Chemical Drying and Particle Formation TechnologiesPDF 2.3 MB

GEA drying and particle
formation technologies
for the world’s chemical industry
2 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Content
4
The right process for your product
23
Flash dryer types
6
The intelligence behind your process
24
Ring dryer
7
From conception to completion
25
SWIRL FLUIDIZER™
8
The right technology for your product
26
Your rotary processing solution
10
Your spray drying solution
27
Rotary types
12
World-class system design
28
Rotary drying, cooling, calcining and conditioning
13
Spray dryer chamber designs
29
Contact column processors
14
The heart of your spray drying plant
30
Spray congealing – turn melt into powder
16
Your fluid bed drying solution
31
Spray dryer reactor – create chemical reactions
18
Fluid bed process systems
32
Complete efficiency and control
19
Fluid bed types
33
Stay productive, protected and compliant
20
Fluid bed – key features
34
Your project is in safe hands
22
Your flash drying solution
35
GEA Service – for your continued success
WHATEVER YOUR
NEEDS, GEA IS
PERFECTLY PLACED
TO HELP.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 3
GEA has provided world-class industrial drying solutions since
1928 that enable businesses like yours to stay competitive,
profitable and at the forefront of their industry.
Grow alongside your customers
Breathe life into your product
We understand that a successful business relies on its ability
With GEA as your partner, our vast pool of drying knowledge,
to adapt quickly to evolving market conditions. That’s why we
expertise and technology is entirely at your disposal. Together,
specialize in creating highly versatile drying solutions, calibrated
we can bring your ideas to life with high quality powders engi-
for your applications, with the flexibility and scalability to meet
neered with your specific properties and precise characteristics.
your customers’ demands.
Whether it is expert advice on starting a new project, a more
As the world’s leading powder engineering specialists, we are
efficient process, plant upgrades, an entirely new installation or
uniquely placed to help you develop a highly efficient process
even innovative ways to save energy and reduce your environ-
and a flawless end-product. Your success is our success; we are
mental footprint, GEA has your ideal drying solution.
here to support you with a dedicated service designed to grow
your business and your bottom line.
4 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The right process for your product
With the most advanced
portfolio of drying technologies and the world’s
best engineering minds
focused on supporting
your success, GEA helps
you to make the most of
new opportunities across a
full spectrum of products.
Nano materials
Polymers
When you need to get small
Our leading range of atomizing technologies enables you to dry Nano particles
into agglomerates with a low energy
footprint and with full product, operator
and environmental safety.
• Inorganic nano material
• Organic nano material
•Pharmaceuticals
Leading experience since 1952
Feedstocks in suspension, emulsion,
dispersion or solution, water or solventbased, can be dried efficiently and
according to your specifications.
• Polymer melts
• s-PVC, e-PVC, c-PVC
•ABS
•MBS
•HDPE
•PP
•POM
•PVA
•PMMA
• PVAc, EVA
•PVP
• Acrylic resins
•Formaldehydes
•EPS
•PAN
•PAM
Hardmetals
Ceramics
Agrochemicals
Tannins
More than 130 installations
Our broad experience means that you
benefit from dense and free-flowing
powders from different hard metal
suspensions produced on a robust
automated plant with good solvent
recovery.
• Tungsten carbides
• Ready-to-press (RTP) powders
Traditional through to high-tech
We match your specifications to deliver
a reproducible, free-flowing granulate
for single step ceramic pressbody
production.
•Proppants
•Hydroxyapatite
•Carbides
•Catalysts
•Ferrites
•Titanates
• Al2O3, SiO2, FexOy
•Kaolin
• Silicium oxide/nitride
• Zinc oxide
• Zirconium oxide/silicate
The broadest range of solutions
We fulfill all your powder requirements,
including granulometry, low dustiness
and re-dispersion characteristics, plus all
safety and environmental regulations.
•Fungicides
•Herbicides
•Insecticides
•Potash
• Phosphate rock
• Monoammonium phosphate
• Diammonium phosphate
• Calcium chloride
• Ammonium nitrate
• Ammonium sulphate
•Urea
Preserve tannin activity
Create powders and agglomerates that
can be easily re-dispersed in water using
plants capable of handling a vast range
of corrosive or abrasive materials.
• Synthetic tannins
• Basic chromium salts
• Natural extracts
• Sulphonated phenol
• Chrome tannin
• Chestnut, mimosa extract
• Myrobalan, quebracho extract
• Wattle extract
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 5
Detergents
Lithium batteries
Dyestuff & pigments
For household and industrial applications
Create plain, agglomerated or granulated
powders with low dustiness and superior
redispersion properties.
• Dispersing agents
• Emulsifying agents
• Chelating agents
•Enzymes
• Optical brightener
•Phosphates
•Sulphonates
•Silicates
• Surface active ingredient
From Cathode to Anode
Our unique atomization technologies
deliver superior powders with uniform
characteristics and our atomizing
nozzles ensure particle sizes from a
few μm to several hundred μm.
