R&amp
Operating Manual
EMI Test Receiver
R&S ESL3 R&S ESL6
1300.5001K03
1300.5001K06
1300.5001K13
1300.5001K16
Test and Measurement
1300.5053.62-03
Dear Customer,
®
Throughout this manual, the EMI Test Receiver R&S ESL is abbreviated as R&S ESL.
®
R&S is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Trade names are trademarks of the owners
1300.5053.62-03
Kundeninformation zur Batterieverordnung
(BattV)
Dieses Gerät enthält eine schadstoffhaltige Batterie.
Diese darf nicht mit dem Hausmüll entsorgt werden.
Nach Ende der Lebensdauer darf die Entsorgung nur
über eine Rohde&Schwarz-Kundendienststelle oder eine
geeignete Sammelstelle erfolgen.
Safety Regulations for Batteries
(according to BattV)
This equipment houses a battery containing harmful
substances that must not be disposed of as normal
household waste.
After its useful life, the battery may only be disposed of
at a Rohde & Schwarz service center or at a suitable
depot.
Normas de Seguridad para Baterías
(Según BattV)
Este equipo lleva una batería que contiene sustancias
perjudiciales, que no se debe desechar en los
contenedores de basura domésticos.
Después de la vida útil, la batería sólo se podrá eliminar
en un centro de servicio de Rohde & Schwarz o en un
depósito apropiado.
Consignes de sécurité pour batteries
(selon BattV)
Cet appareil est équipé d'une pile comprenant des
substances nocives. Ne jamais la jeter dans une
poubelle pour ordures ménagéres.
Une pile usagée doit uniquement être éliminée par un
centre de service client de Rohde & Schwarz ou peut
être collectée pour être traitée spécialement comme
déchets dangereux.
1171.0300.51
D/E/ESP/F-1
Customer Information Regarding Product Disposal
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) Act is an implementation of
the following EC directives:
•
•
2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and
2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in
electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS).
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product must not be disposed of
in the standard domestic refuse. Even disposal via the municipal collection
points for waste electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept for the
environmental-friendly disposal or recycling of waste material and fully assumes its
obligation as a producer to take back and dispose of electrical and electronic waste
in accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose of the product.
1171.0200.52-01.01
EC Certificate of Conformity
Certificate No.: 2008-43
This is to certify that:
Equipment type
Stock No.
Designation
ESL3
ESL6
1300.5001.03/.13
1300.5001.06/.16
EMI Test Receiver
FSL-B4
FSL-B5
FSL-B8
FSL-B10
FSL-B22
FSL-B30
FSL-B31
FSL-Z4
1300.6008.02
1300.6108.02
1300.5701.02
1300.6208.02
1300.5953.02
1300.6308.02
1300.6408.02
1300.5430.02
OCXO Reference Frequency
Additional Interfaces
Gated Sweep Function
GPIB Interface
RF Amplifier
DC Power Supply
NIMH Battery Pack
Additional Charger Unit
complies with the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Union on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States
-
relating to electrical equipment for use within defined voltage limits
(2006/95/EC)
-
relating to electromagnetic compatibility
(2004/108/EC)
Conformity is proven by compliance with the following standards:
EN 61010-1 : 2001
EN 61326 : 1997 + A1 : 1998 + A2 : 2001 + A3 : 2003
EN 55011 : 1998 + A1 : 1999 + A2 : 2002, Klasse B
EN 61000-3-2 : 2000 + A2 : 2005
EN 61000-3-3 : 1995 + A1 : 2001
For the assessment of electromagnetic compatibility, the limits of radio interference for Class B
equipment as well as the immunity to interference for operation in industry have been used as a basis.
Affixing the EC conformity mark as from 2008
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, D-81671 München
Munich, 2008-06-18
Central Quality Management MF-QZ / Radde
1300.5001.01
CE
E-2
R&S ESL
Documentation Overview
Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S ESL is divided as follows:
•
Quick Start Guide
•
Online Help
•
Operating Manual
•
Internet Site
•
Service Manual
•
Release Notes
Quick Start Guide
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on the CD. It provides the
information needed to set up and start working with the instrument. Basic operations and basic measurements
are described. Also a brief introduction to remote control is given. The manual includes general information
(e.g. Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 2
Putting into Operation
Chapter 3
Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 4
Basic Operations
Chapter 5
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 6
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix A
Printer Interface
Appendix B
LAN Interface
Online Help
The Online Help is part of the firmware. It provides a quick access to the description of the instrument functions
and the remote control commands. For information on other topics refer to the Quick Start Guide, Operating
Manual and Service Manual provided in PDF format on CD or in the Internet. For detailed information on how
to use the Online Help, refer to the chapter "Basic Operations" in the Quick Start Guide.
Operating Manual
This manual is a supplement to the Quick Start Guide and is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with
the instrument. To retain the familiar structure that applies to all operating manuals of Rohde&Schwarz Test &
Measurement instruments, the chapters 1 and 3 exist, but only in form of references to the corresponding
Quick Start Guide chapters.
In this manual, all instrument functions are described in detail. For additional information on default settings
and parameters, refer to the data sheets. The set of measurement examples in the Quick Start Guide is
expanded by more advanced measurement examples. In addition to the brief introduction to remote control in
the Quick Start Guide, a description of the commands and programming examples is given. Information on
maintenance, instrument interfaces and error messages is also provided.
The manual includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Putting into Operation, see Quick Start Guide chapters 1 and 2
Chapter 2
Advanced Measurement Examples
1300.5053.12
0.1
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Documentation Overview
R&S ESL
Chapter 3
Manual Operation, see Quick Start Guide chapter 4
Chapter 4
Instrument Functions
Chapter 5
Remote Control - Basics
Chapter 6
Remote Control - Commands
Chapter 7
Remote Control - Programming Examples
Chapter 8
Maintenance
Chapter 9
Error Messages
This manual is delivered with the instrument on CD only. The printed manual can be ordered from Rohde &
Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Internet Site
The Internet site at: R&S ESL EMI Test Receiver provides the most up to date information on the R&S ESL.
The current operating manual at a time is available as printable PDF file in the download area. Also provided
for download are firmware updates including the associated release notes, instrument drivers, current data
sheets and application notes.
Service Manual
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. It informs on how to check
compliance with rated specifications, on instrument function, repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination. It
contains all information required for repairing the R&S ESL by the replacement of modules. The manual
includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified functions, eliminated problems,
and last minute changes to the documentation. The corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title
page of the release notes. The current release notes are provided in the Internet.
1300.5053.12
0.2
E-2
R&S ESL
Conventions Used in the Documentation
Conventions Used in the Documentation
To visualize important information quickly and to recognize information types faster, a few conventions has
been introduced. The following character formats are used to emphasize words:
Bold
All names of graphical user interface elements as
dialog boxes, softkeys, lists, options, buttons etc.
All names of user interface elements on the front
and rear panel as keys, connectors etc.
Courier
All remote commands (apart from headings, see
below)
Capital letters
All key names (front panel or keyboard)
The description of a softkey (Operating Manual and Online Help) always starts with the softkey name, and is
followed by explaining text and one or more remote control commands framed by two lines. Each remote
command is placed in a single line.
The description of remote control commands (Operating Manual and Online Help) always starts with the
command itself, and is followed by explaining text including an example, the characteristics and the mode
(standard or only with certain options) framed by two grey lines. The remote commands consist of
abbreviations to accelerate the procedure. All parts of the command that have to be entered are in capital
letters, the rest is added in small letters to complete the words and transport their meaning.
1300.5053.12
0.3
E-2
R&S ESL
1
Putting into Operation
Putting into Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapters 1, "Front and Rear Panel", and 2, "Preparing for
Use".
1300.5053.12
1.1
E-2
R&S ESL
Advanced Measurement Examples
Contents of Chapter 2
2
Advanced Measurement Examples ............................................................. 2.1
Test Setup .........................................................................................................................................2.2
Measurement of Harmonics ............................................................................................................2.2
High–Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements ...............................................................................2.4
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals ..................................................................................2.6
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution Bandwidth ....................................2.6
Intermodulation Measurements ..................................................................................................2.7
Measurement example – Measuring the R&S ESL's intrinsic intermodulation...............2.9
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise ..................................................................................2.13
Measurement example – Measuring level at low S/N ratios.........................................2.14
Noise Measurements .....................................................................................................................2.17
Measuring Noise Power Density...............................................................................................2.17
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise power density of the R&S ESL at
1 GHz and calculating the R&S ESL's noise figure ......................................................2.17
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel ................................................2.19
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise of the R&S ESL at 1 GHz in a
1.23 MHz channel bandwidth with the channel power function....................................2.20
Measuring Phase Noise............................................................................................................2.24
Measurement example – Measuring the phase noise of a signal generator at a carrier
offset of 10 kHz .............................................................................................................2.24
Measurements on Modulated Signals ..........................................................................................2.25
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power .......................................................2.25
Measurement example 1 – ACPR measurement on an CDMA 2000 signal................2.26
Measurement example 2 – Measuring adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA uplink
signal.............................................................................................................................2.32
Amplitude Distribution Measurements......................................................................................2.36
Measurement example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of white noise generated by
the R&S ESL .................................................................................................................2.36
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)...................................................................................2.39
Direct Measurements................................................................................................................2.39
Basic Measurement Example .......................................................................................2.39
DUTs with very Large Gain...........................................................................................2.41
Frequency–Converting Measurements ....................................................................................2.42
Fixed LO Measurements...............................................................................................2.42
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB).....................................................................2.42
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I-2.1
E-2
R&S ESL
2
Advanced Measurement Examples
Advanced Measurement Examples
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S ESL using typical measurements as examples.
Additional background information on the settings is given. Examples of more basic character are
provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, as an introduction. The following topics are included in the
Quick Start Guide:
•
Performing a Level and Frequency Meaurement
•
Measuring a Sinusoidal Signal
Measuring the Level and Frequency Using Markers
Measuring the Signal Frequency Using the Frequency Counter
•
Measuring Harmonics of Sinusoidal Signals
Measuring the Suppression of the First and Second Harmonic of an Input Signal
•
Measuring Signal Spectra with Multiple Signals
Separating Signals by Selecting the Resolution Bandwidth
Measuring the Modulation Depth of an AM–Modulated Carrier (Span > 0)
Measuring of AM–Modulated Signals
•
Measurements with Zero Span
Measuring the Power Characteristic of Burst Signals
Measuring the Signal–to–Noise Ratio of Burst Signals
Measurement of FM–Modulated Signals
•
Storing and Loading Instrument Settings
Storing an Instrument Configuration (without Traces)
Storing Traces
Loading an Instrument Configuration (with Traces)
Configuring Automatic Loading
1300.5053.12
2.1
E-2
Test Setup
R&S ESL
Test Setup
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S ESL. These are set with
the PRESET key. A complete listing of the standard settings can be found in chapter "Instrument
Functions", section "Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key".
In the following examples, a signal generator is used as a signal source. The RF output of the signal
generator is connected to the RF input of R&S ESL.
If a 65 MHz signal is required for the test setup, as an alternative to the signal generator, the internal 65
MHz reference generator can be used:
1. Switch on the internal reference generator.
Press the SETUP key.
Press the Service softkey.
Press the Input RF/Cal/TG softkey, until Cal is highlighted.
The internal 65 MHz reference generator is now on. The R&S ESL's RF input is switched off.
2. Switch on the RF input again for normal operation of the R&S ESL. Two ways are possible:
Press the PRESET key
Press the SETUP key.
Press the Service softkey.
Press the Input RF/Cal/TG softkey, until RF is highlighted.
The internal signal path of the R&S ESL is switched back to the RF input in order to resume
normal operation.
Measurement of Harmonics
Measuring the harmonics of a signal is a frequent problem which can be solved best by means of a
spectrum analyzer. In general, every signal contains harmonics which are larger than others.
Harmonics are particularly critical regarding high–power transmitters such as transceivers because
large harmonics can interfere with other radio services.
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear characteristics. They can often be reduced by lowpass filters.
Since the spectrum analyzer has a nonlinear characteristic, e.g. in its first mixer, measures must be
taken to ensure that harmonics produced in the spectrum analyzer do not cause spurious results. If
necessary, the fundamental wave must be selectively attenuated with respect to the other harmonics
with a highpass filter.
When harmonics are being measured, the obtainable dynamic range depends on the second harmonic
intercept of the spectrum analyzer. The second harmonic intercept is the virtual input level at the RF
input mixer at which the level of the 2nd harmonic becomes equal to the level of the fundamental wave.
In practice, however, applying a level of this magnitude would damage the mixer. Nevertheless the
available dynamic range for measuring the harmonic distance of a DUT can be calculated relatively
easily using the second harmonic intercept.
As shown in Fig. 2-1, the level of the 2
is reduced by 10 dB.
1300.5053.12
nd
harmonic drops by 20 dB if the level of the fundamental wave
2.2
E-2
R&S ESL
Measurement of Harmonics
Level display
/ dBm
50
40
2nd harmonic
intercept point /
dBm
30
1st harmonic
10
0
-10
2nd harmonic
1
-20
2
1
-30
1
-40
-50
-30 -20 -10
0
10
20
30
40
50
RF level
/ dBm
-60
-70
-80
Fig. 2-1
Extrapolation of the 1st and 2nd harmonics to the 2nd harmonic intercept at 40 dBm
The following formula for the obtainable harmonic distortion d2 in dB is derived from the straight–line
equations and the given intercept point:
d2 = S.H.I – PI
Note:
(1)
d2
=
harmonic distortion
PI
=
mixer level/dBm
S.H.I.
=
second harmonic intercept
The mixer level is the RF level applied to the RF input minus the set RF attenuation.
nd
The formula for the internally generated level P1 at the 2 harmonic in dBm is:
P1 = 2 PI – S.H.I.
(2)
The lower measurement limit for the harmonic is the noise floor of the spectrum analyzer. The harmonic
of the measured DUT should – if sufficiently averaged by means of a video filter – be at least 4 dB
above the noise floor so that the measurement error due to the input noise is less than 1 dB.
The following rules for measuring high harmonic ratios can be derived:
Select the smallest possible IF bandwidth for a minimal noise floor.
Select an RF attenuation which is high enough to just measure the harmonic ratio.
The maximum harmonic distortion is obtained if the level of the harmonic equals the intrinsic noise level
of the receiver. The level applied to the mixer, according to (2), is:
PI =
Pnoise / dBm + IP 2
2
(3)
At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz (noise level –143 dBm, S.H.I. = 40 dBm), the optimum mixer level is
– 51.5 dBm. According to (1) a maximum measurable harmonic distortion of 91.5 dB minus a minimum
S/N ratio of 4 dB is obtained.
1300.5053.12
2.3
E-2
Measurement of Harmonics
Note:
R&S ESL
If the harmonic emerges from noise sufficiently (approx. >15 dB), it is easy to check (by
changing the RF attenuation) whether the harmonics originate from the DUT or are generated
internally by the spectrum analyzer. If a harmonic originates from the DUT, its level remains
constant if the RF attenuation is increased by 10 dB. Only the displayed noise is increased by
10 dB due to the additional attenuation. If the harmonic is exclusively generated by the
spectrum analyzer, the level of the harmonic is reduced by 20 dB or is lost in noise. If both – the
DUT and the spectrum analyzer – contribute to the harmonic, the reduction in the harmonic
level is correspondingly smaller.
High–Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements
If harmonics have very small levels, the resolution bandwidth required to measure them must be
reduced considerably. The sweep time is, therefore, also increased considerably. In this case, the
measurement of individual harmonics is carried out with the R&S ESL set to a small span. Only the
frequency range around the harmonics will then be measured with a small resolution bandwidth.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
– 25 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is set to its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the span to 100 kHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 128 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the MHz key.
Press the SPAN key.
In the dialog box, enter 100 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the kHz key.
The R&S ESL displays the reference signal with a span of 100 kHz and resolution bandwidth of
3 kHz.
3. Switching on the marker.
Press the MKR key.
The marker is positioned on the trace maximum.
4. Set the measured signal frequency and the measured level as reference values
Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The position of the marker becomes the reference point. The reference point level is indicated
by a horizontal line, the reference point frequency with a vertical line. At the same time, the
delta marker 2 is switched on.
Press the Ref Fixed softkey.
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2.4
E-2
R&S ESL
Measurement of Harmonics
The mode changes from phase noise measurement to reference fixed, the marker readout
changes from dB/Hz to dB.
Fig. 2-2
Fundamental wave and the frequency and level reference point
5. Make the step size for the center frequency equal to the signal frequency
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
Press the CF–Stepsize softkey and press the = Marker softkey in the submenu.
The step size for the center frequency is now equal to the marker frequency.
nd
6. Set the center frequency to the 2 harmonic of the signal
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
Press the UPARROW key once.
The center frequency is set to the 2
7. Place the delta marker on the 2
nd
nd
harmonic.
harmonic.
Press the MKR–> key.
Press the Peak softkey.
nd
The delta marker moves to the maximum of the 2 harmonic. The displayed level result is
relative to the reference point level (= fundamental wave level).
1300.5053.12
2.5
E-2
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-3
Measuring the level difference between the fundamental wave (= reference point
nd
level) and the 2 harmonic
The other harmonics are measured with steps 5 and 6, the center frequency being incremented or
decremented in steps of 128 MHz using the UPARROW or DNARROW key.
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution
Bandwidth
A basic feature of a spectrum analyzer is being able to separate the spectral components of a mixture
of signals. The resolution at which the individual components can be separated is determined by the
resolution bandwidth. Selecting a resolution bandwidth that is too large may make it impossible to
distinguish between spectral components, i.e. they are displayed as a single component.
An RF sinusoidal signal is displayed by means of the passband characteristic of the resolution filter
(RBW) that has been set. Its specified bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter.
Two signals with the same amplitude can be resolved if the resolution bandwidth is smaller than or
equal to the frequency spacing of the signal. If the resolution bandwidth is equal to the frequency
spacing, the spectrum display screen shows a level drop of 3 dB precisely in the center of the two
signals. Decreasing the resolution bandwidth makes the level drop larger, which thus makes the
individual signals clearer.
If there are large level differences between signals, the resolution is determined by selectivity as well as
by the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. The measure of selectivity used for spectrum
analyzers is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth (= shape factor).
For the R&S ESL, the shape factor for bandwidths is < 5, i.e. the 60 dB bandwidth of the 30 kHz filter is
< 150 kHz.
1300.5053.12
2.6
E-2
R&S ESL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer sweep times for the same
span. The sweep time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a sweep at all signal levels and
frequencies to be displayed. It is given by the following formula.
SWT = k • Span/RBW 2
(4)
SWT
=
max. sweep time for correct measurement
k
=
factor depending on type of resolution filter
= 1 for digital IF filters
Span
=
RBW
= resolution bandwidth
frequency display range
If the resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 3, the sweep time is increased by a factor of 9.
Note:
The impact of the video bandwidth on the sweep time is not taken into account in (4). For the
formula to be applied, the video bandwidth must be 3 x the resolution bandwidth.
FFT filters can be used for resolution bandwidths up to 30 kHz. Like digital filters, they have a shape
factor of less than 5 up to 30 kHz. For FFT filters, however, the sweep time is given by the following
formula:
SWT = k span/RBW
(5)
If the resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 3, the sweep time is increased by a factor of 3 only.
Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a transmission two–port device with nonlinear characteristic,
intermodulation products appear at its output by the sums and differences of the signals. The nonlinear
characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which intermodulate at the characteristic. The
intermodulation products of lower order have a special effect since their level is largest and they are
near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is
the intermodulation product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the
second useful signal in case of two–tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals. Fig. 2-4 shows
I2
intermodulation products PI1 and P generated by the two useful signals PU1 and PU2.
Fig. 2-4
Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
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2.7
E-2
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S ESL
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU2 and
signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU1 and signal
PU2.
fi1 = 2 x fu1 – fu2
(6)
fi2 = 2 x fu2 – fu1
(7)
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals. If the two useful
signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products increases by 3 dB, which
means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and useful signals are reduced by 2 dB. This is
illustrated in Fig. 2-5.
Fig. 2-5
Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two–port output increase proportionally with the input level as long as the two–
port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input causes a level change of 1 dB at the
output. Beyond a certain input level, the two–port goes into compression and the output level stops
increasing. The intermodulation products of the third order increase three times as much as the useful
signals. The intercept point is the fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be measured
directly since the useful level is previously limited by the maximum two–port output power.
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a given level
according to the following formula.
IP 3 =
aD 3
+ PN
2
(8)
rd
The 3 order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation of 60 dB and an
input level PU of –20 dBm according to the following formula:
IP 3 =
60
+ ( 20dBm ) = 10dBm
2
1300.5053.12
(9)
2.8
E-2
R&S ESL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Measurement example – Measuring the R&S ESL's intrinsic intermodulation
Test setup:
Signal
Generator 1
Coupler
[- 6 dB]
R&S ESL
Signal
Generator 2
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
–4 dBm
999.7 MHz
Signal generator 2
–4 dBm
1000.3 MHz
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default settings.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 3 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 3 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to –10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
Press the AMPT key and enter –10 dBm.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 0 dB.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.
Press the BW key.
Press the Res BW Manual softkey and enter 10 kHz.
The noise is reduced, the trace is smoothed further and the intermodulation products can be
clearly seen.
Press the Video BW Manual softkey and enter 1 kHz.
rd
5. Measuring intermodulation by means of the 3 order intercept measurement function
Press the MEAS key.
Press the TOI softkey.
1300.5053.12
2.9
E-2
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S ESL
The R&S ESL activates four markers for measuring the intermodulation distance. Two markers
rd
are positioned on the useful signals and two on the intermodulation products. The 3 order
intercept is calculated from the level difference between the useful signals and the
intermodulation products. It is then displayed on the screen:
rd
Fig. 2-6
Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S ESL. The 3 order
intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid.
The level of a spectrum analyzer's intrinsic intermodulation products depends on the RF level of the
useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation is added, the mixer level is reduced and
the intermodulation distance is increased. With an additional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of
the intermodulation products are reduced by 20 dB. The noise level is, however, increased by 10
dB.
6. Increasing RF attenuation to 10 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 10 dB.
The R&S ESL's intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
1300.5053.12
2.10
E-2
R&S ESL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Fig. 2-7
If the RF attenuation is increased, the R&S ESL's intrinsic intermodulation products
disappear below the noise floor.
Calculation method:
The method used by the R&S ESL to calculate the intercept point takes the average useful signal level
Pu in dBm and calculates the intermodulation d3 in dB as a function of the average value of the levels of
the two intermodulation products. The third order intercept (TOI) is then calculated as follows:
TOI/dBm = ½ d3 + Pu
Intermodulation– free dynamic range
The Intermodulation – free dynamic range, i.e. the level range in which no internal intermodulation
rd
products are generated if two–tone signals are measured, is determined by the 3 order intercept point,
the phase noise and the thermal noise of the spectrum analyzer. At high signal levels, the range is
determined by intermodulation products. At low signal levels, intermodulation products disappear below
the noise floor, i.e. the noise floor and the phase noise of the spectrum analyzer determine the range.
The noise floor and the phase noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. At the
smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise are at a minimum and so the maximum
range is obtained. However, a large increase in sweep time is required for small resolution bandwidths.
It is, therefore, best to select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to obtain the range that is
required. Since phase noise decreases as the carrier–offset increases, its influence decreases with
increasing frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation–free dynamic range as a function of the selected
bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set RF attenuation) at different useful
signal offsets.
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2.11
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Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S ESL
Distortion free Dynamic Range
(1 MHz carrier offset)
Dyn range /
dB
-40
-50
-60
RWB = 1 kHz
-70
RWB = 100 Hz
-80
RWB = 10 Hz
T.O.I.
-90
Thermal Noise
+ Phase Noise
-100
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level /dBm
Fig. 2-8
Intermodulation–free range of the R&S ESL as a function of level at the input mixer and the
set resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = –145 dBm /Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical
values at 2 GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its maximum, depends
on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is approx. –35 dBm and at 1 kHz increases to
approx. –30 dBm.
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation–free range at carrier offsets between
10 and 100 kHz (Fig. 2-9). At greater bandwidths, the influence of the phase noise is greater than it
would be with small bandwidths. The optimum mixer level at the bandwidths under consideration
becomes almost independent of bandwidth and is approx. –40 dBm.
Dyn. range /dB
Distortion free Dynamic Range
(10 to 100 kHz carrier offset)
-40
-50
-60
RBW = 1 kHz
-70
RBW = 100 Hz
-80
RBW = 10 Hz
TOI
Thermal Noise
+ Phase Noise
-90
-100
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level /dBm
Fig. 2-9
Intermodulation–free dynamic range of the R&S ESL as a function of level at the input
mixer and of the selected resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz, DANL = –145 dBm
/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2 GHz).
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R&S ESL
Note:
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be measured
and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is best to measure the levels
of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation products separately using a small span.
The measurement time will be reduced– in particular if the offset of the useful signals is large.
To find signals reliably when frequency span is small, it is best to synchronize the signal
sources and the R&S ESL.
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a spectrum analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic noise. Small
signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured. For signals that are just above
the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is influenced by the intrinsic noise of the
spectrum analyzer.
The displayed noise level of a spectrum analyzer depends on its noise figure, the selected RF
attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and video bandwidth and the detector.
The effect of the different parameters is explained in the following.
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a spectrum analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation. The highest
sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The attenuation can be set in 10 dB steps up to 70
dB. Each additional 10 dB step reduces the sensitivity by 10 dB, i.e. the displayed noise is increased by
10 dB.
Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a spectrum analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth. The highest
sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (for the R&S ESL: 10 Hz, for FFT filtering: 1 Hz). If the
bandwidth is increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The
R&S ESL has bandwidth settings in 1, 3, 10 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 3
increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a
factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e. 10 dB.
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a spectrum analyzer is also influenced by the selected video bandwidth. If the
video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth, noise spikes are suppressed,
i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The level of a sinewave signal is not influenced by the video
bandwidth. A sinewave signal can therefore be freed from noise by using a video bandwidth that is
small compared with the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore influenced by the
choice of detector. Sinewave signals are weighted in the same way by all detectors, i.e. the level
display for a sinewave RF signal does not depend on the selected detector, provided that the signal–to–
noise ratio is high enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of intrinsic spectrum
analyzer noise is also influenced by the detector which has been selected. For details on the detectors
of the R&S ESL refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview" or the Online Help.
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Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
R&S ESL
Measurement example – Measuring level at low S/N ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
128 MHz
Frequency:
Level:
– 80 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 128 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 100 MHz.
3. Set the RF attenuation to 60 dB to attenuate the input signal or to increase the intrinsic noise.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 60 dB.
The RF attenuation indicator is marked with an asterisk (*Att 60 dB) to show that it is no longer
coupled to the reference level. The high input attenuation reduces the reference signal which
can no longer be detected in noise.
Fig. 2-10 Sinewave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the auto peak
detector and is completely hidden in the intrinsic noise of the R&S ESL.
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R&S ESL
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
4. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Average softkey.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the R&S ESL
automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal, therefore, can be more clearly
distinguished from noise.
Fig. 2-11 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
5. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution bandwidth can be
selected.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Clear Write softkey.
Press the BW key.
Press the Video BW Manual softkey and enter 10 kHz.
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
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E-2
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-12 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
6. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced by 10 dB.
Press the Res BW Manual softkey and enter 300 kHz.
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore, emerges from noise by
about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the video bandwidth has remained the same,
i.e. it has increased relative to the smaller resolution bandwidth. The averaging effect of the
video bandwidth is therefore reduced. The trace will be noisier.
Fig. 2-13 Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
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R&S ESL
Noise Measurements
Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in spectrum analysis. Noise e.g. affects the sensitivity of
radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as the power referred
to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example, amplifier noise or noise generated by
oscillators used for the frequency conversion of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at
the output of an amplifier is determined by its noise figure and gain.
The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency and by thermal
noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase noise can mask weak signals near
the oscillator frequency and make them impossible to detect.
Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the R&S ESL provides
marker function. This marker function calculates the noise power density from the measured marker
level.
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise power density of the
R&S ESL at 1 GHz and calculating the R&S ESL's noise figure
Test setup:
Connect no signal to the RF input; terminate RF input with 50 O.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1.234 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1.234 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 1 MHz.
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1.234 GHz.
Press the MKR key and enter 1.234 GHz.
4. Switch on the noise marker function.
Switch on the Noise Meas softkey.
The R&S ESL displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1 Hz).
Note:
Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be selected to obtain stable
measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging the trace or by selecting a very small
video bandwidth relative to the resolution bandwidth.
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Noise Measurements
R&S ESL
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Average softkey.
The R&S ESL performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive sweeps. The
measurement result becomes more stable.
Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple conversion. This is
done by adding 10 log (BW) to the measurement result, BW being the new reference bandwidth.
Example
A noise power of –150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = –150 + 10 * log (1000) = –150 +30 = –120 dBm (1 kHz)
Calculation method for noise power
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S ESL automatically activates the sample detector. The video
bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S ESL takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the pixel on which the
marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of the marker). The measurement result
is stabilized by video filtering and averaging over 17 pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log display mode, the
result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic noise average and noise power). The
R&S ESL, therefore, corrects the noise figure by 2.51 dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected by –10 * log
(RBW noise), with RBW noise being the power bandwidth of the selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector and using
averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement giving true results are the
average detector or the RMS detector. If the average detector is used, the linear video voltage is
averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the RMS detector is used, the squared video voltage is averaged
and displayed as a pixel. The averaging time depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/501). An
increase in the sweep time gives a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement
result. The R&S ESL automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise marker display
depending on the selected detector (+1.05 dB for the average detector, 0 d for the RMS detector). It is
assumed that the video bandwidth is set to at least three times the resolution bandwidth. While the
average or RMS detector is being switched on, the R&S ESL sets the video bandwidth to a suitable
value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasi Peak detectors are not suitable for measuring noise
power density.
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S ESL alone can be obtained from the noise power display.
Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 resistor at room temperature (–174 dBm (1Hz)) and
the measured noise power Pnoise the noise figure (NF) is obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
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R&S ESL
Noise Measurements
Example
The measured internal noise power of the R&S ESL at an attenuation of 0 dB is found to be –143
dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S ESL is obtained as follows
NF = –143 + 174 = 31 dB
Note:
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of the internal
noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The noise power of the
DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal noise power from the total power (subtraction
of linear noise powers). By means of the following diagram, the noise level of the DUT can be
estimated from the level difference between the total and the internal noise level.
0
Correction
-1
factor in dB
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Total power/intrinsic noise power in dB
Fig. 2-14
Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to the
intrinsic noise power of the spectrum analyzer
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission
Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement functions. Thus the
noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for example. If the noise spectrum within
the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker from the previous example can be used to determine the
noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however, phase noise and noise
that normally increases towards the carrier is dominant in the channel to be measured, or if there are
discrete spurious signals in the channel, the channel power measurement method must be used to
obtain correct measurement results.
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Noise Measurements
R&S ESL
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise of the R&S ESL at 1 GHz in a
1.23 MHz channel bandwidth with the channel power function
Test setup:
Leave the RF input of the R&S ESL open–circuited or terminate it with 50
.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 2 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S ESL to 0 dB.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 0 dB.
4. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
The R&S ESL activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement according to the
currently set configuration.
Press the CP/ACP Config softkey.
The submenu for configuring the channel is displayed.
Press the Channel Settings softkey.
The submenu for channel settings is displayed.
Press the Channel Bandwidth softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S ESL displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are symmetrical to the
center frequency.
Press the Adjust Settings softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the detector are
automatically set to the optimum values required for the measurement.
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R&S ESL
Noise Measurements
Fig. 2-15 Measurement of the R&S ESL's intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel
bandwidth.
5. Stabilizing the measurement result by increasing the sweep time
Press the E key twice.
The main menu for channel and adjacent channel power measurement is displayed.
Press the Sweep Time softkey and enter 1 s.
The trace becomes much smoother because of the RMS detector and the channel power
measurement display is much more stable.
Method of calculating the channel power
When measuring the channel power, the R&S ESL integrates the linear power which corresponds to the
levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The spectrum analyzer uses a resolution bandwidth
which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is
formed by the passband characteristics of the resolution bandwidth (see Fig. 2-16).
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Noise Measurements
R&S ESL
-3 dB
Resolution filter
Sweep
Channel bandwith
Fig. 2-16
Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
The following steps are performed:
•
The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
(Li/10)
Pi = 10
where Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
•
The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is divided by the
number of trace pixels in the channel.
•
The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the noise bandwidth
of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel bandwidth, this
method is also called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth method).
Parameter settings
For selection of the sweep time, see next section. For details on the parameter settings refer to chapter
"Instrument Functions", section "Settings of the CP / ACP test parameters" or the Online Help.
Sweep time selection
The number of A/D converter values, N, used to calculate the power, is defined by the sweep time. The
time per trace pixel for power measurements is directly proportional to the selected sweep time.
If the sample detector is used, it is best to select the smallest sweep time possible for a given span and
resolution bandwidth. The minimum time is obtained if the setting is coupled. This means that the time
per measurement is minimal. Extending the measurement time does not have any advantages as the
number of samples for calculating the power is defined by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
If the RMS detector is used, the repeatability of the measurement results can be influenced by the
selection of sweep times. Repeatability is increased at longer sweep times.
Repeatability can be estimated from the following diagram:
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R&S ESL
Noise Measurements
max. error/dB
0
95 % Confidence
level
0.5
1
99 % Confidence
level
1.5
2
2.5
3
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Number of samples
Fig. 2-17
Repeatability of channel power measurements as a function of the number of samples
used for power calculation
The curves in Fig. 2-17 indicate the repeatability obtained with a probability of 95% and 99% depending
on the number of samples used.
The repeatability with 600 samples is ± 0.5 dB. This means that – if the sample detector and a channel
bandwidth over the whole diagram (channel bandwidth = span) is used – the measured value lies within
± 0.5 dB of the true value with a confidence level of 99%.
If the RMS detector is used, the number of samples can be estimated as follows:
Since only uncorrelated samples contribute to the RMS value, the number of samples can be calculated
from the sweep time and the resolution bandwidth.
Samples can be assumed to be uncorrelated if sampling is performed at intervals of 1/RBW. The
number of uncorrelated samples is calculated as follows:
Ndecorr = SWT RBW (Ndecorr means uncorrelated samples)
The number of uncorrelated samples per trace pixel is obtained by dividing Ndecorr by 501 (= pixels per
trace).
Example
At a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz and a sweep time of 100 ms, 3000 uncorrelated samples are
obtained. If the channel bandwidth is equal to the frequency display range, i.e. all trace pixels are used
for the channel power measurement, a repeatability of 0.2 dB with a probability of 99% is the estimate
that can be derived from Fig. 2-17.
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Noise Measurements
R&S ESL
Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S ESL has an easy–to–use marker function for phase noise measurements. This marker
function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in dBc in a bandwidth of 1 Hz.
Measurement example – Measuring the phase noise of a signal generator at a
carrier offset of 10 kHz
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S ESL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 50 kHz.
3. Set the R&S ESL's reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level).
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
4. Enable phase noise measurement.
Press the MKR key.
Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The R&S ESL activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker) and marker 2 (=
delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The position of the marker is the
reference (level and frequency) for the phase noise measurement. A horizontal line represents
the level of the reference point and a vertical line the frequency of the reference point. The
dialog box for the delta marker is displayed so that the frequency offset at which the phase
noise is to be measured can be entered directly.
5. Set the frequency offset to 10 kHz for determining phase noise.
Enter 10 kHz.
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R&S ESL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
The R&S ESL displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The magnitude of the
phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output field at the top right of the screen
(Phn2).
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Average softkey.
Fig. 2-18 Measuring phase noise with the phase–noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob or by entering a
new frequency offset as a number.
Measurements on Modulated Signals
For measurements on AM and FM signals refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, "Basic
Measurements Examples".
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks in the field of
digital transmission for a spectrum analyzer with the necessary test routines. While, theoretically,
channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power meter, its low selectivity means
that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel power as an absolute value or relative to the
transmit channel power. The power in the adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective
power meter.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
A spectrum analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF envelope
voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a pure sinewave signal
irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be applied for non–sinusoidal signals.
Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power
within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction
factors are normally used by the spectrum analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to
determine the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S ESL also has a true power detector, i.e. an RMS detector. It
correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of
the amplitude distribution, without additional correction factors being required. The absolute
measurement uncertainty of the R&S ESL is < 1.5 dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5
dB (each with a confidence level of 95%).
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with a spectrum
analyzer:
•
IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
The spectrum analyzer measures with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the channel
bandwidth and integrates the level values of the trace versus the channel bandwidth. This method
is described in section "Method of calculating the channel power".
•
Using a channel filter
For a detailed description, refer to the following section.
Measurement using a channel filter
In this case, the spectrum analyzer makes zero span measurements using an IF filter that corresponds
to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output of the IF filter. Until now, this method
has not been used for spectrum analyzers, because channel filters were not available and the
resolution bandwidths, optimized for the sweep, did not have a sufficient selectivity. The method was
reserved for special receivers optimized for a particular transmission method. It is available in R&S
FSQ, FSU, FSP, FSL and ESL series.
The R&S ESL has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power measurements. These
routines give quick results without any complex or tedious setting procedures.
Measurement example 1 – ACPR measurement on an CDMA 2000 signal
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S ESL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA 2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
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R&S ESL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 850 MHz and span to 4 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 4 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to +10 dBm.
Press the AMPT key and enter 10 dBm.
4. Configuring the adjacent channel power for the CDMA 2000 MC1.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
Press the CP / ACP Standard softkey.
In the standards list, mark CDMA 2000 MC1 using the rotary knob or the arrow keys and confirm
pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
The R&S ESL sets the channel configuration according to the 2000 MC1 standard for mobile
stations with 2 adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The spectrum is
displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric values of the results and the channel
configuration in the lower part of the screen. The various channels are represented by vertical
lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are selected
automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results – especially in the adjacent
channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in comparison with the transmission channel
bandwidth (1.23 MHz) – the RMS detector is used.
5. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S ESL sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based on the
transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range. Fig. 2-19 shows the result
of the measurement.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-19 Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA 2000 MC1 signal
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels, strongly depends on
the measurement time since the dwell time within the 30 kHz channels is only a fraction of the
complete sweep time. A longer sweep time may increase the probability that the measured
value converges to the true value of the adjacent channel power, but this increases
measurement time.
To avoid long measurement times, the R&S ESL measures the adjacent channel power with
zero span (fast ACP mode). In the fast ACP mode, the R&S ESL measures the power of each
channel at the defined channel bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the
channel in question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it possible
to select filter characteristics that is precisely tailored to the signal. In case of CDMA 2000 MC1,
the power in the useful channel is measured with a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz and that of the
adjacent channels with a bandwidth of 30 kHz. Therefore the R&S ESL changes from one
channel to the other and measures the power at a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz or 30 kHz using the
RMS detector. The measurement time per channel is set with the sweep time. It is equal to the
selected measurement time divided by the selected number of channels. The five channels
from the above example and the sweep time of 100 ms give a measurement time per channel
of 20 ms.
Compared to the measurement time per channel given by the span (= 5 MHz) and sweep time
(= 100 ms, equal to 0.600 ms per 30 kHz channel) used in the example, this is a far longer
dwell time on the adjacent channels (factor of 12). In terms of the number of uncorrelated
samples this means 20000/33 Rs = 606 samples per channel measurement compared to
600/33Rs = 12.5 samples per channel measurement.
Repeatability with a confidence level of 95% is increased from ± 1.4 dB to ± 0.38 dB as shown
in Fig. 2-17. For the same repeatability, the sweep time would have to be set to 1.2 s with the
integration method. Fig. 2-20 shows the standard deviation of the results as a function of the
sweep time.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
ACPR Repeatability IS95
IBW Method
1,4
Standard dev / dB
1,2
1
Adjacent channels
0,8
Alternate channels
0,6
0,4
Tx channel
0,2
0
10
100
1000
Sweep time/ms
Fig. 2-20 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on CDMA 2000 standard
signals if the integration bandwidth method is used
6. Switch to fast ACP mode to increase the repeatability of results.
Switch the Fast ACP softkey to On.
The R&S ESL measures the power of each channel with zero span. The trace represents
power as a function of time for each channel (see Fig. 2-23). The numerical results over
consecutive measurements become much more stable.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-21 Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for 2000 MC1
signals with zero span (Fast ACP)
Fig. 2-22 shows the repeatability of power measurements in the transmit channel and of relative
power measurements in the adjacent channels as a function of sweep time. The standard
deviation of measurement results is calculated from 100 consecutive measurements as shown
in Fig. 2-22. Take scaling into account if comparing power values.
ACPR IS95 Re pe atability
0,35
Standard dev /dB
0,3
0,25
0,2
Adjacent channels
0,15
0,1
Tx channel
0,05
Alternate channels
0
10
100
1000
Sweep tim e/m s
Fig. 2-22 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on CDMA 2000 signals in
the fast ACP mode
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
Note on adjacent channel power measurements on 2000 MC1 base–station signals:
When measuring the adjacent channel power of 2000 MC1 base–station signals, the frequency spacing
of the adjacent channel to the nominal transmit channel is specified as ±750 kHz. The adjacent
channels are, therefore, so close to the transmit channel that the power of the transmit signal
leaks across and is also measured in the adjacent channel if the usual method using the 30
kHz resolution bandwidth is applied. The reason is the low selectivity of the 30 kHz resolution
filter. The resolution bandwidth, therefore, must be reduced considerably, e.g. to 3 kHz to avoid
this. This causes very long measurement times (factor of 100 between a 30 kHz and 3 kHz
resolution bandwidth).
This effect is avoided with the zero span method which uses steep IF filters. The 30 kHz channel filter
implemented in the R&S ESL has a very high selectivity so that even with a ± 750 kHz spacing
to the transmit channel the power of the useful modulation spectrum is not measured.
The following figure shows the passband characteristics of the 30 kHz channel filter in the R&S ESL.
Fig. 2-23
Frequency response of the 30 kHz channel filter for measuring the power in the 2000 MC1
adjacent channel
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Measurement example 2 – Measuring adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA uplink
signal
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S ESL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W–CDMA Reverse Link
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1950 MHz.
3. Switch on the ACP measurement for W–CDMA.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
Press the CP / ACP Standard softkey.
In the standards list, mark W–CDMA 3GPP REV using the rotary knob or the arrow keys and
confirm pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
The R&S ESL sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W–CDMA standard for mobiles with
two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The frequency span, the
resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are automatically set to the correct values. The
spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of
the adjacent channel powers and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The
individual channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S ESL sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the power in the
transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The following figure shows the
result of the measurement.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-24 Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W–CDMA uplink signal
5. Measuring adjacent channel power with the fast ACP mode.
Set Fast ACP softkey to On.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S ESL measures the power of the individual channels with zero span. A root raised
cosine filter with the parameters = 0.22 and chip rate 3.84 Mcps (= receive filter for 3GPP W–
CDMA) is used as channel filter.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-25 Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA signal with the fast ACP
mode
Note:
With W–CDMA, the R&S ESL's dynamic range for adjacent channel measurements is limited
by the 12–bit A/D converter. The greatest dynamic range is, therefore, obtained with the IBW
method.
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W–CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor, the phase noise and
the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the spectrum analyzer. The power values produced by the
R&S ESL due to these factors accumulate linearly. They depend on the applied level at the input mixer.
The three factors are shown in the figure below for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset).
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
ACLR / dBc
-30
-35
-40
-45
Total
ACLR
Phase
Noise
-50
-55
-60
Thermal Noise
-65
-70
S.R.I.
-75
-80
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
Optimum Range
-15
-10
Mixer Level / dBm
Fig. 2-26
The R&S ESL's dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W–CDMA
uplink signals is a function of the mixer level.
The level of the W–CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis, i.e. the measured
signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual components which contribute to the
power in the adjacent channel and the resulting relative level (total ACPR) in the adjacent channel are
displayed on the vertical axis. The optimum mixer level is –21 dBm. The relative adjacent channel
power (ACPR) at an optimum mixer level is –65 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level is set
in 10 dB steps with the 10 dB RF attenuator, the optimum 10 dB range is shown in the figure: it spreads
from –16 dBm to –26 dBm. In this range, the obtainable dynamic range is 62 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
•
Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF attenuation) is
between –11 dBm and –21 dBm.
•
Set the reference level to the largest possible value where no overload (IFOVL) is indicated.
This method is automated with the Adjust Ref Level function. Especially in remote control mode, e.g.
in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation parameters prior to the
measurement, as the time required for automatic setting can be saved.
Note:
To measure the R&S ESL's intrinsic dynamic range for W–CDMA adjacent channel power
measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power is required at the output
of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4 MHz, for example, can be used.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to
handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This includes all modulation types that
involve amplitude modulation –QPSK for example. CDMA transmission modes in particular may have
power peaks that are large compared to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power to prevent signal
compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design criterion. The
crest factor is defined as the peak power / mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus
the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power that
could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01%).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S ESL has simple measurement functions to determine
both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution
Function.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted against the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be exceeded is shown in
percent.
Measurement example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of white noise generated by
the R&S ESL
1. Set the R&S ESL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S ESL is in its default state.
2. Configure the R&S ESL for APD measurement
Press the AMPT key and enter –60 dBm.
The R&S ESL's intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the More softkey.
Press the APD softkey.
The R&S ESL sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude probability
distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level measurements used for the measurement
is 100000. The mean power and the peak power are displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak
power – mean power) is output as well.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-27 Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
Press the E key.
Press the CCDF softkey.
The CCDF display mode is switched on.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S ESL
Fig. 2-28 CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean power. The level
above the mean power is plotted along the x–axis of the graph. The origin of the axis
corresponds to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted
along the y–axis.
4. Bandwidth selection
When the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set so that the
complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the bandwidth. This is the only way of
ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass through the IF filter without being distorted. If the
resolution bandwidth which is selected is too small for a digitally modulated signal, the amplitude
distribution at the output of the IF filter becomes a Gaussian distribution according to the central
limit theorem and so corresponds to a white noise signal. The true amplitude distribution of the
signal therefore cannot be determined.
5. Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S ESL, the number of samples NSamples is entered for
statistical evaluation instead of the sweep time. Since only statistically independent samples
contribute to statistics, the measurement or sweep time is calculated automatically and displayed.
The samples are statistically independent if the time difference is at least 1/RBW. The sweep time
SWT is, therefore, expressed as follows:
SWT = NSamples / RBW
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
This section describes measurement examples for the Noise Figure Measurements option (K30). For
further information on measurement examples refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples", or the Operating Manual on CD, chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Direct Measurements
Direct measurements are designed for DUTs without frequency–conversion, e.g. amplifiers. For details
refer also to the Operating Manual on CD, chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Noise Figure
Measurements Option (K30)".
Basic Measurement Example
This section provides step–by–step instructions for working through an ordinary noise figure
measurement. The following steps are described:
1. Setting up the measurement
2. Performing the calibration
3. Performing the main measurement
The gain and noise figure of an amplifier are to be determined in the range from 220 MHz to 320 MHz.
Setting up the measurement
1. Activate the Noise mode (for details refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Measurement
Mode Selection – MODE Key").
2. Press the Freq Settings softkey to open the Frequency Settings dialog box.
In the Start Freq field, enter 550 MHz.
In the Stop Freq field, enter 560 MHz.
In the Step Freq field, enter 2 MHz.
A measurement at 6 frequency points is performed: 550 MHz, 552 MHz, 554 MHz, ..., 560
MHz.
3. Press the ENR Settings softkey to open the ENR dialog box.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
In the ENR Constant field, enter the average ENR value of the used noise source for the
frequency range of interest, for example 15 dB.
4. Press the Meas Settings softkey to open the Measurement Settings dialog box.
Activate the 2nd Stage Correction option to perform the measurement as accurately as
possible.
Performing the calibration
1. Connect the noise source to the RF input of the R&S ESL (see Fig. 2-29).
2. If you perform the measurement in an environment with radiated emissions, you may consider to
connect a lowpass filter to the voltage supply input of the noise source.
3. Provide the voltage supply for the noise source by connecting it to the +28 V connector of the
R&S ESL (labeled NOISE SOURCE CONTROL on the rear panel of the instrument) via a coax
cable and the lowpass filter. Connect the lowpass filter between the noise source itself and the
NOISE SOURCE CONTROL connector of the R&S ESL as shown in Fig. 2-29.
The purpose of the lowpass filter is to suppress any interference (e.g. due to RF interference),
including interference from the supply line. This makes it possible to perform very precise
measurements.
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Fig. 2-29:
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Preparation for calibration
4. Start the calibration for the Noise Figure Measurements option.
Press the SWEEP key.
Press the Cal softkey.
The progress bar indicates the progress of the calibration measurement. After successful
calibration, in the status bar, a corresponding message is displayed and the title bar at the top of
the screen shows the status on the right–hand–side.
Performing the main measurement
1. Insert the DUT (in this example, the amplifier) into the test setup between the noise source and RF
input of the R&S ESL (see Fig. 2-30).
Fig. 2-30:
Test setup for the main measurement
2. To select the sweep mode, press the SWEEP key.
3. Press the RUN key to start the measurement.
Measurement results are updated as the measurement is in progress. The results are displayed in
graphical form. There are two traces, one for noise figure/temperature and one for the gain of the
DUT.
4. To change the display from the graphical form to a tabular list of measurement points, press the
Display List/Graph softkey.
Note:
If a measurement is started while another measurement is still in progress, the first
measurement is aborted and the new measurement started immediately.
DUTs with very Large Gain
If the gain of the DUT exceeds 60 dB, the total gain must be reduced by an external attenuator. The
total gain of the DUT together with the external attenuator should lie within the range from 10 dB to
60 dB. A total gain of 20 dB to 30 dB is recommended. For a DUT with a gain of e.g. 64 dB, it is
recommended to use an external 40 dB–attenuator.
If an external attenuator is used, in the Measurement Settings dialog box, the entry in the Range field
should be modified according to the total gain ( = GDUT – external attenuator).
The attenuation values of the external attenuator are entered in the Loss Settings dialog box under
Loss Output Settings.
Inaccuracies when entering this attenuation mainly influence the measured gain. The noise figure
remains to a large extent unaffected.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Fig. 2-31:
R&S ESL
Calibration and measurement on DUTs with a high gain
Frequency–Converting Measurements
The frequency–converting measurement is used for DUTs with an output frequency that differs from the
input frequency, e.g. mixers and frequency converters. The frequency–converting measurement allows
many variations, which differ from each other in two criteria:
Fixed LO Measurements
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB)
Fixed LO Measurements
In the Frequency Settings dialog box, select one of the following settings for the Mode parameter:
fixed LO, IF=RF+LO, for up–converting devices
fixed LO, IF=abs(RF–LO), for down converters or image measurements
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB)
Frequency–converting DUTs often do not only convert the desired input frequency but also the image
frequency. A broadband noise source offers noise to the DUT not only at the input frequency but also at
the image frequency. If the noise power at the IF gate is measured, the origin of the noise can no longer
be determined. It may have been converted both from the input and from the image frequency range.
Test setup
Set the following parameters:
IF (intermediate frequency): 100 MHz
RF (input frequency): 400 MHz
LO (local oscillator frequency): 500 MHz
image (image frequency): 600 MHz
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R&S ESL
IF
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If a DUT, which equally converts the useful signal and the image to the IF frequency, is measured using
the conventional y factor method or with the 2nd stage correction switched on, a measuring error of 3
dB is produced. The noise figure is displayed 3 dB lower and the gain 3 dB higher. The following
examples help to configure the test setup in order to measure the actual values.
Measurement on a single–sideband mixer
IF
RF
LO
freq.
In general, a single–sideband mixer with a very high image rejection causes very few problems. The
measurement is analogous to an amplifier. In this case, set the image rejection in the Frequency
Settings dialog box to a large value (e.g. 999.99 dB).
Measurement on a mixer without sideband suppression
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If the input and image frequencies are converted with the same application, an error of 3 dB occurs in
the measurement results if the image rejection is not taken into account. In this case, set the image
rejection in the Frequency Settings dialog box to a small value (e.g. 0.0 dB).
Measurement on a mixer with an average sideband suppression
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
4dB
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
For measurements on a mixer with a low image–frequency rejection, a measuring error of 0 to 3 dB is
obtained if the image–frequency rejection is not taken into account. In this case, set the image rejection
in the Frequency Settings dialog box to 4 dB to produce the correct results.
Measurement on a mixer with unknown sideband suppression
X dB
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If the image rejection is not known, accurate noise results can still be produced. However, the gain of
the DUT must be known and an additional filter is required.
Test setup
Fig. 2-32:
Preparation for calibration
Fig. 2-33:
Test setup for the main measurement
In this test setup, a low pass filter prevents noise from the noise source from being fed in at the image
frequency. Depending on the position of the frequency bands, a highpass or bandpass filter may also
be necessary for the RF frequency instead of the lowpass filter. The important point is that noise from
the noise source is not converted by a further receive path of the mixer. The noise of the noise source
at the receive frequency must not be reduced. The insertion loss must be considered, if applicable.
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R&S ESL
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
With this test setup, the measurement on a mixer without sideband suppression corresponds to the
measurement on a single–sideband mixer. As in that case, set the image rejection in the Frequency
Settings dialog box to a large value (e.g. 999.99 dB) to produce accurate results.
To take the characteristics of the filter into account, in the Loss Settings dialog box, enter the insertion
loss of the filter at the RF frequency. To consider the actual filter suppression at the image frequency,
do not enter 999 dB but the actual attenuation for the image rejection.
Measurement on a harmonics mixer
For a harmonics mixer, the input signals are not only converted to the IF by the wanted harmonic, but
also by the harmonic of the LO signal produced in the mixer. In many cases, the mixer even features a
lower conversion loss in the case of unwanted harmonics. For measurements on this type of mixer, a
bandpass filter must be used to make sure that that there is only noise at the desired input frequency at
the input of the DUT. This measurement is similar to measurements on a mixer with an average
sideband suppression.
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3
Manual Operation
Manual Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 4, "Basic Operations".
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Instrument Functions
Contents of Chapter 4
4
Instrument Functions ................................................................................... 4.1
Instrument Functions – Receiver....................................................................................................4.2
Measurement Parameters ..........................................................................................................4.3
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET key ..............................................................................4.4
Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ Key ......................................................................4.6
Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key.............................................................4.9
Setting the IF Bandwidth – BW Key .........................................................................................4.13
Frequency Scan – SWEEP Key ...............................................................................................4.18
Triggering the Scan – TRIG Key ..............................................................................................4.26
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key ........................................................................4.28
Measurement Functions ...........................................................................................................4.39
Marker Functions – MKR Key...................................................................................................4.40
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key.........................................................................4.44
Selection of the Measurement Function – MEAS Key .............................................................4.48
Running a Scan – RUN key......................................................................................................4.66
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key ...................................................................4.68
Measurement Modes ................................................................................................................4.77
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key............................................................................4.78
Instrument Functions – Analyzer..................................................................................................4.79
Measurement Parameters..............................................................................................................4.80
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key............................................................................4.81
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key .....................................................................4.83
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key ................................................................................4.89
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key .....................................4.91
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key................................................................4.95
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key .........................................................................4.102
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key..........................................................................................4.105
Setting Traces – TRACE Key .................................................................................................4.113
Measurement Functions ..............................................................................................................4.123
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key.......................................................................4.124
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key .......................................................................4.136
Power Measurements – MEAS Key .......................................................................................4.144
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key .................................................................4.183
Measurement Modes....................................................................................................................4.193
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key..........................................................................4.194
Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key ..............................................................................4.195
Models and Options .....................................................................................................................4.196
Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16).......................................................................................4.197
Analog Demodulation (Option K7) ..........................................................................................4.203
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Instrument Functions
Power Meter (Option K9) ........................................................................................................4.222
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30) .............................................................................4.226
Instrument Functions - Basic Settings.......................................................................................4.260
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings.................................................................4.261
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key .................................................4.262
Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key .....................................................................4.279
Manual Operation - Local Menu .............................................................................................4.287
Measurement Documentation - PRINT Key ...........................................................................4.288
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4
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Instrument Functions
This chapter describes the analyzer and receiver functions and all basic settings functions of the
R&S ESL in detail.
•
"Instrument Functions – Receiver" on page 4.2
This section describes measurement functions and measurement parameter for the R&S ESL in
receiver mode.
•
"Instrument Functions – Analyzer" on page 4.79
This section describes measurement functions and measurement parameter for the R&S ESL in
spectrum analyzer mode.
•
"Measurement Modes" on page 4.194
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and
the access to the menus of all active measurement modes.
•
"Models and Options"" on page 4.197
This section informs about optional functions and their application that are included in the basic unit
configuration.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
How to open the Receiver mode
The receiver mode is selected using the MODE key ("Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on
page 4.78).
Remote: INST REC
In the receiver mode the R&S ESL measures the level of a signal at the set frequency with a selected
bandwidth and measurement time (see also Res BW Manual and Meas Time). Signal weighting is
done by means of detectors (see also Scan Detector, Final Meas Detector and "Selecting the
Detector").
The functions for data reduction and the control of line impedance simulating network are available in
the Final Meas submenus.
A frequency scan can be performed after setting the start and stop frequency and the step width. The
scan subranges can be defined in a table (Edit Scan Table softkey).
The scan is started with the RUN key.
The MENU key opens the root menu of the receiver. The root menu contains the essential
measurement functions. The contents are the same as in the measurement menu (MEAS key).
•
"Measurement Parameters" on page 4.3
This section describes how to reset the instrument, to set up specific measurements and to set the
measurement parameters. Examples of basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Functions" on page 4.39
This section informs about how to select and configure the measurement functions. Examples of
basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Modes" on page 4.194
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and
the access to the menus of all active measurement modes.
•
"Models and Options" on page 4.197
This section informs about optional functions and their application that are included in the basic unit
configuration.
More basic information on operation is given in the Quick Start Guide. The front and the rear view of the
instrument together with a table of all available keys and a short description are provided in chapter
"Front and Rear Panel". Chapter "Preparing for Use" informs how to start working with the instrument
for the first time. A brief introduction on handling the instrument is given in chapter "Basic Operations".
This includes also the description of the keys for basic operations like switching the instrument on and
off or starting a measurement.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Measurement Parameters
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement parameters are described. This includes
the following topics and keys. For details on changing the mode refer to "Measurement Modes"
•
"Initializing the Configuration – PRESET key" on page 4.4
•
“Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ Key” on page 4.6
•
“Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key” on page 4.9
•
“Setting the IF Bandwidth – BW Key” on page 4.13
•
“Frequency Scan – SWEEP Key” on page 4.18
•
“Triggering the Scan – TRIG Key” on page 4.26
•
“Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key” on page 4.28
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default settings. Therefore it provides a defined initial
state as a known starting point for measurements.
Note:
If the LOCAL LOCKOUT function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
–
"Initial configuration" on page 4.82
Task
–
To preset the instrument
To preset the instrument
1. Define the data set for the preset:
–
To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see Initial configuration), in the file menu,
deactivate the Startup Recall softkey and, in the setup menu, activate the Preset Receiver
softkey.
–
For compatibility to the R&S FSL spectrum analyzers the preset state can be set to the
R&S FSL settings by activating the Preset Spectrum softkey in the setup menu.
–
To retrieve a customized settings file, in the file menu, activate the Startup Recall softkey,
press the Startup Recall Setup softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
2. Press the PRESET key to trigger a preset.
Remote: *RST or SYSTem:PRESet (for details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands",
section "Common Commands" or section "SYSTem Subsystem").
Note:
In order to save the current settings after reboot of the instrument, create a shutdown file by
switching the analyzer in the standby mode (press the On/Off key on the FRONT panel and
wait until the yellow LED is ON). With the battery pack option, use a USB keyboard and
terminate the analyzer firmware with ALT+F4 to create the shutdown file.
1300.5053.12
4.4
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Initial configuration
The initial configuration is selected in a way that the RF input is always protected against overload,
provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized by using the Startup Recall softkey in
the file menu. For further information refer to section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving
and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
Table 4-1: Initial configuration of the receiver
Parameter
Setting
mode
Receiver
receiver frequency
100 MHz
scan step size
auto coarse
scan start frequency
150 kHz
stop frequency
1 GHz
step mode
Auto
RF attenuation
Auto
10 dB
preamplifier
off
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBEV
measurement time
100 ms
resolution bandwidth (RBW)
120 kHz
filter type
EMI (6 dB)
scan
continous
bargraph
continous
trigger
free run
trace 1
Clear Write
trace 2-6
blank
scan detector
peak
scan count
1
peak search
peaks
No of peaks
25
final measurement time
1s
LISN settings
off
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4.5
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ Key
The FREQ key opens the frequency menu for setting the receiver frequency in manual operation and
the frequency axis for scan display.
To open the frequency menu
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed and the receiver frequency field activated.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu" on page 4.6
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Softkeys of the frequency menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Frequency
Stepsize
Auto Coarse
Auto Fine
Manual
Stepsize = Freq
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Frequency
The Frequency softkey activates the entry field of the receiver frequency in the bargraph
diagram.
The tuning frequency has to be set to at least twice the IF bandwidth.
When the tuning frequency is lower than twice the IF bandwidth, the IF bandwidth is
automatically reduced so that this condition is met again.
If the frequency is increased again, the original IF bandwidth is restored (memory function). The
memory is cleared when the IF bandwidth is manually changed.
The resolution of the receiver frequency is always 0.1 Hz.
Range: 9 kHz
frec
fmax
Remote: FREQ:CENT 300 MHz
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4.6
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Stepsize
The Stepsize softkey opens a submenu for setting the step size of the receiver frequency. The
step size can be coupled to the set frequency or be manually set to a fixed value. The softkeys
of the submenu are mutually exclusive selection switches. Only one switch can be activated at a
time.
The following softkeys are available:
Auto Coarse
Auto Fine
Manual
Stepsize = Freq
Auto Coarse
If the Auto Coarse softkey is activated, the receiver frequency is set in coarse steps. The 4th
digit of the selected frequency is varied.
Auto Fine
If the Auto Fine softkey is activated, the receiver frequency is set in fine steps. The 7th digit of
the selected frequency is varied.
Manual
The Manual softkey opens the dialog box for the input of a fixed step size
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP 50 kHz
Stepsize = Freq
The Stepsize = FREQ softkey sets the step size to a value equal to the receiver frequency.
This function is especially useful during measurements of the signal harmonic content, because,
when entering the receiver frequency, the receiver frequency of another harmonic is selected
with each stroke of the Stepsize softkey.
Start Frequency
The Start Frequency softkey opens a dialog box to enter the start frequency of the scan
diagram.
The permissible value range for the start frequency is:
fmin
fstart
fmax – 10 Hz
fstart: start frequency
fmax: maximum frequency
fmin: 9 kHz
Remote: FREQ:STAR 20 MHz
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4.7
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Stop Frequency
The Stop Frequency softkey opens a dialog box to enter the stop frequency of the scan
diagram.
The permissible value range for the stop frequency is:
fmin + 10 Hz
fstop
fmax
fstop: stop frequency
fmax: maximum frequency
Remote: FREQ:STOP 2000 MHz
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4.8
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the input attenuation, the Preamplifier (option RF Preamplifier, B22), the
auto range function and the Display Unit.
In addition, the level display range for the scan can be set.
To open the amplitude menu
Press the AMPT key.
The amplitude menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the amplitude menu
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Softkeys of the amplitude menu
Menu / Command
Command
RF Atten Manual
Preamp On Off
10 dB Min On Off
Auto Range On Off
Autopreamp On Off
Unit
Grid Level
Grid Range Log 100 dB
Grid Range Log Manual
Grid Min Level
RF Atten Manual
The RF Atten Manual softkey activates the attenuation entry field.
The attenuation can be set between 0 and 50 dB in 5 dB steps. Other entries are rounded up to
the nearest valid integer.
Note:
To protect the input mixer against inadvertent overload, 0 dB can only be switched on when the
10 dB Min softkey is switched off.
Remote: INP:ATT 20 dB
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4.9
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Preamp On Off (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
The Preamp On/Off softkey switches the preamplifier (9 kHz to 6 GHz) on and off.
Switching on the preamplifier reduces the total mark figure of the R&S ESL and thus improves
the sensitivity.
The signal level of the subsequent mixer is 20 dB higher so that the maximum input level is
reduced by the gain of the preamplifier.
The use of the preamplifier is recommended when measurements with a maximum sensitivity
are to be performed. On the other hand, if the measurement should be performed at maximum
dynamic range, the preamplifier should be switched off.
The gain of the preamplifier is automatically considered in the level display.
Default value is OFF.
Remote: INP:GAIN:STAT ON
10 dB Min On Off
The 10 dB Min softkey determines whether the 10 dB setting of the attenuator may be used in
the manual or automatic setting of the attenuator.
10 dB Min ON is the default value, i.e. an RF attenuation of at least 10 dB is always set on the
R&S ESL to protect the input mixer.
An attenuation of 0 dB cannot be set manually either. This avoids 0 dB being switched on
inadvertently, particularly when DUTs with high RFI voltage are measured.
Remote: INP:ATT:PROT ON
Auto Range On Off
The Auto Range On/Off softkey switches the autorange function on and off.
ON
The attenuation is automatically set so that a good S/N ratio is
obtained without the receiver stages being overdriven.
OFF
The attenuation is set manually.
Remote: INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Autopreamp On Off (option RF Preamplifer, B22)
The Autopreamp On/Off softkey switches the auto preamp function and or off.
ON
The preamplifier is considered in the autorange procedure. The
preamplifier is cut in when the RF attenuation is reduced to the
minimum settable value.
OFF
The preamplifier is not considered in the autorange procedure.
Remote: INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
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4.10
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Unit
The Unit softkey opens a list in which the desired units for the level axis can be selected: dBm,
dBpW, dBmV, dBEV, dBEA or dBpT. Default setting is dBEV.
dBm
dBpW
dBmV
dBEV
dBEA
dBpT
In general, a receiver measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display is calibrated
in RMS values of an unmodulated sinewave signal.
a conversion can be made to other units. The units
Via the known input resistance of 50
dBm, dBpW, dBmV, dBEV, dBEA and dBpT are directly convertible.
Remote: CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Grid Level
The Grid Level softkey opens a submenu to adjust the range of the y-axis. The submenu
contains the following softkeys:
Grid Range Log 100 dB
Grid Range Log Manual
Grid Min Level
Grid Range Log 100 dB
The Grid Range Log 100 dB softkey sets the level display range for the scan diagram to 100
dB (= default setting).
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB
Grid Range Log Manual
The Grid Range Log Manual softkey activates the entry of the level display range for the scan
diagram.
The display ranges go from 10 to 200 dB in 10-dB steps. Invalid entries are rounded off to the
nearest valid value.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 120DB
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4.11
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Grid Min Level
The Grid Min Level softkey activates the entry of the minimum level of the display range.
Allowed values are:
- 200
Grid Min Level
+ 200 dB - Grid Range
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:BOTT 0 DBM
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4.12
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Setting the IF Bandwidth – BW Key
The R&S ESL offers the IF bandwidths (3 dB bandwidths) from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The IF bandwidths
are available in steps of 1/3/10. Also available are the IF bandwidths (6 dB bandwidths) 200 Hz, 1 kHz,
9 kHz, 120 kHz and 1 MHz.
To open the bandwidth menu
Press the BW key.
The bandwidth menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further Information
–
List of available channel filters
List of available channel filters
The channel filters listed in the following table are available as resolution filters (softkey Res BW
Manual) after activation with the softkey Filter Type.
Note:
For filter type RRC (Root Raised Cosine) the indicated filter bandwidth describes the sampling
rate of the filter. For all other filters (CFILter) the filter bandwidth is the 3dB bandwidth.
Table 4-1: List of available channel filters
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100
Hz
CFILter
200
Hz
CFILter
300
Hz
CFILter
500
Hz
CFILter
1
kHz
CFILter
1.5
kHz
CFILter
2
kHz
CFILter
2.4
kHz
CFILter
2.7
kHz
CFILter
3
kHz
CFILter
3.4
kHz
CFILter
4
kHz
CFILter
4.5
kHz
CFILter
5
kHz
CFILter
6
kHz
CFILter
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Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satelite
4.13
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
8.5
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9
kHz
CFILter
AM radio
10
kHz
CFILter
12.5
kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15
kHz
CFILter
16
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18
kHz,
RRC
TETRA
20
kHz
CFILter
21
kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3
kHz,
RRC
IS 136 (NADC)
25
kHz
CFILter
30
kHz
CFILter
50
kHz
CFILter
100
kHz
CFILter
150
kHz
CFILter
FM radio
192
kHz
CFILter
PHS
200
kHz
CFILter
300
kHz
CFILter
500
kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1.0
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.5
MHz
CFILter
DAB
2.0
MHz
CFILter
3.0
MHz
CFILter
3.75
MHz
CFILter
3.84
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5.0
MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
MHz
CFILter
Note:
=0.35
=0.35
CDPD, CDMAone
The 20 MHz channel filter is unavailable in sweep mode.
1300.5053.12
4.14
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu
The BW key calls a menu for setting the resolution bandwidth (RES BW) for the receiver.
Menu / Command
Command
Res BW Manual
Res BW 200 Hz
Res BW 9 kHz
Res BW 120 kHz
Res BW 1 MHz
CISPR RBW Uncoupled
Filter Type
Gaussian
EMI (6dB)
Channel
RRC
Res BW Manual
The Res BW softkey activates the manual entry mode for the resolution bandwidth.
For filter type Normal (3 dB), the bandwidth can be set from 10 Hz to 20 MHz in steps of 1/3/10
(e.g. 10 Hz, 30 Hz, 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 1000 Hz/ 1 kHz, 3 kHz, 10 kHz etc.). For filter type Normal
(6 dB), the 6-dB bandwidth 200 Hz, 9 kHz, 120 kHz and 1 MHz can be set.
For numerical inputs, the values are always rounded to the nearest valid bandwidth. For rotary
knob or the Up/Down key entries, the bandwidth is adjusted in the steps mentioned above either
upwards or downwards.
For the Channel and RRC filter types, the bandwidth is selected from a list of available channel
filters, which is included above. Only the filters on the list can be selected (see List of available
channel filters).
When the quasipeak detector is switched on, a fixed bandwidth is preset depending on the
frequency. The coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with activated quasipeak
detector can be cancelled using the CISPR RBW Uncoupled softkey (see below).
The bandwidth is limited by the set receiver frequency:
Res BW
fin /2
Remote: BAND 1 MHz
Res BW 200 Hz
The 200 Hz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 200 Hz.
Remote: BAND 200 Hz
Res BW 9 kHz
The 9 kHz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 9 kHz.
Remote: BAND 9 kHz
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4.15
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Res BW 120 kHz
The 120 kHz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 120 kHz.
Remote: BAND 120 kHz
Res BW 1 MHz
The 1 MHz softkey sets the 6-dB bandwidth 1 MHz.
Remote: BAND 1 MHz
CISPR RBW Uncoupled
The CISPR RBW Uncoupled softkey cancels the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency
range with the activated detector.
If the coupling is cancelled, any of the three CISPR bandwidths 200 Hz, 9 kHz, 120 kHz can be
selected for a given frequency range.
Remote: BAND:AUTO ON
Filter Type
The Filter Type softkey opens a list of available filter types. Gaussian bandpass filters of 3 dB
and 6 dB bandwidth are available as well as particularly steep-edged channel filters for power
measurements.
Gaussian
EMI (6dB)
Channel
RRC
Gaussian
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters with a set 3 dB bandwidth.
These bandwidths correspond to the noise bandwidth approximately.
Remote: BAND:TYPE NOIS
Remote: BAND:TYPE NORM
EMI (6dB)
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters with the set 6 dB bandwidth and
correspond approximately to the pulse bandwidth.
Remote: BAND:TYPE PULS
Channel
Steep-edged channel filters (for available filter types refer to List of available channel filters).
Remote: BAND:TYPE CFIL
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4.16
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
RRC
Root Raised Cosine filters (for available filter types refer to List of available channel filters).
Remote: BAND:TYPE RRC
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4.17
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Frequency Scan – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single sweep are
possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the sweep menu
Press the SWEEP key.
The sweep menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the sweep menu
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
Stepped scan in the frequency domain
–
Display of Measurement Results
Stepped scan in the frequency domain
In the scan mode, the R&S ESL measures in a predefined frequency range with selectable step width
and measurement time for each frequency.
Either the current receiver settings or the settings defined in the Scan table are used. Up to 10
subranges which need not to be next to each other can be defined within one scan. The subranges are
then scanned by R&S ESL one after the other. Measurement ranges must not overlap. The parameters
to be measured in each subrange can be selected independently (sweep menu, scan table table).
Transducer factors and limit lines can be defined and displayed separately and are not part of the scan
data record.
The scanned frequency range is defined by the start and stop frequency set independently of the scan
table (scan table or frequency menu). A scan table can thus be defined for each measurement task,
which can be stored and reloaded. The required frequency range can be defined by means of two
parameters which can be set via keys so that no elaborate editing has to be done in the scan table.
Scanning is started with the RUN key. The scan can be performed as a single scan or continuously (set
via the Scan Control dialog box). In the case of single scan it is stopped when the stop frequency is
reached. The continuous scan can be interrupted with the Hold Scan softkey or terminated with the
Stop Scan softkey.
The maximal number of measured frequencies is limited to 1.000.000. A maximum of 6 x 1.000.000
values (1.000.000 per detector) can be stored for postprocessing. If the scan subranges are defined so
that more than the possible values would be measured, a respective message is output upon the scan
start. Afterwards the scan is performed up to the maximum value.
At least one scan is defined in the list. Two subranges are defined in the default setup. All other
parameters are shown in the following table:
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4.18
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Table 4-2: Default setup of scan table
Range 1
Range 2
Start frequency
150 kHz
30 MHz
Stop frequency
30 MHz
1 GHz
Step Size
Auto
Auto
RES BW
9 kHz
120 kHz
Meas Time
1 ms
100 Es
Auto ranging
OFF
OFF
RF Attne
10 dB
10 dB
Preamp
OFF
OFF
Auto Preamp
OFF
OFF
The diagram parameters to be defined are: start frequency 150 kHz, stop frequency 1 GHz, min. level
0 dBEV, grid range log 100 dB, log. frequency axis and continuous scan.
The measurement parameters correspond to the settings recommended for overview measurements to
CISPR 16.
