if possible.
•
Beware of fallen power lines or broken gas pipes and stay out of damaged
areas and buildings.
•
Tune in to the radio for updates.
Do not move around while the
earth is still shaking.
57
Peacetime Emergencies
If You Are Trapped Under Debris Or Rubble
58
TO ENHANCE YOUR RATE OF SURVIVAL:
•
Crawl under a sturdy piece of furniture (e.g. a desk or
bed) which will provide you with breathing space and
protection against falling object. If that is not possible,
brace yourself against an interior wall devoid of glass
windows or mounted shelves and try to use blankets,
boxes and other similar materials for protection against
glass fragments and light debris.
•
If possible, move away from unstable areas and objects,
and put on a pair of sturdy shoes to protect your feet
from broken glass.
•
Stay put if you are in a safe area; do not attempt to use
the stairs or elevators as you will be exposing yourself to
dangers such as falling debris, damaged stairways and
power outages in elevators.
•
Do not turn on light switches or light up matches, fires
and gas stoves unless you are sure that there are no gas
leaks.
•
Be calm, alert and responsive to calls from the rescuers.
•
Do not shout unnecessarily as you may inhale dangerous
amounts of dust while weakening yourself.
•
If possible, use a whistle, torchlight or tap on a pipe or
wall to attract the rescuers’ attention.
•
If you are pinned down by debris, periodically move
your fingers and toes to promote blood circulation and
prevent blood clots.
•
Keep your spirits high by thinking of your loved ones.
•
Consume food and water from the refrigerator if it is near
you; look out for shattered glass and other debris if you
need to eat and drink from an open source within the
debris.
If you encounter an unruly crowd
If you see a crowd gathering and turning unruly
l
Stay calm and move away from the crowd.
l
Do not approach or confront the crowd.
l
Dial 999 immediately and report it to the Police, provide details such as:
a. Crowd size (how many people are gathering?)
b. Crowd activity (what is the crowd doing?)
c. Location of incident (where is the crowd gathering?)
d. Further description of the crowd (E.g. What is the mood of the crowd? Are the people in the
crowd carrying weapons?)
l
If you are injured and require medical attention, dial 995 for the SCDF.
Peacetime Emergencies
UNRULY CROWD
59
WARTIME EMERGENCIES
1
6
63
64
69
Rationing and blood donation
Public Warning System (PWS)
Shelter protection
Defensive precautions
60
Peacetime Emergencies
CHAPTER 4
When disasters strike, our daily lives will be disrupted and essential
goods and services may not be easily available. When that happens,
emergency procedures will be put in place to help you obtain
basic supplies so that life can carry on as normally as possible.
Your chances of survival, however, may be greatly affected if you are
unfamiliar with the emergency procedures. Take the opportunity
to learn these procedures when the SCDF and other government
agencies conduct an Emergency Exercise in your constituency.
60
57
Rationing And Blood Donation
When water supply is disrupted, distribution points will be set up near your home. You will need to bring
your own containers (e.g. pails and bottles) to the nearest distribution point and collect the water in an
orderly manner.
FOOD AND FUEL RATIONING
To obtain and use your food and fuel ration coupons:
1
2
3
You will first receive a Registration Notice (for food
coupons) and, if applicable, a Notification Card (for fuel
coupons).
Wartime Emergencies
WATER RATIONING
Bring the Registration Notice or Notification Card and
your family’s identification documents (e.g. NRIC or birth
certificates) to your designated centre(s) to collect your
coupons.
Use the coupons to purchase rationed food items or
fuel from licensed retailers. Before using the food coupons,
you will need to fill in the names and
NRIC numbers of every member in
your household on each coupon.
61
Wartime Emergencies
62
BLOOD DONATION
Blood is vital in treating various illnesses and injuries, and its demand is expected to rise sharply
during wartime. As such, we encourage you to go forth and donate blood if you are able to.
When you hear the appeal to give blood during wartime, bring along your NRIC to the nearest
blood donation centre for registration and a medical professional will attend to you.
Public Warning System
SIGNAL
HOW IT SOUNDS
SITUATION
WHAT YOU NEED TO DO
Alarm
Wailing blasts
An air raid or danger is
approaching
Move to a Civil Defence
shelter immediately
All Clear
Continuous blasts
The threat is over
Leave the shelter in an orderly manner
Pulsating blasts
An “Important Message”
broadcast will be aired via
the local free-to-air radio
and TV stations
Tune in to any local free-to-air
FM radio stations and TV stations
immediately
Important Message
Wartime Emergencies
The Public Warning System (PWS) is a network of sirens placed by the SCDF at
strategic points across Singapore to warn the public of imminent threats that
may endanger lives and property. The PWS will be used to warn the public of
military attacks and disasters, both natural and man-made. The table below
shows the different PWS signals and what you should do when you hear them.
