Operating Manual for the R&

Operating Manual
Spectrum Analyzer
R&S FSL3
R&S FSL6
R&S FSL18
1300.2502K03
1300.2502K06
1300.2502K18
1300.2502K13
1300.2502K16
1300.2502K28
Test and Measurement
1300.2519.12-11
Throughout this manual, the Spectrum Analyzer R&S® FSL is abbreviated as R&S FSL.
®
R&S is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Trade names are trademarks of the owners
Grouped Safety Messages
Make sure to read through and observe the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standard of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment required for them are designed and tested in accordance with the
relevant safety standards. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by our quality
assurance system. The product described here has been designed and tested in accordance with the EC
Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully complying with safety
standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, observe all instructions and warnings
provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these safety instructions, the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for an intention other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore essential that only
skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be allowed to use the
product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this will be indicated at
the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions and the product
documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Symbols and safety labels
Observe
product
documentation
Weight
indication for
units >18 kg
Supply
voltage
ON/OFF
Danger of
electric
shock
Standby
indication
Direct
current
(DC)
Warning!
Hot
surface
PE terminal
Alternating
current (AC)
Ground
Direct/alternating
current (DC/AC)
Ground
terminal
Attention!
Electrostatic
sensitive devices
Device fully protected
by double/reinforced
insulation
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before putting the product into operation. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In these safety
instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde & Schwarz
group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories.
1171.0000.42-04.00
Sheet 1
Grouped Safety Messages
Tags and their meaning
DANGER
DANGER indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
WARNING
WARNING indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
CAUTION
CAUTION indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or
moderate injury.
NOTICE
NOTICE indicates a property damage message.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These tags are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European Economic
Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic areas or
military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the tags described here are always used
only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The use of tags in
connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation and thus contribute to
personal injury or material damage.
Basic safety instructions
1. The product may be operated only under the
operating conditions and in the positions
specified by the manufacturer. Its ventilation
must not be obstructed during operation.
Unless otherwise specified, the following
requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz
products:
prescribed operating position is always with
the housing floor facing down, IP protection
2X, pollution severity 2, overvoltage category
2, use only in enclosed spaces, max.
operation altitude 2000 m above sea level,
max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level.
A tolerance of ±10% shall apply to the
nominal voltage and of ±5% to the nominal
frequency.
2. Applicable local or national safety
regulations and rules for the prevention of
accidents must be observed in all work
performed. The product may be opened only
by authorized, specially trained personnel.
Prior to performing any work on the product
or opening the product, the product must be
disconnected from the supply network. Any
adjustments, replacements of parts,
maintenance or repair must be carried out
only by technical personnel authorized by
1171.0000.42-04.00
Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may
be used for replacing parts relevant to safety
(e.g. power switches, power transformers,
fuses). A safety test must always be
performed after parts relevant to safety have
been replaced (visual inspection, PE
conductor test, insulation resistance
measurement, leakage current
measurement, functional test).
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods,
the use of substances that induce an allergic
reaction (allergens, e.g. nickel) such as
aluminum cannot be generally excluded. If
you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or
respiratory difficulties), consult a physician
immediately to determine the cause.
4. If products/components are mechanically
and/or thermically processed in a manner
that goes beyond their intended use,
hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust
such as lead, beryllium, nickel) may be
released. For this reason, the product may
only be disassembled, e.g. for disposal
purposes, by specially trained personnel.
Improper disassembly may be hazardous to
your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
Sheet 2
Grouped Safety Messages
5. If handling the product yields hazardous
substances or fuels that must be disposed of
in a special way, e.g. coolants or engine oils
that must be replenished regularly, the safety
instructions of the manufacturer of the
hazardous substances or fuels and the
applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe
the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation.
6. Depending on the function, certain products
such as RF radio equipment can produce an
elevated level of electromagnetic radiation.
Considering that unborn life requires
increased protection, pregnant women
should be protected by appropriate
measures. Persons with pacemakers may
also be endangered by electromagnetic
radiation. The employer/operator is required
to assess workplaces where there is a
special risk of exposure to radiation and, if
necessary, take measures to avert the
danger.
7. Operating the products requires special
training and intense concentration. Make
certain that persons who use the products
are physically, mentally and emotionally fit
enough to handle operating the products;
otherwise injuries or material damage may
occur. It is the responsibility of the employer
to select suitable personnel for operating the
products.
8. Prior to switching on the product, it must be
ensured that the nominal voltage setting on
the product matches the nominal voltage of
the AC supply network. If a different voltage
is to be set, the power fuse of the product
may have to be changed accordingly.
9. In the case of products of safety class I with
movable power cord and connector,
operation is permitted only on sockets with
earthing contact and protective earth
connection.
10. Intentionally breaking the protective earth
connection either in the feed line or in the
product itself is not permitted. Doing so can
result in the danger of an electric shock from
the product. If extension cords or connector
strips are implemented, they must be
checked on a regular basis to ensure that
they are safe to use.
11. If the product has no power switch for
disconnection from the AC supply, the plug
1171.0000.42-04.00
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
of the connecting cable is regarded as the
disconnecting device. In such cases, it must
be ensured that the power plug is easily
reachable and accessible at all times
(corresponding to the length of connecting
cable, approx. 2 m). Functional or electronic
switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply. If
products without power switches are
integrated in racks or systems, a
disconnecting device must be provided at
the system level.
Never use the product if the power cable is
damaged. Check the power cable on a
regular basis to ensure that it is in proper
operating condition. By taking appropriate
safety measures and carefully laying the
power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be
damaged and that no one can be hurt by e.g.
tripping over the cable or suffering an electric
shock.
The product may be operated only from
TN/TT supply networks fused with max. 16 A
(higher fuse only after consulting with the
Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
Do not insert the plug into sockets that are
dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all
the way into the socket. Otherwise, this can
result in sparks, fire and/or injuries.
Do not overload any sockets, extension
cords or connector strips; doing so can
cause fire or electric shocks.
For measurements in circuits with voltages
Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g.
appropriate measuring equipment, fusing,
current limiting, electrical separation,
insulation) should be taken to avoid any
hazards.
Ensure that the connections with information
technology equipment comply with IEC
950/EN 60950.
Unless expressly permitted, never remove
the cover or any part of the housing while the
product is in operation. Doing so will expose
circuits and components and can lead to
injuries, fire or damage to the product.
If a product is to be permanently installed,
the connection between the PE terminal on
site and the product's PE conductor must be
made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and
connected only by a license electrician.
Sheet 3
Grouped Safety Messages
20. For permanently installed equipment without
built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar
protective devices, the supply circuit must be
fused in such a way that suitable protection
is provided for users and products.
21. Do not insert any objects into the openings in
the housing that are not designed for this
purpose. Never pour any liquids onto or into
the housing. This can cause short circuits
inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire
or injuries.
22. Use suitable overvoltage protection to
ensure that no overvoltage (such as that
caused by a thunderstorm) can reach the
product. Otherwise the operating personnel
will be endangered by electric shocks.
23. Rohde & Schwarz products are not protected
against penetration of liquids, unless
otherwise specified (see also safety
instruction 1.). If this is not taken into
account, there exists the danger of electric
shock for the user or damage to the product,
which can also lead to personal injury.
24. Never use the product under conditions in
which condensation has formed or can form
in or on the product, e.g. if the product was
moved from a cold to a warm environment.
25. Do not close any slots or openings on the
product, since they are necessary for
ventilation and prevent the product from
overheating. Do not place the product on soft
surfaces such as sofas or rugs or inside a
closed housing, unless this is well ventilated.
26. Do not place the product on heat-generating
devices such as radiators or fan heaters.
The temperature of the environment must
not exceed the maximum temperature
specified in the data sheet.
27. Batteries and storage batteries must not be
exposed to high temperatures or fire. Keep
batteries and storage batteries away from
children. Do not short-circuit batteries and
storage batteries.
If batteries or storage batteries are
improperly replaced, this can cause an
explosion (warning: lithium cells). Replace
the battery or storage battery only with the
matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see spare
parts list). Batteries and storage batteries
must be recycled and kept separate from
residual waste. Batteries and storage
batteries that contain lead, mercury or
cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
1171.0000.42-04.00
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
national regulations regarding waste
disposal and recycling.
Please be aware that in the event of a fire,
toxic substances (gases, liquids etc.) that
may be hazardous to your health may
escape from the product.
The product can be very heavy. Be careful
when moving it to avoid back or other
physical injuries.
Do not place the product on surfaces,
vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons
of weight or stability are unsuitable for this
purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's
installation instructions when installing the
product and fastening it to objects or
structures (e.g. walls and shelves).
Handles on the products are designed
exclusively for personnel to hold or carry the
product. It is therefore not permissible to use
handles for fastening the product to or on
means of transport such as cranes, fork lifts,
wagons, etc. The user is responsible for
securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport and for observing the
safety regulations of the manufacturer of the
means of transport. Noncompliance can
result in personal injury or material damage.
If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the
sole responsibility of the driver to drive the
vehicle safely. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or
other damage in the event of an accident.
Never use the product in a moving vehicle if
doing so could distract the driver of the
vehicle. The driver is always responsible for
the safety of the vehicle. The manufacturer
assumes no responsibility for accidents or
collisions.
If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is
integrated in a Rohde & Schwarz product, do
not use any other settings or functions than
those described in the product documentation. Otherwise this may be hazardous to
your health, since the laser beam can cause
irreversible damage to your eyes. Never try
to take such products apart, and never look
into the laser beam.
Prior to cleaning, disconnect the product
from the AC supply. Use a soft, non-linting
cloth to clean the product. Never use
chemical cleaning agents such as alcohol,
acetone or diluent for cellulose lacquers.
Sheet 4
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
¡Es imprescindible leer y observar las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones
de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestra sección de gestión de la seguridad de calidad controla constantemente que
sean cumplidas estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el comprobante
de conformidad adjunto según las normas de la CE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable
según los estándares técnicos de seguridad. Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un
funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de
seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en
caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o despreciando las
informaciones de seguridad del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se
hace en ninguna forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado dentro de las
instrucciones de la correspondiente documentación de producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos profundos y conocimientos básicas del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe
tener en cuenta que el producto sólo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas
minuciosamente instruidas con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de
seguridad para el uso de productos de R&S, encontrará la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto y entréguela a usuarios posteriores.
Símbolos y definiciones de seguridad
Ver
documentación de
producto
Informaciones
para
maquinaria
con un peso
de > 18kg
Potencia EN
MARCHA/PARADA
1171.0000.42-04.00
Peligro de
golpe de
corriente
Indicación
Stand-by
¡Advertencia!
Superficie
caliente
Corriente
continua DC
Corriente
alterna AC
Conexión a
conductor
protector
Conexión
a tierra
Corriente continua/alterna DC/AC
Conexión
a masa
conductora
¡Cuidado!
Elementos de
construcción con
peligro de carga
electroestática
El aparato está protegido en
su totalidad por un
aislamiento de doble refuerzo
Sheet 5
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para tratar de evitar daños y peligros de toda clase.
Es necesario de que se lean las siguientes informaciones de seguridad concienzudamente y se tengan en
cuenta debidamente antes de la puesta en funcionamiento del producto. También deberán ser tenidas en
cuenta las informaciones para la protección de personas que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente
de la documentación de producto y que también son obligatorias de seguir. En las informaciones de
seguridad actuales hemos juntado todos los objetos vendidos por el grupo de empresas Rohde &
Schwarz bajo la denominación de „producto“, entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así como toda
clase de accesorios.
Palabras de señal y su significado
PELIGRO
Identifica un peligro directo con riesgo elevado de provocar muerte o
lesiones de gravedad si no se toman las medidas oportunas.
ADVERTENCIA
Identifica un posible peligro con riesgo medio de provocar muerte o
lesiones (de gravedad) si no se toman las medidas oportunas.
ATENCIÓN
Identifica un peligro con riesgo reducido de provocar lesiones de
gravedad media o leve si no se toman las medidas oportunas.
AVISO
Indica la posibilidad de utilizar mal el producto y a consecuencia
dañarlo.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación de producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a
malinterpretaciones y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Informaciones de seguridad elementales
1. El producto solamente debe ser utilizado
según lo indicado por el fabricante referente a
la situación y posición de funcionamiento sin
que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se
convino de otra manera, es para los productos
R&S válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define
por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja
para abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, grado
de suciedad 2, categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, utilizar solamente en estancias
interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m sobre el
nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4.500 m sobre
el nivel del mar.
Se aplicará una tolerancia de ±10% sobre el
voltaje nominal y de ±5% sobre la frecuencia
nominal.
2. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en
cuenta las normas locales de seguridad de
1171.0000.42-04.00
trabajo y de prevención de accidentes. El
producto solamente debe de ser abierto por
personal especializado autorizado. Antes de
efectuar trabajos en el producto o abrirlo
deberá este ser desconectado de la corriente.
El ajuste, el cambio de partes, la manutención
y la reparación deberán ser solamente
efectuadas por electricistas autorizados por
R&S. Si se reponen partes con importancia
para los aspectos de seguridad (por ejemplo
el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles),
solamente podrán ser sustituidos por partes
originales. Después de cada recambio de
partes elementales para la seguridad deberá
ser efectuado un control de seguridad (control
a primera vista, control de conductor protector,
medición de resistencia de aislamiento,
medición de la corriente conductora, control
de funcionamiento).
Sheet 6
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
3. Como en todo producto de fabricación
industrial no puede ser excluido en general de
que se produzcan al usarlo elementos que
puedan generar alergias, los llamados
elementos alergénicos (por ejemplo el
níquel). Si se producieran en el trato con
productos R&S reacciones alérgicas, como
por ejemplo urticaria, estornudos frecuentes,
irritación de la conjuntiva o dificultades al
respirar, se deberá consultar inmediatamente
a un médico para averiguar los motivos de
estas reacciones.
4. Si productos / elementos de construcción son
tratados fuera del funcionamiento definido de
forma mecánica o térmica, pueden generarse
elementos peligrosos (polvos de sustancia de
metales pesados como por ejemplo plomo,
berilio, níquel). La partición elemental del
producto, como por ejemplo sucede en el
tratamiento de materias residuales, debe de
ser efectuada solamente por personal
especializado para estos tratamientos. La
partición elemental efectuada
inadecuadamente puede generar daños para
la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las
directivas nacionales referentes al tratamiento
de materias residuales.
5. En el caso de que se produjeran agentes de
peligro o combustibles en la aplicación del
producto que debieran de ser transferidos a
un tratamiento de materias residuales, como
por ejemplo agentes refrigerantes que deben
ser repuestos en periodos definidos, o aceites
para motores, deberán ser tenidas en cuenta
las prescripciones de seguridad del fabricante
de estos agentes de peligro o combustibles y
las regulaciones regionales para el tratamiento
de materias residuales. Cuiden también de
tener en cuenta en caso dado las
prescripciones de seguridad especiales en la
descripción del producto.
6. Ciertos productos, como por ejemplo las
instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF,
pueden a causa de su función natural, emitir
una radiación electromagnética aumentada.
En vista a la protección de la vida en
desarrollo deberían ser protegidas personas
embarazadas debidamente. También las
personas con un bypass pueden correr peligro
a causa de la radiación electromagnética.
1171.0000.42-04.00
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
El empresario/usuario está comprometido a
valorar y señalar áreas de trabajo en las que
se corra un riesgo aumentado de exposición a
radiaciones para evitar riesgos.
La utilización de los productos requiere
instrucciones especiales y una alta
concentración en el manejo. Debe de ponerse
por seguro de que las personas que manejen
los productos estén a la altura de los
requerimientos necesarios referente a sus
aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya
que de otra manera no se pueden excluir
lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario
lleva la responsabilidad de seleccionar el
personal usuario apto para el manejo de los
productos.
Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se
deberá tener por seguro de que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto equivalga a la
del la red de distribución. Si es necesario
cambiar la preselección de la tensión también
se deberán en caso dabo cambiar los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
Productos de la clase de seguridad I con
alimentación móvil y enchufe individual de
producto solamente deberán ser conectados
para el funcionamiento a tomas de corriente
de contacto de seguridad y con conductor
protector conectado.
Queda prohibida toda clase de interrupción
intencionada del conductor protector, tanto en
la toma de corriente como en el mismo
producto. Puede tener como consecuencia el
peligro de golpe de corriente por el producto.
Si se utilizaran cables o enchufes de
extensión se deberá poner al seguro que es
controlado su estado técnico de seguridad.
Si el producto no está equipado con un
interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, se
deberá considerar el enchufe del cable de
distribución como interruptor. En estos casos
deberá asegurar de que el enchufe sea de
fácil acceso y nabejo (según la medida del
cable de distribución, aproximadamente 2 m).
Los interruptores de función o electrónicos no
son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si
los productos sin interruptor están integrados
en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá
instalar el interruptor al nivel de la instalación.
Sheet 7
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
12. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el
cable eléctrico. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a
red. Asegure a través de las medidas de
protección y de instalación adecuadas de que
el cable de eléctrico no pueda ser dañado o
de que nadie pueda ser dañado por él, por
ejemplo al tropezar o por un golpe de
corriente.
13. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento
en redes de distribución TN/TT aseguradas
con fusibles de como máximo 16 A (utilización
de fusibles de mayor amperaje sólo previa
consulta con el grupo de empresas Rohde &
Schwarz).
14. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de
corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca
el enchufe por completo y fuertemente en la
toma de corriente. Si no tiene en
consideración estas indicaciones se arriesga a
que se originen chispas, fuego y/o heridas.
15. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los
cables de extensión o los enchufes de
extensión ya que esto pudiera causar fuego o
golpes de corriente.
16. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente
con una tensión de entrada de Ueff > 30 V se
deberá tomar las precauciones debidas para
impedir cualquier peligro (por ejemplo medios
de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
17. En caso de conexión con aparatos de la
técnica informática se deberá tener en cuenta
que estos cumplan los requisitos del estándar
IEC950/EN60950.
18. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no
retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la
carcasa mientras el producto esté en servicio.
Esto pone a descubierto los cables y
componentes eléctricos y puede causar
heridas, fuego o daños en el producto.
19. Si un producto es instalado fijamente en un
lugar, se deberá primero conectar el conductor
protector fijo con el conductor protector del
aparato antes de hacer cualquier otra
conexión. La instalación y la conexión deberán
ser efectuadas por un electricista
especializado.
1171.0000.42-04.00
20. En caso de que los productos que son
instalados fijamente en un lugar sean sin
protector implementado, autointerruptor o
similares objetos de protección, el circuito de
suministro de corriente deberá estar protegido
de manera que usuarios y productos estén
suficientemente protegidos.
21. Por favor, no introduzca ningún objeto que no
esté destinado a ello en los orificios de la caja
del aparato. No vierta nunca ninguna clase de
líquidos sobre o en la caja. Esto puede
producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o
puede causar golpes de corriente, fuego o
heridas.
22. Asegúrese con la protección adecuada de que
no pueda originarse en el producto una
sobrecarga por ejemplo a causa de una
tormenta. Si no se verá el personal que lo
utilice expuesto al peligro de un golpe de
corriente.
23. Los productos R&S no están protegidos contra
líquidos si no es que exista otra indicación, ver
también punto 1. Si no se tiene en cuenta esto
se arriesga el peligro de golpe de corriente
para el usuario o de daños en el producto lo
cual también puede llevar al peligro de
personas.
24. No utilice el producto bajo condiciones en las
que pueda producirse y se hayan producido
líquidos de condensación en o dentro del
producto como por ejemplo cuando se
desplaza el producto de un lugar frío a un
lugar caliente.
25. Por favor no cierre ninguna ranura u orificio
del producto, ya que estas son necesarias
para la ventilación e impiden que el producto
se caliente demasiado. No pongan el producto
encima de materiales blandos como por
ejemplo sofás o alfombras o dentro de una
caja cerrada, si esta no está suficientemente
ventilada.
26. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que
produzcan calor, como por ejemplo radiadores
o calentadores. La temperatura ambiental no
debe superar la temperatura máxima
especificada en la hoja de datos.
Sheet 8
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
27. Baterías y acumuladores no deben de ser
expuestos a temperaturas altas o al fuego.
Guardar baterías y acumuladores fuera del
alcance de los niños. No cortocircuitar
baterías ni acumuladores. Si las baterías o los
acumuladores no son cambiados con la
debida atención existirá peligro de explosión
(atención células de litio). Cambiar las
baterías o los acumuladores solamente por los
del tipo R&S correspondiente (ver lista de
piezas de recambio). Las baterías y
acumuladores deben reutilizarse y no deben
acceder a los vertederos. Las baterías y
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio
o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos
especiales. Respete en esta relación las
normas nacionales de evacuación y reciclaje.
28. Por favor tengan en cuenta que en caso de un
incendio pueden desprenderse del producto
agentes venenosos (gases, líquidos etc.) que
pueden generar daños a la salud.
29. El producto puede poseer un peso elevado.
Muévalo con cuidado para evitar lesiones en
la espalda u otras partes corporales.
30. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies,
vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus
características de peso o de estabilidad no
sean aptas para él. Siga siempre las
instrucciones de instalación del fabricante
cuando instale y asegure el producto en
objetos o estructuras (por ejemplo paredes y
estantes).
31. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven
solamente de ayuda para el manejo que
solamente está previsto para personas. Por
eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la
sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como por ejemplo grúas, carretillas elevadoras
1171.0000.42-04.00
de horquilla, carros etc. El usuario es
responsable de que los productos sean
sujetados de forma segura a los medios de
transporte y de que las prescripciones de
seguridad del fabricante de los medios de
transporte sean observadas. En caso de que
no se tengan en cuenta pueden causarse
daños en personas y objetos.
32. Si llega a utilizar el producto dentro de un
vehículo, queda en la responsabilidad
absoluta del conductor que conducir el
vehículo de manera segura. Asegure el
producto dentro del vehículo debidamente
para evitar en caso de un accidente las
lesiones u otra clase de daños. No utilice
nunca el producto dentro de un vehículo en
movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al
conductor. Siempre queda en la
responsabilidad absoluta del conductor la
seguridad del vehículo. El fabricante no
asumirá ninguna clase de responsabilidad por
accidentes o colisiones.
33. Dado el caso de que esté integrado un
producto de láser en un producto R&S (por
ejemplo CD/DVD-ROM) no utilice otras
instalaciones o funciones que las descritas en
la documentación de producto. De otra
manera pondrá en peligro su salud, ya que el
rayo láser puede dañar irreversiblemente sus
ojos. Nunca trate de descomponer estos
productos. Nunca mire dentro del rayo láser.
34. Antes de proceder a la limpieza, desconecte el
producto de la red. Realice la limpieza con un
paño suave, que no se deshilache. No utilice
de ninguna manera agentes limpiadores
químicos como, por ejemplo, alcohol, acetona
o nitrodiluyente.
Sheet 9
Kundeninformation zur Batterieverordnung (BattV)
Dieses Gerät enthält eine schadstoffhaltige Batterie. Diese darf nicht
mit dem Hausmüll entsorgt werden.
Nach Ende der Lebensdauer darf die Entsorgung nur über eine
Rohde&Schwarz-Kundendienststelle oder eine geeignete
Sammelstelle erfolgen.
Safety Regulations for Batteries (according to BattV)
This equipment houses a battery containing harmful substances that
must not be disposed of as normal household waste.
After its useful life, the battery may only be disposed of at a Rohde &
Schwarz service center or at a suitable depot.
Normas de Seguridad para Baterías (Según BattV)
Este equipo lleva una batería que contiene sustancias perjudiciales,
que no se debe desechar en los contenedores de basura
domésticos.
Después de la vida útil, la batería sólo se podrá eliminar en un
centro de servicio de Rohde & Schwarz o en un depósito apropiado.
Consignes de sécurité pour batteries (selon BattV)
Cet appareil est équipé d'une pile comprenant des substances
nocives. Ne jamais la jeter dans une poubelle pour ordures
ménagéres.
Une pile usagée doit uniquement être éliminée par un centre de
service client de Rohde & Schwarz ou peut être collectée pour être
traitée spécialement comme déchets dangereux.
1171.0300.41
D/E/ESP/F-1
Customer Information Regarding Product Disposal
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) Act is an implementation of
the following EC directives:
•
•
2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and
2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in
electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS).