Display of Measurement Results
To display measurement results, the screen of the R&S ESL in receiver mode is split into two areas.
1300.5053.12
4.19
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
In the upper area the frequency and level readout, i.e. a bargraph, is displayed. Each bargraph is
shown in a different color. In the table just above the bargraph, the following information is displayed:
Parameter
Description
Frequency
Displays the receiver frequency (for details refer to the Frequency softkey)
Level
Shows the current power level for the selected detectors (for details see Selecting the
Detector).
The R&S ESL expands the table after the selection of the Bargraph Maxhold. In this case, the R&S ESL
additionally displays the value for the maximum power level and the corresponding frequency.
In the lower area, the results of the scan measurement (preliminary or final) are shown. The R&S ESL
can measure up to 6 detectors simultaneously. They are assigned to traces 1 to 6. Since the detectors
are set only once, it is not possible to measure with different detectors in different subranges.
Softkeys of the sweep menu
Pressing the SWEEP key opens the menu to configure and start the scan.
Command
Scan Control
Edit Scan Table
Adjust Axis
Insert Range
Delete Range
10dB Min On/Off
Freq Axis Lin/Log
A scan is defined in the form of tables or it is performed using the current setting.
In the Scan table, the scan subranges are defined. Each scan range is specified by start frequency,
stop frequency, step width and the measurement parameters that are valid for this range.
The scan can be performed as a single scan or continuously (softkeys Single Scan and Continuous
Scan).
Scanning is started with the RUN key.
1300.5053.12
4.20
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Scan Control
Opens the Scan Control dialog box. In the dialog box select if the R&S ESL should run a single
or a continous scan. In case of a single scan the R&S ESL stops the measurement after exactly
one scan of the frequency range. Select also if the R&S ESL should use the current receiver
settings or if the settings of the scan table are to be used for the scan.
The default settings are Continous Scan and Use Scan table.
Remote: INIT2:CONT ON | OFF
Remote: SCAN:RANG 1…10
Remote: SCAN:RANG 0 (use current settings)
Edit Scan Table
Opens the Edit Scan Table dialog box. Set the parameters for each subrange to be scanned.
By default, two ranges are defined.
The following parameters can be set:
Scan Start
Scan Stop
Step Mode
Start
Stop
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4.21
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Step Size
Res BW
Meas Time
Auto Ranging
Auto Ranging
RF Attn
Preamp
Auto Preamp
Scan Start
Enter the start frequency of the scan in this field (refer also to the Start Frequency softkey of
the frequency menu.
Range is fmin to fmax. – 10 Hz
Remote: FREQ:STAR <value>
Scan Stop
Enter the stop frequency of the scan in this field (refer also to the Stop Frequency softkey of the
frequency menu.
Range is fmin to fmax.
Remote: FREQ:STOP <value>
Step Mode
Selects the frequency switching mode. Linear or logarithmic frequency switching can be
selected. The selected setting is valid for all scan ranges.
Lin
Linear frequency switching
Auto
Linear frequency switching.
The step width is selected automatically
depending on the set resolution bandwidth so
that all signals occurring in the scan range are
reliably detected without any significant
measurement error (about one third of resolution
bandwidth
Log
Logarithmic frequency switching.
The frequency is incremented in % of the current
frequency.
Remote: SWE:SPAC LIN
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4.22
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Start
Sets the start frequency of the subrange in focus. The start frequency of a subrange must be
equal to or greater than the stop frequency of the previous subrange.
On entering the start frequency, the preceding scan range is – if necessary – adapted
automatically to avoid overlapping of scan ranges.
Remote: SCAN1:STAR <value>
Stop
Sets the stop frequency of the subrange in focus. The stop frequency of a subrange must be
equal to or greater than the start frequency of the subrange.
On entering the stop frequency, the preceding scan range is – if necessary – adapted
automatically to avoid overlapping of scan ranges.
Remote. SCAN1:STOP <value>
Step Size
Sets the step size of the subrange in focus. In the case of linear frequency increments, step
widths between 1 Hz and the maximum frequency can be set. When a step size greater than the
scan range is entered (from start to stop), the R&S ESL performs a measurement each at the
start and stop frequency.
With logarithmic frequency increments, values between 0.1% and 100% can be set in steps of
0.1%.
With Step Auto selected, the step size cannot be changed because it is automatically set with
respect to the IF bandwidth.
Remote: SCAN1:STEP <value>
Res BW
Sets the bandwidth resolution of the subrange in focus. In the case of quasipeak weighting,
usually a fixed bandwidth is set which cannot be changed (CISPR).
However, the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range can be cancelled using
softkey CISPR RBW Uncoupled in the bandwidth menu.
Remote: SCAN1:BAND:RES <num_value>
Meas Time
Sets the measurement time of the subrange in focus. The measurement time can be set
between 50 Es and 100 s separately for each subrange. In the case of quasipeak weighting, the
minimum is 10 ms. For the CISPR AV and CISPR RMS detectors the minimum measurement
time is 100 ms The measurement time can be set independently for each scan range.
Remote: SCAN1:TIME <value>
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4.23
E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Auto Ranging
NOTICE
Risk of damage to the input mixer
If 0 dB RF attenuation is used with autoranging, care must be taken that the
permissible signal level at the RF input is not exceeded.
Exceeding this level would causes damage to the input mixer
The 0 dB attenuation should under no circumstances be used when RFI voltage
measurements are performed with the aid of artificial networks since very high
pulses occur during phase switching.
Define whether or not the R&S ESL should automatically set the range..
ON
The R&S ESL automatically sets the input
attenuation as a function of the signal level.
OFF
The input attenuation setting of the scan
table is used.
Remote: SCAN1:INP:ATT:AUTO ON
RF Attn
Sets the RF attenuation for each subrange.
Remote: SCAN1:INP:ATT <value>
Preamp (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
Activates or deactivates the preamplifier. The preamplifier can be switched on/off separately for
each subrange.
Remote: SCAN1:INP:GAIN ON
Auto Preamp (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
ON
The preamplifier is considered in autoranging. It is
only cut in after the attenuation has been reduced
to the minimum settable value.
OFF
Auto ranging without preamplification.
Remote: SCAN1:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Adjust Axis
The Adjust Axis softkey automatically sets the limits of the diagram so that the lower limit
frequency corresponds to the start frequency of range 1 and the upper limit frequency to the
stop frequency of the last range.
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4.24
E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Insert Range
The Insert Range softkey inserts an additional range that can be defined as described under the
Edit Scan Table softkey. A maximum number of 10 ranges can be inserted (Range 1 – 10). The
softkey is only available if the cursor is on a field inside the table.
Delete Range
The Delete Range softkey clears the activated scan range. All other ranges are shifted to the
left by one column. The softkey is only available if the cursor is on a field inside the table.
10dB Min On/Off
For details refer to the 10 dB Min On Off softkey in the amplitude menu.
Freq Axis Lin/Log
The Freq Axis Lin/Log switches between linear and logarithmic display of the frequency axis.
Default is Log.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LOG
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E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Triggering the Scan – TRIG Key
The TRIG key opens a menu for selection of the trigger sources and the trigger polarity. The active
trigger mode is indicated by highlighting the corresponding softkey.
To indicate that a trigger mode other than Free Run has been set, the enhancement label TRG is
displayed on the screen. If two windows are displayed, TRG appears next to the appropriate window.
To open the trigger menu
Press the TRIG key.
The trigger menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the trigger menu
Softkeys of the trigger menu
Command
Trg / Gate Source
Trg / Gate Level
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos Neg
Trg / Gate Source
The Trg / Gate softkey opens a list, in which the trigger source can be selected. The following
trigger sources are available.
Free Run
External
Video
Free Run
The Free Run radio button activates the free-run sweep mode, i.e. start of a scan is not
triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started immediately.
Free Run is the default setting of the R&S ESL.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR IMM
External
The Extern radio button activates triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector Ext Trigger /
Gate on the rear panel.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR EXT
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Video
The Video radio button activates triggering via the displayed voltage.
For the video triggering mode, a level line showing the trigger threshold is displayed. Using the
level line, the threshold can be adjusted between 0% and100% of the diagram height.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR VID
Remote: TRIG:LEV:VID 50 PCT
Trg / Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger / gate level.
Remote: TRIG:LEV:EXT
Remote: TRIG:LEV:VID 50 PCT
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos Neg
The Polarity Pos / Neg softkey selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The scan starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The selected setting is
highlighted.
The selection is valid for all trigger modes with the exception of Free Run.
The default setting is Polarity Pos.
Remote: TRIG:SLOP POS
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key
The R&S ESL is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A trace consists
of a maximum of 501 pixels on the horizontal axis. If more measured values than pixels are available,
several measured values are combined in one pixel.
The traces are selected using the Select Trace softkey in the menu of the TRACE key.
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after completion of a
measurement. Traces that are not activated are blanked.
The display mode can be selected for each trace. Traces can be overwritten in each measurement
(Clear/Write mode), or a maximum or minimum value can be determined from several measurements
and displayed (Max Hold or Min Hold).
Individual detectors can be selected for the various traces. For example, the max peak detector and min
peak detector display the maximum and minimum value of the level within a pixel. The RMS detector
displays the power (RMS value) of the measured values within a pixel, the average detector the
average value. Further details on available detectors are discussed below.
To open the trace menu
Press the TRACE key
The trace menu is displayed. The Trace Configuration dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the trace menu
Further information
–
Selection of Trace Function
–
Selecting the Detector
–
Selection of Detectors for Final Measurement
–
ASCII File Export – file header example
Selection of Trace Function
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (Clear Write, View and Blank)
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (Max Hold and Min Hold)
•
Evaluation of individual pixels of a trace (Peak, Min Peak, Average, RMS, Quasipeak, CISPR AV
and CISPR RMS).
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Selecting the Detector
The following detectors are available:
•
The peak detector displays the highest sample values of the measured levels during the set
measurement time.
•
The min peak detector displays the lowest sample values of the levels measured during the set
measurement time.
•
The average detector displays the average level of the samples measured during the set
measurement time.
•
The CISPR average detector supplies a weighted average. When measuring the average according
to CISPR 16-1-1, the maximum value of the linear average during the measurement time is
displayed. The detector is used, for example, to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low pulse
frequency. It is calibrated with the RMS value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal. Averaging is
done with lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical instrument). The lowpass
time constants and the IF bandwidths are fixed depending on the frequency. The main parameters
are listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C / D
Band E
Frequency range
<150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
>1 GHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
1 kHz
Coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with the CISPR average detector activated can
be switched off by the QP RBW Uncoupled softkey.
•
The RMS detector displays the root mean square (RMS) level of the samples measured. The
integration time corresponds to the set measurement time.
•
The CISPR RMS detector supplies a weighted average. When measuring the average according to
CISPR 16-1-1, the maximum value of the linear average during the measurement time is displayed.
The detector is used, for example, to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low pulse frequency.
It is calibrated with the RMS value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal. Averaging is done with
lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical instrument). The lowpass time
constants and the IF bandwidths are fixed depending on the frequency. The main parameters are
listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C / D
Band E
Frequency range
<150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
>1 GHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Corner frequency
10 Hz
100 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
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E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
•
R&S ESL
The quasipeak detector displays the maximum detected value weighted to CISPR 16. Depending
on the set frequency, the R&S ESL automatically selects the detectors and IF bandwidths defined
for bands A, B and C/D listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C / D
Frequency range
<150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
>30 MHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
Charge time constant
45 ms
1 ms
1 ms
Discharge time constant
150 ms
500 ms
550 ms
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
For frequencies above 1 GHz, the R&S ESL uses the 120 kHz bandwidth of band C/D.
The coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with activated quasipeak detector can be
cancelled using the QP RBW Uncoupled softkey.
•
The input signal of R&S ESL can be displayed weighted by four detectors simultaneously.
Multiple detection is important in EMI measurements since, for example, commercial standards specify
limits for both the quasipeak and the average value. Thanks to the multiple use of detectors, only one
test run is needed. The peak detector can be combined with any other detector since it is the fastest
detector and therefore ideal for overview measurements.
Selection of Detectors for Final Measurement
To define the detectors used in the final measurement, press the Final Meas Detector softkey in the
trace menu and select one of the available detectors.
The detectors to be used for the final measurement can be set here for each trace, i.e. any combination
of scan and final measurement is possible. The required flexibility is thus obtained for the diverse test
specifications which are covered by means of the R&S ESL.
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Figure 4-1: Results of scan and final measurements
ASCII File Export – file header example
Table 4-3: Example: File header
File contents
Description
Type; R&S ESL
Instrument model
Version;1.00;
Firmware version
Date;10. Nov 03
Date of data set storage
Mode;Receiver
Instrument mode
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Start / stop of the display range
Unit: Hz
x-axis;LOG;
Scaling of x-axis:linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Detector;Average;
Selected detector:
Maxpeak, Minpeak, Average, RMS, Quasipeak
Scan Count;1;
Scan Count
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Transducer;;
R&S ESL
Transducer name (if switched on)
Table 4-4: Example: Data section of the file, scan ranges
File contents
Description
Scan 1;
Settings for scan range 1
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Range 1 – start frequency in Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Range 1 – stop frequency in Hz
Step;4000.000000;Hz
Range 1 – step size
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Range 1 – resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.001000;s
Range 1 – measurement time
Auto Ranging;OFF;
Range 1 – auto ranging on or off
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Range 1 – input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Range 1 – auto preamp on or off
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Range 1 – preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
Scan 2:
Settings for scan range 2
Start;30000000.000000;Hz
Range 2 – start frequency in Hz
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Range 2 – stop frequency in Hz
Step; 50000.000000;Hz
Range 2 – step size
RBW;120000.000000;Hz
Range 2 – resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.000100;s
Range 2 – measurement time
Auto Ranging;OFF;
Range 2 – auto ranging on or off
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Range 2 – input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Range 2 – Auto Preamp on or off
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Range 2 – preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
Table 4-5: Example: Data section of the file, trace
File contents
Description
Trace 1:
Selected trace
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE
Trace mode: Clear Write, Maxhold
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: Hz for span > 0
y-Unit;dBEV
Unit of y values: dB*/V/A/W depending on the selected
unit
Values;26863;
Number of tested points
150000.000000;15.604355;
154000.000000;13.236252;
158000.000000;11.907021;
…;…;
Measured values: <x-value>;<y-value>
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Softkeys of the trace menu
The TRACE key opens a menu offering the setting options for the selected trace.
In this menu, the mode of representing the measured data in the frequency or time domain in the
625 pixels of the display is determined. Upon start of the measurement, each trace can be displayed
either completely new or based on the previous results.
Traces can be displayed, blanked and copied.
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by the user.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (Clear Write) and detector Max Peak is selected.
The other traces are in Blank mode..
The Clear Write, Max Hold, Min Hold, View and Blank softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
Menu / Command
Command
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Trace Mode
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
View
Blank
Scan Detector
Peak
Min Peak
Average
RMS
Quasipeak
CISPR AV
CISPR RMS
Final Meas Detector
Final Peak
Final Min Peak
Final Average
Final RMS
Final Quasipeak
More
Final CISPR AV
Final CISPR RMS
Scan Count
Peak List On Off
More
Copy Trace
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Select a specific trace with the Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6 softkey.
Remote: ---(selected via numeric suffix of :TRACe)
Trace Mode
Opens a submenu from which the trace mode can be selected. For details see "Trace mode
overview" on page 4.114..
The following trace modes are available:
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
View
Blank
Clear Write
Selects the Clear Write mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT
Max Hold
Selects the Max Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH
Min Hold
Selects the Min Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH
View
Selects the View mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW
Blank
Selects the Blank mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC OFF
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Scan Detector
Selects the detector to be used for a scan measurement. The detector can be set independently
for each trace.
The following detector types are available for scan measurements:
Peak
Min Peak
Average
RMS
Quasipeak
CISPR AV
CISPR RMS
For details on the detetcor types refer to Selecting the Detector on page 4.29
Remote: DET POS
Peak
The Peak softkey selects the peak detector.
Remote: DET POS
Min Peak
The Min Peak softkey selects the min peak detector.
Remote: DET NEG
Average
The Average softkey selects the average detector.
Remote: DET AVER
RMS
The RMS softkey selects the quasipeak detector.
Remote: DET RMS
Quasipeak
The Quasipeak softkey selects the quasipeak detector.
The IF bandwidth is adapted as a function of the frequency range. The coupling of the IF
bandwidth to the frequency range can be cancelled using the softkey QP RBW Uncoupled.
Remote: DET:QPE
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
CISPR AV
The CISPR AV softkey selects the weighting average detector according to CISPR 16-1 for the
final measurement.
Remote: DET:CAV
CISPR RMS
The CISPR RMS softkey selects the weighting RMS detector according to CISPR 16-1-1 for the
final measurement.
Remote: DET:CRMS
Final Meas Detector
Selects the detector to be used in the final measurement. The detector can be selected
independently for each trace.
The following detector types are available for preliminary measurements:
Final Peak
Final Min Peak
Final Average
Final RMS
Final Quasipeak
Final CISPR AV
Final CISPR RMS
For details on the detector types refer to Selecting the Detector on page 4.29
Remote: DET:FME POS
Final Peak
The Final Peak selects the peak detector for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME POS
Final Min Peak
The Final Min Peak selects the min peak detector for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME NEG
Final Average
The Final Average selects the average detector for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME AVER
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Final RMS
The Final RMS selects the RMS detector for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME RMS
Final Quasipeak
The Final Quasipeak selects the quasipeak detector for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME QPE
Final CISPR AV
The Final CISPR AV selects the weighting average detector according to CISPR 16-1 for the
final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME CAV
Final CISPR RMS
The Final CISPR RMS softkey selects the weighting RMS detector according to CISPR 16-1-1
for the final measurement.
Remote: DET:FME CRMS
Scan Count
The Scan Count softkey opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of scans used in Single
Scan mode.
The allowed range of values is 0 to 30000. The default setting is 1.
Remote: SWE:COUN 10
Peak List On Off
The Peak List On Off softkey switches on and off the indication of the peak list or of the final
measurement results in the diagram. Each peak value is indicated as a symbol (e.g. an x or a +).
The symbol in use varies from one trace to another to better distinguish the traces from one
another The assignment of symbol to trace is fixed.
Run Scan automatically switches Peak List to OFF in order to prevent the indication of
preceding final measurement results. Peak Search automatically sets Peak List to ON (see Data
Reduction and Peak List on page 4.50).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS
Copy Trace
The Copy Trace softkey copies the screen contents of the current trace into another trace
memory. The desired memory is selected by entering the number 1, 2 or 3.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new contents
displayed in view mode.
Remote: TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
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E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
ASCII File Export
The ASCII FILE Export softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format on a memory stick.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters, several data sections
containing the scan settings and a data section containing the trace data.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; base unit
The data section for the scan ranges starts with the keyword "Scan <n>:", (<n> = number of
scan range), followed by the scan data in one or several columns which are also separated by a
semicolon.
The data section for the trace date starts with the keyword " Trace <n> " (<n> = number of
stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several columns which are also
separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Note: Different language versions of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the
decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ','
(comma) using softkey Decim Sep.
Remote: FORM ASC;
Remote: MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
Decim Sep
The Decim Sep softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal point) and ','
(comma) with floating-point numerals for the function ASCII File Export.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of evaluation programs
(e.g. MS Excel) can be supported.
Remote: FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
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E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Measurement Functions
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement functions are described. This includes the
following topics and keys:
•
“Marker Functions – MKR Key” on page 4.40
•
“Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key” on page 4.44
•
“Selection of the Measurement Function – MEAS Key” on page 4.48
•
“Running a Scan – RUN key" on page 4.66
•
"Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key” on page 4.184
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E-2
Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Marker Functions – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and for quickly
selecting a display section. The R&S ESL provides four markers per trace.
Marker
Active marker
Temporary marker
M1
M3
T1
D2
Delta marker
Fig. 4-1: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be moved by the user
is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers are used in addition to the markers
and delta markers to evaluate the measurement results. They disappear when the associated function
is deactivated..
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed in the marker
field. The marker field is located at the upper right corner of the display and shows the following:
•
marker type (M1 in the example)
•
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
•
level (–33.09 dBm in the example)
•
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
Fig. 4-2: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement markers (markers
and delta markers). In addition, the functions for frequency counter, fixed reference point for relative
measurement markers and enlargement of the measurement area are assigned to this key.
To open the marker menu
Press the MKR key
The marker menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a peak search on
the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is opened and
the current frequency / time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the marker menu
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E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Softkeys of the marker menu
Command
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker Norm Delta
More
Marker 3
Marker 4
Marker to Trace
All Marker Off
Marker Zoom
Previous Zoom Range
Marker Zoom Off
Marker 1 Marker 2 Marker 3 Marker 4 Marker Norm Delta
The Marker <no> softkey selects the corresponding marker and activates it.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. After they have been
switched on, Markers 2 to 4 are delta markers that refer to Marker 1. These markers can be
converted into markers with absolute value display by means of the Marker Norm Delta softkey.
If Marker 1 is the active marker, pressing the Marker Norm Delta softkey switches on an
additional delta marker.
Pressing the Marker <no> softkey again switches off the selected marker.
Example:
Press the MKR key.
On calling the menu, Marker 1 is switched on (softkey Marker 1 is highlighted) and
positioned on the maximum value of the trace. It is a normal marker and the Marker Normal
softkey is highlighted.
Press the Marker 2 softkey.
Marker 2 is switched on (softkey Marker 2 is highlighted). It is automatically defined as a
delta marker on switching on so the Delta is highlighted on softkey Marker Norm Delta. The
frequency and level of Marker 2 with reference to Marker 1 are output in the marker info field.
Press the Marker Norm Delta softkey.
The Marker Norm Delta softkey is highlighted. Marker 2 becomes a normal marker. The
frequency and level of Marker 2 are output as absolute values in the marker info field.
Press the Marker 2 softkey.
Marker 2 is switched off. Marker 1 is the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of
Marker 1 are output in the marker info field.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
If several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value (peak) of the
active trace which has the lowest number (1 to 6). In case a marker is already located there, it
will be set to the frequency of the next lowest level (next peak).
A marker can only be enabled when at least one trace in the corresponding window is visible.
If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also deactivated. If
the trace is switched on again (View, Clr/Write;..), the markers along with coupled functions will
be restored to their original positions provided the markers have not been used on another trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON;
Remote: CALC:MARK:X <value>;
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT ON;
Remote: CALC:DELT:MODE ABS
Remote: CALC:DELT:X <value>;
Remote: CALC:DELT:X:REL?
Remote: CALC:DELT:Y?
Marker to Trace
The MKR->Trace softkey places the marker on a new trace. The trace is selected via a data
entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are visible on the screen in the same
window.
Example:
Three traces are presented on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on switching on.
Press the MKR->Trace softkey and enter the number ‘2’.
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains on the previous frequency or time.
Press the MKR->Trace softkey and enter the number ‘3’.
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
Remote: CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
All Marker Off
Pressing the All Marker Off softkey switches off all marker.
Remote: CALC:MARK:AOFF
Marker Zoom
The Marker Zoom softkey zooms 10% of the diagram around the current marker. It opens at the
same time a data entry field which allows to enter any frequency range which is then displayed.
Pressing the softkey again expands the diagram such that only 3 measured values are
represented.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM <num_value>
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Previous Zoom Range
The Previous Zoom Range softkey zooms to the previous frequency range.
Marker Zoom Off
The Marker Zoom Off softkey deactivates the zoom.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:X:ZOOM OFF
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key
The MKR-> menu offers functions through which instrument parameters can be changed with the aid of
the currently active marker. The functions can be used on markers and delta markers.
On opening the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated; if no marker was enabled,
Marker 1 is activated and a peak search is performed.
To open the marker–> menu
Press the MKR–> key.
The marker–> menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated and a peak
search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is
opened and the current frequency / time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the marker to menu
Softkeys of the marker to menu
Menu / Command
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Next Peak Mode <abs>
Add To Peak List
Tune to Marker
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Next Min Mode <abs>
Search Limits
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
Search Limit Off
Marker Track On Off
Peak Excursion
Marker to Stepsize
Settings Coupled
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E-2
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Select 1 2 3 4
Select one of the active markers with the Select Marker softkey. An edit dialog box that shows
the position of the active marker opens. To change the position of the marker, enter another
frequency in the edit dialog box.
On entering the MKR-> menu, marker 1 is automatically switched on.
Remote: CALC:MARK1 ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
Peak
The Peak softkey sets the active marker or delta marker to the peak of the trace.
If no marker is active when MKR-> menu is called, Marker 1 is automatically switched on and
the peak search is performed.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX
Next Peak
The Next Peak softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower peak value on the
trace. The search direction is defined in the Next Mode submenu (see Next Peak Mode <abs>
softkey).
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT
Next Peak Mode <abs>
The Next Peak Mode softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower peak value
to the right or left side of the current marker position on the selected trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
Add To Peak List
The Add To Peak List softkey adds the receiver frequency of the currently active marker to the
peak list (see also section Data Reduction and Peak List).
Remote: CALC:PEAK:ADD 23.512 MHz
Tune to Marker
The Tune To Marker softkey sets the receiver frequency to the marker frequency.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Min
The Min softkey sets the active marker to the minimum value on the corresponding trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN
Next Min
The Next Min softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum of the
selected trace. The search direction is defined in the Next Mode submenu (see below).
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
Next Min Mode <abs>
The Next Min Mode softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum
value to the right or left of the current marker position on the corresponding trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
Search Limits
The Search Limits softkey limits the search range for maximum or minimum search. The
softkey switches to a submenu in which the search range limits can be set in the x and y
direction.
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
Search Limit Off
Left Limit Right Limit
The Left Limit and Right Limit softkeys define the two vertical lines S1 and S2 in the frequency
domain (span > 0). The search is performed between these lines in the frequency domain.
If only Left Limit is enabled, line S1 is the lower limit and the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency. If Right Limit is also enabled, it determines the upper limit.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHz
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHz
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Threshold
The Threshold softkey defines the threshold line.
The threshold line represents a limit for the level range of the max. search at the lower end and
that of the min. search at the upper end.
Remote: CALC:THR -20dBm
Remote: CALC:THR ON
Search Limit Off
The Search Limit Off softkey disables all limits of the search range.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
Remote: CALC:THR OFF
Marker Track On Off
This softkey automatically sets the receiver frequency to the frequency of the active marker. The
receiver frequency is updated with every change of the marker position.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:COUP ON
Peak Excursion
The Peak Excursion softkey sets the minimum amount by which a signal level must decrease /
increase before it is recognized by the Next Peak and Next Min search functions as maximum or
minimum.
Remote: CALC:MARK:PEXC 10 dB
Marker to Stepsize
Sets the stepsize of the marker (see Next Peak and Next Min softkeys) to the stepsize of the
receiver frequency (see Stepsize softkey).
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:CST
Settings Coupled
The Settings Coupled softkey couples the receiver frequency settings from the corresponding
subscans to the marker frequency for functions Tune To Marker and Marker Track.
Remote: CALC:MARK:SCO ON
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Selection of the Measurement Function – MEAS Key
The MEAS key opens the menu to select basic instrument parameters like receiver frequency, detector,
measurement time and the audio demodulator.
The final measurement softkey gives access to receiver settings for test automation and to the peak list.
The test automation includes an automatic sequence of scan, data reduction and final measurements. It
also enables remote control of line impedance stabilization networks (LISN).
To open the measurement menu
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the measurement menu
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
Setting the measurement time and weighting modes
–
Data Reduction and Peak List
–
Data Reduction using the Subrange Maximum
–
Automatic Control of Line Impedance Stabilization Networks
–
ASCII file export format
Setting the measurement time and weighting modes
The measurement time can be set in the range from 50 Es to 100 s with a two-digit resolution.
The measurement time is the time during which R&S ESL measures the input signal and forms a
measurement result weighted by the selected detector. The measurement time does not include settling
times of the synthesizer and the IF filter.
When the quasipeak detector is used, the minimum measurement time is 500 Es. When the CISPR
average detector is used, the useful minimum measurement time is 20 ms. With the average, RMS, AC
video, or min/max peak detector, the smallest settable measurement time depends on the bandwidth.
Bandwidth
Shortest measurement time
AV, RMS
Shortest measurement time
PK+, PK-
200 Hz
50 ms
1 ms
1 kHz
10 ms
0.1 ms
9 kHz
1 ms
0.1 ms
100 kHz
0.1 ms
0.05 ms
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Effect of measurement time with different weighting modes:
•
Min/Max Peak measurement:
With peak weighting selected, the maximum or minimum level during the selected measurement
time is displayed. The peak detector is reset at the beginning of each measurement. At the end of
the measurement time the maximum or minimum level occurred during the measurement time is
displayed. Since the peak detector of R&S ESL is a digital detector, discharging is irrelevant even
with long measurement times.
Unmodulated signals can be measured with the shortest possible measurement time. When pulses
are measured, the selected measurement time must be long enough for at least one pulse to occur
during the measurement time.
•
RMS measurement
With RMS weighting the same applies to the measurement time as with the average measurement.
•
Average measurement:
With average detection selected, the video voltage (envelope of IF signal) is averaged during the
measurement time. Averaging is digital, i.e. the digitized values of the video voltage are summed up
and divided by the number of samples at the end of the measurement time. This corresponds to a
filtering with a rectangular window in the time domain and a filtering with sin x/x characteristic in the
frequency domain. With unmodulated signals the shortest possible measurement time can be
selected. With modulated signals the measurement time is determined by the lowest modulation
frequency to be averaged. With pulse signals, the selected measurement time should be long
enough for sufficient number of pulses (>10) to occur in the measurement window for averaging.
•
CISPR average and CISPR RMS measurement:
With a CISPR average or a CISPR RMS measurement, the maximum value of the weighted signal
during the measurement time is displayed. The relatively long time constants used with CISPR
average and CISPR RMS detectors result in long measurement times in order to obtain a correct
measurement result. If unknown signals are measured, the measurement time should be at least
one second so that pulses down to a frequency of 5 Hz are correctly weighted.
After a frequency change or a modification of the attenuation, the R&S ESL waits until the lowpass
has settled before the measurement time starts. The measurement time is selected depending on
the IF bandwidth and the characteristics of the signal to be measured. Unmodulated sinusoidal
signals as well as signals with high modulation frequency can be measured within a short time.
Slowly fluctuating signals or pulse signals require longer measurement times.
•
Quasipeak measurement:
With quasipeak measurements, the maximum value of the weighted signal during the measurement
time is displayed. The relatively long time constants used with quasipeak detectors entail long
measurement times to obtain correct results. With unknown signals the measurement time should
be at least 1 s. This ensures correct weighting of pulses down to a pulse frequency of 5 Hz.
After internal switching, R&S ESL waits until the measurement result has stabilized before it starts
the actual measurement. Since the level does not change during a frequency scan, known signals
(e.g. broadband RFI) can be correctly measured with a much shorter measurement time.
•
Measurement with several detectors:
If several detectors are used simultaneously, a measurement time suiting the slowest detector
should be selected to obtain correct results for all detectors. It is therefore recommended to set a
measurement time that matches the average detector when the peak and average detectors are
used.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Data Reduction and Peak List
EMI measurements may involve much time because the time constants prescribed by the standard for
the detector weighting require long measurement times for each value. In addition, the standards
stipulate procedures for finding local EMI maxima such as shifting the absorbing clamp, variation of the
test antenna height and rotating the DUT. Measuring with quasipeak weighting at each frequency and
for each setting of the test configuration would lead to unacceptably long measurement times. For this
reason, R&S has developed a method which reduces the time-consuming measurements with the
standard detectors like quasipeak, CISPR avergae and CISPR RMS to a minimum with an optimum
reliability of detection.
Data Reduction using the Subrange Maximum
The interference spectrum is first pre-analyzed in a fast scan to optimize the duration of the
measurement. Data reduction follows so that the time-consuming final measurement is performed at
only some important frequencies:
Figure 4-2: Dividing the spectrum into eight subranges
Data reduction is of crucial importance. It is automatically initiated by pressing a key after the scan.
Data reduction is used to select frequencies with a very high interference level. Several data reduction
methods are used:
•
Acceptance analysis, i.e. the interference spectrum is further analyzed at frequencies with levels
above a line parallel to a limit line.
•
Generating subrange maxima, i.e. the interference spectrum is further analyzed at frequencies with
the highest interference level of a frequency subrange (search method Subranges).
•
Determination of a specific number of peak values relative to the limit lines with the level values
being independent of their frequency spectral distribution (search method Peaks).
For generation of subrange maxima, the whole frequency range is divided into equidistant subranges. A
subrange maximum is determined for each subrange (search method Subranges).
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Determining the level maxima irrespective of their distribution in the frequency spectrum (search mode
Peaks) is suitable for measurement regulations that demand determination of the relatively highest level
irrespective of the distribution in the measured frequency range, e.g. FCC.
If the scan is performed in parallel with several detectors, typically with peak value and average value,
the maxima are determined separately for the two detectors so that the distribution of narrowband and
wideband sources of interference can be taken into account. For example, the frequency of the
maximum determined with the average detector can be used for the final measurement performed with
this detector and the frequency found in the scan carried out with the peak detector is taken for the final
measurement using the quasipeak detector.
Consideration of the limit lines ensures that the final measurement is not performed at frequencies at
which the inference level is far below the limit value. The margin between the acceptance line and the
limit line can be selected by the user in dB as the Margin. Each limit line is allocated to a trace, i.e.
different limit lines are taken for the different detectors.
Two values should therefore be defined for this purpose:
•
the number of subranges or highest level values (No Of Peaks in the range from 1 to 500; default
value: 25)
•
the acceptance margin (Margin; default value: 6 dB). It is valid for all limit lines.
As an alternative method, it is possible to preset a list of frequencies at which the final measurements
are performed. A typical application is, for example, the statistical analysis of several units.
The peak list can be either edited manually or can be filled with desired values by adopting the marker
values.
If no limit lines are activated, the measurement procedure is as if all measured values would exceed the
limit line.
Automatic Control of Line Impedance Stabilization Networks
The selected phases are controlled during the scan and the final measurement via the Userport with the
LISN switched on.
Only one phase (1 out of n) can be selected for the scan. Any number of settings can be selected for
the final measurement (m out of n).
All selected phase combinations are measured during the final measurement and the maximum value is
determined.
The selection of the V-Networks to be used in the Scan Phases and the Final Phases is done via the
Test Automation dialog box.
Settings made in the Prescan Phases menu are immediately output at the user port. This way, the
menu can be used to remote control the LISN during manual measurements.
For automatic phase selection with the LISN, the R&S ESL user interface and the LISN have to be
connected via a control line.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
ASCII file export format
Table 4-6: Receiver mode, final measurement data – file header
Content of file
Description
Type;R&S ESL;
Instrument model
Version;1.82;
Firmware version
Date;03.Mar 2008
Date record storage date
Mode;Receiver
Instrument operating mode
Start;10000;Hz
Stop;100000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range
Unit: Hz
x-axis;LIN;
Scaling of x-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Scan Count;1;
Number of scans set
Transducer;TRD1;
Transducer name (if switched on)
Scan 1
Loop over all defined scan ranges (1-10)
Start;150000;Hz
Range – start frequency in Hz
Stop;1000000;Hz
Range – stop frequency in Hz
Step;4000;Hz
Range – step size in Hz for linear step size or in % (1-100) for
logarithmic step size
RBW;100000;Hz
Range – resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.01;s
Range – measurement time
Auto Ranging;ON;
Auto ranging on or off for current range
RF Att;20;dB
Range – input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Auto preamp on or off for current range
Preamp;0;dB
Range – preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
Table 4-7: Receiver mode, final measurement data – data section of the file
Content of file
Description
Trace 1 Final:
Selected Trace
Trace Mode;Clr/Write
Trace mode: Clr/Write, Average, Max Hold, Min Hold, View, Blank
Final Detector;Quasipeak
Final detector: Max Peak, Min Peak, RMS, Average, Quasipeak, AC
Video
x-unit;Hz;
y-unit;dBuV;
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Margin;6.000000;s
Values;8;
2;154000.000000;81.638535;15.638535;N;GND
1;158000.000000;86.563789;7.563789;N;GND
2;1018000.000000;58.689873;-1.310127;GND
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Measured values:
<trace>;<x-value>;<y-value>;<phase>;<ground>
Phase and protective grounding are output only if a line impedance
stabilization has been active. They specify the setting at which the
maximum RFI level at the associated frequency was found.
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Example for exported final measurement data
Type; R&S ESL;
Version;1.82;
Date;03.Mar 08;
Mode;Receiver;
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
x-Axis;LOG;
Scan Count;1;
Transducer;;
Scan 1:
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Step;4000.000000;Hz
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Meas Time;0.001000;s
Auto Ranging;OFF;
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Preamp;0.000000;dB
TRACE 1 FINAL:
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Final Detector;MAX PEAK;
TRACE 2 FINAL:
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Final Detector;AVERAGE;
x-Unit;Hz;
y-Unit;dBuV;
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Margin;6.000000;dB
Values;11;
2;154000.000000;81.638535;15.638535;N;GND
1;158000.000000;86.563789;7.563789;N;GND
2;1018000.000000;58.689873;-1.310127;N;GND
2;302000.000000;63.177345;-2.822655;L1;GND
2;3294000.000000;56.523022;-3.476978;N;GND
2;1122000.000000;53.849747;-6.150253;N;GND
2;10002000.000000;47.551216;-12.448784;N;GND
1;3390000.000000;59.762917;-13.237083;N;GND
1;9998000.000000;58.309189;-14.690811;L1;GND
2;20002000.000000;45.142456;-14.857544;L1;GND
2;7502000.000000;36.406967;-23.593033;L1;GND
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Softkeys of the measurement menu
Softkeys in the measurement menu:
Menu / Command
Menu / Command
Menu / Command
Command
Hold Final Meas
Automatic Final
Receiver Frequency
Add to Peak List
Bargraph Detector
Max Peak
Min Peak
Average
RMS
Quasipeak
CISPR Average
CISPR RMS
Meas Time
Demod
Demod On Off
AM FM
Squelch
Volume
Final Meas Settings
Test Automation
Peak Search
Edit Peak List
Run Final Meas
Interactive Final
Skip Frequency
Get Maxhold
Measure
Stop Final Meas
Stop Final Meas
Peak List Export
Decim Sep
Continous Bargraph
Single Bargraph
Bargraph Maxhold
Bargraph Reset
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Receiver Frequency
For details refer to the Receiver Frequency softkey in the frequency menu.
Add to Peak List
The Add To Peak List softkey adds the current receiver frequency to the peak list (see also
section Data Reduction and Peak List).
Remote: CALC:PEAK:ADD 23.512 MHz
Bargraph Detector
Opens the detector submenu to select the detector for the bargraph. The menu contains the
following softkeys:.
Peak
Min Peak
Average
RMS
Quasipeak
CISPR Average
CISPR RMS
For further details on detectors refer to Selecting the Detector.
Max Peak
The Peak softkey selects the peak detector for the bargraph measurement. For details on the
peak detector refer to Selecting the Detector.
Remote: DET:REC POS
Min Peak
The Min Peak softkey selects the peak detector for the bargraph measurement. For details on
the min peak detector refer to Selecting the Detector.
Remote: DET:REC NEG
Average
The Peak softkey selects the peak detector for the bargraph measurement. For details on the
average detector refer to Selecting the Detector.
Remote: DET:REC AVER
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
RMS
The RMS softkey selects the peak detector for the bargraph measurement. For details on the
RMS detector refer to Selecting the Detector.
Remote: DET:REC RMS
Quasipeak
The Quasipeak softkey selects the peak detector for the bargraph measurement. For details on
the quasipeak detector refer to Selecting the Detector.
Remote: DET:REC QPE
CISPR Average
The CISPR Average softkey activates the weighting average detector according to CISPR 16-1.
The IF bandwidth is automatically set to the required value according to the receiving frequency.
This coupling can be cancelled by the softkey QP RBW Uncoupled.
Remote: DET:REC CAV
CISPR RMS
The CISPR RMS softkey activates the weighting RMS detector according to CISPR 16-1. The IF
bandwidth is automatically set to the required value according to the receiving frequency. This
coupling can be cancelled by the QP RBW Uncoupled softkey.
Remote: DET:REC CRMS
Meas Time
For details refer to the Meas Time softkey of the sweep menu.
Demod
The R&S ESL provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators
selected, a displayed signal can be monitored using headphones.
The Demod softkey calls a submenu in which the desired type of demodulation can be switched
on.
Command
Demod On Off
AM FM
Squelch
Volume
A squelch function enables the input of a level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off.
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Demod On Off
The Demod On/Off softkey switches demodulation on/off.
Remote: DEM OFF (DEModulation ON automatically switched on with DEM AM | FM)
AM FM
The AM and FM softkeys can be activated one at a time. They are used to set the desired
demodulation type, FM or AM.
Remote: DEM AM | FM
Squelch
The Squelch softkey enables the input of a level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off.
The squelch function is associated with the internal trigger function (trigger menu), which will be
switched on automatically with the squelch. Squelch level and trigger level do have the same
value.
The softkey can take on three states:
Gray
The squelch function is deactivated.
Green
The squelch function is activated.
Red
An edit dialog box to enter the level threshold opens
The default setting for the squelch is off.
Remote: SENS:DEM:SQU ON | OFF
Remote: SENS:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT
Volume
The Volume softkey sets the volume for headphones. The volume can be set between 1 and
100. 1 is the lowest volume and 100 the loudest.
Default value is 1.
Remote: SYST:SPE:VOL 0.7
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Final Meas Settings
Opens a submenu to modify settings concerning the final measurement. The following softkeys
are avilable:
Test Automation
Peak Search
Edit Peak List
Run Final Meas
Hold Final Meas
Automatic Final
Interactive Final
Skip Frequency
Get Maxhold
Measure
Stop Final Meas
Stop Final Meas
Peak List Export
Decim Sep
Test Automation
The Test Automation softkey opens the Test Automation dialog box. The dialog box contains
two tabs, one to modify the Final Meas Settings and one to set the LISN Settings (line
impedance stabilization networks).
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
Final Meas Settings
In the Final Measurement Settings tab, parameters regarding the peak search can be modified
as well as Final Test Settings:
The R&S ESL offers two methods to determine peak values of a scan.
The Peaks search determines a specific number of peak values relative to the limit lines Set the
number of peaks to be determined in the Peaks field.
The Subranges search analyzes the peaks of each subrange. Instead of the No of Peaks field,
two new fields are shown in the dialog box. The number of subranges to be analyzed can be set
in the No of Subranges field. The Peaks / Subrange field determines the number of peaks for
each subrange.
Specify the acceptance threshold for the generation of the peak list in the Margin field. The
R&S ESL shifts the currently used limit line by this amount.
The value range is -200 dB to 200 dB.
For details on the Peak Excursion field refer to the Peak Excursion softkey of the marker to
menu.
For further information on the peak search refer to Data Reduction using the Subrange
Maximum.
Remote: CALC:PEAK:SUBR 5
Remote: CALC:PEAK:SUBR:PCO 5
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Final Test Settings
The final test settings control the actions of the R&S ESL regarding the final measurement.
Set the dwell time of the final measurement in the Final Meas Time field. The value range is
from 50 Es to 100 s.
The Peak Search after Prescan check box initiates a peak search after the scan.
The Run Final Test after Prescan check box initiates a final measurement after the scan. This
includes a peak search.
Select whether the final measurement runs automatically or in interactive mode.
Select the Automatic radio button to select the automatic routine of the final measurement. The
R&S ESL automatically runs the final measurement according to the preliminary peak list. No
user interaction is possible.
To adjust settings during the final measurement, activate the Interactive radio button. The
following measurement sequence is now available:
–
The R&S ESL adjusts to the first frequency in the peak list. The receiver settings are the same
as in the preliminary scan.
–
The R&S ESL sets the marker on the frequency in the scan diagram.
–
The R&S ESL interrupts the final measurement.
–
To analyze the signal in detail, modify the receiver settings as desired.
–
After continuing the final measurement, the current frequency replaces the preliminary one in
the peak list (drifting interference sources).
–
The R&S ESL proceeds with the next frequency in the list.
Note:
A switch to the automatic final measurement is always possible while in Interactive mode. The
R&S ESL then continues the final measurement according to the routine of the automatic
measurement.
The Peak Search can be started with the Peak Search button, the final measurement is started
with the Run Final Meas button.
Remote: FME:AUTO ON | OFF
Remote: FME:TIME 100 us
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R&S ESL
Instrument Functions – Receiver
LISN Settings
Activate or deactivate the usage of a V-network in the measurement. Also, set the parameters of
the network in this tab. For details on the networks refer to Automatic Control of Line Impedance
Stabilization Networks
From the dropdown menu, select one of the following networks:
ESH2-Z5
Four-line V-network is controlled
ESH3-Z5
Two-line V-network is controlled
ENV 4200
Four-line V-network is controlled
ENV 216
Two-line V-network is controlled
Remote: INP:LISN ESH3Z5| ESH2Z5| ENV4200 | ENV216 | OFF
Additionally, select the Prescan Phases and Final Phases for the selection of phase and
protective earth settings. The availability of the phases depend on the selected network.
Prescan Phases
Softkeys ESH2-Z5, ESH3-Z5, ENV 4200, ENV 216 and OFF
or Phase N, Phase L1, Phase L2 and Phase L3 as well as PE
Grounded and PE Floating are toggle keys. Only one of them
can be activated at a time.
Final Phases
All combinations of phases and PE settings are possible.
Phase N
RFI on phase N is measured
Phase L1
RFI on phase L1 is measured
Phase L2
RFI on phase L2 is measured (only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200)
Phase L3
RFI on phase L3 is measured (only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200)
Remote: INP:LISN:PHAS L1 | L2 | L3 | N
For the ENV216 network a 150 kHz highpass filter is available. Activate the filter by activating
the corresponding check box.
Remote: INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Peak Search
The Peak Search softkey starts a peak search of the scan. Additionally the R&S ESL generates
a peak list of the current scan. Repeat the procedure to try out different settings of margin and
number of subranges.
For details on the peak list, refer to Edit Peak List.
Remote: CALC:PEAK
Edit Peak List
The Edit Peak List softkey opens the Edit Peak List dialog box.
The dialog box contains the following items:
–
Status Line
The status line displays the name of the assigned limit lines. A limit line can be assigned to
each trace. If more than two traces are in use, the field size is adjusted accordingly. If no limit
line is assigned to a trace, the text 'LimitLine not assigned' is displayed next to the trace
number.
–
Trace / Detector
Displays the trace number and the corresponding detector.
–
Frequency
Shows the frequency of the measured peaks. To add a new frequency to the peak list, use the
Insert Frequency button. To remove a frequency from the list, use the Delete Frequency
button. The frequencies are displayed in ascending order.
–
Level
Shows the power levels of the measured peaks. The unit depends on the current settings (see
Unit softkey)
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R&S ESL
–
Instrument Functions – Receiver
DeltaLimit
Shows the difference of the measured value and the value of the limit line. Values which
passed the test have a negative sign. Values which did not pass the test have a positive sign.
The R&S ESL considers margins in this calculation (see Margin field in the Test Automation
dialog box). To sort the list by DeltaLimit instead of frequency, use the Sort by Delta Limit
button.
Run Final Meas
The Run Final Meas softkey starts the final measurement sequence. Refer to Data Reduction
and Peak List for details on the final measurment sequence.
Remote: INIT:FME
Additionally, the final measurement submenu opens. It contains the following softkeys:
Hold Final Meas
Stop Final Meas
In Interactive mode the R&S ESL directly opens the Hold Final Meas submenu, containing the
following softkeys.
Automatic Final
Interactive Final
Skip Frequency
Get Maxhold
Measure
Stop Final Meas
Hold Final Meas
To modify the receiver settings during the final measurement, use the Hold Final Meas softkey.
The measurement is interrupted for now, and the settings can be adjusted.
To resume the final measurement, use the Measure softkey.
Remote: HOLD
The Hold Final Meas submenu contains the following softkeys:
Automatic Final
Interactive Final
Skip Frequency
Get Maxhold
Measure
Stop Final Meas
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Automatic Final
Select Automatic Final to select the automatic routine of the final measurement. The R&S ESL
automatically runs the final measurement according to the preliminary peak list. No user
interaction is possible.
Remote: FME:AUTO ON
Interactive Final
To adjust settings during the final measurement, activate the Interactive radio button. The
following measurement sequence is now available:
–
The R&S ESL adjusts to the first frequency in the peak list. The receiver settings are the same
as in the preliminary scan.
–
The R&S ESL sets the marker on the frequency in the scan diagram.
–
The R&S ESL interrupts the final measurement.
–
To analyze the signal in detail, modify the receiver settings as desired.
–
After continuing the final measurement, the current frequency replaces the preliminary one in
the peak list (drifting interference sources).
–
The R&S ESL proceeds with the next frequency in the list.
Note:
A switch to the automatic final measurement is always possible while in Interactive mode. The
R&S ESL then continues the final measurement according to the routine of the automatic
measurement.
Remote: FME:AUTO OFF
Skip Frequency
Skip a frequency of the peak list during final measurement with the Skip Frequency softkey.
The softkey is only available in interactive measurement mode.
Remote: Get Maxhold
Accepts the highest level measured during the Hold Scan state as the result of the final
measurement and continues the scan (the level value in question is displayed as a small bar in
the bargraph).
The softkey is only available in interactive measurement mode.
Remote: Measure
To resume the final measurement in interactive mode, press the Measure softkey (see Test
Automation dialog box). The R&S ESL resumes the measurement with the next frequency of
the peak list.
Remote: INIT:FME
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Stop Final Meas
The Stop Final Meas softkey stops the final measurement. All data of the previous measurement
is lost. Upon restart, the final measurement again starts at the first frequency of the peak list.
The R&S ESL automatically displays the peak list after the abortion of the measurement. See
Edit Peak List on how to edit the peak list.
Remote: ABOR
Peak List Export
The Peak List Export softkey exports the peak list in the ASCii format. For details on the file
export refer to ASCII file export format.
Remote: FORM ASC;
Remote: MMEM:STOR:FIN 1, 'FINAL.DAT'
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu.
Continous Bargraph
The Continuous Bargraph softkey activates the continuous measuremeant of the power level
of the specified receiver frequency.
Remote: INIT:CONT ON
Single Bargraph
The Single Bargraph softkey activates a single measurement of the power level of the specified receiver
frequency.
Remote: INIT:CONT OFF
Bargraph Maxhold
The Bargraph Maxhold softkey activates the maxhold function. A marker in the bargraph display
(shown as a small bar) indicates the maximum power level of the measurement.
The bargraph table is expanded accordingly (see Display of Measurement Results)
Remote: DISP:BARG:PHOL ON
Bargraph Reset
The Bargraph Reset softkey resets the bargraph maxhold marker and results. The softkey is
only available if Bargraph Maxhold is activated.
Remote: DISP:BARG:PHOL:RES
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Running a Scan – RUN key
The RUN key is used to start a scan.
At the beginning of the scan, the R&S ESL sets up the diagram as specified in the scan table and starts
the scan in the selected mode (Single or Continuous). With Single selected, the R&S ESL performs a
single scan and stops at the end frequency. With Continuous selected, the scan is performed
continuously until it is deliberately stopped.
The measurement can be interrupted with Hold Scan or stopped with Stop Scan. The two softkeys are
displayed instead of the menu shown before the scan is started.
Remote: :INIT2
To start the Scan
Press the RUN key
The Scan starts automatically.
Menu and softkey description
–
Softkeys of the run menu
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Softkeys of the run menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the run menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Hold Scan
Continue at Rec Frequency
Continue at Hold
Stop Scan
Stop Scan
Back to the menu menu
Hold Scan
The Hold Scan softkey interrupts the automatic run of the preliminary measurement.
The scan stops at the frequency at which it was interrupted until it is continued with the
Continue at Rec Frequency or Continue at Hold softkeys.
With the scan interrupted, all receiver settings can be modified, e.g. to analyse the recorded
trace.
Continue at Rec Frequency
Continue at Hold
Remote: HOLD
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Continue at Rec Frequency
With the Cont At Rec Freq softkey the scan is continued at the current receiver frequency when
the receiver frequency is lower than the frequency at which the scan was interrupted. Otherwise
the scan continues at the frequency at which it was interrupted.
The scan is always continued with the settings in the scan table.
Remote: INIT2
Continue at Hold
With the Cont At Hold softkey the scan is continued where it was interrupted. The scan is
always continued with the settings in the scan table.
Remote: INIT2
Stop Scan
The Stop Scan softkey stops the scan. Upon restart, scanning starts at the beginning. The
results of the performed measurements are lost.
Remote: ABOR
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R&S ESL
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
To open the lines menu
Press the LINES key.
The lines menu and the Select Limit Line dialog box are displayed. For details on the Select Limit
Line dialog box refer to "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the lines menu" on page 4.190
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Display Lines" on page 4.188
–
"Limit Lines" on page 4.189
Task
–
To work with display lines
–
To select a limit line
–
To create a new limit line
–
To edit an existing limit line
–
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
–
To activate/deactivate a limit line
To work with display lines
Initial situation: The line is switched on (softkey with highlighted background) or off (softkey without
highlighted background), for example the Display Line 1.
1. Press the Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the first time.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the display line (by rotary knob, step keys or
numerical entry). If the line was switched off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains
switched on.
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the Display Line 1 softkey is closed, but the
line remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the second time.
The edit dialog box for the display line will be opened again.
5. Press the Display Line 1 softkey again.
The line is switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
To select a limit line
1. To display the Select Limit Line dialog box, press the LINES key or go to the main limit line menu.
All limit lines, saved in the default directory, and all subdirectories are displayed. For each limit line,
the following information is given:
Unit
unit of the y–axis
Traces
selected traces to check
Show
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
Compatible
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
2. To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the Show compatible option. For details
on compatibility refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.189.
3. To navigate into a subdirectory, use the Show Directory and Hide Directory buttons.
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R&S ESL
To create a new limit line
1. Press the New softkey to define a new limit line.
The Edit Limit Line dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to "Limit Lines"
on page 4.189.
2. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a name, if you want to save the limit line in the main
directory. To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to section "Instrument
Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
3. To change the span setting, set the focus in the X–Axis field and change the unit via the rotary
knob: Hz for span > 0 Hz or s for zero span.
4. To change between absolute and relative scale mode for the x–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel
option next to the X–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key. Relative scaling is always
suitable, if masks for bursts are to be defined in zero span, or if masks for modulated signals are
required for span > 0 Hz.
absolute:
The frequencies are interpreted as absolute physical units.
relative:
In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently set center
frequency.
5. To change the scaling of the y–axis, set the focus in the Y–Axis field and change the unit using the
rotary knob.
6. To change between absolute and relative units for the y–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel option
next to the Y–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key.
absolute:
The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
relative:
The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values with the unit dB
are always relative values.
7. To define the limit line as upper or lower limit line, set the focus on the Upper or Lower option and
press the CHECKMARK key.
8. To change between linear or logarithmic scale of the x–axis, set the focus on the lin or log option
and press the CHECKMARK key.
9. If the scaling of the y–axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that works as a
lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below). Set the focus in the Threshold field and
enter a value.
The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values are defined
in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit value.
Ref -20 dBm
Att 10 dB
RBW 300 Hz
VBW 3 kHz
SWT 100 ms
Marker [T1]
-28.4 dBm
200.0100 MHz
resulting limit
absolute threshold
relative limit line
Center
200 MHz
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Span 100 kHz
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
10. To define a signal–level distance to the limit line, press the Edit Margin softkey and enter a value.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin means that the level is below the limit line. If
the limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin means that the level is above the limit line.
11. To enter a comment, press the Edit Comment and enter a comment, e.g. a description of the
application.
12. To enter a new data point:
–
Press the Insert Value Above softkey.
–
Enter the new x and y value in the successive displayed edit dialog boxes.
13. To change a data point:
–
Set the focus on the x and y value to be changed and press the Value softkey.
–
Enter the new x or y value in the displayed edit dialog box.
14. To delete a data point, select the corresponding entry and press the Delete Value softkey.
15. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
a x shift value.
16. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and and
enter an y shift value.
17. Press the Save Limit Line softkey.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm before the limit line is
overwritten.
To edit an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to alter. For details see also "To
select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. Press the Edit softkey.
3. Edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
4. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis for a new limit
line. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. Press the Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the Edit Limit Line dialog box.
3. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing
limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and enter a
y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit
line which has been shifted in Y direction
6. If required, edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
7. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
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R&S ESL
To activate/deactivate a limit line
Prerequisites:
•
The x– and y–units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible. For details
refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.189.
•
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details
see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the Select Traces to check softkey and
select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the Deselect All softkey.
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is comparable to
that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute values. They are exclusively
used to optically mark relevant frequencies or points in time (span = 0) as well as constant level values.
It is not possible to check automatically whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
The softkeys for setting and switching the display lines on/off work like triple switches. For details see
"To work with display lines" on page 4.184.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
•
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram and can be
shifted in y direction.
•
Two vertical frequency lines for marking frequencies – Frequency Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of the diagram and
can be shifted in x direction.
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations:
•
D1: Display Line 1
•
D2: Display Line 2
•
F1: Frequency Line 1
•
F2: Frequency Line 2
Limit Lines
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on the display screen
which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper limits for interference radiation or
spurious waves which are allowed from a device under test (DUT). For transmission of information in
TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls
within a specified tolerance band. The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line.
Then, the amplitude curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the
upper or lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit lines stored in the
instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit lines stored in the instrument is only
limited by the capacity of the flash disk used. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following applies:
•
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
•
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception of dB based
units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S ESL immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance with the
following guidelines:
•
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order, however, for any
single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical segment of a limit line).
•
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not allowed. If gaps
are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both enabled.
•
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S ESL. A limit line may also
exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is –200
GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the time range representation, negative times may
also be entered. The allowed range is –1000 s to +1000 s.
Softkeys of the lines menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the lines menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select Traces to check
Deselect All
New
Edit Name
Edit Comment
Edit Margin
Value
Insert Value Above
Delete Value
Save Limit Line
Edit
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Copy to
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Delete
Display Lines
Display Line 1
Display Line 2
Frequency Line 1
Frequency Line 2
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
R&S ESL
Select Traces to check
Opens the Select Traces to Check dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One
limit line can be activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.188 .
Remote: CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.188 .
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT OFF
New
Opens the Edit Limit Line dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For details see
also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
Edit Name
Sets the focus on the Name field to enter or change the limit line name. A maximum of 8
characters is permitted for each name. All names must be compatible with the Windows XP
conventions for file names. The limit line data are stored under this name. The instrument stores
all limit lines with LIM as extension.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1
Edit Comment
Sets the focus on the Comment field to enter or change a comment for the limit line. The text
must not exceed 40 characters.
Remote: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
Edit Margin
Sets the focus on the Margin field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The default
setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Value
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected column.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted).
Remote: CALC:LIM3:CONT:DATA 1MHz,3MHz,30MHz
Remote: CALC:LIM3:UPP:DATA –10,0,0
Remote: CALC:LIM3:LOW:DATA –30,–40,–40
Insert Value Above
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point. This softkey
corresponds to the Insert button in the dialog box.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the last entry
line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values are
permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order rule, an error
message is displayed and the values are discarded.
Delete Value
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted up
accordingly. This softkey corresponds to the Delete button in the dialog box.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
Save Limit Line
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the Name field.
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To
edit an existing limit line" on page 4.187.
Remote: For details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section "Definition of the limit
line".
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the Edit Limit Line dialog box. If the
limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be easily generated by
parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To create a new limit line based upon an
existing limit line" on page 4.187.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:COPY 2
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R&S ESL
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:DEL
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available
depends on the display mode (frequency or time range). For details see also "Display Lines" on
page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on page 4.184.
Display Line 1 and Display Line 2
Enable or disable the level lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.184.
Remote: CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:DLIN –20dBm
Frequency Line 1 and Frequency Line 2 (span > 0)
Enable or disable the frequency lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.184.
Remote: CALC:FLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:FLIN 120MHz
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Instrument Functions – Receiver
Measurement Modes
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and the
access to the menus of all active measurement modes. For details refer to the following sections:
•
"Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key"
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Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
The MODE key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode and a fast
change of the measurement mode. You can choose from the following measurement modes:
•
Instrument Functions – Receiver on page 4.2
•
Instrument Functions – Analyzer on page 4.79
•
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7) on page 4.195
•
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30) on page 4.195
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
The menu of the current measurement mode is displayed and the Measurement Modes dialog box
is opened.
2. To activate another mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK key. More
than one measurement mode can be activated simultaneously.
3. To deactivate an activated mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK
key.
Receiver mode
In the Receiver mode the functions provided correspond to those of a conventional receiver. The
receiver measures the power level of a signal at the set frequency with a selected bandwidth and
measurement time. This mode is set in the initial configuration.
Spectrum Analyzer mode
In the Spectrum Analyzer mode the functions provided correspond to those of a conventional
spectrum analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal over the selected
frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a fixed frequency, displays the
waveform of the video signal.
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7)
The Analog Demodulation mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides measurement functions for demodulating AM, FM, or PM signals. For
details refer to "Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" on page 4.204.
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30)
The Noise mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode
provides accurate and flexible noise measurement functions. For details refer to "Noise Figure
Measurements Option (K30)" on page 4.227.
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Instrument Functions – Analyzer
Instrument Functions – Analyzer
In this section, all analyzer functions of the R&S ESL and their application are explained in detail. The
basic settings functions are described in section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings".
For every key a table is provided in which all submenus and corresponding commands are listed. The
description of the submenus and commands follows the order of the table. The commands for the
optional remote control (if any) are indicated for each softkey. The description is divided into the
following topics:
•
"Measurement Parameters" on page 4.80
This section describes how to reset the instrument, to set up specific measurements and to set the
measurement parameters. Examples of basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples". Advanced examples are described in chapter
"Advanced Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Functions" on page 4.123
This section informs about how to select and configure the measurement functions. Examples of
basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
Advanced examples are described in chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Modes" on page 4.194
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and
the access to the menus of all active measurement modes.
•
"Models and Options" on page 4.197
This section informs about optional functions and their application that are included in the basic unit
configuration.
More basic information on operation is given in the Quick Start Guide. The front and the rear view of the
instrument together with a table of all available keys and a short description are provided in chapter
"Front and Rear Panel". Chapter "Preparing for Use" informs how to start working with the instrument
for the first time. A brief introduction on handling the instrument is given in chapter "Basic Operations".
This includes also the description of the keys for basic operations like switching the instrument on and
off or starting a measurement.
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R&S ESL
Measurement Parameters
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement parameters are described. This includes
the following topics and keys. For details on changing the mode refer to "Measurement Mode Selection
– MODE Key" on page 4.195.
•
"Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key" on page 4.81
•
"Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key" on page 4.83
•
"Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key" on page 4.89
•
"Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key" on page 4.91
•
"Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key" on page 4.95
•
"Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key" on page 4.102
•
"Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key" on page 4.105
•
"Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.113
Table 4-2: Sweep range variables
Abbreviation
Definition
R&S ESL 3
value
R&S ESL 6
value
fmax
max. frequency
3 GHz
6 GHz
fmin
min. frequency available
0 Hz
0 Hz
spanmin
Smallest selectable span > 0 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
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Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default settings. Therefore it provides a defined initial
state as a known starting point for measurements
Note:
If the LOCAL LOCKOUT function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
–
"Initial configuration" on page 4.82
Task
–
To preset the instrument
To preset the instrument
1. Define the data set for the preset:
–
To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see Initial configuration), in the file menu,
deactivate the Startup Recall softkey and, in the setup menu, activate the Preset Spectrum
softkey.
–
To retrieve a customized settings file, in the file menu, activate the Startup Recall softkey,
press the Startup Recall Setup softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
2. Press the PRESET key to trigger a preset.
Remote: *RST or SYSTem:PRESet (for details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands",
section "Common Commands" or section "SYSTem Subsystem").
Note:
In order to save the current settings after reboot of the instrument, create a shutdown file by
switching the analyzer in the standby mode (press the On/Off key on the FRONT panel and
wait until the yellow LED is ON). With the battery pack option, use a USB keyboard and
terminate the analyzer firmware with ALT+F4 to create the shutdown file.
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R&S ESL
Initial configuration
The initial configuration is selected in a way that the RF input is always protected against overload,
provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized by using the Startup Recall softkey in
the file menu. For further information refer to section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving
and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
Table 4-3: Initial configuration of the analyzer
Parameter
Setting
mode
Spectrum Analyzer
center frequency
fmax / 2
center frequency step size
0.1 * center frequency
span
R&S ESL3: 3 GHz
R&S ESL6: 6 GHz
RF attenuation
auto
(R&S ESL3/6: 0 dB;)
reference level
R&S ESL3/6: –20 dBm;
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBm
sweep time
auto
resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
video bandwidth
auto (10 MHz)
FFT filters
off
span / RBW
50
RBW / VBW
0.33
sweep
cont
trigger
free run
trace 1
clr write
trace 2/3/4/5/6
blank
detector
auto peak
frequency offset
0 Hz
reference level offset
0 dB
reference level position
100 %
grid
abs
cal correction
on
noise source
off
input
RF
tracking generator (models 13, 16,)
off
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to specify the frequency axis, and to set the frequency offset and the signal track
function. The frequency axis can be specified either by the start and stop frequency or by the center
frequency and the span.
To open the frequency menu
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed. The Frequency Center edit dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu" on page 4.85
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Tasks
–
To specify the frequency axis by the start and stop frequency
–
To specify the frequency axis by the center frequency and the span
–
To specify the step size for the arrow keys and the rotary knob
–
To modify the frequency axis by an offset
–
To track signals (only possible if span >0)
To specify the frequency axis by the start and stop frequency
1. Press the Start softkey and enter a start frequency.
2. Press the Stop softkey and enter a stop frequency.
To specify the frequency axis by the center frequency and the span
3. Press the FREQ key and enter a center frequency in the Frequency Center edit dialog box.
4. Press the SPAN key and enter the bandwidth you want to analyze.
Note:
Entering a value of 0 Hz will cause a change to the zero span analysis mode.
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S ESL
To specify the step size for the arrow keys and the rotary knob
1. Press the CF Stepsize softkey.
The softkeys are displayed according to the selected frequency span (zero span or span > 0).
2. To define the step size of the center frequency:
–
Only if span > 0: Press 0.1*Span, 0.5*Span or x*Span to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the span.
–
Only if span = 0: Press 0.1*RBW, 0.5*RBW or x*RBW to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the =Center softkey to set the step size to the value of the center frequency and to
remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the =Marker softkey to set the step size to the value of the marker and to remove the
dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the Manual softkey and enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Note:
The step size assigned to arrow keys corresponds to the selected value; the step size of the
1
rotary knob is /10 of it.
To modify the frequency axis by an offset
Press the Frequency Offset softkey and enter the offset to shift the displayed frequency span.
To track signals (only possible if span >0)
1. Press the Signal Track softkey.
The softkeys of this submenu are displayed to start and stop signal tracking with specified
parameters.
2. Press the Track On/Off softkey to switch signal tracking on or off.
3. Press the Track BW softkey and enter a bandwidth for signal tracking.
4. Press the Track Threshold softkey and enter the threshold for signal tracking.
5. Press the Select Trace softkey and select the trace for signal tracking.
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
Softkeys of the frequency menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Center
Start
Stop
CF Stepsize
0.1*Span/0.1*RBW
0.5*Span/0.5*RBW
x*Span/x*RBW
=Center
=Marker
Manual
Frequency Offset
Signal Track
Track On/Off
Track BW
Track Threshold
Select Trace
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the center frequency. The allowed range of values for the
center frequency depends on the frequency span.
span > 0: spanmin / 2
span = 0: 0 Hz
fcenter
fcenter
fmax – spanmin / 2
fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the
frequency range the fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The
preset and full span values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:CENT 100MHz
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. The following range of values is allowed:
fmin
fstart
fmax – spanmin
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of
the frequency range the fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The
preset and full span values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 20MHz
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S ESL
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. The following range of values for the stop
frequency is allowed:
fmin + spanmin
fstop
fmax
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of
the frequency range the fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The
preset and full span values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
CF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency. In addition to the =Center,
=Marker and Manual softkeys, the other softkeys are displayed depending on the selected
frequency span.
The step size can be coupled to the span (span > 0) or the resolution bandwidth (span = 0) or it
can be manually set to a fixed value.
0.1*Span (span > 0)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10% of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
0.1*RBW (zero span)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10% of the resolution bandwidth. This is the
default setting.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
0.5*Span (span > 0)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50% of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
0.5*RBW (zero span)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50% of the resolution bandwidth.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
x*Span (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as % of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
x*RBW (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as % of the resolution
bandwidth. Values between 1 and 100% in steps of 1% are allowed. The default setting is 10%.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
=Center
Sets the step size to the value of the center frequency and removes the coupling of the step size
to span or resolution bandwidth. This function is especially useful during measurements of the
signal harmonic content because by entering the center frequency each stroke of the arrow key
selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
=Marker
Sets the step size to the value of the current marker and removes the coupling of the step size
to span or resolution bandwidth. This function is especially useful during measurements of the
signal harmonic content at the marker position because by entering the center frequency each
stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
Frequency Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency offset that shifts the displayed frequency range by
the specified offset. The allowed values range from –100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is
0 Hz.
Remote: FREQ:OFFS 10 MHz
Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to modify the parameters for signal tracking: search bandwidth, threshold
value and trace.
The search bandwidth and the threshold value are shown in the diagram by two vertical lines
and one horizontal line, which are labeled as TRK. After each sweep the center frequency is set
to the maximum signal found within the searched bandwidth. If no maximum signal above the
set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth, the track mechanism stops.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
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Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S ESL
Track On/Off (span > 0)
Switches the signal tracking on or off.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
Track BW (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The frequency range is
calculated as a function of the center frequency.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 1MHZ
Track Threshold (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the threshold value for signal tracking.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR –70DBM
Select Trace (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the trace on which the signal is tracked.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 1
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Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key is used to set the frequency span to be analyzed.
To open the span menu
Press the SPAN key.
The span menu is displayed. For span > 0 an edit dialog box to enter the frequency is displayed.
For zero span, an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the span menu" on page 4.89
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the span (alternatives)
To specify the span (alternatives)
1. To set the span, use the Span Manual, Full Span, Zero Span and Last Span softkeys.
2. To define a frequency range, use the Start and Stop softkeys.
3. For zero span, press the Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a sweep time.
Softkeys of the span menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Span Manual
Sweeptime Manual
Start
Stop
Full Span
Zero Span
Last Span
Freq Axis Lin / Log
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Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
R&S ESL
Span Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency span. The center frequency is kept constant.
The following range is allowed:
span = 0: 0 Hz
span >0: spanmin
fspan
fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the
frequency range the fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The
preset and full span values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:SPAN 2GHz
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the start frequency. For details see Start softkey in the
frequency menu.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 20MHz
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the stop frequency. For details see Stop softkey in the
frequency menu.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
Full Span
Sets the span to the full frequency range of the R&S ESL specified in the data sheet. This
setting is useful for overview measurements.
Remote: FREQ:SPAN:FULL
Zero Span
Sets the span to 0 Hz (zero span). The x–axis becomes the time axis with the grid lines
corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time (SWT).
Remote: FREQ:SPAN 0Hz
Last Span
Sets the span to the previous value. With this function e.g. a fast change between overview
measurement and detailed measurement is possible.
Freq Axis Lin / Log
The Freq Axis Lin/Log switches between linear and logarithmic frequency axis.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LOG
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R&S ESL
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input –
AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the level range and unit, the scaling and the RF
attenuation.
To open the amplitude menu
Press the AMPT key.
The amplitude menu is displayed. The Reference Level dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu" on page 4.92
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the amplitude
To specify the amplitude
1. Set the reference level, offset and position, using the Ref Level, Ref Level Offset and Ref Level
Position softkeys.
2. Select the level range and the unit for the level axis, using the Range Log and Unit softkeys.
3. Set the scaling, using the Range Linear and/or Grid Abs / Rel softkeys.
4. Set the attenuation, using the RF Atten Manual or RF Atten Auto softkeys.
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Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
R&S ESL
Softkeys of the amplitude menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Range Log
Range Linear
Range Linear %
Range Lin. Unit
Preamp On/Off
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
More
Ref Level Offset
Ref Level Position
Grid Abs / Rel
Unit
Input 50 Z / 75 Z
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm, dBEV,
etc).
The reference level value is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly, which is
indicated by the IFOVL status display.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV –60dBm
Range Log
Selects logarithmic scaling for the level display range and opens the Range Log dialog box to
select a value for the level range.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y 120DB
Range Linear
Selects linear scaling for the level display range and opens a submenu to select the type of
linear scaling.
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Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
Range Linear %
Selects linear scaling in % for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal grid lines are labelled in
%. The grid is divided in decadic steps.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit (Unit softkey). Delta markers are displayed in %
referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear
scaling.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
Range Lin. Unit
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit (Unit softkey). Delta markers are displayed in dB
referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB
Preamp On/Off (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote: INP:GAIN:STAT 0N
RF Atten Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation, irrespective of the reference level.
The attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps. The range is specified in the data sheet. If the defined
reference level cannot be set for the set RF attenuation, the reference level will be adjusted
accordingly.
The RF attenuation defines the level at the input mixer according to the formula:
levelmixer = levelinput – RF attenuation
The maximum mixer level allowed is –10 dBm. Mixer levels above this value may lead to
incorrect measurement results, which are indicated by the OVLD status display.
Remote: INP:ATT 30 DB
RF Atten Auto
Sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of the selected reference level. This ensures
that the optimum RF attenuation is always used. It is the default setting.
Remote: INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y–axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV:OFFS –10dB
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Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
R&S ESL
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the maximum
AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from –200 to +200%, 0%
corresponding to the lower and 100% to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 100PCT
Grid Abs / Rel (not available with Range Linear)
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis.
Absolute scaling
The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute value of the
reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
Relative scaling
The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling is in dB
whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details on unit
settings see Unit softkey).
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:MODE ABS
Unit
Opens the Unit dialog box to select the unit for the level axis. The default setting is dBm. If a
transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
In general, the spectrum analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display
is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sinewave signal. In the default state, the level is
displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance (50 Z or 75 Z),
conversion to other units is possible. The units dBm, dBmV, dBµV, V and W are directly
convertible.
Remote: CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Input 50 K / 75 K
Uses 50 Z or 75 Z as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is 50 Z .