NOTE:
•
To listen to an audio recording of the various PWS signals, log on to www.scdf.gov.sg under Community & Volunteers,
Learn Civil Defence, Wartime Emergencies, Public Warning System.
•
The “Important Message” signal is typically sounded island-wide on 15th February (Total Defence Day) and on 15th September
each year. When you hear the signal, please tune in to the local free-to-air FM radio station and TV stations for an “important
message” broadcast from the SCDF.
63
Wartime Emergencies
Shelter Protection
HOUSEHOLD AND STOREY SHELTERS
Household and storey shelters are the primary form of sheltering the civilian population during a Wartime
Emergency.
Household Shelters refer to those inside individual dwelling units, e.g. HDB flats, while Storey Shelters are
larger versions of Household Shelters and they are located in a common area on every storey. In some residential
developments, the enclosed exit staircase is designed to double up as the Storey Shelter. During a wartime
emergency, the SCDF will inform residents to prepare their Household and Storey Shelters for occupation by:
1
2
3
64
Removing all temporary fixtures and shelves inside the shelter.
Closing and sealing the two ventilation openings (see next page).
Equipping the shelter with a telephone, television and radio.
Shelter Protection
Aside from the lighting, power, telephone and television/radio
points provided in the Household and Storey Shelters (except
staircase storey shelter), there are two ventilation openings in
shelter wall(s).
DURING PEACETIME
•
Leave at least 25% of the ventilation opening uncovered in case
anyone gets trapped inside the shelter.
Wartime Emergencies
VENTILATION OPENINGS
DURING A WARTIME EMERGENCY
•
Using ordinary household tools, close both ventilation openings
tightly with the steel plates provided to ensure that the shelter
is airtight; this will protect you and your family from inhaling
contaminants from the outside.
•
With both ventilation openings closed tightly, you can stay inside the
shelter for several hours; the actual duration of stay will depend on
factors such as the number of people in the shelter as well as their
age, gender and physical condition.
•
Should there be a need for you to lengthen your stay or
accommodate more people in the shelter, the SCDF will inform you to
affix specified equipment to the opening to improve ventilation.
65
2
3
Turn off all gas and water supplies before heading to the
Shelter.
Bring in your Ready Bag(s) and items such as water and food for
your stay in the shelter.
Move quickly and calmly into the shelter and close the door.
66
WATER
1
WATER
Wartime Emergencies
ONCE THE SHELTER IS PREPARED
4
5
Sit away from the door and walls of the shelter and do not lean
on them.
Tune in to the local free-to-air radio/TV stations for important
messages issued by the SCDF; you can leave the shelter once
the “All Clear” PWS signal is sounded (pg 63).
Shelter Protection
Public Shelters are built in places such as underground Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
stations, HDB void decks, schools, community centres and government buildings.
To identify a public shelter, look out for the Civil Defence shelter sign. The locations
of public shelters can be found at www.onemap.sg under “SCDF Facility”.
A Civil Defence
Shelter sign
Shelter
WHEN YOU ARE NOT AT HOME AND YOU HEAR THE “ALARM” SIGNAL
1
2
3
4
5
Move fast towards your nearest Public Shelter but do not push;
if you are in a vehicle, park it at the side of the road, lock up and
head for the nearest shelter.
Wartime Emergencies
PUBLIC SHELTERS
Follow directions given by SCDF personnel.
If you are with your family, move as a unit to avoid anxiety and
help the handicapped, children and the aged.
Do not bring bulky items and flammable substances into the
shelter.
If you are unable to find a Public Shelter within a few minutes after
the “Alarm” signal has sounded, you may seek shelter in a tunnel,
underpass, underground basement, ditch, drain culvert or even an
open drain.
67
Wartime Emergencies
ONCE INSIDE THE PUBLIC SHELTER
1
2
3
4
5
Move in towards the centre of the shelter and do not block the
entrances and passageways.
Stay together as a group and do not wander around.
Do not start a fire to cook meals.
Keep quiet and listen to the radio and television announcements
made by the SCDF.
Inform SCDF personnel if you encounter any problem.
LEAVING THE PUBLIC SHELTER
1
2
3
68
Leave the shelter only when directed by the authorities.
Move as a family unit.
Be patient; do not push and rush.
Defensive Precautions
Although we cannot prevent the use of weapons (e.g.
bombs and other projectiles) that cause damage during
wartime, there are measures we can take to minimise
damage to property, such as:
•
Reinforcing all glass surfaces with tape to reduce shattering.
•
Removing all objects hanging on the walls and sitting on
balconies and windowsills.
BLACKOUT MEASURES
Wartime Emergencies
PREVENTING DAMAGE
While a total blackout cannot prevent enemy air raids or
shelling, it can reduce the enemy’s ability to identify and
pinpoint targets. Blackout measures include:
•
Switching off all exterior lights.