• Cathode material
• Anode material
• Ultra-fine powders
For a rainbow of colors
Whether your feedstocks are in solution,
suspension or paste form, our solutions
are fully customizable to meet your exact
requirements and ensure minimal risk of
explosions or environmental pollution.
• Acid / azoic dyes
• Basic dyes
• Disperse dyes
• Reactive dyes
• Dyestuff intermediates
• Related fillers
• Barium sulphate
• Cadmium carbonate / sulphide
• Calcium carbonate
• Ceramic colorants
• Iron oxide (black, red, yellow)
•Kaolin
•Lithopone
•Phthalocyanines
• Titanium dioxide
• Zinc chromates
Inorganic chemicals
Organic chemicals
From aluminium to zinc compounds
Transform virtually any inorganic compound into a free-flowing product using
feedstocks in liquid, suspended crystal
or solid form, solutions and slurries of
fine crystals, cakes and pastes.
•Salts
•Minerals
•Zeolites
•Silicates
•Sands
From fine crystals to coarse granulates
Your feedstocks can be in liquid, suspended crystal or solid form. Solutions
and slurries can be dried to free-flowing
products or to coarse granulates.
Cakes and pastes can also be
dried and cooled.
• Organic acids
• Plant materials
•Microorganisms
• Waste water drying
• Amino and fatty acids
•Benzoates
•Butyrates
•Chloramines
•Gluconates
•Hydrazines
•Phthalates
• Purified terephthalic acid
•Salicylates
• Salicylic acid
•Sorbates
•Stearates
• Bio-based chemicals
6 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The intelligence behind your process
Whatever your product requirements, the GEA International
Test Centers offer the largest and most sophisticated
facilities for drying process development.
Whether at the first stages of development or the final phases of
Our guarantee – your process
refinement, our test centers provide the intelligence that brings
No matter which industry or market you or your customers
your ideas to life.
operate in, our International Test Centers exist to give you
complete confidence that you have the most appropriate drying
The world’s largest testing facility
solution for your needs.
Made up of over 35 pilot plants, the largest of the GEA International Test Centers houses the most advanced freeze, fluid bed,
To show our commitment, we will guarantee that the process
flash and spray drying technology available today.
we’ve developed is set up in the most effective way to achieve
your desired results.
We are able to test a huge variety of conditions to make sure
your powder is not only possible, but that its production process
As every customer, plant and product comes with their own
is viable, sustainable and cost effective.
unique requirements, we make no assumptions as to how your
new powder will behave. Our in-depth analyses cover every
possible factor so you can make fully informed decisions
regarding your product’s commercial potential.
Ultrasonic field
Suspended droplet
OUR TEST FACILITIES
COMPRISE MORE THAN 35
PILOT PLANTS AND HOUSE
A COMPLETE RANGE OF
ADVANCED AUXILIARY
EQUIPMENT.
·
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
7
From conception to completion
Unique analytical and laboratory capability supports
you in your product development.
Our testing program includes:
• Pilot testing – pilot tests obtain all the necessary data for
• Feasibility studies – the first step for every new project is
a feasibility study that evaluates whether your product is
drying your product and to optimize your production process.
able to be dried, agglomerated, extracted, concentrated or
We cover all drying techniques to ascertain which gives the
whatever you need it to be. If you already have a prototype,
best results and fits with your existing capabilities. Our GMP-
we can investigate the best ways to recreate it on an
approved Pharma Test Station meets all regulatory guidelines
industrial scale with the same (or better) characteristics.
and is capable of producing samples for clinical trials.
• Laboratory analysis – our analytics laboratory is fully
• Pre-production analysis – with GEA's DRYING KINETICS
ANALYZER™ it is possible to conduct early stage tests using
equipped to investigate and allocate your product’s
only a few milliliter of material, covering a wide range of
characteristics. Key properties can be appraised, such as
feed properties and drying parameters. This keep costs and
droplet formation and expected behaviour during and after
timeframes to a minimum and can be incorporated into
the drying process, particle size distribution, bulk density,
Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations to optimize your
moisture content, photomicroscopic analysis, flowability
process design.
and hygroscopicity.
Moisture
DRYNETICS™ ANALYSIS by GEA
Time
Time
Drying chamber
• Size and position
• Morphology
• Temperature profiles
• Adhesion/stickiness
• Stickiness
• Moisture
• Deposits
• Velocity profiles
• Drying kinetics
• Temperature
3. CFD simulations
2. Advanced data analysis
1. Single droplet experiments
8 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The right technology for your product
Decades of engineering experience, first class application
Whatever your application, our proprietary drying systems
know-how and a passion for innovation have led us to create
deliver exceptional results with the reliability and energy efficiency
the world’s most complete portfolio of drying technologies.
you need to maintain a consistent, profitable operation.
TURN LIQUID
INTO POWDER,
AGGLOMERATES
OR GRANULATES
Use spray drying to remove the
moisture from liquid feedstocks such
as solutions, emulsions and pumpable
suspensions. This is an ideal approach
when your end-product must comply
with precise powder properties.
TURN WET POWDER
INTO DRY POWDER,
AGGLOMERATES
AND GRANULATES
Use fluid bed drying for powders,
granules, agglomerates and pellets
with an average particle size of
50-5,000 microns.