Changes the reference impedance for the measured levels
The setting 75 Z should be selected, if the 50 Z input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 Z adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Z in series to the input impedance of the
instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log ( 75 Z / 50 Z).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument (50 Z)].
Remote: INP:IMP 50OHM
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R&S ESL
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key is used to set the resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth (VBW) and sweep time (SWT).
The values available for resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth depend on the selected filter type.
For details on channel filters see also "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.97.
To open the bandwidth menu
Press the BW key.
The bandwidth menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu" on page 4.99
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.97
Tasks
–
To specify the bandwidth
–
To choose the appropriate filter type
To specify the bandwidth
1. Set the resolution bandwidth using the Res BW Manual or Res BW Auto softkey.
2. Set the video bandwidth using the Video BW Manual or Video BW Auto softkey.
3. Set the sweep time using the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey.
4. Press the Filter Type softkey and select the appropriate filters.
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
R&S ESL
To choose the appropriate filter type
All resolution bandwidths are realized with digital filters.
The video filters serve for smoothing the displayed trace. Using video bandwidths that are small
compared to the resolution bandwidth, only the signal average is displayed and noise peaks and pulsed
signals are repressed. If pulsed signals are to be measured, it is recommended to use a video
bandwidth that is large compared to the resolution bandwidth (VBW * 10 x RBW) for the amplitudes of
pulses to be measured correctly.
The following filter types are available:
•
Gaussian filters
The Gaussian filters are set by default. The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
•
EMI (6dB) filters
The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
•
FFT filters
The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
The FFT algorithm offers considerably higher measurement speeds with all the other settings
remaining the same. The reason is that for analog filters the sweep time required for a particular
2
span is proportional to (span/RBW ). When using the FFT algorithm, however, the sweep time is
proportional to (span/RBW).
FFT filters are particularly suitable for stationary signals (sinusoidal signals or signals that are
continuously modulated in time). For burst signals (TDMA) or pulsed signals, normal filters are
preferable. When the tracking generator is used as signal source for the DUT, filtering with the FFT
algorithm is not useful. The FFT option is thus not available if the tracking generator is switched on.
If the FFT filters are activated, the sweep time display (SWT) is replaced by the acquisition time
(AQT) display. The sweep time is defined by the selected bandwidth and span, and cannot be
changed. The video bandwidth is not defined and therefore cannot be set.
The sample detector and the peak detector are available. If the Detector Auto Select softkey in the
trace menu is activated, the peak detector is selected.
•
channel filters
details see "List of available RRC and channel filters"
•
RRC filters
details see "List of available RRC and channel filters"
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
List of available RRC and channel filters
For power measurement a number of especially steep–edged channel filters are available (see the
following table).
For filters of type RRC (Root Raised Cosine), the filter bandwidth indicated describes the sampling rate
of the filter. For all other filters (CFILter) the filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth.
Table 4-4: Filter types
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100
Hz
CFILter
200
Hz
CFILter
300
Hz
CFILter
500
Hz
CFILter
1
kHz
CFILter
1.5
kHz
CFILter
2
kHz
CFILter
2.4
kHz
CFILter
2.7
kHz
CFILter
3
kHz
CFILter
3.4
kHz
CFILter
4
kHz
CFILter
4.5
kHz
CFILter
5
kHz
CFILter
6
kHz
CFILter
8.5
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9
kHz
CFILter
AM radio
10
kHz
CFILter
12.5
kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15
kHz
CFILter
16
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18
kHz,
RRC
TETRA
20
kHz
CFILter
21
kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3
kHz,
RRC
IS 136 (NADC)
=0.35
=0.35
Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satelite
25
kHz
CFILter
30
kHz
CFILter
50
kHz
CFILter
100
kHz
CFILter
150
kHz
CFILter
FM radio
192
kHz
CFILter
PHS
200
kHz
CFILter
300
kHz
CFILter
500
kHz
CFILter
1300.5053.12
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J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
1.0
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1,28
MHz
RRC
1.5
MHz
CFILter
2.0
MHz
CFILter
3.0
MHz
CFILter
3.75
MHz
CFILter
3.84
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5.0
MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
MHz
CFILter
Note:
R&S ESL
DAB
The 20 MHz channel filter is unavailable in sweep mode.
The 3.84 and 4.096 MHz filters (marked with an asterisk in the table) require an IF filter model
index 3.
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Res BW Manual
Res BW Auto
Video BW Manual
Video BW Auto
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Filter Type
Res BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available resolution
bandwidths are specified in the data sheet. For details on the correlation between resolution
bandwidth and filter type refer to "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.96.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the
RBW display.
Remote: BAND:AUTO OFF
Remote: BAND 1MHz
Res BW Auto (span > 0)
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span. If the span is changed, the resolution
bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended, if a favorable setting of the resolution bandwidth in relation to the
selected span is desired.
Remote: BAND:AUTO ON
Video BW Manual (not available for FFT filter)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths are
specified in the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the VBW
display.
Remote: BAND:VID:AUTO OFF
Remote: BAND:VID 10 kHz
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
R&S ESL
Video BW Auto (not available for FFT filter)
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is changed,
the video bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended, if a minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution
bandwidth. Narrow video bandwidths require longer sweep times due to the longer settling time.
Wide bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
Remote: BAND:VID:AUTO ON
Sweeptime Manual (not available for FFT filter)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
Absolute max. sweep time value
16000 s
Absolute min. sweep time value
1 Es (zero span)
2.5 ms (span > 0)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer to the
data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or
upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the SWT
display. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level
measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for the resolution or video filters. In
this case, the R&S ESL displays the error message UNCAL and marks the indicated sweep time
with a red asterisk (*).
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
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Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Sweeptime Auto (not available for FFT filter and zero span)
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth (RBW). If
the span, resolution bandwidth or video bandwidth are changed, the sweep time is automatically
adjusted.
The R&S ESL always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying the
signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Filter Type
Opens the Filter Type dialog box to select the filter type.
For detailed information on filters see "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.96 and
"List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.97.
Remote: BAND:TYPE NORM
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Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
R&S ESL
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single sweep are
possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the sweep menu
Press the SWEEP key.
The sweep menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu" on page 4.102
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the sweep settings
To specify the sweep settings
1. Press the Sweep Count softkey and enter the sweep count.
2. Set the sweep time by using the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey.
3. Press the Sweep Points softkey and enter the number of sweep points.
4. Select the sweep mode using the Continuous Sweep or Single Sweep softkey.
5. To repeat the single sweep, press the Continue Single Sweep softkey.
Softkeys of the sweep menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Continue Single Sweep
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Sweep Count
Sweep Points
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Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
Continuous Sweep
Sets the continuous sweep mode: the sweep takes place continuously according to the trigger
settings. This is the default setting. The trace averaging is determined by the sweep count value
(see Sweep Count softkey).
Remote: INIT:CONT ON
Single Sweep
Sets the single sweep mode: after triggering, starts the number of sweeps that are defined by
using the Sweep Count softkey. The measurement stops after the defined number of sweeps
has been performed.
Remote: INIT:CONT OFF
Continue Single Sweep
Repeats the number of sweeps set by using the Sweep Count softkey, without deleting the
trace of the last measurement.
This is particularly of interest when using the trace configurations Average or Max Hold to take
previously recorded measurements into account for averaging / maximum search. For details on
trace configuration refer to "Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.113.
Remote: INIT:CONM
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. For details see Sweeptime Manual softkey in
the bandwidth menu.
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
Sweeptime Auto
Sets the automatic sweep time mode. For details see Sweeptime Auto softkey in the bandwidth
menu.
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be performed in the single sweep
mode. Values from 0 to 32767 are allowed. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one sweep is performed.
The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a diagram.
The sweep count set in the sweep menu is the same as that in the trace menu (for further details
see Sweep Count softkey). If the trace configurations Average, Max Hold or Min Hold are set,
the sweep count value also determines the number of averaging or maximum search
procedures (for details on trace configuration see "Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.113.
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Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
R&S ESL
Example:
TRACE key – Trace Mode softkey – Mode Max Hold softkey
SWEEP key – Sweep Count softkey – Average Sweep Count dialog box: enter 10
Single Sweep softkey: R&S ESL performs the Max Hold function over 10 sweeps.
Remote: SWE:COUN 64
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values to be collected during one
sweep.
–
Entry via rotary knob:
In the range from 101 to 1001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in steps of 100
points.
In the range from 1001 to 32001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in steps of 1000
points.
–
Entry via keypad:
All values in the defined range can be set.
The default value is 501 sweep points. If a value
off automatically.
501 is set, the auto peak detector is turned
Remote: SWE:POIN 501
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key is used to set trigger mode, trigger threshold, trigger delay, trigger polarity and for gated
sweep the gate configuration.
To open the trigger menu
Press the TRIG key.
The trigger menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu" on page 4.109
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Trigger mode overview" on page 4.108
Tasks
–
To specify the trigger settings
–
To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)
To specify the trigger settings
1. Press the Trg / Gate Source softkey to select the trigger mode (for details see "Trigger mode
overview" on page 4.108).
2. Press the Trg / Gate Level softkey to set the trigger level.
3. Press the Trigger Offset softkey to set the trigger offset.
4. For details on gated sweep operation, see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep,
B8)" on page 4.105.
To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal is inactive, the
spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition of frequency components
generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can also be examined for an inactive carrier. The
sweep can be controlled by an external gate or by the internal power trigger.
Gated sweep operation is also possible for span = 0. This enables – e.g. in burst signals – level
variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
1. Press the Gate Settings submenu softkey to define the settings of the gate mode.
At the center frequency a transition to zero span is made and the time parameters gate delay and
gate length are displayed as vertical lines to adjust them easily.
When quitting the Gate Settings submenu, the original span is retrieved so the desired
measurement can be performed with the accurately set gate.
2. To set the parameters gate delay and gate length highly accurate, press the Sweep Time softkey to
alter the x–axis in a way that the signal range concerned (e.g. one full burst) is displayed.
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S ESL
3. Press the Gate Delay softkey to set the sampling time in a way that the desired portion of the signal
is shown.
4. Press the Gate Mode Lvl/Edge softkey to set the gate mode.
5. If the Edge gate mode has been selected, press the Gate Length softkey to set the sampling
duration in a way that the desired portion of the signal is shown.
6. Press the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey to set the polarity of the trigger source.
7. Press the Gated Trigger softkey to activate the gated sweep mode.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label GAT is displayed on the
screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the gate is configured.
Fig. 4-3: TDMA signal with GATE OFF
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R&S ESL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Fig. 4-4: Pulsed signal with GATE ON
Fig. 4-5: Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S ESL
Trigger mode overview
The R&S ESL offers the following trigger modes:
•
Free Run
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started
immediately.
•
External
Triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector EXT TRIG / GATE IN on the rear panel.
•
Video
Triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold from 0% to
100% of the diagram height.
•
IF Power
Triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement channel.
For this purpose, the R&S ESL uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency. Its
threshold can be set in a range between –50 dBm and –10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting
trigger level at the RF input is calculated via the following formula:
Mixerlevelmin + RFAtt – PreampGain
Input Signal
Mixerlevelmax + RFAtt – PreampGain
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency is 20 MHz. The R&S ESL is triggered as soon as the
trigger threshold is exceeded within a 10 MHz range around the selected frequency (= start
frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even if the
carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
•
Time Trigger
Triggering of the measurement by a time intervall, set via the Repetition Intervall softkey.
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Softkeys of the trigger menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Trg / Gate Source
Trg / Gate Level
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset / Repetition Intervall
Gated Trigger
Gate Settings
Gate Mode Lvl/Edge
Gate Delay
Gate Length
Trg / Gate Source
Trg / Gate Level
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Sweep Time
More
IF Power Retrigger Holdoff
IF Power Retrigger Hysteresis
Trg / Gate Source
Opens the Trigger / Gate Source dialog box to select the trigger / gate mode. For detailed
information on trigger modes see "Trigger mode overview" on page 4.108.
The gate–related settings are only available with option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8. For details
see also "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
The default setting is Free Run. If a trigger mode other than Free Run has been set, the
enhancement label TRG is displayed.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR IMM | VID | IFP | EXT | TIME (Free Run, Video, IF Power, Extern,
Time Trigger)
Remote: SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT (Extern)
Trg / Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger / gate level. The gate–related settings are only
available with option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8. For details see also "Trigger mode overview"
on page 4.108 and "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote: TRIG:LEV:VID 50PCT
Remote: TRIG:LEV:IFP –30DBM
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S ESL
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Sets the polarity of the trigger / gate source. The gate–related settings are only available with
option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting is
Pos. The setting applies to all modes with the exception of the Free Run mode.
level triggering
In the setting Pos the sweep is stopped by the logic ´0´ signal and
restarted by the logical ´1´ signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
edge triggering
The sweep is continued on a ´0´ to ´1´ transition for the gate length
duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Remote: TRIG:SLOP POS
Remote: SWE:EGAT:POL POS
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start of the
sweep. The time may be entered in multiples of 125 ns in the range –100 s to 100 s (default
0 s).
offset > 0:
start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
sweep starts earlier (pre–trigger)
only possible for span = 0 and gated trigger switched off
not possible if RMS or average detector activated
maximum allowed range and the maximum resolution limited by the sweep time:
rangemax = – 499/500 x sweep time
resolutionmax = sweep time/500
In the External or IF Power trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger and
gate. Therefore changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as well.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote: TRIG:HOLD 10US
Repetition Intervall (Time Trigger mode)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time intervall after which the sweep is started. The
possible values range from 100 ms to 5000 s.
Remote: TRIG:TIME:RINT 50
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Gated Trigger (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Switches the sweep mode with gate on or off .
This softkey requires the following trigger mode:
span > 0
External or IF Power
span = 0
External or IF Power or Video
If a different mode is active, the IF Power trigger mode is automatically selected.
If the gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector EXT
TRIGGER/GATE or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the analyzer.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Remote: SWE:EGAT ON
Remote: SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP | EXT
Gate Settings (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens a submenu to make all the settings required for gated sweep operation.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Gate Mode Lvl/Edge (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Sets the gate mode. As settings level–triggered or edge–triggered gate mode can be selected.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:TYPE EDGE
Gate Delay (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate delay time between the gate signal and the
continuation of the sweep. Values between 125 ns and 100 s are allowed. The delay position on
the time axis in relation to the sweep is indicated by a line labeled GD.
This is useful for e.g. taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the stabilization of
an RF carrier.
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting the External or IF
Power trigger mode, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as
well.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:HOLD 1US
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S ESL
Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate length. Values between 125 ns and 100 s are
allowed. The gate length in relation to the sweep is indicated by a line labeled GL.
The length of the gate signal defines if the sweep is to be interrupted. Only in the edge–triggered
mode the gate length can be set, while in the level–triggered the gate length depends on the
length of the gate signal.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:LENG 100US
Sweep Time (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens an edit dialog box to change the sweep time in order to obtain a higher resolution for
positioning gate delay and gate length. When quitting the Gate Settings submenu, the original
sweep time is retrieved.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.105.
IF Power Retrigger Holdoff (
Opens an edit dialog box to define the value for the IF power trigger holdoff. This softkey is only
available if the IF power trigger is selected as the trigger source. The holdoff value in s is the
time which must pass since another IF power trigger event may happen. The range of the value
is between 150 ns and 10 s in the step width of 10 ns.
Remote: TRIG:IFP:HOLD 200 ns
IF Power Retrigger Hysteresis
Opens an edit dialog box to define the value for the IF power trigger hysteresis. This softkey is
only available if the IF power trigger is selected as the trigger source. The hysteresis in dB is the
value the input signal must decay below the IF power trigger level in order to allow an IF power
trigger starting the measurement. The range of the value is between 3 dB and 50 dB in the step
width of 1 dB.
Remote: TRIG:IFP:HYST 10DB
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the analysis of the
measurement data.
The R&S ESL is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A trace consists
of a maximum of 501 measurement points on the horizontal axis (frequency or time). If more measured
values than measurement points are available, several measured values are combined in one
measurement point.
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (Clear Write, View and Blank). For details on trace modes see "Trace mode
overview" on page 4.114.
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (Average, Max Hold and Min Hold). For details on trace modes
see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114. For details on averaging see "Description of the
averaging method" on page 4.115.
•
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors see "Detector
overview" on page 4.116.
To open the trace menu
Press the TRACE key.
The trace menu is displayed. The Trace Configuration dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu" on page 4.117
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Trace mode overview" on page 4.114
–
"Detector overview" on page 4.116
–
"Description of the averaging method" on page 4.115
–
"ASCII file export format" on page 4.122
Task
–
To specify the trace settings
To specify the trace settings
1. Press the Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6 softkey to select the trace.
2. Press the Trace Mode softkey to select the trace mode for the selected trace (for details see "Trace
mode overview" on page 4.114).
3. Press the Detector Auto Select softkey for automatic detector selection or press the Detector
Manual Select softkey to select a detector (for details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116).
4. To change the sweep count setting, which also determines trace averaging, press the Sweep
Count softkey.
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S ESL
5. To deactivate the reset of the traces in Min Hold and Max Hold mode after some specific
parameter changes, press the Hold/Cont softkey.
6. To copy a trace into another trace memory, press the Copy Trace softkey.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new contents are
displayed in the View mode.
7. To export the active trace in ASCII format:
–
Press the More softkey.
–
If necessary, press the Decim Sep softkey to change the decimal separator with floating–point
numerals.
–
Press the ASCII File Export softkey to enter the ASCII file export name.
The active trace is saved in ASCII format on the flash disk or a USB device.
Trace mode overview
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after completion of a
measurement. Traces that are not activated are hidden. Each time the trace mode is changed, the
selected trace memory is cleared.
The R&S ESL offers 6 different trace modes:
•
Clear Write
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. All available detectors can be selected.
This is the default setting.
•
Max Hold
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S ESL saves the
sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the previous one. The
detector is automatically set to Positive Peak.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is filled up
upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
•
Min Hold
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The R&S ESL saves
for each sweep the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the trace
memory. The detector is automatically set to Negative Peak.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible. Noise,
interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal is recognized by its
constant level.
•
Average
The average is formed over several sweeps. All available detectors can be selected. If the detector
is automatically selected, the sample detector is used. For details see also "Description of the
averaging method" on page 4.115.
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R&S ESL
•
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
View
The current contents of the trace memory is frozen and displayed.
If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference level (see below),
can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that the trace and the current
instrument setting do not correspond any more is indicated by the enhancement label "*" at the left
edge of the grid.
If level range or reference level are changed, the R&S ESL automatically adapts the measured data
to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made after the measurement in
order to show details of the trace.
•
Blank
Hides the selected trace.
Description of the averaging method
Averaging is carried out over the measurement points derived from the measurement samples. Several
measured values may be combined in a measurement point. This means that with linear level display
the average is formed over linear amplitude values. The sweep mode (continuous or single sweep, for
details see "Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key" on page 4.102) and running averaging apply
to the average display analogously. In principle, two methods for calculating the average are used:
continuous averaging and averaging over the selected number of sweeps.
•
sweep count > 1
Depending on the relation of the following two parameters, two different situations exist:
n = number of sweeps performed since measurement start
c = sweep count (number of sweeps forming one statistics cycle)
–
n
c
In single sweep or continuous sweep mode during the first statistics cycle, averaging over the
selected number of sweeps is performed. The average trace n is calculated at each
measurement point according to:
Avg (n) =
1
n 1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
n
n
Equ. 4–1
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Until the first statistics cycle is completed (n < c), a preliminary average is displayed which
represents the arithmetic mean value over all measured sweeps. With n increasing, the
displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there are more single sweeps for averaging.
When the first statistics cycle is completed (n = c), the average trace is saved in the trace
memory.
–
n>c
In continuous sweep mode after the first statistics cycle, continuous averaging is performed.
The average trace n is calculated at each measurement point according to:
Avg (n) =
1
c 1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
c
c
Equ. 4–2
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
In single sweep mode, the same formula holds true if the Continue Single Sweep softkey is
pressed.
•
sweep count = 0
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S ESL
In continuous sweep mode, a continuous average is calculated according to Equ. 4–3.
with c = 10:
Avg (n) =
9
1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
10
10
Equ. 4–3
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Due to the weighting between the current trace and the average trace, past values have practically
no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps. With this setting, signal noise is
effectively reduced without need for restarting the averaging process after a change of the signal.
•
sweep count = 1
The current trace is displayed. No averaging is performed. This is a special case of Equ. 4–1 with
n = 0.
Detector overview
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by you or set
automatically by R&S ESL. The detector activated for the specific trace is identified in the respective
trace display field in form of an abbreviation (for details see detector list).
The detectors of the R&S ESL are implemented as pure digital devices. They collect signal power data
within each measured point during a sweep. The default number of sweep points is 501. The following
detectors are available:
Detector
Indicator
Function
auto peak detector
(Auto Peak)
Ap
determines the maximum and the minimum value within a
measurement point
peak detector
(Positive Peak)
Pk
determines the maximum value within a measurement point
min peak detector
(Negative Peak)
Mi
determines the minimum value within a measurement point
sample detector
(Sample)
Sa
selects a random value within a measurement point
RMS detector (RMS)
Rm
determines the root mean square power within a
measurement point
average detector
(Average)
Av
determines the linear average power within a measurement
point
quasi peak detector
(Quasi Peak)
QP
determines the quasipeak power within a measurement point
for EMI measurements
CISPR RMS detector
(CISPR RMS)
CR
continously determines RMS values in combination with a
linear average detector that includes an instrument time
constant.
CISPR AV detector
(CISPR AV)
CA
determines linear average power by assigning an instrument
time constant.
The result obtained from the selected detector within a measurement point is displayed as the power
value at this measurement point.
All detectors work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement speed is
independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
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Note:
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
During a frequency sweep, R&S ESL increments the 1st local oscillator in steps that are smaller
than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This makes sure that the oscillator step speed is
conforming to the hardware settling times and does not affect the precision of the measured
power.
The number of measured values taken during a sweep is independent of the number of
oscillator steps. It is always selected as a multiple or a fraction of 501 (= default number of trace
points displayed on the screen). Choosing less then 501 measured values (e.g. 125 or 251) will
lead to an interpolated measurement curve, choosing more than 501 points (e.g. 1001, 2001 ...)
will result in several measured values being overlaid at the same frequency position.
Softkeys of the trace menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trace menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Trace Mode
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
Average
View
Blank
Detector Auto Select
Detector Manual Select
Detector Auto Peak
Detector Positive Peak
Detector Negative Peak
Detector Sample
Detector RMS
More
Detector Average
Detector Quasi Peak
Detector CISPR RMS
Detector CISPR AV
Sweep Count
Hold/Cont
More
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Copy Trace
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Trace Math
Trace Math Position
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S ESL
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Selects the active trace (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (see
Clear Write mode), the other traces are switched off (see Blank mode).
Remote: (selected via numeric suffix of :TRACe<1...6>)
Trace Mode
Opens a submenu to select the trace mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page
4.114.
Clear Write
Selects the Clear Write mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT
Max Hold
Selects the Max Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH
Min Hold
Selects the Min Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH
Average
Selects the Average mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER
View
Selects the View mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW
Blank
Selects the Blank mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114.
Remote: DISP:TRAC OFF
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R&S ESL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Detector Auto Select
Selects the optimum detector for the selected trace and filter mode. This is the default setting.
For details see also "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Trace mode
Detector (band–pass filter)
Detector (FFT filter)
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Max Peak
Average
Sample
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Max Peak
Remote: DET:AUTO ON
Detector Manual Select
Opens a submenu to select the detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Detector Auto Peak
Selects the Auto Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Detector Positive Peak
Selects the Positive Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET POS
Detector Negative Peak
Selects the Negative Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET NEG
Detector Sample
Selects the Sample detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET SAMP
Detector RMS
Selects the RMS detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET RMS
Detector Average
Selects the Average detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET AVER
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S ESL
Detector Quasi Peak
Selects the Quasi Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET QPE
Detector CISPR RMS
Selects the CISPR RMS detetctor. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET CRMS
Detector CISPR AV
Selects the CISPR AV detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: DET CAV
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps used for averaging. Values from 0 to
32767 are allowed. The default setting is 0. The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a
diagram. The sweep count set in the trace menu is the same as that in the sweep menu (for
further details see Sweep Count softkey).
In the continuous sweep mode, the sweep count value determines the trace averaging:
–
sweep count = 0: continuous averaging
–
sweep count = 1: no averaging
–
sweep count > 1: averaging over the selected number of sweeps; in the continuous sweep
mode averaging is performed until the set number of sweeps is attained and is then continued
as continuous averaging (see also "Description of the averaging method" on page 4.115).
Remote: SWE:COUN 64
Hold/Cont
Switches on or off the reset of the traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode after some
specific parameter changes have been made. The default setting is off.
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement
results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new measurement after
parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false results (e.g. with span
changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter changes, the automatic reset
can be switched off.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE:HCON ON
Copy Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace memory, in which the currently
selected trace shall be copied.
Remote: TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
ASCII File Export
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII format to the
specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see "ASCII file export format" on page
4.122.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible
to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the Decim Sep softkey.
Remote: FORM ASC
Remote: MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
Decim Sep
Selects the decimal separator with floating–point numerals for the ASCII file export to support
evaluation programs (e.g. MS Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ','
(comma) can be set. For details see also ASCII File Export softkey.
Remote: FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Trace Math
Opens the Trace Mathematics dialog box to define which trace is subtracted from trace 1. The
result is displayed in trace 1 and refers to the zero point defined with the Trace Math Position
softkey. The following substractions can be performed:
T1–>T1–T2
Substracts trace 2 from trace 1.
T1–>T1–T3
Substracts trace 3 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T4
Substracts trace 4 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T5
Substracts trace 5 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T6
Substracts trace 6 from trace 1
If the Trace Math Off option is activated, the function is switched off (default setting).
Remote: CALC1:MATH (TRACE1 – TRACE2)
Remote: CALC:MATH:STAT ON
Trace Math Position
Opens an edit dialog box to define the zero point in % of the diagram height. The range of
values extends from –100% to +200%.
Remote: CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S ESL
ASCII file export format
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon: parameter name;
numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword "Trace <n>" (<n> = number of
stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several columns (depending on measurement)
which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header
Description
Type;ESL;
Instrument model
Version;5.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Oct 2006;
Date of data set storage
Mode;RECEIVER;
Instrument mode
Center Freq;55000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;90000;Hz
Frequency range (0 Hz in zero span and statistics measurements)
x–Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x–axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Start;10000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Stop;100000;Hz
Unit: Hz for span > 0, s for span = 0, dBm/dB for statistics measurements
Ref Level;–30;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;75;%
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits (0% = lower edge)
y–Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y–axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x–axis LOG, % with x–axis LIN
Rf Att;20;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace: CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;AUTOPEAK;
Detector set: AUTOPEAK,MAXPEAK,MINPEAK,AVERAGE,RMS,SAMPLE,QUASIPEAK
Sweep Count;20;
Number of sweeps set
File contents:
data section of the file
Description
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x–Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: Hz with span > 0; s with span = 0; dBm/dB with statistics measurements
y–Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values: dB*/V/A/W depending on the selected unit with y–axis LOG or % with y–
axis LIN
Values; 501;
Number of measurement points
10000;–10.3;–15.7
Measured values: <x value>, <y1>, <y2>; <y2> being available only with detector
AUTOPEAK and containing in this case the smallest of the two measured values for a
measurement point.
10180;–11.5;–16.9
10360;–12.0;–17.4
...;...;
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Measurement Functions
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement functions are described. This includes the
following topics and keys:
•
"Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page 4.124
•
"Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key" on page 4.136
•
"Power Measurements – MEAS Key" on page 4.144
•
"Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key" on page 4.184
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and for quickly
selecting a display section. The R&S ESL provides four markers per trace.
Marker
Active marker
Temporary marker
M1
M3
T1
D2
Delta marker
Fig. 4-6: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be moved by the user
is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers are used in addition to the markers
and delta markers to evaluate the measurement results. They disappear when the associated function
is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed in the marker
field. The marker field is located at the upper right corner of the display and shows the following:
•
marker type (M1 in the example)
•
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
•
level (–33.09 dBm in the example)
•
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
Fig. 4-7: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement markers (markers
and delta markers). In addition, the functions for frequency counter, fixed reference point for relative
measurement markers and enlargement of the measurement area are assigned to this key.
Also the following measurements can be carried out:
•
Noise density (Noise Meas On/Off softkey; see also "Measurement of noise density" on page
4.127)
•
Frequency measurement (Sig Count On/Off softkey; see also "Frequency measurement with the
frequency counter" on page 4.126)
•
Filter or signal bandwidth (n dB down softkey)
•
AF demodulation (Marker Demod softkey; see also "AF demodulation" on page 4.126)
For further information on markers see also "Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key" on page
4.136.
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R&S ESL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
To open the marker menu
Press the MKR key.
The marker menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a peak search on
the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is opened and
the current frequency / time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu" on page 4.128
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"AF demodulation" on page 4.126
–
"Frequency measurement with the frequency counter" on page 4.126
–
"Measurement of noise density" on page 4.127
Tasks
–
To define the basic marker settings
–
To set a fixed reference point (phase noise measurement)
–
To set the demodulation mode and duration
To define the basic marker settings
1. Press the MKR key to open the marker menu.
Marker 1 is activated and positioned on the maximum value of the trace as normal marker. If
several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value (peak) of the trace
which has the lowest number (1 to 3) and is not frozen (View mode). In case a marker is already
located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest level (next peak).
2. To change to another trace, press the Marker to Trace softkey and enter the number of the trace
on which the marker is to be placed.
The marker changes to selected trace, but remains on the previous frequency or time. If a trace is
turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also deactivated.
3. To switch on a delta marker, press the Marker 2 softkey.
Marker 2 is switched on as a delta marker. The frequency and level of marker 2 are displayed in
relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
4. To change the marker type of marker 2, press the /Marker Norm/Delta softkey.
Marker 2 becomes a normal marker. The frequency and level of marker 2 are displayed as absolute
values in the marker field.
5. To switch off marker 2, press the Marker 2 softkey again.
Marker 2 is deactivated. Marker 1 becomes the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of
marker 1 are displayed in the marker field.
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
To set a fixed reference point (phase noise measurement)
1. Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The submenu with the Phase Noise On/Off softkey switched on is displayed. The level and
frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point.
2. To set the maximum of the selected trace as reference point, press the Peak Search softkey.
3. To define the values for the reference point, proceed as follows:
–
Press the Ref Point Level softkey and enter a reference level value.
–
If span > 0, press the Ref Point Frequency softkey and enter a frequency reference value.
–
If span = 0, press the Ref Point Time softkey and enter a reference time value.
To set the demodulation mode and duration
1. Press the Marker Demod softkey.
The submenu with the Mkr Demod On/Off softkey switched on is displayed.
2. To change the demodulation mode, press the AM or FM softkey.
For details see "AF demodulation" on page 4.126.
3. To modify the demodulation time for span > 0, press the Mkr Stop Time softkey.
4. To change to continuous demodulation for span > 0, press the Cont Demod softkey.
5. To tune the volume for acoustic monitoring, press the Volume softkey.
AF demodulation
The R&S ESL provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators, a displayed
signal can be identified acoustically by using headphones.
CAUTION
Risk of hearing damage
Check the volume setting carefully before putting on the headphones in order to
protect your hearing.
For span > 0, the demodulation is not continuous. The frequency at which the demodulation takes place
is set by the active marker. If the level of the selected frequency is above the threshold line, the sweep
stops for the selected time (stop time) and the RF signal is demodulated. For span = 0, the
demodulation is continuously active irrespective of the stop time set.
Frequency measurement with the frequency counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, the R&S ESL is equipped with a frequency
counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate frequency. Using the
measured IF, the R&S ESL calculates the frequency of the RF input signal by applying the known
frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement uncertainty depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency reference
used (external or internal reference). Although the R&S ESL always operates synchronously
irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a more exact result than a measurement
performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
•
The marker measures only the position of the point on the trace and infers from this value the signal
frequency. The trace, however, contains only a limited number of points. Depending upon the
selected span, each point may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the
frequency resolution.
•
The resolution, with which the frequency can be measured with a marker, is dependant on the
selected resolution bandwidth which in return affects the necessary measurement time. For this
reason, the bandwidth is normally made as wide as possible and the sweep time as short as
possible. This results in a loss of frequency resolution.For the measurement with the frequency
counter, the sweep is stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired
resolution and then the sweep is allowed to continue.
Measurement of noise density
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of the marker. For
span = 0, all points of the trace are used to determine the noise power density. For span > 0, two points
to the right and left of the marker are used for the measurement to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With logarithmic amplitude units (dBm, dBmV,
dBmEV, dBEA), the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz, i.e. as level in 1 Hz bandwidth with
reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V, A, W), the noise voltage density is evaluated in
EV/Hz, the noise current density in EA/Hz or the noise power density in EW/Hz.
In the default setting, the R&S ESL uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to Average to stabilize the measured values.
With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in this case it produces too low noise
levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable
measurement results.
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement yields correct
values:
•
Detector: Sample or RMS
•
Video bandwidth:
0.1 resolution bandwidth with sample detector
3 x resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
•
Trace averaging:
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to average to stabilize the measured
values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in this case it produces
too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain
stable measurement results.
The R&S ESL uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from the marker level:
•
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the bandwidth correction value
is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 x lg (1 Hz/BWNoise), where BWNoise is the noise or
power bandwidth of the set resolution filter (RBW).
•
RMS detector: With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are required since
this detector already indicates the power with every point of the trace.
•
Sample detector: As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is added to the
marker level. This is the difference between the average value and the RMS value of white noise.
With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally. Logarithmic averaging is thus fully taken
into account which yields a value that is 1.45 dB lower than that of linear averaging.
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
•
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement frequency) points
of the trace are averaged.
•
For span > 0, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a sweep).
Note:
The R&S ESL noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density level. It is
calculated by deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise level and
adding 174 to the result.
Softkeys of the marker menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker Norm/Delta
Noise Meas On/Off
Phase Noise/Ref Fixed
Phase Noise On/Off
Ref Point Level
Ref Point Frequency/
Ref Point Time
Peak Search
Phase Noise 1 2 3 4
Reference Fixed
Reference Fixed On/Off
Ref Point Level
Ref Point Frequency/
Ref Point Time
Peak Search
Sig Count On/Off
More
Marker 3
Marker 4
Marker to Trace
Marker Demod
Mkr Demod On/Off
AM
FM
Mkr Stop Time
Cont Demod
Volume
n dB down
All Marker Off
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R&S ESL
Menu / Command
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Submenu / Command
Command
More
Marker Zoom
Marker Peak List
New Search
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl
Peak Excursion
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
More
Peak List Off
Threshold
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Marker Stepsize
Stepsize Standard
Stepsize Sweep Points
Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4/Marker Norm/Delta
The Marker <no> softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box to
enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the selected
marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the Stepsize
Standard or Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 4
are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into markers with
absolute value display by means of the Marker Norm/Delta softkey. If marker 1 is the active
marker, pressing the Marker Norm/Delta softkey switches on an additional delta marker.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT ON
Remote: CALC:DELT:X <value>
Remote: CALC:DELT:X:REL?
Remote: CALC:DELT:Y?
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
Noise Meas On/Off
Switches the noise measurement for the active marker on or off. The corresponding marker
becomes the normal marker. For more details on noise measurement see "Measurement of
noise density" on page 4.127.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS:RES?
Phase Noise/Ref Fixed
The function of this softkey depends on the setting of the Noise Meas softkey:
–
Noise Meas On: activates phase noise measurements.
–
Noise Meas Off: freezes the current position of marker 1 as a reference for relative
measurements. Additionally it opens a submenu to set all values of a reference point. Instead of
using the current values of the reference marker (marker 1) as reference point for the delta
markers, level and frequency or time are set to fixed values and used as reference point.
Phase Noise On/Off
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and frequency
or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can be altered using the
corresponding softkeys (Ref Point Level, Ref Point Frequency, Ref Point Time and Peak
Search).
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
Ref Point Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the delta
markers refer to this reference level.
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y –10dBm
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0) / Ref Point Time (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or
time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase noise
measurement, input of reference time is not possible..
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 5MS
Peak Search
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote: CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Phase Noise 1 2 3 4
Selects the normal marker or the delta markers, activates the marker and opens an edit dialog
stands for delta marker 1.
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to.
Reference Fixed
Opens a submenu for relative measurement to a fixed reference value.
Reference Fixed On/Off
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and frequency
or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can be altered using the
corresponding softkeys (Ref Point Level, Ref Point Frequency, Ref Point Time and Peak
Search).
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
Sig Count On/Off
Switches the frequency counter on/off. The frequency is counted at the position of the reference
marker (marker 1). If no marker is activated, marker 1 is switched on and set at the largest
signal.
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a result. The
result is displayed in the marker field (see "Fig. 4-7: Marker values" on page 4.124), labeled with
[Tx CNT]. For more details see "Frequency measurement with the frequency counter" on page
4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:COUN ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?
Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace, on which the marker is to be placed.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
Remote: CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
Marker Demod
Opens a submenu to set the demodulation mode and duration. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.126.
Mkr Demod On/Off
Switches the demodulation on/off. For more details see also "AF demodulation" on page 4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
AM
Sets AM as demodulation mode. This is the default setting. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM
FM
Sets FM as demodulation mode. Default setting is AM. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM
Mkr Stop Time
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the demodulation stop time for span > 0. For more details see
also "AF demodulation" on page 4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s
Cont Demod (span > 0)
Switches the continuous demodulation on or off. If the sweep time is long enough, the set
frequency range can be monitored acoustically. For more details see also "AF demodulation" on
page 4.126.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON
Volume
Opens an edit dialog box to regulate the volume for acoustic monitoring. For more details see
also "AF demodulation" on page 4.126.
Remote: SYST:SPE:VOL 0.5
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary
markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary markers
T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the entered value (ndB) are
displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference
marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the markers T1 and
T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left and marker T2
to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker field, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
span = 0
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R&S ESL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of noise
display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0)
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0)
All Marker Off
Switches all markers off.
Remote: CALC:MARK:AOFF
Marker Zoom (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a display range for the zoom. The area around marker 1 is
expanded accordingly and more details of the spectrum can be seen. If no marker is activated,
marker 1 is switched on and set on the largest signal..
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency of the
signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency. The zoomed
display range is then configured and the new settings are used by the R&S ESL for further
measurements.
As long as switching to the new frequency display range has not yet taken place, pressing the
softkey will abort the procedure. If an instrument setting is changed while using this function, the
procedure is aborted.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz
Marker Peak List
Opens the Peak List dialog box and a submenu to define criterias for the sort order and the
contents of the peak list. The number of listed peaks is indicated in the title bar. For all listed
peaks the frequency and level values are given. Maximal 50 entries are listed.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?
New Search
Starts a new peak search and enters the results in the peak list.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S ESL
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl
Defines the criteria for sorting:
Freq
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time
values (span = 0)
Lvl
sorting in ascending order of the level
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y
Peak List Off
Switches the peak list function off.
ASCII File Export
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box and saves the content of the marker peak list in
ASCII format to the specified file and directory. The file consists of a data section containing the
peak list.
Example:
Peak;1
1089743590;Hz
–105.24;dBm
...
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible
to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the Decim Sep softkey.
Remote: FORM ASC
Remote: MMEM:STOR:PEAK 'test'
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
Marker Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of all markers and delta markers.
Stepsize Standard
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measurement point to the next, if the marker or
delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob (Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4
softkeys). If more measured values than measurement points exist, it is not possible to read out
all measured values. In this case, use the Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN
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R&S ESL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Stepsize Sweep Points
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measured value to the next, if the marker or delta
marker value is changed via the rotary knob (Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4 softkeys). If
more measured values than measurement points exist, every single measured value is
accessible and its value is displayed in the marker field.
The number of measured values is defined in the sweep menu via the Sweep Points softkey.
This functionality is available for all base unit measurements with the exception of statistics
(APD and CCDF softkeys in the measurement menu).
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S ESL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
The MKR–> key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of the marker
frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and
minima. For details on markers in general, see "Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page
4.124.
To open the marker–> menu
Press the MKR–> key.
The marker–> menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated and a peak
search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is
opened and the current frequency / time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu" on page 4.140
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Effect of different peak excursion settings (example)" on page 4.138
Tasks
–
To search for a maximum
–
To search for a minimum
–
To specify the search limits
–
To specify the search range
–
To examine a signal at the center in detail
–
To specify the suitable peak excursion
To search for a maximum
1. To search the highest maximum, press the Peak softkey.
2. To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey.
3. To start the search, press Next Peak the softkey.
To search for a minimum
1. To search the minimum, press the Min softkey.
2. To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey.
3. To start the search, press the Next Min softkey.
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R&S ESL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
To specify the search limits
1. To define the lower limit, press the Left Limit softkey.
2. To define the upper limit, press the Right Limit softkey.
3. To define the threshold, press the Threshold softkey.
4. To switch the search limits off, press the Search Lim Off softkey.
To specify the search range
Press the Exclude LO softkey to include the frequency 0 Hz in the marker search functions.
To examine a signal at the center in detail
1. Press the PRESET key to set the R&S ESL to the default setting.
2. Press the MKR–> key to open the marker–> menu.
3. Marker 1 is activated and set to the largest signal of the trace.
4. Press the Center =Mkr Freq softkey to set to the marker frequency.
5. The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency
is not exceeded.
6. Press the Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey to set the reference level to the measured marker level.
7. Press the SPAN key.
8. The edit dialog box to enter a frequency span is displayed.
9. Reduce the span, e.g. using the rotary knob.
To specify the suitable peak excursion
1. If the next peak mode abs of softkey Next Peak Mode < abs > / Next Min Mode < abs > is used,
the default value is sufficient, since, in this mode, the next lower maximum or next higher minimum
will always be detected.
2. If the next peak mode < or > of softkey Next Peak Mode < abs > / Next Min Mode < abs > is used,
the 6 dB level change set as a default value may be attained already by the inherent noise of the
instrument. To avoid identifying noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion value
that is higher than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the
displayed inherent noise.
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S ESL
Effect of different peak excursion settings (example)
The following figure shows a trace to be examined.
Fig. 4-8: Trace example
The following table lists the signals as indicated by the marker numbers in the diagram above, as well
as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
signal #
min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
The detected signals and their order are different depending on the peak excursion setting and the peak
search method (whether the next lower maximum or the next relative maximum are searched). The
following results are obtained. All tests start with the marker set to signal 1 by pressing the softkey
Peak.
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R&S ESL
•
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
40 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 no signal is detected, as the signal level does not
decrease by more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode >: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
•
20 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 signal 2 is detected, as the signal level decreases at
least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now greater than the peak excursion.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 2
next peak mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode abs: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode >: signal 2
next peak mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
•
6 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods all signals are detected.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 2
next peak mode <: signal 3
next peak mode abs: signal 3
next peak mode >: signal 1
next peak mode abs: signal 4
next peak mode >: signal 2
next peak mode >: signal 4
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S ESL
Softkeys of the marker–> menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Next Peak Mode < abs >
Center =Mkr Freq
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Next Min Mode < abs >
Search Limits
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
Search Lim Off
Peak Excursion
More
Exclude LO
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak
Select 1 2 3 4
Selects the normal marker or the delta markers, activates the marker and opens an edit dialog
stands for delta marker 1.
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to.
Remote: CALC:MARK1 ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum of the trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX
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R&S ESL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum of the selected trace according to the
mode selected using the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey.
Next Peak Mode < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Peak softkey. Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum left to the marker of the
selected trace.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum of the selected
trace.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum right to the marker of the
selected trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
Sets the center frequency to the current marker or delta marker frequency. A signal can thus be
set to as center frequency, for example to examine it in detail with a smaller span.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
Sets the reference level to the current marker level.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:REF
Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum of the selected trace according to the
mode selected using the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S ESL
Next Min Mode < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Min softkey. Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum left to the marker of the
selected trace.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum of the selected
trace.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum right to the marker of the
selected trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
Search Limits
Opens a submenu to set the limits for maximum or minimum search in the x and y direction.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Left Limit
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span > 0; T1
for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right limit (see also
Right Limit softkey).
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
Right Limit
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span > 0; T2
for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right limit (see also Left
Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop frequency.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
Threshold
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the lower
level limit for a Peak search and the upper level limit for a Min search.
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the lower
limit of the peak search level range.
Remote: CALC:THR –20dBm
Remote: CALC:THR ON
Search Lim Off
Deactivates all limits of the search range.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
Remote: CALC:THR:STAT OFF
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R&S ESL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
Peak Excursion
Opens – for level measurements – an edit dialog box to enter the minimum level value by which
a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by the search
functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB. The default setting for
the peak excursion is 6 dB.
For details see also "To specify the suitable peak excursion" on page 4.137 and "Effect of
different peak excursion settings (example)" on page 4.138.
Remote: CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
Exclude LO
Switches the frequency range limit for the marker search functions on or off.
activated
minimum frequency
6 × resolution bandwidth (RBW)
Because of the interference by the first local oscillator to the first
intermediate frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a
signal at 0 Hz. To avoid the marker jumping to the LO at 0 Hz with the
peak function when setting the display range, this frequency is
excluded.
deactivated
no restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote: CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
Auto Max Peak / Auto Min Peak
Adds an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep. This
function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the actual peak
marker position and level.
The actual marker search limit settings (Left Limit, Right Limit, Threshold, Exclude LO
softkeys) are taken into account.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:AUTO ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:AUTO ON
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S ESL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions, the R&S ESL is able to measure all the necessary parameters
with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB–AM) for high–frequency transmission of
information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the latter covers a spectrum which is
defined by the modulation, the transmission data rate and the signal filtering. Within a transmission
band each carrier is assigned a channel taking into account these parameters. In order to ensure error–
free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These include
among others:
•
the output power
•
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined percentage of the power
•
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels
The MEAS key is used for complex measurement functions as power measurements, occupied
bandwidth, signal statistic, carrier to noise spacing, AM modulation depth, third–order intercept point,
harmonics and spurious emissions. For measurement examples refer to chapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples" and to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, "Basic Measurement Examples".
The following measurements can be performed:
•
Power in zero span (Time Domain Power softkey; for details see "Power measurement in zero
span" on page 4.146)
•
Channel power and adjacent–channel power with span > 0 and with a single or several carriers
(CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey)
•
Occupied bandwidth (OBW softkey, for details see "Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page
4.147)
•
Carrier–to–noise ratio (C/N, C/No softkey)
•
Amplitude probability distribution (APD and CCDF softkeys, for details refer to hapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples", "Amplitude Distribution Measurement")
•
Modulation depth (AM Mod Depth softkey)
•
3rd order intercept (TOI softkey, for details refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples",
"Intermodulation Measurements")
To open the power measurement menu
Press the MEAS key.
The power measurement menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the power measurement menu" on page 4.155
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
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R&S ESL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Further information
–
"Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146
–
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.147
–
"Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.148
–
"Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149
–
"Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150
–
"Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement" on page 4.151
–
"Format description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files" on page 4.152
–
"ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 4.154
Tasks
–
To measure the power in zero span
–
To set the channel configuration
–
To measure the occupied bandwidth
–
To measure signal statistics
–
To measure the carrier–to–noise ratio
To measure the power in zero span
1. Press the Time Domain Power softkey to activate the power measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To limit the power evaluation range, switch on the limits (Limits On/Off softkey) and enter the limits
by using the Left Limit and Right Limit softkeys.
3. Select the type of power measurement by using the Mean or RMS softkey. (RMS or mean power),
the settings for max hold and averaging as well as the definition of limits.
4. To calculate and display the peak value, press the Peak softkey.
5. To calculate and display the standard deviation from the mean value, press the Std Dev softkey.
To set the channel configuration
1. Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey to active channel or adjacent–channel power measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To use a predefined standard for measurement, press the CP / ACP Standard softkey (for details
on available standards see "Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.148).
3. To configure the parameters independently of the predefined standards, press the CP / ACP
Config softkey (for details see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149).
4. To enter the sweep time, press the Sweep Time softkey.
5. To display the whole diagram, press the Full Size Diagram softkey.
6. To adjust the reference level to the measured channel power, press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S ESL
To measure the occupied bandwidth
1. Press the OBW softkey to activate the measurement of the occupied bandwidth (for details see also
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.147).
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. Press the % Power Bandwidth softkey to enter the percentage of power.
3. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the Channel Bandwidth
softkey.
4. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the Adjust Settings softkey
(for details see also "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149).
5. To adjust the reference level to the measured total power after the first sweep, press the Adjust
Ref Level softkey.
To measure signal statistics
•
To activate and configure the measurement of the amplitude probability distribution (APD), press
the APD softkey (for details refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples", "Amplitude
Distribution Measurement").
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
•
To activate and configure the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF),
press the CCDF softkey (for details refer to hapter "Advanced Measurement Examples", "Amplitude
Distribution Measurement").
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
To measure the carrier–to–noise ratio
1. Press the C/N, C/No softkey to configure the carrier–to–noise ratio measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To activate the measurements without reference to the bandwidth, press the C/N softkey.
3. To activate the measurements with reference to the bandwidth, press the C/No softkey.
4. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the Channel Bandwidth
softkey.
5. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the Adjust Settings softkey
(for details see also "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149).
Power measurement in zero span
With the aid of the power measurement function, the R&S ESL determines the power of the signal in
zero span by summing up the power at the individual measurement points and dividing the result by the
number of measurement points. In this way it is possible to measure for example the power of TDMA
signals during transmission or during the muting phase. Both the mean power and the RMS power can
be measured by means of the individual power values.
The result is displayed in the marker field. The measured values are updated after each sweep or
averaged over a user–defined number of sweeps in order to determine e.g. the mean power over
several bursts. For determination of the peak value the maximum value from several sweeps is
displayed.
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R&S ESL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
If both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement range can be limited to
the transmission or to the muting phase with the aid of vertical lines. The ratio between signal and noise
power of a TDMA signal for instance can be measured by using a measurement as a reference value
and after that varying the measurement range.
Upon switching on power measurement the sample detector is activated.
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
An important characteristic of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a radio communications
system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited to enable distortion–free transmission in
adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth is defined as the bandwidth containing a defined
percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10% and 99.9% can be set.
The measurement principle is the following: The bandwidth containing 99% of the signal power is to be
determined, for example. The routine first calculates the total power of all displayed points of the trace.
In the next step, the points from the right edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5% of the total power
is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is positioned at the corresponding frequency. Then the points from the
left edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5% of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is
positioned at this point. 99% of the power is now between the two markers. The distance between the
two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in the marker field.
To ensure correct power measurement, especially for noise signals, and to obtain the correct occupied
bandwidth, the following prerequisites and settings are necessary:
•
Only the signal to be measured is displayed on the screen. An additional signal would falsify the
measurement.
•
RBW << occupied bandwidth
(approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice communication type 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
•
VBW
•
RMS detector
•
Span
3 x RBW
2 to 3 x occupied bandwidth
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD–27B) require measurement of the
occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of the R&S ESL has to be changed
accordingly then.
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S ESL
Predefined CP / ACP standards
The test parameters for the channel and adjacent–channel measurements are set according to the
mobile radio standard. The available standards are listed below.
Parameter
Standard
CDMA2000
CDMA 2000
CDMA IS95A FWD
CDMA IS95A forward
CDMA IS95A REV
CDMA IS95A reverse
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse
CDMA J–STD008 FWD
CDMA J–STD008 forward
CDMA J–STD008 REV
CDMA J–STD008 reverse
CDPD
CDPD
NADC IS136
NADC IS136
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
RFID 14443
RFID 14443
TD–SCDMA FWD
TD–SCDMA forward
TD–SCDMA REV
TD–SCDMA reverse
TETRA
TETRA
W–CDMA 3GPP FWD
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
W–CDMA 3GPP REV
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
WIBRO
WIBRO
WiMAX
WiMAX
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11B
WLAN 802.11B
Note:
For the R&S ESL, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center frequency
of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel. The definition of
the adjacent–channel spacing in standards IS95 B / C, IS97 B / C, IS98 B / C and CDMA2000
DS / MC1 / MC3 is different. These standards define the adjacent–channel spacing from the
center of the transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition
is also used for the R&S ESL if the standard settings marked with a dagger are selected.
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R&S ESL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Settings of CP / ACP test parameters
•
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin
of approx. 10%.
Note:
If the frequency span is large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the adjacent–channel
bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are available per channel. This
reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the channel filter used, which has a
negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is therefore strongly recommended that the
formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
For channel power measurements the Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span as follows:
(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x transmission channel
bandwidth + measurement margin
For adjacent–channel power measurements, the Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span
as a function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission channel spacing, the
adjacent–channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of adjacent–channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2,
whichever is furthest away from the transmission channels:
(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x (adjacent–channel
spacing + adjacent–channel bandwidth) + measurement margin
The measurement margin is approx. 10% of the value obtained by adding the channel spacing and
the channel bandwidth.
•
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both, acceptable measurement speed and required selection (to suppress spectral
components outside the channel to be measured, especially of the adjacent channels), the
resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or too large. As a general approach, the
resolution bandwidth is to be set to values between 1% and 4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to be measured
and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for standard IS95A REV at an
adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct
results since the spectrum in the neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant
level. For standard NADC/IS136 this is not possible for example, since the spectrum of the transmit
signal penetrates into the adjacent channels and a too large resolution bandwidth causes a too low
selection of the channel filter. The adjacent–channel power would thus be measured too high.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the Adjust Settings softkey sets the resolution
bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
RBW
1/40 of channel bandwidth
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
•
1/40)
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth. A restricted
bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal averaging and thus result in a too low
indication of the power (–2.51 dB at very low video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should
therefore be selected at least three times the resolution bandwidth:
VBW
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The Adjust Settings softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of the channel
bandwidth (see formula above) and the smallest possible VBW with regard to the available step
size will be selected.
•
Detector
The Adjust Settings softkey selects the RMS detector. This detector is selected since it correctly
indicates the power irrespective of the characteristics of the signal to be measured. The whole IF
envelope is used to calculate the power for each measurement point. The IF envelope is digitized
using a sampling frequency which is at least five times the resolution bandwidth which has been
selected. Based on the sample values, the power is calculated for each measurement point using
the following formula:
PRMS =
1
N
N
si2
i =1
si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter
N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point
PRMS = power represented by a measurement point
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels and the value is
displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number of
measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield
less stable results.
•
Trace averaging
The Adjust Settings softkey switches off this function. Averaging, which is often performed to
stabilize the measurement results, leads to a too low level indication and should therefore be
avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the number of averages and the signal
characteristics in the channel to be measured.
•
Reference level
The Adjust Settings softkey does not influence the reference level. It can be separately adjusted
using the Adjust Settings softkey.
Ranges and range settings
In the Spectrum Emission Mask and Spurious Emissions measurements, a range defines a segment,
for which you can define the following parameters separately: start and stop frequency, RBW, VBW,
sweep time, sweep points, reference level, attenuator settings, and limit values. Via the sweep list, you
define the ranges and their settings (for details on settings refer to the Sweep List softkey).
The following rules apply to ranges:
•
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
•
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
•
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
•
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only: A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
•
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only: The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked
in blue color).
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Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick way to change the
configuration. A set of XML files for different standards is already provided. For details see Table 4-5:
Provided XML files. You can also create and use your own XML files (for details see "Format
description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files" on page 4.152). All XML files are stored under
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std. Use the Load Standard softkey for quick access to the available XML files.
Table 4-5: Provided XML files
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\DL
default0.xml
cdma2000 BTS BC0 default
default1.xml
cdma2000 BTS BC1 default
default0.xml
cdma2000 MS BC0 default
default1.xml
cdma2000 MS BC1 default
PowerClass_31_39.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP DL (31,39)dBm
PowerClass_39_43.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP DL (39,43)dBm
PowerClass_43_INF.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP DL (43,INF)dBm
PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP DL (–INF,31)dBm
PowerClass_29_40.xml
WiBro TTA DL (29,40)dBm
PowerClass_40_INF.xml
WiBro TTA DL (40,INF)dBm
PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
WiBro TTA DL (–INF,29)dBm
PowerClass_23_INF.xml
WiBro TTA UL (23,INF)dBm
PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WiBro TTA UL (23,INF)dBm
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX DL ETSI–System Type E
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX DL ETSI–System Type F
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX DL ETSI–System Type G
10MHz.xml
WIMAX DL 10MHz
20MHz.xml
WIMAX DL 20MHz
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX UL ETSI–System Type E
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX UL ETSI–System Type F
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX UL ETSI–System Type G
10MHz.xml
WIMAX UL 10MHz
20MHz.xml
WIMAX UL 20MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11 TURBO (ETSI)
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11 TURBO (IEEE)
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11a (ETSI)
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11a
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11b
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\UL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP\DL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\DL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\UL
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\ETSI\...MHz
(1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00 MHz,
14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\IEEE
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\ETSI...MHz
(1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00 MHz,
14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\IEEE
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11_TURBO
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11a
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11b
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE.11j 10MHz (ETSI)
IEEE.xml
IEEE.11j 10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11j 20MHz (ETSI)
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j 20MHz
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
*Used abbreviations:
BTS: base station (uplink)
BC: band class
MS: mobile station (downlink)
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association
Note:
For the WIBRO standards, the 1 MHz channel filter is used for every occurrence of a 1 MHz
filter.
Format description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules of the XML
standard. In the following, the elements, attributes, and structure defined for the range data import are
described. Build your own XML files according to these conventions because the R&S ESL can only
interpret XML files of a known structure. For example files look in the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
The base format consists of the following XML structure:
<Root_Element>
<SEMConfig ... >
<Ranges>
<Range ... />
…
</Ranges>
</SEMConfig>
</Root_Element>
In Table 4-6 the possible attributes of the SEMConfig element are listed. These attributes define global
settings for all ranges. The Standard, LinkDirection, PowerClass, BandClass and Comment attributes
do not affect the measurement. They are used to display the Spectrum Emission Mask Standard
information on the measurement screen.
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In the example above (DLPowerClass_39_43.xml under C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP), these
attributes are defined as follows:
•
Standard="W–CDMA 3GPP"
•
LinkDirection="DL"
•
PowerClass="(39,43)dBm"
Table 4-6: Attributes of the SEMConfig element
Attribute name
Attribute value
Parameter description
Mandatory?
Standard
<string>
–
no
ReferencePower
TX Channel Peak Power | TX Channel Power
Edit Reference Range
no
Limit_Check_Mode
Absolute | Relative | Abs and Rel | Abs or Rel
Limit Check
no
LinkDirection
DL | UL
–
no
BandClass
<string>
–
no
Comment
<string>
–
no
PowerClass
(<minPower>,<maxPower>)dBm
–
no
Detector
RMS | NEGative| POSitive | SAMPle | AVERage
Detector Manual Select
(TRACE key)
no
The attributes of the Range element carry the settings information of the range. Accordingly, the same
rules apply as characterized for the settings parameter. For details refer to the Sweep List softkey und
the corresponding parameter descriptions.
Sort the ranges according to their frequency values in increasing order. Define one reference range.
The reference range carries special attributes listed in Table 4-8.
Table 4-7: Attributes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Attribute name
Attribute value
Parameter description
Mandatory?
StartF
<frequency value in Hz>
Range Start
yes
StopF
<frequency value in Hz>
Range Stop
yes
FilterType
NORMal | CFILTer | RRC | PULSe
Filter Type
no
RBW
<RBW value in Hz>
RBW
no
VBW
<VBW value in Hz>
VBW
no
SWT_Mode
Auto | Manual
Sweep Time Mode
no
SWT_Value
<sweep time in s>
Sweep Time
no
REF_Level
<reference level in dBm>
Ref. Level
no
RF_ATT_Mode
Auto | Manual
RF Att. Mode
no
RF_ATT_Value
On | Off
RF Attenuator
no
Preamp
1|0
Preamp
no
Limit_Abs_Start
<limit value in dBm>
Abs Limit Start
no
Limit_Abs_Stop
<limit value in dBm>
Abs Limit Stop
no
Limit_Rel_Start
<limit value in dBc>
Rel Limit Start
no
Limit_Rel_Stop
<limit value in dBc>
Rel Limit Stop
no
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The reference range is defined by the TX attribute. Only if the channel power reference type is selected
(ReferencePower="TX Channel Power", see Table 4-6Attributes of the SEMConfig element), further
attributes are available to characterize the reference range. These attributes correspond to the setting
parameters provided via the Edit Reference Range softkey.
Table 4-8: Special attributes of the Range element (reference range)
Attribute name
Attribute value
Mandatory?
TX
1
yes
FilterState
On | Off
no
Alpha
0 ... 1
yes if FilterState="On"
TxBandwidth
<value in Hz>
yes if FilterState="On"
ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the spectrum analyzer and the general setup. For a
detailed description refer to "ASCII file export format" on page 4.122.
File contents
Description
RefType; CPOWER;
reference range setup, for details see
Edit Reference Range softkey
TxBandwidth;9540000;Hz
Filter State; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;–22500000;–9270000;1000000;2986455000;–74.762840270996094;
–10.576210021972656;–45.762840270996094;PASS;
1;–9270000;–4770000;100000;2991405000;–100.17695617675781;
–35.990325927734375;–1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;–100.17695617675781;
–35.990325927734375;–1.490325927734375;PASS;
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;–74.762840270996094;
–10.576210021972656;–45.762840270996094;PASS;
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information about each peak:
<range number>;
<start frequency>;
<stop frequency>;
<resolution bandwidth of range>;
<frequency of peak>;
<absolute power in dBm of peak>;
<relative power in dBc of peak
(related to the channel power)>;
<distance to the limit line in dB
(positive value means above the limit)>;
<limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)>;
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Softkeys of the power measurement menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power measurement menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special
option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
All Functions Off
TOI
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker 3
Marker 4
Search Signals
AM Mod Depth
same contents as TOI
menu
Time Domain Power
Peak
RMS
Mean
Std Dev
Limits On/Off
Left Limit
Right Limit
C/N, C/No
C/N
C/No
Channel Bandwidth
Adjust Settings
CP, ACP, MC–ACP
CP / ACP Standard
CP / ACP Config
# of TX Chan
# of Adj Chan
Channel Settings
Channel
Bandwidth
Channel Spacing
Chan Pwr/Hz
ACP Ref Settings
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
Limit Checking
Limit Chk On/Off
Edit ACP Limit
Power Mode
Clear/Write
Max Hold
Select Trace
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Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S ESL
Submenu / Command
Command
Adjust Settings
Sweep Time
Fast ACP On/Off
ACP Abs/Rel
Adjust Ref Level
More
All Functions Off
OBW
% Power Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
APD
Percent Marker
Res BW
# of Samples
Scaling
x–Axis Ref Level
x–Axis Range
y–Axis Max Value
y–Axis Min Value
y–Unit %/Abs
Default Settings
Adjust Settings
Adjust Settings
CCDF
same contents as APD
menu
Spectrum Emission Mask
Sweep List
Edit Sweep List/Close
Sweep List
Insert before Range
Insert after Range
Delete Range
Edit Reference Range
List Evaluation
List Evaluation On/Off
List Full Screen
Margin
Show Peaks
List Up
List Down
Save Evaluation List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Edit Reference Range
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Menu / Command
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Load Standard
Restore Standard Files
Meas Start/Stop
Spurious Emissions
Sweep List
Edit Sweep List/Close
Sweep List
Insert before Range
Insert after Range
Delete Range
Adjust X–Axis
List Evaluation
List Evaluation On/Off
List Full Screen
Details On/Off
Peaks per Range
Margin
Show Peaks
More
List Up
List Down
Save Evaluation List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Meas Start/Stop
More
All Functions Off
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic On/Off
No. of Harmonics
Harmonic Sweep Time
Harmonic RBW Auto
Adjust Settings
Full Size Diagram
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:<function> OFF
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R&S ESL
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two–tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S ESL input. Marker 1 and
marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker 3 and marker
4 (also both normal markers) are placed on the intermodulation products. When the function is
enabled, the frequency entry is activated for the delta markers. They can be set manually.
The R&S ESL calculates the third order intercept point from the level spacing between normal
markers and delta markers and displays it in the marker field.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
Search Signals
Activates all markers.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
AM Mod Depth
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM–
modulated carrier is required on the screen for ensuring correct operation.
The level value of marker 1 is taken as the carrier level. When this function is activated, marker
2 and marker 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of
the trace as delta markers and marker 2 is activated for the entry.
When the position of marker 2 (delta) is changed, marker 3 (delta) is moved symmetrically with
respect to the reference marker (marker 1).
If the edit dialog box is opened for marker 3, the latter can be moved for fine adjustment
irrespective of marker 2.
The R&S ESL calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels. The AM
modulation depth is calculated from the ratio between the power values at the reference marker
and at the delta markers. If the powers of the two AM side bands are unequal, the mean value of
the two power values is used for AM modulation depth calculation.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?
Time Domain Power (zero span)
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the power
measurement. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:STAT ON
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Peak (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
RMS (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
Mean (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
Std Dev (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the standard deviation of measurement points from the mean value
and displays them as measured value. The measurement of the mean power is automatically
switched on at the same time. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on
page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
Limits On/Off (zero span)
Switches the limitation of the evaluation range on or off. Default setting is off.
If switched off, the evaluation range is not limited. If switched on, the evaluation range is defined
by the left and right limit. If only one limit is set, it corresponds to the left limit and the right limit is
defined by the stop frequency. If the second limit is also set, it defines the right limit.
For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
Left Limit (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 1. For more details see also "Power
measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT <value>
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R&S ESL
Right Limit (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 2. For more details see also "Power
measurement in zero span" on page 4.146.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH <value>
C/N, C/No (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements without
(C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
C/N (span > 0)
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio on or off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is
activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace where marker 1 is located. To shift marker 1 and
measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu. To determine the
maximum value of the current trace, use the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey in the marker
menu.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
C/No (span > 0)
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio with reference to a 1 Hz bandwidth on or
off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace where marker 1 is located. To shift marker 1 and
measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu. To determine the
maximum value of the current trace, use the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey in the marker
menu.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN0
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement channel bandwidth. The default setting is 14
kHz.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Adjust Settings (span > 0)
Enables the RMS detector (see also "Detector overview" on page 4.116) and adjusts the span to
the selected channel bandwidth according to:
4 x channel bandwidth + measurement margin
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The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later on.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES CN | CN0
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R&S ESL
CP, ACP, MC–ACP
Activates the active channel or adjacent–channel power measurement either for a single carrier
signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and
opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement. With default settings the
measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the display points within the specified
channels (IBW method).
If multi–carrier ACP measurement is activated, the number of measured values is increased to
ensure that adjacent–channel powers are measured with adequate accuracy.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CPOW|ACP|MCAC
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW|ACP|MCAC
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
CP / ACP Standard
Opens an edit dialog box to select the settings according to predefined standards. For details on
the available standards see "Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.148. By default no
standard is set.
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters:
–
channel spacing and adjacent–channel spacing
–
channel bandwidth, adjacent–channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
–
resolution bandwidth
–
video bandwidth
–
detector
–
# of adjacent channels
–
trace averaging (switched off)
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <standard>
CP / ACP Config
Opens a submenu to configure the channel power and adjacent channel power measurement
independently of the predefined standards (for details see also "To set the channel
configuration" on page 4.145 and "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149).
# of TX Chan (MC–ACP)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of carrier signals to be taken into account in
channel and adjacent–channel power measurements. Values from 1 to 12 are allowed.
Remote: POW:ACH:TXCH:COUN 4
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# of Adj Chan
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels to be considered in the
adjacent–channel power measurement. Values from 0 to 12 are allowed.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels:
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel are
measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and of the
next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the power of
the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1), and of the next but one
higher and lower adjacent channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
...
...
12
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and the
power of the all higher and lower channels (alternate channel 1 to 11) are measured.
Remote: POW:ACH:ACP 1
Channel Settings
Opens a submenu to define the channel settings.
Channel Bandwidth
Opens the TX/ACP Channel Bandwidth dialog box to enter the channel bandwidths for the
transmission channels and the adjacent channels. The entry TX is only available for the multi–
carrier ACP measurement.
The transmission–channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard. The
correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see CP / ACP Standard
softkey).
Measurements in zero span (see Fast ACP On/Off softkey) are performed in the zero span
mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements requiring channel
bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected standard the IBW method is to be used.
With the IBW method (see Fast ACP On/Off softkey), the channel bandwidth limits are marked
by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. It can in this way be visually
checked whether the entire power of the signal under test is within the selected channel
bandwidth.
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If measuring according to the IBW method (Fast ACP Off), the bandwidths of the different
adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent channels often have the
same bandwidth, the other channels Alt1 and Alt2 are set to the bandwidth of the adjacent
channel on entering the adjacent–channel bandwidth (ADJ). Thus only one value needs to be
entered in case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths. The same holds true for the Alt2
channels (alternate channels 2) if the bandwidth of the Alt1 channel (alternate channel 1) is
entered.
For details on available channel filters see "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page
4.97.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID:ACH 30kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID:ALT2 30kHz
Channel Spacing
Opens the TX/ACP Channel Spacing dialog box to enter the channel spacings for the TX
channels and for the adjacent channels.
The entry TX is only available for the multi–carrier ACP measurement.
–
TX channels (left column)
TX1–
2
spacing between the first and the second carrier
TX2–
3
spacing between the second and the third carrier
...
...
The spacings between all adjacent TX channels can be defined separately. In order to allow a
convenient setup for the system with equal TX channel spacing, the value of TX spacing 1–2 is
copied in all the spacing below after entry, the TX spacing 2–3 is copied in all the spacing
below after entry and so forth. For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency is as
follows:
–
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate
the frequency between those two channels. This
frequency is aligned to the center frequency.
Adjacent channels (right column)
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the modification of
of the adjacent–channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher adjacent–channel
spacings (Alt1, Alt2, ...): they are all multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value / old
spacing value). Thus only one value needs to be entered in case of equal channel spacing. A
modification of a higher adjacent–channel spacing (Alt1, Alt2, ...) causes a change by the same
factor in all higher adjacent–channel spacings, while the lower adjacent–channel spacings
remain unchanged.
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Example:
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz (ADJ), 40
kHz (Alt1), 60 kHz (Alt2), 80 kHz (Alt3), 100 kHz (Alt4), ...
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel (ADJ) is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all other
adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz (Alt1), 120 kHz (Alt2), 160 kHz
(Alt3), ...
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel (Alt4) is set to 150
kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 1.5 to result in 180 kHz
(Alt5), 210 kHz (Alt6), 240 kHz (Alt7), ...
If a ACP or MC–ACP measurement is started, all settings according to the standard including
the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be adjusted afterwards.
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC:CHAN 25kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC 33kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100kHz
Chan Pwr/Hz
If deactivated, the channel power is displayed in dBm. If activated, the channel power density is
displayed instead. Thus, the absolute unit of the channel power is switched from dBm to
dBm/Hz. The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power inside a bandwidth of
1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
channel power density = channel power – log10(channel bandwidth)
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density or use the
additional functions ACP Abs/Rel and ACP Ref Settings to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON
ACP Ref Settings (MC–ACP)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the transmission channel to which the adjacent–channel
relative power values should be referenced.
TX Channel 1 – 12
Selection of one of channels 1 to 12.
Min Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as a
reference channel.
Max Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a
reference channel.
Lowest & Highest
Channel
The outer left–hand transmission channel is the reference
channel for the lower adjacent channels, the outer right–hand
transmission channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
Remote: POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:MAN 3
Remote: POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:AUTO MAX
Limit Checking
Opens a submenu to activate and define the limits for the ACP measurement.
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Limit Chk On/Off
Activates or deactivates the limit check for the ACP measurement.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?
Edit ACP Limit
Opens the ACP Limits dialog box to define the limits for the ACP measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
–
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both the upper
and the lower adjacent channel.
–
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can be activated
independently.
–
The R&S ESL checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are absolute or
relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or relative levels. If both limits
are active and if the higher of both limit values is exceeded, the measured value is marked by a
preceding asterisk.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel> 0dB,0dB
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:ABS –10dBm,–10dBm
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:ABS:STAT ON
For details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section "CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower
Subsystem".
Power Mode
Opens a submenu to select the power mode.
Clear/Write
If this mode is activated, the channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated
directly from the current trace (default mode).
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT
Max Hold
If this mode is activated, the power values are calculated from the current trace and compared
with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The higher value is retained. If
activated, the enhancement label Pwr Max is displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH
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Select Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trace number on which the CP/ACP measurement is to be
performed. Only activated traces can be selected (for details on trace modes see "Trace mode
overview" on page 4.114).
Remote: POW:TRAC 2
Adjust Settings
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration (channel
bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The
adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and trace
averaging see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES ACP
Sweep Time
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. With the RMS detector, a longer sweep time
increases the stability of the measurement results.
The function of this softkey is identical to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth
menu.
Remote: SWE:TIM <value>
Fast ACP On/Off
Switches between the IBW method (Fast ACP Off) and the zero span method (Fast ACP On).
When switched on, the R&S ESL sets the center frequency consecutively to the different
channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time (=
sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard and
frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136). For details on
available channel filters see "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.97.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore this
requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are output in
dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm.
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results. Reproducibility
increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over a longer time
period. As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 non–correlated measured
values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99% of the measurements are within 0.5 dB of
the true measured value). This holds true for white noise. The measured values are considered
as non–correlated if their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at an interval
of 40 Es are considered as non–correlated. A measurement time of 40 ms is thus required per
channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep time which the R&S ESL sets in
coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99%),
i.e. the measurement time is to be increased to 200 ms.
Remote: POW:HSP ON
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ACP Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative power measurement in the adjacent channels.
Abs
The absolute power in the adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the y–axis,
e.g. in dBm, dBEV.
Rel
The level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the level of the
transmission channel in dBc.
Remote: POW:ACH:MODE REL
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the
RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without
overloading the R&S ESL or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio. For details on
manual settings see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an optimum
dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the signal maximum close
to the reference level without forcing an overload message. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path
may be overloaded although the trace is still significantly below the reference level.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
OBW (span > 0)
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration and
opens a submenu to configure the measurement. The occupied bandwidth is displayed in the
marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers. For details see also
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.147.
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate another trace,
marker 1 must be placed on another trace (see Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu).
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL OBW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
% Power Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the percentage of total power in the displayed frequency range
which defines the occupied bandwidth. Values from 10% to 99.9% are allowed.