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product must not be disposed of
in the standard domestic refuse. Even disposal via the municipal collection
points for waste electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept for the
environmental-friendly disposal or recycling of waste material and fully assumes its
obligation as a producer to take back and dispose of electrical and electronic waste
in accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose of the product.
1171.0200.52-01.01
CERTIFICATE OF QUALITY
CERTIFICAT DE QUALITÉ
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf eines
Rohde & Schwarz-Produktes entschieden. Hiermit erhalten Sie ein
nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes Produkt. Es
wurde nach den Regeln unseres
Managementsystems entwickelt,
gefertigt und geprüft.
Das Rohde & Schwarz Managementsystem ist zertifiziert nach:
Dear Customer,
you have decided to buy a Rohde &
Schwarz product. You are thus assured of receiving a product that is
manufactured using the most modern
methods available. This product was
developed, manufactured and tested
in compliance with our quality management system standards.
The Rohde & Schwarz quality
management system is certified
according to:
Cher Client,
vous avez choisi d‘acheter un produit
Rohde & Schwarz. Vous disposez
donc d‘un produit fabriqué d‘après les
méthodes les plus avancées. Le
développement, la fabrication et les
tests respectent nos normes de gestion qualité.
Le système de gestion qualité de
Rohde & Schwarz a été homologué
conformément aux normes:
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:2004
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:2004
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:2004
1171.0200.11-03.00
PD 5213.8744.99 = V 01.00 = May 2007
QUALITÄTSZERTIFIKAT
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
USA & Canada
Monday to Friday (except US public holidays)
8:00 AM – 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST)
Tel. from USA
888-test-rsa (888-837-8772) (opt 2)
From outside USA +1 410 910 7800 (opt 2)
Fax
+1 410 910 7801
E-mail
East Asia
Rest of the World
CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com
Monday to Friday (except Singaporean public holidays)
8:30 AM – 6:00 PM Singapore Time (SGT)
Tel.
Fax
+65 6 513 0488
+65 6 846 1090
E-mail
CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com
Monday to Friday
08:00 – 17:00
(except German public holidays)
Central European Time (CET)
Tel. from Europe
+49 (0) 180 512 42 42*
From outside Europe+49 89 4129 13776
Fax
+49 (0) 89 41 29 637 78
E-mail
CustomerSupport@rohde-schwarz.com
* 0.14 €/Min within the German fixed-line telephone network, varying prices
for the mobile telephone network and in different countries.
1171.0200.22-03.00
12
Address List
Headquarters, Plants and Subsidiaries
Locations Worldwide
Headquarters
Please refer to our homepage: www.rohde-schwarz.com
◆ Sales Locations
◆ Service Locations
◆ National Websites
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstraße 15 · D-81671 München
P.O.Box 80 14 69 · D-81614 München
Phone +49 (89) 41 29-0
Fax +49 (89) 41 29-121 64
info.rs@rohde-schwarz.com
Plants
ROHDE&SCHWARZ Messgerätebau GmbH
Riedbachstraße 58 · D-87700 Memmingen
P.O.Box 16 52 · D-87686 Memmingen
Phone +49 (83 31) 1 08-0
+49 (83 31) 1 08-1124
info.rsmb@rohde-schwarz.com
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Werk Teisnach
Kaikenrieder Straße 27 · D-94244 Teisnach
P.O.Box 11 49 · D-94240 Teisnach
Phone +49 (99 23) 8 50-0
Fax +49 (99 23) 8 50-174
info.rsdts@rohde-schwarz.com
ROHDE&SCHWARZ závod
Vimperk, s.r.o.
Location Spidrova 49
CZ-38501 Vimperk
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Dienstleistungszentrum Köln
Graf-Zeppelin-Straße 18 · D-51147 Köln
P.O.Box 98 02 60 · D-51130 Köln
Phone +420 (388) 45 21 09
Fax +420 (388) 45 21 13
Phone +49 (22 03) 49-0
Fax +49 (22 03) 49 51-229
info.rsdc@rohde-schwarz.com
service.rsdc@rohde-schwarz.com
Subsidiaries
R&S BICK Mobilfunk GmbH
Fritz-Hahne-Str. 7 · D-31848 Bad Münder
P.O.Box 20 02 · D-31844 Bad Münder
Phone +49 (50 42) 9 98-0
Fax +49 (50 42) 9 98-105
info.bick@rohde-schwarz.com
ROHDE&SCHWARZ FTK GmbH
Wendenschloßstraße 168, Haus 28
D-12557 Berlin
Phone +49 (30) 658 91-122
Fax +49 (30) 655 50-221
info.ftk@rohde-schwarz.com
ROHDE&SCHWARZ SIT GmbH
Am Studio 3
D-12489 Berlin
Phone +49 (30) 658 84-0
Fax +49 (30) 658 84-183
info.sit@rohde-schwarz.com
R&S Systems GmbH
Graf-Zeppelin-Straße 18
D-51147 Köln
GEDIS GmbH
Sophienblatt 100
D-24114 Kiel
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
1171.0200.42-02.00
Phone +49 (22 03) 49-5 23 25
Fax +49 (22 03) 49-5 23 36
info.rssys@rohde-schwarz.com
Phone +49 (431) 600 51-0
Fax +49 (431) 600 51-11
sales@gedis-online.de
Phone +49 (61 82) 800-0
Fax +49 (61 82) 800-100
info@hameg.de
12
R&S FSL
Documentation Overview
Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S FSL is divided as follows:
•
Quick Start Guide
•
Online Help
•
Operating Manual
•
Internet Site
•
Service Manual
•
Release Notes
Quick Start Guide
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on the CD. It provides the
information needed to set up and start working with the instrument. Basic operations and basic measurements
are described. Also a brief introduction to remote control is given. The manual includes general information
(e.g. Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 2
Putting into Operation
Chapter 3
Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 4
Basic Operations
Chapter 5
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 6
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix A
Printer Interface
Appendix B
LAN Interface
Online Help
The Online Help is part of the firmware. It provides a quick access to the description of the instrument functions
and the remote control commands. For information on other topics refer to the Quick Start Guide, Operating
Manual and Service Manual provided in PDF format on CD or in the Internet. For detailed information on how
to use the Online Help, refer to the chapter "Basic Operations" in the Quick Start Guide.
Operating Manual
This manual is a supplement to the Quick Start Guide and is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with
the instrument. To retain the familiar structure that applies to all operating manuals of Rohde&Schwarz Test &
Measurement instruments, the chapters 1 and 3 exist, but only in form of references to the corresponding
Quick Start Guide chapters.
1300.2519.12
0.1
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Documentation Overview
R&S FSL
In this manual, all instrument functions are described in detail. For additional information on default settings
and parameters, refer to the data sheets. The set of measurement examples in the Quick Start Guide is
expanded by more advanced measurement examples. In addition to the brief introduction to remote control in
the Quick Start Guide, a description of the commands and programming examples is given. Information on
maintenance, instrument interfaces and error messages is also provided.
The manual includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Putting into Operation, see Quick Start Guide chapters 1 and 2
Chapter 2
Advanced Measurement Examples
Chapter 3
Manual Operation, see Quick Start Guide chapter 4
Chapter 4
Instrument Functions
Chapter 5
Remote Control - Basics
Chapter 6
Remote Control - Commands
Chapter 7
Remote Control - Programming Examples
Chapter 8
Maintenance
Chapter 9
Error Messages
This manual is delivered with the instrument on CD only. The printed manual can be ordered from Rohde &
Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Internet Site
The Internet site at: R&S FSL Spectrum Analyzer provides the most up to date information on the R&S FSL.
The current operating manual at a time is available as printable PDF file in the download area. Also provided
for download are firmware updates including the associated release notes, instrument drivers, current data
sheets and application notes.
Service Manual
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. It informs on how to check
compliance with rated specifications, on instrument function, repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination. It
contains all information required for repairing the R&S FSL by the replacement of modules. The manual
includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified functions, eliminated problems,
and last minute changes to the documentation. The corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title
page of the release notes. The current release notes are provided in the Internet.
1300.2519.12
0.2
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R&S FSL
Conventions Used in the Documentation
Conventions Used in the Documentation
To visualize important information quickly and to recognize information types faster, a few conventions has
been introduced. The following character formats are used to emphasize words:
Bold
All names of graphical user interface elements as
dialog boxes, softkeys, lists, options, buttons etc.
All names of user interface elements on the front
and rear panel as keys, connectors etc.
Courier
All remote commands (apart from headings, see
below)
Capital letters
All key names (front panel or keyboard)
The description of a softkey (Operating Manual and Online Help) always starts with the softkey name, and is
followed by explaining text and one or more remote control commands framed by two lines. Each remote
command is placed in a single line.
The description of remote control commands (Operating Manual and Online Help) always starts with the
command itself, and is followed by explaining text including an example, the characteristics and the mode
(standard or only with certain options) framed by two grey lines. The remote commands consist of
abbreviations to accelerate the procedure. All parts of the command that have to be entered are in capital
letters, the rest is added in small letters to complete the words and transport their meaning.
1300.2519.12
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R&S FSL
1
Putting into Operation
Putting into Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapters 1, "Front and Rear Panel", and 2, "Preparing for
Use".
1300.2519.12
1.1
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Putting into Operation
1300.2519.12
R&S FSL
1.2
E-11
R&S FSL
Advanced Measurement Examples
Contents of Chapter 2
2
Advanced Measurement Examples ............................................................. 2.1
Test Setup .........................................................................................................................................2.2
Measurement of Harmonics ............................................................................................................2.2
High–Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements ...............................................................................2.4
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals ..................................................................................2.6
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution Bandwidth ....................................2.6
Intermodulation Measurements ..................................................................................................2.7
Measurement example – Measuring the R&S FSL's intrinsic intermodulation...............2.9
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise ..................................................................................2.13
Measurement example – Measuring level at low S/N ratios.........................................2.14
Noise Measurements .....................................................................................................................2.17
Measuring Noise Power Density...............................................................................................2.17
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise power density of the R&S FSL at
1 GHz and calculating the R&S FSL's noise figure ......................................................2.17
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel ................................................2.19
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSL at 1 GHz in a
1.23 MHz channel bandwidth with the channel power function....................................2.20
Measuring Phase Noise............................................................................................................2.23
Measurement example – Measuring the phase noise of a signal generator at a carrier
offset of 10 kHz .............................................................................................................2.23
Measurements on Modulated Signals ..........................................................................................2.25
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power .......................................................2.25
Measurement example 1 – ACPR measurement on an CDMA 2000 signal................2.26
Measurement example 2 – Measuring adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA uplink
signal.............................................................................................................................2.30
Amplitude Distribution Measurements......................................................................................2.33
Measurement example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of white noise generated by
the R&S FSL .................................................................................................................2.34
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)..........................................................................................2.36
Bluetooth Overview...................................................................................................................2.36
Bluetooth technical parameters ....................................................................................2.37
Power classes ...............................................................................................................2.37
Structure of a Bluetooth data packet ............................................................................2.38
Supported Tests .......................................................................................................................2.38
Overview of Transmitter Tests..................................................................................................2.39
Functional Description – Block Diagram...................................................................................2.40
Bandwidths ...............................................................................................................................2.41
Measurement Filter (Meas Filter On)........................................................................................2.41
Oversampling............................................................................................................................2.42
Determining Average or Max/Min Values .................................................................................2.43
Impact of the sweep count on the measurement results ..............................................2.44
Trigger Concepts ......................................................................................................................2.44
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20) .........................................................................................2.46
1300.2519.12
I-2.1
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Advanced Measurement Examples
R&S FSL
Analog TV Basics .....................................................................................................................2.47
Analog TV Measurement Examples .........................................................................................2.48
Analog TV settings........................................................................................................2.48
Analog TV test setup.....................................................................................................2.49
Spectrum measurement................................................................................................2.50
Carriers measurement ..................................................................................................2.51
Video Scope measurement...........................................................................................2.52
Vision Modulation measurement ..................................................................................2.53
Hum measurement .......................................................................................................2.55
C/N measurement.........................................................................................................2.56
CSO measurement .......................................................................................................2.60
CTB measurement........................................................................................................2.63
Digital TV Basics.......................................................................................................................2.65
Digital TV Measurement Examples ..........................................................................................2.70
Digital TV settings .........................................................................................................2.71
Digital TV test setup......................................................................................................2.72
Spectrum measurement................................................................................................2.72
Overview measurement ................................................................................................2.73
Constellation Diagram measurement (modulation analysis) ........................................2.75
Modulation Errors measurement (modulation analysis) ...............................................2.76
Echo Pattern measurement (channel analysis) ............................................................2.78
Channel Power measurement ......................................................................................2.79
APD measurement........................................................................................................2.80
CCDF measurement .....................................................................................................2.81
TV Analyzer Measurements .....................................................................................................2.82
Tilt measurement ..........................................................................................................2.82
Channel Tables and Modulation Standards .............................................................................2.83
Channel tables ..............................................................................................................2.84
Modulation standards....................................................................................................2.85
Example: Creating a channel table...............................................................................2.90
Example: Restoring the default channel tables ............................................................2.96
Performing a Measurement without a Channel Table ..............................................................2.96
Performing a Measurement Using a Channel Table ................................................................2.98
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30).................................................................................2.101
Direct Measurements..............................................................................................................2.101
Basic Measurement Example .....................................................................................2.101
DUTs with very Large Gain.........................................................................................2.103
Frequency–Converting Measurements ..................................................................................2.104
Fixed LO Measurements.............................................................................................2.104
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB)...................................................................2.104
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72) ......................................................................2.108
Measuring the Signal Channel Power ....................................................................................2.108
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask ...............................................................................2.110
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power.........................................................................2.111
Synchronization of the reference frequencies ............................................................2.112
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting .......................................................2.113
1300.2519.12
I-2.2
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R&S FSL
Advanced Measurement Examples
Behavior with incorrect scrambling code ....................................................................2.113
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power Triggered ........................................................2.113
Trigger offset...............................................................................................................2.114
Setup for Base Station Tests ..................................................................................................2.115
Standard test setup.....................................................................................................2.115
Basic settings ..............................................................................................................2.115
CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82).............................................................2.116
Measuring the Signal Channel Power ....................................................................................2.116
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask ...............................................................................2.118
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power and the Frequency Error ................................2.119
Synchronization of the reference frequencies ............................................................2.121
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting .......................................................2.121
Measuring the triggered Relative Code Domain Power .........................................................2.122
Adjusting the trigger offset ..........................................................................................2.123
Behaviour with the wrong PN offset............................................................................2.123
Measuring the Composite EVM ..............................................................................................2.124
Measuring the Peak Code Domain Error and the RHO Factor ..............................................2.126
Displaying RHO ..........................................................................................................2.127
Test Setup for Base Station Tests..........................................................................................2.127
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91/K91n) ............................................................................2.129
Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.11a application ...............................................................2.129
Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................2.129
Literature .....................................................................................................................2.134
Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.11b application ...............................................................2.134
Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................2.134
Literature .....................................................................................................................2.138
802.11b RF carrier suppression .............................................................................................2.138
Definition .....................................................................................................................2.138
Measurement with the R&S FSL ................................................................................2.138
Comparison to IQ offset measurement in K91 list mode ............................................2.139
IQ Impairments .......................................................................................................................2.140
IQ Offset......................................................................................................................2.140
Gain Imbalance...........................................................................................................2.140
Quadrature Error .........................................................................................................2.141
WiMAX, WiBro Measurements (Options K92/K93)....................................................................2.142
Basic Measurement Example .................................................................................................2.142
Setting up the measurement.......................................................................................2.142
Performing the level detection ....................................................................................2.144
Performing the main measurement ............................................................................2.144
Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.16–2004 OFDM Measurement Application ....................2.145
Analysis Steps ............................................................................................................2.149
Subchannelization.......................................................................................................2.150
Synchronization ..........................................................................................................2.150
Channel Results..........................................................................................................2.150
Frequency and Clock Offset .......................................................................................2.151
EVM ............................................................................................................................2.151
1300.2519.12
I-2.3
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Advanced Measurement Examples
R&S FSL
IQ Impairments ...........................................................................................................2.152
RSSI............................................................................................................................2.152
CINR ...........................................................................................................................2.153
Literature .....................................................................................................................2.153
Signal Processing of the IEEE802.16–2005 OFDMA/WiBro Measurement Application........2.153
Introduction .................................................................................................................2.155
Signal Processing Block Diagram...............................................................................2.155
Synchronization ..........................................................................................................2.156
Channel Estimation / Equalization ..............................................................................2.156
Analysis.......................................................................................................................2.157
Literature .....................................................................................................................2.158
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I-2.4
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R&S FSL
2
Advanced Measurement Examples
Advanced Measurement Examples
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S FSL using typical measurements as examples.
Additional background information on the settings is given. Examples of more basic character are
provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, as an introduction. The following topics are included in the
Quick Start Guide:
•
Performing a Level and Frequency Meaurement
•
Measuring a Sinusoidal Signal
Measuring the Level and Frequency Using Markers
Measuring the Signal Frequency Using the Frequency Counter
•
Measuring Harmonics of Sinusoidal Signals
Measuring the Suppression of the First and Second Harmonic of an Input Signal
•
Measuring Signal Spectra with Multiple Signals
Separating Signals by Selecting the Resolution Bandwidth
Measuring the Modulation Depth of an AM–Modulated Carrier (Span > 0)
Measuring of AM–Modulated Signals
•
Measurements with Zero Span
Measuring the Power Characteristic of Burst Signals
Measuring the Signal–to–Noise Ratio of Burst Signals
Measurement of FM–Modulated Signals
•
Storing and Loading Instrument Settings
Storing an Instrument Configuration (without Traces)
Storing Traces
Loading an Instrument Configuration (with Traces)
Configuring Automatic Loading
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2.1
E-11
Test Setup
R&S FSL
Test Setup
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S FSL. These are set with the
PRESET key. A complete listing of the standard settings can be found in chapter "Instrument
Functions", section "Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key".
In the following examples, a signal generator is used as a signal source. The RF output of the signal
generator is connected to the RF input of R&S FSL.
If a 65 MHz signal is required for the test setup, as an alternative to the signal generator, the internal 65
MHz reference generator can be used:
1. Switch on the internal reference generator.
Press the SETUP key.
Press the Service softkey.
Press the Input RF/Cal/TG softkey, until Cal is highlighted.
The internal 65 MHz reference generator is now on. The R&S FSL's RF input is switched off.
2. Switch on the RF input again for normal operation of the R&S FSL. Two ways are possible:
Press the PRESET key
Press the SETUP key.
Press the Service softkey.
Press the Input RF/Cal/TG softkey, until RF is highlighted.
The internal signal path of the R&S FSL is switched back to the RF input in order to resume
normal operation.
Measurement of Harmonics
Measuring the harmonics of a signal is a frequent problem which can be solved best by means of a
spectrum analyzer. In general, every signal contains harmonics which are larger than others.
Harmonics are particularly critical regarding high–power transmitters such as transceivers because
large harmonics can interfere with other radio services.
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear characteristics. They can often be reduced by lowpass filters.
Since the spectrum analyzer has a nonlinear characteristic, e.g. in its first mixer, measures must be
taken to ensure that harmonics produced in the spectrum analyzer do not cause spurious results. If
necessary, the fundamental wave must be selectively attenuated with respect to the other harmonics
with a highpass filter.
When harmonics are being measured, the obtainable dynamic range depends on the second harmonic
intercept of the spectrum analyzer. The second harmonic intercept is the virtual input level at the RF
input mixer at which the level of the 2nd harmonic becomes equal to the level of the fundamental wave.
In practice, however, applying a level of this magnitude would damage the mixer. Nevertheless the
available dynamic range for measuring the harmonic distance of a DUT can be calculated relatively
easily using the second harmonic intercept.
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R&S FSL
Measurement of Harmonics
As shown in Fig. 2-1, the level of the 2
is reduced by 10 dB.
nd
harmonic drops by 20 dB if the level of the fundamental wave
Level display
/ dBm
50
40
2nd harmonic
intercept point /
dBm
30
1st harmonic
10
0
-10
2nd harmonic
1
-20
2
1
-30
1
-40
-50
-30 -20 -10
0
10
20
30
40
50
RF level
/ dBm
-60
-70
-80
Fig. 2-1
Extrapolation of the 1st and 2nd harmonics to the 2nd harmonic intercept at 40 dBm
The following formula for the obtainable harmonic distortion d2 in dB is derived from the straight–line
equations and the given intercept point:
d2 = S.H.I – PI
Note:
(1)
d2
=
harmonic distortion
PI
=
mixer level/dBm
S.H.I.
=
second harmonic intercept
The mixer level is the RF level applied to the RF input minus the set RF attenuation.
nd
The formula for the internally generated level P1 at the 2 harmonic in dBm is:
P1 = 2 PI – S.H.I.
(2)
The lower measurement limit for the harmonic is the noise floor of the spectrum analyzer. The harmonic
of the measured DUT should – if sufficiently averaged by means of a video filter – be at least 4 dB
above the noise floor so that the measurement error due to the input noise is less than 1 dB.
The following rules for measuring high harmonic ratios can be derived:
Select the smallest possible IF bandwidth for a minimal noise floor.
Select an RF attenuation which is high enough to just measure the harmonic ratio.
The maximum harmonic distortion is obtained if the level of the harmonic equals the intrinsic noise level
of the receiver. The level applied to the mixer, according to (2), is:
PI =
Pnoise / dBm + IP 2
2
(3)
At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz (noise level –143 dBm, S.H.I. = 40 dBm), the optimum mixer level is
– 51.5 dBm. According to (1) a maximum measurable harmonic distortion of 91.5 dB minus a minimum
S/N ratio of 4 dB is obtained.
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E-11
Measurement of Harmonics
Note:
R&S FSL
If the harmonic emerges from noise sufficiently (approx. >15 dB), it is easy to check (by
changing the RF attenuation) whether the harmonics originate from the DUT or are generated
internally by the spectrum analyzer. If a harmonic originates from the DUT, its level remains
constant if the RF attenuation is increased by 10 dB. Only the displayed noise is increased by
10 dB due to the additional attenuation. If the harmonic is exclusively generated by the
spectrum analyzer, the level of the harmonic is reduced by 20 dB or is lost in noise. If both – the
DUT and the spectrum analyzer – contribute to the harmonic, the reduction in the harmonic
level is correspondingly smaller.
High–Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements
If harmonics have very small levels, the resolution bandwidth required to measure them must be
reduced considerably. The sweep time is, therefore, also increased considerably. In this case, the
measurement of individual harmonics is carried out with the R&S FSL set to a small span. Only the
frequency range around the harmonics will then be measured with a small resolution bandwidth.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
– 25 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the span to 100 kHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 128 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the MHz key.
Press the SPAN key.
In the dialog box, enter 100 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the kHz key.
The R&S FSL displays the reference signal with a span of 100 kHz and resolution bandwidth of
3 kHz.
3. Switching on the marker.
Press the MKR key.
The marker is positioned on the trace maximum.
4. Set the measured signal frequency and the measured level as reference values
Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The position of the marker becomes the reference point. The reference point level is indicated
by a horizontal line, the reference point frequency with a vertical line. At the same time, the
delta marker 2 is switched on.
Press the Ref Fixed softkey.
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2.4
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R&S FSL
Measurement of Harmonics
The mode changes from phase noise measurement to reference fixed, the marker readout
changes from dB/Hz to dB.
Fig. 2-2
Fundamental wave and the frequency and level reference point
5. Make the step size for the center frequency equal to the signal frequency
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
Press the CF–Stepsize softkey and press the = Marker softkey in the submenu.
The step size for the center frequency is now equal to the marker frequency.
nd
6. Set the center frequency to the 2 harmonic of the signal
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
Press the UPARROW key once.
The center frequency is set to the 2
7. Place the delta marker on the 2
nd
nd
harmonic.
harmonic.
Press the MKR–> key.
Press the Peak softkey.
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2.5
E-11
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S FSL
nd
The delta marker moves to the maximum of the 2 harmonic. The displayed level result is
relative to the reference point level (= fundamental wave level).
Fig. 2-3
Measuring the level difference between the fundamental wave (= reference point
nd
level) and the 2 harmonic
The other harmonics are measured with steps 5 and 6, the center frequency being incremented or
decremented in steps of 128 MHz using the UPARROW or DNARROW key.
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution
Bandwidth
A basic feature of a spectrum analyzer is being able to separate the spectral components of a mixture
of signals. The resolution at which the individual components can be separated is determined by the
resolution bandwidth. Selecting a resolution bandwidth that is too large may make it impossible to
distinguish between spectral components, i.e. they are displayed as a single component.