TURN WET SOLIDS OR
PASTE INTO POWDER
Use flash drying to obtain a fine,
homogeneous and non-agglomerated
dry product from pastes, filter cakes
and highly viscous liquids.
TURN WET SOLIDS INTO
DRY AGGLOMERATES
AND GRANULATES
Use rotary dryers, coolers and calciners
to dry and cool solids under the
toughest conditions.
TURN MELT
INTO POWDER
Use spray congealing to transform
melted feedstocks into free-flowing,
spherical particulates of a controlled
particle size.
CREATE CHEMICAL
REACTIONS
Spray drying can be used to allow
chemical reactions in atomized
droplets to create products with
specific characteristics.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 9
SPRAY
DRYING
Spray drying starts with the atomization of a liquid
feedstock into a spray of droplets. The droplets make
contact with hot air in a drying chamber, evaporate
and form particles.
P10
FLUID BED
DRYING AND
PROCESSING
Fluid bed drying achieves uniform processing
conditions by passing a gas through a product layer
under controlled velocity conditions to create a
fluidized state.
P16
FLASH
DRYING
Wet material is dispersed into a stream of heated air
or other gas which conveys it through a drying duct
where high heat and mass transfer rates rapidly dry
the product.
P22
ROTARY
DRYING AND
PROCESSING
Rotary systems operate on the principle of lifting and
conveying solids through a rotating drum while a hot
or cold gas stream is brought into direct or indirect
contact with the solid product.
P26
SPRAY
CONGEALING
The melt is sprayed into a cooling chamber. After
contact with cool air, the spray solidifies. The
atomization is either done by nozzle spraying or by
prilling using a rotary atomizer.
P30
SPRAY DRYER
REACTOR
P31
Reactions between gas phase components and liquid
phase chemicals are very rapid and have a uniform
heat impact. As a result, spray dryers can be used
to create substances such as paraformaldehyde,
gelatinized starch and silica gels, and can also be
used to reduce harmful emissions in flue gases.
10 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Your spray drying solution
Our fully customizable and highly reliable spray dryers
deliver quality powders that enable you to meet your
customers’ needs today and tomorrow.
The industry standard
Our specialists will make sure you get the optimal spray drying
Spray drying is the most widely used process for the production
solution and support for your needs. Furthermore, in order to keep
of powders, granulates or agglomerates from a liquid or a slurry.
your employees safe and your environmental footprint low, GEA
It is the preferred method for drying thermally-sensitive materials
plants are fully compliant with all international regulations.
and due to its consistent particle size distribution, the process is
well suited to many other product types.
Your products
Spray drying converts liquid into a dry or semi-dry powdered
Technology that meets your needs
product.
Our spray dryers range from conventional models through to
• Agrochemicals
highly sophisticated systems that can be specially calibrated for
• Ceramics
your individual requirements.
• Detergents & surface active agents
• Dyestuffs & pigments
Every spray dryer consists of a feed pump, atomizer, air heater,
• Hardmetals
air disperser, drying chamber and systems for exhaust air clean-
• Inorganic chemicals
ing and powder recovery. The process converts a liquid feed into
• Organic chemicals
droplets which are evaporated under controlled conditions to
• Polymers & resins
produce a dry powder with specific properties.
• Tannins and other products
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Unique selection of atomizer systems and
chamber designs
• Tailor-made designs to meet your specific requirements
• Superior powder quality with operational excellence and
low energy consumption
• Long operating intervals between cleaning
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 11
12 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
World-class system design
Since your powder’s characteristics can vary depending on the
initial product and your requirements, no single spray dryer is
suitable for every application.
Spray Dryer with
VIBRO-FLUIDIZER™
Feed
GEA offers a complete range of system and chamber designs
that give you the flexibility and control to maintain a highly
efficient process and production.
Product
Fluidized Spray Dryer FSD™
NOZZLE TOWER™
Feed
Feed
Product
Product
Spray Dryer, closed-cycle
configuration
HC Spray Dryer
Feed
Product
Feed
Product Product
Fresh air
Drying air
Feed
Product
Exhaust air
Powder discharge
Condensate
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 13
Spray dryer chamber designs
1. Co-current, with
integrated fluid bed,
rotary or nozzle atomizer.
2. Co-current, conical base with rotary
atomizer, for both heat sensitive and
stable products.
3. Co-current, flat base with
rotary atomizer, for special products.
Also suitable for spray congealing.
4. Co-current, with rotary
atomizer, for drying chemicals
at high inlet air temperatures.
5. Co-current, with rotary atomizer,
for drying mineral concentrates at
ultra high inlet air temperatures.
6. Co-current, compound air disperser
with rotary atomizer, for very large
volumes of high inlet air temperatures.
7. Co-current,
with nozzle atomizer.
8. Co-current,
with nozzle atomizer.
9. Co-current,
with nozzle atomizer.
10. Counter-current,
with nozzle atomizer.
11. Mixed flow,
with nozzle atomizer for coarse
powders of heat-stable products.