Remote: POW:BWID 95PCT
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Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel. The
specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters (for details see
"Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.149). The default setting is 14 kHz.
For measurements in line with a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified by the
standard for the transmission channel must be entered.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Adjust Ref Level (span > 0)
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is activated
after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been completed
and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth for
channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path
may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured
channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be overloaded.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:APD ON
Percent Marker
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus, the power
which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If marker 1 is
deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y:PERC 0...100%
Res BW
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly. The function of this softkey is
identical to the Res BW Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider than
the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude correctly. In
order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz.
The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote: BAND 3 MHz
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# of Samples
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into account
for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on the set
resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling rate.
Remote: CALC:STAT:NSAM <value>
Scaling
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x– and y–axis.
x–Axis Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm, dBEV,
etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu.
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF function
there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x–axis is scaled relatively to
the measured mean power.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV <value>
x–Axis Range
Opens the Range Log dialog box to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected. The function is identical to the Range Log softkey in amplitude
menu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG <value>
y–Axis Max Value
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range. Values on
the y–axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The y–axis scaling is
defined via the y–Unit %/Abs softkey. If the y–axis has logarithmic scale, the distance between
max and min value must be at least one decade.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UPP <value>
y–Axis Min Value
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in
the range 0 < value < 1 are allowed. The y–axis scaling is defined via the y–Unit %/Abs softkey.
If the y–axis has logarithmic scale, the distance between max and min value must be at least
one decade.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW <value>
y–Unit %/Abs
Defines the scaling type of the y–axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT
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Default Settings
Resets the x– and y–axis scalings to their preset values.
x–axis ref level:
–20 dBm
x–axis range APD:
100 dB
x–axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y–axis upper limit:
1.0
y–axis lower limit:
1E–6
Remote: CALC:STAT:PRES
Adjust Settings
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum
power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in order to
obtain maximum power resolution. Adapts the probability scale to the selected number of
samples. Adjusts the reference level to the current input signal. For details see also Adjust Ref
Level softkey.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF)
and opens a submenu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:CCDF ON
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Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors
compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a flexible
definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement.
Remote: SWE:MODE ESP
Sweep List
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the Sweep List dialog box. After a preset,
the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each range, you can change
the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the Insert before Range, Insert
after Range, Delete Range softkeys. The measurement results are not updated during editing
but on closing the dialog box (Close Sweep List softkey).
Note:
If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules described in "Ranges and range settings" on
page 4.150.
Parameter
Restriction
Range Start
Range Stop
Filter Type
RBW
VBW
Sweep Time Mode
Sweep Time
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Parameter
Restriction
Detector
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Ref. Level
RF Att. Mode
RF Attenuator
Preamp
Sweep Points
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Stop after Sweep
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Transd. Factor
Limit Check
Abs Limit Start
Abs Limit Stop
–
Rel Limit Start
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only
Rel Limit Stop
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement:
The changes of the sweep list are only kept until you load another parameter set (via a preset
or by loading an XML file). If you want to have a parameter set permanently available, create an
XML file for this configuration.
If you load one of the provided XML files (Load Standard softkey), the sweep list contains
ranges and parameters according to the selected standard.
Range Start/Range Stop (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described in
"Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate span
with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the ranges, the
measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and have a minimum
span of 20 Hz. The first and last range are adapted to the given span as long as the minimum
span of 20 Hz is not violated.
–
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement:
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth. For details refer to the Edit Reference
Range softkey description.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:STAR 100000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: ESP:RANG3:STOP 10000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:STAR 100000000 (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:STOP 10000000 (Spurious Emissions)
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Filter Type (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also "To choose the appropriate filter
type" on page 4.96.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC (Spurious Emissions)
RBW (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:BAND:RES 5000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:BAND:RES 5000 (Spurious Emissions)
VBW (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000 (Spurious Emissions)
Sweep Time Mode (Sweep List dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
Sweep Time (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1 (Spurious Emissions)
Detector (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the detector for the range. For details refer to "Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: LIST:RANGe3:DET SAMP
Ref. Level (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:RLEV 0 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:RLEV 0 (Spurious Emissions)
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RF Att. Mode (Sweep List dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
RF Attenuator (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INP:ATT 10 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:INP:ATT 10 (Spurious Emissions)
Preamp (Sweep List dialog box)
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INP:GAIN:STATe ON (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:INP:GAIN:STATe ON (Spurious Emissions)
Sweep Points (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the number of sweep points per range. For details on possible values refer to the Sweep
Points softkey of the sweep menu.
Remote: LIST:RANG3:POIN 601
Stop after Sweep (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Configures the sweep behavior.
On
The R&S ESL stops after one range is swept and continues only if you confirm (a message
box is displayed).
Off
The R&S ESL sweeps all ranges in one go.
Remote: LIST:RANG1:BRE ON
Transd. Factor (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills the
following conditions:
–
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
–
The x–axis is linear.
–
The unit is dB.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:TRAN 'test' (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:TRAN 'test' (Spurious Emissions)
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Limit Check (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges. Possible states are:
Absolute
Checks only the absolute limits defined.
Relative
Checks only the relative limits. Relative limits are defined as relative
to the measured power in the reference range.
Abs and
Rel
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when
both limits are violated.
Abs or Rel
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when
one of the limits is violated.
The limit state affects the availability of all limit settings (Abs Limit Start, Abs Limit Stop, Rel
Limit Start, Rel Limit Stop).
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:STAT AND (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:LIM:STAT ON (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: CALC:LIM3:FAIL?
Abs Limit Start (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check
parameter).
Remote: ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STAR 10 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:LIM:STAR 10 (Spurious Emissions)
Abs Limit Stop (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check
parameter).
Remote: ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STOP 20 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:LIM:STOP 20 (Spurious Emissions)
Rel Limit Start (Sweep List dialog box, Spectrum Emission Mask)
Sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check
parameter).
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STAR –20
Rel Limit Stop (Sweep List dialog box, Spectrum Emission Mask)
Sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check
parameter).
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STOP 20
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Edit Sweep List/Close Sweep List
Opens/ closes the Sweep List dialog box. Closing the dialog box updates the measurement
results.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
Insert before Range
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focussed range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number
of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INS BEF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Insert after Range
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all higher
ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:INS AFT (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Delete Range
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
Remote: ESP:RANG4:DEL (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG4:DEL (Spurious Emissions)
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Edit Reference Range
Opens the Reference Range dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
–
Peak Power
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
–
Channel Power
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the Channel Power reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended to define
additional settings:
–
Tx Bandwidth
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
value
span of reference range
minimum span
–
RRC Filter State
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
–
RRC Filter Settings
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This pane is only available if the RRC filter is activated.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.150.
Remote: ESP:RTYP PEAK
Remote: ESP:BWID 1MHZ
Remote: ESP:FILT OFF
Remote: ESP:FILT:ALPH 0.5
List Evaluation
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
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List Evaluation On/Off
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PSE:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: TRAC? LIST
List Full Screen
Switches between split screen and full screen.
deactivated
split screen (diagram and list)
activated
list in full screen
Remote: DISP:WIND2:SIZE LARG
Margin
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:MARG 100 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PEAK:MARG 100 (Spurious Emissions)
Show Peaks
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active list
evaluation.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:PSH ON (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PSE:PSH ON (Spurious Emissions)
List Up/List Down
Scrolls through the evaluation list if the number of found peaks exceeds the number of rows
shown in the evaluation list table.
Save Evaluation List
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box to save the result in ASCII format to a specified
file and directory. For further details refer also to the ASCII File Export softkey.
Remote: MMEM:STOR:LIST 'test'
ASCII File Export
An example of an output file is given in "ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on
page 4.154. For further details refer also to the ASCII File Export softkey in the trace menu of
the base unit.
Remote: MMEM:STOR:LIST 'test'
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Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
Load Standard
Opens a dialog box to select an XML file which includes the desired standard specification. For
details on the provided XML files refer to "Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask
measurement" on page 4.151.
Remote: ESP:PRES 'WCDMA\3GPP\DL\PowerClass_31_39.xml'
Restore Standard Files
Copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the C:\R_S\instr\sem_std
folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
Remote: ESP:PRES:REST
Meas Start/Stop
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
Start
The measurement is currently running.
Stop
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end of the sweep
has been reached.
Remote: ABOR
Remote: INIT:ESP (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: INIT:SPUR (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: INIT:CONM (Spurious Emissions)
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Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement.
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted RF
products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier. The spurious
emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range. The Spurious Emissions
measurement allows a flexible definition of all parameters.
Remote: SWE:MODE LIST
Adjust X–Axis
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency
matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of the last sweep
range.
Details On/Off
Configures the list contents.
On
Displays the whole list contents.
Off
Displays only the highest peaks (one peak per range).
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Peaks per Range
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of peaks per range that are stored in the list. Once
the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped in the current
range and continued in the next range. The maximum value is 50.
Remote: CALC:PSE:SUBR 10
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates the
harmonic distortion measurement. With this measurement it is possible to measure easily the
harmonics e.g. from a VCO. In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in %
and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is unchanged.
In the upper pane, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by display
lines. This provides a very good overview about the measurement. In the lower pane, the mean
RMS results are displayed in numerical values. The THD values are displayed in the marker
field.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
Harmonic On/Off
Activates/deactivates the harmonic distortion measurement.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON
No. of Harmonics
Sets the number of harmonics that shall be measured. The range is from 1 to 26.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHAR 2
Harmonic Sweep Time
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu.
Harmonic RBW Auto
Enables/disables the automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth. The automatic
adjustment is carried out according to:
RBWn = RBW1 * n
If RBW n is not available, the next higher value is used.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO OFF
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Adjust Settings
Activates the frequency search in the frequency range that was set before starting the harmonic
measurement (if harmonic measurement was with span > 0) and adjusts the level.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES
Full Size Diagram (span > 0)
Displays the diagram in full screen size.
Remote: DISP:SIZE LARG|SMAL
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
To open the lines menu
Press the LINES key.
The lines menu and the Select Limit Line dialog box are displayed. For details on the Select Limit
Line dialog box refer to "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the lines menu" on page 4.190
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Display Lines" on page 4.188
–
"Limit Lines" on page 4.189
Task
–
To work with display lines
–
To select a limit line
–
To create a new limit line
–
To edit an existing limit line
–
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
–
To activate/deactivate a limit line
To work with display lines
Initial situation: The line is switched on (softkey with highlighted background) or off (softkey without
highlighted background), for example the Display Line 1.
1. Press the Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the first time.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the display line (by rotary knob, step keys or
numerical entry). If the line was switched off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains
switched on.
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the Display Line 1 softkey is closed, but the
line remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the second time.
The edit dialog box for the display line will be opened again.
5. Press the Display Line 1 softkey again.
The line is switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
To select a limit line
1. To display the Select Limit Line dialog box, press the LINES key or go to the main limit line menu.
All limit lines, saved in the default directory, and all subdirectories are displayed. For each limit line,
the following information is given:
Unit
unit of the y–axis
Traces
selected traces to check
Show
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
Compatible
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
2. To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the Show compatible option. For details
on compatibility refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.189.
3. To navigate into a subdirectory, use the Show Directory and Hide Directory buttons.
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To create a new limit line
1. Press the New softkey to define a new limit line.
The Edit Limit Line dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to "Limit Lines"
on page 4.189.
2. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a name, if you want to save the limit line in the main
directory. To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to section "Instrument
Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
3. To change the span setting, set the focus in the X–Axis field and change the unit via the rotary
knob: Hz for span > 0 Hz or s for zero span.
4. To change between absolute and relative scale mode for the x–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel
option next to the X–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key. Relative scaling is always
suitable, if masks for bursts are to be defined in zero span, or if masks for modulated signals are
required for span > 0 Hz.
absolute:
The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute physical units.
relative:
In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently set center
frequency. In the zero span mode, the left boundary of the diagram constitutes the
reference.
5. To change the scaling of the y–axis, set the focus in the Y–Axis field and change the unit using the
rotary knob.
6. To change between absolute and relative units for the y–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel option
next to the Y–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key.
absolute:
The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
relative:
The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values with the unit dB
are always relative values.
7. To define the limit line as upper or lower limit line, set the focus on the Upper or Lower option and
press the CHECKMARK key.
8. To change between linear or logarithmic scale of the x–axis, set the focus on the lin or log option
and press the CHECKMARK key.
9. If the scaling of the y–axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that works as a
lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below). Set the focus in the Threshold field and
enter a value.
The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values are defined
in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit value.
Ref -20 dBm
Att 10 dB
RBW 300 Hz
VBW 3 kHz
SWT 100 ms
Marker [T1]
-28.4 dBm
200.0100 MHz
resulting limit
absolute threshold
relative limit line
Center
200 MHz
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
10. To define a signal–level distance to the limit line, press the Edit Margin softkey and enter a value.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin means that the level is below the limit line. If
the limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin means that the level is above the limit line.
11. To enter a comment, press the Edit Comment and enter a comment, e.g. a description of the
application.
12. To enter a new data point:
–
Press the Insert Value Above softkey.
–
Enter the new x and y value in the successive displayed edit dialog boxes.
13. To change a data point:
–
Set the focus on the x and y value to be changed and press the Value softkey.
–
Enter the new x or y value in the displayed edit dialog box.
14. To delete a data point, select the corresponding entry and press the Delete Value softkey.
15. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
a x shift value.
16. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and and
enter an y shift value.
17. Press the Save Limit Line softkey.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm before the limit line is
overwritten.
To edit an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to alter. For details see also "To
select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. Press the Edit softkey.
3. Edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
4. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis for a new limit
line. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. Press the Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the Edit Limit Line dialog box.
3. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing
limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and enter a
y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit
line which has been shifted in Y direction
6. If required, edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
7. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
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To activate/deactivate a limit line
Prerequisites:
•
The x– and y–units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible. For details
refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.189.
•
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details
see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the Select Traces to check softkey and
select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the Deselect All softkey.
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is comparable to
that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute values. They are exclusively
used to optically mark relevant frequencies or points in time (span = 0) as well as constant level values.
It is not possible to check automatically whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
The softkeys for setting and switching the display lines on/off work like triple switches. For details see
"To work with display lines" on page 4.184.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
•
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram and can be
shifted in y direction.
•
Two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time – Frequency/Time
Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of the diagram and
can be shifted in x direction.
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations:
•
D1: Display Line 1
•
D2: Display Line 2
•
F1: Frequency Line 1
•
F2: Frequency Line 2
•
T1: Time Line 1
•
T2: Time Line 2
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Limit Lines
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on the display screen
which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper limits for interference radiation or
spurious waves which are allowed from a device under test (DUT). For transmission of information in
TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls
within a specified tolerance band. The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line.
Then, the amplitude curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the
upper or lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit lines stored in the
instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit lines stored in the instrument is only
limited by the capacity of the flash disk used. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following applies:
•
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
•
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception of dB based
units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S ESL immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance with the
following guidelines:
•
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order, however, for any
single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical segment of a limit line).
•
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not allowed. If gaps
are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both enabled.
•
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S ESL. A limit line may also
exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is –200
GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the time range representation, negative times may
also be entered. The allowed range is –1000 s to +1000 s.
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Softkeys of the lines menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the lines menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select Traces to check
Deselect All
New
Edit Name
Edit Comment
Edit Margin
Value
Insert Value Above
Delete Value
Save Limit Line
Edit
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Copy to
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Delete
Display Lines
Display Line 1
Display Line 2
Frequency Line 1
Frequency Line 2
Time Line 1
Time Line 2
Select Traces to check
Opens the Select Traces to Check dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One
limit line can be activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.188 .
Remote: CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.188 .
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT OFF
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
New
Opens the Edit Limit Line dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For details see
also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To select a limit line" on page 4.185.
Edit Name
Sets the focus on the Name field to enter or change the limit line name. A maximum of 8
characters is permitted for each name. All names must be compatible with the Windows XP
conventions for file names. The limit line data are stored under this name. The instrument stores
all limit lines with LIM as extension.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1
Edit Comment
Sets the focus on the Comment field to enter or change a comment for the limit line. The text
must not exceed 40 characters.
Remote: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
Edit Margin
Sets the focus on the Margin field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The default
setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
Value
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected column.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted).
Remote: CALC:LIM3:CONT:DATA 1MHz,3MHz,30MHz
Remote: CALC:LIM3:UPP:DATA –10,0,0
Remote: CALC:LIM3:LOW:DATA –30,–40,–40
Insert Value Above
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point. This softkey
corresponds to the Insert button in the dialog box.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the last entry
line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values are
permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order rule, an error
message is displayed and the values are discarded.
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Delete Value
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted up
accordingly. This softkey corresponds to the Delete button in the dialog box.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
Save Limit Line
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the Name field.
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To
edit an existing limit line" on page 4.187.
Remote: For details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section "Definition of the limit
line".
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the Edit Limit Line dialog box. If the
limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be easily generated by
parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.189 and "To create a new limit line based upon an
existing limit line" on page 4.187.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:COPY 2
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:DEL
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available
depends on the display mode (frequency or time range). For details see also "Display Lines" on
page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on page 4.184.
Display Line 1 and Display Line 2
Enable or disable the level lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.184.
Remote: CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:DLIN –20dBm
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Frequency Line 1 and Frequency Line 2 (span > 0)
Enable or disable the frequency lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.184.
Remote: CALC:FLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:FLIN 120MHz
Time Line 1 and Time Line 2 (zero span)
Enable or disable the time lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the lines.
For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.188 and "To work with display lines" on page
4.184.
Remote: CALC:TLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:TLIN 10ms
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R&S ESL
Measurement Modes
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and the
access to the menus of all active measurement modes. For details refer to the following sections:
•
"Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.195
•
"Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key" on page 4.196
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Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
The MODE key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode and a fast
change of the measurement mode. You can choose from the following measurement modes:
•
Spectrum Analyzer mode
•
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7)
•
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30)
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
The menu of the current measurement mode is displayed and the Measurement Modes dialog box
is opened.
2. To activate another mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK key. More
than one measurement mode can be activated simultaneously.
3. To deactivate an activated mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK
key.
Spectrum Analyzer mode
In the Spectrum Analyzer mode the functions provided correspond to those of a conventional
spectrum analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal over the selected
frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a fixed frequency, displays the
waveform of the video signal. This mode is set in the initial configuration.
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7)
The Analog Demodulation mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides measurement functions for demodulating AM, FM, or PM signals. For
details refer to "Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" on page 4.204.
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30)
The Noise mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode
provides accurate and flexible noise measurement functions. For details refer to "Noise Figure
Measurements Option (K30)" on page 4.227.
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Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key
The MENU key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode. For details on
measurement modes refer to "Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.195.
To access the main menu of an active measurement mode
Press the MENU key.
The menu of the current measurement mode is displayed.
If the tracking generator, the power meter, and the spectrogram are available in the current
measurement mode, softkeys for these functions are also provided In the Spectrum Analyzer
mode with active acoustic monitoring, the softkey Marker Demod Volume to control the volume
control for acoustic monitoring is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page 4.196
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Optional softkeys of the menu menu
Apart from the softkeys of the current measurement mode, the following optional softkeys are available
in the menu menu. It is possible that the basic unit does not provide all these softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Tracking Generator
Power Meter
Marker Demod Volume
Tracking Generator (models 13, 16)
Displays the menu of the Tracking Generator measurement mode. For details refer to
"Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)" on page 4.198.
Power Meter (Power Sensor Support option, K9)
Displays the menu of the Power Meter measurement mode. For details refer to "Power Meter
(Option K9)" on page 4.223.
Marker Demod Volume (Spectrum Analyzer mode)
Opens a dialog box to regulate the volume for acoustic monitoring.
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Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key
Models and Options
This section describes models and firmware options that are not included in the basic unit configuration.
If hardware options are controlled via the firmware, the provided softkeys are described in the
corresponding menu section. The information, with which special option or model these softkeys are
supplied, is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
A list of all available hardware and firmware options is provided on CD-ROM. To check the options your
instrument provides, refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use". For details on
models and firmware options refer to the following sections:
•
"Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)" on page 4.198
•
"Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" on page 4.204
•
"Power Meter (Option K9)" on page 4.223
•
"Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)" on page 4.227
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Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)
During operation the tracking generator emits a signal exactly at the input frequency of the R&S ESL.
The tracking generator can be used in all measurement modes. Acquisition of test setup calibration
values (see Source Cal softkey) and normalization using these correction values (see Normalize
softkey) is only possible in the tracking generator measurement mode. For details on measurement
modes refer to "Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.195.
FFT filters (for details see "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.96) are not available if the
tracking generator is active.
For measurements with running tracking generator it is recommended to set the start frequency to 3 x
resolution bandwidth in order to meet the data sheet accuracy.
Note:
The RF characteristics of some DUTs are especially sensitive concerning the input VSWR. In
such cases insertion of 10–20 dB attenuation between the DUT and the tracking generator
output is recommended.
To open the tracking generator menu
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Tracking Generator softkey.
The tracking generator menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the tracking generator menu" on page 4.201
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Transmission measurement" on page 4.199
–
"Reflection measurement" on page 4.199
–
"Calibration mechanism" on page 4.199
Tasks
–
To calibrate for transmission and reflection measurement
To calibrate for transmission and reflection measurement
Prerequisite: The instrument is in tracking generator measurement mode (for details refer to
"Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.195).
1. Press the Source Power softkey to enter the generator output level.
If the tracking generator is off, it is switched on.
2. To enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator, press the Power Offset softkey.
3. Press the Source Cal softkey to open the submenu for calibration.
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Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)
4. To record a reference trace for transmission measurement, press the Cal Trans softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are indicated
by message boxes.
5. To record a reference trace for reflection measurement, press the Cal Refl Short or Cal Refl Open
softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are indicated
by message boxes.
6. Press the Normalize softkey to switch on the normalization.
7. Press the Ref Value Position softkey to display the reference line.
8. Press the Ref Value softkey to enter a value to shift the reference line.
9. Press the Recall softkey to restore the settings used for source calibration.
Transmission measurement
This measurement will yield the transmission characteristics of a two–port network. The built–in tracking
generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the input connector of the DUT. The input of the
R&S ESL is fed from the output of the DUT. A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the
effects of the test setup (e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
DUT
GEN OUTPUT
RF INPUT
Fig. 4-9: Test setup for transmission measurement
Reflection measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection–coefficient measurement
bridge.
GEN OUTPUT
Bridge
RF INPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-10: Test setup for reflection measurement
Calibration mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently measured power and a
reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement (transmission/reflection). The
hardware settings used for measuring the reference curve are included in the reference dataset.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a wide area without
stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose the reference dataset (trace with 501 measured values) is stored internally as a table
of 501 points (frequency/level).
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R&S ESL
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current device settings are taken into
account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the intermediate values is applied.
If the span increases, the values at the left or right border of the reference dataset are extrapolated to
the current start or stop frequency, i.e. the reference dataset is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This
enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border if normalization is switched on and a
deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 4-9: Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement label
Reason/Limitation
high
NOR
no difference between reference setting and measurement
medium
APX (approximation)
change of the following settings:
coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
reference level, RF attenuation
start or stop frequency
output level of tracking generator
detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
change of frequency:
max. 501 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to a doubling of the span)
–
Aborted normalization
Note:
more than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep limits (in case of span
doubling)
At a reference level of –10 dBm and at a tracking generator output level of the same value the
R&S ESL operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the R&S ESL is in danger of being
overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is higher than the reference line. In this case,
either the message OVLD for overload or IFOVL for exceeded display range (clipping of the
trace at the upper diagram border = overrange) is displayed in the status line.
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator (Source Power softkey in the tracking
generator menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu)
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Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)
Softkeys of the tracking generator menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the tracking generator menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
For the description of the other main softkeys refer to "Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page
4.196.
Menu / Command
Command
Source On/Off
Source Power
Power Offset
Source Cal
Cal Trans
Cal Refl Short
Cal Refl Open
Normalize
Ref Value Position
Ref Value
Recall
Source On/Off
Switches the tracking generator on or off. Default setting is off.
If the tracking generator is switched off, the corresponding hardware settings and the
normalization are discarded. To switch off the tracking generator but keep the hardware settings
and the normalization, enter –400 dBm into the edit dialog box displayed by pressing the
Source Power softkey.
Remote: OUTP:STAT ON
Source Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a tracking generator output power. The default output power is
–20 dBm. The range is specified in the data sheet. Additionally, the value –400 dBm is available
to switch off the tracking generator but keep the hardware settings.
If the tracking generator is off, it is automatically switched on if an output power value is entered.
For details on switching on or off refer to the Source On/Off softkey.
Remote: SOUR:POW –20dBm
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R&S ESL
Power Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from
–200 dB to +200 dB in 1 dB steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated
by the enhancement label LVL.
With this offset for example attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking
generator can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during
data entry. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an attenuator
subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote: SOUR:POW:OFFS –10dB
Source Cal
Opens a submenu to configure calibration for transmission and reflection measurement. For
details on the test setups see "Transmission measurement" on page 4.199 and "Reflection
measurement" on page 4.199.
Cal Trans
Starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is used to calculate the difference for
the normalized values.
Remote: CORR:METH TRAN
Cal Refl Short
Starts a sweep as reference trace for short–circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is calculated
by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of the two calibration
measurements is free.
Remote: CORR:METH REFL
Cal Refl Open
Starts a sweep as reference trace the open–circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is calculated
by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of the two calibration
measurements is free.
Remote: CORR:COLL OPEN
Normalize
Switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains a
reference trace. For details on normalization see "Calibration mechanism" on page 4.199.
Remote: CORR ON
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Tracking Generator (Models 13 and 16)
Ref Value Position
Switches the reference line on or off. The reference line marks the reference position at which
the normalization result (calculated difference with a reference trace) is displayed. For details on
the reference line see "Calibration mechanism" on page 4.199.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
Ref Value
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a position value that shifts the reference line vertically. By
default the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between the currently measured
trace and the reference trace.
If, e.g. after a source calibration, a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between
DUT and R&S ESL input, the measurement trace will be moved by 10 dB down. Entering a
reference value of –10 dB will shift the reference line also by 10 dB down and place the
measurement trace on the reference line. The deviation from the nominal power level can be
displayed with higher resolution (e.g. 1 dB/div). The power is still displayed in absolute values.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL –10dB
Recall
Restores the settings that were used during source calibration. This can be useful if device
settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency deviation, reference
level, etc).
Remote: CORR:REC
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S ESL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
The digital signal processing in the R&S ESL, used in the analyzer mode for digital IF filters, is also
ideally suited for demodulating AM, FM, or PM signals. The firmware option R&S FSL–K7 provides the
necessary measurement functions.
The R&S ESL is equipped with a demodulator that is capable of performing AM, FM, and PM
demodulation at a time. Additionally maximum, minimum and average or current values can be
obtained parallelly over a selected number of measurements.
By sampling (digitization) already at the IF and digital down–conversion to the baseband (I/Q), the
demodulator achieves maximum accuracy and temperature stability. There is no evidence of typical
errors of an analog down–conversion and demodulation like AM to FM conversion and vice versa,
deviation error, frequency response or frequency drift at DC coupling.
To open the analog demodulation menu
If the Analog Demodulation mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and
activate the Analog Demodulation option.
If the Analog Demodulation mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The analog demodulation menu is displayed. If the tracking generator (models 13, 16) or the power
meter (option Power Sensor Support, K9) is available, softkeys for these functions are also
provided.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the analog demodulation menu" on page 4.208
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.215
–
"Softkeys of the span menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.217
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.218
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.220
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.220
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.221
Apart from the power measurement menu that is not available in the Analog Demodulation mode, all
other menus are provided as described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu
descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Circuit description – block diagrams" on page 4.205
–
"Demodulation bandwidth" on page 4.206
–
"AF trigger" on page 4.206
–
"Stability of measurement results" on page 4.206
–
"Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on page 4.207
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R&S ESL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Circuit description – block diagrams
The software demodulator runs on the main processor of the analyzer. The demodulation process is
shown in Fig. 4-11: Block diagram of software demodulator. All calculations are performed
simultaneously with the same I/Q data set. Magnitude (= amplitude) and phase of the complex I/Q pairs
are determined. The frequency result is obtained from the differential phase.
For details on the analyzer signal processing refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section
"TRACe:IQ Subsystem".
Fig. 4-11: Block diagram of software demodulator
The AM DC, FM DC and PM DC raw data of the demodulators is fed into the Trace Arithmetic block
that combines consecutive data sets. Possible trace modes are: Clear Write, Max Hold, Min Hold and
Average (for details refer to section "Trace mode overview" on page 4.114). The output data of the
Trace Arithmetic block can be read via remote control.
The collected measured values are evaluated by the selected detector (for details refer to chapter
"Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview". The result is displayed on the screen and can be
read out via remote control.
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R&S ESL
In addition, important parameters are calculated:
•
A counter determines the modulation frequency for AM, FM, and PM.
•
average power = carrier power (RF power)
•
average frequency = carrier frequency offset (FM)
•
The modulation depth or the frequency or phase deviation is displayed.
•
AC coupling is possible with FM and PM display. The deviations are determined from the trace
data. +Peak, –Peak, ½ Peak–Peak and RMS are displayed.
Demodulation bandwidth
The demodulation bandwidth is not the 3 dB bandwidth but the useful bandwidth which is distortion–free
with regard to phase and amplitude.
Therefore the following formulas apply:
•
AM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x modulation frequency
•
FM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x (frequency deviation + modulation frequency)
•
PM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x modulation frequency x (1 + phase deviation)
Note:
If the center frequency of the analyzer is not set exactly to the signal frequency, the demodulation
bandwidth must be selected larger by the carrier offset, in addition to the requirement described
above. This also applies if FM or PM AC coupling has been selected.
In general, the demodulation bandwidth should be as narrow as possible to improve the S/N ratio. The
residual FM caused by noise floor and phase noise increases dramatically with the bandwidth,
especially with FM.
AF trigger
The analog demodulation option allows triggering to the demodulated signal. The display is stable if a
minimum of five modulation periods are within the recording time.
Triggering is always DC–coupled. Therefore triggering is possible directly to the point where a specific
carrier level, phase or frequency is exceeded or not attained.
Stability of measurement results
Despite amplitude and frequency modulation, the display of carrier power and carrier frequency offset is
stable.
This is achieved by a digital filter which sufficiently suppresses the modulation, provided, however, that
the measurement time is 3 x 1 / modulation frequency, i.e. that at least three periods of the AF signal
are recorded.
The mean carrier power for calculating the AM is also calculated with a digital filter that returns stable
3 x 1 / modulation frequency, i.e. at least three cycles of the AF
results after a measurement time of
signal must be recorded before a stable AM can be shown.
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset
Depending on the sample rate, the maximum demodulation bandwidths listed in the table can be
obtained during the measurement. The permissible value range of the measurement time and trigger
offset depends on the selected demodulation bandwidth. If the AF filter or the AF trigger are not active,
the measurement time enlarges by 20%.
Demod.
bandwidth
Sample rate
Measurement time
Trigger offset
Min.
Max. with
AF filter or
AF trigger
active
Max.
with
AF filter and
AF trigger
deactive
Min.
Max.
18 MHz
32 MHz
31.25 ns
12.5 ms
15 ms
–12.5 ms
507.9 ms
10 MHz
32 MHz
31.25 ns
12.5 ms
15 ms
–12.5 ms
507.9 ms
8 MHz
16 MHz
62.5 ns
25 ms
30 ms
–25 ms
1.015 s
5 MHz
8 MHz
125 ns
50 ms
60 ms
–50 ms
2.031 s
3 MHz
4 MHz
250 ns
100 ms
120 ms
–100 ms
4.063 s
1.6 MHz
2 MHz
500 ns
200 ms
240 ms
–200 ms
8.126 s
800 kHz
1 MHz
1 µs
400 ms
480 ms
–400 ms
16.25 s
400 kHz
500 kHz
2 µs
800 ms
960 ms
–800 ms
32.50 s
200 kHz
250 kHz
4 µs
1.6 s
1.92 s
–1.6 s
65.00 s
100 kHz
125 kHz
8 µs
3.2 s
3.84 s
–3.2 s
130.0 s
50 kHz
62.5 kHz
16 µs
6.4 s
7.68 s
–6.4 s
260.0 s
25 kHz
31.25 kHz
32 µs
12.8 s
15.36 s
–12.8 s
520.0 s
12.5 kHz
15.625 kHz
64 µs
25.6 s
30.72 s
–25.6 s
1040 s
6.4 kHz
7,8125 kHz
128 µs
51.2 s
61.44 s
–51.2 s
2080 s
3.2 kHz
3,90625 kHz
256 µs
102.4 s
122.88 s
–102.4 s
4160 s
1.6 kHz
1,953125 kHz
512 µs
204.8 s
245.76 s
–204.8 s
8321 s
800 Hz
976,5625 Hz
1.024 ms
409.6 s
491.52 s
–409.6 s
16643 s
400 Hz
488,28125 Hz
2.048 ms
819.2 s
983.04 s
–819.2 s
33287 s
200 Hz
244,140625 Hz
4.096 ms
1638.4 s
1966.08 s
–1638.4 s
66574 s
100 Hz
122,0703125 Hz
8.192 ms
3276.8 s
3932.16 s
–3276.8 s
133148 s
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S ESL
Softkeys of the analog demodulation menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the analog demodulation menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special
option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Modulation AM/FM/PM
Result Display
AF Time Domain
AF Spectrum
RF Time Domain
RF Spectrum
Select Trace
Diagram Full Size
Demod BW
Meas Time
AF Range
Dev per Division/dB per Division
Reference Position
Reference Value
Deviation Lin/Log
Demod Settings
AF Coupling AC/DC
AF Filter
Low Pass AF Filter
High Pass AF Filter
Deemphasis
Zero Phase Reference Point
Phase Wrap On/Off
Phase Unit Rad/Deg
More
Zoom
Modulation AM/FM/PM
Selects the display of demodulated AM, FM, or PM signal. In single sweep mode, the data is
determined from the current I/Q data set, i.e. a change to AM/FM/PM does not trigger a new
measurement.
If FM is selected, the average value of the demodulated signal is mapped depending on the AF
Coupling AC/DC softkey setting.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM'
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R&S ESL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Result Display
Opens a submenu to select the measurement result to be displayed. The RF or AF signal in the
zero span or the RF or AF frequency spectrum determined via FFT can be selected for display.
In order to display the measurement results, the screen is divided in two halves. In the upper
half, the measurement results are displayed as a trace. In the lower half the results of additional
evaluation functions are shown.
All displays are determined from the I/Q data set recorded for the measurement. In single sweep
mode, the single data set recorded can be evaluated in all displays simply by switching the
result display.
AF Time Domain
Selects the AF display in zero span, calculated from the AM, FM, or PM signal.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM'
AF Spectrum
Selects the display of the AF spectrum. The AF spectrum can be calculated from the AM, FM, or
PM signal in zero span.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
RF Time Domain
Selects the display of the RF signal in zero span. In contrast to normal analyzer operation, the
level values are determined from the recorded I/Q data set as root–mean–square values.
The softkey is not available if the RF spectrum display is selected.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:RFP'
RF Spectrum
Selects the display of the RF signal in span > 0. In contrast to normal spectrum analyzer
operation, the measured values are determined using FFT from the recorded I/Q data set.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:SPECTRUM'
Select Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace for which the data is to be displayed in
the lower half of the screen. Only activated traces can be selected.
Diagram Full Size
Switches the diagram to full screen size.
Remote: DISP:SIZE LARG
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S ESL
Demod BW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the demodulation bandwidth of the analog demodulation. The
demodulation bandwidth determines the sampling rate for recording the signal to be analyzed.
For details on the relation between demodulation bandwidth and sampling rate refer to "Sample
rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on page 4.207.
Remote: BAND:DEM 1MHz
Meas Time
Opens an editor for entering the measurement time of the analog demodulation. For details on
the measurement time values refer to "Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on
page 4.207.
Remote: ADEM:MTIM 62.5US
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
AF Range
Opens a submenu for determining the diagram scaling for AF displays.
The range for RF displays is set via the amplitude menu. For details refer to "Setting the Level
Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key" on page 4.91.
Dev per Division
Opens an edit dialog box to set the modulation depth or the phase or frequency deviation per
division:
AM display:
0.0001% to 1000%
FM display:
1 Hz/div to 1 MHz/div
PM display:
0.0001 rad/div to 1000 rad/div
The softkey is not available if logarithmic display is set (Deviation Lin/Log softkey).
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:PDIV 50kHz
dB per Division
Opens an edit dialog box to set the modulation depth or the FM or PM deviation to be displayed
in the range 0.1 dB/div to 20 dB/div.
The softkey is not available if linear display is set (Deviation Lin/Log softkey).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:PDIV 5DB
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Reference Position
Determines the position of the reference line for the modulation depth or the phase or frequency
deviation on the y–axis of the diagram. By default, this line is set to 0.
The position is entered as a percentage of the diagram height with 100 % corresponding to the
upper diagram border. The default setting is 50 % (diagram center) for the display of the AM,
FM, or PM signal, and 100% (upper diagram border) for the AF spectrum display of the AM, FM,
or PM signal.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT
Reference Value
Determines the modulation depth or the frequency or phase deviation at the reference line of the
y–axis. The reference value is set separately for each display of the AM, FM, and PM signal and
the AF spectrum of the AM, FM, and PM signal.
–
AM/FM/PM signal display
The trace display takes individual frequency/phase offsets into account (in contrast, the AF
Coupling AC/DC softkey permits automatic correction by the average frequency/phase offset
of the signal, and can therefore not be activated simultaneously).
Possible values: 0 and
–
± 10000% (AM), 0 and ± 10 MHz (FM), 0 and ± 10000 rad (PM).
AF spectrum display of the AM/FM/PM signal
In the default setting, the reference value defines the modulation depth or the FM/PM deviation
at the upper diagram border.
Possible values: 0 and 10000% (AM), 0 and 10 MHz (FM), 0 and 10000 rad (PM).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0HZ
Deviation Lin/Log
Switches between logarithmic and linear display of the modulation depth or the frequency or
phase deviation.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Demod Settings
Opens a submenu for the demodulation settings.
AF Coupling AC/DC
Controls the automatic correction of the frequency offset and phase offset of the input signal:
–
FM signal display
If DC is selected, the absolute frequency is displayed, i.e. an input signal with an offset relative
to the center frequency is not displayed symmetrically with respect to the zero line.
If AC is selected, the frequency offset is automatically corrected, i.e. the trace is always
symmetric with respect to the zero line.
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
–
R&S ESL
PM signal display
If DC is selected, the phase runs according to the existing frequency offset. In addition, the DC
signal contains a phase offset of ± .
If AC is selected, the frequency offset and phase offset are automatically corrected, i.e. the
trace is always symmetric with respect to the zero line.
The softkey is not available with the AF spectrum display of the FM or PM signal.
Remote: ADEM:AF:COUP DC
AF Filter
Opens a submenu to select the appropriate filters. The bandwidth of the demodulated signal can
be reduced by high pass or low pass filters and also a de–emphasis can be switched on. The
selected filters are used for AM, FM and PM demodulation in common. Individual settings are
not possible.
Low Pass AF Filter
Opens the Low Pass AF Filter dialog box to select the filter type. Relative and absolute low
pass filter are available.
–
Relative low pass filters:
The filters (3 dB) can be selected in % of the demodulation bandwidth. The filters are designed
as 5th–order Butterworth filter (30 dB/octave) and active for all demodulation bandwidths.
–
Absolute low pass filters:
The filter are indicated by the 3 dB cutoff frequency. The 3 kHz and 15 kHz filters are designed
as 5th–order Butterworth filter (30 dB/octave). The 150 kHz filter is designed as 8th–order
Butterworth filter (48 dB/octave).
The absolute low pass filters are active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
3 kHz:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
15 kHz:
50 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
150 kHz:
400 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
Remote: FILT:LPAS ON
Remote: FILT:LPAS:FREQ 150kHz
Remote: FILT:LPAS:FREQ 25PCT
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
High Pass AF Filter
Opens the High Pass AF Filter dialog box to switch on a high pass filter with the given limit to
separate the DC component. The filters are indicated by the 3 dB cutoff frequency. The filters
are designed as 2nd–order Butterworth filter (12 dB/octave).
The high pass filters are active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
50 Hz:
200 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
300 Hz:
800 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
Remote: FILT:HPAS ON
Remote: FILT:HPAS:FREQ 300Hz
Deemphasis
Opens the Deemphasis dialog box to switch on a deemphasis with the given time constant.
The deemphasis is active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
25 Es:
25 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
50 Es:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
75 Es:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
750 Es:
800 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
The following table shows the required demodulation bandwidth for an error less than 0.5 dB up
to a maximum AF frequency.
deemphasis
25 Es
50 Es
75 Es
750 Es
max. AF frequency
25 kHz
12 kHz
8 kHz
800 Hz
required demodulation bandwidth
200 kHz
100 kHz
50 kHz
6.4 kHz
For higher AF frequencies the demodulation bandwidth must be increased.
Remote: FILT:DEMP ON
Remote: FILT:DEMP:TCON 750us
Zero Phase Reference Point
Defines the position at which the phase of the PM–demodulated signal is set to 0 rad. The entry
is made with respect to time. In the default setting, the first measured value is set to 0 rad.
This softkey is only available in the PM display with DC coupling.
Remote: ADEM:PM:RPO 500us
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S ESL
Phase Wrap On/Off
Activates/deactivates the phase wrap.
On
The phase will be displayed in the range ±180° ( ± ). For example, if the phase
exceeds +180°, 360° is subtracted from the phase value, with the display thus
showing >–180°.
Off
The phase will not be wrapped.
This softkey in available in the PM signal displays.
Remote: CALC:FORM PHAS
Phase Unit Rad/Deg
Sets the phase unit to rad or deg for displaying PM signals.
Remote: UNIT:ANGL RAD
Zoom
Activates or deactivates the zoom function. The zoom function is not available if the number of
measurement points falls below 501.
activated:
A 1–to–1 allocation is selected, i.e. each measurement point corresponds to a
measured value. The start of the zoom window can be determined in the
associated field by entering the time.
deactivated:
If more measured values than measurement points are available, several
measured values are combined in one measurement point according to the
method of the selected trace detector. For details on detectors refer to
"Detector overview" on page 4.116.
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM ON
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM:STARt 30US
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Softkeys of the frequency menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(FREQ key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Center
CF Stepsize
0.1*Span/0.1*Demod BW
0.5*Span/0.5*Demod BW
x*Span/x*Demod BW
=Center
Manual
AF Center
AF Start
AF Stop
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
CF Stepsize
For details refer to the CF Stepsize softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.1*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the 0.1*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.1*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see 0.1*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.5*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the 0.5*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.5*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see 0.5*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
x*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the x*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S ESL
x*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see x*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
=Center
For details refer to the =Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Manual
For details refer to the Manual softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
AF Center (AF Spectrum)
Opens an edit box to enter the center frequency within the AF spectrum.
Remote: ADEM:AF:CENT 1MHZ
AF Start
Opens an edit box to define the start frequency within the AF spectrum.
Remote: ADEM:AF:STAR 0HZ
AF Stop
Opens an edit box to define the stop frequency within the AF spectrum.
The maximum AF stop frequency corresponds to half the demodulation bandwidth.
Remote: ADEM:AF:STOP 2MHZ
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Softkeys of the span menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(SPAN key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Span Manual/AF Span Manual
Demod Bandwidth
Full Span/AF Full Span
Span Manual (RF Spectrum)
If the RF spectrum display is active, values between the sampling rate/200 and the
demodulation bandwidth/2 are allowed.
For further details refer to the Span Manual softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:SPAN:ZOOM 5 MHz
AF Span Manual (AF Spectrum)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency range for the AF spectrum display. Values
between the sampling rate/1000 and the demodulation bandwidth/2 are allowed.
Remote: ADEM:AF:SPAN 2.5 MHz
Demod Bandwidth
For details see Demod BW softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Full Span (RF Spectrum)
If the RF spectrum display is active, the full frequency range corresponds to the demodulation
bandwidth.
For further details refer to the Full Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:SPAN:ZOOM MAX
AF Full Span (AF Spectrum)
Sets the span to the maximum frequency range for the AF spectrum display. The maximum
frequency range corresponds to the demodulation bandwidth.
Remote: ADEM:AF:SPAN:FULL
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Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(AMPT key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Range Log/Range Linear
AF Range
Dev per Division/dB per Division
Reference Position
Reference Value
Deviation Lin/Log
Preamp On/Off
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
More
Ref Level Offset
Ref Level Position
Grid Abs / Rel
Unit
Input 50 Z / 75 Z
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Log (RF result display)
This softkey is only available for the RF result display. For the RF result display, the AF Range
softkey is used.
For details refer to the Range Log softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Linear (RF result display)
This softkey is only available for the RF result display. For the RF result display, the AF Range
softkey is used.
For details refer to the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
AF Range (AF result display)
For details refer to the AF Range softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
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Dev per Division
For details refer to the Dev per Division softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
dB per Division
For details refer to the dB per Division softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Reference Position
For details refer to the Reference Position softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Reference Value
For details refer to the Reference Value softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Deviation Lin/Log
For details refer to the Deviation Lin/Log softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Preamp On/Off (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Position
For details refer to the Ref Level Position softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Grid Abs / Rel (not available with Range Linear)
For details refer to the Grid Abs / Rel softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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Unit (PM AF result display)
For details refer to the Unit softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Input 50 K / 75 K
For details refer to the Input 50 K / 75 K softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(BW key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Res BW
Demod BW
Meas Time
Res BW (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The range is specified in
the data sheet.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:BAND 10 kHz
Demod BW
For details refer to the Demod BW softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Meas Time
For details refer to the Meas Time softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(SWEEP key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey
is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in
the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Continue Sgl Sweep
Meas Time
Sweep Count
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Continuous Sweep
For details refer to the Continuous Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Single Sweep
For details refer to the Single Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Continue Sgl Sweep
For details refer to the Continue Single Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base
unit.
Meas Time
For details refer to the Meas Time softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Sweep Count
For details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the trigger menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(TRIG key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Trigger Source
Trigger Level
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset
Trigger Source
Opens the Trigger dialog box to select the trigger mode. Additional to the trigger modes
described in section "Trigger mode overview" on page 4.108, the following trigger modes are
available:
Selected option
Specified threshold
AM (Offline)
modulation depth of the AM signal
FM (Offline)
frequency of the FM signal
PM (Offline)
phase of the PM signal
RF (Offline)
level of the RF signal
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In Analog Demodulation mode, the next measurement is triggered if the selected input signal
exceeds the threshold specified using the Trg / Gate Level softkey. A periodic signal modulated
onto the carrier frequency can be displayed in this way. It is recommended that the measurement
time covers at least five periods of the audio signal.
For further details refer to the Trg / Gate Source softkey in the trigger menu.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR IMM | IFP | EXT | FM | PM | AM | RF (Free Run, IF Power,
Extern, FM (Offline), PM (Offline), AM (Offline), RF (Offline))
Trigger Level
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Level softkey in the in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey in the in the trigger menu of the
base unit.
Trigger Offset
For details on the relation between demodulation bandwidth (option Analog Demodulation,
R&S FSL–K7) and trigger offset refer to "Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on
page 4.207.
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the in the trigger menu of the base unit.
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Power Meter (Option K9)
Power Meter (Option K9)
For precise power measurement a power sensor is connected to the instrument via the front panel
(USB connector) or the rear panel (power sensor, option R&S FSL–B5). The Power Sensor Support
firmware option provides the power measurement functions for this test setup (see Fig. 4-12: Power
sensor support – standard test setup). Both manual operation and remote control are supported. The
functions of this firmware option are described in this section. For details on the connectors and
compatible power sensors refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1, "Front and Rear Panel".
Fig. 4-12: Power sensor support – standard test setup
To open the power meter menu
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Power Meter softkey.
The power meter menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the power meter menu" on page 4.224
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Tasks
–
To zero the power meter
–
To use the power meter
To zero the power meter
1. Press the Zero softkey.
A dialog box is displayed that prompts you to disconnect all signals from the input of the power
sensor.
2. Disconnect all signals from the input of the power sensor and press ENTER to continue.
3. Wait until zeroing is complete.
A corresponding message is displayed.
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To use the power meter
1. Press the Frequency Coupling softkey to select the coupling option.
2. If you have selected the Manual coupling option, press the Frequency Manual softkey to enter the
frequency of the signal which power you want to measure.
3. Press the Unit/Scale softkey to set the unit for the power result display.
4. If you have selected dB or % as units (relative display), define a reference value:
–
To set the currently measured power as a reference value, press the Meas–>Ref softkey.
–
To enter a reference value, press the Reference Value softkey.
5. Press the Meas Time/Average softkey to select the measurement time. For recommendations refer
to the Meas Time/Average softkey description.
Softkeys of the power meter menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power meter menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
For the description of the other main softkeys refer to "Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page
4.196.
Command
Power Meter On/Off
Frequency Manual
Frequency Coupling
Unit/Scale
Zero
Meas Time/Average
More
Meas–>Ref
Reference Value
Use Ref Lev Offset
Number of Readings
Power Meter On/Off
Switches the power measurement on or off.
Remote: PMET ON
Frequency Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency of the signal to be measured. The power sensor
has a memory with frequency–dependent correction factors. This allows extreme accuracy for
signals of a known frequency.
Remote: PMET:FREQ 1GHZ
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Power Meter (Option K9)
Frequency Coupling
Opens the Frequency Coupling dialog box to select the coupling option. The frequency can be
coupled automatically to the center frequency of the instrument or to the frequency of marker 1,
or manually to a set frequency (see Frequency Manual softkey).
Remote: PMET:FREQ:LINK CENT
Unit/Scale
Opens the Unit/Scale dialog box to select the unit with which the measured power is to be
displayed.
If dB or % is selected, the display is relative to a reference value that is defined with either the
Meas–>Ref softkey or the Reference Value softkey.
Remote: UNIT:PMET:POW DBM
Remote: UNIT:PMET:POW:RAT DB
Zero
Starts zeroing of the power sensor. For details on the zeroing process refer to "To zero the
power meter" on page 4.223.
Remote: CAL:PMET:ZERO:AUTO ONCE;*WAI
Meas Time/Average
Opens the Meas Time dialog box to select the measurement time or to switch to manual
averaging mode. In general, results are more precise with longer measurement times. The
following settings are recommended for different signal types to obtain stable and precise
results:
Short
Stationary signals with high power (> –40dBm), because they require only a
short measurement time and short measurement time provides the highest
repetition rates.
Normal
Signals with lower power or of modulated signals
Long
Signals at the lower end of the measurement range (<–50 dBm) or
signals with lower power to minimize the influence of noise.
Manual
Switches to manual averaging mode. The average count is set with the
Number of Readings softkey.
Remote: PMET:MTIM SHOR
Remote: PMET:MTIM:AVER ON
Meas–>Ref
Sets the currently measured power as a reference value for the relative display. The reference
value can also be set manually via the Reference Value softkey.
Remote: CALC:PMET:REL:AUTO ONCE
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Reference Value
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference value for relative measurements in the unit dBm.
Remote: CALC:PMET:REL –30DBM
Use Ref Lev Offset
If activated, takes the reference level offset set for the analyzer (Ref Level Offset softkey) into
account for the measured power. If deactivated, takes no offset into account.
Remote: PMET:ROFF OFF
Number of Readings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of readings (averagings) to be performed after a
single sweep has been started. This softkey is only available if manual averaging is selected
(Meas Time/Average softkey).
The values for the average count range from 0 to 256 in binary steps (1, 2, 4, 8,…). For average
count = 0 or 1, one reading is performed. The averaging and sweep count of the trace menu are
independent from this setting.
Results become more stable with extended average, particularly if signals with low power are
measured. This setting can be used to minimize the influence of noise in the power meter
measurement.
Remote: PMET:MTIM:AVER:COUN 8
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
The Noise Figure Measurements option provides noise figure measurements. Using this option, the
noise figure of a Device Under Test, e.g. low–noise FET amplifier circuits, with noise figures of less than
1 dB can be measured.
To open the noise figure measurements menu
If the Noise mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and activate the
Noise option.
If the Noise mode is already active, press the MENU key or the MEAS key.
The noise figure measurements menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the noise figure measurements menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.232
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.245
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.246
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.247
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.248
–
"Softkeys of the lines menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.249
The span and trigger menus are not available in the Noise mode. All other menus are provided as
described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement" on page 4.228
–
"Calibration" on page 4.229
–
"Measurement forms" on page 4.229
–
"Measurement settings" on page 4.229
–
"Result displays" on page 4.230
–
"Status bar information" on page 4.232
Tasks
–
To edit tables
–
To work with limit lines
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To edit tables
1. Select the table header using the rotary knob or arrow keys and press rotary knob or the ENTER
key to enter into the edit mode.
2. Focus the field you want to edit using the arrow keys or the rotary knob.
3. Enter the values (for details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, "Basic Operations").
4. To insert a new row above the currently selected row, press the Insert softkey.
5. To delete the currently selected row, press the Delete softkey.
6. Only available for the Frequency Table:
To update the table according to the Frequency Settings, press the Build Tbl softkey.
7. Press the Exit softkey to leave the edit mode.
To work with limit lines
1. Press the LINES key.
The Limit Lines dialog box is displayed. It contains information on name, limit, status, and a
comment.
2. To activate limit lines, select the limit line you want to activate and press the Enable/Disable
softkey.
3. To define a new limit line, press the New softkey and enter the limit line characteristics.
4. To modify a limit line, select the limit line you want to edit and press the Edit softkey.
5. To save a limit line, press the Exit softkey.
If data are missing or if some data are invalid, an error message is displayed.
6. To delete a limit line, select the limit line you want to edit and press the Delete softkey.
Further information
This section provides background information on measurements and displayed information.
Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement
Noise measurements are performed on many different types of device under test (DUT). The type of
DUT to be measured determines the test setup and also how the frequency list is to be generated. To
support these different types of DUT, two different noise figure measurement types are available:
•
Direct measurement
•
Frequency–converting measurement
–
Fixed LO, IF = RF + LO
–
Fixed LO, IF = abs(RF – LO)
The setup for the different measurement types is described with the Schematic softkey. The
measurement mode is set in the Frequency Settings dialog box, Mode field.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Calibration
The calibration measures the noise introduced to a signal by the spectrum analyzer itself to
compensate it in measurements on a device under test. This compensation is called 2nd stage
correction, because the spectrum analyzer is the second stage of the test setup, the DUT being the first
stage.
If the second stage correction is activated (Measurement Settings dialog box, 2nd Stage Correction
option), a separate calibration measurement is performed before the main measurement (for details on
the measurement setup refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples"). The data measured in
the calibration measurement are used for compensation in the main measurement.
It is strongly recommended to perform calibration before running measurements (Cal softkey). It is
possible to run measurements in an uncalibrated status, but the measurement results will not be
corrected for any noise introduced by the spectrum analyzer itself.
If the list of receive frequencies (RF) is changed, at which the measurements are performed, calibration
is necessary again to ensure that calibration data are available for every measurement step. For details
on frequency settings refer to the Freq Settings softkey.
Measurement forms
Two forms of measurements are possible:
•
frequency list measurement
A measurement is performed at each of the frequencies listed in the frequency list (Freq Settings
softkey). The noise figure of the DUT across a user–specified range of frequencies is measured. In
single sweep mode, each frequency point is measured once and complete. In continuous sweep
mode, one frequency point after the other is measured in turn until the measurement is aborted.
•
fixed frequency measurement
A continuous measurement is performed at the single frequency currently selected in the
Frequency List Results. This individual frequency from the frequency list measurement is
investigated in more detail, for example to see the effect of dynamic changes to the noise figure of
the DUT at a particular frequency (see also Fix Freq softkey).
Measurement settings
The overall measurement settings used to obtain the current measurement results are displayed below
the title bar (see Fig. 4-13). The following settings are listed:
Setting
Defined in
RBW
Measurement Settings dialog box, RBW field
Average
Measurement Settings dialog box, Average field
RF Attenuation
Measurement Settings dialog box, RF Attenuation field
Auto Ref Level
Measurement Settings dialog box, Automatic Ref Level field
2nd Stage Corr
Measurement Settings dialog box, 2nd Stage Correction field
Image Rej
Frequency Settings dialog box, Image Rej field
Fig. 4-13 Measurement settings for the noise figure measurement (example)
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Result displays
The result displays consist of two panes:
•
Current Value pane
In the title bar of this pane, the current measurement mode of the noise figure measurement (on the
left) and the calibration status of the noise figure measurement (on the right, if the second stage
correction is switched on) are displayed.
Below, the settings and measurement results for the currently selected measurement point in the
frequency list are displayed:
Parameter
Description
RF
Receive frequency at the DUT at which the current values were measured (Hz).
LO
Local oscillator frequency (Hz), only displayed for frequency–converting measurements
IF
Intermediate frequency (Hz), only displayed for frequency–converting measurements
ENR
ENR value (dB), refers to the receive frequency (RF)
Loss In
Loss at the input of the DUT (dB), refers to the receive frequency (RF)
Loss Out
Loss at the output of the DUT (dB)
frequency–converting measurements: refers to the intermediate frequency (IF)
direct measurements: refers to the receive frequency (RF)
NF
Noise figure measured (dB)
Noise Temp
Noise temperature (K), derived from measured noise figure
Gain
Gain measured (dB)
Fig. 4-14 Current Value pane (example)
•
Frequency List Result or graph (frequency list results only)
The measurement results are represented according to the measurement form (see "Measurement
forms").
•
frequency list results
The measurement results for all frequencies defined in the Frequency Table are displayed in form
of a graph (see Fig. Graphical result display (example)) or a table (Frequency List Results, see
Fig.Tabular result display (example)), depending on the currently selected result display (see
Display List/Graph softkey). The measurement results are updated as the measurement is in
progress. Under Current Value, the details of the currently selected frequency in the Frequency
List Results are displayed.
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Fig. 4-15 Graphical result display (example)
Fig. 4-16 Tabular result display (example)
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•
R&S ESL
fixed frequency results
Under Current Value, the measurement results for the fixed frequency are displayed and
continuously updated. The Frequency List Results do not change – these are the results of the
last frequency list measurement.
Status bar information
The status bar displays the following information:
•
parameter values
If a parameter in a settings dialog box is selected, the minimum and maximum values for the
selected parameter are displayed.
If a Boolean or an enumarated parameter in a dialog box is selected, the minimum and maximum
values are displayed as N/A for not applicable.
•
measurement status
During the measurement, the current measurement status along with detailed information about the
progress is displayed.
•
error messages (with red background)
•
warning messages (with yellow background)
Softkeys of the noise figure measurements menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the noise figure measurements menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a
special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Command
Freq Settings
Display List/Graph
Display Settings
ENR Settings
Loss Settings
Meas Settings
Schematic
Table edit mode
Build Tbl
Exit
Insert
Delete
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Freq Settings
Opens the Frequency Settings dialog box. Alternatively, this dialog box is opened by pressing
the FREQ key (with focus on the Start Freq field).
The Frequency Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Frequency Settings
Start Freq
Stop Freq
Step Freq
Mode
Fixed LO
Image Rej
Frequency Table
Under Frequency Settings, the frequency settings and the measurement mode are set.
Under Frequency Table, the individual measurement steps are listed that will be performed
exactly in the order of the table. They are generated from the start frequency, the stop
frequency, and the step size on basis of the selected mode. If the start frequency is smaller than
the stop frequency, the RF values are generated into a list of ascending frequencies. If the start
frequency is larger, the list is descending. Not more than 100 measurement steps are possible.
If the gap between start and stop frequency is too large, increase the step frequency.
Depending on the measurement type, the Frequency Table contains the following columns:
Measurement type
Column
Description
Direct measurement
Frequency–converting measurement
RF
receive frequency, generated from the Start Freq, the Stop
Freq, and the Step Freq field entries
Frequency–converting measurement
LO
constant LO frequency, defined via the Fixed LO field
IF
IF frequency, calculated according to the Mode field
Image
image frequency, shows whether image frequency filters are
required and for which frequency range the image rejection
of the DUT is needed (Image Rej field)
It is possible to customize the Frequency Table by editing, deleting, and inserting measurement
steps. This might be useful in order to insert extra measurement steps near to a specific
frequency of interest in order to get more detailed results. If the start, stop, or step frequency is
changed, the Frequency Table is generated afresh and all manual modifications are
overwritten. To customize this table, proceed according to "To edit tables" on page 4.228.
Remote: FREQ:LIST:DATA 550MHz,300MHz,900MHz (Frequency Table)
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Start Freq
Specifies the start frequency. This is the first receive frequency (RF) entry in the Frequency
Table and the Frequency List Results (result display).
If the start frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 500MHZ
Stop Freq
Specifies the stop frequency. This is the last receive frequency (RF) entry in the Frequency
Table and the Frequency List Results (result display).
If the stop frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 700MHZ
Step Freq
Specifies the step size between the single measurement steps. If the step frequency is larger
than the difference between the start frequency and the stop frequency, the Frequency Table
and the Frequency List Results (result display) just contain the start and stop frequency.
If the step frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STEP 10MHZ
Mode
Specifies the measurement mode. For details on modes refer to "Measurement modes of the
noise figure measurement" on page 4.228.
If the mode is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: SENS:CONF:MODE:DUT DOWN
Fixed LO
Specifies the fixed local oscillator frequency. This field is only available if a frequency–converting
measurement mode is selected (Mode field). For details on modes refer to Measurement modes
of the noise figure measurement.
If the fixed LO is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: SENS:CONF:MODE:SYST:LOSC:FREQ 1MHZ
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Image Rej
Specifies the suppression applied to the second sideband. This field is only available if a
frequency–converting measurement mode is selected. For details on modes refer to
"Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement" on page 4.228.
The value entered is applied across the complete frequency range. A value of 999.99 dB
corresponds to the generally used single–sideband measurement (SSB), where the second
sideband does not noticeably affect the measurement result. This is the default value. A value of
0 dB corresponds to the double–sideband measurement (DSB), where both sidebands are
converted to the same extent.
Remote: CORR:IREJ 100
Display List/Graph
Configures the result display. The measurement results are displayed either in form of a list of
measurement points or as a graphical trace. For further details refer to "Result displays" on page
4.230.
Remote: DISP:TABL ON
Display Settings
Opens the Graphic dialog box to modify the graphical results display.
Under Results Settings, the settings that affect the overall results display are defined. Under
Noise Trace Settings, the settings related to the graphical display of noise results are defined.
Under Gain Trace Settings, the settings related to the graphical display of gain results are
defined.
The Graphic dialog box contains the following elements:
Results Settings
Combined Trace Display
Noise Trace Settings
Y–Axis
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Automatic Scaling
Min Y–Axis NF
Min Y–Axis Temp
Max Y–Axis NF
Max Y–Axis Temp
Symbols
Gain Trace Settings
Y–Axis
Automatic Scaling
Min Y–Axis
Max Y–Axis
Symbols
Noise and Gain X–Axis Settings
X–Axis
Combined Trace Display
Activates or deactivates the combined trace display of noise and gain results.
On
The noise and gain traces are displayed in the same trace display in different colors.
Off
The noise and gain traces are displayed in different trace displays.
Remote: DISP:FORM SING
Y–Axis
Specifies the type of noise result that is to be displayed graphically:
–
Noise Figure
–
Noise Temperature
–
Off (no noise results are displayed graphically)
Remote: DISP:DATA:TRAC1 NFIG|TEFF
Remote: DISP:TRAC OFF
Automatic Scaling
Activates or deactivates the automatic scaling of the Y–axis.
On
The y–axis is scaled automatically. The automatic scaling algorithm provides the
optimal display of the complete range of results.
Off
The automatic scaling of the y–axis is switched off, and the scale has to be specified
manually:
for noise results via the Min Y–Axis NF/Min Y–Axis Temp/Max Y–Axis NF/Max Y–
Axis Temp fields,
for gain results via the Min Y–Axis/Max Y–Axis fields.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ON
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Min Y–Axis NF/Max Y–Axis NF
Specifies the minimum/maximum noise figure result that can be displayed graphically. It is only
possible to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling
option), and the y–axis is set to Noise Figure (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT –30
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:TOP 30
Min Y–Axis Temp/Max Y–Axis Temp
Specifies the minimum/maximum noise temperature result that can be displayed graphically. It is
only possible to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling
option), and the y–axis is set to Noise Figure (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT –30
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:TOP 30
Symbols
Activates or deactivates the symbol representation. If activated, each measured value is marked
by a symbol. This helps to distinguish result types in a monochrome printout.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:SYMB ON
Y–Axis
Activates or deactivates the graphical display of gain results.
Remote: DISP:TRAC2 OFF
Min Y–Axis/Max Y–Axis
Specifies the minimum/maximum gain result that can be displayed graphically. It is only possible
to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling option), and the
y–axis is activated (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC2:Y:BOTT 1
Remote: DISP:TRAC2:Y:TOP 10
X–Axis
Specifies the scaling of the x–axis. This parameter is only editable in a frequency–converting
measurement mode.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:X IF
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
ENR Settings
Opens the ENR dialog box.
The abbreviation ENR stands for excess noise ratio. Correct ENR values for the noise source
are essential to perform accurate measurements. They are used to calculate the effective noise
temperature of the noise source that in turn is used for calculation of measurement results.
Under ENR Settings, the default ENR value is 15 dB as a constant value that is valid for all
frequencies.
Under ENR Table, the frequency–dependent ENR values are listed. The list can contain up to
100 RF/ENR pairs. The order of the RF values in the list is not important. To modify this table,
proceed as described in "To edit tables" on page 4.228. ENR tables can be saved and recalled at
any time via the FILE key (for details refer to the section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files –
FILE Key"). Additionally to the data saved by the basic unit, all data entered in the ENR Settings
dialog box are saved.
The ENR Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
ENR Settings
Selection
ENR Constant
Room Temperature
ENR Table
Remote: CORR:ENR:MEAS:TABL:DATA 1MHZ,10,2MHZ,12 (ENR Table)
Selection
Defines the used ENR values.
Constant
The value specified in the ENR Constant field is used for all frequencies. The
entries of the ENR Table are ignored.
Table
The entries of the ENR Table provide the basis for the ENR values. Between
these values the R&S ESL uses interpolated values.
Remote: CORR:ENR:MODE SPOT
ENR Constant
Specifies the constant ENR value of the noise source that is used throughout the entire
frequency range. This parameter is only editable if, in the Selection list, Constant is selected.
Remote: CORR:ENR:SPOT 30
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Room Temperature
Specifies the current room temperature as an absolute value in Kelvin. This value is used in the
calculation of the noise results.
Remote: CORR:TEMP 291.50
Loss Settings
Opens the LOSS dialog box to take additional losses due to cables or attenuators into account
that are not considered in the calibration.
Under Loss Input Settings, the additional loss between the noise source and the DUT is
defined. Under Loss Output Settings, the additional loss between the DUT and the analyzer is
defined.
Under Loss Input Table or Loss Output Table, the list can contain up to 100 RF/ENR pairs.
The order of the RF values in the list is not important. To modify this table, proceed as described
in "To edit tables" on page 4.228. Loss tables can be saved and recalled at any time via the FILE
key (for details refer to the section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key").
Additionally to the data saved by the basic unit, all loss input & output data entered in the Loss
Settings dialog box are saved.
The Loss Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Loss Input Settings
Selection
Loss Input Constant
Loss Input Table
Loss Output Settings
Selection
Loss Output Constant
Loss Output Table
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:TABL 1MHz,10,2MHz,12 (Loss Input Table)
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:TABL 1MHz,10,2MHz,12 (Loss Output Table)
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
Selection
Defines the used Loss values.
Constant
The values specified in the Loss Input Constant/Loss Output Constant fields
are used for all frequencies. The entries of the Loss Input/Output Table are
ignored.
Table
The entries of the Loss Input/Output Table provide the basis for the Loss
values. Between these values the R&S ESL uses interpolated values.
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:MODE SPOT
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:MODE SPOT
Loss Input Constant/Loss Output Constant
Specifies the constant loss value that is used across the entire frequency range. This parameter
is only editable if, in the Selection list, Constant is selected.
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:SPOT 10
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:SPOT 10
Meas Settings
Opens the Measurement Settings dialog box to modify all settings related to the overall
measurement.
Alternatively, the Measurement Settings dialog box is opened as follows:
–
AMPT key, with focus on the RF Attenuation field
–
BW key, with focus on the RBW field
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R&S ESL
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Under Calibration, the second stage correction can be activated or deactivated. For details
refer also to "Calibration" on page 4.229.
Under Analyzer Settings, the general settings for the spectrum analyzer concerning the level,
attenuation and bandwidth of the signal to be measured are defined.
The Measurement Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Calibration
2nd Stage Correction
Analyzer Settings
RBW
Sweep Time
Settling Time
Average
RF Attenuation
Automatic Ref Level
Ref Level
Range
Preamplifier
2nd Stage Correction
Activates or deactivates the second stage correction.
On
The calibration data recorded via the Cal softkey are used to correct the measurement
results. The calibration data are stored independent of the state of the option.
Off
No correction is applied to the measurement results.
For details refer also to "Calibration" on page 4.229.
Remote: CORR ON
RBW
Specifies the resolution bandwidth for the measurement.
A large value improves the averaging of the display considerably, reduces the influence of
external sources of interference, and permits the fastest measurement time possible.
A low value should only be used across a very small frequency range. For measurements at low
frequencies, the RBW must be reduced to prevent the LO frequency of the analyzer from
invalidating the measurement. At receive frequencies of 100 kHz, the RBW must not exceed 10
kHz.
Remote: BAND 1MHz
Sweep Time
Specifies the time one complete measurement sweep takes. Two sweeps are performed for
each measurement step (once with noise source on, once with noise source off).
For narrow bandwidths, the sweep time should be increased in order to give accurate
measurement results.
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
Settling Time
Specifies the time the DUT takes to settle after a noise source has been turned on or off.
Most noise sources generate an interfering DC component in addition to the noise spectrum. If
the noise source is switched on or off, low–frequency DUTs may require this settling time for
coupling capacitors to be charged or discharged.
Remote: SYST:CONF:DUT:STIM 1000MS
Average
Specifies the number of measurement sweeps over which the average is taken to produce the
displayed measurement results.
The higher the number of sweeps, the more accurate the measurement results, but the
measurement time is significantly longer.
An average value of 1 means that each displayed result is produced from one measurement
sweep. This is sufficient for most cases.
Remote: SWE:COUN 10
RF Attenuation
Specifies the attenuation that is applied to the received RF signal.
To obtain a low noise figure for the analyzer and hence more accurate noise measurements,
0 dB should be set. For high DUT power levels or critical matching, a higher setting is also
possible. A setting of 10 dB will give a much better VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio) of the
analyzer, but will result in a worse noise figure of the analyzer.
Remote: INP:ATT 30 DB
Automatic Ref Level
Activates or deactivates the automatic reference level setting.
Off
Specify a reference level manually (see Ref Level softkey).
On
The reference level is measured automatically. The total measurement time increases.
The automatic reference level measurement is performed as follows:
–
2nd stage correction activated:
At the beginning of the calibration measurement, several measurements are performed at the
first frequency test point and the reference level is calculated from these results taking into
account the maximum gain of the DUT (see Range softkey).
–
2nd stage correction deactivated:
At the beginning of the main measurement, several measurements are performed at the first
frequency test point and the reference level is calculated from these results. The range setting
is not significant.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV:AUTO ON
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Ref Level
Specifies the reference level. It is only possible to enter a reference level manually, if the
automatic reference level is deactivated (see Automatic Ref Level softkey).
The reference level should be about 5 to 15 dB above the noise display that occurs with the
DUT connected and the noise source activated.
Even for DUTs with a high–ripple frequency response it can be useful to enter the reference
level manually, because an automatic reference level setting may not always result in optimal
settings.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV 0
Range
Specifies the maximum gain expected from the DUT.
If the 2nd Stage Correction is activated, this value is used to calculate the automatic reference
level to ensure that the expected power of the measured signal will be within the optimum
operating range of the spectrum analyzer (see Automatic Ref Level softkey).
To ensure accurate measurement results, the range should not exceed the actual gain of the
DUT by more than a margin of 10 dB.
Remote: SYST:CONF:DUT:GAIN 10
Preamplifier
Activates or deactivates the preamplifier of the R&S ESL.
Remote: INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Schematic
Displays the schematic diagram of the test setup for the selected measurement type and the
specified frequency ranges. If the frequency ranges are changed, the schematic diagram is
updated accordingly.
–
Direct measurement
The direct measurement mode is designed for DUTs without frequency–conversion, e.g.
amplifiers.
The schematic display for the direct measurement mode is shown in Fig. 4-17. The upper part
of the figure shows the setup for calibration. The lower part of the figure shows the test setup
for the measurement.
Fig. 4-17 Schematic diagram for direct measurements
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
–
R&S ESL
Frequency–converting measurement
The frequency–converting measurement mode is designed for frequency–converting DUTs that
have a fixed Local Oscillator (LO) frequency, for example, satellite converters with a fixed LO
frequency. .
The schematic display for the frequency–converting measurement mode is shown in Fig. 4-18.
The upper part of the figure shows the setup for calibration. The lower part of the figure shows
the test setup for the measurement.
Fig. 4-18 Schematic diagram for frequency converting measurements
Build Tbl
Updates the table according to the Frequency Settings (Freq Settings softkey).
Exit
Exits the edit mode of a table.
Insert
Inserts a row above the currently selected row and sets the focus on the first field of the new
row.
This softkey is only available if the Frequency Table contains less than 100 measurement
steps.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected row. This action requires no confirmation.
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R&S ESL
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in Noise mode (SWEEP key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Sweep Single/Cont
Cal
Fix Freq
Sweep Single/Cont
Selects the sweep mode.
Single
single sweep mode
Cont
continuous sweep mode
If a measurement is started while another measurement is in progress, the first measurement
will be aborted and the new measurement started immediately.
For further details refer to "Measurement forms" on page 4.229.
Remote: CONF:LIST:CONT
Remote: CONF:LIST:SING
Cal
Performs a calibration. The calibration status of the noise figure measurement is displayed in the
title bar. For further details refer to "Calibration" on page 4.229.
This softkey is only available, if the 2nd Stage Correction option in the Measurement Settings
dialog box is activated.
Remote: CONF:CORR
Fix Freq
Starts a fixed frequency measurement for the frequency that is currently selected in the
Frequency List Results. For further details refer to "Measurement forms" on page 4.229 and
"Result displays" on page 4.230.
