Water and Wastewater Treatment:
Developing Markets for Environmental Goods and Services:
Overview of Key Environmental Categories
Presented at the
WTO Workshop on Environmental Goods and Services
23 -25 September 2009
Chizuru Aoki, Ph.D
Senior Programme Officer
United Nations Environment Programme
International Environmental Technology Centre
1
UNEP
International Environmental Technology Centre
Background: Need for Water & Wastewater Treatment
Unmet demand for clean drinking water
1. 884 million people without access to improved drinking water1
2. Water use increasing in virtually all countries, except for some OECD countries:
10% increase projected in 10 years2
3. Safe access to drinking water depends more on the level of supply infrastructure3
Unmet need for wastewater treatment
1. 2.5 billion people without access to sanitation1
2. 90% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes in developing countries discharged
without treatment into surface water2
Increasing need for augmenting water and new solutions
1. Water quality and availability likely impacted strongly by climate change
2. ~1.6 billion people live in water-stressed areas in 1995: 2.8-6.9 billion people
projected to live in water stressed areas by 20503
3. Changing precipitation patterns and volume may necessitate changes in water
supply infrastructure, and replacement of freshwater supply with desalination3
1.
2
References:
The Millennium Development Goals Report 2009, United Nations (2009)
2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)
3. Climate Change and Water, IPCC Technical Paper VI (2008)
UNEP
Market Drivers at Country and/or International Level
1. Population growth, especially urban areas
2. Industrial development and treatment needs
• Industrial water use increases from 10% in low-middle income
countries to 60% in high income countries1
3. Increasing emphasis of wastewater treatment
• 2000: >70% of market for water treatment equipment, <30% for
wastewater
• 2020: 60% of market for water treatment, 40% for wastewater2
4. International commitments and targets
• Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7, Target 10: halve, by 2015, the
proportion of people without access to safe drinking water & sanitation
• Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI)
5. Government policy
• Push towards environmental sustainability, water security
3
References:
1. Water for People, Water for Life, UNESCO (2003)
2. Middle East & Africa Water & Wastewater Treatment Equipment, Frost and Sullivan (2009)
UNEP
What are the goods and technologies
of particular relevance to this category?
9Different ways of categorizing technologies and practices
9Different methodologies for selecting appropriate options
storage &
augmentation
reuse, recycle,
disposal,
treatment
supply &
distribution
use &
saving
One way to think about them:
•
Technologies for water
storage and augmentation
•
Technologies for water
supply and distribution
•
Technologies for water use
and saving
•
Technologies for water
reuse, recycling, and safe
disposal/treatment
References:
Every Drop Counts: Sourcebook, UNEP (2008)
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UNEP
Supply and Distribution Technologies
Environmental benefit: to facilitate supply and
delivery of water of appropriate quality
and quantity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Surface water abstraction
Groundwater abstraction
Water supply reservoirs (tanks)
Transfer of water
Single and dual pipeline systems
Water containers (bottles, tanks)
Monitoring, metering, and distribution equipment
Centralised treatment systems
Sedimentation =>filtration => disinfection => reservoir
=> customers
9.
Point of use treatment systems
Filters, membranes, tablets, UV, etc.
References:
Every Drop Counts: Sourcebook, UNEP (2008)
UNEP
Water Use and Saving Technologies
Environmental benefits: to provide and
conserve water used for personal bathing,
toilets, washing, watering, cleaning, and
drinking
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Water saving toilets and urinals
Waterless toilets and urinals
Water saving taps
Water saving showerheads
Pressure reducers
Water saving household appliances
Meters, monitors, gauges, etc.
References:
Every Drop Counts: Sourcebook, UNEP (2008)
UNEP
Reuse, Recycle, Disposal & Treatment Technologies
Environmental benefits:
to remove pollutants and to enable reuse,
recycle, and safe discharge
1.
2.
On-site treatment and reuse of grey water
On-site sanitation systems: pit latrine, composting
toilet, pour flush toilet, sceptic tank, improved on-site
treatment unit
3.
Conventional wastewater treatment
•
Primary treatment (mechanical removal of
suspended solids)
•
Secondary treatment (biological removal of
organic matter)
•
Advanced treatment (chemical removal of
nutrients and other contaminants)
4.