12. Mixed flow,
with nozzle atomizer.
13. Mixed flow, with integrated fluid
bed, rotary or nozzle atomizer for
non-dusty, free-flowing products.
14. Counter-current, with integrated
fluid bed, rotary atomization for
spray cooling/congealing.
14 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
The heart of your spray drying plant
As the central and most important part of your spray drying
installation, GEA rotary atomizers and nozzles are engineered
with precision and manufactured by us to the highest standards.
Quality where you need it most
Thanks to our proprietary designs, our feed systems handle
Productivity, reliability and efficiency are not only a result of
higher solids content and operate at relatively low pressures to
superior design, but of quality components. For spray drying,
keep your output high and energy costs low.
one of the most important components is the GEA rotary atomizer,
which sits at the heart of your system and forms the spray.
As we often create application-specific solutions for the food and
pharmaceutical industries, we also take great care when creating
GEA offers a full range of atomizer types or corresponding
systems that require exceptional hygiene and surface quality or
nozzles. Different designs result in different powder
that are prone to clogging and would otherwise require frequent
characteristics; the right one for you depends on the nature of
maintenance.
your initial product and what you are aiming to achieve. Our
specialists will help you understand which is most appropriate
The GEA rotary atomizer
for your requirements.
Johan E. Nyrop (the founder of “Niro Atomizer”, the company
which later became part of GEA), obtained his first patent for a
Engineered for your application
rotating atomizer in 1924. Since then, GEA’s exceptional rotary
GEA rotary atomizers help you to obtain key production para-
atomizer designs have led the industry for performance, availability,
meters, such as, particle size, particle size distribution, density
superior product quality and the lowest energy consumption.
and through-put.
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Unique and patented nozzle designs
• Rotary atomizer with market-leading velocity
• Broad selection of atomizer wheel designs
• Abrasive and viscous feeds beyond the norm
• Proprietary designs give you the broadest range of
powder properties
Decades of spray drying know-how goes into
our patented technology, enabling you to create
quality powders with specific properties.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 15
Co-current nozzle
Fountain nozzle
Rotary atomizer
COMBI-NOZZLE™
16 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Your fluid bed drying solution
Perfect for heat sensitive products, fluid bed drying can be an
exceptionally useful addition to your spray drying production
process or a highly effective standalone solution.
Higher drying rates
Fluid bed drying is an efficient method to remove residual moisture
from an existing powder. During the process, the moist powder
is fluidized, dried and carried through each section of the fluid
• Robust GILL PLATE™ distributor plate for easy emptying and
conveying of oversized material
• Hot air plenum chambers for excellent air distribution and
easy draining
bed using hot gas blown through specially perforated plates.
• Heat panel banks on overhead rollers reduce heat damage
Fluid bed drying is ideally suited for powders, granules, agglomer-
• Internal BARRIER GAS™ heat tracing and flushing prevents
and allow for easy inspections
ates and pellets with an average particle size between 50 microns
and 5 mm.
wet deposits and condensation
• Special high temperature fluidized-bed design for optimum
energy efficiency
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™
One of our most efficient fluid bed dryers, the CONTACT
Your products
FLUIDIZER™ is a prime example of how our latest systems
Turn wet powder into dry powder and powder into agglomerates
have been designed to meet your specific requirements.
and granulates.
• For drying moist or damp powders, filter cake or centrifuge cake
Key features include:
• Multiple drying sections for optimal heat economy and uniform powder properties
• Proprietary rotary feed distributor for constant temperatures
and moisture, superior fluidization and material dispersion
• Optimal plug flow drying conditions using compartments
connected by underflow gates to reduce backmixing
• For powders, granules, agglomerates and pellets with average
particle size of 50 microns to 5 mm
• Plastics; s-PVC, HDPE, ABS, PE, PTFE, POM
• PTA, CTA
• Sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate
• Silica, sand
• Fertilizers
• Calcium chloride, salts
• Amino acids
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Tailor-made systems
• Unique rotary feed spreading system
• Patented gas distribution system
• Self-emptying design
• Small plant footprint reduces overall building costs
• High thermal efficiency
• Can be supplied in open- or closed-cycle designs
• Operates with low-pressure steam
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 17
PRODUCT DRYING CURVE
Volatile content
Powder temperature
Time
18 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Fluid bed process systems
The GEA product range includes serveral types of fluid beds.
We offer two types of fluid bed models, designed to optimize
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™
the flow pattern of solids within the dryer and cater for particles
of all sizes.
• Back mix fluid bed drying – for feeds that require a degree of
Feed
drying before fluidization is established
• Plug flow fluid bed drying – for powders that are directly
fluidizable and can achieve the controlled residence time that
is the pre-requisite for obtaining the right particle properties
A fluid bed can be stationary or vibrating and is installed either
as individual units or combined unit to form a specialized solu-
Product
tion for effective drying.