This softkey is only available after a frequency list measurement has been completed and the
measurement results are displayed in list form (Display List/Graph softkey).
Remote: CONF:SING
Remote: FREQ 10MHz
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
Softkeys of the trace menu (Noise mode)
Using the trace memory facility, you can save graphical display results (max. 3 trace sets) for
comparison with subsequent measurements. This facility is recommended in order to compare and to
document the effects of small changes on the DUT.
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trace menu in Noise mode (TRACE key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Display Graph/List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
More
Data –> Mem1
Data –> Mem2
Data –> Mem3
Data On/Off
Mem1 On/Off
Mem2 On/Off
Mem3 On/Off
Display Graph/List
For details refer to the Display List/Graph softkey in the noise figure measurements menu.
ASCII File Export
For details refer to the ASCII File Export softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Data –> Mem1/Data –> Mem2/Data –> Mem3
Saves the current trace results to trace memory <n>. If a trace memory <n> contains data, the
corresponding softkey has a green background. The content of the trace memory <n> is
displayed via the Mem1 On/Off/Mem2 On/Off/Mem3 On/Off softkeys.
If data is transferred to a trace memory that already contains trace data, the new trace data
overwrite the current trace data in the memory.
Remote: CONF:ARR:MEM2 ONCE
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:FIG?
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:GAIN?
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:TEMP?
Data On/Off
Switches the display of the current measurement results on or off. The display of trace memory
results is not affected if this softkey is pressed. If a new frequency list measurement is started,
the display of the current result trace is switched on automatically.
Remote: DISP:CURR:DATA OFF
Mem1 On/Off / Mem2 On/Off / Mem3 On/Off
Switches the display of trace memory <n> on or off. This softkey is not available if no data is
held in the selected trace memory.
Remote: DISP:ARR:MEM2 ON
Softkeys of the marker menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu in Noise mode (MKR key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Marker 1
Marker to Trace
All Marker Off
Marker 1
Activates marker 1 and opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for marker 1 to be set to.
Pressing the softkey again deactivates the marker 1. This softkey is only available if
measurement results are displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:X 550 MHZ
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S ESL
Marker to Trace
Opens a dialog box to select the trace (noise figure or gain), on which the marker is to be
placed. This softkey is only available if measurement results are displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK:TRAC GAIN
All Marker Off
Switches off the active marker. This softkey is only available if measurement results are
displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK:AOFF
Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu in Noise mode (MKR–> key). It
is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Peak
Min
Peak
Activates marker 1 and sets it to the highest maximum of the trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX
Min
Activates marker 1 and sets it to the minimum of the selected trace.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Softkeys of the lines menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the lines menu in Noise mode (LINES key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
New
Exit
Insert
Delete
Edit
same contents as
New menu
Enable/Disable
Delete
New
Displays the Limit Line dialog box in edit mode with all fields necessary to define a new limit
line. For further details see "To work with limit lines" on page 4.228.
In the edit mode, the Limit Line dialog box contains the following elements:
Name
Limit
Comment
Frequency
Limit
Name
Specifies the name of the limit line to uniquely identify every limit line. Any combination of
alphanumeric characters is allowed. If the entered name already exists, an error message is
displayed with the request to alter the name.
Remote: CALC:LIM1:NAME FM1
Limit
Specifies the result type (noise or gain) and the limit type (upper or lower) for the limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:TRAC NFIG
Comment
Specifies a description for the limit line. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed.
Remote: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
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R&S ESL
Frequency
Specifies the receive frequencies.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:CONT 1MHz,30MHz,100MHz,300MHz,1GHz
Limit
Specifies the limits for the receive frequencies.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:LOW –30,–40,–10,–40,–30 (lower limit line)
Remote: CALC:LIM2:UPP –10,0,0,–10,–5 (upper limit line)
Exit
Exits the edit mode of a table.
Insert
Inserts a row above the currently selected row and sets the focus on the first field of the new
row.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected row. This action requires no confirmation.
Edit
Displays the Limit Line dialog box in edit mode with all data of the selected limit line. For further
details refer to the New softkey.
Enable/Disable
Enables or disables the selected limit line. Limit checking is only performed for activated limit
lines. Only one limit line of each type can be active at a given time.
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM1:DEL
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Instrument Functions - Basic Settings
R&S ESL
Instrument Functions - Basic Settings
In this section, all basic settings functions of the R&S ESL and their application are explained in detail.
The analyzer functions are described in section "Instrument Functions - Analyzer".
For every key a table is provided in which all submenus and corresponding commands are listed. The
description of the submenus and commands follows the order of the table. The commands for the
optional remote control (if any) are indicated for each softkey. The description includes the following:
•
"General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings" on page 4.261
This section provides information on how to prepare measurements and process their results:
setting the instrument, managing and retrieving data, returning to manual operation, and printout.
More basic information on operation is given in the Quick Start Guide. The front and the rear view of the
instrument together with a table of all available keys and a short description are provided in chapter
"Front and Rear Panel". Chapter "Preparing for Use" informs how to start working with the instrument
for the first time. A brief introduction on handling the instrument is given in chapter "Basic Operations".
This includes also the description of the keys for basic operations like switching the instrument on and
off or starting a measurement.
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R&S ESL
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings
After putting the instrument into operation and becoming familiar with the handling of the instrument (for
details see Quick Start Guide), the preparations for measurements can start. In this section the general
settings of the instrument, the data management and the processing of measurement results are
described. This includes the following topics and keys:
•
"Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key" on page 4.262
•
"Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key" on page 4.279
•
"Manual Operation - Local Menu" on page 4.287
•
"Measurement Documentation - PRINT Key" on page 4.288
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Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
R&S ESL
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
The SETUP key is used to set or display the default settings of the instrument: reference frequency,
noise source, level correction values, date, time, LAN interface, firmware update and enabling of
options, information about instrument configuration and service support functions. For further details
refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
To open the setup menu
Press the SETUP key.
The setup menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the setup menu" on page 4.262
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then softkey for which you want to display help.
To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use the
Help System".
Softkeys of the setup menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the setup menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Reference Int/Ext
Transducer
Active On/Off
Edit
Insert Line
Delete Line
Edit Name
Edit Unit
Edit Value
Interpolation Lin/Log
Save Factor
New
same contents as Edit menu
Copy to
same contents as Edit menu
Delete
Ref Level Adjust Man/Auto
Show Directory
IF Output
Noise Src On/Off
Alignment
Self Align
Show Align Results
Corr Data On/Off
General Setup
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R&S ESL
Menu Command
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Network Address
Computer Name
Command
IP Address
Subnet Mask
DHCP On/Off
GPIB
GPIB Address
ID String Factory
ID String User
GPIB Language
Display Update On/Off
More
GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI
*IDN Format Leg./New
I/O Logging On/Off
Time+Date
Meas Display
Screen Title
Time+Date On/Off
Logo On/Off
Annotation On/Off
Screen Colors
Select Screen Color
Set
Color On/Off
Select Object
Predefined Colors
User Defined Colors
Set to Default
Print Colors
Select Print Color Set
Color On/Off
Select Object
Predefined Colors
User Defined Colors
Set to Default
Display Pwr Save On/Off
Monitor Int/Ext
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Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
Menu Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S ESL
Command
Soft Frontpanel
More
Firmware Update
Firmware Update
Option Licenses
Install Option
Shutdown Off/Standby
Preset Receiver
Preset Spectrum
System Info
Hardware Info
Versions+Options
System Messages
Clear All Messages
Service
Input RF/Cal/TG
Comb Frequency
Reset Password
Selftest
Selftest Results
Password
Service Function
Reference Int/Ext
Switches between the internal and external reference signal source. The default setting is
internal reference. It is important, that the external reference signal is deactivated when
switching from external to internal reference to avoid interactions.
If the reference signal is missing when switching to external reference, the message EXREF is
displayed to indicate that no synchronization is performed.
The R&S ESL can use the internal reference source or an external reference source as
frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10 MHz crystal oscillator is
used as internal reference source. In the external reference setting, all internal oscillators of the
R&S ESL are synchronized to the external reference frequency (also 10 MHz). For details on
connectors refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Remote: ROSC:SOUR INT
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R&S ESL
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
Transducer
Opens the Select Transducer dialog box and a submenu to activate or deactivate defined
transducer factors, to generate new transducer factors or to edit existing ones.
In the Select Transducer dialog box, a transducer factor can be edited, deleted or copied, if
selected, using the corresponding softkeys. The default directory, in which the transducer factors
are saved, is displayed (C:\R_S\INSTR\TRD; the extension of transducer factor files is *.TDF).
Subdirectories can be added or deleted via the file manager. They are displayed or hidden using
the arrow keys or the Show Directory softkey / Hide Directory button.
Two different directory views are possible: If the Show all option is activated, all transducer
factors in the directory are displayed. If the Show compatible option is activated, only the
compatible transducer factors in the directory are displayed.
For details on transducer factors refer to the Operating Manual on CD-ROM, chapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples".
Remote: CORR:TRAN:SEL FACTOR1
Active On/Off
Activates or deactivates the selected transducer factor. A maximum of 10 transducer factors can
be activated at the same time. If an additional transducer factor is activated, its unit compatibility
is checked. If one factor has a different unit than dB, all the other activated factors must have the
unit dB.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
Remote: CORR:TRAN ON
Edit
Opens the Edit Transducer dialog box with the data of the selected factor. During editing, a
transducer factor remains stored in the background until the factor is saved using the Save
Factor softkey.
Remote: Comment: CORR:TRAN:COMM <string>
Insert Line
Inserts an empty line above the selected reference value to enter a new reference value. When
entering a new reference value in the line, the ascending order of frequencies must be taken into
consideration, however.
Delete Line
Deletes the selected reference value (complete line). The reference values that follow move one
line up.
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Edit Name
Sets the focus on the Name field to enter a file name. The extension is added automatically.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
Edit Unit
Sets the focus on the Unit field to select the unit.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:UNIT <string>
Edit Value
Sets the focus to enter positions and values as frequency/level pairs. The entered data are also
displayed graphically. Using the Shift x or Shift y button, all entered values can be shifted in x
or y direction.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:DATA <freq>,<level>
Interpolation Lin/Log
Sets the scaling of the x-axis to linear or logarithmic.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:SCAL LIN|LOG
Save Factor
Saves the changed factor to a file on the internal flash disk. If a transducer factor with the same
name already exists, a confirmation query is displayed. If the new factor is active, the new
values are immediately applied.
Remote: In remote control, the save operation is performed automatically after the definition of the
reference values.
New
Opens the Edit Transducer dialog box to enter data for a new factor.
Copy to
Opens the Edit Transducer dialog box to copy the selected factor.
Delete
Deletes the selected factor after confirmation.
Remote: CORR:TRAN DEL
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Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key
Ref Level Adjust Man/Auto
Activates or deactivates the automatic adjustment of the reference level to the selected
transducer factor.
Auto
Activates the automatic adjustment.
Man
Deactivates the automatic adjustment. Adjust the reference level via the amplitude
menu.
If a transducer factor is used (active), the trace is moved by a calculated shift. However, an
upward shift reduces the dynamic range for the displayed values. With this softkey set to Auto,
the original dynamic range is restored by also shifting the reference level by the maximum value
of the transducer factor.
Remote: CORR:TRAN:ADJ:RLEV ON
Show Directory
Displays the subdirectory of the selected directory.
LISN
Selects and configures the V-network to be controlled via the user port.
The contents of the LISN menu is equivalent to the contents of the LISN tab of the Test
Automation dialog box.
IF Output (option Additional Interfaces, B5 only)
Opens the IF Output Source dialog box to select the output of the IF/VIDEO OUT connector: IF,
Video 200 mV, or Video 1 V.
Note:
The AF output available at the frontpanel can only be used if the IF output source is set to
video.
For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Remote: OUTP IF VID
Noise Src On/Off (option Additional Interfaces, B5 only)
Switches the supply voltage for an external noise source on or off. For details on connectors
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel" .
Remote: DIAG:SERV:NSO ON
Alignment
Opens a submenu with the available functions for recording, displaying and activating the data
for self alignment.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are determined by comparison
of the results at different settings with the known characteristics of the high-precision calibration
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signal source at 65.83 MHz. The correction data are stored as a file on flash disk and can be
displayed using the Show Align Results softkey.
Self Align
Starts the recording of correction data of the instrument. If the correction data acquisition has
failed or if the correction values are deactivated, a corresponding message is displayed in the
status field.
As long as the self alignment data is collected the procedure can be cancelled using the Abort
button.
Remote: *CAL?
Show Align Results
Opens a dialog box that displays the correction data of the alignment:
–
date and time of last correction data record
–
overall results of correction data record
–
list of found correction values according to function/module
The results are classified as follows:
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction could
however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was possible. The
found correction data are not applicable.
As long as the self alignment data is collected the procedure can be cancelled using the Abort
button.
Remote: CAL:RES?
Remote: CAL:ABOR
Corr Data On/Off
Activates and deactivates the alignment data, e.g. for service purposes the correction data can
be deactivated.
Remote: CAL:STAT ON
General Setup
Opens a submenu for all general settings such as IP address and LAN settings, date and time,
remote control (optional) and MEAS display.
Configure Network
Opens the Network Connections dialog box to change the LAN settings. For details refer to the
Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use" and appendix B "LAN Interface".
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Network Address
Opens a submenu to configure the internet protocol properties and the computer name.
Computer Name
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the computer name via the keypad. The naming conventions
of Windows apply. If too many characters and/or numbers are entered, in the status line, an
according message is displayed. For step-by-step instructions refer to the Quick Start Guide,
appendix B "LAN Interface".
IP Address
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the IP address via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol is
preinstalled with the IP address 10.0.0.10. If the DHCP server is available (DHCP On), the
dialog box entry is read-only.
The IP address consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains 3
numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed in a
block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions refer to the
Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Subnet Mask
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the subnet mask via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol is
preinstalled with the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. If the DHCP server is available (DHCP On),
the dialog box entry is read-only.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains 3
numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed in a
block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions refer to the
Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
DHCP On/Off
Switches between DHCP server available (On) or not available (Off). If a DHCP server is
available in the network, the IP address and subnet mask of the instrument are obtained
automatically from the DHCP server. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2
"Preparing for Use".
GPIB (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Opens a submenu to set the parameters of the remote control interface.
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GPIB Address (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the GPIB address. Values from 0 to 30 are allowed. The
default address is 20.
If, e.g. after a firmware update, the R&S ESL does not maintain the GPIB address after reboot,
the shutdown file needs to be recreated. Perform the following steps:
–
Set the GPIB address.
–
Create a shutdown file by switching the R&S FSL
E
in the standby mode:
Press the ON/STANDBY key on the front panel and wait until the yellow LED is on. With the
battery pack option, use a USB keyboard and terminate the R&S ESL firmware with ALT+F4 to
create the shutdown file.
If the shutdown file was created once, the R&S ESL boots with exactly those settings after a reboot
with the main switch on the rear panel. During a firmware update or cold boot for service reasons
the shutdown file is deleted, and the setup is necessary once again.
Remote: SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 20
ID String Factory (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Selects the default response to the *IDN? query.
ID String User (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined response to the *IDN? query. Max. 36
characters are allowed.
GPIB Language (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Only the remote control language SCPI is available for the R&S ESL and is set by default.
Remote: SYST:LANG 'SCPI'
Display Update On/Off
Defines whether the instrument display is switched off when changing from manual operation to
remote control. In remote control mode, this softkey is displayed in the local menu (for details
refer to section "Manual Operation - Local Menu" on page 4.287).
Remote: SYST:DISP:UPD ON
GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Changes the GPIB receive terminator.
According to the standard the terminator in ASCII is <LF> and/or <EOI>. For binary data
transfers (e.g. trace data) from the control computer to the instrument, the binary code used for
<LF> might be included in the binary data block, and therefore should not be interpreted as a
terminator in this particular case. This can be avoided by changing the receive terminator to EOI.
Remote: SYST:COMM:GPIB:RTER EOI
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*IDN Format Leg./New
Defines the response format to the *IDN? remote command. This function is intended for re-use
of existing control programs together with the R&S ESL.
Leg.
Legacy format, compatible to the R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ family
New
R&S ESL format
Remote: SYST:FORM:IDEN LEG
I/O Logging On/Off (option GPIB Interface, B10 only)
Activates or deactivates the SCPI error log function. All remote control commands received by the
R&S ESL are recorded in the following log file:
C:\R_S\instr\ScpiLogging\ScpiLog.txt
Logging the commands may be extremely useful for debug purposes, e.g. in order to find misspelled
keywords in control programs.
Time+Date
Opens an edit dialog box to enter time and date for the internal real time clock. For details refer
to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote: SYST:TIME 12,30
Remote: SYST:DATE 2004,10,01
Meas Display
Opens a submenu to configure the display and the print colors.
Screen Title
Activates/deactivates the display of a diagram title (if available) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter a new title for the active diagram. Max. 20 characters are allowed.
Remote: DISP:TEXT 'Noise Meas'
Remote: DISP:TEXT:STATe ON
Time+Date On/Off
Activates/deactivates the display of date and time above the diagram.
Remote: DISP:TIME OFF
Logo On/Off
Activates/deactivates the display of the Rohde & Schwarz company logo in the upper left corner.
Remote: DISP:LOGO ON
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Annotation On/Off
Activates/deactivates the display of the frequency information. For example to protect
confidential data it can be useful to hide the frequency information.
Remote: DISP:ANN:FREQ ON
Screen Colors
Opens a submenu to configure the screen colors. For details on screen colors refer to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote: DISP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0
Select Screen Color Set
Opens the Select Screen Color Set dialog box to select default or user defined color settings.
If one of the default settings is selected (Default Colors 1/2), the default settings for brightness,
color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements are restored. The default color
schemes provide optimum visibility of all picture elements at an angle of vision from above or
below. Default setting is Default Colors 1.
If User Defined Colors is selected, a user-defined color set can be defined. For step-by-step
instruction refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote: DISP:CMAP:DEF2
Color On/Off
Switches from color display to black-and-white display and back. The default setting is color
display.
Select Object
Opens the Color Setup dialog box to select the color settings for a selected object.
The Selected Object list is displayed to select the object. For setting the color the predefined
colors are displayed.
Remote: DISP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0 (screen colors)
Remote: HCOP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0 (print colors)
Predefined Colors
In the Color Setup dialog box, displays the Predefined Colors (alternative to the Predefined
Colors button). This softkey is only available if, in the Select Color Set dialog box, the User
Defined Colors option is selected or the Color Setup dialog box is displayed. For further details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote: DISP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE (screen colors)
Remote: HCOP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE (print colors)
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User Defined Colors
In the Color Setup dialog box, displays the User Defined Colors (alternative to the User
Defined Colors button). This softkey is only available if, in the Select Color Set dialog box, the
User Defined Colors option is selected or the Color Setup dialog box is displayed. For further
details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote: DISP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0 (screen colors)
Remote: HCOP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0 (print colors)
Set to Default
Opens the Set to Default dialog box to select one of the factory default color settings.
Remote: DISP:CMAP:DEF2 (screen colors)
Remote: HCOP:CMAP:DEF2 (print colors)
Print Colors
Opens a submenu to select the colors for the printout. To facilitate color selection, the selected
color combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors are restored
when the menu is exited.
Select Print Color Set
Opens the Select Print Color Set dialog box to select the color settings for printout.
Screen Colors (Print)
Selects the current screen colors for the printout. The
background is always printed in white and the grid in
black.
Screen Colors (Hardcopy)
Selects the current screen colors without any changes for
a hardcopy. The output format is set via the Device
Setup softkey in the print menu.
Optimized Colors
Selects an optimized color setting for the printout to
improve the visibility of the colors (default setting). Trace
1 is blue, trace 2 black, trace 3 green, and the markers
are turquoise. The background is always printed in white
and the grid in black.
User Defined Colors
Enables the softkeys to define colors for the printout.
Remote: HCOP:CMAP:DEF1
Color On/Off
Switches from color printout to black-and-white printout and back. All colored areas are printed
in white and all colored lines in black. This improves the contrast. The default setting is color
printout, provided that the selected printer can produce color printouts.
Remote: HCOP:DEV:COL ON
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Display Pwr Save On/Off
Switches the power-save mode for the display on/off and opens an edit dialog box to enter the
time for the power-save function to respond. After the elapse of this time the display is
completely switched off, i.e. including backlighting. This mode is recommended when the
instrument is exclusively operated in remote control.
For details on the power-save mode for the display refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2
"Preparing for Use".
Remote: DISP:PSAV ON
Remote: DISP:PSAV:HOLD 15
Monitor Int/Ext
Switches from the internal instrument monitor to an external monitor and vice versa. The softkey
is only effective, if an external monitor is connected. For further details refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Soft Frontpanel
Activates or deactivates the display of the instrument emulation.
deactivated
Only the measurement screen is displayed. This is the setting for working at
the R&S ESL.
activated
Additionally to the measurement screen, the whole front panel is displayed.
This is the setting for working at a computer with XP Remote Desktop or at
an external monitor.
Alternatively to this softkey, you can use the F6 key.
Remote: SYST:DISP:FPAN ON
Firmware Update
Opens a submenu to install firmware versions. The installation of a new firmware version can be
performed via USB or LAN interface. For details on installation refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
Firmware Update
Opens the Firmware Update dialog box. The update path is changed by entering the new path
or via the Browse button. The installation is started via the Execute button. For details on
installation refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of
Firmware Options".
Remote: SYST:FIRM:UPD 'D:\FW_UPDATE'
Option Licenses
Opens a submenu to install options. For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
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Install Option
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the license key for the option that you want to install.
A message box open if an option is about to expire or has already expired (in which case all
functions (including remote control) are unavailable until the R&S ESL is rebooted). For more
information about the option in question refer to the System Info softkey in the setup menu.
Shutdown Off/Standby
Configures the shutdown behavior of the R&S ESL when switched off via the ON/STANDBY key
on the front panel.
Off
If activated, the R&S ESL is shutdown completely when switched off via the
ON/STANDBY key on the front panel. When switched on the next time, the
R&S ESL will completely reboot.
To prevent the instrument from overheating, the fan remains active.
Standby
If activated, the R&S ESL goes into the standby mode when switched off via the
ON/STANDBY key on the front panel. When switched on the next time, the boot
time is shorter. This is the default setting.
Preset Receiver
If the Preset Receiver softkey is activated, pressing the PRESET key resets the instrument to
the default settings of the receiver. For a list of the default settings of the receiver refer to
Initializing the Configuration - PRESET Key.
Remote: SYST:PRES:COMP REC
Preset Spectrum
If the Preset Spectrum softkey is activated, pressing the PRESET key resets the instrument to
the default settings of the spectrum analyzer. For a list of the default settings of the spectrum
analyzer refer to Initializing the Configuration - PRESET Key:
Remote: SYST:PRES:COMP SAN
System Info
Opens a submenu to display detailed information on module data, device statistics and system
messages.
Hardware Info
Opens a dialog box that displays hardware information, e.g. on the frontend and motherboard.
Every listed component is described by its serial number, order number, model information,
hardware code, and hardware revision.
Remote: DIAG:SERV:HWIN?
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Versions+Options
Opens a dialog box that displays a list of hardware and firmware information, e.g. the firmware
version, the image version, BIOS version, data sheet version of the basic device, installed
options (hardware and firmware options).
For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Checking the Furnished Items".
Remote: *IDN?
Remote: *OPT?
System Messages
Opens the System Messages dialog box that displays the generated system messages in the
order of their occurrence. The most recent messages are placed at the top of the list. Messages
that have occurred since the last display of system messages menu are marked with an asterisk
'*'. The following information is available:
No
device-specific error code
Message
brief description of the message
Component
hardware messages: name of the affected module
software messages: name of the affected software
Date/Time
date and time of the occurrence of the message
If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, Message buffer
overflow is displayed. To delete messages see Clear All Messages softkey.
Remote: SYST:ERR:LIST?
Clear All Messages
Deletes all system messages. The softkey is only available if the System Messages dialog box
is displayed.
Remote: SYST:ERR:CLE:ALL?
Service
Opens a submenu that contains additional functions for maintenance and/or trouble shooting.
NOTICE
Risk of incorrect operation
The service functions are not necessary for normal measurement operation.
However, incorrect use can affect correct operation and / or data integrity of the
R&S ESL. Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after entering a
password. They are described in the instrument service manual.
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Input RF/Cal/TG
Selects the input for measurement.
RF
Switches the input of the R&S ESL to the input connector (normal position). This is
the default setting.
Cal
Switches the RF input of the R&S ESL to the internal calibration source (65.83 MHz)
and activates the data entry of the output level of the calibration source. Possible
values are 0 dB and -30 dB.
TG
Switches the RF input of the R&S ESL to the tracking generator output. Only the
models 13 and 16 offer this setting.
Remote: DIAG:SERV:INP RF|CAL|TG
Comb Frequency
Opens a dialog box to set the comb generator frequency for the internal calibration:
Comb/1
65.8333 MHz / 1
Comb/64
65.8333 MHz / 64
Comb/65
65.8333 MHz / 65
Remote: Sine: DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS OFF
Remote: Comb: DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS ON
Remote: Comb: DIAG:SERV:INP:PRAT COMB64
Reset Password
Deactivates all set passwords.
Remote: SYST:PASS:RES
Selftest
Initiates the self test of the instrument modules to identify a defective module in case of failure .
All modules are checked consecutively and the test result is displayed.
Remote: *TST?
Selftest Results
Opens the Selftest Result dialog box that contains the test results. In case of failure a short
description of the failed test, the defective module, the associated value range and the
corresponding test results are indicated.
Remote: DIAG:SERV:STE:RES?
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Password
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the password. This ensures that the service functions are only
used by authorized personnel.
Remote: SYST:PASS "Password"
Service Function
Opens the Service Function dialog box to start special service functions. For further information
refer to the service manual.
Remote: DIAG:SERV:SFUNC <value>,<value>...
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Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key
Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key
The FILE key is used to store and load instrument settings and to manage stored files.
The file menu includes functions for storing (Save softkey) instrument settings such as instrument
configurations (measurement/display settings, etc) and measurement results on permanent storage
media, or to load (Recall softkey) stored data back onto the instrument.
Functions for management of storage media (File Manager softkey) include among others functions for
listing, copying, and deleting/renaming files.
The R&S E SL is capable of internally storing complete instrument settings with instrument
configurations and measurement data in the form of settings files. The respective data are stored on the
internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network drive. The mass media are assigned to
the volume names as follows:
Drive
Designation
Comment
C
operating system, firmware and stored
instrument settings
for customer data
A
USB floppy drive
if connected
D
USB memory stick or USB CD-ROM
if connected
E ...Z
additional USB mass storage devices or
mounted LAN volumes
if connected
To open the file menu
Press the FILE key.
The file menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the file menu" on page 4.280
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then softkey for which you want to display help.
To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use the
Help System".
Further information
–
"Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving and loading settings files" on page 4.279
–
"Navigation in the file manager" on page 4.280
Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving and loading settings files
The Save and Recall dialog boxes are used to save and recall settings files. For both dialog boxes, the
same navigation principle applies. Press the Save or Recall softkey to open the corresponding dialog
box.
•
Path field
To change the directory, press the Select Path softkey.
To select a folder, use the rotary knob or the UPARROW and DNARROW keys. To open a
subfolder, press the RIGHTARROW key. To close subfolders, press the LEFTARROW key. To
confirm the selection, press the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
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•
R&S ESL
Files list
If the Recall or Startup Recall dialog box is opened, the focus is on the Files list. To set the focus
on the Files list, press the Select File softkey.
To select a folder, use the rotary knob or the UPARROW and DNARROW keys. To open a
subfolder, press the ENTER key. To select a file, use the rotary knob or the UPARROW and
DNARROW keys. To load the selected file, press the rotary knob or the ENTER key. To delete the
selected file, press the softkey.
•
File Name field
If the Save dialog box is opened, the focus is on the File Name field. To set the focus on File Name
field, press the Edit File Name softkey. Enter the name in the File Name field. The extension of the
data name is ignored (for details on entering the name, see Quick Start Guide, chapter 4 "Basic
Operations").
•
Comment field
To enter a comment, press the Edit Comment softkey (for details on entering the name, see Quick
Start Guide, chapter 4 "Basic Operations").
•
Items saved in the settings file
–
To select a special item, set the focus on the entry using the arrow keys or the rotary knob. To
confirm the selection, press the CHECKMARK key. To deselect the item, press the
CHECKMARK key again.
Navigation in the file manager
•
To change from one subfolder to another, use the ENTER key.
•
To change to the next higher directory, select the dots "..".
•
To change into a subfolder, use the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW keys.
•
To select a file or a folder, use the UPARROW and DNARROW keys.
•
To confirm the selection of a file or folder, press the ENTER key.
Softkeys of the file menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the file menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Save
Save File
Command
Select Path
Select File
Edit File Name
Edit Comment
Select Items
Select Items
Enable all Items
Disable all Items
Delete File
Recall
Recall File
Select Path
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Menu / Command
Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key
Submenu / Command
Command
Select File
Edit File Name
Select Items
Select Items
Enable all Items
Disable all Items
Delete File
Startup Recall
Startup Recall Setup
File Manager
Edit Path
New Folder
Copy
Rename
Cut
Paste
More
Delete
Sort Mode
Name
Date
Extension
Size
File Lists 1/2
Current File List 1/2
Network Drive
Map Network Drive
Disconnect Network Drive
Export
Import
Hardcopy
Save
Opens the Save dialog box to define and store the settings file. To navigate in the dialog box
and define/enter data, use the corresponding softkeys. For details see also "Navigation in the
dialog boxes for saving and loading settings files" on page 4.279.
Path
Directory in which the settings file is stored. The default path for user
settings files is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of settings files already stored
File Name
Name of settings file
Comment
Comment regarding the settings file
[Items]
Selection of items to be saved in the settings file
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Save File / Recall File
Saves the settings file with the defined file name (Save dialog box), or recalls the selected
settings file (Recall dialog box). If the file name already exists, upon saving, a message is
displayed. Selecting Yes overwrites the existing file, selecting No aborts the saving process.
For details on the file name conventions refer to the Edit File Name softkey description.
Remote: MMEM:STOR:STAT 1,'Save'
Remote: MMEM:STOR:STAT:NEXT
Remote: MMEM:LOAD:STAT 1,'C:\R_S\Instr\user\TEST01'
Select Path
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the settings file to be stored or loaded.
The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user. For details see also "Navigation in the dialog boxes for
saving and loading settings files" on page 4.279.
Select File
Sets the focus on the Files list. For details see also "Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving
and loading settings files" on page 4.279.
Remote: MMEM:CAT? 'C:\R_S\Instr\user\*.DFL'
Edit File Name
Sets the focus on the File Name field.
In the Save dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the file name
used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused name. For example, if the
name last used was "test_004", the new name "test_005" is suggested, but only if this name is
not in use. If the name "test_005" is already in use, the next free name is suggested, e.g.
"test_006". You can change the suggested name to any name conform to the following naming
conventions.
The name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore and three
numbers, e.g. limit_lines_005. In the example, the base name is "limit_lines". The base name
can contain characters, numbers and underscores. The file extension is added automatically.
Edit Comment
Sets the focus on the Comment field to enter a comment for the settings file. Max. 60
characters are allowed. For details see also "Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving and
loading settings files" on page 4.279.
Select Items
Displays the softkey submenu for selecting the items to be stored or loaded.
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Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key
Select Items
Sets the focus on the items list. For details see also "Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving
and loading settings files" on page 4.279.
In the Save dialog box, all items that can be saved are displayed. The number of displayed
items depends on the installed options, as for some options additional items can be stored.
In the Recall dialog box, the items saved in the selected file are displayed.
Remote: MMEM:SEL:HWS ON
Remote: MMEM:SEL:LIN:ALL ON
Remote: MMEM:SEL:TRAC ON
Remote: MMEM:SEL:TRAN:ALL ON
Enable all Items
Selects all items for saving or loading.
Remote: MMEM:SEL:ALL
Disable all Items
Selects none of the items for saving or loading.
Remote: MMEM:SEL:NONE
Delete File
Deletes the selected settings file.
Remote: MMEM:CLE:STAT 1,'TEST'
Recall
Opens the Recall dialog box to load a settings file. To navigate in the dialog box, use the
corresponding softkeys. For details see also "Navigation in the dialog boxes for saving and
loading settings files" on page 4.279.
Path
Directory from which the settings file is loaded. The default path for
user settings files is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of stored settings files
File Name
Name of settings file
Comment
Comment of the settings file
[Items]
Items saved in the settings file
Startup Recall
Activates or deactivates the startup recall function. If activated, the settings stored in the file
selected via the Startup Recall Setup softkey are loaded when booting or for preset. If
deactivated, the default settings are loaded.
Remote: MMEM:LOAD:AUTO 1,'C:\R_S\Instr\user\TEST'
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Startup Recall Setup
Opens the Startup Recall dialog box to select the settings file for the startup recall function (see
also Startup Recall softkey).
Remote: MMEM:LOAD:AUTO 1,'C:\R_S\Instr\user\TEST'
File Manager
Opens the File Manager dialog box and a submenu to manage mass storage media and files. In
the upper left corner, the current drive is displayed. Below the folders and subfolders of the
current directory are displayed. For details on navigation see also "Navigation in the file
manager" on page 4.280.
The following tasks can be performed:
–
to copy files from flash disk to other media
–
to copy files into another directory
–
to rename and delete files
Edit Path
For details see Select Path softkey.
Remote: MMEM:MSIS "D:"
Remote: MMEM:CDIR "C:\R_S\Instr\user"
New Folder
Creates a new folder and opens an edit dialog box to enter name and path (absolute or relative
to the current directory) of the new folder.
Remote: MMEM:MDIR "C:\R_S\Instr\user\TEST"
Copy
Copies the selected item to the clipboard. The item can be copied later using the Paste softkey.
For details on navigation see also "Navigation in the file manager" on page 4.280.
Remote: MMEM:COPY "C:\R_S\Instr\user\set.cfg","E:"
Rename
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a new file or folder name:. For details on navigation see also
"Navigation in the file manager" on page 4.280.
Remote: MMEM:MOVE "test02.cfg","set2.cfg"
Cut
Copies the selected file to the clipboard. If the file is later copied to a different directory using the
Paste softkey, it is deleted in the current directory. For details on navigation see also
"Navigation in the file manager" on page 4.280.
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Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key
Paste
Copies a file from the clipboard to the currently selected directory. For details on navigation see
also "Navigation in the file manager" on page 4.280.
Delete
Deletes the selected item after confirmation. For details on navigation see also "Navigation in
the file manager" on page 4.280.
Remote: MMEM:DEL "test01.hcp"
Remote: MMEM:RDIR "C:\R_S\Instr\user\TEST"
Sort Mode
Opens a submenu to select the sorting mode for the displayed files. The entry for the next higher
directory level ("..") and the folders are always located at the top of the list.
Name
Sorts the displayed files in alphabetical order of the file names.
Date
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the date.
Extension
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the extension.
Size
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the size.
File Lists 1/2
Splits the screen to copy files from one directory to the other. The focus between the two panes
is switched using the FIELD RIGHT and FIELD LEFT keys.
Current File List 1/2
Changes the focus to the selected file list.
Network Drive
Opens the Map Network Drive dialog box. For further information refer to the Quick Start
Guide.
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Map Network Drive
Sets the focus on the Drive list. For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Remote: MMEM:NETW:MAP 'T:','\\server\folder'
Remote: MMEM:NETW:USED ON
Remote: MMEM:NETW:UNUS?
Disconnect Network Drive
Opens the Disconnect Network Drive dialog box. In the Drive list, select the drive you want to
disconnect and confirm with OK.
Remote: MMEM:NETW:DISC 'T:'
Export
Opens a submenu to configure exports of trace data. For details see ASCII File Export softkey
in the trace menu.
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Import
This function is currently not available in spectrum analyzer mode.
Hardcopy
Opens the print menu. For details on submenus and softkeys refer to Measurement
Documentation - PRINT Key.
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Manual Operation - Local Menu
Manual Operation - Local Menu
When switched on, the instrument is always in the manual measurement mode and can be operated via
the front panel. As soon as the instrument receives a remote command, it is switched to the remote
control mode.
In remote control mode, all keys of the instrument except the PRESET key are disabled. The LOCAL
softkey and the Display Update On/Off softkey are displayed. Depending on the setting of the Display
Update On/Off softkey, the diagrams, traces and display fields are displayed or hidden. For further
details on the Display Update On/Off softkey refer to section "Instrument Setup and Interface
Configuration - SETUP Key".
For details on remote control refer to chapter 5 "Remote Control - Basics".
The change to manual operation consists of:
•
Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual mode enables all inactive keys. The main softkey menu of the current mode is
displayed.
•
Displaying the measurement diagrams again.
The diagrams, traces and display fields are displayed again.
•
Generating the OPERATION COMPLETE message
If, at the time of pressing the LOCAL softkey, the synchronization mechanism via *OPC, *OPC? or
*WAI is active, the currently running measurement procedure is aborted and synchronization is
achieved by setting the corresponding bits in the registers of the status reporting system.
•
Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit immediately causes the
generation of a service request (SRQ) to inform the control software that the user wishes to return
to front panel control. For example this can be used to interrupt the control program and to correct
instrument settings manually. This bit is set each time the LOCAL softkey is pressed.
To return to manual operation
Press the LOCAL softkey.
The instrument switches from remote to manual operation, but only if the local lockout function has
not been activated in the remote control mode.
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Measurement Documentation - PRINT Key
The PRINT key is used to select and configure the printer and to customize the screen printout. For
detailed information on printer selection and installation refer to the Quick Start Guide.
To open the print menu
Press the PRINT key.
The print menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the print menu" on page 4.288
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then softkey for which you want to display help.
To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use the
Help System".
Softkeys of the print menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the print menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Print Screen
Device Setup
Device 1/2
Colors
Select Print Color Set
Color On/Off
Select Object
Predefined Colors
User Defined Colors
Set to Default
Comment
Install Printer
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Measurement Documentation - PRINT Key
Print Screen
Starts to printout all test results displayed on the screen: diagrams, traces, markers, marker lists,
limit lines etc. Comments, title, date, and time are included at the bottom margin of the printout.
All displayed items belonging to the instrument software (softkeys, tables, dialog boxes) are not
printed out. The date and time can be excluded from the printout via the Device Setup softkey.
The output is defined via the Device Setup softkey. If the output is saved in a file, the file name
used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused name. If you use a file name
that already exists, upon saving, a message is displayed. Selecting Yes overwrites the existing
file, selecting No aborts the saving process. For further details on the file name and an example,
refer to the file menu, Edit File Name softkey.
Path
Directory in which the file is stored. The default path is
C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of the existing files in the same format
File Name
Name of the file
Remote: HCOP:ITEM:ALL
Remote: HCOP
Remote: HCOP:NEXT
Device Setup
Opens the Hardcopy Setup dialog box to define the output: image file, clipboard, or the printer.
The dialog box consists of two tabs which are selected via the Device 1/2 softkey. For further
information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Remote: HCOP:DEV:LANG GDI
Remote: SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:FIRS?
Remote: SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:NEXT?
Remote: SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL <Printer>
Remote: HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT
Remote: HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:PRIN"
Remote: HCOP:TDST:STAT?
Remote: HCOP:TDST:STAT OFF
Device 1/2
Selects the tab of the device in the Device Setup dialog box. The analyzer is able to manage
two print settings independently of each other. For each device the print setting is displayed on
the corresponding tab of the Device Setup dialog box (Device Setup softkey). For further
information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Colors
For details see Print Colors softkey of the setup menu.
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Select Print Color Set
For details see Select Print Color Set softkey of the setup menu.
Color On/Off
For details see Color On/Off softkey of the setup menu.
Select Object
For details see Select Object softkey of the setup menu.
Predefined Colors
For details see Predefined Colors softkey of the setup menu.
User Defined Colors
For details see User Defined Colors softkey of the setup menu.
Set to Default
For details see Set to Default softkey of the setup menu.
Comment
Opens dialog box to enter a comment. Max. 120 characters are allowed. 60 characters fit in one
line. In the first line, at any point a manual line-feed can be forced by entering "@".
Date and time are inserted automatically. The comment is printed below the diagram area, but
not displayed on the screen. If a comment should not be printed, it must be deleted.
For details on the alphanumeric entries refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4 "Basic
Operations".
Install Printer
Opens the Printers and Faxes window to install a new printer. All printers that are already
installed are displayed. For details refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix A, "Printer Interface".
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Introduction
Contents of Chapter 5
5 Remote Control – Basics.................................................................................... 5.3
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................5.3
Getting Started..................................................................................................................................5.5
Setting the Remote Control (IP/GPIB) Address .............................................................................5.5
Starting Remote Control ..................................................................................................................5.6
Returning to Manual Operation.......................................................................................................5.6
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax ...........................................................................................5.7
Structure of a Command ..........................................................................................................5.7
Structure of a Command Line ..................................................................................................5.9
Responses to Queries............................................................................................................5.10
Parameters.............................................................................................................................5.10
Overview of Syntax Elements ................................................................................................5.12
Instrument Model and Command Processing .............................................................................5.12
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization ..........................................................5.14
Status Reporting System...............................................................................................................5.15
Structure of an SCPI Status Register.....................................................................................5.16
Overview of the Status Registers ...........................................................................................5.17
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)...........................................5.18
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)..................................................................5.20
Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable Register (ESE) ................................5.20
STATus:OPERation Register.......................................................................................5.21
STATus:QUEStionable Register..................................................................................5.21
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register..................................................................5.22
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register .............................................................5.23
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register .........................................................................5.24
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register ..................................................................5.24
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register.....................................................................5.25
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC Register.......................................................................5.26
Application of the Status Reporting Systems .........................................................................5.26
Service Request...........................................................................................................5.26
Serial Poll .....................................................................................................................5.27
Parallel Poll ..................................................................................................................5.27
Query by Means of Commands ...................................................................................5.27
Error Queue Query.......................................................................................................5.28
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System .......................................................................5.28
Interfaces and Protocols................................................................................................................5.29
LAN Interface .........................................................................................................................5.29
VXI Basics....................................................................................................................5.29
VXI–11 Interface Messages.........................................................................................5.31
RSIB Protocol Basics ...................................................................................................5.31
RSIB Interface Functions .............................................................................................5.32
GPIB Interface (Option R&S FSL–B10) .................................................................................5.34
GPIB Basics .................................................................................................................5.34
GPIB Interface Functions.............................................................................................5.35
GPIB Interface Messages ............................................................................................5.35
Instrument Messages...................................................................................................5.36
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Introduction
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Noise Figure Measurements (K30) – Status Reporting System.................................................5.37
STATus:OPERation Register .................................................................................................5.38
STATus:QUEStionable Register ............................................................................................5.38
STATus:QUEStionable:CORRection Register.......................................................................5.38
Error Reporting.......................................................................................................................5.39
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5
Introduction
Remote Control – Basics
This chapter assumes basic knowledge of programming and operation of the controller. It provides the
following:
• Instructions on how to put the R&S ESL into operation via remote control.
• A general introduction to remote control of programmable instruments. This includes the description
of the command structure and syntax according to the SCPI standard, the description of command
execution and of the status registers.
• Diagrams and tables describing the status registers used in the R&S ESL.
• A description of the interfaces and protocols used for remote control.
In chapter "Instrument Functions" of this manual and in the Online Help, the remote control commands
available for an instrument function are listed after each function description. In the Online Help, these
remote control commands are linked to their description, provided in the manual in chapter "Remote
Control – Commands". Program examples for the R&S ESL are given in chapter 7 "Remote Control –
Programming Examples".
Introduction
The instrument is equipped with the following interfaces for remote control:
- LAN interface: The protocol is based on TCP/IP and supports the VXI–11 standard.
- Option GPIB Interface, R&S FSL–B10: GPIB interface according to standard IEC 625/IEEE 488
The connectors are located at the rear of the instrument and permit a connection to a controller for
remote control via a local area network (LAN) or directly (option GPIB Interface, R&S FSL–B10).
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) commands – messages – are used for
remote control. Commands that are not taken from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The
instrument supports the SCPI version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and
aims at the standardization of device–specific commands, error handling and the status registers. The
tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control – A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2" from John M. Pieper
(R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI.
The requirements that the SCPI standard places on command syntax, error handling and configuration
of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections. Tables provide a fast overview of
the bit assignment in the status registers. The tables are supplemented by a comprehensive description
of the status registers.
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to communicate
with instruments. The I/O channel (LAN, GPIB…) is selected at initialization time by means of a
channel–specific resource string. For more information about VISA refer to its user documentation.
®
®
The programming examples for remote control are all written in Microsoft VISUAL BASIC . Access to
the VISA functions require the declaration of the functions and constants prior to their use in the project.
This can be accomplished either by adding the modules VISA32.BAS and VPPTYPE.BAS or a
reference to the VISA32.DLL to the project.
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Introduction
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The modules visa32.bas and vpptype.bas can be found in the <VXIpnpPath>\WinNT\include (typically
C:\VXIpnp\WinNt\include).
Note:
Manual operation is designed for maximum possible operating convenience. In contrast, the
priority of remote control is the "predictability" of the device status. Therefore, control programs
should always define an initial device status (e.g. with the command *RST) and then implement
the required settings.
To make remote control operation more comfortable and faster, you can use IVI drivers. They bundle
remote control commands, reduce the I/O to the instrument by status caching, check status and
parameters and offer simulation modes.
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Getting Started
Getting Started
The short and simple operating sequence below shows how to put the instrument into operation and
quickly set its basic functions. The remote control address, which is factory–set to 10.0.0.10, subnet
mask 255.255.255.0 for LAN operation and 20 for operation via GPIB, is used. If you want to change the
IP address, see "Setting the Remote Control (IP/GPIB) Address".
To prepare for remote control
1. Connect the instrument to the LAN or directly to the GPIB controller (option GPIB Interface,
R&S FSL–B10).
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix B.
2. Switch on the instruments.
3. Write and start the following program on the controller:
status = viOpenDefaultRM(defaultRM)
Cmd = "*RST;*CLS"
status = viWrite(vi, Cmd, Len(Cmd),
retCount)
' Open default resource manager
' Reset instrument and clear status
registers
Cmd = "FREQ:CENT 100MHz"
status = viWrite(vi, Cmd, Len(Cmd),
retCount)
Cmd = "FREQ:SPAN 10MHz"
status = viWrite(vi, Cmd, Len(Cmd),
retCount)
Cmd = "DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV –10dBm"
status = viWrite(vi, Cmd, Len(Cmd),
retCount)
' Set center frequency to 100 MHz
' Set span to 10 MHz
' Set reference level to –10 dBm
The instrument now performs a sweep in the frequency range of 95 MHz to 105 MHz.
Setting the Remote Control (IP/GPIB) Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the set IP or GPIB
address. The remote control address is factory–set (for details refer to "Getting Started"), but it can be
changed, if it does not fit in the network environment.
To change the GPIB address via R&S ESL
For details see Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
To change the GPIB address via GPIB
status = viOpenDefaultRM(defaultRM)
status = viOpen(defaultRM, "GPIB:20::INSTR", 0,
5000, vi)
Cmd = "SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18"
status = viWrite(vi, Cmd, Len(Cmd), retCount)
status = viClose(vi)
status = viOpen(defaultRM, "GPIB:18::INSTR", 0,
5000, vi)
' Open default resource manager
' Open connection to instrument
with old address
' Set instrument to new address
' Close old connection and reopen
with new address
To change the IP address via R&S ESL
For details see Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
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Starting Remote Control
R&S ESL
Starting Remote Control
On power–on, the instrument is always in the manual operating state ("local" state) and can be operated
via the front panel.
To start remote control
Send an addressed command from a controller to the instrument.
The instrument is switched to remote control ("remote" state). Operation via the front panel is
disabled. Only the Local softkey is displayed to return to manual operation. The instrument remains
in the remote state until it is reset to the manual state via the instrument or via remote control
interfaces. Switching from manual operation to remote control and vice versa does not affect the
other instrument settings.
During program execution, send the SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ON command to activate the
display of results.
The changes in the device settings and the recorded measurement curves are displayed on the
instrument screen.
To obtain optimum performance during remote control, send the SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate OFF
command to hide the display of results and diagrams again (default setting in remote control).
To prevent unintentional return to manual operation, disable the keys of the R&S ESL by the
universal command LLO.
Then the transition to manual mode is only possible via remote control.
This function is only available for the GPIB interface.
To enable the keys of the R&S ESL again, switch the instrument to local mode, i.e. deactivate the
REN line of the remote control interface.
Note:
If the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control, it is recommended to switch on the
power–save mode for the display. For more details on this mode refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Returning to Manual Operation
Before the transition, command processing must be completed. If command processing is not
completed, it is not possible to return to manual operation and the instrument will switch back to remote
control immediately.
To return to manual operation via R&S ESL
Press the Local softkey or the Preset key.
To return to manual operation via GPIB
...
status = viGpibControlREN(vi,
VI_GPIB_REN_ADDRESS_GTL)
...
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' Set instrument to manual
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R&S ESL
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) describes a standard command set for
programming instruments, irrespective of the type of instrument or manufacturer. The goal of the SCPI
consortium is to standardize the device–specific commands to a large extent. For this purpose, a model
was developed which defines the same functions inside a device or for different devices. Command
systems were generated which are assigned to these functions. Thus it is possible to address the same
functions with identical commands. The command systems are of a hierarchical structure.
SCPI is based on standard IEEE 488.2, i.e. it uses the same syntactic basic elements as well as the
common commands defined in this standard. Part of the syntax of the device responses is defined with
greater restrictions than in standard IEEE 488.2 (see section "Responses to Queries").
Structure of a Command
The commands consist of a so–called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. Header and
parameter are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The
headers may consist of several key words. Queries are formed by directly appending a question mark to
the header.
Note:
Not all commands used in the following examples are implemented in the instrument.
Common commands
Common commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk "*" and one or several parameters, if
any.
Examples:
*RST
RESET, resets the device
*ESE 253
EVENT STATUS ENABLE, sets the bits of the event status enable
register
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY, queries the contents of the event status
register.
Device–specific commands
•
Hierarchy
Device–specific commands are of hierarchical structure (see Fig. 5–1). The different levels are
represented by combined headers. Headers of the highest level (root level) have only one key word.
This key word denotes a complete command system.
Example: SENSe
This key word denotes the SENSe command system.
For commands of lower levels, the complete path has to be specified, starting on the left with the
highest level, the individual key words being separated by a colon ":".
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN 10MHZ
This command lies in the third level of the SENSe system. It sets the frequency span.
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SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
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SENSe
BANDwidth
FUNCtion
STARt
FREQuency
CENTer
STOP
DETector
SPAN
OFFSet
Fig. 5–1 Tree structure the SCPI command systems using the SENSe system as example
•
Multiple key words
Some key words occur in several levels within one command system. Their effect depends on the
structure of the command, i.e. at which position in the header of a command they are inserted.
Example: SOURce:FM:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the third command level. It defines the polarity
between modulator and modulation signal.
Example: SOURce:FM:EXTernal:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the fourth command level. It defines the polarity
between modulation voltage and the resulting direction of the modulation only for the external signal
source indicated.
•
Optional key words
Some command systems permit certain key words to be inserted into the header or omitted. These
key words are marked by square brackets in the description. The full command length must be
recognized by the instrument for reasons of compatibility with the SCPI standard. Some commands
are considerably shortened by these optional key words.
Example: [SENSe]:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:AUTO
This command couples the resolution bandwidth of the instrument to other parameters. The
following command has the same effect: BANDwidth:AUTO
Note:
•
An optional key word must not be omitted if its effect is specified in detail by a numeric suffix.
Long and short form
The key words feature a long form and a short form. Either the short form or the long form can be
entered, other abbreviations are not permitted.
Example: STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle 1= STAT:QUES:ENAB 1
Note:
Upper–case and lower–case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the manual, the
instrument itself does not distinguish upper–case and lower–case letters.
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•
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
Parameter
The parameter must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters are
specified in a command, they are separated by a comma ",". A few queries permit the parameters
MINimum, MAXimum and DEFault to be entered. For a description of the types of parameter, refer
to section "Parameters".
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAXimum, Response: 3.5E9
This query requests the maximal value for the stop frequency.
•
Numeric suffix
If a device features several functions or features of the same kind, e.g. inputs, the desired function
can be selected by a suffix added to the command. Entries without suffix are interpreted like entries
with the suffix 1. Optional keywords must be specified if they select a function with the suffix.
Example: SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial2:BAUD 9600
This command sets the baud rate of a second serial interface.
Note:
In case of remote control, suffix counting may differ from the numbers of the corresponding
selection used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix 1 is
the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. With GSM, for instance, slots are
counted from 0 to 7. In the case of remote control, the slots are selected with the suffixes 1 to 8.
If the numbering differs in manual operation and remote control, it is indicated with the
respective command.
Structure of a Command Line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by an EOI signal together
with the last data byte.
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the next command
belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon. A colon ":" at the
beginning of a command marks the root node of the command tree.
Example:
CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer 100MHz;:INPut:ATTenuation
10")
This command line contains two commands. The first one is part of the SENSe command system and is
used to determine the center frequency of the instrument. The second one is part of the INPut
command system and sets the input signal attenuation.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in common, the
command line can be abbreviated. For that purpose, the second command after the semicolon starts
with the level that lies below the common levels (see also Fig. 5–1). The colon following the semicolon
must be omitted in this case.
Example:
CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP
1E9")
This command line is represented in its full length and contains two commands separated from each
other by the semicolon. Both commands are part of the SENSe command system, subsystem
FREQuency, i.e. they have two common levels.
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SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
R&S ESL
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below
SENSe:FREQuency. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the command
line reads as follows:
CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;STOP 1E9")
However, a new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6")
CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1E9")
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is formed by adding
a question mark to the associated setting command. According to SCPI, the responses to queries are
partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE 488.2.
•
The requested parameter is transmitted without header.
Example: INPut:COUPling?, Response: DC
•
Maximum values, minimum values and all further quantities, which are requested via a special text
parameter are returned as numerical values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX, Response: 3.5E9
•
Numerical values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the basic units or to
the units set using the Unit command.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer?, Response: 1E6 (for 1 MHz)
•
Truth values <Boolean values> are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example: SENSe:BANDwidth:AUTO?, Response: 1 (for ON)
•
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example: SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS?, Response STAN (for standard)
Parameters
Most commands require a parameter to be specified. The parameters must be separated from the
header by a "white space". Permissible parameters are numerical values, Boolean parameters, text,
character strings and block data. The type of parameter required for the respective command and the
permissible range of values are specified in the command description.
Numerical values
Numerical values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent. Values
exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa may comprise up to
255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range –32000 to 32000. The exponent is
introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent alone is not permissible. In the case of physical
quantities, the unit can be entered. Permissible unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ
are also permissible), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro) and N (nano). It the unit is missing, the basic unit is
used.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5E9
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R&S ESL
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
Special numerical
The texts MINimum, MAXimum, DEFault, UP and DOWN are interpreted as valuesspecial numerical
values. In the case of a query, the numerical value is provided.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP MAXimum
Query: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP?, Response: 3.5E9
–
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
–
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value conforms to the
default setting, as it is called by the *RST command
–
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numerical value by one step. The step width can be specified
via an allocated step command (see annex C, List of Commands) for each parameter which can be
set via UP, DOWN.
–
INF/NINF
INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numerical values –9.9E37
or 9.9E37, respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as device reponses.
–
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as device response. This
value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by zero, the subtraction of infinite from
infinite and the representation of missing values.
Boolean parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The ON state (logically true) is represented by ON or a
numerical value unequal to 0. The OFF state (logically untrue) is represented by OFF or the numerical
value 0. The numerical values are provided as response for query.
Example:
Setting command: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe ON
Query: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe?, Response: 1
Text
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for key words, i.e. they can be entered using a short or long
form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header by a white space. In the case of a
query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: INPut:COUPling GROund
Query: INPut:COUPling?, Response: GRO
Strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
Example:
SYSTem:LANGuage "SCPI" or SYSTem:LANGuage 'SCPI'
Block data
Block data are a transmission format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
HEADer:HEADer #45168xxxxxxxx
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Instrument Model and Command Processing
R&S ESL
ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many of the following digits
describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following digits indicate the length to be 5168
bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission of these data bytes all end or other control signs
are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following survey offers an overview of the syntax elements.
:
The colon separates the key words of a command. In a command line the separating
semicolon marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
"
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it.
#
The hash symbol # introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
Octal: #O7612
Hexa: #HF3A7
Block: #21312
A "white space" (ASCII–Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates header and
parameter.
Instrument Model and Command Processing
The block diagram in Fig. 5–2 shows how SCPI commands are serviced in the instrument. The
individual components work independently and simultaneously. They communicate with each other by
means of so–called "messages".
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R&S ESL
Instrument Model and Command Processing
Input unit with
input buffer
IEC/IEEE bus
Ethernet
Command
recognition
Instrument settings
data base
Status reporting
system
Instrument
hardware
IEC/IEEE bus
Ethernet
Output unit with
output buffer
Fig. 5–2 Instrument model in the case of remote control
Input unit
The input unit receives commands character by character from the controller and collects them in the
input buffer. The input unit sends a message to the command recognition as soon as the input buffer is
full or as soon as it receives a delimiter, <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>, as defined in IEEE
488.2, or the interface message DCL.
If the input buffer is full, the traffic is stopped and the data received up to then are processed.
Subsequently the traffic is continued. If, however, the buffer is not yet full when receiving the delimiter,
the input unit can already receive the next command during command recognition and execution. The
receipt of DCL clears the input buffer and immediately resets the command recognition.
Command recognition
The command recognition analyses the data received from the input unit. It proceeds in the order in
which it receives the data. Only DCL is serviced with priority, for example GET (Group Execute Trigger)
is only executed after the commands received before. Each recognized command is immediately
transferred to the internal instrument settings data base but not executed immediately.
The command recognition detects syntax errors in the commands and transfers them to the status
reporting system. The rest of a command line after a syntax error is analyzed further if possible and
serviced. After the syntax test, the value range of the parameter is checked, if required.
If the command recognition detects a delimiter, it passes the command to an execution unit that
performs the instrument settings. In the meantime, the command recognition is ready to process new
commands (overlapping execution). A DCL command is processed in the same way.
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Instrument Model and Command Processing
R&S ESL
Data base and instrument hardware
Here the expression "instrument hardware" denotes the part of the instrument fulfilling the actual
instrument function – signal generation, measurement etc. The controller is not included. The term
"data base" denotes a database that manages all the parameters and associated settings required for
setting the instrument hardware.
Setting commands lead to an alteration in the data set. The data set management enters the new
values (e.g. frequency) into the data set, however, only passes them on to the hardware when
requested by the command recognition. This only takes place at the end of a command line.
The data are checked for compatibility with the current instrument settings before they are transmitted to
the instrument hardware. If the execution is not possible, an "execution error" is signaled to the status
reporting system. The corresponding settings are discarded.
Before passing on the data to the hardware, the settling bit in the STATus:OPERation register is set
(refer to section "STATus:OPERation Register"). The hardware executes the settings and resets the bit
again as soon as the new state has settled. This fact can be used to synchronize command servicing.
Queries induce the data set management to send the desired data to the output unit.
Status reporting system
For detailed information refer to section "Status Reporting System".
Output unit
The output unit collects the information requested by the controller, which it receives from the data base
management. It processes it according to the SCPI rules and makes it available in the output buffer.
If the instrument is addressed as a talker without the output buffer containing data or awaiting data from
the data base management, the output unit sends error message "Query UNTERMINATED" to the
status reporting system. No data are sent on the GPIB or via the Ethernet, the controller waits until it has
reached its time limit. This behavior is specified by SCPI.
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization
What has been said above makes clear that all commands can potentially be carried out overlapping. In
order to prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
must be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be carried out after the hardware has
been set. By suitable programming, the controller can be forced to wait for the respective action to occur
(refer to Table 5–1).
Table 5–1 Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action
Programming the controller
*OPC
Sets the Operation Complete bit in
the ESR after all previous
commands have been executed.
– Setting bit 0 in the ESE
– Setting bit 5 in the SRE
– Waiting for service request (SRQ)
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R&S ESL
Status Reporting System
Command
Action
Programming the controller
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1
is returned. This is only the case
after the Operation Complete bit
has been set in the ESR. This bit
indicates that the previous setting
has been completed.
Sending *OPC? directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated before
other commands can be executed.
*WAI
Stops further command processing
until all commands sent before
*WAI have been executed.
Sending *WAI directly after the command whose
processing should be terminated before other
commands are executed.
An example for command synchronization can be found in chapter 7 "Remote Control – Programming
Examples".
For a couple of commands the synchronization to the end of command execution is mandatory in order
to obtain the desired result. The affected commands require either more than one measurement in
order to accomplish the desired instrument setting (e.g. auto range functions), or they require a longer
period of time for execution. If a new command is received during execution of the corresponding
function this may either lead to either to an aborted measurement or to incorrect measurement data.
The following list includes the commands, for which a synchronization via *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is
mandatory:
Table 5–2
Commands with mandatory synchronization (overlapping commands)
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic
measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel
power measurements
Status Reporting System
The status reporting system (refer to Fig. 5–4) stores all information on the present operating state of
the instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status registers and
in the error queue. The status registers and the error queue can be queried via GPIB or via the Ethernet.
The information is of a hierarchical structure. The register status byte (STB) defined in IEEE 488.2 and
its associated mask register service request enable (SRE) form the uppermost level. The STB receives
its information from the standard event status register (ESR) which is also defined in IEEE 488.2 with
the associated mask register standard event status enable (ESE) and registers STATus:OPERation and
STATus:QUEStionable which are defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument.
1300.5053.12
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Status Reporting System
R&S ESL
The IST flag ("Individual STatus") and the parallel poll enable register (PPE) allocated to it are also part
of the status reporting system. The IST flag, like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status in a
single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the service request.
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It is not part of the
status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in the STB.
Structure of an SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts which each have a width of 16 bits and have different
functions (refer to Fig. 5–3). The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware status
is assigned a bit number that applies to all five parts. For example, bit 3 of the STATus:OPERation
register is assigned to the hardware status "wait for trigger" in all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant
bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed by the controller
as positive integer.
15 14 13 12
CONDition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
PTRansition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
NTRansition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
EVENt part
3 2 1 0
to higher-order register
&
&
& & & & &
& & & & & & & & &
+ Sum bit
15 14 13 12
ENABle part
& = logical AND
+ = logical OR
of all bits
3 2 1 0
Fig. 5–3 The status–register model
CONDition part
The CONDition part is directly written into by the hardware or the sum bit of the next lower register. Its
contents reflects the current instrument status. This register part can only be read, but not written into or
cleared. Its contents is not affected by reading.
PTRansition part
The Positive–TRansition part acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition part is changed
from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set to 1.
PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
NTRansition part
The Negative–TRansition part also acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition part is
changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set to 1.
NTR–Bit = 1: the EVENt bit is set.
NTR–Bit = 0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
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R&S ESL
Status Reporting System
With these two edge register parts the user can define which state transition of the condition part (none,
0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
EVENt part
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is the "memory" of the
condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the edge filters. It is permanently updated by the
instrument. This part can only be read by the user. Reading the register clears it. This part is often
equated with the entire register.
ENABle part
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the sum bit (see below).
Each bit of the EVENt part is ANDed with the associated ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all
logical operations of this part are passed on to the sum bit via an OR function (symbol '+').
ENABle–Bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle–Bit = 1: if the associated EVENT bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
Sum bit
As indicated above, the sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The
result is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher–order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event, e.g. a PLL that has
not locked, can lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
Note:
The service request enable register SRE defined in IEEE 488.2 can be taken as ENABle part of
the STB if the STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be taken as the
ENABle part of the ESR.
Overview of the Status Registers
The following figure shows the status registers used by the R&S ESL base unit. The status registers
used by the R&S ESL options are described in separate sections at the end of this chapter.
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Status Reporting System
& = lo gic
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
A ND
= logic
OR
of all bits
SRQ
-&-&-&-&-&-
SRE
not used
SCANresults
resultsavailable
available
Scan
HCOPy in progress
CALibrating
R&S ESL
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STAT us:OPERation
7
6 RQS/MSS
5 ESB
4 MAV
3
2
1
0
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ST B
-&-&-&-&-&-&-
PPE
not used
TRANsducer break
ACPLimit
SYNC
LMARgin
LIMit
CALibration (= UNC AL)
FREQ uency
TEMPerature
POW er
BATTERY LOW
IST flag
Error/event
queue
bla
Output
buffer
ESE
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ALT3 … 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL
ALT2 LOWer FAIL
ALT2 UPPer FAIL
ALT1 LOWer FAIL
ALT1 UPPer FAIL
ADJ LOWer FAIL
ADJ UPPer FAIL
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
CARRier overload
No carrier
SYNC not found
BURSt not found
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC
not used
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
not used
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
not used
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
ST ATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin <1|2>
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit <1|2>
STATus:QUEStionable
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
not used
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Power on
User Request
Command Error
Execution Error
Device Dependent Error
Query Error
Request Control
Operation Complete
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
EXTernalREFerence
LO UNLocked
OVEN COLD
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
IF_OVerload
UNDerload
OVERload
ESR
ST AT us:QUEStionabl e: FREQ uency
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
Fig. 5–4 Overview of the status registers (base unit)
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register
(SRE)
The STB is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview of the instrument status by
collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. It can thus be compared with the CONDition
part of an SCPI register and assumes the highest level within the SCPI hierarchy. A special feature is
that bit 6 acts as the sum bit of the remaining bits of the status byte.
The STATUS BYTE is read using the command "*STB?" or a serial poll.
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R&S ESL
Status Reporting System
The STB is linked to the SRE. The latter corresponds to the ENABle part of the SCPI registers in its
function. Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored. If a bit is set in the
SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a service request (SRQ) is generated on
the GPIB or via the Ethernet, which triggers an interrupt in the controller if this is appropriately
configured and can be further processed there.
The SRE can be set using the command "*SRE" and read using the command "*SRE?"
Table 5–3
Meaning of the bits used in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
0...1
Not used
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue.
If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each entry of the error queue generates a service request.
Thus an error can be recognized and specified in greater detail by polling the error queue.
The poll provides an informative error message. This procedure is to be recommended
since it considerably reduces the problems involved with remote control.
3
QUEStionable status sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable: status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified in greater
detail by polling the QUEStionable status register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output buffer which can be read.
This bit can be used to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the
controller.
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is
set and enabled in the event status enable register.
Setting of this bit indicates a serious error which can be specified in greater detail by
polling the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the
other bits of this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable
register SRE.
7
OPERation status register sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The type of action can
be determined by polling the OPERation status register.
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Status Reporting System
R&S ESL
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
By analogy with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It can be
read by means of a parallel poll (refer to section "Parallel Poll") or using the command *IST?.
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute to the IST flag. The
bits of the STB are ANDed with the corresponding bits of the PPE, with bit 6 being used as well in
contrast to the SRE. The IST flag results from the ORing of all results. The PPE can be set using
commands *PRE and read using command *PRE?.
Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable
Register (ESE)
The ESR is defined in IEEE 488.2. It can be compared with the EVENt part of a SCPI register. The
event status register can be read out using command *ESR?.
The ESE is the associated ENABle part. It can be set using the command *ESE and read using the
command *ESE?.
Table 5–4
Meaning of the bits in the event status register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have
been executed.
1
2
Not used
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having
sent a query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the
instrument instead. The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be
executed.
3
Device–dependent Error
This bit is set if a device–dependent error occurs. An error message with a number
between –300 and –399 or a positive error number, which denotes the error in greater
detail, is entered into the error queue.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct but cannot be performed for
other reasons. An error message with a number between –200 and –300, which denotes
the error in greater detail, is entered into the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a command is received, which is undefined or syntactically incorrect. An
error message with a number between –100 and –200, which denotes the error in greater
detail, is entered into the error queue.
6
User Request
This bit is set on pressing the Local softkey.
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Status Reporting System
Bit No.
Meaning
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set on switching on the instrument.
STATus:OPERation Register
In the CONDition part, this register contains information on which actions the instrument is being
executing or, in the EVENt part, information on which actions the instrument has executed since the last
reading. It can be read using the commands STATus:OPERation:CONDition? or STATus
:OPERation[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–5
Meaning of the bits in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1 to 7
8
Not used
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0
STATus:QUEStionable Register
This register contains information about indefinite states which may occur if the unit is operated without
meeting the specifications. It can be read using the commands STATus:QUEStionable:
CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–6
Bit No.
0 to 1
2
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable register
Meaning
These bits are not used
BATTERY LOW
If the instrument is running without any external power supply and the charging level of the
internal battery is approximately lower than 5% this bit is set to indcate that the system will
be shut down automatically in approx. 5 minutes.
3
POWer
This bit is set if a questionable power occurs (refer also to section
"STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register")
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if a questionable temperature occurs.
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Status Reporting System
Bit No.
Meaning
5
FREQuency
R&S ESL
The bit is set if a frequency is questionable (refer to section
"STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register")
6 to 7
8
Not used
CALibration
The bit is set if a measurement is performed unaligned (label UNCAL)
9
LIMit (device–specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see also section "STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit
Register")
10
LMARgin (device–specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated (see also section "STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin
Register")
11
SYNC (device–dependent)
This bit is set if, in measurements or pre–measurements, synchronization to midamble
fails or no burst is found.
This bit is also set if, in pre–measurements mode, the result differs too strongly from the
expected value (see also "STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC Register").
12
ACPLimit (device–specific)
This bit is set if a limit for the adjacent channel power measurement is violated (see also
section "STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register")
13 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
This register contains information about the observance of limits during adjacent power measurements.
It can be read using the commands 'STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit :CONDition?' and
'STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit[:EVENt]?'
Table 5–7
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
ADJ UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel
1
ADJ LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
2
ALT1 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
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Bit No.
Meaning
3
ALT1 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
4
ALT2 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
5
ALT2 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
6
ALT3 … 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in one off the lower or upper alternate channels
3 … 11
7 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always set to 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register
This register contains information about the reference and local oscillator.
It can be read using the commands STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:CONDition?
STATus :QUEStionable:FREQuency[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–8
and
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVEN COLD
This bit is set if the reference oscillator has not yet attained its operating temperature.
OCXO is displayed.
1
LO UNLocked
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks. LOUNL is displayed.
2 to 7
Not used
8
EXTernalREFerence
Bit 8 indicates that the external reference oscillator is selected and no useable external
reference source is connected to the instrument. Therefore the synthesizer can not lock
and the frequency accuracy is not guaranteed.
9 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
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STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register
This register contains information about the observance of limit lines. It can be read using the
commands
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit:CONDition?
and
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–9
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LIMit 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 1 is violated.
1
LIMit 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 2 is violated.
2
LIMit 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 3 is violated.
3
LIMit 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 4 is violated.
4
LIMit 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 5 is violated.
5
LIMit 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 6 is violated.
6
LIMit 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 7 is violated.
7
LIMit 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register
This register contains information about the observance of limit margins. It can be read using the
commands
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin:CONDition?
and
STATus
:QUEStionable:LMARgin[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–10
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LMARgin 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
1
LMARgin 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 2 is violated.
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Status Reporting System
Bit No.
Meaning
2
LMARgin 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 3 is violated.
3
LMARgin 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 4 is violated.
4
LMARgin 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 5 is violated.
5
LMARgin 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
6
LMARgin 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 7 is violated.
7
LMARgin 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
This register contains all information about possible overloads of the unit.
It can be read using the commands STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition? and STATus
:QUEStionable:POWer[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–11
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVERload
This bit is set if the RF input is overloaded. OVLD is displayed.
1
UNDerload
This bit is set if the RF input is underloaded. UNLD is displayed.
2
IF_OVerload
This bit is set if the IF path is overloaded. IFOVL is displayed.
3 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
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STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC Register
This register contains information about sync and bursts not found, and about pre–measurement results
exceeding or falling short of expected values (for details on GSM power measurements refer to chapter
"Advanced Measurement Examples", and the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, "Basic Measurement
Examples").
It can be read using the commands STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:CONDition? and
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC[:EVENt]?.
Table 5–12
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEstionable:SYNC register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
BURSt not found
This bit is set if no burst is found in the measurements/pre–measurements for
phase/frequency error (PFE) or carrier power versus time (PVT). If a burst is found in
these measurements/pre–measurements, the bit is reset.
1
SYNC not found
This bit is set if the synchronization sequence (training sequence) of the midamble is not
found in the measurements/pre–measurements for phase/frequency error (PFE) or carrier
power versus time (PVT). If the synchronization sequence (training sequence) of the
midamble is found in these measurements/pre–measurements, the bit is reset.
2
With option TV Trigger (B6), this bis is set in the free run trigger mode if the trigger does not
return data.
No carrier
This bit is set if the level value determined in the pre–measurements for carrier power
versus time (PVT) and spectrum due to modulation is too low. The bit is reset at the
beginning of the pre–measurement.
3
Carrier overload
This bit is set if the level value determined in the pre–measurements for carrier versus time
(PVT) and spectrum due to modulation is too high. The bit is reset at the beginning of the
pre–measurement.
4–14
Not used.
15
This bit is always 0.
Application of the Status Reporting Systems
In order to be able to effectively use the status reporting system, the information contained there must
be transmitted to the controller and further processed there. There are several methods which are
represented in the following. For detailed program examples refer to chapter 7 "Remote Control –
Programming Examples".
Service Request
Under certain circumstances, the instrument can send a service request (SRQ) to the controller. Usually
this service request initiates an interrupt at the controller, to which the control program can react
appropriately. As evident from Fig. 5–4, an SRQ is always initiated if one or several of bits 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7
of the status byte are set and enabled in the SRE. Each of these bits combines the information of a
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R&S ESL
Status Reporting System
further register, the error queue or the output buffer. The ENABle parts of the status registers can be set
so that arbitrary bits in an arbitrary status register initiate an SRQ. In order to make use of the
possibilities of the service request effectively, all bits should be set to "1" in enable registers SRE and
ESE.
Example: Use of the command *OPC to generate an SRQ at the end of a sweep
1. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*ESE 1") 'Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation Complete)
2. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*SRE 32") 'Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB)?
After its settings have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each controller program
should set the instrument in a way that a service request is initiated in the case of malfunction. The
program should react appropriately to the service request. A detailed example for a service request
routine is to be found in chapter 7 "Remote Control – Programming Examples".