An RF sinusoidal signal is displayed by means of the passband characteristic of the resolution filter
(RBW) that has been set. Its specified bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter.
Two signals with the same amplitude can be resolved if the resolution bandwidth is smaller than or
equal to the frequency spacing of the signal. If the resolution bandwidth is equal to the frequency
spacing, the spectrum display screen shows a level drop of 3 dB precisely in the center of the two
signals. Decreasing the resolution bandwidth makes the level drop larger, which thus makes the
individual signals clearer.
If there are large level differences between signals, the resolution is determined by selectivity as well as
by the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. The measure of selectivity used for spectrum
analyzers is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth (= shape factor).
For the R&S FSL, the shape factor for bandwidths is < 5, i.e. the 60 dB bandwidth of the 30 kHz filter is
< 150 kHz.
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R&S FSL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer sweep times for the same
span. The sweep time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a sweep at all signal levels and
frequencies to be displayed. It is given by the following formula.
SWT = k • Span/RBW 2
(4)
SWT
=
max. sweep time for correct measurement
k
=
factor depending on type of resolution filter
= 1 for digital IF filters
Span
=
RBW
= resolution bandwidth
frequency display range
If the resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 3, the sweep time is increased by a factor of 9.
Note:
The impact of the video bandwidth on the sweep time is not taken into account in (4). For the
formula to be applied, the video bandwidth must be 3 x the resolution bandwidth.
FFT filters can be used for resolution bandwidths up to 30 kHz. Like digital filters, they have a shape
factor of less than 5 up to 30 kHz. For FFT filters, however, the sweep time is given by the following
formula:
SWT = k span/RBW
(5)
If the resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 3, the sweep time is increased by a factor of 3 only.
Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a transmission two–port device with nonlinear characteristic,
intermodulation products appear at its output by the sums and differences of the signals. The nonlinear
characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which intermodulate at the characteristic. The
intermodulation products of lower order have a special effect since their level is largest and they are
near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is
the intermodulation product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the
second useful signal in case of two–tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals. Fig. 2-4 shows
I2
intermodulation products PI1 and P generated by the two useful signals PU1 and PU2.
Fig. 2-4
Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
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2.7
E-11
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S FSL
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU2 and
signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU1 and signal
PU2.
fi1 = 2 x fu1 – fu2
(6)
fi2 = 2 x fu2 – fu1
(7)
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals. If the two useful
signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products increases by 3 dB, which
means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and useful signals are reduced by 2 dB. This is
illustrated in Fig. 2-5.
Fig. 2-5
Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two–port output increase proportionally with the input level as long as the two–
port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input causes a level change of 1 dB at the
output. Beyond a certain input level, the two–port goes into compression and the output level stops
increasing. The intermodulation products of the third order increase three times as much as the useful
signals. The intercept point is the fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be measured
directly since the useful level is previously limited by the maximum two–port output power.
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a given level
according to the following formula.
IP 3 =
aD 3
+ PN
2
(8)
rd
The 3 order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation of 60 dB and an
input level PU of –20 dBm according to the following formula:
IP 3 =
60
+ ( 20dBm ) = 10dBm
2
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(9)
2.8
E-11
R&S FSL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Measurement example – Measuring the R&S FSL's intrinsic intermodulation
Test setup:
Signal
Generator 1
Coupler
[- 6 dB]
R&S FSL
Signal
Generator 2
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
–4 dBm
999.7 MHz
Signal generator 2
–4 dBm
1000.3 MHz
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default settings.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 3 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 3 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to –10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
Press the AMPT key and enter –10 dBm.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 0 dB.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.
Press the BW key.
Press the Res BW Manual softkey and enter 10 kHz.
The noise is reduced, the trace is smoothed further and the intermodulation products can be
clearly seen.
Press the Video BW Manual softkey and enter 1 kHz.
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2.9
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Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S FSL
rd
5. Measuring intermodulation by means of the 3 order intercept measurement function
Press the MEAS key.
Press the TOI softkey.
The R&S FSL activates four markers for measuring the intermodulation distance. Two markers
rd
are positioned on the useful signals and two on the intermodulation products. The 3 order
intercept is calculated from the level difference between the useful signals and the
intermodulation products. It is then displayed on the screen:
rd
Fig. 2-6
Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S FSL. The 3 order
intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid.
The level of a spectrum analyzer's intrinsic intermodulation products depends on the RF level of the
useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation is added, the mixer level is reduced and
the intermodulation distance is increased. With an additional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of
the intermodulation products are reduced by 20 dB. The noise level is, however, increased by 10
dB.
6. Increasing RF attenuation to 10 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 10 dB.
The R&S FSL's intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
1300.2519.12
2.10
E-11
R&S FSL
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
Fig. 2-7
If the RF attenuation is increased, the R&S FSL's intrinsic intermodulation products
disappear below the noise floor.
Calculation method:
The method used by the R&S FSL to calculate the intercept point takes the average useful signal level
Pu in dBm and calculates the intermodulation d3 in dB as a function of the average value of the levels of
the two intermodulation products. The third order intercept (TOI) is then calculated as follows:
TOI/dBm = ½ d3 + Pu
Intermodulation– free dynamic range
The Intermodulation – free dynamic range, i.e. the level range in which no internal intermodulation
rd
products are generated if two–tone signals are measured, is determined by the 3 order intercept point,
the phase noise and the thermal noise of the spectrum analyzer. At high signal levels, the range is
determined by intermodulation products. At low signal levels, intermodulation products disappear below
the noise floor, i.e. the noise floor and the phase noise of the spectrum analyzer determine the range.
The noise floor and the phase noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. At the
smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise are at a minimum and so the maximum
range is obtained. However, a large increase in sweep time is required for small resolution bandwidths.
It is, therefore, best to select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to obtain the range that is
required. Since phase noise decreases as the carrier–offset increases, its influence decreases with
increasing frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation–free dynamic range as a function of the selected
bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set RF attenuation) at different useful
signal offsets.
1300.2519.12
2.11
E-11
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
R&S FSL
Distortion free Dynamic Range
(1 MHz carrier offset)
Dyn range /
dB
-40
-50
-60
RWB = 1 kHz
-70
RWB = 100 Hz
-80
RWB = 10 Hz
T.O.I.
-90
Thermal Noise
+ Phase Noise
-100
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level /dBm
Fig. 2-8
Intermodulation–free range of the R&S FSL as a function of level at the input mixer and the
set resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = –145 dBm /Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical
values at 2 GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its maximum, depends
on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is approx. –35 dBm and at 1 kHz increases to
approx. –30 dBm.
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation–free range at carrier offsets between
10 and 100 kHz (Fig. 2-9). At greater bandwidths, the influence of the phase noise is greater than it
would be with small bandwidths. The optimum mixer level at the bandwidths under consideration
becomes almost independent of bandwidth and is approx. –40 dBm.
Dyn. range /dB
Distortion free Dynamic Range
(10 to 100 kHz carrier offset)
-40
-50
-60
RBW = 1 kHz
-70
RBW = 100 Hz
-80
RBW = 10 Hz
TOI
Thermal Noise
+ Phase Noise
-90
-100
-110
-120
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
Mixer level /dBm
Fig. 2-9
Intermodulation–free dynamic range of the R&S FSL as a function of level at the input
mixer and of the selected resolution bandwidth (useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz, DANL = –145 dBm
/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2 GHz).
1300.2519.12
2.12
E-11
R&S FSL
Note:
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be measured
and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is best to measure the levels
of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation products separately using a small span.
The measurement time will be reduced– in particular if the offset of the useful signals is large.
To find signals reliably when frequency span is small, it is best to synchronize the signal
sources and the R&S FSL.
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a spectrum analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic noise. Small
signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured. For signals that are just above
the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is influenced by the intrinsic noise of the
spectrum analyzer.
The displayed noise level of a spectrum analyzer depends on its noise figure, the selected RF
attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and video bandwidth and the detector.
The effect of the different parameters is explained in the following.
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a spectrum analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation. The highest
sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The attenuation can be set in 10 dB steps up to 70
dB. Each additional 10 dB step reduces the sensitivity by 10 dB, i.e. the displayed noise is increased by
10 dB.
Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a spectrum analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth. The highest
sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (for the R&S FSL: 10 Hz, for FFT filtering: 1 Hz). If the
bandwidth is increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The
R&S FSL has bandwidth settings in 1, 3, 10 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 3
increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a
factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e. 10 dB.
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a spectrum analyzer is also influenced by the selected video bandwidth. If the
video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth, noise spikes are suppressed,
i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The level of a sinewave signal is not influenced by the video
bandwidth. A sinewave signal can therefore be freed from noise by using a video bandwidth that is
small compared with the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore influenced by the
choice of detector. Sinewave signals are weighted in the same way by all detectors, i.e. the level
display for a sinewave RF signal does not depend on the selected detector, provided that the signal–to–
noise ratio is high enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of intrinsic spectrum
analyzer noise is also influenced by the detector which has been selected. For details on the detectors
of the R&S FSL refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview" or the Online Help.
1300.2519.12
2.13
E-11
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
R&S FSL
Measurement example – Measuring level at low S/N ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
– 80 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 128 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 100 MHz.
3. Set the RF attenuation to 60 dB to attenuate the input signal or to increase the intrinsic noise.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 60 dB.
The RF attenuation indicator is marked with an asterisk (*Att 60 dB) to show that it is no longer
coupled to the reference level. The high input attenuation reduces the reference signal which
can no longer be detected in noise.
Fig. 2-10 Sinewave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the auto peak
detector and is completely hidden in the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSL.
4. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
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2.14
E-11
R&S FSL
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
Press the Average softkey.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the R&S FSL
automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal, therefore, can be more clearly
distinguished from noise.
Fig. 2-11 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
5. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution bandwidth can be
selected.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Clear Write softkey.
Press the BW key.
Press the Video BW Manual softkey and enter 10 kHz.
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 2-12 RF sinewave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
1300.2519.12
2.15
E-11
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
R&S FSL
6. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced by 10 dB.
Press the Res BW Manual softkey and enter 300 kHz.
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore, emerges from noise by
about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the video bandwidth has remained the same,
i.e. it has increased relative to the smaller resolution bandwidth. The averaging effect of the
video bandwidth is therefore reduced. The trace will be noisier.
Fig. 2-13 Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
1300.2519.12
2.16
E-11
R&S FSL
Noise Measurements
Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in spectrum analysis. Noise e.g. affects the sensitivity of
radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as the power referred
to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example, amplifier noise or noise generated by
oscillators used for the frequency conversion of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at
the output of an amplifier is determined by its noise figure and gain.
The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency and by thermal
noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase noise can mask weak signals near
the oscillator frequency and make them impossible to detect.
Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the R&S FSL provides
marker function. This marker function calculates the noise power density from the measured marker
level.
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise power density of the
R&S FSL at 1 GHz and calculating the R&S FSL's noise figure
Test setup:
Connect no signal to the RF input; terminate RF input with 50 P.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1.234 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1.234 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 1 MHz.
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1.234 GHz.
Press the MKR key and enter 1.234 GHz.
4. Switch on the noise marker function.
Switch on the Noise Meas softkey.
The R&S FSL displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1 Hz).
Note:
Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be selected to obtain stable
measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging the trace or by selecting a very small
video bandwidth relative to the resolution bandwidth.
1300.2519.12
2.17
E-11
Noise Measurements
R&S FSL
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Average softkey.
The R&S FSL performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive sweeps. The
measurement result becomes more stable.
Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple conversion. This is
done by adding 10 log (BW) to the measurement result, BW being the new reference bandwidth.
Example
A noise power of –150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = –150 + 10 * log (1000) = –150 +30 = –120 dBm (1 kHz)
Calculation method for noise power
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S FSL automatically activates the sample detector. The video
bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S FSL takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the pixel on which the
marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of the marker). The measurement result
is stabilized by video filtering and averaging over 17 pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log display mode, the
result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic noise average and noise power). The
R&S FSL, therefore, corrects the noise figure by 2.51 dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected by –10 * log
(RBW noise), with RBW noise being the power bandwidth of the selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector and using
averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement giving true results are the
average detector or the RMS detector. If the average detector is used, the linear video voltage is
averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the RMS detector is used, the squared video voltage is averaged
and displayed as a pixel. The averaging time depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/501). An
increase in the sweep time gives a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement
result. The R&S FSL automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise marker display
depending on the selected detector (+1.05 dB for the average detector, 0 d for the RMS detector). It is
assumed that the video bandwidth is set to at least three times the resolution bandwidth. While the
average or RMS detector is being switched on, the R&S FSL sets the video bandwidth to a suitable
value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasi Peak detectors are not suitable for measuring noise
power density.
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S FSL alone can be obtained from the noise power display.
Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 resistor at room temperature (–174 dBm (1Hz)) and
the measured noise power Pnoise the noise figure (NF) is obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
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R&S FSL
Noise Measurements
Example
The measured internal noise power of the R&S FSL at an attenuation of 0 dB is found to be –143
dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S FSL is obtained as follows
NF = –143 + 174 = 31 dB
Note:
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of the internal
noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The noise power of the
DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal noise power from the total power (subtraction
of linear noise powers). By means of the following diagram, the noise level of the DUT can be
estimated from the level difference between the total and the internal noise level.
0
Correction
-1
factor in dB
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Total power/intrinsic noise power in dB
Fig. 2-14
Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to the
intrinsic noise power of the spectrum analyzer
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission
Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement functions. Thus the
noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for example. If the noise spectrum within
the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker from the previous example can be used to determine the
noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however, phase noise and noise
that normally increases towards the carrier is dominant in the channel to be measured, or if there are
discrete spurious signals in the channel, the channel power measurement method must be used to
obtain correct measurement results.
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Noise Measurements
R&S FSL
Measurement example – Measuring the intrinsic noise of the R&S FSL at 1 GHz in a
1.23 MHz channel bandwidth with the channel power function
Test setup:
Leave the RF input of the R&S FSL open–circuited or terminate it with 50
.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1 GHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 2 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S FSL to 0 dB.
Press the AMPT key.
Press the RF Atten Manual softkey and enter 0 dB.
4. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
The R&S FSL activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement according to the
currently set configuration.
Press the CP/ACP Config softkey.
The submenu for configuring the channel is displayed.
Press the Channel Settings softkey.
The submenu for channel settings is displayed.
Press the Channel Bandwidth softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S FSL displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are symmetrical to the
center frequency.
Press the Adjust Settings softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the detector are
automatically set to the optimum values required for the measurement.
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R&S FSL
Noise Measurements
Fig. 2-15 Measurement of the R&S FSL's intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel
bandwidth.
5. Stabilizing the measurement result by increasing the sweep time
Press the H key twice.
The main menu for channel and adjacent channel power measurement is displayed.
Press the Sweep Time softkey and enter 1 s.
The trace becomes much smoother because of the RMS detector and the channel power
measurement display is much more stable.
Method of calculating the channel power
When measuring the channel power, the R&S FSL integrates the linear power which corresponds to the
levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The spectrum analyzer uses a resolution bandwidth
which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is
formed by the passband characteristics of the resolution bandwidth (see Fig. 2-16).
-3 dB
Resolution filter
Sweep
Channel bandwith
Fig. 2-16
Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
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Noise Measurements
R&S FSL
The following steps are performed:
•
The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
(Li/10)
Pi = 10
where Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
•
The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is divided by the
number of trace pixels in the channel.
•
The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the noise bandwidth
of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel bandwidth, this
method is also called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth method).
Parameter settings
For selection of the sweep time, see next section. For details on the parameter settings refer to chapter
"Instrument Functions", section "Settings of the CP / ACP test parameters" or the Online Help.
Sweep time selection
The number of A/D converter values, N, used to calculate the power, is defined by the sweep time. The
time per trace pixel for power measurements is directly proportional to the selected sweep time.
If the sample detector is used, it is best to select the smallest sweep time possible for a given span and
resolution bandwidth. The minimum time is obtained if the setting is coupled. This means that the time
per measurement is minimal. Extending the measurement time does not have any advantages as the
number of samples for calculating the power is defined by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
If the RMS detector is used, the repeatability of the measurement results can be influenced by the
selection of sweep times. Repeatability is increased at longer sweep times.
Repeatability can be estimated from the following diagram:
max. error/dB
0
95 % Confidence
level
0.5
1
99 % Confidence
level
1.5
2
2.5
3
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Number of samples
Fig. 2-17
Repeatability of channel power measurements as a function of the number of samples
used for power calculation
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Noise Measurements
The curves in Fig. 2-17 indicate the repeatability obtained with a probability of 95% and 99% depending
on the number of samples used.
The repeatability with 600 samples is ± 0.5 dB. This means that – if the sample detector and a channel
bandwidth over the whole diagram (channel bandwidth = span) is used – the measured value lies within
± 0.5 dB of the true value with a confidence level of 99%.
If the RMS detector is used, the number of samples can be estimated as follows:
Since only uncorrelated samples contribute to the RMS value, the number of samples can be calculated
from the sweep time and the resolution bandwidth.
Samples can be assumed to be uncorrelated if sampling is performed at intervals of 1/RBW. The
number of uncorrelated samples is calculated as follows:
Ndecorr = SWT RBW (Ndecorr means uncorrelated samples)
The number of uncorrelated samples per trace pixel is obtained by dividing Ndecorr by 501 (= pixels per
trace).
Example
At a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz and a sweep time of 100 ms, 3000 uncorrelated samples are
obtained. If the channel bandwidth is equal to the frequency display range, i.e. all trace pixels are used
for the channel power measurement, a repeatability of 0.2 dB with a probability of 99% is the estimate
that can be derived from Fig. 2-17.
Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S FSL has an easy–to–use marker function for phase noise measurements. This marker
function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in dBc in a bandwidth of 1 Hz.
Measurement example – Measuring the phase noise of a signal generator at a
carrier offset of 10 kHz
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S FSL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
R&S FSL is in its default state.
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Noise Measurements
R&S FSL
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 50 kHz.
3. Set the R&S FSL's reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level).
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
4. Enable phase noise measurement.
Press the MKR key.
Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The R&S FSL activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker) and marker 2 (=
delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The position of the marker is the
reference (level and frequency) for the phase noise measurement. A horizontal line represents
the level of the reference point and a vertical line the frequency of the reference point. The
dialog box for the delta marker is displayed so that the frequency offset at which the phase
noise is to be measured can be entered directly.
5. Set the frequency offset to 10 kHz for determining phase noise.
Enter 10 kHz.
The R&S FSL displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The magnitude of the
phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output field at the top right of the screen
(Phn2).
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Trace Mode key.
Press the Average softkey.
Fig. 2-18 Measuring phase noise with the phase–noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob or by entering a
new frequency offset as a number.
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R&S FSL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
Measurements on Modulated Signals
For measurements on AM and FM signals refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, "Basic
Measurements Examples".
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks in the field of
digital transmission for a spectrum analyzer with the necessary test routines. While, theoretically,
channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power meter, its low selectivity means
that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel power as an absolute value or relative to the
transmit channel power. The power in the adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective
power meter.
A spectrum analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF envelope
voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a pure sinewave signal
irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be applied for non–sinusoidal signals.
Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power
within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction
factors are normally used by the spectrum analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to
determine the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S FSL also has a true power detector, i.e. an RMS detector. It
correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of
the amplitude distribution, without additional correction factors being required. The absolute
measurement uncertainty of the R&S FSL is < 1.5 dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5
dB (each with a confidence level of 95%).
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with a spectrum
analyzer:
•
IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
The spectrum analyzer measures with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the channel
bandwidth and integrates the level values of the trace versus the channel bandwidth. This method
is described in section "Method of calculating the channel power".
•
Using a channel filter
For a detailed description, refer to the following section.
Measurement using a channel filter
In this case, the spectrum analyzer makes zero span measurements using an IF filter that corresponds
to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output of the IF filter. Until now, this method
has not been used for spectrum analyzers, because channel filters were not available and the
resolution bandwidths, optimized for the sweep, did not have a sufficient selectivity. The method was
reserved for special receivers optimized for a particular transmission method. It is available in R&S
FSQ, FSU, FSP, FSL and ESL series.
The R&S FSL has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power measurements. These
routines give quick results without any complex or tedious setting procedures.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S FSL
Measurement example 1 – ACPR measurement on an CDMA 2000 signal
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S FSL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA 2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 850 MHz and span to 4 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 850 MHz.
Press the SPAN key and enter 4 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to +10 dBm.
Press the AMPT key and enter 10 dBm.
4. Configuring the adjacent channel power for the CDMA 2000 MC1.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
Press the CP / ACP Standard softkey.
In the standards list, mark CDMA 2000 MC1 using the rotary knob or the arrow keys and confirm
pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL sets the channel configuration according to the 2000 MC1 standard for mobile
stations with 2 adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The spectrum is
displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric values of the results and the channel
configuration in the lower part of the screen. The various channels are represented by vertical
lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are selected
automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results – especially in the adjacent
channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in comparison with the transmission channel
bandwidth (1.23 MHz) – the RMS detector is used.
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R&S FSL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
5. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S FSL sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based on the
transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range. Fig. 2-19 shows the result
of the measurement.
Fig. 2-19 Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA 2000 MC1 signal
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels, strongly depends on
the measurement time since the dwell time within the 30 kHz channels is only a fraction of the
complete sweep time. A longer sweep time may increase the probability that the measured
value converges to the true value of the adjacent channel power, but this increases
measurement time.
To avoid long measurement times, the R&S FSL measures the adjacent channel power with
zero span (fast ACP mode). In the fast ACP mode, the R&S FSL measures the power of each
channel at the defined channel bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the
channel in question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it possible
to select filter characteristics that is precisely tailored to the signal. In case of CDMA 2000 MC1,
the power in the useful channel is measured with a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz and that of the
adjacent channels with a bandwidth of 30 kHz. Therefore the R&S FSL changes from one
channel to the other and measures the power at a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz or 30 kHz using the
RMS detector. The measurement time per channel is set with the sweep time. It is equal to the
selected measurement time divided by the selected number of channels. The five channels
from the above example and the sweep time of 100 ms give a measurement time per channel
of 20 ms.
Compared to the measurement time per channel given by the span (= 5 MHz) and sweep time
(= 100 ms, equal to 0.600 ms per 30 kHz channel) used in the example, this is a far longer
dwell time on the adjacent channels (factor of 12). In terms of the number of uncorrelated
samples this means 20000/33 Rs = 606 samples per channel measurement compared to
600/33Rs = 12.5 samples per channel measurement.
Repeatability with a confidence level of 95% is increased from ± 1.4 dB to ± 0.38 dB as shown
in Fig. 2-17. For the same repeatability, the sweep time would have to be set to 1.2 s with the
integration method. Fig. 2-20 shows the standard deviation of the results as a function of the
sweep time.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
R&S FSL
ACPR Repeatability IS95
IBW Method
1,4
Standard dev / dB
1,2
1
Adjacent channels
0,8
Alternate channels
0,6
0,4
Tx channel
0,2
0
10
100
1000
Sweep time/ms
Fig. 2-20 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on CDMA 2000 standard
signals if the integration bandwidth method is used
6. Switch to fast ACP mode to increase the repeatability of results.
Switch the Fast ACP softkey to On.
The R&S FSL measures the power of each channel with zero span. The trace represents
power as a function of time for each channel (see Fig. 2-23). The numerical results over
consecutive measurements become much more stable.
Fig. 2-21 Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for 2000 MC1
signals with zero span (Fast ACP)
Fig. 2-22 shows the repeatability of power measurements in the transmit channel and of relative
power measurements in the adjacent channels as a function of sweep time. The standard
deviation of measurement results is calculated from 100 consecutive measurements as shown
in Fig. 2-22. Take scaling into account if comparing power values.
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R&S FSL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
ACPR IS95 Re pe atability
0,35
Standard dev /dB
0,3
0,25
0,2
Adjacent channels
0,15
0,1
Tx channel
0,05
Alternate channels
0
10
100
1000
Sweep tim e/m s
Fig. 2-22 Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on CDMA 2000 signals in
the fast ACP mode
Note on adjacent channel power measurements on 2000 MC1 base–station signals:
When measuring the adjacent channel power of 2000 MC1 base–station signals, the frequency spacing
of the adjacent channel to the nominal transmit channel is specified as ±750 kHz. The adjacent
channels are, therefore, so close to the transmit channel that the power of the transmit signal
leaks across and is also measured in the adjacent channel if the usual method using the 30
kHz resolution bandwidth is applied. The reason is the low selectivity of the 30 kHz resolution
filter. The resolution bandwidth, therefore, must be reduced considerably, e.g. to 3 kHz to avoid
this. This causes very long measurement times (factor of 100 between a 30 kHz and 3 kHz
resolution bandwidth).