•
Covering all outlets of interior light such as windows and
doors with curtains.
•
Covering vehicle headlights with black tape while leaving only
a small area exposed.
69
TERRORISM
71
74
77
78
81
83
85
88
89
Chemical threats
Biological threats
Anthrax
Bomb threats
In the event of an explosion
Dirty bomb threats
In-place protection procedures
Decontamination procedures
Public transport security
70
Wartime Emergencies
CHAPTER 5
The possibility of CBRE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and
Explosive) devices being used in terrorist attacks against innocent
civilians is a growing concern. Understanding the threat and
knowing what actions to take are therefore essential in our fight
against terrorism.
70
67
Chemical Threats
SIGNS OF A POSSIBLE CHEMICAL AGENT ATTACK
•
Many people in the same area displaying symptoms such as:
• Wateryeyesordimvision
• Headachesorgiddiness
• Shortnessofbreath
• Drynessofthroat,coughingorextremeirritationtothe
respiratory tract
• Nauseaorvomiting
• Salivation
• Chesttightness
• Rednessofskinwithseverepainandformationofblistersupon
contact
• Muscletwitching,seizuresorconvulsions
Terrorism
A chemical agent attack is the deliberate release of hazardous chemical substances to kill, seriously injure
or incapacitate people. Numerous chemical agents can be dispersed in an attack via improvised explosive
devices, spray devices, military weapons and other means. Such agents include nerve, blister, blood and
choking agents.
• Incontinence (inability to control the discharge of faeces or urine)
• Unconsciousness
•
Three or more people collapsing for no apparent reason.
•
Many sick or dead birds and small animals in the affected area.
71
Terrorism
72
IN THE EVENT OF A CHEMICAL AGENT ATTACK
•
If possible, quickly determine the areas affected or where the
chemical release is coming from.
•
If the attack occurs indoors, cover your mouth and nose
with a damp cloth (e.g. wet towel) and quickly evacuate the
building without passing through the contaminated area(s).
•
If the attack occurs outdoors and you are in the open, cover
your mouth and nose with a cloth and move away from the
affected area(s).
•
Seek shelter as soon as possible and perform In-Place
Protection (pg 85); do not walk into the wind as it may carry
along the hazardous chemicals.
•
If you are in your vehicle when the attack occurs, drive away
from the affected area; head to your home, office or public
building immediately if they are nearby.
•
Do not leave the safety of the shelter to help others until the
authorities say that it is safe to do so.
Chemical Threats
If you experience any abnormal symptoms such as those listed on pg 71, you may
have been exposed to a chemical agent. You should then head to the nearest
decontamination facility (pg 88). If that is not possible:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Terrorism
IF YOU HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO A CHEMICAL AGENT
Look for the nearest water source.
Strip immediately and cut off the contaminated clothing. Do not
remove the contaminated clothing over the head to avoid contact
with your eyes, nose and mouth. Tie up the contaminated clothes
in a bag, if available, for proper disposal later on as instructed by
the authorities.
Rinse yourself thoroughly; use soap if it is available.
Seek immediate medical assistance, if possible.
Dial 995 for the SCDF, informing them that you may have been
exposed to a chemical agent and your location.
Stay calm and await assistance from the SCDF.
IF YOU SUSPECT THAT SOMEONE HAS BEEN EXPOSED TO A CHEMICAL AGENT
•
Do not attempt to administer first aid on the affected person; you may be affected by the chemical and become a casualty too.
•
Stay away from the affected area and dial 995 for the SCDF.
73
Terrorism
Biological Threats
A biological agent attack is the deliberate release of biological agents in the form of living micro-organisms
and biological toxins to kill or incapacitate people. Such agents can be released into the environment by
aerosol sprays, food and water contamination and infected organisms like mosquitoes and rats. Some
biological agents are contagious (e.g. smallpox).
SIGNS OF A POSSIBLE BIOLOGICAL AGENT ATTACK
A biological agent attack may not be immediately obvious as there is an incubation period during
which the effects of the agent(s) are not observable. You will thus need to look out for:
74
•
Unusual powdery or gel-like substances and suspicious articles.
•
Reports on trends of unusual illnesses in the community.
•
Waves of ill people seeking emergency medical attention.
Terrorism
IN THE EVENT OF A BIOLOGICAL AGENT ATTACK
Due to the latent effects of biological agents, it takes time
to identify and confirm a biological agent attack. As a
result, public health officials may not be able to provide
information on immediate actions to take against a
biological agent attack. It is recommended that you take
the following precautions:
•
Practise good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid the spreading
of germs.
•
Monitor the news closely for further information on the
symptoms of the biological agent(s) and where to seek
emergency medical care if you are affected.
•
Do not assume that any illness or symptom is due to the
declared biological emergency as many common illnesses
have similar symptoms; you are advised to seek medical
advice if you are unsure.