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command *STB, the status byte of an instrument is queried. However, the
query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly faster. The serial–poll method has already
been defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll
the status byte. The method also works with instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The VISUAL BASIC command for executing a serial poll is IBRSP(). Serial poll is mainly used to obtain
a fast overview of the state of several instruments connected to the controller.
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, the controller uses a single command to request up to eight instruments to transmit
one bit of information each on the data lines, i.e., to set the data line allocated to each instrument to a
logical "0" or "1". In addition to the SRE register, which determines the conditions under which an SRQ
is generated, there is a parallel poll enable register (PPE). This register is ANDed with the STB bit by bit,
considering bit 6 as well. The results are ORed, the result is possibly inverted and then sent as a
response to the parallel poll of the controller. The result can also be queried without parallel poll by
means of the command *IST?.
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using the VISUAL BASIC command IBPPC().
This command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines whether the response is to be
inverted. The parallel poll itself is executed using IBRPP().
The parallel poll method is mainly used to find out quickly which one of the instruments connected to the
controller has sent a service request. To this effect, SRE and PPE must be set to the same value.
Query by Means of Commands
Each part of any status register can be read by means of queries. The individual commands are listed in
the description of the STATus Subsystem. The returned value is always a number that represents the
bit pattern of the queried register. This number is evaluated by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on the cause of the
SRQ.
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Error Queue Query
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of the error queue
are detailed plain–text error messages that can be displayed via manual operation using the setup menu
or queried via remote control using the command SYSTem:ERRor?. Each call of SYSTem:ERRor?
provides one entry from the error queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument
responds with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the entries describe the
cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially in the test phase of a controller
program the error queue should be queried regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the
instrument are recorded there as well.
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System
Table 5–13 contains the different commands and events causing the status reporting system to be
reset. None of the commands, except *RST and SYSTem:PRESet, influences the functional instrument
settings. In particular, DCL does not change the instrument settings.
Table 5–13 Resetting the status reporting system
Event
Switching on
supply voltage
Power–On–
Status–Clear
Effect
0
DCL,SDC
(Device
Clear,
Selected
Device
Clear)
*RST or
SYSTem:PRE
Set
STATus:PRE
Set
1
Clear STB,ESR
yes
Clear SRE,ESE
yes
Clear PPE
yes
Clear EVENt parts of
the registers
yes
Clear ENABle parts
of all OPERation and
QUEStionable
registers; Fill ENABle
parts of all other
registers with "1".
yes
yes
Fill PTRansition parts
with "1";
Clear NTRansition
parts
yes
yes
Clear error queue
yes
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
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yes
yes
yes
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R&S ESL
Event
Interfaces and Protocols
Switching on
supply voltage
DCL,SDC
(Device
Clear,
Selected
Device
Clear)
Power–On–
Status–Clear
Effect
Clear command
processing and input
buffer
0
yes
*RST or
SYSTem:PRE
Set
STATus:PRE
Set
*CLS
1
yes
yes
1)Every command being the first in a command line, i.e., immediately following a <PROGRAM
MESSAGE TERMINATOR> clears the output buffer.
Interfaces and Protocols
The standard instrument is accessed via LAN in order to perform for remote control. Optional a GPIB
interface can be used for remote control, provided by option GPIB Interface, R&S ESL–B10.
LAN Interface
To be integrated in a LAN, the instrument is equipped with a LAN interface, consisting of a connector, a
network interface card and protocols (VXI–11 and RSIB). For details on the connector and its use refer
to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Instrument access via VXI11 or RSIB is usually achieved from high level programming platforms by
using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer. VISA encapsulates the low level VXI, RSIB or even
GPIB function calls and thus makes the transport interface transparent for the user. The necessary
VISA library is available as a separate product. For details contact your local R&S sales representative.
VXI Basics
The VXI–11 standard is based on the RPC protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the
network/transport layer. The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are
preconfigured. TCP/IP ensures connection–oriented communication, where the order of the exchanged
messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages cannot be lost.
Remote control of an instrument via a network is based on standardized protocols which follow the OSI
reference model (see Fig. below).
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Interfaces and Protocols
R&S ESL
Application
SCPI
Presentation
XDR (VXI-11)
Session
ONC-RPC
Transport
TCP / UDP
Network
IP
Data Link
Ethernet/802.3
Physical
802.3/10BASE-T
Fig. 5–5
Example for LAN remote control based on the OSI reference model
Based on TCP/UDP, messages between the controller and the instrument are exchanged via open
network computing (ONC) – remote procedure calls (RPC). With XDR (VXI–11), legal RPC messages
are known as VXI–11 standard. Based on this standard, messages are exchanged between the
controller and the instrument. The messages are identical with SCPI commands. They can be organized
in four groups:
• program messages (control command to the instrument)
• response messages (values returned by the instrument)
• service request (spontaneous queries of the instrument)
• low–level control messages (interface messages).
A VXI–11 link between a controller and an instrument uses three channels: core, abort and interrupt
channel. Instrument control is mainly performed on the core channel (program, response and low–level
control messages). The abort channel is used for immediate abort of the core channel; the interrupt
channel transmits spontaneous service requests of the instrument. Link setup itself is very complex. For
more details refer to the VXI–11 specification.
Core channel
(program, response,
control messages )
Instrument
Abort channel
(abort)
Controller
Interrupt channel
(Service request)
Fig. 5–6
VXI–11 channels between instrument and controller
The number of controllers that can address an instrument is practically unlimited in the network. In the
instrument, the individual controllers are clearly distinguished. This distinction continues up to the
application level in the controller, i.e. two applications on a computer are identified by the instrument as
two different controllers.
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Interfaces and Protocols
Controller
Controller
Instrument
Controller
Fig. 5–7
Remote control via LAN from several controllers
The controllers can lock and unlock the instrument for exclusive access. This regulates access to the
instrument of several controllers.
VXI–11 Interface Messages
On the Ethernet link, the interface messages are called low–level control messages. These messages
can be used to emulate interface messages of the GPIB.
Table 5–14 VXI–11 Interface Messages
Command
Effect on the instrument
&ABO
(Abort)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received.
&DCL
(Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and
sets the command processing software to a defined initial
state. Does not change the instrument setting.
&GTL
(Go to Local)
Transition to the "Local" state (manual operation)
&GTR
(Go to Remote)
Transition to the "Remote" state (remote control)
&GET
(Group Execute
Trigger)
Triggers a previously active device function (e.g. a sweep).
The effect of the command is the same as with that of a pulse
at the external trigger signal input.
&LLO
(Local Lockout)
Disables switchover from remote control to manual operation
by means of the front panel keys
&POL
(Serial Poll)
Starts a serial poll
&NREN
(Not Remote Enable)
Enables switchover from remote control to manual operation
by means of the front panel keys
RSIB Protocol Basics
The R&S defined RSIB protocol uses the TCP/IP protocol for communication with the instrument.
Remote control over RSIB is done on a message level basis using the SCPI command set of the
instrument. The RSIB protocol allows you to control the instrument not only via Visual C++– and Visual
Basic programs but also via the two Windows applications WinWord and Excel as well as via National
Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI and Agilent VEE. The control applications run on an external
computer in the network.
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A UNIX operating system can be installed on an external computer in addition to a Windows operating
system. In this case, the control applications are created either in C or C++. The supported UNIX
operating systems include:
•Sun Solaris 2.6 Sparc Station
•Sun Solaris 2.6 Intel Platform
•Red Hat Linux 6.2 x86 Processors
RSIB Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National Instruments for GPIB
programming. The functions supported by the libraries are listed in the following table.
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero–terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets timeout for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSrq()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numeric display (only required for
non–Intel platforms).
As with the National Instrument interface, the successful execution of a command can be checked by
means of the variables ibsta, iberr and ibcntl. For this purpose, all RSIB functions are assigned
references to these three variables.
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Status word – ibsta
The status word ibsta provides information on the status of the RSIB interface. The following bits are
defined:
Bit
designation
Bit
Hex code
Description
ERR
15
8000
Is set when an error has occurred on calling a function. If this
bit is set, iberr contains an error code that specifies the error
in greater detail.
TIMO
14
4000
Is set when a timeout has occurred on calling a function.
CMPL
8
0100
Is set if the response of the GPIB parser has been read out
completely. If a parser response is read out with the function
RSDLLilrd() and the length of the buffer is insufficient for
the answer, the bit will be cleared.
Error variable – iberr
If the ERR bit (8000h) is set in the status word, iberr contains an error code which allows the error to
be specified in greater detail. Extra error codes are defined for the RSIB protocol, independent of the
National Instruments interface.
Error
Error
code
Description
IBERR_CONNECT
2
Setup of the connection to the measuring instrument has failed.
IBERR_NO_DEVICE
3
A function of the interface has been called with an illegal device
handle.
IBERR_MEM
4
No empty memory available.
IBERR_TIMEOUT
5
Timeout has occurred.
IBERR_BUSY
6
The RSIB protocol is blocked by a function that is still running.
IBERR_FILE
7
Error when reading or writing to a file.
IBERR_SEMA
8
Error upon creating or assigning a semaphore (only under
UNIX).
Count variable – ibcntl
The variable ibcntl is updated with the number of transferred bytes each time a read or write function
is called.
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GPIB Interface (Option R&S FSL–B10)
The standard instrument is not equipped with an GPIB connector, but can be accessed via the LAN
interface for remote control. The option R&S FSL–B10 provides a GPIB interface. For details on the
connector and its use refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
GPIB Basics
The GPIB interface is described by the following characterisitics:
• 8–bit parallel data transfer
• bi–directional data transfer
• three–line handshake
• high data transfer rate of max. 700 kbyte/s
• up to 15 instruments can be connected
• maximal length of the interconnecting cables 15 m (single connection, 2m)
• wired–OR connection if several instruments are connected in parallel.
Depending on the bus type the following bus lines are used:
•
Data bus with 8 lines D0 to D7.
The transmission is bit–parallel and byte–serial in the ASCII/ISO code. D0 is the least significant bit,
D7 the most significant bit.
•
Control bus with 5 lines
IFC (Interface Clear)
ATN (Attention)
SRQ (Service Request)
active LOW resets the interfaces of the instruments connected to the
default setting.
active LOW signals the transmission of interface messages.
inactive HIGH signals the transmission of device messages.
active LOW enables the connected device to send a service request
to the controller.
REN (Remote Enable)
•
active LOW permits switchover to remote control.
has two functions in connection with ATN:
EOI (End or Identify)
ATN = HIGH
active LOW marks the end of data transmission.
ATN = LOW
active LOW triggers a parallel poll.
Handshake bus with three lines
DAV (Data Valid)
active LOW signals a valid data byte on the data bus.
NRFD (Not Ready For Data) active LOW signals that one of the connected devices is not ready
for data transfer.
NDAC (Not Data Accepted)
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active LOW signals that the instrument connected is accepting the
data on the data bus.
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Interfaces and Protocols
GPIB Interface Functions
Instruments which can be remote controlled via the GPIB can be equipped with different interface
functions. Table 5–1 lists the interface functions appropriate for the instrument.
Table 5–1 Interface functions
Control character
Interface function
SH1
Handshake source function (source handshake), full capability
AH1
Handshake sink function (acceptor handshake), full capability
L4
Listener function, full capability, unaddress if MTA.
T6
Talker function, full capability, ability to respond to serial poll,
unaddress if MLA
SR1
Service request function (Service Request), full capability
PP1
Parallel poll function, full capability
RL1
Remote/Local switch over function, full capability
DC1
Reset function (Device Clear), full capability
DT1
Trigger function (Device Trigger), full capability
C0
No controller function
GPIB Interface Messages
The messages transferred via the data lines of the GPIB can be divided into two groups: interface
messages and device messages
Interface messages are transferred on the data lines of the GPIB if the "ATN" control line is active
(LOW). They are used for communication between controller and instruments and can only be sent by
the controller which currently has control of the GPIB.
Universal Commands
The universal commands are encoded 10 – 1F hex. They affect all instruments connected to the bus
without addressing.
Table 5–2Universal Commands
Command
QuickBASIC command
Effect on the instrument
DCL (Device Clear)
IBCMD (controller%,
CHR$(20))
Aborts the processing of the commands
just received and sets the command
processing software to a defined initial
state. Does not change the instrument
settings.
IFC (Interface Clear)
IBSIC (controller%)
Resets the interfaces to the default
setting.
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Interfaces and Protocols
R&S ESL
Command
QuickBASIC command
Effect on the instrument
LLO (Local Lockout)
IBCMD (controller%,
CHR$(17))
The LOC/IEC ADDR key is disabled.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
IBCMD (controller%,
CHR$(24))
Ready for serial poll.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
IBCMD (controller%,
CHR$(25))
End of serial poll.
PPU (Parallel Poll
Unconfigure)
IBCMD (controller%,
CHR$(21))
End of the parallel–poll state.
Addressed Commands
The addressed commands are encoded 00 – 0F hex. They are only effective for instruments addressed
as listeners.
Table 5–3Addressed Commands
Command
QuickBASIC command
Effect on the instrument
SDC (Selected Device
Clear)
IBCLR (device%)
Aborts the processing of the commands
just received and sets the command
processing software to a defined initial
state. Does not change the instrument
setting.
GET (Group Execute
Trigger)
IBTRG (device%)
Triggers a previously active device
function (e.g. a sweep). The effect of the
command is the same as with that of a
pulse at the external trigger signal input.
GTL (Go to Local)
IBLOC (device%)
Transition to the "Local" state (manual
operation).
PPC (Parallel Poll
Configure)
IBPPC (device%, data%)
Configure instrument for parallel poll.
Additionally, the QuickBASIC command
executes PPE/PPD.
Instrument Messages
For different interfaces, device messages are more or less alike. They are divided into two groups,
depending on the direction they are sent: commands and device responses.
Commands
Commands (program messages)are messages the controller sends to the instrument. They operate the
device functions and request information. The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
•
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
–
Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument or setting the
frequency.
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R&S ESL
–
•
Noise Figure Measurements (K30) – Status Reporting System
Queries cause data to be provided for remote control, e.g. for identification of the device or
polling a parameter value. Queries are formed by directly appending a question mark to the
header.
According to their definition in standard:
–
Common commands are exactly defined as to their function and notation in standard IEEE
488.2. They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status registers, reset
and self test.
–
Device–specific commands refer to functions depending on the features of the instrument such
as frequency setting. A majority of these commands has also been standardized by the SCPI
committee. Device–specific extensions following the SCPI rules are permitted by the standard.
Device responses
Device responses (response messages and service request) are messages the instrument sends to the
controller after a query. They can contain measurement results, instrument settings and information on
the instrument status (refer to section "Responses to Queries").
Noise Figure Measurements (K30) – Status Reporting
System
Additionally to the registers provided by the base system, the following registers are used or modified in
the Noise Figure Measurements option (K30):
•
STATus:OPERation Register
Although this register is provided by the base system, the Noise Figure Measurements option
makes use of bits not used within the base system.
•
STATus:QUEStionable Register
Although this register is provided by the base system, the Noise Figure Measurements option uses
different bits and definitions.
•
STATus:QUEStionable:CORRection Register
This register is provided by the R&S FS–K30 option.
The following registers are provided by the base system and are not available from the Noise Figure
Measurements option (K30) command tree:
•
•
•
•
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
Detailed information on the status registers of the base system is given in section Status Reporting
System. In this section, only the new and altered status registers / bits for the Noise Figure
Measurements option (K30) are described.
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Noise Figure Measurements (K30) – Status Reporting System
R&S ESL
STATus:OPERation Register
Additionally to the bits assigned by the base system (for details refer to STATus:OPERation Register),
the bits no. 4 and 7 are defined:
Bit No
Meaning
4
MEASuring
A '1' in this bit position indicates that a measurement is in progress.
7
CORRecting
Indicates that a user calibration is in progress.
STATus:QUEStionable Register
Additionally to the bits assigned by the base system (for details refer to STATus:QUEStionable
Register), the bit no. 11 is defined differently:
Bit No
Meaning
11
CORRection
This bit is set if a questionable correction data occurs (see also section
STATus:QUEStionable:CORRection Register).
STATus:QUEStionable:CORRection Register
This register comprises information about the correction state of noise measurements. It can be queried
by STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]? commands.
Bit No
Meaning
0
NO CORRection
User calibration is required (i.e. not done, or setup changed). Will remain 1 until a user
calibration is done. Set to 1 at the start of a user calibration. It will go to 0 at the end of a
user calibration only if at least all points on one range have been calibrated. Initial value
is 1.
These bits are not used
UNCorrected measurement
Uncorrected measurement data (one or more points could not be corrected using
existing user calibration). Set to 0 at the start of each sweep/redisplay of result. Will
remain 0 until an attempt is made to correct a point and the calibration data does not
exist (the required range has not been calibrated).
If no calibration data exist, this bit will not be set when an attempt is made to make a
corrected measurement.
These bits are not used
This bit is always 0
1
2
3 to 14
15
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R&S ESL
Noise Figure Measurements (K30) – Status Reporting System
Error Reporting
Error reporting for the Noise Figure Measurements option is carried out using the Service Request
(SRQ) interrupt in the GPIB interface. When an error occurs a Service Request interrupt will be
generated. The master can then query the slave instrument for the error that triggered the interrupt
Errors are queried through the "SYSTem:ERRor'' command.
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R&S ESL
Remote Control – Commands
Contents of Chapter 6
6
Remote Control – Commands...................................................................... 6.1
Notation .............................................................................................................................................6.2
Remote Commands of the Base Unit .............................................................................................6.5
ABORt Subsystem ......................................................................................................................6.6
CALCulate Subsystem................................................................................................................6.7
DISPlay Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.114
FORMat Subsytem .................................................................................................................6.123
INITiate Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.124
INPut Subsystem ....................................................................................................................6.128
OUTPut Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.133
SENSe Subsystem .................................................................................................................6.135
SOURce Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)...............................................................................6.201
STATus Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.203
SYSTem Subsystem...............................................................................................................6.214
TRACe Subsystem .................................................................................................................6.215
TRIGger Subsystem ...............................................................................................................6.230
UNIT Subsystem.....................................................................................................................6.234
Remote Commands of the Analog Demodulation Option (K7)................................................6.235
CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7) ...............................................................6.236
DISPlay Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)....................................................................6.246
INSTrument Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7) .............................................................6.248
SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7).....................................................................6.249
TRACe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7).....................................................................6.277
TRIGger Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)...................................................................6.278
UNIT Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7) ........................................................................6.280
Remote Commands of the Power Meter Option (K9)................................................................6.281
CALCulate Subsystem (Power Meter, K9) .............................................................................6.282
CALibration Subsystem (Power Meter, K9)............................................................................6.284
FETCh Subsystem (Power Meter, K9) ...................................................................................6.285
READ Subsystem (Power Meter, K9).....................................................................................6.286
SENSe Subsystem (Power Meter, K9) ...................................................................................6.287
UNIT Subsystem (Power Meter, K9) ......................................................................................6.292
Remote Commands of the Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)...................................6.293
ABORt Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) .................................................................................6.294
CALCulate Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) ...........................................................................6.295
CONFigure Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) ..........................................................................6.304
DISPlay Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30)................................................................................6.306
FETCh Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) .................................................................................6.313
INITiate Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) ................................................................................6.317
INPut Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30)....................................................................................6.318
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Remote Control – Commands
R&S ESL
INSTrument Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) .........................................................................6.319
SENSe Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30).................................................................................6.320
STATus Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30)................................................................................6.330
SYSTem Subsystem (Noise Figure, K30) ..............................................................................6.335
Remote Control - Description of Basic Settings Commands ..................................................6.336
Common Commands..............................................................................................................6.337
CALibration Subsystem ..........................................................................................................6.341
DIAGnostic Subsystem...........................................................................................................6.343
DISPlay Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.347
FORMat Subsytem .................................................................................................................6.354
HCOPy Subsystem .................................................................................................................6.355
INSTrument Subsystem..........................................................................................................6.362
MMEMory Subsystem.............................................................................................................6.363
OUTPut Subsystem (Option Additional Interfaces, B5)..........................................................6.380
SENSe Subsystem .................................................................................................................6.381
SOURce Subsystem...............................................................................................................6.386
STATus Subsystem ................................................................................................................6.387
SYSTem Subsystem...............................................................................................................6.392
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R&S ESL
6
Remote Control – Commands
Remote Control – Commands
This chapter describes all remote control commands for the analyzer functions, firmware options (see
list below) and the basic settings functions of the R&S ESL in detail. Commands that are used both for
analyzer functions and firmware options are described in the analyzer commands section. The mode
information is provided for each command.
A few commands are implemented for reasons of compatibility with the R&S FSP family only. These
commands are not described in the R&S ESL documentation, because they have no effect.
Each subsystem starts with a list of commands, which provides quick access to all commands of the
subsystem. Be aware, that for one subsystem more than one SCPI command lists can exist, depending
on the functionality (analyzer and basic settings, options). For details on the notation refer to "Notation".
Remote commands of firmware and firmware options
–
"Remote Commands of the Base Unit" on page 6.5
–
"Remote Commands of the Analog Demodulation Option (K7)" on page 6.235
–
"Remote Commands of the Power Meter Option (K9)" on page 6.281
–
"Remote Commands of the Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)" on page 6.293
–
"Remote Control – Description of Basic Settings Commands" on page 6.336
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E-2
Notation
R&S ESL
Notation
In the following sections, all commands implemented in the instrument are first listed and then
described in detail, arranged according to the command subsystems. The notation is adapted to the
SCPI standard. The SCPI conformity information is included in the individual description of the
commands.
•
Individual Description
•
Upper/Lower Case Notation
•
Special Characters
•
Description of Parameters
Individual Description
The individual description contains the complete notation of the command. An example for each
command, the *RST value and the SCPI information are included as well.
The options and operating modes for which a command can be used are indicated by the following
abbreviations:
Abbreviation
Description
A
spectrum analysis
A–F
spectrum analysis – span > 0 only (frequency mode)
A–T
spectrum analysis – zero span only (time mode)
ADEMOD
analog demodulation (option R&S FSL–K7)
NF
noise figure measurements (option R&S FSL–K30)
PSM
power sensor measurements (option R&S FSL–K9)
R
receiver
Note:
The spectrum analysis (analyzer) mode and the receiver mode are implemented in the base
unit. For the other modes the corresponding options are required.
Upper/Lower Case Notation
Upper/lower case letters are used to mark the long or short form of the key words of a command in the
description (see chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics"). The instrument itself does not distinguish
between upper and lower case letters.
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6.2
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R&S ESL
Notation
Special Characters
|
A selection of key words with an identical effect exists for several commands. These
keywords are indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical stroke. Only one of
these keywords needs to be included in the header of the command. The effect of the
command is independent of which of the keywords is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW|:FIXed
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created. They set the
frequency of the fixed frequency signal to 1 kHz:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW 1E3
SENSe:FREQuency:FIXed 1E3
A vertical stroke in parameter indications marks alternative possibilities in the sense of "or".
The effect of the command is different, depending on which parameter is used.
Example: Selection of the parameters for the command
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE VIDeo | LINear
If parameter SINGle is selected, full screen is displayed, in the case of SPLit, split screen
is displayed.
[]
Key words in square brackets can be omitted when composing the header. The full
command length must be accepted by the instrument for reasons of compatibility with the
SCPI standards.
Parameters in square brackets can be incorporated optionally in the command or omitted as
well.
{}
Parameters in braces can be incorporated optionally in the command, either not at all, once
or several times.
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6.3
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Notation
R&S ESL
Description of Parameters
Due to the standardization, the parameter section of SCPI commands consists always of the same
syntactical elements. SCPI has therefore specified a series of definitions, which are used in the tables
of commands. In the tables, these established definitions are indicated in angled brackets (<...>) and
will be briefly explained in the following (see also chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics", section
"Parameters").
<Boolean>
This keyword refers to parameters which can adopt two states, "on" and "off". The "off" state may either
be indicated by the keyword OFF or by the numeric value 0, the "on" state is indicated by ON or any
numeric value other than zero. Parameter queries are always returned the numeric value 0 or 1.
<numeric_value> <num>
These keywords mark parameters which may be entered as numeric values or be set using specific
keywords (character data). The following keywords given below are permitted:
MAXimum: This keyword sets the parameter to the largest possible value.
MINimum: This keyword sets the parameter to the smallest possible value.
DEFault: This keyword is used to reset the parameter to its default value.
UP: This keyword increments the parameter value.
DOWN: This keyword decrements the parameter value.
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by adding the
corresponding keywords to the command. They must be entered following the quotation mark.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer? MAXimum
Returns the maximum possible numeric value of the center frequency as result.
<arbitrary block program data>
This keyword is provided for commands the parameters of which consist of a binary data block.
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R&S ESL
Remote Commands of the Base Unit
Remote Commands of the Base Unit
In this section all remote control commands for base unit functions are described in detail. For details
on basic settings commands refer to section "Remote Control – Description of Basic Settings
Commands".
Subsystems of the analyzer
–
"ABORt Subsystem" on page 6.6
–
"CALCulate Subsystem" on page 6.7
–
"DISPlay Subsystem" on page 6.114
–
"FORMat Subsytem" on page 6.123
–
"INITiate Subsystem" on page 6.124
–
"INPut Subsystem" on page 6.128
–
"OUTPut Subsystem" on page 6.133
–
"SENSe Subsystem" on page 6.135
–
"SOURce Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)" on page 6.201
–
"STATus Subsystem" on page 6.203
–
"SYSTem Subsystem" on page 6.214
–
"TRACe Subsystem" on page 6.215
–
"TRIGger Subsystem" on page 6.230
–
"UNIT Subsystem" on page 6.234
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6.5
E-2
ABORt Subsystem
R&S ESL
ABORt Subsystem
The ABORt subsystem contains the commands for aborting triggered actions. An action can be
triggered again immediately after being aborted. All commands trigger events, and therefore they have
no *RST value.
Commands of the ABORt Subsystem
–
ABORt
–
HOLD
ABORt
This command aborts a current measurement and resets the trigger system.
Example
ABOR;INIT:IMM
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
HOLD
This command interrupts a current scan measurement. The scan is resumed by
INITiate<1|2>[:IMMediate].
Example
HOLD
Interrupts the current measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode
R
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6.6
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate Subsystem
The CALCulate subsystem contains commands for converting instrument data, transforming and
carrying out corrections. These functions are carried out subsequent to data acquisition, i.e. following
the SENSe subsystem.
The following subsystems are included:
•
"CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem" on page 6.7
•
"CALCulate:DLINe Subsystem" on page 6.18
•
"CALCulate:ESPectrum Subsystem" on page 6.19
•
"CALCulate:FLINe Subsystem" on page 6.21
•
"CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem" on page 6.22
•
"CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem" on page 6.47
•
"CALCulate:MATH Subsystem" on page 6.100
•
"CALCulate:PSEarch|PEAKsearch Subsystem" on page 6.102
•
"CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem" on page 6.106
•
"CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem" on page 6.111
•
"CALCulate:TLINe Subsystem" on page 6.112
•
"CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem" on page 6.113
CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem
The CALCulate:DELTamarker subsystem controls the delta marker functions of the instrument.
Commands of the CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:AOFF
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:MAXimum[:PEAK]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y:OFFSet
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
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6.7
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:TRACe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X:RELative?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>[:STATe]
This command switches on and off the delta marker when delta marker 1 is selected. The
corresponding marker becomes the delta marker when delta marker 2 to 4 is selected. If the
corresponding marker is not activated, it will be activated and positioned on the maximum of the
measurement curve.
If no numeric suffix with DELTamarker is indicated, delta marker 1 is selected automatically.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:DELT3 ON
Switches marker 3 to delta marker mode.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active delta markers.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:DELT:AOFF
Switches off all delta markers.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.8
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]
This command switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. Marker 1
will be activated previously and a peak search will be performed, if necessary. If marker 1 is
activated, its position becomes the reference point for the measurement. The reference point
can then be modified with the
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X commands and
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y independently of
the position of marker 1 and of a trace. It applies to all delta markers as long as the function is
active.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX ON
Switches on the measurement with fixed reference value for all delta markers.
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ
Sets the frequency reference to 128 MHz.
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM
Sets the reference level to +30 dBm.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command sets the reference point level for all delta markers for a measurement with fixed
reference point (CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]) to
the peak of the selected trace.
For phase–noise measurements
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]), the command
defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX
Sets the reference point level for delta markers to the peak of the selected trace.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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6.9
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X
This command defines a new frequency reference (span > 0) or time (span = 0) for all delta
markers for a measurement with fixed reference value
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]).
For phase–noise measurements
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]), the command
defines a new frequency reference or time for delta marker 2.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128MHz
Sets the frequency reference to 128 MHz.
Characteristics
RST value: – (CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe] is
set to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y
This command defines a new reference point level for all delta markers for a measurement with
fixed reference point
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]).
For phase–noise measurements
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]), the command
defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y –10dBm
Sets the reference point level for delta markers to –10 dBm.
Characteristics
RST value: – (CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe] is
set to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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6.10
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y:OFFSet
This command defines an additional level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value
(CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON). For this measurement, the
offset is included in the display of all delta markers.
For phase–noise measurements
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]), the command
defines an additional level offset which is included in the display of delta marker 2.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 10dB
Sets the level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value or the phase–noise
measurement to 10 dB.
Characteristics
RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the phase–noise measurement with all active delta markers.
The correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are taken into account in the
measurement.
Marker 1 will be activated, if necessary, and a peak search will be performed. If marker 1 is
activated, its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
The reference point can then be modified with the
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X and
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y commands
independently of the position of marker 1 and of a trace (the same commands used for the
measurement with fixed reference point).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO ON
Switches on the phase–noise measurement with all delta markers.
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ
Sets the frequency reference to 128 MHz.
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM
Sets the reference level to +30 dBm
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:PNOise:RESult?
This command queries the result of the phase–noise measurement. The measurement will be
switched on, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO:RES?
Outputs the result of phase–noise measurement of the selected delta marker.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current maximum value on the measured curve.
If necessary, the corresponding delta marker will be activated first.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT3:MAX
Sets delta marker 3 to the maximum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.12
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the
current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first,
if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
Sets delta marker 1 to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the current value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value on the measured
curve. The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT2:MAX:NEXT
Sets delta marker 2 to the next smaller maximum value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if
necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
Sets delta marker 1 to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the current value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.13
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current minimum value on the measured curve.
The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT3:MIN
Sets delta marker 3 to the minimum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the
current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first,
if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
Sets delta marker 1 to the next higher minimum to the left of the current value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value of the measured
curve. The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT2:MIN:NEXT
Sets delta marker 2 to the next higher minimum value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.14
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if
necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
Sets delta marker 1 to the next higher minimum value to the right of the current value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MODE
This command switches between relative and absolute frequency input of the delta marker (or
time with span = 0).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ABSolute | RELative
Example
CALC:DELT:MODE ABS
Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to absolute values.
CALC:DELT:MODE REL
Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
Characteristics
RST value: REL
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:TRACe
This command assigns the selected delta marker to the indicated trace. The selected trace must
be active, i.e. its state must be different from "BLANK".
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
1 to 6
Example
CALC:DELT3:TRAC 2
Assigns delta marker 3 to trace 2.
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6.15
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X
This command positions the selected delta marker to the indicated frequency (span > 0), time
(span = 0) or level (APD measurement = ON or CCDF measurement = ON). The input is in
absolute values or relative to marker 1 depending on the command
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:MODE. If reference fixed measurement
(CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe] is ON) is active,
relative values refer to the reference position are entered. The query always returns absolute
values.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
Example
CALC:DELT:MOD REL
Switches the input for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
CALC:DELT2:X 10.7MHz
Positions delta marker 2 10.7 MHz to the right of marker 1.
CALC:DELT:X?
Outputs the absolute frequency/time of delta marker 1.
CALC:DELT:X:REL?
Outputs the relative frequency/time/level of delta marker 1.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X:RELative?
This command queries the frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) of the selected delta marker
relative to marker 1 or to the reference position ( for
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe] is ON). The
command activates the corresponding delta marker, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:DELT3:X:REL?
Outputs the frequency of delta marker 3 relative to marker 1 or relative to the reference position.
1300.5053.12
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E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected delta marker. The corresponding
delta marker will be activated, if necessary. The output is always a relative value referred to
marker 1 or to the reference position (reference fixed active).
To obtain a correct query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must
be performed between the activation of the delta marker and the query of the y value. This is
only possible in single sweep mode.
In receiver mode, the markers can only be activated after a scan was carried out.
Depending on the unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer or on the activated
measuring functions, the query result is output in the units below:
Parameter or measuring functions
Output unit
DBM | DBPW | DBUV | DBMV | DBUA
dB (lin/log)
WATT | VOLT | AMPere
dB (lin), % (log)
statistics function (APD or CCDF) on
dimensionless output
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:DELT2 ON
Switches on delta marker 2.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
CALC:DELT2:Y?
Outputs measurement value of delta marker 2.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.17
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:DLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:DLINe subsystem defines the position of the display lines.
Commands of the CALCulate:DLINe Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>:STATe
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>
This command defines the position of display line 1 or 2. These lines enable the user to mark
any levels in the diagram. The unit depends on the setting made with
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> at CALCulate are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
MINimum to MAXimum (depending on current unit)
Example
CALC:DLIN –20dBm
Characteristics
*RST value: – (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>:STATe
This command switches display line 1 or 2 (level lines) on or off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:DLIN2:STAT OFF
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
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6.18
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:ESPectrum Subsystem
The CALCulate:ESPectrum subsystem contains the remote commands for Spectrum Emission Mask
(SEM) measurements. Both groups of commands (PSEarch and PEAKsearch) perform the same
functions.
Commands of the CALCulate:ESPectrum Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:MARGin
–
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:PSHow
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:AUTO
This command activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:ESP:PSE:AUTO OFF
Deactivates the list evaluation.
Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:MARGin
This command sets the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–200 to 200 dB
Example
CALC:ESP:PSE:MARG 100
Sets the margin to 100 dB.
Characteristics
RST value: 200 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
1300.5053.12
6.19
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:PSHow
This command marks all peaks with blue squares in the diagram.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:ESP:PSE:PSH ON
Marks all peaks with blue squares.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
1300.5053.12
6.20
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:FLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:FLINe subsystem defines the position of the frequency lines.
Commands of the CALCulate:FLINe Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>
–
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>:STATe
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>
This command defines the position of the frequency lines that mark the frequencies.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
0 to fmax
Example
CALC:FLIN2 120MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: – (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>:STATe
This command switches the frequency line on or off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:FLIN2:STAT ON
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A–F
1300.5053.12
6.21
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit subsystem contains commands for the limit lines and the corresponding limit
checks. Limit lines can be defined as upper or lower limit lines. The individual Y values of the limit lines
correspond to the values of the x–axis (CONTrol). The number of X and Y values must be identical. For
details on limit lines refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Using Limit Lines and Display
Lines – LINES Key".
The following subsystems are included:
•
"CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem" on page 6.28
•
"CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem" on page 6.36
•
"CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem" on page 6.39
•
"CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem" on page 6.43
Commands of the CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACTive?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CLEar[:IMMediate]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COMMent
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COPY
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:DELete
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:NAME
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:TRACe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT
Further information
–
Example (analyzer mode)
–
Definition of the limit line
–
Switching on and evaluating the line
Example (analyzer mode)
Definition and use of a new limit line 5 for trace 2 with the following features:
•
upper limit line
•
absolute x–axis with span > 0.
•
5 ref. values: 126 MHz/–40 dB, 127 MHz/–40 dB, 128 MHz/–20 dB, 129 MHz/–40 dB, 130 MHz/–40
dB
•
relative y–axis with unit dB
•
absolute threshold value at –35 dBm
•
no safety margin
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
Definition of the limit line
1. Defining the name:
CALC:LIM5:NAME 'TEST1'
2. Entering the comment:
CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit line'
3. Associated trace:
CALC:LIM5:TRAC 2
4. Defining the x–axis range:
CALC:LIM5:CONT:DOM FREQ
5. Defining the x–axis scaling:
CALC:LIM5:CONT:MODE ABS
6. Defining the y–axis unit:
CALC:LIM5:UNIT DB
7. Defining the y–axis scaling:
CALC:LIM5:UPP:MODE REL
8. Defining the x–axis values:
CALC:LIM5:CONT 126MHZ, 127MHZ, 128MHZ, 129 MHZ, 130MHZ
9. Defining the y values:
CALC:LIM5:UPP –40, –40, –30, –40, –40
10. Defining the y threshold value:
CALC:LIM5:UPP:THR –35DBM
The definition of the safety margin and shifting in X and/or Y direction can take place as from here (see
commands below).
Switching on and evaluating the line
1. Switching on the line:
CALC:LIM5:UPP:STAT ON
2. Switching on the limit check:
CALC:LIM5:STAT ON
3. Starting a new measurement with synchronization:
INIT;*WAI
4. Querying the limit check result:
CALC:LIM5:FAIL?
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6.23
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACTive?
This command queries the names of all active limit lines.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
CALC:LIM:ACT?
Queries the names of all active limit lines.
Return values
'3GBAA,3GBBA,3GBCR'
Returns the names of the active limit lines in alphabetical order, separated by commas.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command deletes the result of the current limit check for all limit lines.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
CALC:LIM:CLE
Deletes the result of the limit check.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COMMent
This command defines a comment for the limit line selected (max. 40 characters).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<string>, max. 40 alphanumeric characters
Example
CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
Defines the comment for limit line 5.
Characteristics
*RST value: blank comment
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
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6.24
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:COPY
This command copies one limit line onto another one
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
1 to 8
number of the new limit line
<name>
name of the new limit line given as a string
Example
CALC:LIM1:COPY 2
Copies limit line 1 to line 2.
CALC:LIM1:COPY 'FM2'
Copies limit line 1 to a new line named FM2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:DELete
This command deletes the selected limit line.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:LIM1:DEL
Deletes limit line 1.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?
This command queries the result of the limit check of the indicated limit line. It should be noted
that a complete sweep must have been performed to obtain a correct result. A synchronization
with *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI should therefore be provided. The result of the limit check is given
with 0 for PASS, 1 for FAIL, and 2 for MARGIN.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Return values
0 for pass, 1 for fail
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E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
Example
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new sweep and waits for its end.
CALC:LIM3:FAIL?
Queries the result of the check for limit line 3.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:NAME
This command assigns a name to a limit line numbered 1 to 8. If it does not exist already, a limit
line with this name is created.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<name of limit line>
Example
CALC:LIM1:NAME 'FM1'
Assigns the name FM1 to limit line 1.
Characteristics
*RST value: REM1 to REM8 for lines 1 to 8
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe
This command switches on or off the limit check for the selected limit line.
The result of the limit check can be queried with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Switches on the limit check for limit line 1.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
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6.26
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:TRACe
This command assigns a limit line to a trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
1 to 6
Example
CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3
Assigns limit line 2 to trace 3.
Characteristics
*RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT
This command defines the unit of the selected limit line.
Upon selection of the unit DB the limit line is automatically switched to the relative mode. For
units different from DB the limit line is automatically switched to absolute mode.
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
DBM | DB | DBPW | W | DBMV | DBMV_MHZ | DBUV | DBUV_MHZ | DBMV_M | DBMV_MMHZ
| V | DBUA | DBUA_MHZ | DBUA_M | DBUA_MMHZ | AMPere | PCT | HZ | DEG | RAD | dBpT
Example
CALC:LIM4:UNIT DBUV
Sets the unit of limit line 4 to dBµV.
Characteristics
*RST value: DBM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.27
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower subsystem defines the limit check for adjacent channel power measurement.
Commands of the CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe]
This command switches on and off the limit check for adjacent–channel power measurements.
The CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]:STATe or
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]:STATe
commands must be used in addition to specify whether the limit check is to be performed for the
upper/lower adjacent channel or for the alternate adjacent channels.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on the ACP limit check.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]
This command defines the relative limit of the upper/lower adjacent channel for adjacent–
channel power measurements. The reference value for the relative limit value is the measured
channel power.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is
below the absolute limit value defined with the
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute command. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent–channel power
as defined in mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
first value: 0 to 100dB; limit for the upper (lower) adjacent channel
second value: 0 to 100dB; is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the
FSP family
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to 30 dB
below the channel power.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]:STATe
This command activates the limit check for the relative limit value of the adjacent channel when
adjacent–channel power measurement is performed. Before the command, the limit check must
be activated using CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe].
The result can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be noted that a
complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the result
query, since otherwise no correct results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to 30 dB
below the channel power.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to –35 dBm.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels.
1300.5053.12
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper adjacent channel during
adjacent–channel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power).
It should be noted that the absolute limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is
below the relative limit value defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]. This mechanism
allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent–channel power as defined in
mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
first value: –200DBM to 200DBM; limit for the lower and the upper adjacent channel
second value: –200 to 200DBM; is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSP family
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to –35 dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: –200DBM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute:STATe
This command activates the limit check for the adjacent channel when adjacent–channel power
measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) is performed. Before the command, the limit check for
the channel/adjacent–channel measurement must be globally switched on using
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe].
The result can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be noted that a
complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the result
query, since otherwise no correct results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to 30 dB
below the channel power.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to –35 dBm.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent–channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the upper /lower adjacent channel when
adjacent channel power measurement is performed.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a
query error.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...8> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Parameter
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where <result> = PASSED | FAILED, and
where the first returned value denotes the lower, the second denotes the upper adjacent
channel.
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to 30 dB
below the channel power.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper adjacent channel to –35 dB.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
Switches on the limit check for the adjacent channels.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels.
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R&S ESL
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]
This command defines the limit for the alternate adjacent channels for adjacent channel power
measurements. The reference value for the relative limit value is the measured channel power.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2>
with CALCulate and <1...8> with LIMit are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is
below the absolute limit defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent–channel power
as defined in mobile radio standards.
Parameter
first value: 0 to 100dB; limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel
second value: 0 to 100dB; is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the
FSP family
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 DB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]:STATe
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels for adjacent channel
power measurements. Before the command, the limit check must be activated using
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe].
The numeric suffix after ALTernate denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2>
with CALCulate and <1...8> with LIMit are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check
and the result query, since otherwise no correct results are obtained.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to –35 dBm.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:STAT ON
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the lower and upper second alternate
adjacent channel.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS:STAT ON
Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the lower and upper second alternate
adjacent channel.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper alternate adjacent–channel
power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power).
The numeric suffix after ALTernate denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2>
with CALCulate and <1...8> with LIMit are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the absolute limit value for the limit check has no effect as soon as it is
below the relative limit value defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values defined in mobile radio
standards for the power in adjacent channels.
Parameter
first value: –200DBM to 200DBM; limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel
second value: –200DBM to 200DBM; is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of
compatibility with the FSP family
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to –35 dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: –200DBM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute:STATe
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels for adjacent–
channel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power).
Before the command, the limit check must be globally switched on for the channel/adjacent–
channel power with the CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower[:STATe] command.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2>
with CALCulate and <1...8> with LIMit are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check
and the result query, since otherwise no correct results are available.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to –35 dBm.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:STAT ON
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the lower and upper second alternative
adjacent channels.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS:STAT ON
Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the lower and upper second alternative
adjacent channels.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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6.34
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels for
adjacent channel power measurements.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2>
with CALCulate and <1...8> with LIMit are irrelevant for this command.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a
query error.
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Parameter
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where <result> = PASSED | FAILED and
where the first (second) returned value denotes the lower (upper) alternate adjacent channel.
Example
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB
Sets the relative limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –35DBM, –35DBM
Sets the absolute limit value for the power in the lower and upper second alternate adjacent
channel to –35 dBm.
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel measurement.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:STAT ON
Switches on the limit check for the lower and upper second adjacent channel.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:RES?
Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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6.35
E-2
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol subsystem defines the x–axis (CONTrol axis).
Commands of the CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol[:DATA]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:OFFSet
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SHIFt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SPACing
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol[:DATA]
This command defines the x–axis values (frequencies or times) of the upper or lower limit lines.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding UPPer and/or LOWer
limit lines has to be identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not
required values are deleted.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the span setting of the x–axis. For details refer
to CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:CONT 1MHz,30MHz,100MHz,300MHz,1GHz
Defines 5 reference values for the x–axis of limit line 2.
CALC:LIM2:CONT?
Outputs the reference values for the x–axis of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain
This command defines the span setting for the x–axis values.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
FREQuency | TIME
Example
CALC:LIM2:CONT:DOM TIME
Defines zero span for the x–axis of limit line 2.
1300.5053.12
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: FREQuency
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:MODE
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the x–axis of the selected limit line.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
RELative | ABSolute
Example
CALC:LIM2:CONT:MODE REL
Defines the x–axis of limit line 2 as relatively scaled.
Characteristics
*RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:OFFSet
This command defines an offset for the x–axis value of the selected relative limit line for span >
0 or zero span.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the span setting of the x–axis. For details refer
to CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:CONT:OFFS 100us
Sets the X offset for limit line 2 (defined in zero span) to 100Us.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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6.37
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SHIFt
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in x direction. In contrast to
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:OFFSet, the line is shifted by modifying the
individual x values and not by means of an additive offset.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the span setting of the x–axis. For details refer
to CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:DOMain.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:CONT:SHIF 50KHZ
Shifts all reference values of limit line 2 by 50 kHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:CONTrol:SPACing
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the calculation of limit lines from
frequency points.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
LINear | LOGarithmic
Example
CALC:LIM:CONT:SPAC LIN
Characteristics
*RST value: LIN
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer subsystem defines the lower limit line.
Commands of the CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer[:DATA]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:OFFSet
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MARGin
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SHIFt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SPACing
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:THReshold
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer[:DATA]
This command defines the values for the selected lower limit line.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding LOWer limit line has to be
identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not necessary values are
deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT.
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT is
automatically used.
If the measured values are smaller than the LOWer limit line, the limit check signals errors.
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in the spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:LOW –30,–40,–10,–40,–30
Defines 5 lower limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
CALC:LIM2:LOW?
Outputs the lower limit values of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
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6.39
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:STATe
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line. The limit check is activated separately
with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe.
In spectrum analyzer mode, the result of the limit check can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON
Switches on limit line 4 (lower limit).
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:OFFSet
This command defines an offset for the y–axis of the selected relative lower limit line. In contrast
to CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by modifying the
individual Y values but by means of an additive offset.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:LOW:OFFS 3dB
Shifts limit line 2 by 3 dB upwards.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MARGin
This command defines a margin to a lower limit line, at which out–of–limit values are signaled (if
the limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value.
Only the unit dB is available in spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
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6.40
E-2
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
Example
CALC:LIM:LOW:MARG 10dB
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:MODE
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the y–axis of the selected lower limit
line.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
RELative | ABSolute
Example
CALC:LIM:LOW:MODE REL
Defines the y–axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics
*RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SHIFt
This command shifts a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:OFFSet, the line is shifted by modifying the
individual Y values but not by means of an additive offset.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM3:LOW:SHIF 20DB
Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 dB.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
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6.41
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:SPACing
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the lower limit line.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
LINear | LOGarithmic
Example
CALC:LIM:LOW:SPAC LIN
Characteristics
*RST value: LIN
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:LOWer:THReshold
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative y–axis scaling.
The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as soon as it exceeds the relative limit
value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT
(except dB which is not allowed). If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm instead of
dB).
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in the spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:LOW:THR –35DBM
Defines an absolute threshold value for limit line 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –200 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer subsystem defines the upper limit line.
Commands of the CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer[:DATA]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MARGin
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:OFFSet
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SHIFt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SPACing
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:THReshold
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer[:DATA]
This command defines the values for the upper limit lines
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding UPPer and/or LOWer
limit line has to be identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not
necessary values are deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT.
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT is
automatically used.
In spectrum analyzer mode, the limit check indicates errors if the measured values exceed the
UPPer limit line. The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:UPP –10,0,0,–10,–5
Defines 5 upper limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
CALC:LIM2:UPP?
Outputs the upper limit values for limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MARGin
This command defines a margin to an upper limit line, at which out–of–limit values are signaled
(if the limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value.
Only the unit dB is available in spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:UPP:MARG 10dB
Defines the margin of limit line 2 to 10 dB below the limit value.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:MODE
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the y–axis of the selected upper limit
line.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
RELative | ABSolute
Example
CALC:LIM2:UPP:MODE REL
Defines the y–axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics
*RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:OFFSet
This command defines an offset for the y–axis of the selected relative upper limit line. In
contrast to CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by
modifying the individual Y values but by means of an additive offset.
Only the unit dB is available in the spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
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Example
CALC:LIM2:UPP:OFFS 3dB
Shifts limit line 2 by 3 dB upwards.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SHIFt
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:OFFSet, the line is shifted by modifying the
individual Y values and not by means of an additive offset.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM3:UPP:SHIF 20
Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 limit line units, e.g. dB.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:SPACing
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the upper limit line.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
LINear | LOGarithmic
Example
CALC:LIM:UPP:SPAC LIN
Characteristics
*RST value: LIN
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
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CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:STATe
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line. The limit check is activated separately
with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:STATe.
In spectrum analyzer mode, the result of the limit check can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:FAIL?.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON
Switches on limit line 4 (upper limit).
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UPPer:THReshold
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative y–axis scaling.
The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as soon as it exceeds the relative limit
value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT
(except dB which is not possible). If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm instead of
dB).
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in the spectrum analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:LIM2:UPP:THR –35DBM
Defines an absolute threshold value for limit line 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –200 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer subsystem checks the marker functions of the instrument.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem" on page 6.60
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:AOFF
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:FREQuency?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:RESolution
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUPled[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:LOEXclude
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:SCOupled[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:LEFT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:RIGHT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SSIZe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y:PERCent
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R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the currently selected marker. If no indication is made, marker
1 is selected automatically. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as a delta marker, it is
switched to marker mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK3 ON
Switches on marker 3 or switches to marker mode.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active markers and all delta markers and active marker/delta
marker measurement functions.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:MARK:AOFF
Switches off all markers.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt
This command switches on or off the frequency counter at the marker position.
The count result is queried with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:FREQuency?.
Frequency counting is possible only for one marker at a time. If it is activated for another
marker, it is automatically deactivated for the previous marker.
It should be noted that a complete sweep must be performed after switching on the frequency
counter to ensure that the frequency to be measured is actually reached. The synchronization to
the sweep end required for this is only possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
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Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK ON
Switches on marker 1.
CALC:MARK:COUN ON
Switches on the frequency counter for marker 1.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?
Outputs the measured value.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:FREQuency?
This command queries the result of the frequency counter for the indicated marker. Before the
command, the frequency counter should be switched on and a complete measurement
performed to obtain a correct count result. Therefore, a single sweep with synchronization must
be performed between switching on the frequency counter and querying the count result.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK2 ON
Switches on marker 2.
CALC:MARK2:COUN ON
Switches the frequency counter for marker 2.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK2:COUN:FREQ?
Outputs the measured value of marker 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUNt:RESolution
This command specifies the resolution of the frequency counter.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
0.1 | 1 | 10 | 100 | 1000 | 10000 Hz
Example
CALC:MARK:COUN:RES 1kHz
Sets the resolution of the frequency counter to 1 kHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: 1kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:COUPled[:STATe]
This command couples the receiver frequency to the marker. With every update of the marker
position, the receiver frequency is adjusted to the position of the marker. If deactivated, an
update of the marker position has no effect on the receiver frequency.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:COUP ON
Activates marker coupling
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:LOEXclude
This command switches the local oscillator suppression for peak search on or off. This setting
applies to all markers and delta markers.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1…4> are irrelevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker to the current maximum value of the corresponding trace.
The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to the marker mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MAX
Positions marker 2 to the maximum value of the trace.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:AUTO
Activates the automatic peak search function for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep.
This function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the actual
peak marker position and level.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: If no maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:MAX:AUTO ON
Activates the automatic peak search function for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the current
value (i.e. in descending X values) on the trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
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Example
CALC:MARK2:MAX:LEFT
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value to the left of the current value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value of the corresponding
trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MAX:NEXT
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the
current value (i.e. in ascending X values) on the corresponding trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MAX:RIGH
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value to the right of the current value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker to the current minimum value of the corresponding trace.
The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:AUTO
Activates the automatic minimum value search function for marker 1 at the end of each
particular sweep. This function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep
track of the actual peak marker position and level.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: If no minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:MIN:AUTO ON
Activates the automatic minimum value search function for marker 1 at the end of each
particular sweep.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the current
value (i.e. in descending X direction) on the corresponding trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
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Example
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:LEFT
Positions marker 2 to the next higher minimum value to the left of the current value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value of the corresponding
trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:NEXT
Positions marker 2 to the next higher maximum value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the current
value (i.e. in ascending X direction) on the corresponding trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: –200) is produced.
Example
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:RIGH
Positions marker 2 to the next higher minimum value to the right of the current value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion
This command defines the peak excursion, i.e. the spacing below a trace maximum which must
be attained before a new maximum is recognized, or the spacing above a trace minimum which
must be attained before a new minimum is recognized. The set value applies to all markers and
delta markers. The unit depends on the selected operating mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
Defines peak excursion 10 dB in spectrum Spectrum Analyzer mode.
Characteristics
*RST value: 6dB in Spectrum Analyzer mode
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:SCOupled[:STATe]
This command couples the receiver frequency settings of the corresponding subscans to the
marker. With every update of the marker position, the receiver frequency is adjusted to the
position of the marker. If deactivated, an update of the marker position has no effect on the
receiver frequency.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:SCO ON
Activates marker coupling of subscans
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe
This command assigns the selected marker (1 to 4) to the indicated measurement curve. The
corresponding trace must be active, i.e. its status must be different from "BLANK".
If necessary the corresponding marker is switched on prior to the assignment.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
1 to 6
Example
CALC:MARK3:TRAC 2
Assigns marker 3 to trace 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X
This command positions the selected marker to the indicated frequency (span > 0), time (span =
0) or level (APD measurement or CCDF measurement ON).
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
Example
CALC:MARK2:X 10.7MHz
Positions marker 2 to frequency 10.7 MHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe]
This command switches between a limited (ON) and unlimited (OFF) search range.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range on
the trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches on search limitation.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:LEFT
This command sets the left limit of the search range for markers and delta markers. Depending
on the span setting of the x–axis the indicated value defines a frequency (span > 0) or time
(span = 0).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range to
the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is switched
on (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe]).
Parameter
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
Example
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 10MHz
Sets the left limit of the search range to 10 MHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (is set to the left diagram border when switching on search limits)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits:RIGHT
This command sets the right limit of the search range for markers and delta markers. Depending
on the span setting of the x–axis the indicated value defines a frequency (span > 0) or time
(span = 0).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range to
the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is switched
on (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe]).
Parameter
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
Example
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 20MHz
Sets the right limit of the search range to 20 MHz.
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Characteristics
*RST value: – (is set to the right diagram border when switching on search limits)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X:SSIZe
This command defines the step size of the rotary knob for marker or delta marker value
changes. It takes only effect in manual operation. It is available for all base unit measurements
with the exception of statistics.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
STANdard
measurement point step size
POINts
measured value step size (number of measured values is defined via the
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:POINts command)
Example
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN
Sets the measured value step size.
Characteristics
RST value: STANdard
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected marker. The corresponding marker
is activated before or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
To obtain a correct query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must
be performed between the activation of the marker and the query of the Y value. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The query result is output in the unit determined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
In the default setting, the output is made depending on the unit determined with
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer; only with linear level scaling is the output in %.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK2 ON
Switches marker 2.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK2:Y?
Outputs the measured value of marker 2.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y:PERCent
This command positions the selected marker to the given probability. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is
selected and used as a delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: The command is only available with the CCDF measurement switched on. The
associated level value can be determined with the
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:X command.
Parameter
0 to100%
Example
CALC1:MARK:Y:PERC 95PCT
Positions marker 1 to a probability of 95%.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion subsystem checks the marker functions in the instrument.
The following subsystems are included:
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem" on page 6.74
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem" on page 6.78
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem" on page 6.85
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem" on page 6.87
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:CONTinuous
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:HOLDoff
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SELect
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CENTer
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CSTep
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks[:IMMediate]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SORT
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:SEARchsignal
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:FREQuency?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:QFACtor?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:STATe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:TIME?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:REFerence
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:SEARchsignal
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:ZOOM
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the audio demodulator when the indicated marker is reached.
With span > 0 the hold time can be defined at the corresponding marker position with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:HOLDoff. In zero span
the demodulation is permanently active.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK3:FUNC:DEM ON
Switches on the demodulation for marker 3.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:CONTinuous
This command switches on or off the continuous demodulation for span >0. Thus acoustic
monitoring of the signals can be performed.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON
Switches on the continuous ' demodulation.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:HOLDoff
This command defines the hold time at the marker position for the demodulation with span > 0.
The setting is independent of the selected marker, the suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
10ms to 1000s
Example:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s
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Characteristics:
*RST value: – (DEModulation is set to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SELect
This command selects the demodulation type for the audio demodulator. The command is
independent of the selected marker, the suffixes 1|2 and 1 to 4 are irrelevant.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
AM | FM
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM
Characteristics
*RST value: AM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CENTer
This command sets the center frequency equal to the frequency of the indicated marker.
In receiver mode, the receiver frequency is set to the frequency of the indicated marker.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, the marker is switched to the marker
mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an "event" and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:MARK2:FUNC:CENT
Sets the center frequency to the frequency of marker 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:CSTep
This command sets the step size of the center frequency to the X value of the current marker.
In receiver mode, the command sets the receiver frequency to the X value of the indicated
marker.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to the marker mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
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This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:MARK3:FUNC:CST
Sets the center frequency to the same value as the frequency of marker 3.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks[:IMMediate]
This command searches the selected trace for the indicated number of maxima. The results are
entered in a list and can be queried with the
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X? and
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y? commands. The number of
maxima found can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?. The trace to be examined
is selected with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe. The order of the results in the
list can be defined with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SORT.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: The number of maxima found depends on the waveform and value set for the Peak
Excursion parameter (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion), however,
a maximum number of 200 maxima are determined. Only the signals which exceed their
surrounding values at least by the value indicated by the peak excursion parameter will
be recognized as maxima. Therefore, the number of maxima found is not automatically
the same as the number of maxima desired.
Parameter
1 to 200
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and synchronizes to end
CALC:MARK:TRAC 1
Sets marker 1 to trace 1
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X
Sets the sort mode to increasing X values
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
Searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
CALC:MARK:FUNC:COUN?
Queries the number of maxima found
CALC:MARK:FUNC:Y?
Queries the level of maxima found
CALC:MARK:FUNC:X?
Queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or time (span = 0) of maxima found.
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Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?
This query reads out the number of maxima found during the search. If no search for maxima
has been performed, 0 is returned.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
Searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?
Queries the number of maxima found
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SORT
This command sets the sort mode for the search for maxima:
X: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to increasing X values
Y: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to decreasing Y values
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
X|Y
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y
Sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values
can be queried with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds
to the decreasing order of the Y values.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y
Sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
Searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?
Queries the number of maxima found
CALC:MARK:FPE:FUNC:X?
Queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or. time (span = 0) of the maxima found
Return values
107.5E6,153.8E6,187.9E6
frequencies in increasing order
2.05E–3,2.37E–3, 3.71e–3
times in increasing order
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values
can be queried with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds
to the decreasing order of the Y values.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y
Sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
Searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?
Queries the number of maxima found
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?
Queries the levels of the maxima found
Return values
–37.5,–58.3,–59.6
level in decreasing order
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Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth[:STATe]
This command switches on the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM–modulated
carrier is required on the screen for correct operation. If necessary, marker 1 is previously
activated and set to the largest signal available.
The level value of marker 1 is regarded as the carrier level. On activating the function, marker 2
and marker 3 are automatically set as delta markers symmetrically to the carrier to the adjacent
maxima of the trace.
If the position of delta marker 2 is changed, delta marker 3 is moved symmetrically with respect
to the reference marker (marker 1). If the position of delta marker 3 is changed, fine adjustment
can be performed independently of delta marker 2.
The power at the marker positions is calculated from the measured levels.
The AM modulation depth is calculated from the ratio of power values at the reference marker
and the delta markers. If the two AM sidebands differ in power, the average value of the two
power values is used for calculating the AM modulation depth.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Example
CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ
Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON
Switches on the modulation depth measurement.
CALC:DELT2:X 10KHZ
Sets delta markers 2 and 3 to the signals at 10 kHz from the carrier signal.
CALC:DELT3:X 9.999KHZ
Corrects the position of delta marker 3 relative to delta marker 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:RESult?
This command queries the AM modulation depth.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ
Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON
Switches on the modulation depth measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?
Outputs the measured value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:SEARchsignal
This command starts the search of the signals required for the modulation depth measurement.
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: No new measurement is done. Only the currently available trace selected for the
modulation depth measurement is used
Parameter
ONCE
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:SEAR ONCE
Executes the search of an AM modulated signal at the currently available trace.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown
This command defines the level spacing of the two temporary markers to the right and left of
marker 1.
The temporary markers T1 and T2 are positioned by n dB below the active reference marker.
The value measured by these markers can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:RESult??.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
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Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD 3dB
Sets the level spacing to 3 dB.
Characteristics
*RST value: 6dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:FREQuency?
This command queries the values of the two temporary markers for span>0. The frequency
values are separated by comma and output in ascending order.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON
Switches on the n dB down function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ?
Outputs the frequencies of the temporary markers.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:QFACtor?
This command queries the Q factor (quality) of the measured bandwidth for span>0.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON
Switches on the n dB down function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?
Queries the Q factor of the measured bandwidth.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:RESult?
This command queries the measured value. The value depends on the span setting:
– span > 0: frequency spacing of the two temporary markers (in Hz)
–
span = 0: pulse width between the two temporary markers (in s)
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a correct query result. This is
only possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON
Switches on the n dB down function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:RES?
Outputs the measured value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:STATe
This command switches the "N dB Down" function on or off. Marker 1 is activated first, if
necessary.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON
Switches on the "N dB Down" function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:TIME?
This command queries the values of the two temporary markers in zero span. The time values
are separated by comma and output in ascending order.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON
Switches on the n dB down function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:TIME?
Outputs the time values of the temporary markers.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe[:STATe]
This command switches the noise measurement on or off for all markers. The noise power
density is measured at the position of the markers. The result can be queried with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON
Switches on the noise measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?
This command queries the result of the noise measurement.
A complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be performed between switching
on the function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a correct query result. This
is only possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK2 ON
Switches on marker 2.
CALC:MARK2:FUNC:NOIS ON
Switches on noise measurement for marker 2.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK2:NOIS:RES?
Outputs the noise result of marker 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:REFerence
This command sets the reference level to the power measured by the indicated marker. If
marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:MARK2:FUNC:REF
Sets the reference level to the level of marker 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI[:STATe]
This command initiates the measurement of the third–order intercept point.
A two–tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the RF input of the instrument. Marker
1 and marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Delta marker
3 and delta marker 4 are positioned to the intermodulation products. The delta markers can be
modified separately afterwards with the CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:X
command.
The third–order intercept is calculated from the level spacing between the normal markers and
the delta markers.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON
Switches on the measurement of the third–order intercept.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:RESult?
This command queries the third–order intercept point measurement.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON
Switches the intercept measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
Outputs the measured value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:TOI:SEARchsignal
This command starts the search of the signals required for the third order intercept
measurement.
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Note: No new measurement is done. Only the currently available trace selected for the TOI
measurement is used
Parameter
ONCE
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:SEAR ONCE
Executes the search for 2 signals and their intermodulation product at the currently available
trace.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:ZOOM
This command defines the range to be zoomed around marker 1. Marker 1 is activated first, if
necessary.
The subsequent frequency sweep is stopped at the marker position and the frequency of the
signal is counted. This frequency becomes the new center frequency, and the zoomed span is
set. In order to recognize the end of the operation the synchronization to the sweep end should
be activated. This is only possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz;*WAI
Activates zooming and waits for its end.
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 10
Zooms in around marker 1 by afactor of 10.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A–F
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CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWER subsystem contains the commands to define the settings
for harmonics measurement.
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:BANDwidth:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:DISTortion?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:LIST?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:NHARmonics
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:PRESet
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics[:STATe]
This command activates/deactivates the harmonic distortion measurement.
If the measurement is started in span > 0, the last span defines the search range for the first
harmonic. The level is determined for the first harmonic.
If the measurement is started in zero span, center frequency and level are used unchanged.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON
Activates the harmonic distortion measurement.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:BANDwidth:AUTO
This command defines the resolution bandwidth of the harmonic in respect to the bandwidth of
the first harmonic. For details refer to chaper "Instrument Functions", section "Harmonic RBW
Auto".
The numeric suffix <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
OFF
identical
ON
a multiple
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO OFF
Deactivates the automatic bandwidth enlargement.
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Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:DISTortion?
This command queries the distortion results (THD: total harmonic distortion). Two values
separated by a comma are returned: <THD in %>, <THD in dB>.
To obtain a correct result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must
be performed before a query is output. Synchronization is possible only in the single sweep
mode.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
TOTal
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3
Sets the number of harmonics to be measured to 3.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON
Activates the harmonic distortion measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Returns the total distortion in % and dB.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:LIST?
This command reads out the list of the harmonics. The first value is the absolute power of the
first harmonic (the unit is set via the CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer command). The following
values are relative to the carrier signal and have the unit dB. They are separated by commas
and correspond to the harmonics to be measured (set via the
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:NHARmonics command).
To obtain a correct result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must
be performed before a query is output. Synchronization is possible only in the single sweep
mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3
Sets the number of harmonics to be measured to 3.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON
Activates the harmonic distortion measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
Returns the values for the 3 measured harmonics.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:NHARmonics
This command sets the number of harmonics to be measured.
The numeric suffix <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
1...26
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3
Sets the number of harmonics to be measured to 3.
Characteristics
RST value: 10
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:PRESet
This command optimizes the device settings depending on the span setting:
span > 0
Frequency and level of the first harmonic are determined and used for the
measurement list.
zero span
The level of the first harmonic is determined. The frequency remains
unchanged.
The numeric suffixes <1/2> and <1...4> are irrelevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES
Optimizes the device settings for the harmonic measurement.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
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CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWER subsystem contains the commands for control of power
measurement.
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:MODe
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:PRESet
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult:PHZ
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect
Further information
–
"Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 6.78
Predefined CP / ACP standards
Parameter
Standard
AWLan
WLAN 802.11A
BWLan
WLAN 802.11B
CDPD
CDPD
D2CDma
CDMA 2000 direct sequence
FIS95A, F8CDma
CDMA IS95A forward
FIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward
FIS95C1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward
FJ008, F19CDma
CDMA J–STD008 forward
FTCDMa / TCDMa
TD–SCDMA forward
FW3Gppcdma
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
M2CDma
CDMA 2000 MC3 multi carrier with 3 carriers
NADC
NADC IS136
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
RFID14443
RFID 14443
RIS95A, R8CDma
CDMA IS95A reverse
RIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse
RIS95C1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse
RJ008, R19CDma
CDMA J–STD008 reverse
RTCDMA
TD–SCDMA reverse
RW3Gppcdma
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
S2CDma
CDMA 2000 MC1 multi carrier with 1 carrier
TETRA
TETRA
WIBRo
WIBRO
WIMax
WiMAX
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer[:STATe]
This command switches off the power measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
Parameter
OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
Switches off the power measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:MODe
This commands defines the method by which the channel power values are calculated from the
current trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
WRITe
The channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated directly
from the current trace
MAXHold
The power values are calculated from the current trace and compared with
the previous power value using a maximum algorithm.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH
Sets the Maxhold channel power mode.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:PRESet
This command selects the power measurement setting for a standard and previously switches
on the corresponding measurement, if required.
The configuration for a standard comprises of the parameters weighting filter, channel
bandwidth and spacing, resolution and video bandwidth, as well as detector and sweep time.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: The settings for standards IS95A and C differ as far as the calculation method of
channel spacings is concerned. For IS95A and J–STD008 the spacing is calculated
from the center of the main channel to the center of the corresponding adjacent
channel, for IS95C from the center of the main channel to the nearest border of the
adjacent channel.
Parameter
NADC | TETRA | PDC | PHS | CDPD | FWCDma | RWCDma | F8CDma | R8CDma | F19Cdma |
R19Cdma | FW3Gppcdma | RW3Gppcdma | S2CDma | FIS95A | RIS95A | FIS95C0 | RIS95C0
| FIS95C1 | RIS95C1 | FJ008 | RJ008 | TCDMa | FTCDMa | RTCDMa | AWLan | BWLan |
WIMax | WIBRo | RFID14443 | NONE
For further details refer to "Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 6.78.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES NADC
Selects the standard setting for NADC
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
This command queries the result of the performed power measurement. If necessary, the
measurement is switched on prior to the query.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the "SENSe:POWer
Subsystem" on page 6.183.
To obtain a correct result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must
be performed before a query is output. Synchronization is possible only in the single sweep
mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Parameter
ACPower
Adjacent–channel power measurement
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
Power of transmission channel
Power of lower adjacent channel
Power of upper adjacent channel
Power of lower alternate channel 1
Power of upper alternate channel 1
Power of lower alternate channel 2
Power of upper alternate channel 2
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The number of measured values returned depends on the number of
adjacent/alternate channels selected with
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in the currently
selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the
power is output in W. If [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:MODE is set
to REL, the adjacent/alternate–channel power is output in dB.
CN
Measurement of carrier–to–noise ratio
The carrier–to–noise ratio in dB is returned.
CN0
Measurement of carrier–to–noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth.
The carrier–to–noise ratio in dB/Hz is returned.
CPOWer
Channel power measurement
In a Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, the query returns the power
result for the reference range, if this power reference type is selected.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the channel power is output in the
currently selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %),
the channel power is output in W.
MCACpower
Channel/adjacent–channel power measurement with several carrier
signals
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
Power of carrier signal 1 to 12 in ascending order
Total power of all carrier signals
Power of lower adjacent channel
Power of upper adjacent channel
Power of lower alternate channel 1
Power of upper alternate channel 1
Power of lower alternate channel 2
Power of upper alternate channel 2
The number of measured values returned depends on the number of
carrier signals and adjacent/alternate channels selected with
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:TXCHannel:COUNt and
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
If only one carrier signal is measured, the total value of all carrier signals
will not be output.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in dBm; with
linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the power is output in W. If
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:MODE is set to REL, the
adjacent/alternate–channel power is output in dB.
OBANdwidth |
OBWidth
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
PPOWer
Power of the highest peak
The occupied bandwidth in Hz is returned.
In a Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, the query returns the power
result for the reference range, if this power reference type is selected.
Example of channel/adjacent–channel power measurement
POW:ACH:ACP 3
Sets the number of adjacent/alternate channels to 3.
POW:ACH:BAND 30KHZ
Sets the bandwidth of the transmission channel to 30 kHz.
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POW:ACH:BAND:ACH 40KHZ
Sets the bandwidth of each adjacent channel to 40 kHz.
POW:ACH:BAND:ALT1 50KHZ
Sets the bandwidth of each alternate channel to 50 kHz.
POW:ACH:BAND:ALT2 60KHZ
Sets the bandwidth of alternate channel 2 to 60 kHz.
POW:ACH:SPAC 30KHZ
Sets the spacing between the transmission channel and the adjacent channel to 30 kHz, the
spacing between the transmission channel and alternate channel 1 to 60 kHz, and the spacing
between the transmission channel and alternate channel 2 to 90 kHz.
POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100KHZ
Sets the spacing between the alternate adjacent channels and the TX channel. For details refer
to the [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing:ALTernate<1...11> command.
POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 140KHZ
Sets the spacing between the transmission channel and alternate channel 2 to 140 kHz.
POW:ACH:MODE ABS
Switches on absolute power measurement.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP
Switches on the adjacent–channel power measurement.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches over to single sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP
Queries the result of adjacent–channel power measurement.
POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE
Defines the measured channel power as the reference value for relative power measurements.
Note: If the channel power only is to be measured, all commands relating to
adjacent/alternate channel bandwidth and channel spacings are omitted. The number of
adjacent/alternate channels is set to 0 with
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
Example of occupied bandwidth measurement
POW:BAND 90PCT
Defines 90% as the percentage of the power to be contained in the bandwidth range to be
measured.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches over to single sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW
Queries the occupied bandwidth measured.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult:PHZ
This command switches the query response of the power measurement results between output
of absolute values and output referred to the measurement bandwith.
The measurement results are output with the
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult? command.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON
Results output: channel power density in dBm/Hz
OFF
Results output: channel power is displayed in dBm
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON
Output of results referred to the channel bandwidth.
For details on a complete measurement example refer to Example of channel/adjacent–channel
power measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect
This command selects – and switches on – specified power measurement type.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the "SENSe:POWer
Subsystem" on page 6.183.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: If CPOWer is selected, the number of adjacent channels
([SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs) is set to 0. If ACPower is selected, the
number of adjacent channels is set to 1, unless adjacent–channel power measurement
is switched on already.
The channel/adjacent–channel power measurement is performed for the trace selected
with [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:TRACe.
The occupied bandwidth measurement is performed for the trace on which marker 1 is
positioned. To select another trace for the measurement, marker 1 is to be positioned on the
desired trace by means of CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe.
Parameter
ACPower
Adjacent–channel power measurement with a single carrier signal
CPOWer
Channel power measurement with a single carrier signal (equivalent
to adjacent–channel power measurement with NO. OF ADJ CHAN =
0)
MCACpower
Channel/adjacent–channel power measurement with several carrier
signals
OBANdwidth |
OBWidth
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
CN
Measurement of carrier–to–noise ratio
CN0
Measurement of carrier–to–noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth
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Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP
Switches on adjacent–channel power measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack subsystem defines the settings of the signal track.
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:BANDwidth|BWIDth
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:THReshold
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:TRACe
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]
This command switches the signal–track function on or off.
With signal track activated, the maximum signal is determined after each frequency sweep and
the center frequency is set to the frequency of this signal. Thus with drifting signals the center
frequency follows the signal.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON
Switches on the signal track function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:BANDwidth|BWIDth
These commands have the same function. They define the bandwidth around the center
frequency within which the largest signal is searched.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: The entry of the search bandwidth is only possible if the Signal Track function is
switched on (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]).
Parameter
10Hz to MAX (span)
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 1MHZ
Sets the search bandwidth to 1 MHz.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BWID 1MHZ
Alternative command for the same function.
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Characteristics
*RST value: – (= span/10 on activating the function)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:THReshold
This command defines the threshold above which the largest signal is searched for.