This effect is avoided with the zero span method which uses steep IF filters. The 30 kHz channel filter
implemented in the R&S FSL has a very high selectivity so that even with a ± 750 kHz spacing
to the transmit channel the power of the useful modulation spectrum is not measured.
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R&S FSL
The following figure shows the passband characteristics of the 30 kHz channel filter in the R&S FSL.
Fig. 2-23
Frequency response of the 30 kHz channel filter for measuring the power in the 2000 MC1
adjacent channel
Measurement example 2 – Measuring adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA uplink
signal
Test setup:
Signal
generator
R&S FSL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W–CDMA Reverse Link
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz.
Press the FREQ key and enter 1950 MHz.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
3. Switch on the ACP measurement for W–CDMA.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey.
Press the CP / ACP Standard softkey.
In the standards list, mark W–CDMA 3GPP REV using the rotary knob or the arrow keys and
confirm pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W–CDMA standard for mobiles with
two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The frequency span, the
resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are automatically set to the correct values. The
spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of
the adjacent channel powers and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The
individual channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S FSL sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the power in the
transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The following figure shows the
result of the measurement.
Fig. 2-24 Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W–CDMA uplink signal
5. Measuring adjacent channel power with the fast ACP mode.
Set Fast ACP softkey to On.
Press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
The R&S FSL measures the power of the individual channels with zero span. A root raised
cosine filter with the parameters = 0.22 and chip rate 3.84 Mcps (= receive filter for 3GPP W–
CDMA) is used as channel filter.
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R&S FSL
Fig. 2-25 Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W–CDMA signal with the fast ACP
mode
Note:
With W–CDMA, the R&S FSL's dynamic range for adjacent channel measurements is limited by
the 12–bit A/D converter. The greatest dynamic range is, therefore, obtained with the IBW
method.
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W–CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor, the phase noise and
the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the spectrum analyzer. The power values produced by the
R&S FSL due to these factors accumulate linearly. They depend on the applied level at the input mixer.
The three factors are shown in the figure below for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset).
ACLR / dBc
-30
-35
-40
-45
Total
ACLR
Phase
Noise
-50
-55
-60
Thermal Noise
-65
-70
S.R.I.
-75
-80
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
Optimum Range
-15
-10
Mixer Level / dBm
Fig. 2-26
The R&S FSL's dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W–CDMA
uplink signals is a function of the mixer level.
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R&S FSL
Measurements on Modulated Signals
The level of the W–CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis, i.e. the measured
signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual components which contribute to the
power in the adjacent channel and the resulting relative level (total ACPR) in the adjacent channel are
displayed on the vertical axis. The optimum mixer level is –21 dBm. The relative adjacent channel
power (ACPR) at an optimum mixer level is –65 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level is set
in 10 dB steps with the 10 dB RF attenuator, the optimum 10 dB range is shown in the figure: it spreads
from –16 dBm to –26 dBm. In this range, the obtainable dynamic range is 62 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
•
Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF attenuation) is
between –11 dBm and –21 dBm.
•
Set the reference level to the largest possible value where no overload (IFOVL) is indicated.
This method is automated with the Adjust Ref Level function. Especially in remote control mode, e.g.
in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation parameters prior to the
measurement, as the time required for automatic setting can be saved.
Note:
To measure the R&S FSL's intrinsic dynamic range for W–CDMA adjacent channel power
measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power is required at the output
of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4 MHz, for example, can be used.
Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to
handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This includes all modulation types that
involve amplitude modulation –QPSK for example. CDMA transmission modes in particular may have
power peaks that are large compared to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power to prevent signal
compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design criterion. The
crest factor is defined as the peak power / mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus
the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power that
could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01%).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S FSL has simple measurement functions to determine
both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution
Function.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted against the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be exceeded is shown in
percent.
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R&S FSL
Measurement example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of white noise generated by
the R&S FSL
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is in its default state.
2. Configure the R&S FSL for APD measurement
Press the AMPT key and enter –60 dBm.
The R&S FSL's intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the More softkey.
Press the APD softkey.
The R&S FSL sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude probability
distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level measurements used for the measurement
is 100000. The mean power and the peak power are displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak
power – mean power) is output as well.
Fig. 2-27 Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
Press the H key.
Press the CCDF softkey.
The CCDF display mode is switched on.
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Measurements on Modulated Signals
Fig. 2-28 CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean power. The level
above the mean power is plotted along the x–axis of the graph. The origin of the axis
corresponds to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted
along the y–axis.
4. Bandwidth selection
When the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set so that the
complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the bandwidth. This is the only way of
ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass through the IF filter without being distorted. If the
resolution bandwidth which is selected is too small for a digitally modulated signal, the amplitude
distribution at the output of the IF filter becomes a Gaussian distribution according to the central
limit theorem and so corresponds to a white noise signal. The true amplitude distribution of the
signal therefore cannot be determined.
5. Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S FSL, the number of samples NSamples is entered for
statistical evaluation instead of the sweep time. Since only statistically independent samples
contribute to statistics, the measurement or sweep time is calculated automatically and displayed.
The samples are statistically independent if the time difference is at least 1/RBW. The sweep time
SWT is, therefore, expressed as follows:
SWT = NSamples / RBW
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
This section gives background information on Bluetooth Measurements (option K8). It provides
information on the following topics:
Bluetooth Overview
Supported Tests
Overview of Transmitter Tests
Functional Description – Block Diagram
Bandwidths
Measurement Filter (Meas Filter On)
Oversampling
Determining Average or Max/Min Values
Trigger Concepts
For further information on measurement examples refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.30.
Bluetooth Overview
This section provides the following general information on Bluetooth measurements:
Bluetooth technical parameters
Power classes
Structure of a Bluetooth data packet
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R&S FSL
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Bluetooth technical parameters
Table 2–1 Common Parameters
frequency bands
2402 + (0...78) MHz
channel spacing
1 MHz
symbol rate
1 Msym/s
slot length
625 µsec
(frequency hopping)
packet sizes
1, 3, 5 slot packets
Table 2–2 Modulation Parameters Basic Rate
modulation
GFSK
TX filter
Gaussian
BT /
0.5
modulation index
0.28 – 0.35 nominal 0.32
frequency deviation
160 kHz settled
141 kHz 010101 suite
bandwidth
–3dB
–20dB
220 kHz
1 MHz
bit rate
1 Mbps
Table 2–3 Modulation Parameters Enhanced Data Rate
modulation
T/4–DQPSK
8DPSK
TX filter
RRC
RRC
roll–off factor
0.4
0.4
bandwidth –3dB
± 500kHz
± 500kHz
bit rate
2 Mbps
3 Mbps
Power classes
Power Class
Maximum (Pmax)
1
100 mW (20 dBm)
2
2.5 mW (4dBm)
3
1 mW (0dBm)
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Nominal
1 mW (0 dBm)
Minimum (Pmin)
Power Control
1 mW (0 dBm)
from Pmin (< +4 dBm) to
Pmax
0.25 mW (–6dBm)
optional
optional
2.37
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Structure of a Bluetooth data packet
Every Bluetooth data packet is divided into 3 basic section: access code, header and payload. The
following figures show the order and bit lengths of the individual sections:
access code 72 bits
4 bits
64 bits
4 bits
54 bits
240 / 1496 / 2744 bits
preamble
sync word
trailer
header
payload*)
*) During EUT evaluation the payload contains certain bit sequences: PRBS9 (Pseudo Random Bit
Sequence) or 11110000 or 10101010.
The sync word is transmitted as the major part of the access code. For this purpose, the LAP (lower
address part) of the BD address is expanded to 64 bit by adding the BCH code and baker.
BCH code
34 bits
sync word 64 bits
LAP 24 bits
Barker 6 bits
The LAP (lower address part) of the BD address serves as a basis for the sync word.
BD – address 48 bits
NAP
16 bits
UAP
8 bits
LAP 24 bits
In case of EDR packets the payload is divided into 6 other sections:
DPSK
guard
SYNC
5Rs
payload
user payload
header
0–2723Symb
CRC
code
trailer
Supported Tests
The Bluetooth Measurements Option supports measurements according to the Bluetooth RF Test
Specification (Bluetooth SIG) , Revision 2.0.E.3, Mar 2005, on the R&S FSL. The following tests are
currently implemented according to this specification:
Output Power
TX Output Spectrum – Adjacent Channel Power
Modulation Characteristics
Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance (ICFT)
Carrier Frequency Drift
EDR Relative Transmit Power
EDR Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy
EDR Differential Phase Encoding
EDR In–band Spurious Emissions
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Overview of Transmitter Tests
Table 2–4 Basic Rate Measurements
Output Power
TX Output
Spectrum –
Adjacent
Channel Power
Modulation
Characteristics
Initial Carrier
Frequency
Tolerance
Carrier
Frequency
Drift
Hop
on
off
off
on / off
on / off
Trigger
extern
–
–
–
–
Synchronization
Yes (p0), but also
possible without
no
yes (p0)
yes (p0)
yes (p0)
Packet Type
longest supported
DH1
longest supported
DH1
all supported
packets
(DH1/3/5)
Payload
PRBS 9
PRBS 9
11110000
10101010
PRBS 9
10101010
Test Mode
loop back
loop back
loop back
loop back
loop back
Operating Mode
IQ mode
analyzer zero
span
IQ mode
IQ mode
IQ mode
RBW
3 MHz
100 kHz
–
–
–
VBW
3 MHz
300 kHz
–
–
–
Power
supported
maximum
supported
maximum
supported
maximum
supported
maximum
not specified
Sweep Time
one complete
packet
79s per sweep
(= 100ms * 10 *
79)
one complete
packet
–
one complete
packet
Sweep Count
–
10
10 (extern)
10
10
Trace Mode
Maxh
Maxh
–
–
–
Detector
Peak
Aver
–
–
–
Frequency in
MHz
low /
middle /
high
each channel
low /
middle /
high
low /
middle /
high
low /
middle /
high
Span
–
–
–
–
–
Test cond
norm / ext
norm / ext
norm / ext
norm / ext
norm / ext
Results
peak and average
power
channel power of
all channels
1) PAV < 100 mW
(20 dBm)
2) PPK < 200 mW
(23 dBm)
3) Pmax > PAV
>Pmin at maximum
power step
PAV < 1
mW (0 dBm)
1) PTX (f) – 20
dBm for |M–N| =
2
2) PTX (f) – 40
dBm for |M–N|
3
all 8 bit peak
deviations and
average
deviations
carrier offset
within the 4
preamble bits
carrier offsets
of the 4 bit
preamble, of all
10 bit payload
sequences;
maximum drift
rate of all 10 bit
payload
sequences at
50 µs offset
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
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Table 2–5 Enhanced Data Rate Measurements
EDR Relative TX
Power
EDR Carrier
Frequency
Stability and
Modulation
Accuracy
EDR Differential
Phase Encoding
EDR In–band
Spurious
Emissions
Hop
off
off
off
off
Trigger
–
–
–
extern/
IF power
Synchronization
yes
yes
yes
yes, needed for
gate adjustment
Packet Type
longest supported
longest
supported
longest supported
longest supported
Payload
PRBS 9
PRBS9
PRBS9
PRBS9
Test Mode
loop back
loop back
TX mode
loop back
Operating Mode
IQ mode
IQ mode
IQ mode
analyzer zero
span
RBW
3 MHz
–
–
100 kHz
VBW
3 MHz
–
–
300 kHz
Power
supported
minimum/
maximum
supported
minimum/
maximum
supported
minimum/
maximum
supported
minimum/
maximum
Sweep Time
one complete
packet
one complete
packet
one complete
packet
10*79*
gate length
Sweep Count
10
200 blocks
100
10
Trace Mode
ClrWr
–
–
Maxh
Detector
Aver
–
–
Aver
Frequency in
MHz
low /
middle /
high
low /
middle /
high
low /
middle /
high
each channel
Span
–
–
–
79 MHz
Test cond
norm / ext
norm / ext
norm / ext
norm / ext
Results
ratio of DPSK and
GFSK power
carrier frequency
stability and
error vector
magnitude
number of failed
packets
channel power of
all channels
Functional Description – Block Diagram
The Adjacent Channel Power and EDR In–band Spurious Emissions measurements are performed in
the Spectrum Analyzer mode. For this test case the complete frequency band is scanned using a
sequence of zero span measurements.
All other test cases are based on a digital I/Q demodulator which determines the temporal
characteristics of power and frequency. The output data of the demodulator are the basis for calculation
of all relevant measurement results like modulation characteristics or output power. The demodulator
reaches a maximum in accuracy and temperature stability by sampling the IF signal and converting it
digitally down into the base band (I/Q area).
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R&S FSL
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
The measurements are performed by passing the following signal processing steps:
LAP (Lower Address Part) trigger detection
Resampling
Channel filtering
Automated packet and bit pattern detection
Limit check
Parallel display of measurement curves and numeric results on the screen
Fig. 2-1 shows the R&S FSL hardware from the IF to the processor. The analog IF filter is fixed to
20MHz. The A/D converter samples the 20 MHz IF signal with a sampling frequency of 65.83 MHz.
Low pass filtering is performed after the signal has been down–converted into the complex base band
and the data rate is reduced in the sequence. The amount of decimation depends on the selected
oversampling factor = points / symbol. The default setting is 4, resulting in a 4 MHz sampling rate. For
EDR–measurements, the oversampling factor is always fixed to 4. The resulting I/Q data are stored in a
memory of 512 k words for I and Q respectively. The hardware trigger (external or IF power) controls
the memory access.
Data aquisition hardware
Digital down conversion
+ decimation
Analogfilter
Analyzer IF
47,9 MHz
A/D
converter
A
D
Bandwidths
20 MHz
65,83 MHz
sampling
clock
I Memory
512 k
I data
cos
NCO
47,9 MHz
sin
decimation
filters
Processor
Q Memory
512 k
sampling rate
65,83 MHz / x
SW Resampler
Q data
Trigger
Fig. 2-29 Block diagram of the signal processing architecture of the R&S FSL
Bandwidths
The Bluetooth RF Specification defines a minimal bandwidth of 3 MHz. The digital bandwidth depends
on the selected oversampling factor (= points / symbol). With the default setting of 4, the digital
bandwidth is 3 MHz. This digital filter has a flat amplitude characteristics and does not affect the
frequency deviation of the signal.
Measurement Filter (Meas Filter On)
The RF Specification allows high distortion power in the first adjacent channels. The 3 MHz filter does
not suppress this kind of distortion, which leads to a high interference in modulation. Therefore a
precise measurement of the frequency deviation is not possible.
In order to obtain correct deviation results, the spectrum analyzer supplies an optional filter with a
passband only appropriate for the channel to measure. This filter is used by default. The Bluetooth
spectrum has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. The filter is flat within 1.04 MHz (ripple: only 0.02 dB) and has
steep edges. This measurement filter is not dependent on the selected oversampling factor. As a result
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
the displayed deviation value is increased by 3.2%, but without the filter the displayed deviation value
can increase dramatically due to interference from adjacent channels. Generally the result is more
precise, if the displayed deviation is lower with filtering than without filtering. In these cases the
inaccuracy caused by the adjacent channel interference is higher than the systematic inaccuracy
caused by the filter.
0
0
-10
-20 -20
dB -30
-40 -40
-50
-60 -60
-2.0
-1.6
-1.2
-0.8
-0.4
0
+0.4
+0.8
+1.2
+1.6
+2.0
MHz
Fig. 2-30 Selection of digital filters
Dashed–dotted curve: Standard filter with 4 points / symbol
Solid curve: Optional measurement filter, independent of the points / symbol setting
Oversampling
The number of samples per symbol is equivalent to the sampling rate in MHz (due to the symbol length
of 1 Rs).
Digital
bandwidth
Points per
Symbol
Sampling rate
(flat area)
10 MHz
32
32 MHz
8 MHz
16
16 MHz
5 MHz
8
8 MHz
3.0 MHz
4
4 MHz
1.6 MHz
2
2 MHz
According to the RF Test Specification an oversampling factor of 4 is required at minimum. For Basic
Rate measurements, this oversampling factor can be selected as oversampling factor in a range from 2
to 32. For EDR–measurements, the oversampling factor is fixed to 4 which is also the default value.
Although possible but not recommended is a value > 4. It increases the measurement time due to the
extended calculation effort. Additionally the resulting bandwidth will be larger than required, which leads
to lower measurement accuracy, unless the optional measurement filter (Meas Filter On) is used as
described in section Bandwidths.
The spectrum analyzer uses a timing offset correction in order to move the samples to the zero
trespassing points. As a result there is one sample per symbol time, which is especially important for a
0101 symbol sequence in order to obtain the precise value for the peak frequency deviation.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Sampling times before timing offset correction
Sampling times after timing offset correction
Fig. 2-31 Operation of the timing offset correction
Advantages of the timing offset correction:
No jitter with low sampling rates
With one sample per zero, the trespassing point is always a sample in the middle of the bit length.
Therefore the maximum values in the frequency deviation of 0101 bit patterns can be detected
precisely also with low sampling rates.
The immunity to interference when determining the data bits is improved.
Higher suppression of the distortion during peak detection.
Determining Average or Max/Min Values
These functions are very useful in order to obtain more stable results or to find sporadic spurious
signals not included in every burst. In many cases the RF Test Specification defines measurements
over a 10 burst period.
The number of measurements can be selected using sweep count function, thus adapting the
measurement to the individual requirements.
In single sweep mode, the calculation of average or maximum / minimum values is performed over a
well–defined number of sweeps (= sweep count).
Continuous sweep mode yields continuous averaging and calculation of maximum / minimum values
over the whole measurement time.
Modulation measurements
They are performed in the Clear Write trace mode.
In continuous sweep mode, a "live" display is obtained, which allows e.g. an instant view of changes
during alignment of a DUT.
In single sweep mode and with the sweep count set to 10, the spectrum analyzer will evaluate 10 bursts
as required by the RF Test Specification. This means that a result is obtained after exactly 10 bursts.
Power measurements
They are performed in the Maxhold trace mode in relation with the defined measurement time. The
measurement time is selected in order to make sure that always one complete burst is acquired. In this
case, several sweeps are combined to one trace before this result trace is evaluated.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Impact of the sweep count on the measurement results
Trace Mode
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep & Sweep Count
Clear Write
All measurement results (min., max.,
average) are updated with every sweep.
The corresponding values are
calculated based on the current curve.
Starts a measurement with n sweeps (n
= sweep count).
All measurement results (min., max.,
average) are updated with every sweep.
The corresponding values are
calculated based on the current curve.
Starts a measurement with n sweeps (n
= sweep count).
AVG, MaxHold, MinHold
The trace is the continuous average
value (AVG) or the extreme value
(MaxHold, MinHold) since the start of
the measurement.
All measurement results (min., max.,
average) are calculated based on these
n sweeps.
n defines the number of sweeps that
are taken into account for the trace
math functions (AVG, MaxHold,
MinHold). The n sweeps result in one
trace and the measurement results
(Min, Max, Average) are calculated
based on this summarized trace.
The functions described above differ from the detector functions of the instrument:
Detectors combine the measurement data obtained by oversampling to one measurement point on
the screen. The kind of combination (Max Peak, Min Peak, Average, RMS) can be selected.
The trace functions affect complete measurement curves: A resulting curve is calculated from
several subsequent sweeps. The method of calculation (Average, Maxhold, Minhold) can be
selected here as well.
Thus the detector is the arithmetic rule for how sample data collected with a high data rate are
combined to a measurement point of one individual measurement curve, whereas the trace mode is the
rule of how samples taken from several measurement curves are to be combined to a new resulting
curve.
For the ACP measurement, the Average detector is set.
Trigger Concepts
As the DUT (Device Under Test) uses frequency hopping, a trigger method is necessary for two
reasons:
A measurement is only possible during the period of time, when there is a TX signal (burst) at the
frequency under request.
In order to determine the modulation characteristics correctly, a synchronization with the preamble
of the signal must be supplied.
If the Find Sync softkey is activated, the synchronization is supplied towards the 64 bit sync word. For
this purpose, in a first step a burst is searched automatically within the RF signal, or, if selected, the
external trigger or the IF power trigger are used to determine the burst position.
In a second step the sync word position is searched by correlation of the signal with the sync word
defined in the initialization phase. The correlation is performed directly with the FM signal, not with the
data bits, which are only available after the phase shifter has been processed. The find burst process is
continued as long as no sync word is found.
After the position of the sync word has been determined, the position of the p0 bit is calculated from the
average value of all zero trespassing points, as defined in the RF test specification. Finally the samples
are moved in a way that each sample matches one zero trespassing point (phase shifting).
The only measurement possible without synchronization is the Output Power measurement. The
specified measurement time is 20% to 80% of the burst length. Without synchronization the burst length
is defined via the –3dB points of the power curve. With synchronization the burst starts with the p0 bit.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Therefore varying measurement results is possible if the power of the EUT is not constant within the
burst.
In order to supply stable synchronization the EUT must be operated in reduced hopping mode. The
EUT is only allowed to toggle between two frequencies, because otherwise the repetition time for the
same frequency would become higher than the record length.
If the test environment supplies an external trigger that marks the channel to be measured a
synchronization is also possible with normal hopping operation.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
R&S FSL
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
This section describes measurement examples for the Cable TV Measurements option (K20). and is
divided into the following topics:
Analog TV Basics
gives an introduction into the fundamentals of analog modulated TV signals.
Analog TV Measurement Examples
describes the test setup, settings for analog TV measurements and gives examples for the different
measurement type.
Digital TV Basics
gives an introduction into the fundamentals of digital modulated TV signals.
Digital TV Measurement Examples
gives an introduction into the fundamentals of digital modulated TV signals.
Channel Tables and Modulation Standards
explains the use of channel tables and modulation standards.
Performing a Measurement without a Channel Table
shows how to perform a measurement without using a channel table.
Performing a Measurement Using a Channel Table
gives an example how to perform a measurement using a channel table.
For further information on measurement examples refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.30.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Analog TV Basics
This section gives an introduction into the fundamentals of analog modulated TV signals. A special
focus is laid on the parameters that the Cable TV Measurements option (K20) uses to characterize
signals.
For analog modulated TV signals based on PAL, SECAM, and NTSC, Fig. 2-32 shows the situation in
principle: the components of the signal, and both frequency and level at the output of a TV transmitter
(RF range).
Fig. 2-32
Analog modulated signals in the RF range
The gray area marks the TV channel. Inside this area, all components of a TV signal are located. A TV
signal consists of the following:
•
The vision carrier, indicated in Fig. 2-32 with "vision", is located 1.25 MHz above the channel
start. The vision carrier has the highest level and mainly assesses the total power of the
channel. It transmits the luminance information and is amplitude modulated. The amplitude
modulation is mostly negative (the smaller the luminance signal the larger the vision carrier
level), apart from SECAM/L (large vision carrier level combined with a large luminance signal).
Only a part (around 0.75 MHz) of the lower sidebands of the vision carrier is transmitted.
Therefore it is called "residual sideband modulation". The video bandwidth BW video amounts to,
depending on the standard, approx. 5 MHz (e.g. PAL B/G) or approx. 4 MHz (e.g. M/NTSC).
•
The color carrier, indicated in Fig. 2-32 with "color", is shifted by fcolor to a higher frequency
value in respect to the vision carrier. The magnitude of fcolor depends on the standard. The level
of the color carrier is by far smaller than that of the vision carrier. Depending on the standard,
the signal is analog quadrature amplitude modulated (e.g. PAL B/G) or frequency modulated
(SECAM).
The color carrier is not considered in the measurements of the Cable TV Measurements option.