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™ in side-by-side
configuration, closed-cycle
SPRAY FLUIDIZER™
Feed
Feed
Product
Flash Dryer System
Product
Mechanical Granulation System
Feed
Liquid
Granulator
Feed
Product
Product
Fresh air
Drying air
Feed
Exhaust air
Powder discharge
Condensate
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 19
Fluid bed types
Back-mix flow
Plug flow
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™ (Type FBY)
VIBRO-FLUIDIZER™
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™
with integrated
filters
CONTACT FLUIDIZER™ (Type FBC)
HIGH TEMPERATURE FLUIDIZER
20 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Fluid bed – key features
At GEA, we have invested in decades of research, drying
expertise and application know-how to offer you the
industry’s leading portfolio of fluid bed hardware.
Our fluid beds can be used as a stand-alone unit for a specific
GILL PLATE™
purpose or be incorporated into a larger system, depending on
The GILL PLATE™ distributes the gas for the fluidization of the
your requirements. All our systems are designed and built to
powder. It ensures an even gas distribution, effective transport
ensure you benefit from many years of trouble-free operation
of lumps and emptying of the fluid bed.
and efficient performance.
• Patented GEA design
Feed spreader
The GEA rotary feed spreader ensures uniform distribution of
• Number, size, and pattern of the gills are tailored to the
application
the wet feed material. This is an important stage for maintaining
• Excellent emptying and conveying of oversize material (if any)
the homogeneity of the Back-Mix section and thereby overall
• No backwards flow of particles
system performance.
• Not prone to clogging
• No discolored particles as rounded corners ensures no deposits
• Minimizes formation of lumps
• Efficient utilization of the Back-Mix section
GILL PLATE™
GEA rotary feed spreader
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 21
BARRIER GAS™ system
The patented BARRIER GAS™ heat tracing and flushing system
lowers your investment costs. It is a highly effective way to
prevent wet deposits and condensation, which helps to reduce
possible corrosion damage.
• Flushing of ceiling and fluid bed walls above the product layer
• Internal hot air tracing instead of outside hot water tracing
• Allows for single wall construction
• No hot water tracing system means lower costs
• Easier and cheaper installation
BARRIER GAS™
• Less maintenance
Internal heating panels
Our heating panels have been engineered for maximum thermal
efficiency and are a highly reliable and vital component for
transferring energy required for evaporation.
• Fully submerged in the fluidized powder
• High heat transfer
• Designed with virtually no horizontal surfaces, reducing risk
of heat damage to powder
Internal heating panels
• Panel banks run on overhead rollers
• Heating panels can be inspected and cleaned externally
• External, movable frame with a trolley for easy outside inspection
High temperature chamber
Our high temperature chamber design allows highly efficient
drying with underbed temperatures up to 650oC.
• Insulated modular design overcomes expansion
• Optimized low airflow
• Internal insulation wall with continous and washable lining
• Small space requirement
High temperature chamber
22 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Your flash drying solution
The flash dryer is particularly suited to products that dry with
a short residence time owing to the easy removal of free
moisture or where diffusion to the surface occurs readily.
Flash drying process
Your products
Flash drying is defined as the drying of particles that are sus-
A broad range of feed materials including powders, cakes, granules,
pended and conveyed in a hot air stream. Drying takes place in
crystals, flakes, pastes, gels, and slurries can be processed. For
a matter of seconds. Wet material is dispersed into a stream of
slurries, pastes, or sticky materials, back mixing of the wet feed
heated air or other gas which conveys it through a drying duct
with a portion of dry product to produce a suitable conditioned
where high heat and mass transfer rates rapidly dry the product.
material is required.
• Agrochemicals
Product is separated using cyclones, and/or bag filters. Typically,
• Calcium silicate
cyclones are followed by scrubbers or bag filters for final cleaning
• Calcium phosphate
of the exhaust gases to meet current emission requirements. • Coal
• Lignin
Gentle drying of large quantities
• Lithium carbonate
High drying temperatures can be used with many products since
• Polystyrene (EPS)
flashing-off of surface moisture instantly cools the drying gas
• Ferrous and non-ferrous ores and powders
without overheating the product.
Many of the largest dryers in the world are flash dryers – some
exceeding 20 tonnes of water evaporation per hour in a single
system. Inlet air temperatures range from 100°C to 650°C while
airflow can exceed 200,000 m³/h.
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Promotes quality on temperature sensitive products
• Flexibility to work with different dewatering systems and
to enable use with friable and non-friable wet feeds
• Enables energy savings and system integration
• Suitable for operation with solvent and recovery thereof
• Cost effective and reliable with low maintenance and
cleaning requirements
Ring dryer
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 23
Flash dryer types
GEA offer you a market leading range of flash dryer types
designed to your product and capacity requirements.
Flash Dryer
Product
Feed
Feed-type Ring Dryer
Feed-type Ring Dryer with partial gas recycle
Product
Product
Feed
Feed
Ring Dryer
SWIRL FLUIDIZER™
Product
Feed
Product
Feed
DUAL FEED SYSTEM
Liquid feed
Fresh air
Drying air
Feed
Exhaust air
Powder discharge
Condensate
24 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Ring dryer
The presence of an internal manifold as classifier differentiates
the ring dryer from the flash dryer. Ring dryers provide control
of residence time and particle size.