Hand
Sanitizer
Anti-bacterial
Handsoap
75
Terrorism
Biological Threats
IF YOU HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO A BIOLOGICAL AGENT
•
You may not suffer from any obvious symptoms, but you
should quickly identify where the suspected biological
release is, if possible, and move away immediately.
•
Cover your nose and mouth with a damp cloth while moving
away from the source area.
•
If you are indoors, inform the building management and dial
999 or 995 to report that you have been exposed to a biological
agent; leave your contact information should there be an urgent
need to reach you.
•
At the earliest opportunity, shower thoroughly with water
and soap and change into a clean set of clothing; tie up
the contaminated clothes in a bag for proper disposal as
instructed by the authorities.
•
If you or a family member becomes ill, seek medical advice at
the hospital(s) indicated by the authorities.
IF YOU THINK SOMEONE HAS BEEN EXPOSED TO A BIOLOGICAL AGENT
76
•
You may help the casualty if you have adequate respiratory protection (e.g. an N-95 mask); otherwise,
keep a distance from the person and avoid direct contact.
•
Dial 995 for help from the SCDF or 999 for the Police.
Anthrax
IF YOU SUSPECT THAT AN ARTICLE CONTAINS ANTHRAX
•
Dial 995 or 999 for help from the SCDF or the Police respectively;
inform the security personnel and/or management if you are in a
building.
•
Do not handle the article directly and do not sniff the article or its
exposed contents, or attempt to clean up the spilled contents, if any.
•
If the article is already opened, cover the exposed and spilled
contents immediately with a plastic cover, cloth, paper or even a
trash can; do not remove the cover until the authorities arrive.
•
Turn off all local fans or ventilation units in the affected area.
•
Leave the room and close the door or block off the area to prevent
others from entering.
•
Head to the nearest toilet or washing point and wash your hands
and any exposed skin with soap and water.
•
Prepare a list of names and contact numbers of persons whom you
know were in the vicinity of the suspicious article and hand the list
over to the Police for follow-up investigations.
•
At the earliest opportunity, remove all clothing (see pg 73, Step 2),
shower thoroughly with soap and water and change into a new set
of clothing; do not use bleach or other strong disinfectants on your
skin.
•
Clothing that may have been exposed to anthrax should be sealed
in a plastic bag and disposed of properly according to guidelines
given by the authorities.
Terrorism
Anthrax is a disease caused by bacteria and its powdery form, though not contagious, is a threat to public
safety. In Singapore, several agencies such as the SCDF, Police, Ministry of Health and Singapore Post have
taken precautionary measures to deal with this threat.
77
Terrorism
Bomb Threats
IF YOU SEE A SUSPICIOUS ARTICLE OR AN UNEXPLODED BOMB
1
2
3
4
78
Dial 999 immediately and report it to the Police; provide details
such as the shape, size, colour and location of the suspected
bomb.
Do not touch or move the suspected bomb.
Move away from it and warn people in the area to stay away from
the suspected bomb.
For evacuation procedures, refer to pg 82.
1
2
3
Stay calm and if possible, signal for someone nearby to dial 999 to
make a Police report and another person to inform the building
management staff immediately.
Keep the caller talking for as long as possible to buy time and try to jot
down the exact words used by the caller in the threat.
Try finding out from the caller:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4
•
•
•
•
6
Whenthebombwillexplode
Wherethebombisplaced
Whattypeofbombitisandhowitlookslike
Whatwilltriggerthebombtoexplode
Ifhe/sheplantedthebombhimself/herselfandwhy
Whatmessagethecalleristryingtoconveyandtowhom
His/hernameandcurrentlocation
Take note of how the caller sounds, e.g.:
•
5
Terrorism
IF YOU RECEIVE A BOMB THREAT OVER THE TELEPHONE
Caller’svocalcharacteristics,e.g.voiceofaman,womanorchild,
possible age etc.
Languageusedandaccent
Articulation,e.g.callerspeaksfluentlyorstutters
Toneofvoice,e.g.emotional,angryorcalm
Backgroundnoises,e.g.soundsoftraffic,music,announcements
Do not antagonise or taunt the caller in any way.
Do not spread rumours.
79
Terrorism
Bomb Threats
IF YOU RECEIVE A SUSPICIOUS LETTER OR PARCEL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
80
It may be a bomb if it has:
• Excessivepostagedespiteitsweight.
• Beenoverlysecuredwithstringoradhesivetape.
• Anoddshape,sizeorrigidfeel.
• Oilystainsordiscolourationonthewrappingmaterial.
• Anunusualodourthatsmellslikealmonds.
• Metalcontentswherebygentlyshakingthearticleproducesmetallicsounds.
• Wiresoraluminumfoilstickingoutfromthearticle.
• Unfamiliarhandwriting.
• Onlytherecipient’snameonitorrestrictivemarkingssuchas“Personal”,
“Confidential” and “To be opened by addressee only”.