•
One or two sound carriers, indicated in Fig. 2-32 with "sound 1" and "sound 2", are shifted by
fsound1 or fsound2 to a higher frequency value in respect to the vision carrier. The magnitude of
fsound1 or fsound2 depends on the standard. The level of the sound carriers is by far smaller than
that of the vision carrier. Depending on the standard, the sound carriers are frequency,
amplitude, or NICAM (digitally) modulated. The sound carriers do not need to possess the
same modulation. For example, a combination of a frequency modulated carrier with a NICAM
modulated carrier is possible.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
R&S FSL
The large diversity of TV standards based on PAL, SECAM und NTSC differ not only in the parameter
described above. Some other parameter are for example:
•
number of picture lines and their duration
•
form and group delay of the residual sideband filter
•
parameters of the used AM / FM / NICAM modulations (e.g. modulation depth, frequency
deviation, symbol rate)
•
channel width and frequency range of the channels (different from country to country)
•
stereo and mono sound signals, stereo transmission type
Analog TV Measurement Examples
These measurements are set up to carry out single channel measurements of analog TV signals. The
settings for analog TV measurements are described in section Analog TV settings. The test setup for
the following measurement types is provided in section Analog TV test setup.
Spectrum measurement
Carriers measurement
Video Scope measurement
Vision Modulation measurement
Hum measurement
C/N measurement
CSO measurement
CTB measurement
Analog TV settings
The Cable TV Measurements option needs to know some of the parameters described in section
Analog TV Basics to perform correct measurements. It therefore stores these parameters in the so–
called "modulation standard". Refer to section Modulation standards for the creation and usage of a
modulation standard. Section Analog TV modulation standards contains the description of the
parameters that have to be characterized for an analog TV signal. The following list explains the
meaning of the parameters:
•
Name: Choose an arbitrary name for the new modulation standard.
•
Signal Type: If you want to characterize an analog TV signal, select Analog TV.
•
TV Standard: The standard used to modulate the luminance information. Can be "B/G", "M",
"D/K" and so on.
•
Sound System: Are one ore two sound carriers in use? What type of modulation is used for
each of them? What are their frequencies, relative to the vision carrier?
The selection "FM 5.5/ FM 5.742" for example specifies, that two frequency modulated sound
carriers are used. One is 5.5 MHz and is about 5.472 MHz above the vision carrier.
The values you can choose depend on the selected TV standard. Not all combinations are
allowed!
•
Group Delay: What group delay shall the residual sideband filter have?
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
•
Color System: The color information of the video signal is transmitted according to either the
PAL or NTSC or SECAM standard. The values you can choose depend on the selected TV
standard. Not all combinations are allowed!
•
Bar Line: The Vision Modulation measurement needs a special test signal, containing a peak
white value. You must specify the type and the number of the horizontal line that contains the
peak white value.
•
Quiet Line: Some measurements need a horizontal line with no video information in it. You
must specify the number of this horizontal line here. For further information see also Example:
Creating a channel table.
•
Sideband Position: Is the signal in normal position or inverted?
Note:
In the dialog boxes, set the parameters always from top to bottom, since all parameters depend
on the parameters above them. Otherwise your input might be rejected, e.g. if it specifies an
unusual TV standard.
Analog TV test setup
This section describes the setup used for the analog TV measurement examples. All analog
measurement examples are performed in the Cable TV Analyzer mode.
1. Press the MENU key to display the cable TV measurements main menu.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
3. In the Channel Tables dialog box, select channel table <none>.
4. Press the Activate softkey.
The TV standard is automatically set to the default analog TV modulation standard, which has the
following parameters (see also Analog TV settings).
Signal Type = Analog TV
TV Standard = B/G
Sound System = FM 5.5 / FM 5.742
What kind of sound carrier(s) are used.
Group Delay = General
This setting has no effect on the measurements in this firmware release.
Color System = PAL
Bar Line = 18
Type = CCIR 17
Where is the "white reference'' and of what kind is it? The Vision Modulation measurement
demands correct settings!
Quiet Line = 22
Which horizontal line shall be used for "Quiet Line'' based CNR / CSO measurement. This line
shall have no video information!
Sideband Position = Normal
Only change this setting if you have inverted sidebands.
As long as you measure without a channel table, the Cable TV Measurements option expects a
signal with these parameters. If your signal does not fit, some measurements may fail.
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5. If you use an analog TV test transmitter, configure it to transmit a suitable signal:
Choose a reasonable, not too high output level.
Set the transmitters's vision carrier frequency to 210.25 MHz.
6. If your test transmitter is not capable of this or if you want to connect the R&S FSL to your CATV
network, which does not contain a suitable signal, change the default analog TV modulation
standard:
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Analog TV softkey.
Press the Analog TV Settings softkey.
Change the default analog TV modulation standard as described in section Analog TV
modulation standards in order to adapt it to the signal you provide for the R&S FSL.
Spectrum measurement
This measurement gives an overview of the active measurement channel. It is a swept measurement
like in the Spectrum Analyzer mode. All parameters are set automatically according to the used
modulation standard. The spectrum is displayed in a full screen trace.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Spectrum softkey.
4. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
5. Press the FREQ key.
6. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal. Note that this frequency is not
the middle of the shown span.
7. Press the RUN key.
The spectrum of the input signal is displayed.
The vertical lines mark the vision carrier (VC) and sound carrier (SC1 and SC2) frequencies. They
mark the ideal frequencies according to the chosen standard and RF frequency, not the measured
ones.
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Fig. 2-33 Analog TV Spectrum measurement
Carriers measurement
This measurement determines the carrier power (vision carrier, one or two sound carriers) and the
frequency distances. It also compares them against the default values. The sound carrier power is
displayed relative to the measured vision carrier power.
The measurement display is split into two panes. In the upper pane, the spectrum as in the
corresponding Spectrum measurement is displayed. In the lower pane, the result table for the
measurement is displayed.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Carriers softkey.
4. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
5. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
6. Press the FREQ key.
7. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
8. Press the RUN key.
The upper pane gives a quick overview of the channel, just like in the Spectrum measurement.
In the lower pane, you can check whether the signal meets the requirements. Absolute and relative
powers and frequencies are measured and compared against the limits. The result is either Pass or
Fail.
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In the measurement example, all results were within the chosen limits, except the absolute power of
the vision carrier. This is indicated by red color and a star.
Fig. 2-34 Analog TV Carriers measurement
Note:
The "frequency offsets'' are measured in this way:
For sound carriers:
The TV standard demands that the sound carrier frequency shall be f1 Hz greater than the
vision carrier frequency. The actual frequency distance might be measured to be f2.
The value "Intercarrier frequency offset'' is therefore: f2 – f1.
For the vision carrier:
The value ''frequency offset'' is the measured vision carrier frequency minus the RF frequency.
Video Scope measurement
This measurement determines the luminance signal in dependence of the time. The video scope is
triggered by the chosen trigger event, i.e. the line to be analyzed. From the result trace, the effects of
hum are eliminated ("back porch clamping").
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the Video Scope softkey.
5. For the TV standard M in combination with another color system than PAL, press the Field 1/2
softkey to select field 1 or 2.
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6. Press the Line softkey to enter the line number.
7. To change the sweep time, press the Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a value (25Rs up to
100 Rs).
8. To define a trigger offset, press the Trigger Offset softkey and enter a value (–50 Rs up to 50 Rs).
Choose 0 Rs to make the display start with the horizontal sync of the specified line. Negative values
make the display start earlier.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the FREQ key.
11. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
12. Press the RUN key.
The trace shows the luminance signal during the selected period versus time. The group delay is
not compensated internally.
Fig. 2-35 Video Scope measurement
Vision Modulation measurement
This measurement determines the "residual picture carrier'' and the modulation depth of the vision
carrier.
The vision carrier is amplitude modulated (AM). To be more precise, it uses the residual sideband
amplitude modulation. Most standards use negative amplitude modulation. Therefore, the vision carrier
has its highest level when the luminance signal is equal to the "synchronizing level''. And it has its
lowest level when the luminance signal is equal to the "peak white level''. The "synchronizing level'' can
be measured in every horizontal synchronizing pulse. The "peak white level'' can be measured in
special test lines ("bar line"), where a white reference is transmitted.
The residual picture carrier is the ratio of the "peak white level" to the "synchronizing level". The sum of
the vision carrier's modulation depth and the residual picture carrier value must equal 1.
The measurement display is split into two panes. In the upper pane, the RF level of the vision carrier
during one horizontal line is displayed. In the lower pane, the result table for the measurement is
displayed.
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Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the Vision Modulation softkey.
5. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey. A limit change in the lower two lines leads to a
change of the other limits, since the measurement results depend on each other.
6. To adjust input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the FREQ key.
8. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
9. Press the RUN key.
The upper pane shows the RF level of the vision carrier versus time in the "bar line''. The "bar line''
is a specific horizontal line, that holds a white reference. The number of this line is specified in the
modulation standard of the measured channel. To be more exactly: It is specified in the analog TV
default modulation standard, since no channel table is used right now.
If the input signal does not contain a white reference in the specified line, the results are not correct!
The lower pane shows the numeric results and whether they are within the limits or not.
Fig. 2-36 Vision Modulation measurement
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Hum measurement
This measurement determines whether the signal comprises hum, a not–wanted amplitude modulation
of the analog TV signal, mostly due to defective amplifiers. For the Hum measurement, the AM
modulated frequency must be below 1 kHz and is typically equal to the power line frequency times one
or two, e.g. 50 Hz, 60 Hz, 100 Hz, 120 Hz.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the Hum softkey.
5. If you want to adjust the range of the y–axis, press the Auto Range softkey.
6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the FREQ key.
9. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
10. Press the RUN key.
In case you use a TV test transmitter or your CATV network is in good condition, you will see a
rather flat line, since there will be little hum.
Fig. 2-37 Hum measurement
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C/N measurement
This measurement determines the ratio of signal power and noise power (carrier to noise), a very
important figure of merit.
The signal power is normally the peak power of the modulated vision carrier, which is the power of the
unmodulated vision carrier. You can modify this default setting with the Reference Power softkey (for
details refer to chapter 4, section "Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)").
The power of the noise is internally measured with a small resolution filter, and then translated to a
user–defined bandwidth, the so–called reference noise bandwidth. This bandwidth should normally be
as large as the video signal bandwidth, i.e. 4 MHz for M/NTSC and 5 MHz otherwise.
The measurement can be performed in 3 different ways, as shown in the following examples:
•
C/N Off–Service measurement
•
C/N In–Service measurement
•
C/N Quiet Line measurement
The measurement display is split into two panes. The upper pane displays the spectrum of the
measured noise. The lower pane displays the result table for the measurement and whether the limits
are passed or failed.
C/N Off–Service measurement
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the C/N softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the C/N Setup softkey to open the C/N Setup dialog box.
Make sure, that Off–Service is chosen as measurement mode.
Set the Reference Noise Bandwidth to 5 MHz (or another value).
Specify the span for the noise measurement in the table: Change the CF value to 2.5 MHz
(denotes the middle of the span relative to the vision carrier) and the Span value to 5 MHz.
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
12. Turn on the signal when prompted and confirm by pressing the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen.
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13. Turn off the test transmitter or remove the cable when prompted and confirm by pressing the
ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the noise sweeping with a small resolution filter in the span specified in
the C/N Setup dialog box.
14. Press the MKR key and, using the rotary knob, move the marker to the frequency you want to
measure the noise at. The noise density at this marker is measured and translated to the reference
noise bandwidth you specified in step 10.
Fig. 2-38 C/N Off–Service measurement
The lower pane shows the final C/N ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the C/N ratio. The Off–Service mode is the most accurate
way to measure C/N, but you must turn off the active channel.
C/N In–Service measurement
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the C/N softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
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10. Press the C/N Setup softkey to open the C/N Setup dialog box.
Make sure, that In–Service is chosen as measurement mode.
Set the Reference Noise Bandwidth to 5 MHz (or another value).
Specify the span for the noise measurement: Change the CF value, which denotes the middle of
the span relative to the vision carrier and the Span value in this table. Chose the value CF in a
way, that the span is centered on the gap between 2 analog TV signals. The default value of
–1.25 MHz should be suitable in most cases.
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
The R&S FSL will first measure the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen. In contrast to
the Off–Service mode, the R&S FSL will not ask you to turn off the signal in the measurement
channel. The noise spectrum is measured in the gap between two active channels. The R&S FSL
measures the noise by sweeping with a small resolution filter in the span you defined in step 10.
12. A marker was automatically set by the R&S FSL. To move this marker, press the MKR key and turn
the rotary knob. The noise density at this marker is measured and translated to the reference noise
bandwidth you specified in step 10.
Fig. 2-39 C/N In–Service measurement
The lower pane shows the final C/N ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the C/N ratio.
In In–Service mode the noise reading will be higher and therefore the C/N ratio lower and not as
accurate as in Off–Service mode, due to the active channels. The resulting C/N ratio is just an upper
bound of the real value: If your network passes this quick measurement, it should also pass the more
accurate Off–Service–measurement.
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C/N Quiet Line measurement
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the C/N softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the C/N Setup softkey to open the C/N Setup dialog box.
Make sure, that Quiet Line is chosen as measurement mode.
Set the Reference Noise Bandwidth to 5 MHz (or another value).
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
The R&S FSL will first measures the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen. In contrast to
the Off–Service mode, the R&S FSL will not ask you to turn off the signal in the measurement
channel. The noise spectrum is measured by a gated FFT.
Note:
The active modulation standard contains a Quiet Line parameter. It tells, in which video line the
vision carrier is not modulated. Be sure to set this parameter correctly (for details refer to
Modulation standards)! The R&S FSL captures IQ data during this line and calculates an FFT.
The result is shown in the upper pane as noise measurement trace.
You do not have to choose the noise measurement frequency by moving a marker like in the Off–
Service mode, instead the R&S FSL automatically calculates the mean noise power. Measurement
values close to any typical CSO beat frequency are omitted in this process (vision carrier and vision
carrier ± n* 0.25 MHz).
This automatically calculated average noise level is translated to the reference noise bandwidth you
specified in step 10.
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Fig. 2-40 C/N Quiet Line measurement
The lower pane shows the final C/N ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the C/N ratio.
In Quiet Line mode the noise reading will be not as accurate as in Off–Service mode, due to the still
active channel. But you don't have to turn off channels for a quick check.
CSO measurement
This measurement determines the ratio of signal power and the level of second order beats.
The signal power is normally the peak power of the modulated vision carrier, which is the power of the
unmodulated vision carrier. You can modify this default setting with the softkey Reference Power (for
details refer to chapter 4, section "Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)").
The measurement can be performed in 2 different ways, as shown in the following examples:
•
CSO Off–Service measurement
•
CSO Quiet Line measurement
The measurement display is split into two panes. The upper pane displays the spectrum of the
measured beats. The lower pane displays the result table for the measurement and whether the limits
are passed or failed.
CSO Off–Service measurement
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
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5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the CSO softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the CSO Setup softkey to open the CSO Setup dialog box.
Make sure, that Off–Service is chosen as measurement mode.
Specify one or multiple spans for the beat measurements, as shown in the figure below. Change
the CF value, which denotes the middle of the span relative to the vision carrier and the Span
value in this table. The measurement ranges should be centered around frequencies where you
expect second order beats in your network.
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
12. Turn on the signal when prompted and confirm by pressing the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen.
13. Turn off the test transmitter or remove the cable when prompted and confirm by pressing the
ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the beats by sweeping with a small resolution filter in the span specified
in the CSO Setup dialog box.
14. A marker is automatically set. Press the MKR key and, using the rotary knob, move the marker to
the frequency you want to measure the beats at. You should take care not to measure a CTB beat
instead of a CSO beat.
15. Activate all possible second order beat frequencies by pressing the Next Meas Frequency softkey
and then the RUN key. This measures beats in the next span, that is defined in the CSO Setup
dialog box.
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Fig. 2-41 CSO Off–Service measurement
The lower pane shows the final C/N ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the CSO ratio. The Off–Service mode is the most
accurate way to measure CSO, but you must turn off the active channel.
CSO Quiet Line measurement
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the CSO softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the CSO Setup softkey to open the CSO Setup dialog box.
Make sure, that Quiet Line is chosen as measurement mode.
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
The R&S FSL will first measures the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen. In contrast to
the Off–Service mode, the R&S FSL will not ask you to turn off the signal in the measurement
channel. The spectrum of the noise and beats is measured by a gated FFT.
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12. A marker is automatically set. Press the MKR key and, using the rotary knob, move the marker to
the frequency you want to measure the beat at. You should take care not to measure a CTB beat
instead of a CSO beat.
Note:
The active modulation standard contains a Quiet Line parameter. It tells, in which video line the
vision carrier is not modulated. Be sure to set this parameter correctly (Modulation standards)!
The R&S FSL captures IQ data during this line and calculates an FFT.
Fig. 2-42 CSO Quiet Line measurement
The lower pane shows the final CSO ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the CSO ratio.
In Quiet Line mode the beat reading will be not as accurate as in Off–Service mode, due to the still
active channel. But you do not have to turn off channels for a quick check.
CTB measurement
This measurement determines the ratio of signal power and the level of composite triple (order) beats.
These beats normally fall onto the vision carrier.
The signal power is normally the peak power of the modulated vision carrier, which is the power of the
unmodulated vision carrier. You can modify this default setting with the softkey Reference Power (for
details refer to chapter 4, section "Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)").
The measurement display is split into two panes. The upper pane displays the spectrum of the
measured beats. The lower pane displays the result table for the measurement and whether the limits
are passed or failed.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Analog TV test setup.
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Procedure:
1. Press the SWEEP key.
2. Press the Single Sweep softkey.
3. Press the FREQ key.
4. Enter 210.25 MHz for the vision carrier frequency of the input signal.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the CTB softkey.
8. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
9. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
10. Press the CTB Setup softkey to open the CTB Setup dialog box.
Specify a single span for the beat measurement: Change the CF value, which denotes the
middle of the span relative to the vision carrier and the Span value in the table. The
measurement range should be centered around frequencies where you expect triple order beats
in your network, i.e. the CF value should normally be about 0 Hz.
If desired, activate the Noise Floor Correction option.
11. Press the RUN key.
12. Turn on the signal when prompted and confirm by pressing the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the carrier power. This is not visible on the screen.
13. Turn off the test transmitter or remove the cable when prompted and confirm by pressing the
ENTER key.
The R&S FSL will measure the beats in the span specified in the CTB Setup dialog box.
14. Using the rotary knob, move the marker to the frequency you want to measure the beat at. The beat
level at this marker is measured and used to compute the CTB ratio. You should take care not to
measure a CSO beat instead of a CTB beat.
Fig. 2-43 CTB measurement
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The lower pane shows the final CTB ratio and whether it is passed or failed. It also shows the most
important correction factors used to calculate the CTB ratio.
Digital TV Basics
Cable TV networks use single carrier QAM signals. These signals are continuously modulated. The
Cable TV Measurements option does not support burst signals as used in cable modems (e.g.
DOCSIS) which rely on TDMA techniques that share the same channel with several subscribers. To get
a better understanding, we now want to have a closer look at an ideal QAM transmitter.
Idirac(t)
Binary
Source
bits
IRRC(t)
Symbol
Mapping
/2
Qdirac(t)
Fig. 2-44
RRC
Filter
RRC
Filter
cos(2 fCFt)
IQRF(t)
QRRC(t)
Ideal QAM transmitter
To keep things simple we start with a binary source providing a never ending bit stream. Please keep in
mind that in reality these bits originate from a video stream which will be source encoded e.g. by a
MPEG encoder. To allow errors during the transmission via the cable channel coding (e.g. convolutional
coding) will be applied. Finally we get something like "…010010111101010101110110101111010…''
The symbol mapping block transforms the digital information (bits) into the continuous signals Idirac(t)
and Qdirac (t). Idirac(t) and Qdirac (t) (see Fig. 2-45) consist of dirac pulses that appear at times t=n*Tsymbol
and that can be distinguished by their in–phase "I'' and quadrature "Q'' levels. For example a 16QAM
constellation has 16 different I and Q combinations and 4 different I and Q levels (4*4=16). Typically
4
this is visualized in a constellation diagram (see Fig. 2-46). With 16=2 we are able to transmit 4 bits per
symbol. Therefore we can calculate:
bit_rate = symbol_rate * 4 = 4/ Tsymbol [bits/second]
or more general:
bit_rate = symbol_rate * log2(M) [bits/second] for MQAM.
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Fig. 2-45
R&S FSL
Pulse signals Idirac (t) and Qdirac (t) for 16QAM
Q
I
Fig. 2-46
16QAM constellation diagram
Unfortunately the required bandwidth for transmitting dirac pulses is infinite. Let's reduce the bandwidth
by applying a so–called pulse shaping filter (as referred to as TX filters). In most QAM systems root
raised cosine filters are used. Root raised cosine filters are exclusive supported by the Cable TV
Measurements option. Via the filter's roll–off factor the occupied bandwidth can be controlled.
OccupiedBandwidth = SymbolRate (1 + RollOff)
In a cable TV receiver, a filter of the same shape is used as RX filter. The combination of two root
raised cosine filters, one in the transmitter (TX) and another one in the receiver (RX), has a very strong
property: There will be no inter–symbol interference at the RX filter's output. Due to this property it is
very easy for the receiver to retrieve the transmitted symbols. Please note, that in a real–world scenario
the channel (causing echoes / multipath propagation) causes inter–symbol interference. In that case the
use of an equalizer is recommendable. Fig. 2-47 shows the signals IRRC(t) and QRRC(t) that result from
filtering Idirac (t) and Qdirac (t) with the root raised cosine filter RRC.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Root raised cosine filtered dirac signals IRRC(t) and QRRC(t)
We notice that the symbol instants (highlighted with squares) are not on the horizontal lines (possible
symbol levels) anymore. This is due to the inter–symbol interference introduced by the root raised
cosine TX filter. Contrary to the signal filtered with two root raised cosine filters (TX and RX) the one
filtered with a single root raised cosine filter (TX) does not satisfy the condition for zero inter–symbol
interference. Fig. 2-48 shows the signal obtained by filtering the dirac signals with two root raised
cosine filters. The convolution of two root raised cosine filters is also called raised cosine filter and it
results in an overall inter–symbol interference free system. We observe that all symbol instants
(highlighted with squares) of IRC(t) and QRC(t) have exactly the same levels as the signals Idirac (t) and
Qdirac (t) in Fig. 2-45. Please note that this is only true for the signals IRC(t) and QRC(t) if there is no noise
present in the receiver. In the case of noise points will turn into clouds, that is what can be seen in the
Constellation Diagram measurement (modulation analysis).
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Fig. 2-48
R&S FSL
Raised cosine filtered dirac signals IRC(t) and QRC(t)
Let us get back to the ideal transmitter from Fig. 2-44. The next task is to modulate the base band
signals RC(t) and QRRC(t) onto a carrier. The carrier frequency fCF stands for the center of a given TV
channel. Fig. 2-49 shows the modulated signal IQRF(t) with a carrier frequency fCF=4*symbol_rate.
Please note that in real system the carrier frequency is much higher than here in our example.
Fig. 2-49
QAM modulated RF signal IQRF(t)
In a real cable TV transmission system however, the receiver would encounter a much worse situation.
The measurement signal, i.e. the signal fed into the R&S FSL's RF input, suffers from distortion. Some
of it is caused by a non–ideal transmitter, some originates from the TV cable and last but not least there
is thermal noise in every transmission system. Very often it is even not possible to find out from which
component the distortion comes from. Luckily this can be found out by driving measurements starting at
the transmitters location and continuing at different test points in the cable TV network up to the plug at
the subscriber's home.
The objective of the digital TV measurements offered by the Cable TV Measurements option is to
analyze and separate different sources of distortion and erroneous parameters.
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cI
RRC
Filter
Binary
Source
n(t)
vI
cos[2 (fCF+ f)t+ (t)]
Symbol
Mapping
Channel
/2+
RRC
Filter
IQRF(t)
vQ
cQ
Fig. 2-50
Real–world QAM transmitter and distortion model
Fig. 2-50 shows the transmitter and distortion model assumed by the measurement demodulator of the
Cable TV Measurements option. The error parameters and signals are given in the table below.
Table 2–6: Error parameters and signals in a QAM transmission system
Parameter
Ideal Value
Description
vI, vQ
vI =vQ
Gains of I and Q path
cI, cQ
cI=cQ=0
Carrier leakage in I and Q path
=0
Quadrature error
f
f=0
Carrier frequency error
(t)
(t)=0
Phase noise signal
Channel h(t)
h(t)= (t)
Channel impulse response
n(t)
n(t)=0
Thermal noise
Instead of directly displaying the parameters from the table above, derived parameters are displayed in
the result table of the Overview measurement and the Modulation Errors measurement (modulation
analysis). To give an example: The ratio between vI and vQ represents the gain imbalance which is a
more reasonable measure for a transmitter than the absolute values of vI and vQ.