Efficient and even drying
Ring dryers employ the same basic principle as flash dryers in
that the material to be dried is dispersed and conveyed through
the dryer in a hot air stream. Particle size reduction is often
provided by a disintegrator within the dryer. Ring dryers
incorporate a centrifugal classifier allowing selective internal
recirculation of semi-dried solids, effectively lengthening the
retention time of larger particles in the dryer, while finer material,
which dries more rapidly, exits the dryer and gets directly into
the cyclone.
Thermal efficiency
To optimize thermal efficiency and where inertization is
required, recycling of exhaust gases can be used. This Partial
Gas Recycle (PGR) configuration can be implemented on all
our drying systems as well as retrofitted on customer’s existing
drying operations.
Two feed-type ring dryer with partial gas recycle
Ring dryer
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Use of the disintegrator/disperser in combination with
the manifold provides close control of particle size,
product moisture and exhaust temperature
• Provides the highest driving force to minimize required
airflow and resulting dryer size and fan power.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 25
SWIRL FLUIDIZER™
The SWIRL FLUIDIZER™ is a cost-effective system for obtaining
fine, homogeneous high quality powders from pastes, filter
cakes and other viscous liquids.
Disintegration and drying in a single step
Your products
The SWIRL FLUIDIZER™ is a flash type dryer for products that
Obtain a fine, homogeneous and non-agglomerated
are difficult to pump and disintegrate. It produces a fine powder
dry product from pastes, filter cakes and highly viscous
in a single step without the need to dilute or back-mix the feed
liquids in one compact process step.
before drying and is suitable for a wide range of products and
• Titanium dioxide
applications.
• Iron oxide
• Kaolin
Its ability to handle even thick pastes makes the SWIRL
• Silica
FLUIDIZER™ an ideal alternative to a conventional spray dryer.
• Zeolite
Unlike many other types of systems, processing time is short
• Aluminium and magnesium hydroxide
and eliminates the need for costly post-treatments.
GEA’s SWIRL FLUIDIZER™ is available as open, semi and
closed-cycle plant.
Dual feed system (patent pending)
Our Dual Feed System is able to dry products that have previously
been impossible due to their solid content or low viscosity. The
dual feed technology means that:
• The enlarged, moist surface ensures a rapid evaporation
of the liquid
• Liquid feed-rate can be controlled very accurately
• Evaporation load of the dryer can be kept constant
• No need for additional mixing equipment
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Designed for non-pumpable products
• Good tolerance towards changes in feed properties
• Plant requires minimal space
• Maintenance-friendly design
• Handles very high drying temperatures
• Compatible with heat-sensitive products
• Dual Feed System
26 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Your rotary processing solution
A GEA rotary system is your perfect choice for processing of
heavy products, products with long retention times and for high
temperature operations under the toughest process conditions.
Principles of rotary processing
Heat transfer, product distribution and efficiency are influenced
Rotary processors operate on the principle of showering or
by the internal design, type of heating and product flow arrange-
cascading the product through a hot or cold gas stream moving
ment, while the long but variable retention time governs the rate
either in parallel or counter-flow. The gas induces the evapora-
of water diffusion or degree of cooling.
tion of the moisture or the cooling of the solid material.
Your products
Rotary drums consist of a slightly inclined rotating cylinder, fitted
Processing of solid material like powder, granulate and crystals
with a series of peripheral flights arranged to lift, distribute and
• Minerals
transport the material. The flights are designed to suit the particular
• Fertilizers
handling characteristics of the material, which may vary with
• Phosphate rock
increasing dryness.
• Potash
• Sand & aggregates
• Bauxite
• DDGS
• Fine chemicals
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Robust and simple construction
• High reliability under toughest working conditions
• Suited for heavy products and long retention times
• Permits high temperatures and variable particle sizes
• No pretreatment required for high moisture products
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 27
Rotary types
Rotary systems include indirectly heated rotary dryers and
calciners, direct fired rotary calciners, direct or indirect rotary
Rotary Dryer
coolers, as well as conditioning drums for glazing and coating.
Feed
Product
Rotary Dryer with partial gas recycle
Rotary Calciner, indirectly heated
Combustion
exhaust
Feed
Feed
Product
Product
Rotary Conditioner
Rotary Cooler
Product
chamber
Feed
Solution
pump
Cooling
liquid
Product
Rollers
Fresh air
Drying air
Feed
Exhaust air
Powder discharge
Condensate
28 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Rotary drying, cooling, calcining
and conditioning
Whether fine chemicals or heavy-duty minerals –
you will find flexibility and reliability in a GEA rotary system.
Rotary dryer / cooler
Rotary dryers handle a vast range of materials. Noted for their
process flexibility and robust construction, the design permits
the use of the highest possible drying temperatures. Compared
to other dryers they are insensitive to wide fluctuations in
throughput and product size.
GEA supplies two basic forms of rotary coolers, the counterflow
cascade type, and the indirect type which uses recirculated
cooling water, either sprayed on the outside of the drum, or
circulated through internal channels. Cascade coolers are widely
used for coarse and granular materials. Indirect coolers are more
Rotary dryer / cooler
suitable for the gentle handling of high temperature, fine and
dusty products discharged from kilns, calciners and ovens.