Do not try to open the letter or parcel if you suspect it to contain explosives; most
bombs are designed to detonate when the outer wrapping is torn or cut open.
If you are unsure of its origin and you have reason to suspect it to be a bomb,
report it to the Police immediately by dialling 999.
Place the suspected letter or parcel bomb in a corner of a room away from the
windows.
Evacuate the room and the building if necessary, while leaving all doors and
windows open to mitigate the effects of shattering glass should the bomb
explode.
Inform the building management and security personnel, providing clear details
on the location of the letter or parcel bomb.
Await further instructions from the authorities.
In The Event Of An Explosion
Terrorism
IF YOU ARE HURT:
1
2
3
Do not use your mobile phone to call for help as it may
trigger secondary explosions.
If you are able to evacuate, move away from the affected
area. If you are trapped, refer to pg 58.
Do not move unnecessarily as you may worsen your injuries.
Do not use your mobile phone near a
bomb threat or explosion site.
•
If you are not in the affected area, stay away from the explosion site and do not dial 995 or 999 unless you
encounter an emergency; tune in to the radio or television for updates.
•
After an explosion, beware of post-blast hazards such as:
• Damagedstructures,walls,beams,columnsandoverhangingslabs.
• Cratersintheground.
• Sharpdebrisandbrokenglass.
• Smoke,firesandtoxicfumes.
• Waterandgasleakagesduetodamagedutilitypipesandexposedliveelectricalcables.
• Potentialsecondarybombdevices.
•
Ensure your own safety before helping others.
•
If safety permits and you are a trained first-aider, treat casualties until the arrival of emergency
responders.
•
If you are not trained in first aid, move away from the hazard area; note the locations of severely injured
casualties and inform rescuers to attend to them.
81
Terrorism
Stay calm and doFROM
not panic.
•
EVACUATING
AN EXPLOSION SITE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bring along only what is necessary and evacuate in an orderly manner.
Stay calm and do not panic.
Do not use the elevators as they may malfunction; use the stairs but do
Bring
along
what
is necessary
and
evacuate
in an
orderly
manner.
not keep
theonly
doors
propped
open as
that
will allow
more
smoke
to enter
the
stairway.
Do not
use the elevators as they may malfunction; use the stairs but do
not
keep
thewalk
doors
propped
openthe
as that
will allow
more
smoke
to enter
Do not run;
briskly
and help
disabled,
children
and
the elderly
the
stairway.
along the way.
•
•
Do
not
run; and
walkwalkways
briskly and
help
disabled, vehicles
children and
and rescuers
the elderly
Keep
roads
clear
forthe
emergency
along
the
way.
while looking out for them.
•
•
Keep
roads
and walkways
foror
emergency
vehicles
and rescuers
Do not
use mobile
phones,clear
radios
any electronic
equipment
at a bomb
while
looking
out
for
them.
site as they may trigger secondary explosions.
•
•
Do
notearliest
use mobile
phones, radios
any electronic
equipment
at asafe.
bomb
At the
opportunity,
let yourorloved
ones know
that you are
site as they may trigger secondary explosions.
Do not spread rumours about the situation.
At the earliest opportunity, let your loved ones know that you are safe.
Do not enter a building that has been damaged by the explosion.
Do not spread rumours about the situation.
Leave the area and disperse as quickly as possible in case of secondary
Do
not enter
building
that has
beenworkplace,
damaged you
by the
explosion.
attacks;
if theaattack
occured
at your
may
explore
alternative
means
of
accounting
for
your
staff,
colleagues,
tenants
and
Leave the area and disperse as quickly as possible in case of
secondary
clients.
attacks; if the attack occured at your workplace, you may explore
alternative means of accounting for your staff, colleagues, tenants and
clients.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do not obstruct roads and walkways
while evacuating. Make way for
emergency vehicles and rescuers.
Do not obstruct roads and walkways
while evacuating. Make way for
emergency vehicles and rescuers.
Do not enter a building that has been
damaged by an explosion.
Do not enter a building that has been
damaged by an explosion.
82
Dirty Bomb Threats
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
Terrorism
Dirty bombs use conventional explosives spiked with radioactive materials. Once
detonated, harmful radioactive materials are dispersed into the air, resulting in radiological
contamination over a wide area.
Depending on the extent of exposure to radiation, effects can range from none to radiation
sickness such as nausea, vomiting, inflammation of exposed areas and skin burns. In some
cases, persons exposed to radiation may develop cancerous cell growth that may not be
apparent until many years later.
POSSIBLE SIGNS OF A DIRTY BOMB ATTACK
•
A dirty bomb explosion sounds and looks like a conventional explosion, and
casualties of such explosions are likely to suffer from blast injuries which include
burns and shrapnel wounds.