The amplitude imbalance can be calculated as follows:
amplitude _ imbalance =
(v v 1) 100%
I
Q
Please note that the 2T/4 rad (90 deg) rotational symmetry of the QAM constellation (see Fig. 2-46)
leads to an ambiguity in the calculation of the amplitude imbalance. Ambiguity means that the QAM
demodulator of the Cable TV Measurements option has no knowledge of the absolute phase in the
transmitter but chooses one out of four possible phase angles (0, T/2, T, or 3 T/2 rad). It can be shown
that the phase ambiguity leads to two possible amplitude imbalance values. For the amplitude
imbalance the ambiguity can be resolved by using the definition as follows:
amplitude _ imbalance = max
{v , v } min{v , v } 1
I
Q
I
Q
100%
In real–world analog IQ modulators there is never perfect carrier suppression. Carrier suppression is
modeled by adding the constants cI and cQ to the in–phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal paths
respectively. It is calculated with respect to the peak envelope power (PEP).
Quadrature error is the effect that appears if the IQ modulator's cosine and sine waves have not exactly
a phase difference of T/2 rad. The ideal value for the quadrature error thus is 0 rad.
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If the transmitter's (DUT) local oscillator does not provide the exact nominal carrier frequency (CF), a
carrier frequency error results. The carrier frequency error is displayed in the result table of the
Overview measurement.
carrier _ frequency _ error =
f
CF ideal
f
CF measured
Good local oscillators have low phase noise. Phase noise causes an unwanted phase modulation. The
Cable TV Measurements option measures the phase jitter that corresponds to the variance of the phase
error. .(/) represents the phase difference between the (noisy) measurement meas(/) signal and the
Tsymbol
ideal transmit signal ref(/). The phase jitter is only evaluated at symbol instants, i.e. for t =
phase _ jitter = E
{(
{meas(
) ref * ( )
})
2
}= E {
2
}
( )
A non–flat frequency response of the analog hardware (amplifiers) or the transmit channel
(reflections or echoes in the TV cable) causes inter–symbol interference (ISI). To much ISI leads to
wrong symbol decisions in the QAM measurement demodulator. The QAM measurement demodulator
can suppress the channel's influence by filtering the receive signal with the inverse of the channel's
response. This operation is done by the so–called equalizer. With the equalizer activated (see Digital
TV Settings dialog box in Fig. 2-51), the EVM and MER values decrease by the ISI which was removed
by the equalizer. Activating the equalizer leads to two things: First of all the equalizer is trained based
on the received data of the current measurement (Freeze Equalizer option deactivated). Furthermore,
the measured signal will be filtered / "equalized'' with the previously estimated equalizer filter. If the
equalizer has reached a stable state and the channel does not change (time invariant channel) the
equalizer can be frozen by activating the Freeze Equalizer option. By this means the equalizer will not
be trained anymore but will still equalize the signal. Please also refer to the Echo Pattern measurement
(channel analysis).
The term n(/) is the synonym for any kind of distortion and thermal noise that has not been covered by
the transmitter and distortion model of Fig. 2-50 yet. In classical communication theory n(/) is modeled
as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).
EVM and MER result parameters are calculated based on the error vector signal, which corresponds to
the difference between the measurement signal meas(/) and the ideal transmit signal ref(/). The error
Tsymbol .
vector signal is only evaluated at symbol instants, i.e. for t =
To a certain extend the QAM measurement demodulator is insensitive to distortion, but if there is to
much of it, erroneous symbol decisions may occur and the results will not be valid anymore. A
possibility to check this is to have a look at the constellation diagram. If the clouds around the
constellation points are getting much bigger than the (horizontal and vertical) decision borders or if
there is even only one single big cloud, this will be a strong indication for a faulty QAM analysis. The
QAM measurement demodulator of the Cable Measurements option was designed by taking the
transmitter and distortion model from above (see Fig. 2-50) into account.
Digital TV Measurement Examples
These measurements are set up to carry out single channel measurements of digital TV signals. The
settings for digital TV measurements are described in section Digital TV settings. The test setup for the
following measurement types is provided in section Digital TV test setup.
The digital TV measurements offered by the Cable TV Measurements option can be divided into two
groups:
spectrum analyzer measurements
measurements based on the measurement QAM demodulator
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Measurements of the first group can also be done in the Spectrum Analyzer mode. The advantage of
the measurements of the Cable TV Measurements option is that they are automatically parameterized
with information according to the channel table and the modulation standards. Measurements of this
type are:
Spectrum measurement
Channel Power measurement
APD measurement
CCDF measurement
Digital TV measurements that base on output of the QAM measurement demodulator are:
Overview measurement
Constellation Diagram measurement (modulation analysis)
Modulation Errors measurement (modulation analysis)
Echo Pattern measurement (channel analysis)
Digital TV settings
The Cable TV Measurements option needs to know some of the parameters described in section Digital
TV Basics to perform correct measurements. It therefore stores these parameters in the so–called
"modulation standard". Refer to section Modulation standards for the creation and usage of a
modulation standard. Section Digital TV modulation standards contains the description of the
parameters that have to be characterized for a digital TV signal. The following list explains the meaning
of the parameters:
•
Name: Choose an arbitrary name for the new modulation standard.
•
Signal Type: If you want to characterize an digital TV signal, select Digital TV.
•
TV Standard: Select a TV standard to initialize the following parameters.
•
Constellation used in the transmitter, e.g. 64QAM.
•
Symbol Rate of QAM signal.
•
Roll–Off factor of root raised cosine TX filter.
•
Sideband Position: Is the signal in normal position or inverted?
Note:
In the dialog boxes, set the parameters always from top to bottom, since all parameters depend
on the parameters above them. Otherwise your input might be rejected, e.g. if it specifies an
unusual TV standard.
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Digital TV test setup
Perform all measurement examples in the Cable TV Analyzer mode.
Use a digital TV generator as signal source.
Connect the generator directly to the R&S FSL.
Set the TV generator to the following parameters:
center frequency = 100 MHz
single carrier 64QAM modulation.
root raised cosine transmit filter with a roll–off factor of 0.15.
symbol rate = 6.9 MSymbols/s.
This test setup is used throughout all digital TV measurement examples.
Spectrum measurement
This measurement gives an overview of the active measurement channel. All parameters are set
according to the modulation standard, referenced in the channel table or by the default digital TV
modulation standard. The spectrum is displayed in a full screen trace.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the FREQ key and enter 100 MHz for the center frequency.
2. Press the MEAS key.
3. Press the Digital TV softkey.
4. Press the Digital TV Settings softkey and compare the modulation parameters.
Fig. 2-51 Digital TV Settings dialog box
5. Press the Spectrum softkey.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
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The spectrum of the input signal is displayed.
Fig. 2-52 Digital TV Spectrum measurement
Overview measurement
This measurement determines the modulation accuracy of a digitally modulated single carrier QAM
signals. The measurement results are checked against the limits and displayed in a table. In this table,
only the important result parameters of digital TV signals are displayed. Less important result
parameters are provided by the Modulation Errors measurement (modulation analysis).
Result parameters that failed the check are displayed in red and bold characters, the table cell is
marked with a star. Result parameters that passed the checks are displayed in green characters. A
global pass or fail comment is displayed in the upper left table corner on a green (for passed) or red (for
failed) background.
Table 2–7: Result parameters – Overview
Parameter
Description
MER (rms)
root mean square of modulation
error rate
MER (peak)
peak of modulation error rate
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Parameter
Description
Definition
EVM (rms)
root mean square of error vector
magnitude
EVM (peak)
peak of error vector magnitude
Carrier Frequency
Offset
frequency offset between the
received digital TV signal and the
frequency setting
Symbol Rate Offset
frequency offset between the
measured symbol rate of the
received TV signal and the set
symbol rate
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Overview softkey.
4. To magnify one parameter, press the Zoom softkey and activate the parameter. To go back to the
default setting, activate None.
5. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
The Table 2–7 lists the result parameters: meas(/) is the measured signal and ref(/) the ideal transmit
signal that is used for comparison; / means that the continuous signals are sampled at symbol instants
t = Tsymbol .
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The result of the measurement is shown below.
Fig. 2-53 Digital TV Overview measurement
8. To form the average over a defined number of sweeps:
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Result Mode softkey and select the Average trace mode.
Press the Sweep Count softkey and enter the number of sweeps used for averaging.
Every result parameter in the table is averaged by a suitable averaging method over the
number of sweeps set.
Constellation Diagram measurement (modulation analysis)
This measurement displays the constellation diagram of the demodulated signal. Amplitude imbalance,
quadrature error and carrier leakage (see. Modulation Errors measurement (modulation analysis)) are
still present in the used data. The probability of occurrence of points in the complex I/Q plane is
represented by different colors. The constellation results are provided only graphically, i.e. reading
results via remote control returns only a hardcopy of the display, but not a list of I/Q samples.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Modulation Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Const Diagram softkey.
5. To zoom in on one single quadrant, press the Zoom softkey and choose the desired quadrant. To
go back to the complete constellation, select None.
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6. To display the constellation diagram unchanged, while the I/Q samples are collected in the
background, press the Freeze softkey. To switch back to the continual update of the display, press
the Freeze softkey again.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
Fig. 2-54 Digital TV constellation measurement
Modulation Errors measurement (modulation analysis)
This measurement determines the modulation accuracy. The measurement results are checked against
the limits and displayed in a table. In this table, only the less important result parameters of digital TV
signals are displayed (for details see Table 2–8). The important result parameters are provided by the
Overview measurement.
Result parameters that failed the check are displayed in red and bold characters, the table cell is
marked with a star. Result parameters that passed the checks are displayed in green characters. A
global pass or fail comment is displayed in the upper left table corner on a green (for passed) or red (for
failed) background.
Table 2–8: Result parameters – Modulation Errors
Parameter
Description
Amplitude
Imbalance
Measure for unequal amplitude
gains of in–phase and quadrature
singal paths of the transmitter's IQ
mixer. An ideal IQ mixer results in
0 %.
Definition
max
v
v
Quadrature Error
Phase offset relative to the ideal
phase difference (i.e. 90 deg)
between the in–phase and
quadrature signal paths. An ideal
IQ mixer results in 0 deg.
Carrier Suppression
Suppression of carrier; perfect
suppression results in –\ dB.
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{v , v } min{v , v } 1
I
Q
I
Q
100%
: amplification of in–phase signal path
I
: amplification of quadrature signal path
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Parameter
Description
Phase Jitter (rms)
Root mean square of phase jitter
in deg. An ideal IQ mixer results in
0 deg.
Definition
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Modulation Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Modulation Errors softkey.
5. To magnify one parameter, press the Zoom softkey and activate the parameter. To go back to the
default setting, select None.
6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
Fig. 2-55 Digital TV Modulation Errors measurement
9. To form the average over a defined number of sweeps:
Press the TRACE key.
Press the Result Mode softkey and select the Average trace mode.
Press the Sweep Count softkey and enter the number of sweeps used for averaging.
Every result parameter in the table is averaged by a suitable averaging method over the
number of sweeps set.
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Echo Pattern measurement (channel analysis)
This measurement determines the magnitude of the channel impulse response in respect to the
corresponding time delay. Damage of TV cables causes unwanted reflections of the TV signal. These
reflections lead to echoes in the TV receiver. These echoes can be seen by looking at the echo pattern
trace. If the unit of the x–axle is changed into meters or miles (this requires knowledge of the
propagation speed of the cable, i.e. the velocity factor) the location of the cable damage can be
measured. This kind of measurement is sometimes referred to as distance–to–fault measurement: as
the position of a peak in the echo pattern trace represents the distance between the faulty part of the
cable and the location of the R&S FSL.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Channel Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Echo Pattern softkey.
5. To change the unit from Rs to km or miles:
Press the Velocity Factor softkey to define the velocity of propagation for the unit conversion.
Press the Unit softkey to select the unit.
6. To zoom into the echo pattern, press the Zoom softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
Fig. 2-56 Digital TV Echo Pattern measurement
9. To get correct measurement results the equalizer should be activated. A non–flat frequency
response of the cable channel may cause demodulation errors and thus corrupt the measurement
results. Inter–symbol interference can be suppressed by the use of the equalizer.
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Please note that the Echo Pattern can also be measured with the equalizer switched off. As long as
there are only few decision errors in the QAM demodulator this will lead to the same echo pattern.
Press the PREVIOUS key twice to go two menu levels up.
Press the Digital TV Settings softkey (see Fig. 2-51).
If the equalizer should get into an instable state (e.g. if the signal was removed), press the
Reset button.
If the equalizer was properly trained and the channel does not change anymore, activate the
Freeze Equalizer option. Freezing the equalizer can speed up all demodulation–based digital
TV measurements.
Close the Digital TV Settings dialog with the ESC key.
What is the difference between the equalizer filter and the echo pattern?
The echo pattern is the amplitude of the channel impulse response. The equalizer in contrast estimates
the inverse of the channel response which is required to remove the channel's influence from the
measurement signal.
Channel Power measurement
This measurement determines the channel power of a digital TV channel.
For details on the applied measurement modes refer to section Measuring Channel Power and
Adjacent Channel Power.
The measurement is setup automatically with data relating to the modulation standard.
The measurement display is split into two panes. In the upper pane, the spectrum trace is displayed. In
the lower pane, the result table for the measurement is displayed.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the Channel Power softkey.
5. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
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Fig. 2-57 Digital TV Channel Power measurement
APD measurement
This measurement determines the amplitude probability density function (APD). The measurement can
also be performed in Spectrum Analyzer mode, but in the Cable TV Analyzer mode most of the
parameters are set automatically. For details on the background refer to section Amplitude Distribution
Measurements.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the APD softkey.
5. To change the scaling parameters of the x– and y–axis:
Press the Scaling softkey.
Press the corresponding softkey to change the parameters: x–Axis Signal Level, x–Axis Range,
y–Axis Max. Value, y–Axis Min. Value, Default Settings.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
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Fig. 2-58 Digital TV APD measurement
CCDF measurement
This measurement determines the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the
complex base band signal. The measurement can also be performed in Spectrum Analyzer mode, but
in the Cable TV Analyzer mode most of the parameters are set automatically. For details on the
measurement background refer to chapter section Amplitude Distribution Measurements.
Test setup:
Refer to the section Digital TV test setup.
Procedure:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the More softkey.
4. Press the CCDF softkey.
5. To determine the power exceeded with a given probability, press the Percent Marker softkey.
6. To change the scaling parameters of the x– and y–axis:
Press the Scaling softkey.
Press the corresponding softkey to change the parameters: x–Axis Signal Level, x–Axis Range,
y–Axis Max. Value, y–Axis Min. Value, Default Settings.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
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Fig. 2-59 Digital TV CCDF measurement
TV Analyzer Measurements
The measurement here is set up to carry out multiple channel measurements of TV networks. The
measurement provides a fast, automatic change of the measurement channel in order to support a
quick succession of measurements.
The following measurement type is provided:
Tilt measurement
Tilt measurement
This measurement can determine the amplitude response of the CATV network by measuring the
channel power of every channel. Both analog and digital TV channels can be measured. The setup
configuration allows to limit the frequency range or to choose particular modulation standards in order to
measure only a channel subset of the TV network.
The channel levels are measured in a series of zero–span measurements. Each channel is measured
using the information stored in the channel table (modulation standard). Therefore the use of a channel
table is mandatory. Channels with the modulation standard < unused > are not measured (for details
on modulation standards refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Cable TV Measurements
Option (K20)". Depending on the set modulation standard one the following measurements is used
internally by the firmware:
analog TV: Carriers measurement
digital TV: Channel Power measurement
The measurement result is displayed in form of a bar graph. The colors of the bars indicate the signal
type of the modulation standard.
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Test setup:
Connect the R&S FSL to your CATV network.
It is not possible to work without a channel table. You cannot even enter the TV Analyzer sub menu, if
you have not activated a channel table before. Create a channel table according to you CATV network
(or a subset of your network). This task is described in section Example: Creating a channel table. If
you do not want to create your own channel table, you can use the example channel table from section
Example: Creating a channel table, which is delivered with the Cable TV Measurements option.
Procedure:
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
3. Select the appropriate channel table and activate it by pressing the Activate softkey.
4. Press the MEAS key.
5. Press the TV Analyzer softkey.
6. Press the Tilt softkey.
7. To restrict the channels to be measured, press the Tilt Setup softkey:
The Tilt Setup dialog box is displayed.
To limit the frequency range, under Span, enter a start and stop frequency. Be sure that at least
one channel's RF frequency is in this range. Otherwise the measurement display will be empty!
To select certain modulation standards for the measurement, under Modulation Standards,
activate the modulation standards to be included in the measurement.
8. To adjust the range of the y–axis, if logarithmic, press the Auto Range softkey.
9. Press the RUN key.
10. Observe the exact levels of different channels by turning the rotary knob.
11. Check your network:
Do all signals of the same type (e.g. all analog TV signals) have similar levels?
You can do this by selecting the modulation standards to measure before the measurement.
Or you can measure all kinds of signals and distinguish different modulation standards after the
measurement by their different colors.
You can measure the amplitude response of the network (or of an amplifier) by looking at the
levels of signals at different frequencies. Prerequisite is either that you measure before and after
the amplifier and compare the results. Or that you know, that the levels are equal at the
transmitter.
Channel Tables and Modulation Standards
Measurements with the Cable TV Measurements option can be speeded up significantly if a channel
table is used. First of all a channel table, sometimes also referred as channel plan, contains the
frequency plan of a cable TV network. Furthermore, for every channel it contains the information about
the service broadcast or the information that the channel is < unused >.
Typically every country has its own regulations concerning the frequency plan, i.e. the channel locations
and the channel widths. Unfortunately the services or programs assigned to this frequency plan differ
from one CATV network to another. For example the CATV network of the city of Munich offers different
programs than Erding which is only about 40 kilometers away. Therefore the Cable TV Measurements
option provides empty channel tables for most countries in the world, where empty means, that all
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channels are marked as < unused >. However, it is not possible to do measurements without any
precise information about the services. Therefore the Cable TV Measurements option introduces the
concept of the so–called modulation standard.
Modulation standards describe the signal characteristics, or physical layer, transmitted via a channel.
The Cable TV Measurements option supports modulation standards that characterize analog TV signals
(e.g. NTSC, SECAM, PAL) or digital TV signals (single carrier QAM as for example in DVB–C). Every
channel table can comprise several modulation standards. Once defined, every channel can reference
one of these modulation standards. Provided that at least one channel references a modulation
standard, measurements based on a channel table can easily be done.
You can create numerous channel tables (e.g. for different locations in the network / different
measurement tasks) and save them on the R&S FSL. But there can always be only one channel table
active at a time. Working without a channel table is realized by activating the special, pseudo channel
table called < none >.
Normally, the easiest way is not to create a channel table from the scratch, but to load pre–defined
channel tables delivered with the Cable TV Measurements option. They already hold the typical
frequency plans for many countries. You only have to fill in the modulation standards.
For detailed information on channel tables refer to section Channel tables, for modulation standards
refer to section Modulation standards. A detailed example is provided in section Example: Creating a
channel table. Fig. 2-60 gives an example of a channel table that references the modulation standard
"PAL_BG_STEREO''. Fig. 2-62 shows that modulation standard.
Channel tables
This section gives a detailed description of channel tables and their properties.
•
Channel tables (see Fig. 2-60) have a Name. The name should comprise geographical
information, e.g. "SOUTHAMPTON'' or "EXAMPLE_WIPFING''.
•
If desired, a Description giving further information on the channel table can be entered.
•
Channel tables consist of Channels. The Cable TV Measurements option displays one channel
per line. A channel table must contain at least one channel.
Fig. 2-60
The channel table and its properties
Every channel has the following properties:
•
The unique channel number No. can be used within measurements to change over from one
channel to another quickly.
•
A Comment can be specified, e.g. the name of the program or the frequency band.
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•
The RF frequency represents the characteristic frequency of a channel. For analog TV
channels RF is equal to the vision carrier frequency. For digital TV channels and < unused >
channels it equals the center frequency.
•
Width stands for the channel's bandwidth.
Digital TV
Width 1
Width 2
Width 3
Stop 2
RF 1
RF 3
Analog TV
Start 3
< unused >
Start 2
RF 2
Channel 3
Stop 1
Channel 2
Start 1
Channel 1
Stop 3
A Modulation Standard is referenced. In case of an empty channel, the modulation standard is
set to < unused >. Be aware that modulation standards have to be created before making use
of them. For details refer to section Create modulation standards Note, that in order to perform
channel table based measurements, there must be at least one channel, that references a
modulation standard. It is not possible to do any measurements, if in all channels the
modulation standard equals < unused >.
Amplitude
•
1.25 MHz
Frequency
Fig. 2-61
Channel start and stop frequencies versus RF frequency and channel width
Except for < unused > channels the calculation of the start and stop frequencies depends on the signal
type property (digital or analog TV) of the referenced modulation standard. All corresponding formulae
are listed in the table below.
Table 2–9: Channel start and stop frequencies versus RF frequency and channel width
Signal type
RF frequency
Analog TV
Digital TV
Start + 1.25 MHz
Start + (Stop – Start) / 2
Channel Width
Start frequency
Stop – Start
RF – 1.25 MHz
RF – Width/2
Stop frequency
Note:
< unused >
Start + Width
The Cable TV Measurements option automatically adapts the RF frequency if the user changes
the modulation standard of a channel (e.g. from an analog to digital modulation standard). This
is done in order to keep the channels start and stop frequencies constant.
Modulation standards
All over the world many different transmission standards for TV signals exist. As a guide through the
jungle of parameters that describe TV signals (including video and sound sub–signals) the concept of
the modulation standard has been introduced.
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Most important when dealing with modulation standards is the order of the parameters. Modulation
standards (see Fig. 2-62) have always to be created and edited from top to bottom of the Modulation
Standard Options dialog box. The most important parameters are located at the top of the dialog box.
For example, changing the signal type from Analog TV to Digital TV also alters the complete set of
parameters below. Whereas the modulation technique for transmitting the color information is essential
in analog TV systems (see Color System in Fig. 2-62), it does not exist for digital TV systems. The
constellation instead is crucial in digital TV systems (see Fig. 2-63). For that reason the Cable TV
Measurements option automatically guides you through the whole process of creating a new modulation
standard and only confronts you with mandatory parameters.
A modulation standard is structured as follows:
•
The Name is arbitrary, but should refer to the main properties of the TV signal, e.g.
"PAL_BG_STEREO''.
•
The Signal Type specifies whether the signal is an analog TV or a digital TV signal.
As mentioned above, all described parameters below depend on the chosen signal type. Therefore the
remaining parameters will be discussed separately in the sequel.
Fig. 2-62
Modulation Standard Options dialog box for analog TV
Analog TV modulation standards
This section describes the parameters that characterize analog cable TV signals. Refer to section
Analog TV Basics to learn more about analog cable TV signals. The parameters discussed here can
also be modified (temporarily) in the Analog TV Settings dialog box.
For analog TV the Modulations Standard Options dialog box (see Fig. 2-62) is structured as follows:
The channel table references modulation standards by their Name. Its name (see Fig. 2-63) should
comprise information about the used TV standard, the color system and the sound system, e.g.
"PAL_BG_STEREO''.
Here the Signal Type is always set to Analog TV.
The TV Standard characterizes the way the luminance information is modulated. The following
analog TV standards exist:
B/G
D/K
I
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K1
L
M
N
The Sound System parameter specifies how the audio will be transmitted. The possible values
depend on the TV Standard selected in the TV Standard list. The sound systems are named in the
form "sound carrier 1 / sound carrier 2'', e.g. "FM 6.5 / FM 6.258''. Information about the sound
modulation format and the carrier frequency with respect to the vision carrier is included.
Table 2–10: Possible values for the sound systems
TV Standard
Sound System
B/G
FM 5.5 / NICAM 5.85
FM 5.5 / FM 5.742
FM 5.5 MONO
D/K
FM 6.5 / NICAM 5.85
K1
FM 6.5 / FM 6.258
FM 6.5 / FM 6.742
FM 6.5 MONO
I
FM 6.0 / NICAM 6.552
FM 6.0 MONO
L
AM 6.5 / NICAM 5.85
AM 6.5 MONO
M
FM 4.5 BTSC
N
FM 4.5 EIA–J
FM 4.5 / FM 4.724
FM 4.5 MONO
What Group Delay shall the residual sideband filter have? The Group Delay setting has no effect
on the measurements in this firmware release.