Rotary calciner
Calciners are used for applications where it is necessary to
change the “state” of the material or drive a chemical or physical
reaction.
Direct fired units are suited to high-temperature applications
and indirectly heated calciners are used for fine, dusty materials,
including those necessitating an inert atmosphere, or for applications where contamination is to be avoided.
Conditioning
Rotary calciner
Conditioning systems feature a condition drum and fluid bed for
glazing, polishing and drying of granular material, which significantly improves product quality, operating efficiency and minimizes dust loading. The lifters, drum angle, spray pattern, rotation
speed and residence time are be adjusted to meet the required
product specification.
Rotary conditioner
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 29
Contact column processors
GEA’s contact column processors are used for efficient cooling
or heating of free-flowing powders, crystals and granules –
your ecological and economical solution for this application.
Feed
The column processor works on the principle of gravity. The
Feed
product slowly descends in plug flow through a column incor-
Powder discharge
porating bundles of thermal contact plates, in which the cooling
or heating medium flows: cooling water, thermal oil, steam etc.
Heating or
cooling medium
Your products
Capacities range from pilot plant scale up to 100 tons / hour for
key applications including:
• Salts
• Potash
• Ammonium sulphate
• Calcium chloride
• Metal powders
• Sand
• Polymers
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Highly efficient heating or cooling process
• No moving parts
• Easy to operate and maintain
• No or minimal air handling equipment required
• Long residence time possible
Product
30 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Spray congealing –
turn melt into powder
Spray congealing is the most effective method for transforming
your melted feedstock into spherical particles of a specific size
to create powders that meet your ideal flow-rate specifications.
Spray congealing is the term given to the transition of a melt
Your products
from a soft or fluid state to a rigid or solid state by cooling.
Create average particle sizes of 50-2,000 microns (or even 3-50
microns using our special nozzles).
The liquid melt is atomized into a spray of fine droplets of spheri-
• Wax
cal shape inside a spray cooling chamber. Here, the droplets meet
• Stearic acid
a sufficiently cold airstream to solidify the droplets into spherical
• Glycerides
powder particles, creating a high quality free-flowing powder.
• Emulsifiers
• Bisphenol A
Quality and control
• Magnesium chloride
As the atomization and air distribution technology for spray
• Monoglycerides
congealing is the same as that applied in the spray drying
• Sodium bisulphate
process, GEA offers unmatched application know-how and
• Paraformaldehyde
production control to ensure your product has exactly the
Spray atomization and
final powder in spray
congealing of melted
fat and hydrogenated
vegetable oils.
right properties.
Our advanced spray congealing technology means you can even
create average particle sizes ranging from 50 to 2,000 microns. If
you require even smaller sizes, our special GEA two-fluid nozzles
can create particles ranging from 3 to 50 microns.
YOUR ADVANTAGES
• Compact plant design means a smaller building
• Rotary prilling wheel atomization using our unique
rotary atomizer
• Flexible particle sizes using simple prill wheel modification
• Integrated fluid bed design
• Simple operation
• Narrow and uniform particle distribution
for free-flowing products
GEA spray congealing chamber with integrated fluid bed.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 31
Spray dryer reactor –
create chemical reactions
This spray drying process can be used to create rapid
and highly uniform chemical reactions between gas
phase components and liquid phase chemicals.
Feed
Polymerization and Gelatinization
Feed
Spray drying can also be used to create polymerization reactions
with specific properties by controlling the drying atmosphere. The
resulting product is discharged as a finished powder, that requires
no further treatment. Spray drying is well suited for creating
gelatinized products. Consistent quality is achieved due to the
immediate and uniform heat impact from the drying gas, giving
Fresh air
Drying air
ideal conditions for the gelatinization process. Also, two different
Feed
liquids can be mixed at the moment of atomization, resulting in a
Exhaust air
powder that typically will be ready for use out of the dryer.
Powder discharge
Effective pollutant removal
The spray drying process is effective in cleaning flue gases from coal
fired power stations and waste incineration plants. The acidic components are absorbed into slaked lime to create a dry powder that is
often used in building materials, or allows for depositing in landfill.
Spray drying
reactor design
Product
32 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Complete efficiency
and control
A class-leading installation is one half of your solution; a powerful
automation and control system that gives you complete command
over its vast array of complex processes completes the picture.
Advanced software systems
An intuitive user interface allows you to monitor and control every
With unmatched competence in every aspect of the spray drying
part of your installation with ease and our intelligent, automated
process, GEA provides reliable, flexible and user-friendly soft-
safety systems alert you at the first sign of irregularity so you can
ware systems that drive performance and efficiency across your
address any issue far in advance of it becoming a serious problem.
plant’s operations.
Our advanced plant management solutions include:
Optimized performance
• PLC and SCADA programming and development
As the central ‘brain’ that integrates and governs your network
• Track and trace control
of components, hardware and systems, our plant management
• Instrumentation and industrial net-working
software enables you to oversee and optimize production and
• Data logging and reporting
to keep productivity in line with your commercial and strategic
• Electrical design, hardware and instruments
objectives.