On- or near-site treatment of black water and mixed
sewage
References:
Every Drop Counts: Sourcebook, UNEP (2008)
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Treatment Technologies (cont)
Environmental benefits: to remove pollutants
and to enable reuse, recycle, and safe
discharge
•
•
•
•
•
•
Biodegradable organics removal: activated sludge
treatment, trickling filtration, lagoons, land-based
treatments, constructed wetlands,
Pathogen removal: chlorination, ozonation, land
treatment
Heavy metal removal: chemical precipitation, ion
exchange, etc.
Solvents and oil removal: distillation, evaporation,
filtration, incineration, separation, etc.
Acids and alkali removal: membrane separation,
reuse, neutralization
Salts and inorganic ions: adsorption, fixation,
membrane separation, landfill, precipitation, etc.
References:
ESTs in wastewater treatment, UNEP (2001)
Water Quality: Tchobanoglous and Schroeder (1987)
International Environmental Technology Centre
UNEP
Storage and Augmentation Technologies
Environmental benefits: to maintain and
replenish sources of water supply
1. Ponds and reservoirs
2. Artificial recharge of groundwater
3. Water tanks
4. Rainwater harvesting
• Collected in tanks for
domestic/industrial use
• Recharge of groundwater
• Ponds and reservoirs to augment
municipal supply
5. Augmentation with treated sewage
References:
Every Drop Counts: Sourcebook, UNEP (2008)
UNEP
Example: Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Treatment and Distribution
• RO technology: used to remove salts and
pollutants to produce safe water
– Large scale: sea water (middle east),
wastewater (Singapore…)
– Small scale: rural communities near brackish
water (Iraq)
• Our example: modular RO plants,
distribution network with common taps in
Iraq, serving ~25,000 persons with 7 plants
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Example RO System (Simplified Summary)
1.Access water
from source &
transport to plant
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2 Treat water to potable
quality by filters &
membranes, and store
before distribution
3 Distribute water
for access by
residents
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Actual RO System: Combination of Many Goods
1.Access water
from source &
transport to plant
2 Treat water to potable
quality by filters &
membranes, and store
before distribution
3 Distribute water
for access by
residents
Submersible pump (HS8413xx),
accessories, pipe (6810xx? 6906?
7303??), valves
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1. Dual media filter with valves and fittings ,
pressure gauge,
pressure transmitter, backwash
blower, electrovalves
2. Chemical dosage mixer & pumps
3. Pre-filtration cartridge filter
4. RO system with membrane (842121?),
centrifugal pump, pressure switch, vessels,
flow meter, valves and fittings
5. Cleaning system with tank, level regulator,
pump, cartridge filter, flow meter
6. Control panel & electrical kit
7. Container with air conditioner, basket filter,
flow meter
1. PRFV cylindrical
tanks
2. Level transmitters
3. Valves and fittings
4. Centrifugal pump
5. Control panel with
pressure switch
6. Pressure gauge
7. Autoclaves
8. Electrical connections
9. Container
10. Diesel tank
11. Electrical generator
12. Control panel
13. Container
Standpipes
Taps (8481xx?)
UNEP
Example: Community Water System Upgrade
(Simplified Summary)
1.Improve water
intake conditions
and treat with
chlorine tablets
13
2 Extend distribution to
another unserved area
with standpipes
•Our example: community
water supply upgrade, with
intake protection and pipeline
extension to augment
rainwater in rural Jamaica
&
3 Augment existing
rainwater harvesting
with extended supply
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Actual Community Water System Upgrade:
Combination of Goods
1.Improve water
intake conditions
and treat with
chlorine tablets
1. Concrete
2. Screen
3. Pipe (6810xx? 6906?
7303??)
4. Chlorine tablets (280110??)
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2 Extend distribution to
another community
with standpipes
1. G I pipes
2. G I tee
3. G I adaptor
4. Nipple
5. Stop cock
6. Elbow
7. Reducer
8. Gate valve
9. Stand pipes
10. Taps (8481xx?)
&
3 Augment existing
rainwater harvesting
with extended piped
supply
1. Rainwater
harvesting tanks
2. Cisterns and
reservoirs for
rainwater
(681091?
730900?)
3. Gutters
4. Pipes
UNEP
What is the Potential for Growth in This Sector?