The Color System parameter specifies how color information will be transmitted. The possible
values depend on the TV Standard selected in the TV Standard list.
Table 2–11: Possible values for the Color Systems
TV Standard
Color System
B/G
PAL
D/K
SECAM
I
PAL
N
K1
SECAM
L
M
NTSC
PAL
Bar Line: The Vision Modulation measurement needs a special test signal, containing a peak white
value. You must specify the type and the number of the horizontal line that contains the peak white
value.
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Quiet Line: Some measurements need a horizontal line with no video information in it. You must
specify the number of this horizontal line here. For further information see also Example: Creating a
channel table.
Sideband Position: Is the signal in normal position or inverted?
Sometimes the analog TV signal to be analyzed is only available with an inverted sideband. This
can for example happen if the cable operator feds – for some reason – an inverted signal into the
network. It may also happen in R&D labs where measurements on different IF stages of a new TV
transmitter or a receiver hardware are to be performed. Please be aware, that these two
applications also lead to two different cases when measuring with the Cable TV Measurements
option:
Measurements with channel tables
Measurements without a channel table, i.e. < none >.
The sideband position can either be altered in the modulation standard or in the Analog TV
settings dialog box. When measuring with a channel table, switching the sideband position (from
normal to inverse or vice versa) keeps the channel's start and stop frequencies constant. As a
consequence the RF frequency will be modified.
Example:
Channel Information:
RF frequency = 401.25 MHz
Width = 8 MHz
Modulation standard = analog TV with sideband position = normal.
This leads to the following channel borders:
Start frequency = RF – 1.25 MHz = 400 MHz
Stop frequency = Start frequency + Width = 408 MHz.
Next, the sideband position of the referenced modulation standard will be set to inverse. In order
to keep the start and stop frequencies constant the RF frequency will be adapted as follows:
RF frequency = Stop frequency – 1.25 MHz = 206.75 MHz.
In case of measurements without a channel table, i.e. < none >, we realize that there are no start
and stop frequencies existing. Hence, changing the sideband position keeps the RF frequency
constant. As a consequence you will analyze different parts of the spectrum depending on the
selected sideband position.
Digital TV modulation standards
In the Cable TV Measurements option, digital TV is used as a synonym for quadrature amplitude
modulated (QAM) signals. In digital Cable TV networks exclusively single carrier modulated signals are
used. The Cable TV Measurements option does not support multicarrier techniques such as OFDM in
terrestrial TV networks.
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Fig. 2-63
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Modulation Standard Options dialog box for digital TV
This section describes the parameters that characterize digital cable TV signals. Refer to section Digital
TV Basics to learn more about digital TV signals. The parameters discussed here can also be modified
(temporarily) in the Digital TV Settings dialog box.
For digital TV the Modulations Standard Options dialog box is structured as follows:
The channel table references modulation standards by their Name. Its name (see Fig. 2-63) should
comprise information about the used constellation and the symbol rate, e.g. "64QAM_6900''.
Here the Signal Type is always set to Digital TV.
Depending on the TV Standard the default values of the parameters below are set. The following
digital TV standards exist:
QAM J.83/A (DVB–C Europe)
QAM J.83/B (US Cable)
QAM J.83/C (Japanese Cable)
The Constellation parameter supports the values below:
4QAM
16QAM
32QAM
64QAM
128QAM
256QAM
512QAM
1024QAM
Fig. 2-64 shows ideal 16QAM and 32QAM constellation diagrams. 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM,
256QAM and 1024QAM have a square structure, whereas 32QAM, 128QAM and 512QAM have a
cross structure.
The Symbol Rate and the Roll–off factor of the pulse shaping filter determine the occupied
bandwidth of the digital TV signal. In the Cable TV Measurements option only root raised cosine
filters are supported. The bandwidth can be calculated by the following formula:
OccupiedBandwidth = SymbolRate (1 + RollOff)
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The symbol rate can be entered in MHz. For the roll–off factor, the following values are supported:
0.120
0.130
0.150
0.180
The Sideband Position parameter can be used to invert the sidebands. The following values are
supported:
Auto
Inverse
Normal
Fig. 2-64
16QAM (square) and 32QAM (cross) constellation diagrams
Example: Creating a channel table
This section gives an exemplary step–by–step instruction for creating a channel table. The basic
procedure consists of three steps:
1. Enter frequency plan, i.e. a channel table solely containg < unused > channels.
2. Create modulation standards.
3. Assign modulation standards to channels.
The following sections address these steps.
The channel tables described in this example are delivered with the Cable TV Measurements option.
Please note, that contrary to the example here, their names are as follows.
–
RS_EXAMPLE_BAVARIA (in example: "EXAMPLE BAVARIA'')
–
RS_EXAMPLE_WIPFING (in example: "EXAMPLE WIPFING'')
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Enter frequency plan
Typically every country has its own regulations concerning the frequency plan, i.e. the channel locations
and the channel widths. That is what we call a country–specific frequency plan. Table 2–12 shows the
frequency plan of "Bavaria''. This plan applies to all cable TV networks of Bavaria. Hence, there is no
information about the programs included yet, as this information depends on the (local) operator of a
particular network. In the first step, we merely want to enter this frequency plan with the Cable TV
Measurements option and call this channel table "EXAMPLE BAVARIA''.
Table 2–12: Frequency plan example of channel table "EXAMPLE BAVARIA''
Channel No.
Band name
Start frequency in MHz
Width in MHz
2
VHF 1
50.5
7
21
UHF
474
8
22
UHF
482
8
23
UHF
490
8
24
UHF
498
8
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
3. Press the New softkey to create a new channel table.
4. In the Name field, enter EXAMPLE BAVARIA as channel table name with the keypad, and press
ESC.
5. In the Description field, enter in the same way EXAMPLE FOR COUNTRY SPECIFIC
FREQUENCY PLAN.
6. To enter the first channel (line 2 of Table 2–12):
Use the knob or the cursor keys to move to the No. column of the existing channel.
Enter 2 for the channel number.
Enter VHF 1 as Comment.
Set the Modulation Standard to < unused >.
Therefore RF represents the center frequency and can be calculated as
RF = Start + Width / 2 = 50.5 MHz + 7 MHz / 2 = 54 MHz.
Set the RF frequency to 54 MHz.
Set the channel Width to 7 MHz.
7. To enter the second channel (line 3 of Table 2–12):
Move down to focus the last channel.
Press the Copy Channel softkey to copy the last channel.
Move down to the copied channel.
Set the channel number No. to 21.
Enter UHF as Comment.
Set the Modulation Standard to < unused >,
i.e. RF = 474 MHz + 8 MHz / 2 = 478 MHz.
Set the RF frequency to 478 MHz.
Set the channel Width to 8 MHz.
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8. To enter the remaining channels proceed as in step 7
Channel 22: RF = 486 MHz
Channel 23: RF = 494 MHz
Channel 24: RF = 502 MHz
9. To save your work, press the Save Changes softkey.
Having finished the first step, you have build a channel table as shown in Fig. 2-65. Please note,
that it is not possible yet, to do any measurements, as all channels are marked as < unused >.
Nevertheless, you can use the EXAMPLE BAVARIA channel table as a base model for all channel
tables required all over Bavaria.
Fig. 2-65
Channel table "EXAMPLE BAVARIA'' with entered frequency plan
Create modulation standards
For detailed information on channel tables refer to section Channel tables, for modulation standards
refer to section Modulation standards. A worked out example can be found in Example: Creating a
channel table.
The second and third steps require knowledge about a particular network. Thus, information about the
programs (see Channel tables) and the possible services (see Modulation standards) has to be
collected. For our example, we retrieved this information from the operator of the small cable TV
network of Wipfing, a village in Bavaria. We found out, that there is a traditional TV chain, broadcasting
their TV program using analog transmission techniques with stereo sound. The technical details are
summarized in Table 2–13. Besides, another TV chain, equipped with state–of–the–art Bavarian
broadcast technology, feeds two digital DVB–C programs into Wipfing's cable TV network. The
parameters are listed in Table 2–14.
Table 2–13: Analog TV service data for PAL_BG_STEREO modulation standard
Video
PAL B/G
Sound
Stereo: FM 5.5 MHz / FM 5.7421875 MHz
Group delay profile
general
VITS: Bar line
CCIR17, line 17
VITS: Quiet line
line 22
Sideband position
normal
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Table 2–14: Digital TV service data for 64QAM_6900 modulation standard
Standard
QAM J.83/A (DVB–C Europe)
Constellation
64QAM
Symbol rate
6.9 MSymbols/s
Roll–off factor of root raised cosine filter
0.15
Sideband position
normal
First of all in the second step, we will copy the EXAMPLE BAVARIA channel table to a new channel
table EXAMPLE WIPFING. We do this, because we want to keep the pure frequency plan (as
EXAMPLE BAVARIA channel table), and create an additional channel table EXAMPLE WIPFING for
our measurements in Wipfing.
1. Press the previous key, to go back to the Channel Tables dialog box.
2. Focus the channel table EXAMPLE BAVARIA via the knob or cursor keys.
3. Press the Copy softkey to copy the EXAMPLE BAVARIA channel table.
4. The Channel Table dialog box is displayed (see Fig. 2-65).
5. In the field Name, enter EXAMPLE WIPFING as channel table name, with the keypad.
6. In the field Description, enter in the same way EXAMPLE FOR PARTICULAR CATV NETWORK.
7. To save the new channel table, press the Save Changes softkey. You will be prompted if any
errors are encounterd. In that case, please correct all errors. If you followed the steps above
everthing should be fine.
We will then create the analog modulation standard, which we will call PAL_BG_STEREO and which is
based on the information of Table 2–13: We will continue with the channel table EXAMPLE WIPFING
from above.
8. Press the Modulation Options softkey.
The appearing list of all exisiting modulation standards is empty right now.
9. In the Modulation Options submenu, press the New softkey.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box appears (see for example Fig. 2-66).
10. Enter the parameters for the modulation standard:
In the field Name, enter PAL_BG_STEREO as modulation standard name with the keypad.
Select Analog TV as Signal Type from the list.
This is done, because PAL B/G is an analog TV standard.
Select B/G as TV Standard.
This means that the luminance information of the video signal is transmitted via an AM
modulated carrier according to the standard B/G.
Select FM 5.5 / FM 5.742 as Sound System from the list.
That means that there are two sound carriers present, one 5.5 MHz and the other 5.7421875
MHz above (for a normal sideband position) the vision carrier frequency.
Select General for the Group Delay from the list.
Select PAL for the Color System from the list.
The color information of the video signal is transmitted according to the PAL standard.
For the Bar Line, set Line to 17 and the Type to CCIR17.
That means, that a special test signal, the so called bar line, is transmitted in the horizontal line
17 of the TV signal.
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For the Quiet Line, set Line to 22.
That means, that the horizontal line 22 transmits no luminance information.
Select Normal as Sideband Postion from the list.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box should now look as in Fig. 2-66.
11. Press the previous key twice to go back to the Channel Table dialog box.
12. Press the Save Changes softkey to save the channel table and the new modulation standard.
Fig. 2-66
Analog TV modulation standard PAL_BG_STEREO
Up to now, we successfully created the channel table EXAMPLE WIPFING, which contains a frequency
plan and the analog TV modulation standard PAL_BG_STEREO. Next, we will create the digital
modulation standard 64QAM_6900 based on the information of Table 2–14.
13. Press the Modulation Options softkey.
A list with one modulation standard PAL_BG_STEREO is displayed.
14. In the Modulation Options submenu, press the New softkey.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box is displayed (see for example Fig. 2-66).
15. Enter the parameters for the modulation standard:
In the field Name, enter 64QAM_6900 as modulation standard name with the keypad.
Select Digital TV as Signal Type from the list.
This is done, because the desired QAM DVB–C signal is a digital TV signal.
Select QAM J.83/A (DVB–C Europe) as TV Standard.
By this means, all parameters below are set to their default values.
Set Constellation to 64QAM.
Set the Symbol Rate value to 6.9 MSyms/s.
This can be done by entering 6.9 via the keypad and confirming the input with the MHz key.
Set the Roll–off factor to 0.150.
Select Auto as Sideband Postion from the list.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box should now look as in Fig. 2-67.
16. Press the previous key twice to go back to the Channel Table dialog box.
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17. Press the Save Changes softkey to save the channel table and the new modulation standard.
Fig. 2-67
Digital TV modulation standard 64QAM_6900
We have now finished step two, i.e. the channel table EXAMPLE WIPFING contains a frequency plan,
the analog modulation standard PAL_BG_STEREO and the digital modulation standard 64QAM_6900.
Assign modulation standards to channels
Finally, in step three, the links between the frequency plan and the modulation standards have to be
set. Table 2–15 shows the desired combinations.
Table 2–15: Assignment of programs and services to channels
Channel No.
Program Name
Modulation Standard
2
–
< unused >
21
BRASS CHANNEL
PAL_BG_STEREO
22
XYZ NEWS
PAL_BG_STEREO
23
ARTE
64QAM_6900
24
GANESH
64QAM_6900
1. Do not change channel 2, as no service is available (< unused >).
2. To edit channel 21:
Enter BRASS CHANNEL into the Comment field of channel 21.
The band name, entered before, is now replaced by the more meaningful program name.
Select PAL_BG_STEREO as Modulation Standard from the list.
The list now offers: < unused >, 64QAM_6900 and PAL_BG_STEREO. Furthermore, the RF
frequency will be automatically changed from 478 MHz to 475.25 MHz.
3. To edit the channels 22, 23, and 24, proceed to step 2 using the information from Table 2–15.
4. Press the Save Changes softkey, to save the channel table.
The complete channel table is shown in Fig. 2-68.
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Fig. 2-68
R&S FSL
Digital Channel table "EXAMPLE WIPFING''
We now have sucessfully finished the creation of the channel table "EXAMPLE WIPFING''. Please refer
to section Performing a Measurement without a Channel Table to learn more about measurements
based on a channel table.
Example: Restoring the default channel tables
The Cable TV Measurements option brings several channel tables with it:
The typical frequency plans used in different countries, e.g.
TV–CHINA
TV–EUROPE
TV–USA–CATV
etc…
Example channel tables (see Example: Creating a channel table), e.g.
RS_EXAMPLE_BAVARIA
RS_EXAMPLE_WIPFING
If you have modified or deleted one of these channel tables, you can restore them in the following way:
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
3. Press the Restore Default Tables softkey.
Only missing channel tables will be restored. If you want to replace an existing channel table by its
default channel table, you have to delete it before.
Performing a Measurement without a Channel Table
The Cable TV Measurements option intends to help network engineers. Network engineers will onces
create a channel table, and then use it to visit many, many test points, all located in the same cable TV
network. If you are a network engineer please see section Performing a Measurement Using a Channel
Table. If you work in R&D or you do not have a cable TV network at all (all you have is a single TV
transmitter or a frequency where you want to do a measurement ignoring any signals apart), this
section describes how to setup an analog TV Spectrum measurement without a channel table.
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Test setup:
Connect a analog TV generator to your R&S FSL. Set the TV generator to send an analog TV PAL
B/G signal with a vision carrier frequency of 210.25 MHz.
Procedure:
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
The Channel Tables dialog box is displayed. It lists all available channel tables.
3. Select no channel table < none > and press the ENTER key.
You should always select < none > if you do not have a channel table. In this mode you can do all
kind of measurements except the Tilt measurement.
4. Press the MEAS key.
5. Press the Analog TV softkey.
By pressing this softkey you tell the Cable TV Measurements option, that your signal is an analog
TV signal and that the Default Analog Modulation Standard has to be used. This modulation
standard is used for all analog TV measurements knowing the fact that there is no channel table
where a modulation standard can be retrieved from.
6. Press the Spectrum softkey.
In our example we want to check the spectrum of our analog TV source.
7. Press the FREQ key.
8. Press the RF softkey.
9. Enter 210.35 MHz as the RF frequency.
10. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
The following figure is displayed:
Fig. 2-69 Example for a measurement without a channel table
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In practice you would now continue to adapt the modulation settings in depth, i.e. the sound system the
test lines and so on. For our example we will stop here.
For further details on analog TV modulation parameters please refer to section Analog TV settings.
Performing a Measurement Using a Channel Table
The use of a channel table can speed up most of the routine measurement tasks. This section will
demonstrate how to perform measurements using channel tables.
Test setup:
No special test setup is required. You do not need to supply a signal. We do not need meaningful
measurement results here, since the focus is on the operation only.
Procedure:
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
3. You should now see a list of Channel Tables, including the example channel table
RS_EXAMPLE_WIPFING, that was used in section Example: Creating a channel table. If you have
deleted it, you must first restore it as shown in section Example: Restoring the default channel
tables.
4. Move the cursor to RS_EXAMPLE_WIPFING and press the Activate softkey.
The Cable TV Measurements option automatically switched to the first channel in the Channel
Table.
5. Press the MEAS key.
6. Press the Analog TV softkey.
7. Press the Carriers softkey.
The resulting measurement is displayed (see Fig. 2-70).
The Cable TV Measurements option configures the measurement according to the information
stored in the channel table:
It automatically sets the span to measure the channel with number 21. The channel borders are
marked with red vertical lines.
It also knows how large the ideal intercarrier frequency offset (vision carrier to audio carriers)
should be. This information is needed to calculate the deviation from the ideal value. The ideal
sound carrier positions are also marked via red vertical lines.
The measurement principle is chosen according to the modulation standard given for the current
measurement channel. For example: The powers of a NICAM and a FM sound carrier must be
measured in different ways.
The display tells you the actual RF frequency and what modulation standard the channel
contains.
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Fig. 2-70 Carriers measurement using a Channel Table. No input signal!
8. Press the Channel No softkey.
9. Input a channel number via the numeric keyboard. The Cable TV Measurements option will only
allow analog TV channels defined in the active channel table, since we are in a measurement for
analog TV channels and digital TV signals would not make sense! The same is true when you use
the rotary knob for changing the measurement channel.
So, the very small example channel table only allows us to switch to channel 22. Observe how the
RF frequency changes.
10. Press the MEAS key.
11. Press the Digital TV softkey.
This switches to measurements for Digital TV signals.
12. Press the Spectrum softkey.
The resulting measurement is displayed (see Fig. 2-71).
The Cable TV Measurements option once again configures the measurement automatically and
gives you information about the channel borders and the modulation standard.
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Fig. 2-71 Digital TV spectrum using a Channel Table. No input signal!
13. Press the Channel No softkey.
14. Choose one of the digital TV channels that are present in the channel table, because we are in a
measurement designed for digital TV signals.
15. Press the MEAS key.
16. Press the TV Analyzer softkey.
17. Press the Tilt softkey.
18. Press the Auto Range softkey.
The resulting measurement is displayed (see Fig. 2-72).
Fig. 2-72 Tilt measurement using a Channel Table. No input signal!
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
The use of a channel table is mandatory for the Tilt measurement. Because the Cable TV
Measurements option must know where a channel's power has to be measured and how it has to be
done. Each vertical line represents a channel. The blue ones are digital TV channels, the yellow ones
are analog TV.
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
This section describes measurement examples for the Noise Figure Measurements option (K30). For
further information on measurement examples refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples", or the Operating Manual on CD, chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.50.
Direct Measurements
Direct measurements are designed for DUTs without frequency–conversion, e.g. amplifiers. For details
refer also to the Operating Manual on CD, chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Noise Figure
Measurements Option (K30)".
Basic Measurement Example
This section provides step–by–step instructions for working through an ordinary noise figure
measurement. The following steps are described:
1. Setting up the measurement
2. Performing the calibration
3. Performing the main measurement
The gain and noise figure of an amplifier are to be determined in the range from 220 MHz to 320 MHz.
Setting up the measurement
1. Activate the Noise mode (for details refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Measurement
Mode Selection – MODE Key").
2. Press the Freq Settings softkey to open the Frequency Settings dialog box.
In the Start Freq field, enter 550 MHz.
In the Stop Freq field, enter 560 MHz.
In the Step Freq field, enter 2 MHz.
A measurement at 6 frequency points is performed: 550 MHz, 552 MHz, 554 MHz, ..., 560
MHz.
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3. Press the ENR Settings softkey to open the ENR dialog box.
In the ENR Constant field, enter the average ENR value of the used noise source for the
frequency range of interest, for example 15 dB.
4. Press the Meas Settings softkey to open the Measurement Settings dialog box.
Activate the 2nd Stage Correction option to perform the measurement as accurately as
possible.
Performing the calibration
1. Connect the noise source to the RF input of the R&S FSL (see Fig. 2-73).
2. If you perform the measurement in an environment with radiated emissions, you may consider to
connect a lowpass filter to the voltage supply input of the noise source.
3. Provide the voltage supply for the noise source by connecting it to the +28 V connector of the
R&S FSL (labeled NOISE SOURCE CONTROL on the rear panel of the instrument) via a coax
cable and the lowpass filter. Connect the lowpass filter between the noise source itself and the
NOISE SOURCE CONTROL connector of the R&S FSL as shown in Fig. 2-73.
The purpose of the lowpass filter is to suppress any interference (e.g. due to RF interference),
including interference from the supply line. This makes it possible to perform very precise
measurements.
Fig. 2-73:
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4. Start the calibration for the Noise Figure Measurements option.
Press the SWEEP key.
Press the Cal softkey.
The progress bar indicates the progress of the calibration measurement. After successful
calibration, in the status bar, a corresponding message is displayed and the title bar at the top of
the screen shows the status on the right–hand–side.
Performing the main measurement
1. Insert the DUT (in this example, the amplifier) into the test setup between the noise source and RF
input of the R&S FSL (see Fig. 2-74).
Fig. 2-74:
Test setup for the main measurement
2. To select the sweep mode, press the SWEEP key.
3. Press the RUN key to start the measurement.
Measurement results are updated as the measurement is in progress. The results are displayed in
graphical form. There are two traces, one for noise figure/temperature and one for the gain of the
DUT.
4. To change the display from the graphical form to a tabular list of measurement points, press the
Display List/Graph softkey.
Note:
If a measurement is started while another measurement is still in progress, the first
measurement is aborted and the new measurement started immediately.
DUTs with very Large Gain
If the gain of the DUT exceeds 60 dB, the total gain must be reduced by an external attenuator. The
total gain of the DUT together with the external attenuator should lie within the range from 10 dB to
60 dB. A total gain of 20 dB to 30 dB is recommended. For a DUT with a gain of e.g. 64 dB, it is
recommended to use an external 40 dB–attenuator.
If an external attenuator is used, in the Measurement Settings dialog box, the entry in the Range field
should be modified according to the total gain ( = GDUT – external attenuator).
The attenuation values of the external attenuator are entered in the Loss Settings dialog box under
Loss Output Settings.
Inaccuracies when entering this attenuation mainly influence the measured gain. The noise figure
remains to a large extent unaffected.
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Fig. 2-75:
R&S FSL
Calibration and measurement on DUTs with a high gain
Frequency–Converting Measurements
The frequency–converting measurement is used for DUTs with an output frequency that differs from the
input frequency, e.g. mixers and frequency converters. The frequency–converting measurement allows
many variations, which differ from each other in two criteria:
Fixed LO Measurements
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB)
Fixed LO Measurements
In the Frequency Settings dialog box, select one of the following settings for the Mode parameter:
fixed LO, IF=RF+LO, for up–converting devices
fixed LO, IF=abs(RF–LO), for down converters or image measurements
Image–Frequency Rejection (SSB, DSB)
Frequency–converting DUTs often do not only convert the desired input frequency but also the image
frequency. A broadband noise source offers noise to the DUT not only at the input frequency but also at
the image frequency. If the noise power at the IF gate is measured, the origin of the noise can no longer
be determined. It may have been converted both from the input and from the image frequency range.
Test setup
Set the following parameters:
IF (intermediate frequency): 100 MHz
RF (input frequency): 400 MHz
LO (local oscillator frequency): 500 MHz
image (image frequency): 600 MHz
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IF
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If a DUT, which equally converts the useful signal and the image to the IF frequency, is measured using
the conventional y factor method or with the 2nd stage correction switched on, a measuring error of 3
dB is produced. The noise figure is displayed 3 dB lower and the gain 3 dB higher. The following
examples help to configure the test setup in order to measure the actual values.
Measurement on a single–sideband mixer
IF
RF
LO
freq.
In general, a single–sideband mixer with a very high image rejection causes very few problems. The
measurement is analogous to an amplifier. In this case, set the image rejection in the Frequency
Settings dialog box to a large value (e.g. 999.99 dB).