• Risk assessment and failure-mode effect analysis (FMEA)
Our systems also keep you compliant with all international
standards.
GEA’s state-of-the-art control system integrates
historian logging, tracking, tracing and reporting
into a comprehensive and fully customizable plant
management solution.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 33
Stay productive,
protected and compliant
Keeping your plant in optimal condition is the best way to
extend its lifespan and to make sure you stay compliant and
your workforce stays safe.
Safety first
Our safety services cover:
The very nature of powder production means that your process
• EU directives and harmonized standards – consultation on
will generate a fine dust that is suspended in air, which can lead
matters related to the directives and the CE marking of plants
to explosions or fires.
and equipment
• Technical consulting service – review of all compliance issues
Each year, hundreds of companies rely on our comprehensive
and procedures, with advice for risk reduction measures
safety assessment programmes to safeguard against these dangers
• Technical documentation service – guidance in drafting an EC
and minimize risks to their equipment, employees and reputation.
Declaration of Conformity and other mandatory documentation
• Explosion protection advisors – on-site inspection, reports and
Evaluating safety
advice for the specification and installation of safety equipment
GEA offers a complete range of services for the evaluation of your
on new installations and existing plants
plant’s condition and operating environment. If additional safety
measures are needed, we will help you plan the best way to im-
Protective measures
plement them with minimal disruption, downtime and expense.
• Venting systems to direct explosive pressure away from
We ensure that your GEA drying plant complies with all inter-
• Suppression systems that prevent the release of hazardous
equipment
national legislation, including ATEX, and can also provide the
chemicals
input for a detailed Explosion Protection Document – something
• Designing the plant to withstand explosions (containment)
many authorities and insurance companies demand as a guaran-
• Isolation systems that prevent propagation of an explosion
tee of compliance.
• Automated fire extinguishing systems
SAFETY SYSTEMS
• Temperature switches
• Air flow switches for cooling air
• CO monitoring
• Flow control
• Vibration monitoring of rotary atomizer
34 · CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
Your project is in
safe hands
With over 10,000 installations across virtually every industry and
hundreds of new projects in progress every year, we offer unparalleled
experience in managing your project from start to finish.
The right people
On time and on budget
Over eight decades, we’ve fine-tuned our approach to maintain-
Thanks to our vast expertise, our proven and trusted approach
ing the highest standards of quality and efficiency at every stage.
ensures a reliable outcome every time, on time and on budget.
As a key part of this, we allocate a dedicated Project Manager as
This includes:
your single point of contact to keep everything transparent and
• Initial meetings to get to know everyone involved and outline
tightly organized, and who fronts a larger team of specialists
hand-picked for your specific project.
project expectations
• Basic Engineering Package to highlight potential technical
issues and solutions
The right training
We have invested heavily in training all our Project Managers
to have the right skill set, application expertise and experience
to guide you seamlessly through the process. To be qualified as
a GEA Project Manager, our staff must have extensive exposure
on accounts of all sizes, locally and globally, and have passed an
international project management course.
• Planning for key milestones, site management, installation,
commissioning and safety audits
• 3D CAD plant design, including ERP systems, for optimization
and fault-finding prior to construction
• Transparent and timely management of your plant’s construction and installation
• Commissioning by the project manager, process control expert
and process technologist
Not only does this guarantee excellent technical and organizational strengths, it also ensures they possess every attribute
Finally, when everything has been thoroughly tested and your
necessary for the smooth running of your project, including
employees trained in its operation, the plant is handed over to
strong communication skills, multiple languages and solid
you for production, with our on-going support as needed.
problem-solving abilities.
TAILORED FINANCE SOLUTIONS
Our finance team can help you set up a package
tailored to your requirements, from a simple
leasing contract to complete project support.
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY · 35
GEA Service – For your
continued success
For us, service and partnership go hand in hand. We will provide
the proactive support you need over your plant’s lifecycle to keep
you updated, upgraded and able to upscale as opportunities arise.
Working with GEA Service means partnering with a dedicated
team of service experts. Our focus is to build, maintain, and
improve customer performance throughout the entire life cycle
of the plant and its equipment.
• Beginning of Life Services – Getting you started with seamless
support for instant productivity and performance
• Lifetime Services – Keeping it running with the cost-efficient
way of ensuring safety and reliability
• Extended Life Services – Constantly improving by sharing our
knowledge to safeguard your investment
• Consulting & Enhanced Operations – Together with you by
enduring commitment to you and your business
We live our values.
Excellence • Passion • Integrity • Responsibility • GEA-versity
GEA is a global technology company with multi-billion euro sales operations in more than 50 countries. Founded in
1881 the company is one of the largest providers of innovative equipment and process technology. GEA is listed in the
GEA Denmark
GEA Process Engineering A/S
Gladsaxevej 305
Tel +45 39 54 54 54
gea.com/contact
DK-2860 Soeborg
Fax +45 39 54 58 00
gea.com
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