•
Specialised equipment are required to detect the presence of radioactive material
in a dirty bomb attack; otherwise, it is almost impossible to differentiate it from
conventional bomb blasts.
83
Terrorism
84
IN THE EVENT OF A DIRTY BOMB ATTACK
•
If you are outside and the explosion/radiation occurs nearby:
• Coveryournoseandmouthwithadampclothandmoveawayfromthe
hazard area.
• Donotwalkintothewindasitmaycarryradioactiveparticles.
•
If you are indoors and the explosion/radiation occurs near the building:
• Checkifanywallsandbuildingelementshavebeendamaged.
• Ifyourareaisstable,stayput,closeallwindowsanddoorsandturnoff
air-conditioners and other ventilation systems.
• Ifitisnotstable,evacuatefromthedamagedbuildinginthesamemanner
as you would outdoors.
•
If there is an explosion/radiation in your building:
• Coveryournoseandmouthwithadampclothandleavethebuilding
immediately.
• Ifyouhavebeenexposed,waittobedecontaminatedby the SCDF personnel;
otherwise, move away from the hazard area and avoid walking into the
wind.
•
Tune in to the local free-to-air radio or television channels for advisories
from the authorities on where to report for radiation monitoring and
other tests to determine if you have been exposed to radiation; you will
also be given advice on steps to protect your health.
After an explosion nearby, check for any
damage to the walls and building elements.
In-Place Protection Procedures
IPP ROOM
IPP KIT
Prior to an emergency, it is important to designate a room
in your home for IPP. The room should preferably be:
You should also prepare an IPP Kit which includes:
•
An inner room that offers some protection against ordinary
explosions.
•
Large enough for the expected number of occupants so that
the air in it will last for as long as required; IPP is expected to
be observed for only a few hours.
•
Rolls of wide adhesive sealing tape (e.g. masking tape).
•
Large trash bags or plastic sheets, trimmed to fit windows
and vents in the pre-selected room for IPP.
•
A portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries.
•
Several pairs of scissors.
•
One with few openings and windows that will require sealing.
•
•
One without wall-mounted air-conditioners as they are
difficult to reach and seal properly.
Special care items to meet the needs of special groups (e.g.
infants and family members under long-term medication).
•
•
Equipped with an attached bathroom and water supply.
Optional items such as a torchlight, bottled water (if there is
no water supply in the IPP room) and dry rations (sufficient
for at least one meal).
Terrorism
You may be required to observe In-place Protection (IPP) when hazardous substances are released into the
environment intentionally or otherwise. IPP serves to minimise the infiltration of hazardous materials into
your home, school or workplace. If you are outdoors when a hazardous substance is released, seek shelter and
perform IPP immediately.
IPP
TR
A
0 BA SH
Pa G
ck
s)
(1
85
Terrorism
IPP PROCEDURE AT HOME
When instructions are given by the authorities to carry out
IPP adopt the following measures:
1
MOVE IN
Stay calm, gather your family members and remain indoors.
Close and lock all doors, windows and openings.
Switch off all ventilation and air-conditioning units that
draw in air from the outside; room fans can be left to run on
low speed.
n
n
n
2
STAY CALM
Grab your IPP Kit and go to the pre-determined room.
Seal off gaps around the doors, window seams, or vents
of the room using masking tape. For gaps which cannot
be effectively sealed with masking tape, use trash bags to
cover them and then secure the edges with masking tape.
n
n
3
TUNE IN
Tune in to the local free-to-air radio or TV stations for
updates on the situation and instructions from the
authorities.
Leave the sealed room only when instructed by the
authorities.
n
n
86
Apply a primary layer of tape to close up any obvious
gaps. If there is time, seal a trash bag over the window,
or opening to serve as a secondary barrier.
In-Place Protection Procedures
Terrorism
IPP PROCEDURE AT SCHOOL AND IN THE WORKPLACE
While the IPP procedure for work and school is similar to that for homes,
pre-planning by the building management is essential in ensuring good
coordination and quick response among the large number of occupants.
A sample guideline to prepare non-residential buildings for IPP is
available on www.scdf.gov.sg.
IF YOU ARE DRIVING
Seal the air-conditioning vents with tape, if possible.
If the hazardous substance is released when you are driving:
1
2
Drive away from the affected area.
Tune in to the local free-to-air radio for updates on the situation
and further instructions.
87
Terrorism
Decontamination Procedures
In the event of a hazardous material incident involving a
chemical, biological or radiological substance, the SCDF
will set up personnel decontamination facilities on-site to
decontaminate the affected persons. This critical process
saves lives and prevents cross contamination. A full
decontamination process entails the following steps:
1
2
REGISTRATION
•
Collect a personal belongings bag and write your NRIC/FIN
number on it with a non-soluble ink marker (both bag and
marker are provided by the SCDF).
•
Placeyourvaluablesinthebag,zipitupandhandthebag
over to the SCDF personnel.