The response unit depends on the settings defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: The entry of the search bandwidth is only possible if the Signal Track function is
switched on (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]).
Parameter
–330dBm to +30dBm
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR –50DBM
Sets the threshold for signal tracking to –50 dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: –120 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack:TRACe
This command defines the trace on which the largest signal is searched for.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
1 to 6
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 3
Defines trace 3 as the trace for signal tracking.
Characteristics
*RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem
This subsystem contains the commands for controlling the power functions in zero span.
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:MSUMmary?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AOFF
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:AVERage:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:PHOLd:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:AVERage:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:PHOLd:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:AVERage:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:PHOLd:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation[:STATe]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:AVERage:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:PHOLd:RESult?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:RESult?
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:MSUMmary?
The commands of this subsystem are used to determine the power of a sequence of signal
pulses having the same interval, as are typical for the slots of a GSM signal, for example. The
number of pulses to be measured as well as the measurement time and the period can be set.
To define the position of the first pulse in the trace, a suitable offset can be entered.
The evaluation is performed on the measurement data of a previously recorded trace. The data
recorded during the set measurement time is combined to a measured value for each pulse
according to the detector specified and the indicated number of results is output as a list.
Trace 1 is always used by the function.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Measurement
Time
P
Measurement
Time
Period
Measurement
Time
t
Period
Time offset of
first pulse
Trace start
Parameter
<time offset of first pulse>, <measurement time>, <period>, < # of pulses to measure>
Example
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV –10dBm
Sets the reference level to 10 dB
INP:ATT 30 dB
Sets the input attenuation to 30 dB
FREQ:CENT 935.2MHz;SPAN 0Hz
Sets the receive frequency to 935.2 MHz and the span to 0 Hz
BAND:RES 1MHz;VID 3MHz
Sets the resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz and the video bandwidth to 3 MHz
DET RMS
Sets the RMS detector
TRIG:SOUR VID;LEV:VID 50 PCT
Selects the trigger source VIDeo and sets the level of the video trigger source to 50 PCT
SWE:TIME 50ms
Sets the sweep time to 50 ms
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement with synchronization
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MSUM? 50US,450US,576.9US,8
Queries 8 bursts with an offset of 50 µs, a test time of 450 µs and a period of 576.9 µs
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the previously selected power measurements in zero span.
Thus one or several measurements can be first selected and then switched on and off together
with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary[:STATe].
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:STAT ON
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AOFF
This command switches off all measurements in zero span.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AOFF
Switches off the functions for power measurement in zero span.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage
This command switches on or off averaging for the active power measurement in zero span.
Averaging is reset by switching it off and on again.
The number of results required for the calculation of average is defined with
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt.
Synchronization to the end of averaging is only possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
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Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
Switches on the calculation of average.
AVER:COUN 200
Sets the measurement counter to 200.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of the mean value.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: The measurement is performed on the trace on which marker 1 is positioned. In order to
evaluate another trace, marker 1 must be positioned on another trace with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Switches on the function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged mean value. The query is
only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
Switches on the average value calculation.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:AVER:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value with active peak hold.
The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been switched on previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
Switches on the peak value measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:PHOL:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Switches on the function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MODE
This command selects absolute or relative power measurement in zero span.
The reference power for relative measurement is defined with
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO. If the reference power
is not defined, the value 0 dBm is used.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ABSolute | RELative
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MODE REL
Switches the power measurement in zero span to relative.
Characteristics
RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd
This command switches on or off the peak–hold function for the active power measurement in
zero span.
The peak–hold function is reset by switching it off and on again.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
Switches on the function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of the positive peak value.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Switches on the function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:AVERage:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the averaged positive peak
value. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
Switches on the calculation of average.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:AVER:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:PHOLd:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value with
active peak hold function. The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been
activated previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
Switches on the measurement of the peak value.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:PHOL:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value. The
measurement may have to be switched on previously.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Switches on the function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO
This command sets the currently measured average value
(CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN[:STATe]) and RMS value
(CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS[:STATe]) as reference values for
relative measurements in zero span.
If the measurement of RMS value and average is not activated, the reference value 0 dBm is
used.
If the function CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage or
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd is switched on, the current value is
the accumulated measurement value at the time considered.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...4> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
ONCE
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:REF:AUTO ONCE
Takes the currently measured power as reference value for the relative power measurement in
zero span.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of the effective (RMS) power. If necessary
the function is switched on previously.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUM:RMS ON
Switches on the function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged RMS value. The query is
only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
Switches on the average value calculation.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:AVER:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST– value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS value with active peak hold.
The query is only possible only if the peak hold function has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
Switches on the peak value measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:PHOL:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST– value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS power value.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
Switches on the function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of the standard deviation.
On switching on the measurement, the mean power measurement is switched on as well.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Switches on the measurement of the standard deviation.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the averaged standard deviation determined in several
sweeps. The query is possible only if averaging is active.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
Switches on the calculation of average.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:SDEV:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the maximum standard deviation value determined in several sweeps.
The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Switches on the function.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
Switches on the peak value measurement.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:PHOL:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:RESult?
This command queries the results of the standard deviation measurement.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value to obtain a correct query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Switches on the function.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
Outputs the result.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:MATH Subsystem
The CALCulate:MATH subsystem allows to process data from the SENSe–subsystem in numeric
expressions.
Commands of the CALCulate:MATH Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH[:EXPression][:DEFine]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:MODE
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:POSition
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:STATe
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH[:EXPression][:DEFine]
This command defines the mathematical expression for relating traces to trace1.
Parameter
(TRACE1–TRACE2)
Subtracts trace 2 from trace 1.
(TRACE1–TRACE3)
Subtracts trace 3 from trace 1.
(TRACE1–TRACE4)
Subtracts trace 4 from trace 1.
(TRACE1–TRACE5)
Subtracts trace 5 from trace 1.
(TRACE1–TRACE6)
Subtracts trace 6 from trace 1.
Example
CALC1:MATH (TRACE1 – TRACE2)
Selects the subtraction of trace 2 from trace 1.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:MODE
This command selects the averaging method for the average trace mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
LIN | LOG | POWer
Example
CALC:MATH:MODE LIN
Selects linear averaging for average trace mode.
Characteristics
*RST value: LOG
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:POSition
This command defines the position of the result of the trace mathematics. The indication is in %
of the screen height, with 100% corresponding to the upper diagram border.
Parameter
–100PCT to 200PCT
Example
CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT
Sets the position to the horizontal diagram center.
Characteristics
*RST value: 50PCT
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:STATe
This command switches the mathematical relation of traces on or off.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:MATH:STAT ON
Switches on the trace mathematics.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
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CALCulate:PSEarch|PEAKsearch Subsystem
The CALCulate:PSEarch|PEAKsearch subsystem contains the remote commands for Spurious
Emissions measurements. Both groups of commands (PSEarch and PEAKsearch) perform the same
functions.
Commands of the CALCulate:PSEarch|PEAKsearch Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch[:IMMediate]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:ADD
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:AUTO
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:MARGin
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:METHod
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:PSHow
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:SUBRanges
–
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:SUBRanges:PCOunt
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch[:IMMediate]
In receiver mode, this command activates the generation of a peak list.
In analyzer mode, this command determines the list of the subrange maximums from the
existing sweep results.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:PSE
Starts to generate the list.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:ADD
This command adds a receiver frequency to the peak list. Only frequencies in the currently
displayed frequency range of the scan are allowed.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
<numeric value>
Example:
CALC:PEAK:ADD 93 MHz
The frequency 93 MHz is added to the peak list
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Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:AUTO
In receiver mode, this command performs an automatic peak search after the prescan. For each
range, exactly one peak value is calculated.
In analyzer mode, the command has the same effect as
"CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:AUTO" on page 6.19.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Example
CALC:PEAK:AUTO ON
Performs a peak search after the prescan
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:MARGin
In receiver mode, this command defines the margin for the peak search.
In analyzer mode, the command has the same effect as
"CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:MARGin" on page 6.20.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant
Parameter
MIN | MAX | <numeric_value>
Example
CALC:PEAK:MARG 5 dB
Sets the threshold of the peaks to be considered to 5 dB.
Characteristics
*RST value: 6 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R, A
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:METHod
This command defines the method used to determine the peak levels of the scan. Two methods
are available:
PEAK
Determines a specific number of peaks relative to the limit line
SUBRanges
Executes a peak search in the subranges
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant
Parameter
SUBRange | PEAK
Example
CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR
Sets the peak search method to Subranges
Characteristics
*RST value: PEAK
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:PSHow
For details refer to "CALCulate<1|2>:ESPectrum:PSEarch|:PEAKsearch:PSHow" on page 6.19.
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:SUBRanges
In receiver mode, this command changes two settings, depending on which method to
determine the peak levels is activated:
Peaks
The command sets the number of peaks to be determined
Subranges
The command sets the number of subranges to be analyzed
In analyzer mode, the command sets the number of peaks per range that are stored in the list.
Once the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped in the
current range and continued in the next range.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Analyzer mode: 1 to 50
Receiver mode: 1 to 500
Example
CALC:PSE:SUBR 10
Sets 10 peaks per range to be stored in the list.
Characteristics
RST value: 25
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:PSEarch|PEAKsearch:SUBRanges:PCOunt
This command sets the number of peaks to be found in each subrange. It is used if the peak
search method is set to Subranges.
Parameter
1 to 10
Example
CALC:PSE:SUBR:PCO 5
Sets 5 peaks to be determined in the subrange
Characteristics
RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R
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CALCulate Subsystem
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CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem
The CALCulate:STATistics subsystem controls the statistical measurement functions in the instrument.
Commands of the CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem
–
CALCulate:STATistics:APD[:STATe]
–
CALCulate:STATistics:CCDF[:STATe]
–
CALCulate:STATistics:NSAMples
–
CALCulate:STATistics:PRESet
–
CALCulate:STATistics:RESult<1...4>?
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:AUTO
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RANGe
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RLEVel
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:LOWer
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UNIT
–
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UPPer
CALCulate:STATistics:APD[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of amplitude distribution (APD). On
activating this function, the CCDF measurement is switched off.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:STAT:APD ON
Switches on the APD measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:CCDF[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the measurement of the complementary cumulative
distribution function (CCDF). On activating this function, the APD measurement is switched off.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:STAT:CCDF ON
Switches on the CCDF measurement.
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CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:NSAMples
This command sets the number of measurement points to be acquired for the statistical
measurement functions.
Parameter
100 to 1E9
Example
CALC:STAT:NSAM 500
Sets the number of measurement points to be acquired to 500.
Characteristics
*RST value: 100000
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:PRESet
This command resets the scaling of the X and Y axes in a statistical measurement. The
following values are set:
x–axis ref level:
–20 dBm
x–axis range APD:
100 dB
x–axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y–axis upper limit:
1.0
y–axis lower limit:
1E–6
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CALC:STAT:PRES
Resets the scaling for statistical functions
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
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CALCulate:STATistics:RESult<1...4>?
This command reads out the results of statistical measurements of a recorded trace. The trace
is selected with the numeric suffix <1...4> attached to RESult.
Parameter
The required result is selected via the following parameters:
MEAN
Average (=RMS) power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
PEAK
Peak power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
CFACtor
Determined CREST factor (= ratio of peak power to average power) in dB.
ALL
Results of all three measurements mentioned before, separated by commas:
<mean power>,<peak power>,<crest factor>
Example
CALC:STAT:RES2? ALL
Reads out the three measurement results of trace 2. Example of answer string:
5.56,19.25,13.69 i.e. mean power: 5.56 dBm, peak power 19.25 dBm, CREST factor 13.69 dB
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:AUTO
This command optimizes the level setting of the instrument depending on the measured peak
power, in order to obtain maximum instrument sensitivity.
To obtain maximum resolution, the level range is set as a function of the measured spacing
between peak power and the minimum power for the APD measurement and of the spacing
between peak power and mean power for the CCDF measurement. In addition, the probability
scale for the number of test points is adapted.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: Subsequent commands have to be synchronized with *WAI, *OPC or *OPC? to the end
of the auto range process which would otherwise be aborted.
Parameter
ONCE
Example
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE;*WAI
Adapts the level setting for statistical measurements.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RANGe
This command defines the level range for the x–axis of the measurement diagram. The setting
is identical to the level range setting defined with the
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe] command.
Parameter
10dB to 200dB
Example
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG 20dB
Characteristics
*RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RLEVel
This command defines the reference level for the x–axis of the measurement diagram. The
setting is identical to the reference level setting using the
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel command.
With the reference level offset <> 0 the indicated value range of the reference level is modified
by the offset.
The unit depends on the setting performed with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
Parameter
–120dBm to 20dBm
Example
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV –60dBm
Characteristics
*RST value: –20dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:LOWer
This command defines the lower limit for the y–axis of the diagram in statistical measurements.
Since probabilities are specified on the y–axis, the entered numeric values are dimensionless.
Parameter
1E–9 to 0.1
Example
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW 0.001
Characteristics
*RST value: 1E–6
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UNIT
This command defines the scaling type of the y–axis.
Parameter
PCT | ABS
Example
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT
Sets the percentage scale.
Characteristics
RST value: ABS
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UPPer
This command defines the upper limit for the y–axis of the diagram in statistical measurements.
Since probabilities are specified on the y–axis, the entered numeric values are dimensionless.
Parameter
1E–8 to 1.0
Example
CALC:STAT:Y:UPP 0.01
Characteristics
*RST value: 1.0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem
The CALCulate:THReshold subsystem controls the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search
of markers.
Commands of the CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold
–
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold:STATe
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold
This command defines the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search of markers with
marker search functions. The associated display line is automatically switched on.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
MINimum to MAXimum (depending on current unit)
Example
CALC:THR –82DBM
Sets the threshold value to –82 dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold:STATe
This command switches on or off the threshold line. The unit depends on the setting performed
with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:THR:STAT ON
Switches on the threshold line.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESL
CALCulate:TLINe Subsystem
The CALCulate:TLINe subsystem defines the position of the time lines.
Commands of the CALCulate:TLINe Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>
–
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>:STATe
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>
This command defines the position of the time lines that mark the times.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to 1000s
Example
CALC:TLIN 10ms
Characteristics
*RST value: – (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>:STATe
This command switches the time line on or off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CALC:TLIN2:STAT ON
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem
The CALCulate:UNIT subsystem defines the units for the parameters that can be set and the
measurement results.
Commands of the CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
This command selects the unit for power.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
DBM | V | A | W | DB | PCT | UNITLESS | DBPW | WATT | DBUV | DBMV | VOLT | DBUA |
AMPere | DBPT | DBUV_MHZ | DBMV_MHZ | DBUA_MHZ | DBUV_M | DBUA_M |
DBUV_MMHZ | DBUA_MMHZ
Example
CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Sets the power unit to dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R, A
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem
The DISPLay subsystem controls the selection and presentation of textual and graphic information as
well as of measurement data on the display.
Commands of the DISPlay Subsystem
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>[:STATe]
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:MODE
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:MODE:HCONtinuous
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:SYMBol
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:X[:SCALe]:ZOOM
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:X:SPACing
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:TOP
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:MODE
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:OFFSet
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition (models 13, 16)
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue (models 13, 16)
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue:AUTO
–
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer?
–
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?
–
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd
–
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:RESet
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R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
This command configures the measurement display.
Channel and adjacent–channel power measurements: Only "1" is allowed as a numeric suffix.
Spectrum Emission Mask and Spurious Emissions measurements: The numeric suffix <1|2>
selects the item that is displayed in full size; 1 for measurement diagram, 2 for list
Parameter
LARGe
Channel and adjacent–channel power measurements: diagram in full screen.
Spectrum Emission Mask and Spurious Emissions measurements: diagram or
list in full screen, depending on the value of the numeric suffix.
SMALl
split screen (diagram and list)
Example
DISP:SIZE LARG
Displays the measurement diagram in full screen size.
DISP:WIND2:SIZE LARG
Displays the list in full screen size.
Characteristics
*RST value: SMALl
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A, ADEMOD
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>[:STATe]
This command switches on or off the display of the corresponding trace.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
DISP:TRAC3 ON
Characteristics
*RST value: ON for TRACe1, OFF for TRACe2 to 6
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:MODE
This command defines the type of display and the evaluation of the traces. WRITE corresponds
to the Clr/Write mode of manual operation. The trace is switched off (= BLANK in manual
operation) with DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>[:STATe].
The number of measurements for AVERage, MAXHold and MINHold is defined with the
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt or [SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt commands. It should be
noted that synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements is only possible
in single sweep mode.
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESL
If calculation of average values is active, selection between logarithmic and linear averaging is
possible. For more detail see [SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE command.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
WRITe | VIEW | AVERage | MAXHold | MINHold |RMS
For details on trace modes refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Trace mode
overview".
Example
SWE:CONT OFF
Switching to single sweep mode.
SWE:COUN 16
Sets the number of measurements to 16.
DISP:TRAC3:MODE MAXH
Switches on the calculation of the for trace 3.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Characteristics
*RST value: WRITe for TRACe1, STATe OFF for TRACe2/3/4/5/6
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:MODE:HCONtinuous
This command defines, whether traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode are reset after
parameter change or not.
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement
results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new measurement after
parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false results (e.g. with span
changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter changes, the automatic reset
can be switched off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
OFF
After certain parameter changes the traces are reset.
ON
The automatic reset is switched off.
Example
DISP:WIND:TRAC3:MODE:HCON ON
Switches off the reset function.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:SYMBol
This command assigns a symbol to the peak values of a trace. For each trace another symbol is
used (e.g. an x or a +).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
CROSs
Assigns a symbol to the peaks
OFF
Deactivates the symbols
Example
DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS
Displays an x on the frequencies of the peak list.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
R
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:X[:SCALe]:ZOOM
This command activates or deactivates the zoom. The display is centered on the marker. The
zoom factor is set with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:ZOOM on page 6.73.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
DISP:TRAC:X:ZOOM
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:X:SPACing
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic scaling of the x-axis.
Parameter
LINear | LOGarithmic
Example
DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LOG
Sets the x-axis to a logarithmic scale
Characteristics
*RST value: LOG
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A-F
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESL
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom
This command sets the minimum level of the grid in the current unit of the scan display.
The numeric suffix <1…6> is irrelevant.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT -10
Sets the minimum value of the y-axis to -10 of the selected unit.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
R
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:TOP
This command sets the maximum level of the grid in the current unit of the scan display.
The numeric suffix <1…6> is irrelevant.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:TOP 10
Sets the upper value of the y-axis to 10 of the selected unit.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
R
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing
This command selects the scaling for the level display range.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
LOGarithmic
Selects logarithmic scaling.
LINear
Selects linear scaling in %.
LDB
Selects linear scaling in dB.
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
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R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem
Characteristics
*RST value: LOGarithmic
SCPI: conform
Mode
A, ADEMOD
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]
This command defines the display range of the y–axis (level axis) with logarithmic scaling
(DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing).
For linear scaling, the display range is fixed and cannot be modified.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
10 dB to 200 dB or value in Hz
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y 110dB
Characteristics
*RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:MODE
This command defines the scale type of the y–axis (absolute or relative).
When SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate is set to OFF, this command has no immediate effect on the
screen. The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
ABSolute | RELative
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:MODE REL
Characteristics
*RST value: ABS
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
This command defines the reference level.
With the reference level offset <> 0, the indicated value range of the reference level is modified
by the offset.
The unit depends on the setting defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESL
Parameter
<numeric_value> in dBm, range specified in data sheet
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV –60dBm
Characteristics
*RST value: –20dBm
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:OFFSet
This command defines the offset of the reference level.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
–200dB to 200dB
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV:OFFS –10dB
Characteristics
*RST value: 0dB
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition (models 13, 16)
This command requires a tracking generator and active normalization in the Tracking
Generator mode. It defines the position of the reference value.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
0 to 100PCT
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT
Characteristics
*RST value:
100 PCT
Spectrum Analyzer mode
50 PCT
Tracking Generator mode
SCPI: conform
Mode
A, ADEMOD
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R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue (models 13, 16)
This command requires a tracking generator and active normalization in the Tracking
Generator mode. The command defines the power value assigned to the reference position.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL –20dBm
(Analyzer)
DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0
Sets the power value assigned to the reference position to 0 dB (tracking generator)
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 dB, coupled to reference level
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A, ADEMOD
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue:AUTO
This command defines whether the reference value for the y–axis is coupled to the reference
level (default) or not.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> and <1...6> are irrelevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL:AUTO ON
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer?
This command queries the minimum level of the bargraph.
Example
DISP:BARG:LEV:LOW?
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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E-2
DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESL
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?
This command queries the upper level of the bargraph.
Example
DISP:BARG:LEV:UPP?
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd
This command activates or deactivates the bargraph maxhold. The bargraph maxhold indicates
the maximum measured value of the signal..
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
DISP:BARG:PHOL ON
Activates the bargraph maxhold
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:RESet
This command resets the bargraph maxhold value.
Example
DISP:BARG:PHOL:RES
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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E-2
R&S ESL
FORMat Subsytem
FORMat Subsytem
The FORMat subsystem specifies the data format of the data transmitted from and to the instrument.
Commands of the FORMat Subsystem
–
FORMat:DEXPort:DSEParator
FORMat:DEXPort:DSEParator
This command defines which decimal separator (decimal point or comma) is to be used for
outputting measurement data to the file in ASCII format. Different languages of evaluation
programs (e.g. MS Excel) can thus be supported.
Parameter
POINt | COMMA
Example
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Sets the decimal point as separator.
Characteristics
*RST value: – (factory setting is POINt; *RST does not affect setting)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
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INITiate Subsystem
R&S ESL
INITiate Subsystem
The INITiate subsystem is used to control the init–measurement function.
Commands of the INITiate Subsystem
–
INITiate<1|2>[:IMMediate]
–
INITiate<1|2>:CONMeas
–
INITiate<1|2>:CONTinuous
–
INITiate<1|2>:DISPlay
–
INITiate<1|2>:EMItest
–
INITiate<1|2>:FMeasurement
–
INITiate<1|2>:ESPectrum
–
INITiate<1|2>:SPURious
INITiate<1|2>[:IMMediate]
The command initiates a new measurement sequence.
With sweep count > 0 or average count > 0, this means a restart of the indicated number of
measurements. With trace functions MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, the previous results are
reset on restarting the measurement.
In receiver mode, the R&S ESL performs a single scan and stops at the end frequency. A
continous scan that can only be stopped deliberately is possible when Continous Scan is
selected.
In single sweep mode, synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements can
be achieved with the command *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI. In continuous–sweep mode,
synchronization to the sweep end is not possible since the overall measurement never ends.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
Activates trace averaging.
SWE:COUN 20
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
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E-2
R&S ESL
INITiate Subsystem
INITiate<1|2>:CONMeas
This command continues a stopped measurement at the current position in single sweep mode.
The function is useful especially for trace functions MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, if the
previous results are not to be cleared with sweep count > 0 or average count > 0 on restarting
the measurement (INIT:IMMediate resets the previous results on restarting the measurement).
The single sweep mode is automatically switched on. Synchronization to the end of the
indicated number of measurements can then be performed with the commands *OPC, *OPC? or
*WAI. In the continuous sweep mode, synchronization to the sweep end is not possible since
the overall measurement "never" ends.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
Switches on trace averaging.
SWE:COUN 20
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
INIT:CONM;*WAI
Continues the measurement (next 20 sequences) and waits for the end.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
INITiate<1|2>:CONTinuous
This command determines whether the trigger system is continuously initiated (continuous) or
performs single measurements (single).
This setting refers to the sweep sequence (switching between continuous/single sweep).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches the sequence single sweep.
INIT:CONT ON
Switches the sequence to continuous sweep.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
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E-2
INITiate Subsystem
R&S ESL
INITiate<1|2>:DISPlay
This command switches the display during a single sweep measurement on (ON) or off (OFF).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
INIT:DISP OFF
Sets the display behavior to OFF
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement with display switched off.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
INITiate<1|2>:EMItest
This command starts an automatic sequence consisting of the scan, determination of the peak
list and subsequent final measurement.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:EMI
Starts the sequence: scan, peak search and final measurement
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
INITiate<1|2>:FMeasurement
This command starts the final measurement based on the peak list.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:FME
Starts the final measurement
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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R&S ESL
INITiate Subsystem
INITiate<1|2>:ESPectrum
This command starts a Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:ESP
Starts a Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
INITiate<1|2>:SPURious
This command starts a Spurious Emissions measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
INIT:SPUR
Starts a Spurious Emissions measurement.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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INPut Subsystem
R&S ESL
INPut Subsystem
The INPut subsystem controls the input characteristics of the RF inputs of the instrument.
Commands of the INPut Subsystem
–
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation
–
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:AUTO
–
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe]
–
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:AUTO
–
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:STATe
–
INPut<1|2>:IMPedance
–
INPut<1|2>:LISN[:TYPE]
–
INPut<1|2>:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]
–
INPut<1|2>:LISN:PHASe
–
INPut<1|2>:UPORt[:VALue]?
–
INPut<1|2>:UPORt:STATe
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation
This command programs the input attenuator. To protect the input mixer against damage from
overloads, the setting 0 dB can be obtained by entering numerals, not by using the command
DECrease.
The step width is 5 dB.
In receiver mode, if the attenuation is programmed directly, the auto range function is
deactivated if necessary. Activate the protection function
(INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe]) to prevent a level of 0 dB.
Parameter
0 to 75 dB
Example
INP:ATT 40 dB
Sets the attenuation on the attenuator to 40 dB and switches off the coupling of the reference
level.
Characteristics
*RST value: 10 dB (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
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R&S ESL
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:AUTO
This command automatically couples the input attenuation to the reference level (state ON) or
switches the input attenuation to manual entry (state OFF).
In receiver mode, this command automatically sets the attenuation so that a good S/N ratio is
obtained without the receiver stages being overdriven (state ON).
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Couples the attenuation set on the attenuator to the reference level.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe]
This command defines whether the 0 dB position of the attenuator is to be used in manual or
automatic adjustment.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:ATT:PROT ON
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:AUTO
This command includes the preamplifier into the autoranging function of the receiver.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Activates the preamplifier
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R
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INPut Subsystem
R&S ESL
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:STATe
This command switches the preamplifier of the instrument on or off. The switchable gain is fixed
to 20 dB.
The command is only available in conjunction with option RF Preamplifier, B22.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Activates the preamplifier
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A
INPut<1|2>:IMPedance
This command sets the nominal input impedance of the instrument. The set impedance is taken
into account in all level indications of results.
The setting 75 should be selected, if the 50 input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 in series to the input impedance of
the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log ( 75 / 50 ).
Parameter
50 | 75
Example
INP:IMP 75
Characteristics
*RST value: 50
SCPI: conform
Mode
All, except receiver
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R&S ESL
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:LISN[:TYPE]
This command selects the V-network that is controlled via the USER port. This setting is used in
the receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement.
Parameter
TWOPhase & ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5 (two phases and protective earth are controllable)
FOURPhase & ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5 (four phases and protective earth are controllable)
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200 (four phases are controllable)
ENV216
R&S ENV 216 (two phases and highpass are controllable)
OFF
No network is selected
Example:
INP:LISN:TWOP
Selects the R&S ESH3-Z5 network
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R, A
INPut<1|2>:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]
This command activates or deactivates the highpass filter of the V-network that is controlled via
the user port. In receiver mode, this command is also used for the preliminary measurement.
This command is available only for the R&S ENV 216 V-network (INPut:LISN ENV216).
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Activates the highpass filter of the V-network.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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INPut Subsystem
R&S ESL
INPut<1|2>:LISN:PHASe
This command selects the phase of the V-network that is used and which is controlled via the
user port. This setting is used in the receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement. The
permissible selection depends on the selected V-network..
Parameter
L1 | L2 | L3 | N
Example
INP:LISN:PHAS L1
Activates phase L1 to be used in the network
Characteristics
*RST value: L1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
INPut<1|2>:UPORt[:VALue]?
This command queries the control lines of the user ports.
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
INP:UPOR?
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
INPut<1|2>:UPORt:STATe
This command toggles the control lines of the user ports between INPut and OUTPut. With ON,
the user port is switched to INPut, with OFF to OUTPut.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
INP:UPOR:STAT ON
Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
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R&S ESL
OUTPut Subsystem
OUTPut Subsystem
The OUTPut subsystem controls the output features of the instrument.
Commands of the OUTPut Subsystem
–
OUTPut<1|2>[:STATe] (models 13 and 16)
–
OUTPut:UPORt[:VALue]
–
OUTPut:UPORt:STATe
OUTPut<1|2>[:STATe] (models 13 and 16)
This command switches the tracking generator on or off.
Note: With the tracking generator switched on, the maximum stop frequency is limited to 3
GHz. This upper limit is automatically modified by the set frequency offset of the
generator.
If measurements in compliance with specs are to be performed with the tracking
generator, the start frequency has to be 3 x resolution bandwidth.
If a sweep time shorter than recommended in the data sheet is selected, the sweep
time indicator SWT on the screen is marked with a red asterisk and the message
UNCAL is also displayed.
With the tracking generator switched on, the FFT filters
([SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE) are not available.
To switch off the tracking generator without loosing the the corresponding hardware
settings and the normalization see the
SOURce<1|2>:POWer[:LEVel][:IMMediate][:AMPLitude] command.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
OUTP ON
Switches on the tracking generator.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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OUTPut Subsystem
R&S ESL
OUTPut:UPORt[:VALue]
This command sets the control lines of the user ports.
The user port is written to with the given binary pattern. If the user port is programmed to INPut
instead of OUTPut, the output value is temporarily stored.
Parameter
#B00000000 to #B11111111
Example
OUTP:UPOR #B10100101
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
OUTPut:UPORt:STATe
This command switches the control line of the user ports between INPut and OUTPut. The user
port is switched to OUTPut with parameter ON, to INPut with OFF.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
OUTP:UPOR:STAT ON
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe Subsystem
The SENSe subsystem is organized in several subsystems. The commands of these subsystems
directly control device–specific settings, they do not refer to the signal characteristics of the
measurement signal.
The SENSe subsystem controls the essential parameters of the analyzer. In accordance with the SCPI
standard, the keyword "SENSe" is optional for this reason, which means that it is not necessary to
include the SENSe node in command sequences.
The following subsystems are included:
•
"SENSe:AVERage Subsystem" on page 6.136
•
"SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem" on page 6.138
•
"SENSe:CORRection Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)" on page 6.143
•
"SENSe:DETector Subsystem" on page 6.147
•
"SENSe:ESPectrum Subsystem" on page 6.149
•
"SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem" on page 6.163
•
"SENSe:LIST Subsystem" on page 6.168
•
"SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem" on page 6.178
•
"SENSe:POWer Subsystem" on page 6.183
•
"SENSe:SCAN Subsystem" on page 6.191
•
"SENSe:SWEep Subsystem" on page 6.195
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
SENSe:AVERage Subsystem
The SENSe:AVERage subsystem calculates the average of the acquired data. A new test result is
obtained from several successive measurements.
There are two types of average calculation: logarithmic and linear. In case of logarithmic average
calculation (denoted with VIDeo), the average value of the measured logarithmic power is calculated
and in case of linear average calculation, the linear power is averaged before the logarithm is applied.
Commands of the SENSe:AVERage Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage[:STATe<1...4>]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage[:STATe<1...4>]
This command switches on or off the average calculation for the selected trace (STATe<1...4>).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
AVER OFF
Switches off the average calculation for trace 1.
AVER:STAT3 ON
Switches on the average calculation for trace 3.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt
This command defines the number of measurements which contribute to the average value.
It should be noted that continuous averaging will be performed after the indicated number has
been reached in continuous sweep mode.
In single sweep mode, the sweep is stopped as soon as the indicated number of measurements
(sweeps) is reached. Synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements is
only possible in single sweep mode.
The [SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt command effects the same as the
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt command. In both cases, the number of measurements is
defined whether the average calculation is active or not.
The number of measurements applies to all traces.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to 32767
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
Example
SWE:CONT OFF
Switching to single sweep mode.
AVER:COUN 16
Sets the number of measurements to 16.
AVER:STAT ON
Switches on the calculation of average.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt:AUTO
This command is implemented only for reasons of compatibility with the FSP family. It selects a
suitable number of counts for the selected measurement type.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
AVER:COUN:AUTO ON
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE
This command selects the type of average function.
Parameter
VIDeo
The logarithmic power values are averaged.
LINear
The power values are averaged before they are converted to logarithmic values.
Example
AVER:TYPE LIN
Switches to linear average calculation.
Characteristics
RST value: VIDeo
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem
This subsystem controls the setting of the instruments filter bandwidths. Both groups of commands
(BANDwidth and BWIDth) perform the same functions.
Commands of the SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:TYPE
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]
This command defines the IF bandwidth.
Analog resolution filters of 10 Hz to 20 MHz in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 steps are available. These filters are
implemented as 5-circuit LC filters in the range from 300 kHz to 10 MHz and as digital filters
with analog characteristics in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz.
In addition, the EMI bandwidths 200 Hz, 9kHz and 120 kHz are available (6 dB bandwidths
each). These bandwidths can only be obtained by entering numeric values and not with the
commands INCrement and DECrement.
The EMI bandwidths are only available when parameter PULSe is selected by command
BAND:TYPE. FFT filters from 1 Hz to 30 kHz (3dB bandwidth each) are also available in the
frequency domain (span>0) for fast measurements on periodic signals. The instrument
automatically switches to analog filters above 30 kHz.
The FFT bandwidths are not available if the preselector is switched on.
CFILter or RRC are selected using the BAND:TYPE command. The possible combinations of
filter type and filter bandwidths are listed in the table "List of available channel filters".
Parameter
10 Hz to 10 MHz
Example
BAND 120 kHz
Sets the IF bandwidth to 120 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: – (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except ADEMOD
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO
In receiver mode, this command either automatically couples the IF bandwidth of the R&S ESL
to the frequency range or cancels the coupling. Note that this command is only effective in
conjunction with the quasipeak, the CISPR average or CISPR RMS detector.
In analyzer mode, the command couples the resolution bandwidth to the span or cancels it.
The automatic coupling adapts the resolution bandwidth to the current frequency span
according to the relationship between frequency span and resolution bandwidth.The numeric
suffixes <1|2> are not relevant. The ratio resolution bandwidth/span can be modified with the
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio command.
The 6 dB bandwidths 200 Hz, 9 kHz and 120 kHz and the channel filters are not set by the
automatic coupling.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
BAND:AUTO OFF
Switches off the coupling of the resolution bandwidth to the span.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio
This command defines the ratio resolution bandwidth (Hz) / span (Hz). The ratio to be entered is
reciprocal to the ratio span/RBW used in manual operation.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0.0001 to 1
Example
BAND:RAT 0.1
Characteristics
*RST value: 0.02 with BAND:TYPE NORMal or RBW > 30 kHz; 0.01 with BAND:TYPE FFT for
RBW 30 kHz
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE
This command switches the filter type for the resolution bandwidth between "normal" analog or
FIR filters in 1, 3, 10 steps and the FFT filtering for bandwidths <100 kHz.
For detailed information on filters see chapter "Instrument Functions", section "To choose the
appropriate filter" and "List of available RRC and channel filters".
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: When changing the filter type, the next larger filter bandwidth is selected if the same
filter bandwidth is not available for the new filter type.
Parameter
NORMal
Gaussian filters
FFT
FFT filters (analyzer only)
CFILter
channel filters
NOISe
Gaussian filters (receiver only)
RRC
RRC filters
PULSe
EMI (6dB) filters
Example
BAND:TYPE NORM
Characteristics
*RST value: NORMal
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except ADEMOD
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo
This command defines the instruments video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths are
specified in the data sheet. The command is not available if FFT filtering is switched on and the
set bandwidth is 30 kHz or if the quasi–peak detector is switched on.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
refer to data sheet
Example
BAND:VID 10kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: – (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO
This command either automatically couples the instruments video bandwidth to the resolution
bandwidth or cancels the coupling.
The ratio video bandwidth/resolution bandwidth can be modified with the
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio command.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
BAND:VID:AUTO OFF
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio
This command defines the ratio video bandwidth (Hz) / resolution bandwidth (Hz).The ratio to be
entered is reciprocal to the ratio RBW/VBW used in manual operation.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0.01 to 1000
Example
BAND:VID:RAT 3
Sets the coupling of video bandwidth to video bandwidth = 3*resolution bandwidth
Characteristics
*RST value: 3
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:TYPE
This command selects the position of the video filter in the signal path, provided that the
resolution bandwidth is 100 kHz.
The essential difference between the two modes is the transient response at falling signal
edges: If LINear is selected, the measurement with logarithmic level scaling yields a much
"flatter" falling edge than LOGarithmic. This behavior is due to the conversion of linear power
into logarithmic level. If the linear power is halved, the level decreases by only 3 dB.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
LINear
The video filter is connected ahead of the logarithmic amplifier (default).
LOGarithmic
The video filter follows the logarithmic amplifier
Example
BAND:VID:TYPE LIN
Video filter ahead of the logarithmic amplifier
Characteristics
RST value: LIN
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:CORRection Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)
This subsystem controls calibration and normalization during operation with the tracking generator.
Commands of the SENSe:CORRection Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection[:STATe]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:EGAin:INPut[:MAGNitude]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:METHod
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:RECall
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection[:STATe]
This command activates/deactivates the normalization of the measurement results provided that
the tracking generator is active. The command is available only after acquisition of a reference
trace for the selected type of measurement (transmission/reflection, see
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire] command).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
CORR ON
Activates normalization.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire]
When the tracking generator is active, this command determines the type of result acquisition
for the normalization reference measurement and starts the measurement selected:
To obtain a correct reference measurement, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end
of the sweep must have been carried out. This is only possible in the single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an "event" and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
THRough
OPEN
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"TRANsmission" mode
calibration with direct connection
between tracking generator and
device input
"REFLection" mode
calibration with short circuit at the
input
only allowed in "REFLection" mode
calibration with open input
6.143
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
Example
INIT:CONT OFF
Selects single sweep operation
CORR:COLL THR;*WAI
Starts the measurement of reference data using direct connection between generator and
device input and waits for the sweep end.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:EGAin:INPut[:MAGNitude]
This command makes an external gain known to the analyzer, which will take it into account
during the display of measurement results. With this function the gain of an antenna or of an
external preamplifier can be taken into account for the measurement values.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–200...200dB
Example
CORR:EGA:INP 10DB
Takes 10 dB external gain into account.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:METHod
This command selects the type of measurement with active tracking generator
(transmission/reflection).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
TRANsmission | REFLection
Example
CORR:METH TRAN
Sets the type of measurement to "transmission".
Characteristics
*RST value: TRANsmission
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:RECall
This command restores the instrument setting that was applied to the measurement of the
reference data, provided that the tracking generator is active.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
CORR:REC
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
SENSe:DEMod Subsystem
The SENSe:DEMod subsystem controls the analog demodulation of the video signal.
Commands of the SENSe:DEMod Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DEMod
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DEMod:SQUelch[:STATe]
[SENSe<1|2>:]DEMod
This command selects the type of analog demodulation..
Parameter
OFF | AM | FM
Example:
DEM FM
Selects FM demodulation
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]DEMod:SQUelch[:STATe]
This command enables the input of a level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off..
Parameter
<numeric_value> | MIN | MAX | DEF
Example
DEM:SQU:LEV 80
Sets the squelch level to 80
Characteristics
*RST value: 60
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:DETector Subsystem
The SENSe:DETector subsystem controls the acquisition of measurement data via the selection of the
detector for the corresponding trace.
Commands of the SENSe:DETector Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>[:FUNCtion]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>[:FUNCtion]:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>:FMEasurement
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>:RECeiver[:FUNCtion]
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>[:FUNCtion]
This command selects the detector for recording measured values of the selected trace.
For more information on available detectors refer to "Selecting the detector".
If QPEak is selected, the video filter is automatically switched off. In addition, the couplings
between the span and RBW as well as between RBW and the sweep time are switched off.
They are not restored until another detector is selected. Accordingly, the sweep time should be
set to a value that is large enough so that the quasipeak detector can settle in completely at
each measurement point.
The trace is indicated as a numerical suffix for DETector.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
APEak | NEGative | POSitive | SAMPle | RMS | AVERage | QPEak | CRMS | CAVerage
For details on detectors refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview".
Example
DET POS
Sets the prescan detector to "positive peak".
Characteristics
*RST value: POS
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>[:FUNCtion]:AUTO
This command either couples the detector to the current trace setting or turns coupling off. The
trace is selected by the numeric suffix at DETector.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
DET:AUTO OFF
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>:FMEasurement
This command sets the detector used to record measured values for a specific trace in the final
measurement.
– The POSitive or NEGative detector only displays the positive or the negative peak value.
–
The AVERage detector displays the power average value at each measurement point.
–
The detectors QPEak for quasipeak, CAVerage for CISPR average and CRMS for CISPR-RMS
perform standard-compliant signal evaluations for the EMC test equipment.
For further details on available detectors refer to Selecting the detector.
If QPEak is selected, the video filter is automatically switched off. In addition, the couplings
between the span and RBW as well as between RBW and the sweep time are switched off.
They are not restored until another detector is selected. Accordingly, the sweep time should be
set to a value that is large enough so that the quasipeak detector can settle in completely at
each measurement point.
The trace is indicated as a numerical suffix for DETector.
Parameter
NEGative | POSitive | RMS | AVERage | QPEak | CAVerage | CRMS
Example
DET POS
Sets the detector to positive peak
Characteristics
*RST value: QPEak
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]DETector<1...6>:RECeiver[:FUNCtion]
This command selects the detector used in the bargraph measurement.
Parameter
NEGative | POSitive | RMS | AVERage | QPEak | CAVerage | CRMS
Example
DET:REC POS,AVER,QPE
Activates the peak, average and quasipeak detectors
Characteristics
*RST value: AVERage
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:ESPectrum Subsystem
The SENSe:ESPectrum subsystem contains the remote commands to configure Spectrum Emission
Mask (SEM) measurements.
Commands of the SENSe:ESPectrum Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:BWID
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:FILTer[:RRC][:STATe]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:FILTer[:RRC]:ALPHa
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:PRESet[:STANdard]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:PRESet:RESTore
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:RESolution
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:VIDeo
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:COUNt?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:DELete
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:FILTer:TYPE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:GAIN:STATe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INSert
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:RELative:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:RELative:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STATe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:RLEVel
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:TRANsducer
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RRANge?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RTYPe
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:BWID
This command defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power (reference range).
This setting takes only effect if channel power is selected as power reference type
([SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RTYPe command).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
minimum span
value
span of reference range
Example
ESP:RTYP CPOW
Sets the power reference type to channel power.
ESP:BWID 1MHZ
Sets the Tx bandwidth to 1 MHz.
Characteristics
RST value: 3.84 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:FILTer[:RRC][:STATe]
This command activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter. This setting takes only effect if
channel power is selected as power reference type ([SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RTYPe
command).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
ESP:RTYP CPOW
Sets the power reference type to channel power.
ESP:FILT OFF
Deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:FILTer[:RRC]:ALPHa
This command sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This setting takes only effect if channel
power is selected as power reference type ([SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RTYPe command)
and if the RRC filter is activated ([SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:FILTer[:RRC][:STATe]
command).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to 1
Example
ESP:RTYP CPOW
Sets the power reference type to channel power.
ESP:FILT ON
Activates the use of an RRC filter.
ESP:FILT:ALPH 0.5
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter to 0.5.
Characteristics
RST value: 0.22
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:PRESet[:STANdard]
This command selects the specified XML file under C:\r_s\instr\sem_std. If the file is stored in a
subdirectory, include the relative path.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
ESP:PRES 'WCDMA\3GPP\DL\PowerClass_31_39.xml'
Selects the PowerClass_31_39.xml XML file in the C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP\DL
directory.
ESP:PRES?
W–CDMA 3GPP DL (31,39)dBm
The query returns information about the selected standard, the link direction and the power
class. If no standard has been selected, the query returns None.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:PRESet:RESTore
This command copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
ESP:PRES:REST
Restores the originally provided XML files.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth /
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:RESolution
This command sets the RBW value for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Refer to the data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG2:BAND:RES 5000
Sets the RBW for range 2 to 5 kHz.
Characteristics
RST value: 30.0 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:VIDeo
This command sets the VBW value for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Refer to the data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000
Sets the VBW for range 1 to 5 MHz.
Characteristics
RST value: 10.0 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:COUNt?
This command returns the number of defined ranges.
The numeric suffixes are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
ESP:RANG:COUNt?
Returns the number of defined ranges.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:DELete
This command deletes the specified range. The range numbers are updated accordingly. The
reference range cannot be deleted. A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Example
ESP:RANG4:DEL
Deletes range 4.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt
This command sets the start frequency for the specified range.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate span. If
you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the ranges, the measurement includes
only the ranges that lie within the defined span and have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first
and last range are adapted to the given span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not
violated.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
see rules in chapter 4, "Ranges and settings"
Example
ESP:RANG1:STAR 100000000
Sets the start frequency for range 1 to 100 MHz.
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Characteristics
RST value: –250.0 MHz (range 1), –2.52 MHz (range 2), 2.52 MHz (range 3)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STOP
This command sets the stop frequency for the specified range. For further details refer to the
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt command.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
see rules in chapter 4, "Ranges and settings"
Example
ESP:RANG3:STOP 10000000
Sets the stop frequency for range 2 to 10 MHz.
Characteristics
RST value: –2.52 MHz (range 1), 2.52 MHz (range 2), 250.0 MHz (range 3)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:FILTer:TYPE
This command sets the filter type for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
NORMal
Gaussian filters
CFILter
channel filters
RRC
RRC filters
PULSe
EMI (6dB) filters
The available bandwidths of the filters are specified in the data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC
Sets the RRC filter type for range 1.
Characteristics
RST value: NORM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation
This command sets the attenuation for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Refer to the data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG3:INP:ATT 10
Sets the attenuation of range 3 to 10 dB.
Characteristics
RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
This command activates or deactivates the automatic RF attenuation setting for the specified
range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
ESP:RANG2:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF
Deactivates the RF attenuation auto mode for range 2.
Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:GAIN:STATe
This command switches the preamplifier on or off for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
ESP:RANG3:INP:GAIN:STATe ON
Switches the preamplifier for range 3 on or off.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INSert
This command inserts a new range before or after the specified range. The range numbers are
updated accordingly.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
AFTer | BEFore
Example
ESP:RANG3:INS BEF
Inserts a new range before range 3.
ESP:RANG1:INS AFT
Inserts a new range after range 1.
Characteristics
RST value:
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STARt
This command sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the specified range.
Different from manual operation, this setting is independently of the defined limit check type.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–400 to in 400 dBm
Example
ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STAR 10
Sets an absolute limit of 10 dBm at the start frequency of the range.
Characteristics
RST value: –13 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STOP
This command sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the specified range.
Different from manual operation, this setting is independently of the defined limit check type.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–400 to in 400 dBm
Example
ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STOP 20
Sets an absolute limit of 20 dBm at the stop frequency of the range.
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Characteristics
RST value: –13 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:RELative:STARt
This command sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the specified range. Different
from manual operation, this setting is independently of the defined limit check type.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–400 to in 400 dBc
Example
ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STAR –20
Sets a relative limit of –20 dBc at the start frequency of the range.
Characteristics
RST value: –50 dBc
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:RELative:STOP
This command sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the specified range. Different
from manual operation, this setting is independently of the defined limit check type.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–400 to in 400 dBc
Example
ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STOP 20
Sets a relative limit of 20 dBc at the stop frequency of the range.
Characteristics
RST value: –50 dBc
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STATe
This command sets the type of limit check for all ranges.
The numeric suffixes are not relevant.
Parameter
ABSolute
Checks only the absolute limits defined.
RELative
Checks only the relative limits. Relative limits are defined as relative to the
measured power in the reference range.
AND
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when both limits
are violated.
OR
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when one of the
limits is violated.
Example
ESP:RANG3:LIM:STAT AND
Sets for all ranges the combined absolute/relative limit check.
Characteristics
RST value: REL
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:RLEVel
This command sets the reference level for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Refer to the data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG2:RLEV 0
Sets the reference level of range 2 to 0 dBm.
Characteristics
RST value: –20 dBm
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME
This command sets the sweep time for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer to the
data sheet.
Example
ESP:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1
Sets the sweep time for range 1 to 1 s.
Characteristics
RST value: 0.27 s
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME:AUTO
This command activates or deactivates the automatic sweep time setting for the specified
range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
ESP:RANG3:SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF
Deactivates the sweep time auto mode for range 3.
Characteristics
RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:TRANsducer
This command sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that
fulfills the following conditions:
– The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
–
The x–axis is linear.
–
The unit is dB.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
'string' = name of the transducer
Example
ESP:RANG1:TRAN 'test'
Sets the transducer called test for range 1.
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Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RRANge?
This command returns the current position (number) of the reference range.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
ESP:RRAN?
Returns the current position (number) of the reference range.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RTYPe
This command sets the power reference type.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
PEAK
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
CPOWer
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth
method).
Example
ESP:RTYP PEAK
Sets the peak power reference type.
Characteristics
RST value: CPOWer
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:FMEasurement Subsystem
This subsystem controls the final measurement of the receiver.
Commands of the SENSe:FMEasurement Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN[:TYPE]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN:PHASe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:TIME
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:AUTO
This command activates automatic or interactive final measurement.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
FME:AUTO ON
Activates automatic final measurement
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN[:TYPE]
This command selects whether a V-network is accessed automatically via the user port in the
final measurement. The command also selects which network is accessed.
Parameter
TWOPhase | ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable
FOURPhase | ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable
ENV4200
R&S ENV4200: four phases are controllable
ENV216
R&S ENV216: two phases and highpass are controllable
OFF
No network is selected
Example
FME:LISN:FILT FOURP
Selects the ESH ESH2-Z5 network
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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R&S ESL
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]
This command selects the setting for the high pass filter on the V-network with which the level
measurement is performed in the final measurement. This command is available only for the
R&S ENV 216 Vnetwork (FMEasurement:LISN ENV216).
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
FME:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Activates the high pass filter
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:LISN:PHASe
This command selects the phases of the V-network on which level measurements are
consecutivelyperformed in the final measurement. L2 and L3 are only available with four-line Vnetworks (FMEasurement:LISN FOURphase | ENV4200).
Parameter
L1 | L2 | L3 | N[[,L1 | L2 | L3 | N],…]
Example
FME:LISN:PHAS L1, N
Characteristics
*RST value: 1N
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]FMEasurement:TIME
This command defines the measurement time in which the values indicated in the peak list (final
measurement values) are re-checked.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
FME:TIME 0.01
Characteristics
*RST value: 1 s
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem
The SENSe:FREQuency subsystem defines the frequency axis of the active display. The frequency
axis can either be defined via the start/stop frequency or via the center frequency and span.
Commands of the SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:LINK
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:LINK:FACTor
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CW
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CW:STEP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:FIXed
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:FIXed:STEP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:MODE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:OFFSet
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:SPAN
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:SPAN:FULL
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STOP
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer
This command defines the center frequency of the analyzer or the measuring frequency for
span = 0.
In receiver mode, the command defines the receiver frequency.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to fmax
fmax is specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the frequency
range, for R&S ESL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the fmax value is
extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry. The preset and maximum values remain unchanged.
Example
FREQ:CENT 100MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: fmax /2 with fmax = maximum frequency
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP
This command defines the step size of the center frequency.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
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Parameter
0 to fmax
Example
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: – (AUTO 0.1 × SPAN is switched on)
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:AUTO
This command couples the step size of the center frequency to the span (ON) or sets the value
of the center frequency entered via [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP (OFF).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
FREQ:CENT:STEP:AUTO ON
Activates the coupling of the step size to the span.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:LINK
This command couples the step size of the center frequency to span (span >0) or to the
resolution bandwidth (span = 0) or cancels the couplings.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
SPAN
coupling to frequency display range (for span > 0)
RBW
coupling to resolution bandwidth (for span = 0)
OFF
manual input, no coupling
Example
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Characteristics
*RST value: SPAN
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A, ADEMOD
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[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP:LINK:FACTor
This command couples the step size of the center frequency with a factor to the span (span >0)
or to the resolution bandwidth (span = 0).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
1 to 100 PCT
Example
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
Characteristics
*RST value: – (AUTO 0.1 × SPAN is switched on)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CW
This command is the same as [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer.
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CW:STEP
This command is the same as [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP.
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:FIXed
This command is the same as [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer.
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:FIXed:STEP
This command is the same as [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP.
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:MODE
This command switches between span > 0 (SWEep) and zero span (CW | FIXed) in the
Spectrum Analyzer mode.
For CW and FIXed, the frequency setting is via the [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer
command. In the sweep mode, the setting is via the [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STARt,
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STOP, [SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:CENTer, and
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:SPAN commands.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
CW | FIXed | SWEep | SCAN
Example
FREQ:MODE SWE
Characteristics
*RST value: SWEep
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SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:OFFSet
This command defines the frequency offset of the instrument.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
–100 GHz to 100 GHz
Example
FREQ:OFFS 1GHZ
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 Hz
SCPI: conform
Mode
A, ADEMOD
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:SPAN
This command defines the frequency span in the Spectrum Analyzer mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to fmax
fmax is specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the frequency
range, for R&S ESL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the fmax value is
extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry. The preset and maximum values remain unchanged.
Example
FREQ:SPAN 10MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: fmax with fmax = maximum frequency
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:SPAN:FULL
This command sets the frequency span to its maximum.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
fmax, specified in the data sheet.
Example
FREQ:SPAN:FULL
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Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STARt
This command defines the start frequency of the analyzer. This command is only available with
span > 0.
In receiver mode this command defines the start frequency of the scan range.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to fmax
fmax is specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the frequency
range, for R&S ESL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the fmax value is
extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry. The preset and maximum values remain unchanged.
Example
FREQ:STAR 20MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]FREQuency:STOP
This command defines the stop frequency of the analyzer. This command is only available with
span > 0.
In receiver mode this command defines the stop frequency of the scan range.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to fmax
fmax is specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the
frequency range, for R&S ESL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the
fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry. Example
FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: fmax
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A–F
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R&S ESL
SENSe:LIST Subsystem
The commands of this subsystem are used for measuring the power at a list of frequency points with
different device settings. The measurement is always performed in zero span. A new trigger event is
required for each test point (exception: trigger FREE RUN).
The results are output as a list in the order of the entered frequency points. The number of results per
test point depends on the number of concurrently active measurements (peak/RMS/average). The
number of frequencies is limited to 100 entries.
Selection of concurrently active measurements and setting of parameters that are constant for the
whole measurement is performed via a configuration command ([SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:SET).
This also includes the setting for trigger and gate parameters.
Note:
Settings that are not directly included in commands of this subsystem can be configured by
sending the corresponding commands prior to the SENSe:LIST Subsystem commands.
Please note that changes to the trigger level have to be executed in zero span in order to take
effect for the SENSe:LIST Subsystem commands.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"SENSe:LIST:RANGe Subsystem" on page 6.174
Commands of the SENSe:LIST Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer[:SEQuence]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:RESult?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:SET
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:STATe
Further information
–
More details on the SENSe:LIST Subsystem
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SENSe Subsystem
More details on the SENSe:LIST Subsystem
The following setting parameters can be selected independently for each frequency point:
•
analyzer frequency
•
reference level
•
resolution filter
•
resolution bandwidth
•
video bandwidth
•
measurement time
•
detector
The commands of this subsystem can be used in two different ways:
•
Instrument setup, measurement and querying of the results in a single command line. With this
method, there is the least delay between the measurement and the result output. However, it
requires the control computer to wait for the response from the instrument.
•
Instrument setup and querying of the result list at the end of the measurement: With this method,
the control computer may be used for other activities while the measurement is being performed.
However, more time is needed for synchronization via service request.
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[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer[:SEQuence]
This command configures the list of settings (max. 200 entries) for the multiple power
measurement and starts a measurement sequence. When synchronizing the command with
*OPC, a service request is generated as soon as all frequency points are processed and the
defined number of individual measurements is reached.
To reduce the setting time, all indicated parameters are set up simultaneously at each test point.
The query form of the command processes the list and immediately returns the list of results.
The number of results per test point depends on the setting of the
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:SET command.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
The following parameters are the settings for an individual frequency point. They are repeated
for every other frequency point.
<analyzer freq>
Receive frequency for the signal to be measured (= center frequency
in manual operation)
Range of values: 0 Hz to max. frequency, depending on the
instrument model.
<ref level>
Reference level
Range of values: +20 dBm to –130 dBm in 0.1 dB steps
<rf att>
RF input attenuation
Range of values: 0 dB to 30 dB in 5 dB steps
<rf att 2>
Only listed due to reasons of compatibility with the FSP family.
Takes no effect.
<filter type>
For details refer to
"[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE" on page
6.140
<rbw>
Resolution bandwidth
For the range of values refer to chapter "Instrument Functions",
section "Res BW Manual".
Refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "To choose the
appropriate filter type", for possible combinations of filter type and
filter bandwidth for the <filter type> = CFILter and <filter type> =
RRC.
<vbw>
Video bandwidth
Range of values:1 Hz to 10 MHz in 1, 3, 10 steps. The value is
ignored for <filter type> = CFILter or RRC
<meas time>
Measurement time
Range of values: 1us to 16000s
For details refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section
"Sweeptime Manual"
<trigger level>
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Return values
The query command returns a list of comma–separated values (CSV) which contains the power
measurement results in floating–point format. The unit depends on the setting with
CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
The command
SENSe:LIST:POWer?
935.2MHz,0dBm,10dB,OFF,NORM,1MHz,3MHz,440us,0,
935.4MHz,0dBm,10dB,10dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0,
935.6MHz,0dBm,10dB,20dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0
thus returns the following list, for example:
–28.3,–30.6,–38.1
If the command sequence is extended to
SENSe:LIST:POWer:SET ON,ON,ON,IMM,POS,0,0
SENSe:LIST:POWer?
935.2MHz,0dBm,10dB,OFF,NORM,1MHz,3MHz,440us,0,
935.4MHz,0dBm,10dB,10dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0,
935.6MHz,0dBm,10dB,20dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0
the result list is extended to 3 results per frequency point (peak, RMS and average):
–28.3, –29.6, 1.5, –30.6, –31.9, 0.9, –38.1, –40.0, 2.3
Example
SENSe:LIST:POWer
935.2MHz,0dBm,10dB,OFF,NORM,1MHz,3MHz,440us,0,
935.4MHz,0dBm,10dB,10dB,CFIL,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0,
935.6MHz,0dBm,10dB,20dB,CFIL,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0
Performs a measurement sequence with the following settings:
Step
Freq.
[MHz]
Ref
Level
[dBm]
RF
Att
[dB]
el Att
[dB]
Filter
type
RBW
VBW
Meas
Time
[us]
TRG Level
(reserved)
1
935.2
0
10
OFF
Normal
1 MHz
3 MHz
440
0
2
935.4
0
10
10
Channel
30 kHz
100 kHz
440
0
3
935.6
0
10
20
Channel
30 kHz
100 kHz
440
0
SENSe:LIST:POWer?
935.2MHz,0dBm,10dB,OFF,NORM,1MHz,3MHz,440us,0,
935.4MHz,0dBm,10dB,10dB,CFIL,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0,
935.6MHz,0dBm,10dB,20dB,CFIL,30kHz,100kHz,440us,0
Performs the same measurement and returns the result list immediately after the last frequency
point.
Note: The measurement is performed in zero span and therefore the span is set to 0 Hz. If the
span > 0 is set, the function is automatically switched off.
The measurement is not compatible with other measurements, especially as far as
marker, adjacent channel power measurement or statistics are concerned. The
corresponding commands thus automatically deactivate the function.
The function is only available in REMOTE operation. It is deactivated when switching
the instrument back to LOCAL.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
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[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:RESult?
This command queries the result of a previous list measurement as configured and initiated with
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer[:SEQuence]. The measured results are output in a list of
floating point values separated by commas. The unit of the results depends on the setting made
with the CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer command.
This command may be used to obtain measurement results in an asynchronous way, using the
service request mechanism for synchronization with the end of the measurement.
If no measurement results are available, the command will return a query error.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Example
*ESE 1
*SRE 32
Configuration of the status reporting system for the generation of an SRQ on operation
complete
SENSe:LIST:POWer
935.2MHz,–20dBm,10dB,OFF,NORM,1MHz,3MHz,434us,0,
935.4MHz,–20dBm,10dB,10dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,434us,0,
935.6MHz,–20dBm,10dB,20dB,NORM,30kHz,100kHz,434us,0;
*OPC
Configuring and starting the measurement
...
Further actions of the control computer during measurement
On SRQ:
SENSe:LIST:POWer:RESult?
Response to service request
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:SET
This command defines the constant settings for the list during multiple power measurement.
Parameters <PEAK meas>, <RMS meas> and <AVG meas> define, which measurements are
to be performed at the same time at the frequency point. Correspondingly, one, two or three
results per frequency point are returned for the [SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer[:SEQuence]
command. If all three parameters are set to OFF, the command generates an execution error.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
<PEAK meas>
ON: activates the measurement of the peak power (peak detector)
OFF: deactivates the measurement of the peak power
<RMS meas>
ON: activates the measurement of the RMS power (RMS detector)
OFF: deactivates the measurement of the RMS power
<AVG meas>
ON: activates the measurement of the average power (average
detector)
OFF: deactivates the measurement of the average power
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<trigger mode>
SENSe Subsystem
Selection of the trigger source used for the list measurement
Possible values: IMMediate | EXTernal | VIDeo | IFPower
<trigger slope>
Used trigger slope
Possible values: POSitive | NEGative
<trigger offset>
Offset between the detection of the trigger signal and the start of the
measurement at the next frequency point.
Range of values: 0 s, 125 ns to 100s
<gate length>
Gate length with gated sweep
Range of values: 0 s, 125 ns to 100s
The value 0 s deactivates the use of gated trigger; other values
activate the gated trigger function.
Values <> 0 s are only possible if <trigger mode> is different from
IMMediate. Otherwise, an execution error is triggered.
Return values
The query command returns a list of comma–separated values (CSV) of the settings, i.e.
ON,ON,ON,IMM,POS,0,0
if the configuration has been set with the command
SENSe:LIST:POWer:SET ON,ON,ON,IMM,POS,0,0
Example
SENSe:LIST:POWer:SET ON,OFF,OFF,EXT,POS,10US,434US
Characteristics
*RST value: ON,OFF,OFF,IMM,POS,0S,0S
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:POWer:STATe
This command deactivates the list measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
OFF
Example
SENSe:LIST:POWer:STATe OFF
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F, A–T
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R&S ESL
SENSe:LIST:RANGe Subsystem
The SENSe:LIST:RANGe Subsystem contains the remote commands to configure Spurious Emissions
measurements.
Commands of the SENSe:LIST:RANGe Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:RESolution
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:VIDeo
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BREak
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:DELete
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:COUNt?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:DETector
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:FILTer:TYPE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:GAIN:STATe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:POINts
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:RLEVel
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STATe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:TRANsducer
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth" on page 6.152.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:RESolution
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:RESolution" on
page 6.152.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:VIDeo
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:BANDwidth:VIDeo" on page
6.152.
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:BREak
This command configures the sweep behavior.
The numeric suffixes are not relevant.
Parameter
ON
The R&S ESL stops after one range is swept and continues only if you confirm
(a message box is displayed).
OFF
The R&S ESL sweeps all ranges in one go.
Example
LIST:RANG:BRE ON
Configures a stop after each range.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:DELete
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:DELete" on page 6.153.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:COUNt?
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:COUNt?" on page 6.153.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:DETector
This command sets the detector for the specified range. For details refer to chapter 4, "Detector
overview".
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
APEak
auto peak detector
NEGative
minimum peak detector
POSitive
peak detector
SAMPle
sample detector
RMS
RMS detector
AVERage
average detector
Example
LIST:RANGe3:DET SAMP
Sets the sample detector for range 3.
Characteristics
RST value: RMS
SCPI: device–specific
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Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STARt" on page
6.153.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STOP
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>[:FREQuency]:STOP" on page
6.154.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:FILTer:TYPE
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:FILTer:TYPE" on page 6.154.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation" on page
6.155.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO" on
page 6.155.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:GAIN:STATe
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:INPut:GAIN:STATe" on page
6.155.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:POINts
This command sets the number of sweep points for the specified range.
The numeric suffixes <1...20> specify the range. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
For details on possible values refer to chapter 4, Sweep Points softkey of the sweep menu.
Example
LIST:RANG3:POIN 601
Sets 601 sweep points for range 3.
Characteristics
RST value: 501
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:RLEVel
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:RLEVel" on page 6.158.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME" on page 6.159.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME:AUTO
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:SWEep:TIME:AUTO" on page
6.159.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STARt
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STARt" on page
6.156.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STOP
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:ABSolute:STOP" on page
6.156.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STATe
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:LIMit:STATe" on page 6.158.
[SENSe<1|2>:]LIST:RANGe<1...20>:TRANsducer
For details refer to "[SENSe<1|2>:]ESPectrum:RANGe<1...20>:TRANsducer" on page 6.159.
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SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem
The commands of this subsystem are used to determine the mean burst power or peak burst power for
a given number of signal bursts, and for outputting the results in a list. Since all the settings required for
a measurement are combined in a single command, the measurement speed is considerably higher
than when using individual commands.
For measuring the signal bursts, the gated sweep function is used in zero span. The gate is controlled
either by an external trigger signal or by the video signal. An individual trigger event is required for each
burst to be measured. If an external trigger signal is used, the threshold is fixed to TTL level, while with
a video signal the threshold can be set as desired.
Commands of the SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer[:SEQuence]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:FTYPe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:RESult[:LIST]?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:RESult:MIN?
Further information
–
More details on the SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem
More details on the SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem
The following graphics shows the relation between trigger time, trigger offset (for delayed gate opening)
and measurement time.
Measurement
Time
Measurement
Time
Measurement
Time
Trigger
Offset
Trigger
Offset
Trigger
Offset
Trigger
Signal
Trigger
Signal
t
Trigger
Signal
Depending on the settings made, the measurements are performed with the RMS detector for RMS
power or the PEAK detector for peak power. For all these measurements, trace 1 of the selected
system is used.
The setting parameters for this measurement are:
•
analyzer frequency
•
resolution bandwidth
•
measurement time used for a single burst
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•
trigger source
•
trigger level
•
trigger offset
•
type of power measurement (PEAK, MEAN)
•
number of bursts to be measured
The commands of this subsystem can be used in two different ways:
•
Setting up the instrument and at the same time querying the result list: This method ensures the
smallest delay between measurement and the output of the measured values, but requires the
control computer to wait actively for the response of the instrument.
•
Setting up the instrument and querying the result list after synchronization to the end of
measurement: With this method the control computer can be used for other activities while the
instrument is performing the measurement at the cost of additional time needed for synchronization
via service request.
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer[:SEQuence]
This command configures the instrument setup for multiple burst power measurement and starts
a measurement sequence. When synchronizing the command with *OPC, a service request is
generated as soon as the defined number of individual measurements (# of meas) is reached.
To reduce the setting time, the setup is performed simultaneously for all selected parameters.
The command in the form of a query makes the instrument settings, performs the defined
number of measurements and outputs the measurement results list.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
<analyzer freq>
Receive frequency for the burst signals to be measured (= center
frequency in manual operation)
Range: 0 Hz to max. frequency, depending on instrument model
<rbw>
resolution bandwidth for the measurement
Range: 10 Hz to 10 MHz in steps of 1, 3, 10
<meas time>
Time span during which measurement samples are sampled for RMS
/ peak measurement. The type of measurement is selected by <type
of meas>.
Range: 1us to 30s
<trigger
source>
trigger signal source. Possible settings:
EXTernal: The trigger signal is fed from the "Ext. Trigger/Gate" input
on the rear of the unit.
VIDeo: The internal video signal is used as trigger signal.
<trigger level>
Signal level at which the trigger becomes active. For <trigger source>
= VIDeo this is the level of the video signal as a percentage of the
diagram height. If <trigger source> = EXTernal is selected, the value
entered here is ignored, as in this case the trigger input uses TTL
levels.
Range: 0 – 100PCT(<trigger source> = VIDeo)
<trigger offset>
Offset between the detection of the trigger signal and the start of the
measurement.
Range: 125 ns to 100s
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<type of meas>
R&S ESL
Determines whether mean power (RMS) or peak power (PEAK) is to
be measured. The detector is selected accordingly.
Possible values: MEAN, PEAK
<# of meas>
Number of individual bursts to be measured.
Range: 1 to 32001
Return values
The query command returns a list separated by commas (comma separated values = CSV),
which contains the power measurement results in floating–point format. The unit used for the
return values is always dBm.
The command SENSe:MPOWer? 935.2MHz,1MHz,434us,VIDEO,50PCT,5us,MEAN,20
may, for instance, cause the following list to be returned:
18.3,18.6,18.1,18.0,17.9,18.3,18.6,18.1,18.0,17.9,18.3,18.6,18.1,18.0,17.9,18.3,18.6,18.1,18.0,
17.9
Example
SENSe:MPOWer 935.2MHz,1MHz,434us,VIDEO,50PCT,5us,MEAN,20
Performs a measurement sequence with the following settings:
Frequency = 935.2 MHz,
Resolution bandwidth = 1 MHz
Measurement time = 434 µs
Trigger source = VIDEO
Trigger threshold = 50%
Trigger offset = 5 µs
Type of measurement = MEAN power
No. of measurements = 20
SENSe:MPOWer? 935.2MHz,1MHz,434us,VIDEO,50PCT,5us,MEAN,20
Performs the same measurement and in addition returns the results list immediately after
completion of the last measurement.
Note: The measurement function always uses trace 1.
Repeated use of the command without changes to its parameters (i.e. using the same
settings again) will speed up the measurement since the previous hardware settings will
be cached and therefore additional hardware settling times will be avoided. This also
holds true if only part of the parameters (e.g. only the trigger delay) are changed, as in
this case the rest of the parameters will be cached.
This measurement is not compatible with other measurements, especially as far as
marker functions, adjacent–channel measurement or statistics are concerned. The
corresponding functions are therefore automatically switched off. In return incompatible
commands will automatically deactivate the multi burst power function.
The function is only available in the REMOTE operation. It is deactivated on switching
back to LOCAL.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:FTYPe
This command defines the filter type for the measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
NORMal | CFILter | RRC
Example
SENSe:MPOWer:FTYPe CFILter
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:RESult[:LIST]?
This command queries the results of a multiple burst power measurement as configured and
initiated with [SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer[:SEQuence]. The results are output in a comma–
separated list of floating point values. The unit used for the return values is always dBm.
This command may be used to obtain measurement results in an asynchronous way using the
service request mechanism for synchronization with the end of the measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
If no measurement results are available, the command will return a query error.
Example
*ESE 1
*SRE 32
Configuration of status reporting systems for the generation of an SRQ on operation complete
SENSe:MPOWer 935.2MHz,1MHz,434us,VIDEO,50PCT,5us,MEAN,20;*OPC
Configuring and starting the measurement
...
Further actions of the control computer during measurement
On SRQ:
Response to service request
SENSe:MPOWer:RESult?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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[SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer:RESult:MIN?
This command queries the minimum power value in a multiple burst power measurement as
configured and initiated with [SENSe<1|2>:]MPOWer[:SEQuence]. The unit used for the
return values is always dBm.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
If no measurement result is available, the command will return a query error.
Example
*ESE 1
*SRE 32
Configuration of status reporting systems for the generation of an SRQ on operation complete
SENSe:MPOWer 935.2MHz,1MHz,434us,VIDEO,50PCT,5us,MEAN,20;*OPC
Configuring and starting the measurement
...
Further actions of the control computer during measurement
On SRQ:
Response to service request
SENSe:MPOWer:RESult:MIN?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:POWer Subsystem
This subsystem controls the setting of the instruments channel and adjacent channel power
measurements.
Commands of the SENSe:POWer Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:CHANnel]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth:ACHannel
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth:ALTernate<1...11>
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:MODE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:PRESet
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:PRESet:RLEVel
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:TXCHannel:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:TXCHannel:MANual
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing[:ACHannel]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing:ALTernate<1...11>
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing:CHANnel
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:TXCHannel:COUNt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:BANDwidth|BWIDth
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:HSPeed
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:TRACe
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs
This command sets the number of adjacent channels (upper and lower channel in pairs).The
figure 0 stands for pure channel power measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
1 to 12
Example
POW:ACH:ACP 3
Sets the number of adjacent channels to 3, i.e. the adjacent channel and alternate adjacent
channels 1 and 2 are switched on.
Characteristics
*RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:CHANnel]
This command sets the channel bandwidth of the radio communication system. The bandwidths
of adjacent channels are not influenced by this modification.
With [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:HSPeed set to ON, steep–edged channel filters are available.
For further information on filters refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "List of
available RRC and channel filters".
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
100 Hz to 1000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Sets the bandwidth of the TX channel to 30 kHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: 14 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth:ACHannel
This command defines the channel bandwidth of the adjacent channel of the radio transmission
system. If the bandwidth of the adjacent channel is changed, the bandwidths of all alternate
adjacent channels are automatically set to the same value.
With [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:HSPeed set to ON, steep–edged channel filters are available.
For further information on filters refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "List of
available RRC and channel filters".
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
100 Hz to 1000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:BWID:ACH 30kHz
Sets the bandwidth of all adjacent channels to 30 kHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: 14 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:BANDwidth|BWIDth:ALTernate<1...11>
This command defines the channel bandwidth of the alternate adjacent channels of the radio
transmission system. If the channel bandwidth of alternate adjacent channel 1 is changed, the
bandwidth of alternate adjacent channels 2 to 11 is automatically set to the same value.
With [SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:HSPeed set to ON, steep–edged channel filters are available.
For further information on filters refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "List of
available RRC and channel filters".
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SENSe Subsystem
Parameter
100 Hz to 1000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:BWID:ALT2 30kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 14 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:MODE
This command switches between absolute and relative adjacent channel measurement. The
command is only available with span > 0 and if the number of adjacent channel is greater than 0.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ABSolute | RELative
Example
POW:ACH:MODE REL
Sets the adjacent channel measurement mode to relative.
Characteristics
RST value: RELative
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:PRESet
This command adjusts the frequency span, the measurement bandwidths and the detector as
required for the number of channels, the channel bandwidths and the channel spacings selected
in the active power measurement. If necessary, adjacent–channel power measurement is
switched on prior to the adjustment.