OECD countries: significant potential for growth1,2
1.
~US$200 billion in investments required to rehabilitate existing
infrastructure, comply with environmental and health regulations,
and to maintain service quality and supply
US Example: US$23 billion required annually over next 20 years to
maintain water infrastructure, estimated by EPA
Japan and Korea: may need to increase water expenditure by 40%
2.
3.
Increasing trend in ODA allocations3
•
•
•
•
•
ODA for water and sanitation increased since 2001
US$4.7 billion in bilateral aid commitments in 2006-07
US$1.5 billion in multilateral aid commitments in 2006-07
Key recipient regions: Asia (54%), Africa (33%)
Limited but catalytic source of funding
1.
15
References:
Managing Water for All: An OECD Perspective on Pricing and Financing, OECD (2009)
2.
The Cost of Meeting the Johannesburg Targets for Drinking Water, Smets (2004)
3. Measuring Aid to Water Supply and Sanitation, OECD (2009)
UNEP
What is the Potential for Growth in This Sector?
Developing countries: significant need and potential
1.
Progress made, but investments in water-sanitation still low
•
•
US$14 to 20 billion invested annually, excluding wastewater treatment1
Number of people per year that require access to an improved drinking
water source to meet the MDG target, 2006-2015 shown in map2
1.
16
References:
Costing MDG Target 10 on Water Supply and Sanitation, World Water Council (2006)
2. The Millennium Development Goals Report, UN (2009)
UNEP
What is the Potential for Growth in This Sector? (cont)
2.
More Investments required for attaining MDG Target 101
•
•
•
3.
Investment required for better service for all2
•
4.
US$136.5 billion/year: to obtain access for all with regulated inhouse piped water supply with water quality monitoring and inhouse sewerage connection with partial sewage treatment
Key Technologies may see significant market growth
•
17
Additional US$10 billion/year: to supply low cost water and
sanitation services to people without access now
Additional US$15 billion–US$20 billion/year: to supply higher level
of service and maintain level of service to people already supplied
US$80 billion/year: to collect and treat household wastewater and
to preserve global environment through Integrated water resource
management (IWRM)
Desalination technology: expected to increase to US$30 billion by
2015, compared to 2005 level of US$3.8 billion3
References:
1. Costing MDG Target 10 on Water Supply and Sanitation, World Water Council (2006)
2. Cost and Benefits of Waster and Sanitation Improvements at Global Level, WHO (2004)
3. Environmental Technologies Action Plan: Water Desalination Market Acceleration, EC (2006)
UNEP
Main Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) Faced
Our direct experiences are limited, but include:
1. Import prohibitions
•
Certain monitoring equipment prohibited by some countries,
hampering on-the-ground water quality and related environmental
monitoring efforts
2. Custom procedure complications
•
•
•
Typical cause of delay, creating cost and equipment performance
concerns
Evolving procedural requirements
Central directorate and border office giving different instructions
Additional factors identified by others:1
•
18
Standards and certification, food safety and health requirements,
import quotas, intellectual property protection inadequacies,
subsidies and tax benefits for domestic firms
References:
1 Non-tariff Barriers that Block Trade, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2009)
UNEP
Economic and Developmental Benefits of Water
and Wastewater
•
Economic benefits
•
•
US$3 to US$34 benefits per US$1 invested1: most stemming from
health benefits, including health care costs avoided due to less
illness, avoided days lost for employment, other productive activities
in the households or school attendance, and increased production,
more leisure time
Developmental benefits
•
•
Improved water management and sanitation can contribute to
poverty alleviation, food security, gender equality, industrial
development with employment generation
Post-conflict stability building: In Iraq, UNEP’s drinking water
provision generated “tremendous impacts in confidence building
within the communities and has increased their desire on reviving
life within the…ecosystem, encouraging many households to return
to their village.”2
References:
Costs and Benefits of Water and Sanitation Improvements at the Global Level, WHO (2006)
Monitoring and Evaluation Report of the Pilot Drinking Water EST Project for the UNEP Iraqi
Marshlands project (2007)
19
UNEP
International Environmental Technology Centre
Thank you
For more information, please access:
www.unep.or.jp
Or contact
chizuru.aoki@unep.or.jp
20
UNEP
International Environmental Technology Centre