•
Collectatrashbagandcabletieandproceedtotheshower
unit.
UNDRESSING
•
•
88
3
Remove all clothing
and shoes, and cut off
contaminated clothing
which is normally removed
over the head to avoid
contact with your eyes, nose
and mouth; doing so will
remove up to 80% of the
contaminant(s).
Disposeofthemintoa
trash bag and seal the bag
with the cable tie provided;
discard the bag into the trash bin.
4
SHOWERING
•
Collect a sponge, bend
•
Wetyourentirebodyand
apply the non-ionic liquid
detergent provided; scrub
your body thoroughly,
especially the armpit and
groin areas.
•
Disposeoftheusedsponge
into the trash bin and
shower thoroughly for 2
minutes to rinse off the
detergent.
DRYING OFF
•
5
Collect a towel and dry your entire body; discard the used
towel into the trash bin.
MONITORING
•
•
6
forward and wash your hair
first.
Raise your arms to the sides to form a T-shape with your
body; this will allow the SCDF personnel to scan your body
for any remaining traces of the contaminant(s) with their
detectors.
Ifresidualcontaminantsaredetected,youwillneedto
repeat steps 3 to 5.
GETTING DRESSED
•
Once you have been decontaminated, put on the bathrobe
and footwear provided, rest at the temporary holding area
and await for further instructions from the SCDF.
Public Transport Security
WHEN EVACUATING THE TRAIN OR BUS
•
If a problem occurs while the train or bus is on the move, do not panic.
•
Listen carefully to the announcements made by the transport staff and follow the instructions closely.
•
Take care of the disabled, children and the elderly.
•
For trains:
• Donotforceopenthedoorsandattempttojumpoffthetrain.
• Headtowardseitherendofthetrainandevacuateinanorderlymannerviatheemergencyexits.
• Duringevacuation,noelectricalpowerwillberunningthroughthetraintrackssoyoumaysafelywalkonthem;
emergency lighting and ventilation will be provided in the trains and tunnels during evacuation.
Terrorism
Public transport systems are easy targets for terrorists and vigilance is the key to safety in this area. If you
see anything or anyone suspicious, inform the bus captain, train operator or transit security personnel
immediately. Should there be a threat to life or cases of injury, dial 999 for the Police or 995 for the SCDF.
89
Terrorism
Be A Community
First Responder
& Make A
Difference In
Times of Crisis
90
During emergencies, you can make a difference by being a Community
First Responder to render assistance to those in distress, prior to the arrival
of the SCDF emergency responders. The following are some ways in which
you can acquire emergency preparedness and life saving skills to help your
loved ones, neighbours and community during emergencies.
90
87
Be Ready
A Community
First Responder
BeAs
Ready
As A Community
First Responder.
mySCDF
mobile
application
mySCDF
MOBILE
APPLICATION
mySCDF is a mobile application which provides
members of the public with ease of accessing
mySCDF is a mobile
app which
provides
emergency
preparedness
andmembers
life saving skills
of the public with
the
ease
of
accessing
as well as other SCDF related information. These
include:
emergency preparedness
and life saving skills
as well as other SCDF related information. These
l
Fire extinguisher module
include:
Learn how to operate a fire extinguisher to help put
out a fire.
Fire Extinguisher Module
CPR, AeD
and
Choking modules
(with
Learn how toloperate
a fire
extinguisher
to help
putvideo
footage)
out a fire.
Learn important life-saving skills such as how to
Fire Safety
Feedback
perform CPR,lperform
chest
thrusts module
or the Heimlich
Submit feedback
any fire safety
violations
Manoeuvre on someone
who ison
choking
and use
the and/or
AED on the go. fire hazards via the module.
l
Fire Safety Feedback Module
Submit feedback on any fire safety violations and/or
fire hazards via the module.
l
E-SERVICES
Fire Safety
Feedback
NSmen
mServices
LIFE SAVING PROCEDURES
Learn important life-saving skills such as how to
perform CPR, perform chest thrusts or the Heimlich
l CPR, AED and Choking Modules (with video
Manoeuvre on someone who is choking and use the
footage)
AED on the go.
CPR
Choking
AeD
operating a Fire
extinguisher
FAVouRITeS
Note : mySCDF is available for download on both IOS App Store and Google Play Store.
91
91
Be Ready As A Community First Responder
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CENTRE (EPC)
The EPC provides visitors with fire safety tips, emergency preparedness knowledge and life-saving skills through highly visual and
interactive exhibits. Some of these exhibits include the fire extinguisher simulator which discharges water onto a video wall depicting
a few incipient fire scenarios as well as mannequins for visitors to try out the Heimlich Manoeuvre and CPR procedure. Its signature
exhibit is the Icube which uses reality 3-D immersive technology to give visitors a near realistic experience in natural disasters such as
typhoon and tsunami. The EPC has seven different learning zones.