To obtain correct results, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must
be performed after the adjustment. Synchronization is possible only in the single sweep mode.
The result is queried with the CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
command.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ACPower | CPOWer | MCACpower | OBANdwidth | OBWidth | CN | CN0
Example
POW:ACH:PRES ACP
Sets the frequency span, the measurement bandwidths and the detector as required for the
ACP measurement.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches over to single sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
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CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP
Queries the result of the adjacent–channel power measurement.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:PRESet:RLEVel
This command adapts the reference level to the measured channel power and – if required –
switches on previously the adjacent channel power measurement. This ensures that the signal
path of the instrument is not overloaded. Since the measurement bandwidth is significantly
smaller than the signal bandwidth in channel power measurements, the signal path can be
overloaded although the trace is still significantly below the reference level. If the measured
channel power equals the reference level, the signal path is not overloaded.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Note: Subsequent commands have to be synchronized with *WAI, *OPC or *OPC? to the end
of the auto range process which would otherwise be aborted.
Example
POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV;*WAI
Adapts the reference level to the measured channel power.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:AUTO
This command sets the reference value to the currently measured channel power for the relative
measurement.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
Parameter
ONCE
Example
POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:TXCHannel:AUTO
This command activates the automatic selection of a transmission channel to be used as a
reference channel in relative adjacent–channel power measurements.
The transmission channel with the highest power, the transmission channel with the lowest
power, or the transmission channel nearest to the adjacent channels can be defined as a
reference channel.
The command is available only for multicarrier channel and adjacent–channel power
measurements with span > 0 (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
MINimum
Transmission channel with the lowest power
MAXimum
Transmission channel with the highest power
LHIGhest
Lowermost transmission channel for the lower adjacent channels,
uppermost transmission channel for the upper adjacent channels
Example
POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:AUTO MAX
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a reference channel.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:REFerence:TXCHannel:MANual
This command selects a transmission channel to be used as a reference channel in relative
adjacent–channel power measurements.
The command is available only for multicarrier channel and adjacent–channel power
measurements with span > 0 (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
1 to 12
Example
POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:MAN 3
Transmission channel 3 is used as a reference channel.
Characteristics
*RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing[:ACHannel]
This command defines the spacing between the carrier signal and the adjacent channel (ADJ).
The modification of the adjacent–channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher
adjacent–channel spacings (ALT1, ALT2, ...): they are all multiplied by the same factor (new
spacing value / old spacing value).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
100 Hz to 2000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:SPAC 33kHz
Sets the spacing between the carrier signal and the adjacent channel to 33 kHz, the alternate
adjacent channel 1 to 66 kHz, the alternate adjacent channel 2 to 99 kHz, and so on.
Characteristics
*RST value: 14 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing:ALTernate<1...11>
This command defines the spacing between the alternate adjacent channels and the TX
channel (ALT1, ALT2, ...). A modification of a higher adjacent–channel spacing causes a
change by the same factor (new spacing value / old spacing value) in all higher adjacent–
channel spacings, while the lower adjacent–channel spacings remain unchanged.
The numeric suffixes <1...11> defines the alternate adjacent channel. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
100 Hz to 2000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100kHz
Sets the spacing between TX channel and alternate adjacent channel 1 (ALT1) from 40 kHz to
100 kHz. In consequence, the spacing between the TX channel and all higher alternate adjacent
channels is increased by the factor 100/40 = 2.5: ALT2 = 150 kHz, ALT3 = 200 kHz, ALT4 = 250
kHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: 40 kHz (ALT1), 60 kHz (ALT2), 80 kHz (ALT3), ...
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:SPACing:CHANnel<1...11>
This command defines the channel spacing for the carrier signals.
The numeric suffixes <1...11> defines the TX channel. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not
relevant.
Parameter
14 kHz to 2000 MHz
Example
POW:ACH:SPAC:CHAN 25kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 20 kHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:TXCHannel:COUNt
This command selects the number of carrier signals.
The command is available only for multicarrier channel and adjacent–channel power
measurements with span > 0 (CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
1 to 12
Example
POW:ACH:TXCH:COUN 3
Characteristics
*RST value: 1
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:BANDwidth|BWIDth
This command defines the percentage of the power with respect to the total power. This value is
the basis for the occupied bandwidth measurement
([SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:ACHannel:PRESet).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
10 to 99.9PCT
Example
POW:BWID 95PCT
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Characteristics
*RST value: 99PCT
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:HSPeed
This command switches on or off the high–speed channel/adjacent channel power
measurement. The measurement itself is performed in zero span on the center frequencies of
the individual channels. The command automatically switches to zero span and back.
Depending on the selected mobile radio standard, weighting filters with
very steep–sided channel filters are used for band limitation.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
cos characteristic or
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
POW:HSP ON
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
[SENSe<1|2>:]POWer:TRACe
This command assigns the channel/adjacent channel power measurement to the indicated
trace. The corresponding trace must be active, i.e. its state must be different from blank.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Note: The measurement of the occupied bandwidth (OBW) is performed on the trace on
which marker 1 is positioned. To evaluate another trace, marker 1 must be positioned to
another trace with CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:TRACe.
Parameter
1 to 6
Example
POW:TRAC 2
Assigns the measurement to trace 2.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:SCAN Subsystem
This subsystem controls the parameters for the receiver scan data. The numeric suffix in [SENSe<1|2>]
is not significant.
Commands of the SENSe:SCAN Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:BANDwidth:RESolution
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:ATTenuation
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:GAIN[:STATe]
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:GAIN:AUTO
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:RANGes:COUNt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STARt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STOP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STEP
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:TIME
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:BANDwidth:RESolution
This command sets the bandwidth for the selected receiver scan range.
Parameter
10 Hz to 10 MHz
Example
SCAN1:BAND:RES 1 MHz
Sets the resolution bandwidth of the first scan range to 1 MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 9 kHz (range 1)
*RST value: 120 kHz (range 2)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:ATTenuation
This command sets the RF attenuation for the selcted receiver scan range.
Parameter
dBmin to dBmax
Example
SCAN1:INP:ATT 30 dB
Sets the RF attenuation of the first scan range to 30 dB
Characteristics
*RST value: 10 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO
This command activates or deactivates the autoranging function in the selcted receiver scan
range.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
SCAN1:INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Activates auto ranging for the first scan range
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:GAIN[:STATe]
This command activates or deactivates the preamplifier in the selected scan range.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
SCAN1:INP:GAIN ON
Activates the preamplifier in the first scan range
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:GAIN:AUTO
This command includes the preamplifier in the autoranging function of the selected receiver
scan range.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
SCAN1:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Activates the preamplifier inclusion in the autoranging function for the first scan range
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:RANGes:COUNt
This command determines the number of ranges. With setting 0, the scan is performed using
the current receiver settings and not the settings defined with commands SENSe:SCAN:....
Parameter
1 to 10
Example
SCAN:RANG:COUN 3
Sets the number of ranges to 3
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STARt
This command defines the start frequency of the selected receiver scan range.
Parameter
fmin to fmax
Example
SCAN:STAR 50 kHz
Sets the start frequency of the first scan range to 50 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 150 kHz (range 1)
*RST value: 30 MHz (range 2)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STOP
This command defines the stop frequency of the selected receiver scan range.
Parameter
fmin to fmax
Example
SCAN:STAR 200 kHz
Sets the stop frequency of the first scan range to 200 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 30 MHz (range 1)
*RST value: 1 GHz (range 2)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:STEP
This command defines the step size of the receiver frequency of the selected receiver scan
range.
Parameter
fmin to fmax
Example
SCAN:STEP 100 Hz
Sets the step size of the receiver frequency of the first scan range to 100 Hz
Characteristics
*RST value: 4 kHz (range 1)
*RST value: 40 kHz (range 2)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SCAN<1…10>:TIME
This command sets the measurement time of the selected receiver scan range.
Parameter
50 Us to 100 s
Example
SCAN:TIME 1 ms
Sets the measurement time of the first scan range to 1 ms
Characteristics
*RST value: 1 ms (range 1)
*RST value: 100 Us (range 2)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:SWEep Subsystem
The SENSe:SWEep subsystem controls the sweep parameters.
Commands of the SENSe:SWEep Subsystem
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt:CURRent?
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:HOLDoff
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:LENGth
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:POLarity
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:SOURce
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:TYPE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:MODE
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:POINts
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:SPACing
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME
–
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME:AUTO
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt
In receiver mode, this command defines the number of scans started with single scan.
In analyzer mode, the command defines the number of sweeps started with single sweep, which
are used for calculating the average or maximum value. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one sweep
is performed.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to 32767
Example
SWE:COUN 64
Sets the number of sweeps to 64.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 (analyzer)
*RST value: 1 (receiver)
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:COUNt:CURRent?
This query command returns the current number of started sweeps. A sweep count value
should be set and the device should be in single sweep mode.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Example
SWE:COUNt 64
Sets sweep count to 64
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
INIT
Starts a sweep (without waiting for the sweep end!)
SWE:COUN:CURR?
Queries the number of started sweeps
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
A, ADEMOD
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe
This command switches on/off the sweep control by an external gate signal. If the external gate
is selected the trigger source is automatically switched to EXTernal as well.
In case of measurement with external gate, the measured values are recorded as long as the
gate is opened. During a sweep the gate can be opened and closed several times. The
synchronization mechanisms with *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI remain completely unaffected.
The sweep end is detected when the required number of measurement points (501 in
Spectrum Analyzer mode) has been recorded.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
SWE:EGAT ON
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TYPE EDGE
Switches on the edge–triggered mode.
SWE:EGAT:HOLD 100US
Sets the gate delay to 100 µs.
SWE:EGAT:LEN 500US
Sets the gate opening time to 500 µs.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:HOLDoff
This command defines the delay time between the external gate signal and the continuation of
the sweep.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
125 Us to 100 s
Example
SWE:EGAT:HOLD 100us
Characteristics
*RST value: 0s
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:LENGth
In case of edge triggering, this command determines the time interval during which the
instrument sweeps.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
0 to 100 s
Example
SWE:EGAT:LENG 10ms
Characteristics
*RST value: 0s
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:POLarity
This command determines the polarity of the external gate signal. The setting applies both to
the edge of an edge–triggered signal and the level of a level–triggered signal.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
POSitive | NEGative
Example
SWE:EGAT:POL POS
Characteristics
*RST value: POSitive
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:SOURce
This command toggles between external gate signal and IF power signal as a signal source for
the gate mode. If an IF power signal is used, the gate is opened as soon as a signal at > –20
dBm is detected within the IF path bandwidth (10 MHz).
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
EXTernal | IFPower | VIDeo
Example
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP
Switches the gate source to IF power.
Characteristics
*RST value: IFPower
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:TYPE
This command sets the type of triggering (level or edge) by the external gate signal.
The gate is edge–triggered ([SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:TYPE):
After detection of the set gate signal edge, the gate remains open until the gate delay
([SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:HOLDoff) has expired.
The gate is level–triggered ([SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:TYPE):
After detection of the gate signal, the gate remains open until the gate signal disappears. The
gate opening time cannot be defined with the parameter
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:LENGth.
A delay between applying the gate signal and the start of recording measured values can be
defined with [SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:EGATe:HOLDoff.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
LEVel | EDGE
Example
SWE:EGAT:TYPE EDGE
Characteristics
*RST value: EDGE
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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R&S ESL
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:MODE
This command changes from Spectrum Analyzer to Spectrum Emission Mask or Spurious
Emissions measurement mode and back.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
AUTO
ESPectrum
LIST
Switches to Spectrum Analyzer measurement mode or stays in the
current mode if it is not ESP / LIST
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement mode
Spurious Emissions measurement mode
Example
SWE:MODE ESP
Sets the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement mode.
Characteristics
RST value: AUTO
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:POINts
This command defines the number of measurement points to be collected during one sweep.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
101 to 32001
Example
SWE:POIN 251
Characteristics
*RST value: 501
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:SPACing
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic step modes of the receiver.
Parameter
LINear | LOGarithmic | AUTO
Example
SWE:SPAC LOG
Sets the step mode to a logarithmic scale
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESL
Characteristics:
*RST value: AUTO
SCPI: conform
Mode
R
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME
In receiver mode, this command defines the measurement time for the bargraph. The available
time range is 30 Us to 100 s with a two-digit resolution.
In analyzer mode, this command defines the sweep time. The available time values vary
depending on the span setting.
If [SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME is directly programmed, automatic coupling to resolution
bandwidth and video bandwidth is switched off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
Receiver: 50Us to 100 s
Analyzer: refer to data sheet
Example
SWE:TIME 10s
Sets the measurement time to 10 s
Characteristics
*RST value: – (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD, NF
[SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME:AUTO
This command controls the automatic coupling of the sweep time to the frequency span and
bandwidth settings.
If [SENSe<1|2>:]SWEep:TIME is directly programmed, automatic coupling is switched off.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are not relevant.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Switches on the coupling to frequency span and bandwidths.
Characteristics
*RST value: ON
SCPI: conform
Mode
A
1300.5053.12
6.200
E-2
R&S ESL
SOURce Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)
SOURce Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)
The SOURce subsystem controls the output signals of the instrument for the models with tracking
generator, 13 and 16.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"SOURce:POWer Subsystem" on page 6.201
SOURce:POWer Subsystem
The SOURce:POWer subsystem controls the power of the tracking generator signal.
Commands of the SOURce:POWer Subsystem
–
SOURce<1|2>:POWer[:LEVel][:IMMediate][:AMPLitude]
–
SOURce<1|2>:POWer[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:OFFSet
SOURce<1|2>:POWer[:LEVel][:IMMediate][:AMPLitude]
This command defines the output level of the tracking generator.
Parameter
<numeric_value> in dBm, range specified in data sheet;
–400 dBm: switches off the tracking generator and keeps the corresponding hardware settings
and the normalization
Example
SOUR:POW –20dBm
Sets the tracking generator level to –20 dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: –20 dBm
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
SOURce<1|2>:POWer[:LEVel][:IMMediate]:OFFSet
This command defines a level offset for the tracking generator level. Thus, for example,
attenuators or amplifiers at the output of the tracking generator can be taken into account for the
setting.
Parameter
–200 dB to +200 dB
Example
SOUR:POW:OFFS –10dB
Sets the level offset of the tracking generator to – 20 dBm.
1300.5053.12
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E-2
SOURce Subsystem (Models 13 and 16)
R&S ESL
Characteristics
*RST value: 0dB
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
1300.5053.12
6.202
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus Subsystem
The STATus subsystem contains the commands for the status reporting system (for details refer to the
Operating Manual on the CD–ROM, chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics", section "Status Reporting
System"). *RST does not influence the status registers.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"STATus:QUEStionable Subsystem" on page 6.203
STATus:QUEStionable Subsystem
The STATus:QUEStionable subsystem contains information about the observance of limits during
adjacent power measurements, the reference and local oscillator, the observance of limit lines and limit
margins and possible overloads of the unit.
Commands of the STATus:QUEStionable Subsystem
–
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit[:EVENt]?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:PTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency[:EVENt]?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:PTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> [:EVENt]?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:PTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>[:EVENt]?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:PTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:EVENt]?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:PTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC[:EVENt]?
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E-2
STATus Subsystem
–
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:CONDition?
–
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:ENABle
–
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:NTRansition
–
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:PTRansition
R&S ESL
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit[:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register. Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:ACPL?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register. Readout does not delete the contents of the
CONDition section.
Example
STAT:QUES:ACPL:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit
register. The ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt
section for the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:ACPL:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
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6.204
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable: ACPLimit
register from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:ACPL:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:PTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable: ACPLimit
register from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:ACPL:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency[:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the STATus:QUEStionable:
FREQuency register.
Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:FREQ?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
1300.5053.12
6.205
E-2
STATus Subsystem
R&S ESL
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register. Readout does not delete the contents of the
CONDition section.
Example
STAT:QUES:FREQ:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency
register. The ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt
section for the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:FREQ:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency
register from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:FREQ:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except NF
1300.5053.12
6.206
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:PTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency
register from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:FREQ:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except NF
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> [:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit
register. Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:LIM?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register.
Readout does not delete the contents of the CONDition section.
Example
STAT:QUES:LIM:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
1300.5053.12
6.207
E-2
STATus Subsystem
R&S ESL
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable register. The
ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt section for
the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LIM:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register
from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LIM:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except NF
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:PTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register
from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LIM:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except NF
1300.5053.12
6.208
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>[:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin register. Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:LMAR?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin register. Readout does not delete the contents of the
CONDition section.
Example
STAT:QUES:LMAR:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin
register. The ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt
section for the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LMAR:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
1300.5053.12
6.209
E-2
STATus Subsystem
R&S ESL
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin
register from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LMAR:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:PTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin
register from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:LMAR:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer[:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
register. Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:POW?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
1300.5053.12
6.210
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register. Readout does not delete the contents of the CONDition
section.
Example
STAT:QUES:POW:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
register. The ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt
section for the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:POW:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUE:POWS:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:PTRansition
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6.211
E-2
STATus Subsystem
R&S ESL
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:POW:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC[:EVENt]?
This command queries the contents of the EVENt section of the STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC
register.
Readout deletes the contents of the EVENt section.
Example
STAT:QUES:SYNC?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:CONDition?
This command queries the contents of the CONDition section of the
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC register. Readout does not delete the contents of the CONDition
section.
Example
STAT:QUES:SYNC:COND?
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
1300.5053.12
6.212
E-2
R&S ESL
STATus Subsystem
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:ENABle
This command sets the bits of the ENABle section of the STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC register.
The ENABle register selectively enables the individual events of the associated EVENt section
for the summary bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:SYNC:ENAB 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:NTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC register
from 1 to 0 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:SYNC:NTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC:PTRansition
This command sets the edge detectors of all bits of the STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC register
from 0 to 1 for the transitions of the CONDition bit.
Parameter
0 to 65535
Example
STAT:QUES:SYNC:PTR 65535
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
1300.5053.12
6.213
E-2
SYSTem Subsystem
R&S ESL
SYSTem Subsystem
This subsystem contains a series of commands for general functions.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"SYSTem:SPEaker Subsystem" on page 6.214
SYSTem:SPEaker Subsystem
This subsystem controls the headset functions.
Commands of the SYSTem:SPEaker Subsystem
–
SYSTem:SPEaker:VOLume
SYSTem:SPEaker:VOLume
This command sets the volume of the headset for demodulated signals.
Parameter
0 to 1; value 0 is the lowest volume, value 1 the highest volume.
Example
SYST:SPE:VOL 0.5
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all
1300.5053.12
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E-2
TRACe Subsystem
R&S ESL
TRACe Subsystem
The TRACe subsystem controls access to the instruments internal trace memory.
Commands of the TRACe Subsystem
–
TRACe<1|2>[:DATA]
–
TRACe:COPY
–
TRACe<1|2>:FEED:CONTrol
–
TRACe<1|2>:POINTs
TRACe<1|2>[:DATA]
This command transfers trace data from the control computer to the instrument, the query reads
trace data out of the instrument. The transfer of trace data from the control computer to the
instrument takes place by indicating the trace name and then the data to be transferred.
For details on saving and recalling data refer to chapter 5 "Remote Control - Basics", section
"MMEMory Subsystem".
Parameter
TRACE1 | TRACE2 | TRACE3 | TRACE4 | TRACE5 | TRACE6 | LIST | SPURious,<block> |
<numeric_value>
TRACE1 | TRACE2 | TRACE3 | TRACE4 | TRACE5 | TRACE6 | SINGle | FINAL1 | FINAL2 |
FINAL3 | FINAL4 | FINAL5 | FINAL6 | LIST | SPURious | PHOLd | SINGle | SCAN | STATus,
<block> | <numeric_value>
TRACE1, ... , TRACE6
trace memory to be read out
<block> or <numeric_value>
data to be transferred
query only (analyzer mode):
LIST
lists all results of the Spectrum Emission Mask and Spurious
Emissions measurement
SPURious
lists all peaks of the Spurious Emissions measurement
query only (receiver mode)
FINAL1,...,
FINAL6
Final measurement values
FINAL
Lists the whole content of the peak list. Each peak element consists of
the following values:
• 4 bytes: Frequency
• 4 bytes: Absolute level
• 4 bytes: Delta between absolute level and limit line value at given
frequency. If no limit line is active, the delta value is set to 0.0.
PHOLd
Lists the maximum peak obtained from measurements at successive
sweeps. This query is only available for bargraph measurements
SINGle
Lists the values of all activated detectors. The results are transferred
separated by commas in the following order: POS, NEG, QPE, AVER,
RMS. For inactive detectors, the value and the comma are omitted at the
position(s) in question. This query is only available for bargraph
measurements.
SCAN
The number of transmitted measurement results depend on the scan
settings. This query is only available for scan measurements.
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E-2
TRACe Subsystem
R&S ESL
Structure of transmitted data:
4 bytes: Trace status information: Bit 0 to 9 define the actual range number (bit coded) /
Bit 11: last block if last subscan / Bit 12: last of all blocks (for multiple scans after last
scan; only in single scan mode)
4 bytes: Number n of the transmitted measurement results of a trace
4 bytes: Bit 0 indicates trace 1 is active; bit 8 indicates trace 5 is active
4 bytes: Bit 0 indicates trace 2 is active; bit 8 indicates trace 6 is active
4 bytes: Bit 0 indicates trace 3 is active
4 bytes: Bit 0 indicates trace 4 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 1 if trace 1 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 2 if trace 2 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 3 if trace 3 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 4 if trace 4 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 5 if trace 5 is active
n*4 bytes measurement results of trace 6 if trace 6 is active
n*1 byte status information per measurement result: bit2 is set if an overrange occurred
STATus
1 byte status information per measurement result is transmitted:
Bit 2: overrange trace 1 to trace 6.
Return values for trace data
The number of returned results depends on the sweep points that have been set. By default 501
results are returned. The returned values are scaled in the current level unit.
FORMat REAL,32 is used as format for binary transmission, and FORMat ASCii for ASCII
transmission. For details on formats refer to "Formats for returned values: ASCII format and
binary format" on page 6.254.
Note: With the auto peak detector, only positive peak values can be read out.
Return values for Spectrum Emission Mask/Spurious Emissions measurement results
Returns the list evaluation results.
<no>, <start>, <stop>, <rbw>, <freq>, <power abs>, <power rel>, <delta>, <limit check>,
<unused1>, <unused2>
Value
Description
<no>
range number
<start>
start frequency
<stop>
stop frequency
<rbw>
resolution bandwidth of range
<freq>
frequency of peak
<power abs>
absolut power in dBm of peak
<power rel>
relative power in dBc (related to the channel power) of peak
<delta>
distance to the limit line in dB (positive indicates value above the limit, fail)
<limit check>
limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)
<unused1>
reserved (0.0)
<unused2>
reserved (0.0)
Example
TRAC TRACE1
TRAC? TRACE1
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode
all
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TRACe Subsystem
R&S ESL
TRACe:COPY
This command copies data from one trace to another.
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
Parameter
TRACE1 | TRACE2 | TRACE3 | TRACE4 | TRACE5 | TRACE6,TRACE1 | TRACE2 | TRACE3 |
TRACE4 | TRACE5 | TRACE6
The first operand the destination of the data to be copied, the second operand describes the
source.
Example
TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
Characteristics
*RST value: SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, CATV
TRACe<1|2>:FEED:CONTrol
This command switches block data transmission during a scan on and off. The availability of
data is reported in the STATus:OPERation-Register.
The block size depends on scan time and the upper limit defined by TRACe:POINts:LIMit.
Parameter
ALWays | NEVer
Example
TRAC:FEED:CONT ALW
Activates single sweep mode
Characteristics
*RST value: NEVer
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
TRACe<1|2>:POINTs
This command defines the maximum number of measurement points which are transferred in
one block after the query command TRACE? SCAN. The total amount of bytes which is
transferred depends on the number of active traces.
Parameter
LIMit, 1 to 10000
Example
TRAC:POIN LIM, 8000
A maximum of 8000 measurement values per trace will be transferred with a single query
Characteristics
*RST value: 1000
SCPI: device-specific
Mode
R
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TRACe Subsystem
R&S ESL
TRACe:IQ Subsystem
The commands of this subsystem are used for collection and output of measured IQ data. A special
memory is therefore available in the instrument for about 512k complex samples (pairs of I and Q data).
The measurement is always performed in zero span at the selected center frequency. The number of
complex samples to be collected and the sample rate can be set (for details refer to "Sample rate and
maximum usable bandwidth" on page 6.220). Prior to being stored in memory or output via GPIB, the
measurement data are corrected in terms of frequency response.
The block diagrams below show the analyzer hardware from the IF section to the processor. The block
diagrams differ between the instrument models because two different motherboards are fitted. The main
difference is the position of the fractional resampling and the analog IF bandwidth. For details on the
distinction refer to "Sample rate and maximum usable bandwidth" on page 6.220.
The A/D converter samples the IF signal (47.9 MHz) at a rate of 65.8 3 MHz . The digital signal is
down–converted to the complex baseband, lowpass–filtered, and the sampling rate is reduced. The
continuously adjustable sampling rates are realized using an optimal decimation filter and subsequent
resampling on the set sampling rate.
The I/Q data are written to separate memories of 512 k words each. The memories are hardware–
triggered. 512 samples are designated as buffer for triggering, which leads to a max. recording length of
523776 (=512k – 512) complex samples.
Data aquisition hardware
analog IF
filter
analyzer IF
47.9 MHz
A/D
converter
A
D
bandwidth
28 MHz
65.83 MHz
sampling
clock
Fig. 6–1
cos
NCO
-47.9 MHz
sin
fractional resampling
digital down conversion
+ continuous decimation
I memory
512 k
decimation
filters
arbitrary
sampling rate
10kHz ... 65.83MHz
I data
processor
Q memory
512 k
Q data
Trigger
Signal processing in models with UDC motherboards
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Fig. 6–2
TRACe Subsystem
Signal processing in models with WDDC motherboards
The trigger sources EXT (external trigger) and IFP (IF Power Trigger) can be used for triggering,
additionally IMM (Free Run). The number of complex sample to be recorded prior to the trigger event
can be selected (TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET command) for all available trigger sources, except for FREE
RUN.
The measurement results are output in the form of a list, with the Q values following immediately after
the list of I values in the output buffer. The FORMAT command can be used to select between binary
output (32 bit IEEE 754 floating–point values) and output in ASCII format.
For details on formats refer to "Formats for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page
6.251.
The commands of this subsystem can be used in two ways:
•
Measurement and result query with one command:
This method causes the least delay between measurement and output of the result data, but it
requires the control computer to wait actively for the response data.
•
Setting up the instrument, start of the measurement via INIT and query of the result list at the end
of the measurement:
With this method the control computer can be used for other activities during the measurement. In
this case the additional time needed for synchronization via service request must be taken into
account.
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TRACe Subsystem
R&S ESL
Commands of the TRACe:IQ Subsystem
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ[:STATe]
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:AVERage[:STATe]
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:AVERage:COUNt
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA?
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA:MEMory?
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET
–
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SRATe
Further information
–
Sample rate and maximum usable bandwidth
Sample rate and maximum usable bandwidth
Within the usable bandwidth range, the analog IF filter of the R&S ESL is equalized in regard to
amplitude characteristic and group delay (provided that the R&S ESL is aligned; for details see chapter
4, section "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key", "Alignment"). In consequence,
signals within this bandwidth range are hardly distorted at all (provided the R&S ESL is not overloaded).
For the I/Q data acquisition, digital decimation filters are used internally. The passband of these digital
filters corresponds to the maximum usable bandwidth. In consequence, signals within the usable
bandwidth (passband) remain unchanged, while signals outside the usable bandwidth (passband) are
suppressed. Usually, the suppressed signals are noise, artifacts, and the second IF side band. If
frequencies of interest to you are also suppressed, you should try to increase the output sample rate,
since this increases the maximum usable IQ bandwidth.
As a rule, the usable bandwidth is proportional to the output sample rate (see section Instrument
models with UDC motherboard or Instrument models with WDDC motherboard). Yet, when the I/Q
bandwidth reaches the bandwidth of the analog IF filter (at very high output sample rates), the curve
breaks. For the base unit, the sample rate ranges from 10 kHz to 65.8 3 MHz .
The maximum usable bandwidth is listed in the data sheet. The value differs between the instrument
models due to different motherboards:
•
UDC motherboard (order # 2112.1800)
•
WDDC motherboard (order # 1300.3080)
If you are not sure which motherboard your model has, check the Hardware Information list (SETUP
key – More – System Info – Hardware Info; for details see chapter 4).
Instrument models with UDC motherboard
The following diagram shows the maximum usable IQ bandwidths depending on the output sample
rates. The values are rounded off to two decimal places.
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Fig. 6–3
Note:
TRACe Subsystem
Relation between maximum usable bandwidth and output sample rate
Do not use an output sample rate in the range from 65.833333.0 MHz to 65.83 MHz for
measurements. This range is for test purposes only.
At this sample rate, the whole bandwidth of the IF filter is equalized, but the digital filters are
switched to bypass. In consequence, not only the effective signal but all signals pass, including
noise and image–spectra.
Instrument models with WDDC motherboard
The following tables list the maximum bandwidths depending on the output sample rates.
–
65,833,333.333 MHz to 65,833,333.000 MHz
–
65,833,332.999 MHz to 10.7 MHz
–
10.7 MHz to 3.2 MHz
–
3.2 MHz to 1 MHz
–
1 MHz to 105 kHz
–
105 kHz to 10 kHz
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R&S ESL
65,833,333.333 MHz to 65,833,333.000 MHz
This small range of the sample rate is for test purposes only and is not recommended for normal
measurements!
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
65 833 333.333
65 833 333.000
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
20 000 000.000
Beware:
decimation filters
are bypassed!
65,833,332.999 MHz to 10.7 MHz
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
65 833 332.999
32 916 666.670
20 000 000.000
22 500 000.000
20 248 687.500
17 998 833.330
20 248 687.500
16 401 436.880
14 579 055.000
16 401 436.880
14 812 500.000
13 166 666.670
14 812 500.000
13 331 250.000
11 850 000.000
13 331 250.000
11 998 125.000
10 665 000.000
11 998 125.000
10 798 312.500
9 598 500.000
10.7 MHz to 3.2 MHz
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
10 798 312.500
9 875 000.000
8 777 777.778
9 875 000.000
8 887 500.000
7 900 000.000
8 887 500.000
7 998 750.000
7 110 000.000
7 998 750.000
7 406 250.000
6 583 333.333
7 406 250.000
6 665 625.000
5 925 000.000
6 665 625.000
6 583 333.333
5 851 851.852
6 583 333.333
5 925 000.000
5 266 666.667
5 925 000.000
5 332 500.000
4 740 000.000
5 332 500.000
4 937 500.000
4 388 888.889
4 937 500.000
4 443 750.000
3 950 000.000
4 443 750.000
4 232 142.857
3 761 904.762
4 232 142.857
3 950 000.000
3 511 111.111
3 950 000.000
3 703 125.000
3 291 666.667
3 703 125.000
3 332 812.500
2 962 500.000
3 332 812.500
3 291 666.667
2 925 925.926
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TRACe Subsystem
3.2 MHz to 1 MHz
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
3 291 666.667
2 962 500.000
2 633 333.333
2 962 500.000
2 821 428.571
2 507 936.508
2 821 428.571
2 539 285.714
2 257 142.857
2 539 285.714
2 468 750.000
2 194 444.444
2 468 750.000
2 370 000.000
2 106 666.667
2 370 000.000
2 194 444.444
1 950 617.284
2 194 444.444
2 116 071.429
1 880 952.381
2 116 071.429
1 975 000.000
1 755 555.556
1 975 000.000
1 851 562.500
1 645 833.333
1 851 562.500
1 795 454.545
1 595 959.596
1 795 454.545
1 645 833.333
1 462 962.963
1 645 833.333
1 481 250.000
1 316 666.667
1 481 250.000
1 346 590.909
1 196 969.697
1 346 590.909
1 234 375.000
1 097 222.222
1 234 375.000
1 139 423.077
1 012 820.513
1 139 423.077
1 039 473.684
923 976.608
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
1 039 473.684
940 476.191
835 978.836
940 476.191
846 428.571
752 380.952
846 428.571
779 605.263
692 982.456
779 605.263
705 357.143
626 984.127
705 357.143
637 096.774
566 308.244
637 096.774
580 882.353
516 339.869
580 882.353
529 017.857
470 238.095
529 017.857
477 822.581
424 731.183
477 822.581
435 661.765
387 254.902
435 661.765
395 000.000
351 111.111
395 000.000
359 090.909
319 191.919
359 090.909
323 770.492
287 795.993
323 770.492
294 776.119
262 023.217
294 776.119
266 891.892
237 237.237
266 891.892
240 853.659
214 092.141
240 853.659
217 032.967
192 918.193
217 032.967
195 544.555
173 817.382
195 544.555
176 339.286
156 746.032
176 339.286
159 274.194
141 577.061
159 274.194
143 810.680
127 831.715
1 MHz to 105 kHz
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R&S ESL
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
143 810.680
129 934.211
115 497.076
129 934.211
117 559.524
104 497.355
117 559.524
105 803.571
94 047.619
Sample rate from
[Hz]
Sample rate to
[Hz]
Max bandwidth
[Hz]
105 803.571
95 410.628
84 809.447
95 410.628
85 869.565
76 328.502
85 869.565
77 450.980
68 845.316
77 450.980
69 787.986
62 033.765
69 787.986
62 898.089
55 909.413
62 898.089
56 752.874
50 446.999
56 752.874
51 077.586
45 402.299
51 077.586
46 001.553
40 890.269
46 001.553
41 404.612
36 804.100
41 404.612
37 264.151
33 123.690
37 264.151
33 588.435
29 856.387
33 588.435
30 229.592
26 870.748
30 229.592
27 228.860
24 203.431
27 228.860
24 524.007
21 799.117
24 524.007
22 075.261
19 622.454
22 075.261
19 869.215
17 661.525
19 869.215
17 889.493
15 901.771
17 889.493
16 100.543
14 311.594
16 100.543
14 493.640
12 883.235
14 493.640
13 044.914
11 595.479
13 044.914
11 741.974
10 437.310
11 741.974
10 572.805
9 398.049
10 572.805
10 000.000
8 460.509
105 kHz to 10 kHz
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R&S ESL
TRACe Subsystem
TRACe<1|2>:IQ[:STATe]
This command switches the I/Q data acquisition on or off.
Note: The I/Q data acquisition is not compatible with other measurement functions. Therefore
all other measurement functions will be switched off as soon as the I/Q measurement
function is switched on. Additionally a trace display is not possible in this operating
mode. Therefore all traces are set to "BLANK".
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
TRAC:IQ ON
Switches on I/Q data acquisition
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:AVERage[:STATe]
The command enables averaging of the recorded I/Q data provided that I/Q data acquisition
was previously enabled with TRACe<1|2>:IQ[:STATe].
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
TRAC:IQ ON
Switches on acquisition of I/Q data.
TRAC:IQ:AVER ON
Enables averaging of the I/Q measurement data.
TRAC:IQ:AVER:COUN 10
Selects averaging over 10 data sets.
TRAC:IQ:DATA?
Starts the measurement and reads out the averaged data.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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TRACe<1|2>:IQ:AVERage:COUNt
This command defines the number of I/Q data sets that are to serve as a basis for averaging.
Parameter
0 to 32767
Example
TRAC:IQ ON
Switches on acquisition of I/Q data.
TRAC:IQ:AVER ON
Enables averaging of the I/Q measurement data
TRAC:IQ:AVER:COUN 10
Selects averaging over 10 data sets
TRAC:IQ:DATA?
Starts the measurement and reads out the averaged data.
Characteristics
*RST value: 0
SCPI: conform
Mode
A-T
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA?
This command starts a measurement with the settings defined via TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET and
returns the list of measurement results immediately after they are corrected in terms of
frequency response. The number of measurement results depends on the settings defined with
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET, the output format depends on the settings of the FORMat subsystem.
Note: The command requires that all response data are read out completely before the
instrument accepts further commands.
Return values
The result values are scaled linear in unit Volt and correspond to the voltage at the RF input of
the instrument. In ASCII format, the number of the returned values is 2 * the number of samples.
The first set contains the I–data, the second the Q–data.
Note:
If the sampling rate exceeds 512k ( 524288), the data are output in 512k blocks.
In binary format, the number of I– and Q–data can be calculated as follows:
# of I
Data
=
# of Q Data
=
# of DataBytes
8
The offset of Q–data in the output buffer can be calculated as follows:
Q Data Offset =
(# of DataBytes)
+ LengthIndicatorDigits
2
with LengthIndicatorDigits being the number of digits of the length indicator including the #. In
the example above (#41024...) this results in a value of 6 for LengthIndicatorDigits and the
offset for the Q–data will result in 512 + 6 = 518.
For further details on formats refer to "Formats for returned values: ASCII format and binary
format" on page 6.251.
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TRACe Subsystem
Example
TRAC:IQ:STAT ON
Enables acquisition of I/Q data
TRAC:IQ:SET NORM,10MHz,32MHz,EXT,POS,0,4096
Measurement configuration:
Sample Rate: 32 MHz
Trigger Source: External
Trigger Slope: Positive
Pretrigger Samples: 0
# of Samples: 4096
FORMat REAL,32
Selects format of response data
TRAC:IQ:DATA?
Starts measurement and reads results
Characteristics
*RST value: –
Note: Using the command with the *RST values for the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET command, the
following minimum buffer sizes for the response data are recommended: ASCII format
10 kBytes, binary format: 2 kBytes
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA:MEMory?
This command permits the readout of previously acquired (and frequency response corrected)
I/Q data from the memory, with indication of the offset related to the start of measurement and
with indication of the number of measurement values. Therefore a previously acquired data set
can be read out in smaller portions. The maximum amount of available data depends on the
settings of the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET command, the output format on the settings in the
FORMat subsystem.
Note: The command requires that all response data are read out completely before the
instrument accepts further commands.
If there are not I/Q data available in memory because the corresponding measurement
had not been started, the command will cause a query error.
Parameter
<offset samples>
Offset of the values to be read related to the start of the acquired data.
Value range: 0 to <# of samples> – 1, with <# of samples> being the
value indicated with the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET command.
<# of samples>
Number of measurement values to be read.
Value range: 1 to <# of samples> – <offset samples> with <# of
samples> being the value indicated with the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET
command.
Return values
The returned values are scaled linear in unit Volt and correspond to the voltage at the RF input
of the instrument.
The format of the output buffer corresponds to the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA? command.
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R&S ESL
Example
TRAC:IQ:STAT ON
Enables acquisition of I/Q data
TRAC:IQ:SET NORM,10MHz,32MHz,EXT,POS,100,4096
To configure the measurement:
Sample Rate: 32 MHz
Trigger Source: External
Slope: Positive
Pretrigger Samples: 100
# of Samples: 4096
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and wait for sync
FORMat REAL,32
Determines output format
To read the results:
TRAC:IQ:DATA:MEM? 0,2048
Reads 2048 I/Q data starting at the beginning of data acquisition
TRAC:IQ:DATA:MEM? 2048,1024
Reads 1024 I/Q data from half of the recorded data
TRAC:IQ:DATA:MEM? 100,512
Reads 512 I/Q data starting at the trigger point (<Pretrigger Samples> was 100)
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T, WLAN, OFDM, OFDMA/WiBro
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SET
This command defines the settings of the analyzer hardware for the measurement of I/Q data.
This allows setting the bandwidth of the analog filters in front of the A/D converter as well as
setting the sample rate, trigger conditions and the record length.
Note: If this command is omitted, the current analyzer settings will be used for the
corresponding parameters.
This command switches to IQ mode automatically (see also
TRACe<1|2>:IQ[:STATe]).
The parameter <filter_type> has no effect but is indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSP family.
The trigger level can be set using the TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:IFPower
command.
Parameter
<filter type>
can be omitted
<rbw>
can be omitted
<sample rate>
Sampling rate for the data acquisition.
Value range: 10 kHz to 65.8 3 MHz , continuously adjustable
<trigger mode>
Selection of the trigger source used for the measurement.
Values: IMMediate | EXTernal | IFPower
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<trigger slope>
TRACe Subsystem
Used trigger slope.
Values: POSitive
<pretrigger samples>
Number of measurement values to be recorded before the
trigger point.
Range:–16253439 (= –(224–1–512k –512)) ... 523775 (=
512*1024 – 512 – 1). Negative values correspond to a trigger
delay.
<# of samples>
Number of measurement values to record.
Value range:1 ... 523776(= 512*1024 – 512)
Example
TRAC:IQ:SET NORM,10MHz,32MHz,EXT,POS,0,2048
Reads 2048 I/Q–values starting at the trigger point.
sample rate: 32 MHz
trigger: External
slope: Positive
TRAC:IQ:SET NORM,10MHz,4MHz,EXT,POS,1024,512
Reads 512 I/Q–values from 1024 measurement points before the trigger point.
filter type: NORMAL
RBW: 10 MHz
sample rate: 4 MHz
trigger: External
slope: Positive
Characteristics
*RST values: –,–,32MHz,IMM,POS,0,128
Note: For using these default settings with the TRACe<1|2>:IQ:DATA? command the
following minimum buffer sizes for the response data are recommended: ASCII format
10 kBytes, Binary format 2 kBytes.
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
TRACe<1|2>:IQ:SRATe
This command sets the sampling rate for the I/Q data acquisition. Thus the sample rate can be
modified without affecting the other settings.
Parameter
10 kHz to 65.8 3 MHz , continuously adjustable
Example
TRAC:IQ:SRAT 4MHZ
Characteristics
*RST value: 32 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–T
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TRIGger Subsystem
R&S ESL
TRIGger Subsystem
The TRIGger subsystem is used to synchronize instrument actions with events. It is thus possible to control
and synchronize the start of a sweep.
Commands of the TRIGger Subsystem
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:HOLDoff[:TIME]
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:IFPower:HOLDoff
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:IFPower:HYSTeresis
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:IFPower
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:VIDeo
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:SLOPe
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:SOURce
–
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:TIME:RINTerval
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:HOLDoff[:TIME]
This command defines the length of the trigger delay.
A negative delay time (pretrigger) can be set in zero span only.
Parameter
–100 s to +100 s
Example
TRIG:HOLD 500us
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 s
SCPI: conform
Mode
all, except receiver
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:IFPower:HOLDoff
ffThis command sets the holding time before the next IF power trigger event.
Parameter
<numeric_value> in s: 150 ns to 1000 s
Example
TRIG:SOUR IFP
Sets the IF power trigger source.
TRIG:IFP:HOLD 200 ns
Sets the holding time to 200 ns.
Characteristics
*RST value: 150 ns
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
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TRIGger Subsystem
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:IFPower:HYSTeresis
sThis command sets the limit that the hysteresis value has to fall below in order to trigger the
next measurement.
Parameter
<numeric_value> in dB: 3 dB to 50 dB
Example
TRIG:SOUR IFP
Sets the IF power trigger source.
TRIG:IFP:HYST 10DB
Sets the hysteresis limit value.
Characteristics
*RST value: 3 dB
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A–F
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:IFPower
This command sets the level of the IF power trigger source.
Parameter
–50 to –10 DBM
Example
TRIG:LEV:IFP –30DBM
Characteristics
*RST value: –20 DBM
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except receiver
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:VIDeo
This command sets the level of the video trigger source.
Parameter
0 to 100 PCT
Example
TRIG:LEV:VID 50PCT
Characteristics
*RST value: 50 PCT
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
all, except ADEMOD
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TRIGger Subsystem
R&S ESL
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:SLOPe
This command selects the slope of the trigger signal. The selected trigger slope applies to all
trigger signal sources.
Parameter
POSitive | NEGative
Example
TRIG:SLOP NEG
Characteristics
*RST value: POSitive
SCPI: conform
Mode
all
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:SOURce
This command selects the trigger source for the start of a sweep.
Parameter
IMMediate (Free Run) | EXTern | IFPower | VIDeo | TIME
For details on trigger modes refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Trigger mode
overview".
Example
TRIG:SOUR EXT
Selects the external trigger input as source of the trigger signal
Characteristics
*RST value: IMMediate
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A, ADEMOD
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TRIGger Subsystem
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:TIME:RINTerval
This command sets the time intervall for the time trigger source.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter
0.1 to 5000 s
Example
TRIG:SOUR TIME
Selects the time trigger input for triggering.
TRIG:TIME:RINT 50
The sweep starts after 50 s.
Characteristics
RST value: 1.0
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
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UNIT Subsystem
R&S ESL
UNIT Subsystem
The UNIT subsystem sets the basic unit of the setting parameters.
Commands of the UNIT Subsystem
–
UNIT<1|2>:POWer
UNIT<1|2>:POWer
This command selects the default unit.
Parameter
DBM | V | A | W | DB | PCT | UNITLESS | DBPW | WATT | DBUV | DBMV | VOLT | DBUA |
AMPere | DBPT | DBUV_MHZ | DBMV_MHZ | DBUA_MHZ | DBUV_M | DBUA_M |
DBUV_MMHZ | DBUA_MMHZ
Example
UNIT:POW DBUV
Sets the power unit to dBm.
Characteristics
*RST value: DBM
SCPI: conform
Mode
R, A
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UNIT Subsystem
Remote Commands of the Analog Demodulation
Option (K7)
In this section all remote control commands for Analog Demodulation option are described in detail. The
abbreviation ADEMOD stands for the Analog Demodulation operating mode. For details on conventions
used in this chapter refer to section "Notation" on page 6.2 at the beginning of this chapter.
For further information on analyzer or basic settings commands, refer to the corresponding subsystem
in "Remote Commands of the Base Unit" on page 6.5 or section "Remote Control – Description of Basic
Settings Commands".
Subsystems of the Analog Demodulation option (K7)
–
"CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.236
–
"DISPlay Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.246
–
"INSTrument Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.248
–
"SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.249
–
"TRACe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.277
–
"TRIGger Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.278
–
"UNIT Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.280
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate subsystem contains commands for converting instrument data, transforming and
carrying out corrections. These functions are carried out subsequent to data acquisition, i.e. following
the SENSe subsystem.
The following subsystems are included:
•
"CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem" on page 6.236
•
"CALCulate:FEED Subsystem" on page 6.237
•
"CALCulate:FORMat Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.238
•
"CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem" on page 6.239
•
"CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem" on page 6.245
CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:DELTamarker subsystem controls the delta marker functions of the instrument.
Commands of the CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?
Depending on the unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer or on the activated
measuring functions, the query result is output in the units below:
Result display
Output unit
AM result display (R&S FSL–K7)
% (lin)
dB (log)
FM result display (R&S FSL–K7)
Hz (lin)
dB (log)
PM result display (R&S FSL–K7)
rad | deg (lin)
dB (log)
RF result display (R&S FSL–K7)
output unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
For further details refer to "CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:Y?" on page 6.17.
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
CALCulate:FEED Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:FEED subsystem selects the evaluation method of the measured data. This
corresponds to the selection of the result display in manual mode.
Commands of the CALCulate:FEED Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:FEED
CALCulate<1|2>:FEED
This command selects the measured data that are to be displayed.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
XTIM:AM:RELative[:TDOMain]
Demodulated AM signal in standardized
display
XTIM:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum<1...6>
AF spectrum of the demodulated AM signal in
standardized display, results referenced to
traces 1 to 4
XTIM:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain]
Demodulated AM signal in level display
Same as 'XTIM:RFPower'
XTIM:RFPower[:TDOMain]
RF power of the signal
XTIM:FM[:TDOMain]
Demodulated FM signal
XTIM:FM:AFSPectrum<1...6>
AF spectrum of the demodulated FM signal,
results referenced to traces 1 to 4
XTIM:PM[:TDOMain]
Demodulated PM signal
XTIM:PM:AFSPectrum<1...6>
AF spectrum of the demodulated PM signal,
results referenced to traces 1 to 4
XTIM:AMSummary<1...6>[:ABSolute]
AM results in level display, referenced to
traces 1 to 4
XTIM:AMSummary<1...6>:RELative
AM results in standardized display, referenced
to traces 1 to 4
XTIM:FMSummary<1...6>
FM results, referenced to traces 1 to 4
XTIM:PMSummary<1...6>
PM results, referenced to traces 1 to 4
XTIM:SPECtrum
RF spectrum of the signal determined from
the measured data via FFT
Example
INST:SEL ADEM
Activates analog demodulator.
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM'
Selects the display of the FM signal.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: conform
Mode
ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
CALCulate:FORMat Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:FORMat subsystem defines the conversion of measured data.
Commands of the CALCulate:FORMat Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:FORMat
CALCulate<1|2>:FORMat
This command activates the limitation to ±180°.
The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
PHASe
Limitation to ±180°
UPHase
Unwrapped
Example
CALC:FORM PHAS
Activates the limitation to ±180°.
Characteristics
RST value: UPHase
SCPI: conform
Mode
ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:MARKer subsystem checks the marker functions of the instrument.
The following subsystem is included:
•
"CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)" on page 6.240
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion
The unit depends on the active display.
Example
CALC:MARK:PEXC 100 HZ
Defines peak excursion 100 Hz
Characteristics
*RST value:
6dB
RF displays
5 PCT
AM displays
50 kHz
FM displays
0.5 RAD
PM displays
For further details refer to "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?
If the analog demodulator (option Analog Demodulation, R&S FSL–K7) is activated, the query
result is output in the following units:
Result display
Output unit
AM
%
FM
Hz
PM
rad/deg (defined with CALCulate<1|2>: UNIT:ANGLe)
RF
output unit defined with CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
For further details refer to "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:Y?" on page 6.58.
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod subsystem contains the marker functions for the option
Analog Demodulation, R&S FSL–K7.
Commands of the CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:AFRequency[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:AM[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:CARRier[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:FERRor[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:FM[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:PM[:RESult<1...6>?]
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:SINad:RESult<1...6>?
–
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:THD:RESult<1...6>?
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:AFRequency[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the audio frequency with analog demodulation. The numeric suffix
(:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are irrelevant.
Note:
If several demodulation modes are activated simultaneously (e.g. with the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain][:TYPE] command, the audio frequency of the
display mode selected with CALCulate<1|2>:FEED is returned.
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:AM:TDOM'
Switches on AM result display.
or
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:TDOM'
Switches on FM result display.
or
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
DISP:TRAC ON
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM and trace.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:AFR?
Queries the audio frequency.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:AM[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the results of the AM modulation measurement. The numeric suffix
(:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
PPEak
Result of measurement with detector +PK
MPEak
Result of measurement with detector –PK
MIDDle
Result of averaging ±PK/2
RMS
Result of rms measurement
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator.
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:AM:REL:TDOM'
Switches on the AM result display.
DISP:TRAC ON
Switches on the trace.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:AM? PPE
Queries the peak value.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:CARRier[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the carrier power. The numeric suffix (:RESult<1...6>) indicates
whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
With RF Power result display, the carrier power is determined from trace 1 to 6 indicated in the
numeric suffix. With all other result displays, the carrier power is determined from the current
trace data (CLR/WRITE trace).
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:RFP'
Switches on RF power result display
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:CARR?
Queries the carrier power
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:FERRor[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the frequency error with FM and PM demodulation. With FM
demodulation, trace 1 to 6 is selected with the numeric suffix (:RESult<1...6>). With PM
demodulation, the frequency error is determined from the current measurement data
(CLR/WRITE trace). The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
The offset thus determined differs from that calculated in the [SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:OFFSet?
command since, for determination of the frequency deviation, the modulation is removed by
means of lowpass filtering, producing results that are different from those obtained by averaging
with the SENSe command.
This command is only available for traces in the FM and PM result display. If another result
display is selected, the command is disabled.
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:TDOM'
Switches on FM result display
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:FERR?
Queries the frequency error of trace 1
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:FM[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the results of FM modulation measurement. The numeric suffix
(:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
PPEak
Result of measurement with detector +PK
MPEak
Result of measurement with detector –PK
MIDDle
Result of averaging ±PK/2
RMS
Result of rms measurement
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator.
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:TDOM'
Switches on the FM result display.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:FM? PPE
Queries the peak value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:PM[:RESult<1...6>?]
This command queries the results of PM modulation measurement of analog demodulation. The
numeric suffix (:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The
numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
PPEak
Result of measurement with detector +PK
MPEak
Result of measurement with detector –PK
MIDDle
Result of averaging ±PK/2
RMS
Result of rms measurement
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator.
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:PM:TDOM'
Switches on the FM result display.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:PM? PPE
Queries the peak value.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:SINad:RESult<1...6>?
This command queries the result of the SINAD measurement. The numeric suffix
(:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are irrelevant.
This command is a query only and thus has no *RST value.
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
DISP:TRAC ON
Switches on AF spectrum of FM and trace
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:SIN:RES?
Queries SINAD value
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:THD:RESult<1...6>?
This command queries the result of the THD measurement. The numeric suffix
(:RESult<1...6>) indicates whether trace 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 is selected. The numeric suffixes
<1|2> are irrelevant.
This command is a query only and thus has no *RST value.
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum of FM and trace
DISP:TRAC ON
Switches on the trace
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ADEM:THD:RES?
Queries THD result
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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CALCulate Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The CALCulate:Unit subsystem defines the units for the parameters that can be set and the
measurement results.
Commands of the CALCulate:UNIT Subsystem
–
CALCulate<1|2>: UNIT:ANGLe
CALCulate<1|2>: UNIT:ANGLe
This command selects the unit for angles.
Parameter
DEG | RAD
Example:
CALC:UNIT:ANGL DEG
Characteristics:
*RST value: RAD
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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DISPlay Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
DISPlay Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The DISPLay subsystem controls the selection and presentation of textual and graphic information as
well as of measurement data on the display.
Commands of the DISPlay Subsystem
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue
–
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
This command switches the measurement window for active analog demodulation to full screen
or half screen.
For further details refer to "DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE" on page 6.115.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision
This command defines the scaling of the y–axis in the current unit. The numeric suffix in
TRACe<1...6> is irrelevant. The numeric suffixes <1|2> are irrelevant.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:PDIV +10kHz
Sets the Y scale to 10 kHz/div.
Characteristics
*RST value:
20 PCT
linear AM display
50 kHz
linear FM display
2 rad
linear PM display
10 dB
logarithmic AF spectrum display
SCPI: conform
Mode
ADEMOD
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DISPlay Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
Characteristics
*RST value:
100 PCT
AF spectrum display of AM, FM, or PM
50 PCT
AM, FM, or PM display
For further details refer to "DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
(models 13, 16)" on page 6.120.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue
This command defines the reference value assigned to the reference position. Separate
reference values are maintained for the various displays.
Example
DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0
Sets the value assigned to the reference position to 0 Hz (analog demodulation)
Characteristics
*RST value:
0 PCT
AM display
0 Hz
FM display
0 rad
PM display
100 PCT
AF spectrum display of AM signal
250 kHz
AF spectrum display of FM signal
10 rad
AF spectrum display of PM signal
For further details refer to "DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
(models 13, 16)" on page 6.120.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing
When the AF spectrum result display is selected, only the parameters LINear and LOGarithmic
are allowed.
For further details refer to "DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...6>:Y:SPACing" on page 6.118.
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INSTrument Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
R&S ESL
INSTrument Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The INSTrument subsystem selects the operating mode of the unit either via text parameters or fixed
numbers.
Commands of the INSTrument Subsystem
–
INSTrument[:SELect]
–
INSTrument:NSELect
INSTrument[:SELect]
Parameter
ADEMod (Analog Demodulation option, R&S FSL–K7)
For further details refer to section "Remote Control – Description of Basic Settings Commands",
INSTrument subsystem.
INSTrument:NSELect
Parameter
3 (Analog Demodulation option, R&S FSL–K7)
For further details refer to section "Remote Control – Description of Basic Settings Commands",
INSTrument subsystem.
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The SENSe subsystem is organized in several subsystems. The commands of these subsystems
directly control device–specific settings, they do not refer to the signal characteristics of the
measurement signal.
The SENSe subsystem controls the essential parameters of the analyzer. In accordance with the SCPI
standard, the keyword "SENSe" is optional for this reason, which means that it is not necessary to
include the SENSe node in command sequences.
The following subsystems are included:
•
"SENSe:ADEMod Subsystem" on page 6.249
•
"SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem" on page 6.272
•
"SENSe:FILTer Subsystem" on page 6.273
•
"SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem" on page 6.276
•
"SENSe:SWEep Subsystem" on page 6.276
SENSe:ADEMod Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
The SENSe:ADEMod Subsystem contains commands to set up the instrument for the measurement of
analog demodulated signals and query the result at the end of the measurement.
Commands of the SENSe:ADEMod Subsystem
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod[:STATe]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:CENTer
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:COUPling
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:SPAN
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:SPAN:FULL
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:STARt
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:STOP
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain][:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain]:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative[:TDOMain]:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:BANDwidth|BWIDth:DEModulation
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain]:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:AFSPectrum:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:OFFSet?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:MTIMe
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM[:TDOMain]:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:AFSPectrum:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:RPOint[:X]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:RLENgth?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SET
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SPECtrum[:TYPE]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SPECtrum:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SPECtrum:RESult?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SPECtrum:SPAN[:MAXimum]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SPECtrum:SPAN:ZOOM
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SRATe?
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:ZOOM[:STATe]
–
[SENSe:]ADEMod:ZOOM:STARt
R&S ESL
Further information
–
Trace mode result types
–
Formats for returned values: ASCII format and binary format
Trace mode result types
The following result types can be set:
WRITe
The current trace results will be obtained
AVERage
The trace results will be averaged over the given # of measurements
MAXHold
The maximum trace result values will be obtained over the given # of
measurements
MINHold
The minimum trace result values will be obtained over the given # of measurements
VIEW
The trace results are frozen and displayed, i.e. they are not calculated for
subsequent measurements. Traces in this mode cannot be queried.
OFF
The result type will not be used.
Note:
It is not possible to query trace data when result type VIEW is selected.
Each value besides OFF can only be assigned to one result type at a time.
If all result types are set to OFF, the AM, FM, or PM demodulator will be deactivated.
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
Formats for returned values: ASCII format and binary format
•
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII):
The command reads out a list of comma separated values (CSV) of the measured values in floating
point format.
•
Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32):
The command reads out binary data (Definite Length Block Data according to IEEE 488.2), each
measurement value being formatted in 32 Bit IEEE 754 Floating–Point–Format. The schematics of
the result string will be as follows:
#41024<value1><value2>...<value n> with
#4
number of digits (= 4 in the example) of the following number of data bytes
1024
number of following data bytes (= 1024 in the example)
<value>
4–byte floating point value
[SENSe:]ADEMod[:STATe]
This command activates the analog demodulator of the instrument. The instrument will be set to
zero span at the current center frequency.
Parameter
ON | OFF
Example
ADEM ON
Switches the analog demodulator on.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:CENTer
This command sets the center frequency for AF spectrum result display.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM
ADEM:BAND 5 MHz
Sets the measurement bandwidth to 5 MHz
ADEM:AF:CENT 500kHz
Sets the AF center frequency to 500 kHz
ADEM:AF:SPAN 200kHz
Sets the AF span to 200 kHz
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R&S ESL
Characteristics
*RST value: 1.25 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:COUPling
This command selects the coupling of the AF path of the analyzer.
Parameter
AC | DC
Example
ADEM:AF:COUP DC
Switches on DC coupling.
Characteristics
*RST value: AC (PM); DC (FM)
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:SPAN
This command sets the span for AF spectrum result display.l
The span is limited to half the measurement bandwidth of analog demodulation
([SENSe:]ADEMod:BANDwidth|BWIDth:DEModulation).
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM
ADEM:BAND 5 MHz
Sets the measurement bandwidth to 5 MHz
ADEM:AF:CENT 500kHz
Sets the AF center frequency to 500 kHz
ADEM:AF:SPAN 200kHz
Sets the AF span to 200 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 2.5 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:SPAN:FULL
This command sets the maximum span for AF spectrum result display.
The maximum span corresponds to half the measurement bandwidth of analog demodulation
([SENSe:]ADEMod:BANDwidth|BWIDth:DEModulation).
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM
ADEM:BAND 5 MHz
Sets the measurement bandwidth to 5 MHz
ADEM:AF:SPAN:FULL
Sets the AF span to 2.5 MHz
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:STARt
This command sets the start frequency for AF spectrum result display.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM
ADEM:BAND 5 MHz
Sets the measurement bandwidth to 5 MHz
ADEM:AF:STAR 0kHz
Sets the AF start frequency to 0 kHz
ADEM:AF:STOP 500kHz
Sets the AF stop frequency to 500 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 0 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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R&S ESL
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AF:STOP
This command sets the stop frequency for AF spectrum result display.
The stop frequency is limited to half the measurement bandwidth of analog demodulation
([SENSe:]ADEMod:BANDwidth|BWIDth:DEModulation).
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
ADEM ON
Switches on the analog demodulator
CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
Switches on AF spectrum result display of FM
ADEM:BAND 5 MHz
Sets the measurement bandwidth to 5 MHz
ADEM:AF:STAR 0kHz
Sets the AF start frequency to 0 kHz
ADEM:AF:STOP 500kHz
Sets the AF stop frequency to 500 kHz
Characteristics
*RST value: 2.5 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain][:TYPE]
This command selects the result types of the RF signal to be measured simultaneously in zero
span.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW, OFF; for details see
"Trace mode result types" on page 6.250.
Example
ADEM:AM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, max hold and min hold values at a time.
ADEM:AM WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only the current measurement values.
ADEM:AM OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches AM demodulation off.
Characteristics
*RST value: WRITe,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain]:RESult?
This command reads the result data of the RF signal in zero span for the specified result type.
The data format of the output data block is defined by the FORMat command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The result type indicated must be one of those configured by
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM[:ABSolute][:TDOMain][:TYPE]. Otherwise a query error
will be generated.
Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets up demodulator parameters
ADEM:AM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Sets up AM results to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches on demodulator
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and waits for sync
FORM ASC
Selects output format
ADEM:AM:RES? AVER
Reads AM average results
ADEM:AM:RES? MAXH
Reads AM max hold results
ADEM:AM:RES? MINH
Reads AM min hold results
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
This command selects the result types to be measured simultaneously by AM demodulation.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW, OFF; for details see
"Trace mode result types" on page 6.250.
Example
ADEM:AM:REL AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, max hold and min hold values simultaneously.
ADEM:AM:REL WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only the current measurement values.
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ADEM:AM:REL OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches AM demodulation off.
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative[:TDOMain]:RESult?
This command reads the result data obtained by AM demodulation for the specified result type.
The data format of the output data block is defined by the FORMat command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The result type indicated must be one of those configured by
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative[:TDOMain][:TYPE]. Otherwise a query error will
be generated.
Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets up demodulator parameters
ADEM:FM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects FM results to be measured
ADEM:AM:REL WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects AM results to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches on demodulator
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and waits for sync
FORM ASC
Selects output format
ADEM:FM:RES? AVER
Reads FM average results
ADEM:FM:RES? MAXH
Reads FM max hold results
ADEM:FM:RES? MINH
Reads FM min hold results
ADEM:AM:REL:RES? WRIT
Reads current AM result data
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
This command selects the AF spectrum result types of the AM–demodulated signal to be
measured simultaneously.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW, OFF; for details see
"Trace mode result types" on page 6.250.
Note: The result type "AF spectrum of AM–demodulated signal" cannot be activated at the
same time as "AF spectrum of FM or PM demodulated signal".
Example
ADEM:AM:REL:AFSP AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, maximum and minimum value simultaneously
ADEM:AM:REL:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only current measurement results
ADEM:AM:REL:AFSP OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches off calculation of the AF spectrum
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum:RESult?
This command reads out the AF spectrum result data of the AM–demodulated signal for the
specified result type. The data format of the output data is determined with the FORMat
command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The specified result type must be one of those configured with the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:AM:RELative:AFSPectrum[:TYPE] command. Otherwise a
query error will be generated.
Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in section "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets the demodulator
ADEM:FM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects the FM results to be measured
ADEM:AM:REL WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AM results to be measured
ADEM:AM:REL:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AF spectrum results of the demodulated AM signal to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches on the demodulator
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INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the termination
FORM ASC
Selects the output format
ADEM:FM:RES? AVER
Reads the FM average result data
ADEM:FM:RES? MAXH
Reads the FM Maxhold result data
ADEM:FM:RES? MINH
Reads the FM Minhold result data
ADEM:AM:REL:RES? WRIT
Reads the current AM result data
ADEM:AM:REL:AFSP:RES? WRIT
Reads the current AF spectrum result data of the demodulated AM signal
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:BANDwidth|BWIDth:DEModulation
This command defines the demodulation bandwidth used for analog demodulation. The required
sampling rate is automatically set depending on the selected demodulation bandwidth. The
available demodulation bandwidths are determined by the existing sampling rates (see table
below).
Parameter
<numeric_value>
For details on the correlation of bandwidth and sample rate refer to chapter "Instrument
Functions", section "Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" – "Sample rate, measurement time and
trigger offset".
Example
ADEM:BAND:DEM 1MHz
Sets the demodulation bandwidth to 1 MHz.
Characteristics
*RST value: 5 MHz
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
This command selects the result types to be measured simultaneously by FM demodulation.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW, OFF; for details see
"Trace mode result types" on page 6.250.
Example
ADEM:FM AVER,MAXH,MINH
"Creates average, max hold and min hold values simultaneously
DEM:FM WRIT,OFF,OFF
Only creates the current measurement values
ADEM:FM OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches analog demodulator off
Characteristics
*RST value: WRITe,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain]:RESult?
This command reads the result data obtained by analog demodulation for the specified result
type. The data format of the output data block is defined by the FORMat command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The result type indicated must be one of those configured by
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain][:TYPE]. Otherwise a query error will be
generated.
Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets up demodulator parameters
ADEM:FM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects FM results to be measured
ADEM:AM WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects AM results to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches on demodulator
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and waits for sync
FORM ASC
Selects output format
ADEM:FM:RES? AVER
Reads FM average results
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ADEM:FM:RES? MAXH
Reads FM max hold results
ADEM:FM:RES? MINH
Reads FM min hold results
ADEM:AM:RES? WRIT
Reads current AM results
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
This command selects the AF spectrum result types of the FM demodulated signal to be
measured simultaneously.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW, OFF; for details see
"Trace mode result types" on page 6.250.
Note: The result type "AF spectrum of the FM demodulated signal" cannot be activated at the
same time as "AF spectrum of AM or PM demodulated signal".
Example
ADEM:FM:AFSP AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, maximum and minimum value simultaneously
ADEM:FM:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only current measurement results
ADEM:FM:AFSP OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches calculation of AF spectrum off
Characteristics
*RST value: OFF,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
A
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:AFSPectrum:RESult?
This command reads out the AF spectrum result data of the FM demodulated signal for the
specified result type. The data format of the output data is determined with the FORMat
command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The specified result type must be one of those configured with the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE] command. Otherwise a query error will
be generated.
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Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets demodulator
ADEM:FM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects the FM results to be measured
ADEM:AM:REL WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AM results to be measured
ADEM:FM:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AF spectrum results of the demodulated FM signal to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches the demodulator on
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for termination
FORM ASC
Selects output format
ADEM:FM:RES? AVER
Reads FM average result data
ADEM:FM:RES? MAXH
Reads FM maxhold result data
ADEM:FM:RES? MINH
Reads FM minhold result data
ADEM:AM:RES? WRIT
Reads current AM result data
ADEM:FM:AFSP:RES? WRIT
Reads current AF spectrum result data of demodulated FM signal
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:OFFSet?
This command calculates the FM offset of the currently available measurement data set.
If averaging has been activated before acquiring the data set (using
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM[:TDOMain][:TYPE], the averaged FM offset over several
measurements can also be obtained by setting <result type> = AVERage.
The offset thus determined differs from the one calculated by the
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer:FUNCtion:ADEMod:FERRor[:RESult<1...6>?] command
since, for determination of the frequency deviation, the modulation is removed by means of
lowpass filtering, producing results that are different from those obtained by averaging.
Parameter
<result type>
IMMediate
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The current measurement results will be used for calculating the FM
offset
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AVERage
Note:
R&S ESL
The measurement results that were averaged over the given # of
measurements will be used for calculating the FM offset
If no average measurement was active during the last measurement sequence only the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:OFFSet? IMMediate command will return a correct result
(data to calculate the offset are taken from the last measured data set).
[SENSe:]ADEMod:FM:OFFSet? AVERage will cause a query error in this case.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets up demodulator parameters to execute 30 measurements
ADEM:FM AVER,OFF,OFF
Selects FM results to perform averaging
ADEM:AM OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches off AM demodulation
ADEM ON
Switches on analog demodulator
INIT;*WAI
Starts measurement and waits for sync
ADEM:FM:OFFS? IMM
Reads FM offset of last measurement of the sequence of 30
ADEM:FM:OFFS? AVER
Reads FM offset averaged over 30 measurements
Characteristics
*RST values: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:MTIMe
This command defines the measurement time for analog demodulation.
Parameter
<numeric_value>
Example
ADEM:MTIM 62.5us
Sets the measurement time to 62.5 µs.
Characteristics
*RST value: 62.5us
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
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SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM[:TDOMain][:TYPE]
This command selects the result types of the PM–demodulated signal to be created
simultaneously.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW; for details see "Trace
mode result types" on page 6.250.
Example
ADEM:PM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, maximum and minimum value simultaneously
ADEM:PM WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only current measurement results
ADEM:PM OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches the PM demodulator off.
Characteristics
RST value: OFF,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM[:TDOMain]:RESult?
This command reads the result data of the PM demodulation for the specified result type. The
data format of the output data is determined with the FORMat command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The specified result type must be one of those configured with the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM[:TDOMain][:TYPE] command. Otherwise a query error will
be generated.
Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets the demodulator parameters.
ADEM:PM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects the PM results to be measured.
ADEM:AM WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AM results to be measured.
ADEM ON
Switches on the demodulator.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for termination.
FORM ASC
Selects the output format.
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ADEM:PM:RES? AVER
Reads the PM average result data.
ADEM:PM:RES? MAXH
Reads the PM maxhold result data.
ADEM:PM:RES? MINH
Reads the PM minhold result data.
ADEM:AM:RES? WRIT
Reads the current AM result data.
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE]
This command selects the AF spectrum result types of the PM–demodulated signal to be
measured simultaneously.
Parameter
<result type 1|2|3|4|5|6>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold, VIEW; for details see "Trace
mode result types" on page 6.250.
Note: The result type "AF spectrum of the PM demodulated signal" cannot be activated at the
same time as "AF spectrum of AM or FM demodulated signal".
Example
ADEM:PM:AFSP AVER,MAXH,MINH
Determines average, maximum and minimum value simultaneously
ADEM:PM:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Determines only current measurement results
ADEM:PM:AFSP OFF,OFF,OFF
Switches calculation of AF spectrum off
Characteristics
RST value: OFF,OFF,OFF
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:AFSPectrum:RESult?
This command reads out the AF spectrum result data of the PM–demodulated signal for the specified
result type. The data format of the output data is determined with the FORMat command.
Parameter
<result type>: WRITe, AVERage, MAXHold, MINHold; for details see "Trace mode result types"
on page 6.250.
Note: The specified result type must be one of those configured with the
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:AFSPectrum[:TYPE] command. Otherwise a query error will
be generated.
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Return values
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII) or Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32); for details see "Formats
for returned values: ASCII format and binary format" on page 6.251. The ouput units are
described in section "CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:PEXCursion" on page 6.55.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Sets demodulator
ADEM:PM AVER,MAXH,MINH
Selects the PM results to be measured
ADEM:AM:REL WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AM results to be measured
ADEM:PM:AFSP WRIT,OFF,OFF
Selects the AF spectrum results of the demodulated PM signal to be measured
ADEM ON
Switches the demodulator on
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for termination
FORM ASC
Selects output format
ADEM:PM:RES? AVER
Reads PM average result data
ADEM:PM:RES? MAXH
Reads PM maxhold result data
ADEM:PM:RES? MINH
Reads PM minhold result data
ADEM:AM:RES? WRIT
Reads current AM result data
ADEM:PM:AFSP:RES? WRIT
Reads current AF spectrum result data of demodulated PM signal
Characteristics
RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:PM:RPOint[:X]
This command determines the position where the phase of the PM–demodulated signal is set to
0 rad. The maximum possible value depends on the measurement time selected in the
instrument; this value is output in response to the query ADEM:PM:RPO:X? MAX.
Parameter
0 s to measurement time
Example
ADEM:PM:RPO 500us
Sets the position where the phase to 0 rad setting to 500 µs.
Characteristics
RST value: 0 s
SCPI: conform
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Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:RLENgth?
This command returns the record length set up for the current analog demodulation
measurement.
Example
ADEM:RLEN?
Returns the current record length.
Characteristics
*RST value: –
SCPI: device–specific
Mode
ADEMOD
[SENSe:]ADEMod:SET
This command configures the analog demodulator of the instrument.
Parameter
<sample rate>
The frequency at which measurement values are taken from the
A/D–converter and stored in I/Q memory.
Allowed range: refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section
"Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" – "Sample rate,
measurement time and trigger offset".
<record length>
Number of samples to be stored in I/Q memory.
Allowed range:
1 to 400001 with AF filter or AF trigger active
1 to 480001 with both AF filter and AF trigger deactive
<trigger source>
Selection of the trigger source to use for the demodulator.
Allowed values: IMMediate | EXTernal | IFPower | RFPower| AF
| AM | AMRelative | FM | PM (see note below)
<trigger slope>
Used slope of the trigger signal.
Allowed values: POSitive | NEGative
The value indicated here will be ignored for <trigger source> =
IMMediate.
<offset samples>
Number of samples to be used as an offset to the trigger signal.
Allowed range: –65024 to 130559 (= –64 * 1024 + 512 to 128 *
1024 – 513)
The value indicated here will be ignored for <trigger source> =
IMMediate.
<# of meas>
Number of repetitions of the measurement to be executed. The
value indicated here is especially necessary for the
average/maxhold/minhold function.
Allowed range: 0 to 32767
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Note:
SENSe Subsystem (Analog Demodulation, K7)
After selecting IFPower, the trigger threshold can be set with the
TRIGger<1|2>[:SEQuence]:LEVel:IFPower command.
Example
ADEM:SET 8MHz,32000,EXT,POS,–500,30
Performs a measurement at:
sample rate
8 MHz
record length
32000
trigger source
EXTernal
trigger slope
POSitive
offset samples
–500 (500 samples before trigger occurred)
# of meas
30
Characteristics
*RST value:
sample rate
8 MHz
reco