4
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CENTRE
3
2
FIRE & MEDICAL
EMERGENCIES
@ HOME
GALLERY
FIRE SAFETY &
EVACULATION
GALLERY
EMERGENCY
EXIT
FIRE
EXTINGUISHER
SIMULATOR
1
FLOOR INTERACTIVE
Triangle of
Combustion
(TOC)GAME
5
MB
CO
OF
)
GLE ( TOC
IAN
UST
ION
WARS &
TERRORISM
GALLERY
TR
6
ENTRANCE
92
7
EXIT
NATURAL
DISASTERS
GALLERY
ICUBE VIRTUAL
REALITY
SIMULATOR
Be Ready As A Community First Responder
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS CENTRE (EPC)
EPC Opening Hours
Tuesday to Sunday (including Public Holidays), from 10am to 5pm.
Address
2nd floor, SCDF Heritage Gallery at 62 Hill Street, Singapore 179367 (next to Central Fire Station).
Minimum Age Requirement
The EPC is recommended for persons aged 10 and above. Each child below 10 years old should be accompanied by an adult.
Pre-registration
Prior booking is required for visits to the EPC. All visits are based on guided tours and each one hour tour can accommodate a
maximum group size of 20 persons (adults and children included).
To visit the EPC, please make a booking online through the EPC Visit online form at our SCDF website (www.scdf.gov.sg).
For enquiries
For enquiries, please call 6332 2995 from Tuesday to Sunday (including Public Holidays), 10am – 5pm.
Play
Learn
Learn
Play
THE TOC GAME
how to
this game and race
HOW to PUT OUT
and LEARN HOW A FIRE is CREATED
against time to identify WHAT NOT TO
A FIRE USING THE P.A.S.S METHOD! HANDLE COMMON EMERGENCIES which
(PULL, AIM, SQUEEZE, SWEEP)
may HAPPEN at or near your HOME!
DO DURING NATURAL DISASTERS!
93
Be Ready As A Community First Responder
COMMUNITY EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAMME (CEPP)
The CEPP is an instructional public education programme, with focus on practical hands-on sessions. It equips participants
with the essential life-saving skills and knowledge to be a Community First Responder and deal with emergency situations,
prior to the arrival of the SCDF.
The programme covers the following topics:
l
Basic First Aid
l
CPR-AED
l
Basic Fire-fighting using a fire extinguisher and hosereel
l
Fire Safety and Evacuation Procedures
l
Emergency Procedures
The CEPP is conducted at no charge to the public at the four SCDF Division Headquarters.
For more information on the programme and registration matters,
please call the SCDF at 6848 1525 / 6848 3411(during office hours)
or visit www.scdf.gov.sg.
94
Useful Numbers
FIRE AND EMERGENCY AMBULANCE SERVICES
995
NON-EMERGENCY AMBULANCE SERVICE
1777
SCDF EMERGENCY SMS
70995
FIRE HAZARD REPORTING LINE
1800 280 0000
SCDF GENERAL ENQUIRIES
1800 286 5555
POLICE
999
POLICE HOTLINE
1800 255 0000
PUB, THE NATIONAL WATER AGENCY
1800 284 6600
SP POWERGRID
1800 778 8888
CITY GAS
1800 752 1800
BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION AUTHORITY
6325 7191
6325 7393
HDB’S ESSENTIAL MAINTENANCE SERVICE UNIT (EMSU)
1800 275 5555
1800 325 8888
1800 354 3333
[specially catered for people who are deaf, hard-of-hearing and/or have speech impairment (DHS)*]
[for general enquiries]
[for water supply matters]
[for report on electricity supply interruption]
[to report on gas supply interruption/suspected gas leak]
[to report structural defects in non-HDB buildings]
[to report power failure and structural defects in HDB buildings; the service number for your
building can be found at the lift lobby]
*This number is only for members of the DHS community to send an SMS to request for SCDF assistance during emergencies such as fire or
medical condition.
96
BE A COMMUNITY FIRST RESPONDER AND
MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN TIMES OF CRISIS
To learn life saving skills
and emergency procedures, visit www.scdf.gov.sg or log on to my SCDF App.
For more information relating to crises
and emergencies, visit www.e101.gov.sg
For information and matters related to security
and emergency preparedness, visit ds.ecitizen.gov.sg
To be a Community First Responder register via the myResponder App.
TOGETHER LET US MAKE SINGAPORE A NATION OF LIFESAVERS.
1st edition : 1990 2nd edition : 1993 3rd edition : 2001 4th edition : 2003 (updated : 2004) 5th edition : 2005 (updated : 2007) 6th edition : 2008 7th edition : 2010 (updated : 2012) 8th edition : 2016
97
A PUBLIC EDUCATION PROJECT BY:
98
IN COLLABORATION WITH:
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