Measurement on a mixer without sideband suppression
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If the input and image frequencies are converted with the same application, an error of 3 dB occurs in
the measurement results if the image rejection is not taken into account. In this case, set the image
rejection in the Frequency Settings dialog box to a small value (e.g. 0.0 dB).
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S FSL
Measurement on a mixer with an average sideband suppression
4dB
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
For measurements on a mixer with a low image–frequency rejection, a measuring error of 0 to 3 dB is
obtained if the image–frequency rejection is not taken into account. In this case, set the image rejection
in the Frequency Settings dialog box to 4 dB to produce the correct results.
Measurement on a mixer with unknown sideband suppression
X dB
IF
RF
LO
Image
freq.
If the image rejection is not known, accurate noise results can still be produced. However, the gain of
the DUT must be known and an additional filter is required.
Test setup
Fig. 2-76:
Preparation for calibration
Fig. 2-77:
Test setup for the main measurement
In this test setup, a low pass filter prevents noise from the noise source from being fed in at the image
frequency. Depending on the position of the frequency bands, a highpass or bandpass filter may also
be necessary for the RF frequency instead of the lowpass filter. The important point is that noise from
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R&S FSL
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
the noise source is not converted by a further receive path of the mixer. The noise of the noise source
at the receive frequency must not be reduced. The insertion loss must be considered, if applicable.
With this test setup, the measurement on a mixer without sideband suppression corresponds to the
measurement on a single–sideband mixer. As in that case, set the image rejection in the Frequency
Settings dialog box to a large value (e.g. 999.99 dB) to produce accurate results.
To take the characteristics of the filter into account, in the Loss Settings dialog box, enter the insertion
loss of the filter at the RF frequency. To consider the actual filter suppression at the image frequency,
do not enter 999 dB but the actual attenuation for the image rejection.
Measurement on a harmonics mixer
For a harmonics mixer, the input signals are not only converted to the IF by the wanted harmonic, but
also by the harmonic of the LO signal produced in the mixer. In many cases, the mixer even features a
lower conversion loss in the case of unwanted harmonics. For measurements on this type of mixer, a
bandpass filter must be used to make sure that that there is only noise at the desired input frequency at
the input of the DUT. This measurement is similar to measurements on a mixer with an average
sideband suppression.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
R&S FSL
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
This section explains basic 3GPP FDD base station tests by means of a setup with a signal generator,
e.g. an R&S SMU. It describes how operating and measurement errors can be avoided using correct
settings. The measurements are performed with an R&S FSL equipped with the 3GPP Base Station
Measurements option (K72).
The following measurements are described:
Measuring the Signal Channel Power
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power
Synchronization of the reference frequencies
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting
Behavior with incorrect scrambling code
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power
Trigger offset
Furthermore, the test setup for base station tests is given:
Setup for Base Station Tests
For measurements on base–station signals in line with 3GPP, test models with different channel
configurations are specified in the document "Base Station (BS) conformance testing (FDD)" (3GPP TS
25.141 V7.4.0).
For further information on measurement examples refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.60.
Measuring the Signal Channel Power
The R&S FSL measures the unweighted RF signal power in a bandwidth of
f BW = 5 MHz
(1 + ) 3.84 MHz |
= 0.22
The power is measured in zero span using a digital channel filter of 5 MHz in bandwidth. According to
the 3GPP standard, the measurement bandwidth (5 MHz) is slightly larger than the minimum required
bandwidth of 4.7 MHz.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cable with N
connectors).
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
2.1175 GHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
WCDMA/3GPP
Test model:
1, 32 DPCH channels
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R&S FSL
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Change into the 3G FDD BTS mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the 3G FDD BTS option.
3. Set the center frequency to 2.1175 GHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 2.1175 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the GHz key.
4. Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
5. Start the Power measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Power softkey.
The signal channel power of the WCDMA signal is displayed.
Fig. 2-78 Power measurement
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
R&S FSL
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask
The 3GPP specification defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask in a
range of at least ±12.5 MHz around the WCDMA carrier. To assess the power emissions in the
specified range, the signal power is measured in the range near the carrier by means of a 30 kHz filter,
and in the ranges far away from the carrier by means of a 1 MHz filter. The resulting trace is compared
to a limit line defined in the 3GPP specification.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cable with N
connectors).
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
2.1175 GHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
WCDMA/3GPP
Test model:
1, 32 DPCH channels
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Change into the 3G FDD BTS mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the 3G FDD BTS option.
3. Set the center frequency to 2.1175 GHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 2.1175 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the GHz key.
4. Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
5. Start the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Spectrum Emission Mask softkey.
The spectrum of the 3GPP FDD signal is displayed.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Fig. 2-79 Spectrum Emission Mask measurement
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power
A code domain power measurement on one of the test models (model 1 with 32 channels) is shown in
the following. To demonstrate the effects, the basic parameters of the Code Domain Power
measurements permitting an analysis of the signal are changed one after the other from values adapted
to the measurement signal to non–adapted values.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the input of the R&S FSL.
Connect the reference input (EXT REF) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference input of
the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
2.1175 GHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
WCDMA/3GPP
Test model:
1, 32 DPCH channels
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Change into the 3G FDD BTS mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the 3G FDD BTS option.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
R&S FSL
3. Set the center frequency to 2.1175 GHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 2.1175 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the GHz key.
4. Adjust the reference level and scrambling code.
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu is displayed.
Press the Auto Level & Code softkey.
The firmware adjusts the reference level and then searches the scrambling code automatically.
5. Select the Code Domain Power measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Code Dom Power Diagram softkey.
The Code Domain Power of signal according to test model 1 with 32 channels is displayed.
Fig. 2-80 Relative Code Domain Power measurement
Synchronization of the reference frequencies
Synchronization of the reference oscillators both of the DUT and the R&S FSL strongly reduces the
measured frequency error.
1. Press the SETUP key.
2. Press the Reference Int/Ext softkey to switch to external reference.
The displayed frequency error should be <10 Hz.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting
In the following, the behavior of the DUT and the R&S FSL with an incorrect center frequency setting is
shown.
1. Tune the center frequency of the signal generator in 0.5 kHz steps.
2. Watch the R&S FSL screen.
A Code Domain Power measurement on the R&S FSL is still possible with a frequency error of up
to approx. 1 kHz. Up to 1 kHz, a frequency error causes no apparent difference in the accuracy of
the Code Domain Power measurement.
Above a frequency error of 1 kHz, the probability of impaired synchronization increases. With
continuous measurements, all channels are at times displayed in blue with almost the same level.
Above a frequency error of approx. 2 kHz, a Code Domain Power measurement cannot be
performed. The R&S FSL displays all possible codes in blue with a similar level.
3. Set the signal generator center frequency to 2.1175 GHz again.
Behavior with incorrect scrambling code
A correct Code Domain Power measurement can be carried out only if the scrambling code set on the
R&S FSL is identical to that of the transmitted signal.
1. Set the scrambling code of the signal generator to 0001.
With the scrambling code still set to 0 (default setting), the Code Domain Power Diagram result
display of the R&S FSL shows all possible codes with approximately the same level.
2. Set the correct scrambling code on the R&S FSL.
Press the MENU key.
Press the Scrambling Code softkey.
In the submenu, press the Scrambling Code softkey and enter 1 using the numeric keypad.
The Code Domain Power display again shows the test model.
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power Triggered
If the code domain power measurement is performed without external triggering, a section of
approximately 20 ms of the test signal is recorded at an arbitrary moment to detect the start of a 3GPP
FDD frame in this section. Depending on the position of the frame start, the required computing time
can be quite long. Applying an external (frame) trigger can reduce the computing time.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the input of the R&S FSL.
Connect the reference input (EXT REF) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference input of
the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Connect the external trigger input on the rear panel of the R&S FSL (EXT TRIGGER/GATE IN) to
the external trigger output of the signal generator.
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R&S FSL
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
2.1175 GHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
WCDMA/3GPP
Test model:
1, 32 DPCH channels
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Change into the 3G FDD BTS mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the 3G FDD BTS option.
3. Set the center frequency to 2.1175 GHz.
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed.
In the dialog box, enter 2.1175 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the GHz key.
4. Adjust the reference level and scrambling code.
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu is displayed.
Press the Auto Level & Code softkey.
The firmware adjusts the reference level and then searches the scrambling code automatically.
5. Select the Code Domain Power measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Code Dom Power Diagram softkey.
6. Select an external trigger source.
Press the TRIG key.
Press the Trigger Source softkey and select the External option.
The Code Domain Power of signal according to test model 1 with 32 channels is displayed.
The repetition rate of the measurement increases considerably compared to the repetition rate
of a measurement without an external trigger.
Trigger offset
A delay of the trigger event referenced to the start of the 3GPP FDD frame can be compensated by
modifying the trigger offset.
1. Press the TRIG key.
2. Press the Trigger Offset softkey and enter 100 using the numeric keypad and confirm with the µs
key.
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R&S FSL
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Setup for Base Station Tests
This section describes how to set up the R&S FSL for 3GPP FDD base station tests. As a prerequisite
for starting the test, the instrument must be correctly set up and connected to the AC power supply as
described in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1. Furthermore, the R&S FSL must be equipped with the
3GPP Base Station Measurements option (R&S FSL–K72). Installation instructions are provided in the
Quick Start Guide, chapter 3.:
Standard test setup
EXT TRIGGER
TX signal
Base
Transmission
Station
ext. reference signal
R&S FSL
EXT
REF
Frame
Trigger
Fig. 2-81
RF
INPUT
Base Transmission station test setup
Connect the antenna output (or TX output) of the base transmission station to RF input of the
R&S FSL via a power attenuator of suitable attenuation.
The following values are recommended for the external attenuator to ensure that the RF input of the
R&S FSL is protected and the sensitivity of the R&S FSL is not reduced too much.
Max. power
Recommended ext. attenuation
55 to 60 dBm
35 to 40 dB
50 to 55 dBm
30 to 35 dB
45 to 50 dBm
25 to 30 dB
40 to 45 dBm
20 to 25 dB
35 to 40 dBm
15 to 20 dB
30 to 35 dBm
10 to 15 dB
25 to 30 dBm
5 to 10 dB
20 to 25 dBm
0 to 5 dB
<20 dBm
0 dB
For signal measurements at the output of two–port networks, connect the reference frequency of
the signal source to the reference input of the R&S FSL (EXT REF).
To ensure that the error limits specified by the 3GPP standard are met, the R&S FSL should use an
external reference frequency for frequency measurements on base stations. For instance, a
rubidium frequency standard may be used as a reference source.
If the base station is provided with a trigger output, connect this output to the trigger input of the
R&S FSL (EXT TRIGGER/GATE IN).
Basic settings
1. Enter the external attenuation).
2. Enter the reference level.
3. Enter the center frequency.
4. Set the trigger.
5. Select the standard and measurement.
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
R&S FSL
CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
This section explains basic CDMA2000 base station tests by means of a setup with a signal generator,
e.g. an R&S SMU. It describes how operating and measurement errors can be avoided using correct
settings. The measurements are performed with an R&S FSL equipped with the CDMA2000 Base
Station Measurements option (K82).
The following measurements are described:
Measuring the Signal Channel Power
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power and the Frequency Error
–
Synchronization of the reference frequencies
–
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting
Measuring the triggered Relative Code Domain Power
–
Adjusting the trigger offset
–
Behaviour with the wrong PN offset
Measuring the Composite EVM
Measuring the Peak Code Domain Error and the RHO Factor
–
Displaying RHO
Furthermore, the test setup for base station tests is given:
Test Setup for Base Station Tests
As the CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements option also supports the CDMA2000 Standard, the
examples are performed on an CDMA2000 signal.
General test setup:
The measurements are performed with the following units and accessories:
R&S FSL equipped with the CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements option
R&S SMU signal generator equipped with option SMU-B9 / B10 / B11 baseband generator and SMUK46 CDMA2000 incl. 1xEVDV.
1 coaxial cable, 50
2 coaxial cables, 50
, approximately 1 m, N connector
, approximately 1 m, BNC connector
This option is available from firmware version 1.90.
Measuring the Signal Channel Power
In the Power measurement, the total channel power of the CDMA2000 signal is displayed. The
measurement also displays spurious emeissions like harmonics or intermodulation products that occur
close to the carrier.
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cable with N
connectors).
Signal generator settings:
Frequency:
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option.
3. Start the Power measurement
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Power softkey.
4. Set the center frequency.
Press the FREQ key and enter 878.49 MHz.
5. Set the reference level.
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
On the screen, the spectrum of the signal and the corresponding power levels within the 1.2288 MHz
channel bandwidth are displayed. In the table below the diagram, the numeric values of the channel
bandwidth of the TX xhannel and power level of the analyzed signal are listed.
Fig. 2-82: Measurement of the signal channel power
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Measuring the Spectrum Emission Mask
To detect spurious emissions such as harmonics or intermodulation products, the R&S FSL offers a
spectrum emission mask measurement. The measurement compares the power against the spurious
emissions mask in the range from -4 MHz to 4 MHz around the carrier. The exact measurement
settings like the filter that is used depend on the Band Class parameter (for supported Band Classes
see chapter 4 "Instrument Functions").
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cable with N
connectors).
Signal generator settings:
Frequency:
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option.
3. Start the measurement.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Spectrum Emission Mask softkey.
4. Set the center frequency.
Press the FREQ key and enter 878.49 MHz.
5. Set the reference level.
Press the AMPT key and enter 0 dBm.
6. Select a bandclass
Press the Bandclass softkey and select BandClass 0: 800 MHz Cellular Band from the list.
On the screen, the spectrum of the signal is displayed, including the limit line defined in the standard.
To understand where and about how much the measurement has failed, the List Evaluation table shows
the frequencies, where spurious emissions occur (for details on the table structure see chapter 4
"Instrument Functions").
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
Fig. 2-83: Measurement of the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measuring the Relative Code Domain Power and the
Frequency Error
A Code Domain Power measurement analyses the signal over a single Power Control Group (PCG). It
also determines the power of all channels.
A Code Domain Power measurement on a test model (having 9 channels) is performed. The basic
parameters of the Code Domain Power measurements, which allows an analysis of the signal, are
changed one after the other to demonstrate the ensuing effects: values adapted to the measurement
signal are changed to non–adapted values.
Note: In the following examples, adjusting the settings of the code domain measurements is described
using the dialog boxes. Alternately the settings can also be modified by using the
corresponding hardkeys as in the base unit (e.g. the center frequency can be either set via the
Frontend Settings dialog box, but also via the FREQ key).
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL.
Connect the reference input (EXT REF) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference output
(REF) of the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Signal generator settings:
Frequency:
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer Mode.
Press the MODE key and select CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer.
3. Enter the Code Domain Analyzer.
Press the MEAS key
Press the Code Domain Analyzer softkey.
4. Start the measurement
In the Code Domain Analyzer softkey menu, press the Select Meas softkey.
Press the Code Domain Power softkey.
5. Enter the Settings Overview dialog box.
Press the Settings softkey.
Press the Settings Overview softkey.
The Settings Overview dialog box is displayed.
6. Set the center frequency and the reference level.
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the Frontend button.
In the Center Frequency field enter 878.49 MHz.
In the Ref Level field enter 10 dBm.
Close the Frontend Settings dialog box.
Close the Settings Overview box.
In the two screens, the following results are displayed: screen A shows the power of the code domain of
the signal. The x-axis represents the individual channels (or codes), while the y-axis shows the power of
each channel. In screen B the result summary is displayed. It shows the numeric results of the code
domain power measurement, including the frequency error.
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
Fig. 2-84: Measurement of the code domain power without external reference
Synchronization of the reference frequencies
The frequency error can be reduced by synchronizing the transmitter and the receiver to the same
reference frequency.
7. Press the SETUP key.
Press the Reference Int/Ext softkey to switch to an external reference.
Screen A again shows the CDP measurement and screen B the result summary. After the
synchronization of the reference frequencies of the devices, the frequency error should now be smaller
than 10 Hz.
Behavior with deviating center frequency setting
A measurement can only be valid if the center frequency of the DUT and the analyzer are balanced.
8. On the signal generator, change the center frequency in steps of 0.1 kHz and observe the analyzer
screen.
Up to a frequency error of approximately 1.0 kHz, a Code Domain Power measurement on the
R&S FSL is still possible. A frequency error within this range causes no apparent difference in the
accuracy of the Code Domain Power measurement.
Above a frequency error of 1.0 kHz, the probability of incorrect synchronization increases. This is
indicated by the SYNC FAILED error message.
If the frequency error exceeds approximately 1.5 kHz, a Code Domain Power measurement cannot
be performed. This is indicated by the SYNC FAILED error message.
Reset the center frequency of the signal generator to 878.49 MHz.
Note:
The center frequency of the DUT should not deviate by more than 1.0 kHz from that of the
R&S FSL.
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R&S FSL
Measuring the triggered Relative Code Domain Power
If the code domain power measurement is performed without external triggering, a section of the test
signal is recorded at an arbitrary point of time and the firmware attempts to detect the start of a power
control group (PCG). To detect this start, all possibilities of the PN sequence location have to be tested
in Free Run trigger mode. This requires computing time. This computing time can be reduced by using
an external (frame) trigger and entering the correct PN offset. If the search range for the start of the
power control group and the PN offset are known then fewer possibilities have to be tested. This
increases the measurement speed.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the input of the R&S FSL.
Connect the reference input (EXT REF) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference input of
the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Connect the external trigger input on the rear panel of the R&S FSL (EXT TRIGGER/GATE IN) to
the external trigger output of the signal generator.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S SMU):
Frequency:
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer Mode.
Press the MODE key and select CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer.
3. Enter the Code Domain Analyzer.
Press the MEAS key
Press the Code Domain Analyzer softkey.
4. Start the measurement.
In the Code Domain Analyzer softkey menu, press the Select Meas softkey.
Press the Code Domain Power softkey.
5. Enter the Settings Overview dialog box.
Press the Settings softkey.
Press the Settings Overview softkey.
The Settings Overview dialog box is displayed.
6. Set the center frequency and the reference level.
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the Frontend button.
In the Center Frequency field enter 878.49 MHz.
In the Ref Level field enter 10 dBm.
Close the Frontend Settings dialog box.
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Close the Settings Overview box.
In the two screens, the following results are displayed: by default, screen A shows the code domain
power of the signal. Compared to the measurement without an external trigger (see previous example),
the repetition rate of the measurement increases. In screen B the result summary is displayed. In the
row Trigger to Frame, the offset between the trigger event and and the start of the PCG (Power Control
Group) is shown.
Fig. 2-85: Measurement of the code domain power with an external trigger source
Note that the Trigger to Frame parameter is only visible in the full screen mode of the Result Summary
display.
7. Change into full screen mode..
Set the focus on screen B by pressing the Screen Focus A/B softkey.
Press the Screen Size Split/Full softkey.
The display is now in full screen mode
Adjusting the trigger offset
The delay between the trigger event and the start of the PCG can be compensated for by adjusting the
trigger offset.
8. Set an external trigger source and the trigger offset.
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the IQ Capture button.
Set the Trigger Source radio button to External.
Set the Trigger Offset to 100Rs to compensate analog delays of the trigger event.
In the two screens, the following results are displayed: Screen A shows the the same as above. In
screen B the result summary is displayed. In the Trg to Frame result, the offset between the trigger
event and the start of the PCG has been adjusted.
Behaviour with the wrong PN offset
The last adjustment to be made is setting the PN (Pseudo Noise) offset correctly. The measurement
can only be valid, if the PN offset on the analyzer is the same as that of the transmit signal.
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R&S FSL
9. Set a PN Offset.
–
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the Demodulation Settings button.
–
In the PN Offset field enter 200.
Again, screen A shows the CDP measurement, screen B the result summary. In the result summary,
the Trigger to Frame result is not correct. Also, the error message SYNC FAILED indicates that the
synchronization has failed.
–
In the PN Offset field enter 0
After adjusting it, the PN offset on the R&S FSL is the same as that of the signal. In the result summary
the Trg To Frame value is now shown correctly.
Fig. 2-86: Result summary of the code domain measurement with the Trigger to Frame
value
Measuring the Composite EVM
The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) describes the quality of the measured signal compared to an ideal
reference signal generated by the R&S FSL. In the I-Q plane, the error vector represents the ratio of the
measured signal to the ideal signal on symbol level. The error vector is equal to the square root of the
ratio of the measured signal to the reference signal. The result is given in %.
In the Composite EVM measurement the error is averaged over all channels (by means of the root
mean square) for a given Power Control Group (PCG). The measurement covers the entire signal
during the entire observation time. On screen the results are shown in a diagram, in which the x-axis
represents the examined PCGs and the y-axis shows the EVM values.
Test Setup:
Connect the RF output of the Signal Generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cables with
N connectors).
Connect the reference input (EXT REF IN/OUT) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference
output (REF) on the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Connect external triggering of the analyzer (EXT TRIG GATE) to the signal generator’s trigger
(TRIGOUT1 at PAR DATA).
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R&S FSL
CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
Signal generator settings:
Frequency.
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer Mode.
Press the MODE key and select CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer.
3. Enter the Code Domain Analyzer.
Press the MEAS key
Press the Code Domain Analyzer softkey.
4. Start the measurement.
Press the Select Meas softkey
Press the More
softkey
Select the Composite EVM softkey and the measurement begins.
5. Enter the Settings Overview dialog box.
Press the Settings softkey.
Press the Settings Overview softkey.
The Settings Overview dialog box is displayed.
6. Set the center frequency and the reference level.
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the Frontend button.
In the Center Frequency field enter 878.49 MHz.
In the Ref Level field enter 10 dBm.
Close the Frontend Settings dialog box.
7. Set an external trigger source.
In the Settings Overview dialog box, select the IQ Capture button.
Set the Trigger Source radio button to External.
Close the Settings Overview box
In the two screens, the following results are displayed: by default, Screen A shows the diagram of the
Composite EVM measurement result. In screen B the result summary is displayed. It shows the
numeric results of the Code Domain Power measurement, including the values for the Composite EVM.
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Measuring the Peak Code Domain Error and the RHO Factor
The Code Domain Error Power describes the quality of the measured signal compared to an ideal
reference signal generated by the R&S FSL. In the I-Q plane, the error vector represents the difference
of the measured signal and the ideal signal. The Code Domain Error is the difference in power on
symbol level of the measured and the reference signal projected to the class of of the base spreading
factor. The unit of the result is dB.
In the Peak Code Domain Error (PCDE) measurement, the maximum error value over all channels is
determined and displayed for a given PCG. The measurement covers the entire signal during the entire
observation time. On screen the results are shown in a diagram, in which the x-axis represents the
PCGs and the y-axis shows the PCDE values.
A measurement of the RHO factor is shown in the second part of the example. RHO is the normalized,
correlated power between the measured and the ideal reference signal. The maximum value of RHO is
1. In that case the measured signal and the reference signal are identical. When measuring RHO, it is
required that only the pilot channel is active.
Test setup:
Connect the RF output of the signal generator to the RF input of the R&S FSL (coaxial cable with N
connectors).
Connect the reference input (EXT REF IN/OUT) on the rear panel of the R&S FSL to the reference
output (REF) on the signal generator (coaxial cable with BNC connectors).
Connect external triggering of the R&S FSL (EXT TRIG GATE) to the signal generator trigger
(TRIGOUT1 at PAR DATA).
Signal generator settings:
Frequency:
878.49 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Standard:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S FSL to its default state.
Press the PRESET key.
2. Activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
Press the MODE key and activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option.
3. Enter the Code Domain Analyzer.
Press the MEAS key.
Press the Code Domain Analyzer softkey.
4. Start the Peak Code Domain Error measurement.
Press the Select Meas softkey
Press the More
softkey
Select the Peak Code Domain Error softkey and start the measurement.
5. Enter the Settings Overview dialog box.
Press the Settings softkey.
Press the Settings Overview softkey.
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R&S FSL
CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
The Settings Overview dialog box is displayed.
6. Set the center frequency and the reference level.
In the Settings Overview dialog box select the Frontend button.
In the Center Frequency field enter 878.49 MHz.
In the Ref Level field enter 0 dBm.
Close the Frontend Settings dialog box.
7. Set an external trigger source.
In the Settings Overview dialog box, select the IQ Capture button.
Set the Trigger Source radio button to External.
Close the Settings Overview box
In the two screens, the following results are displayed: by default, screen A shows the diagram of the
Peak Code Domain Error. In screen B the result summary is displayed. It shows the numeric results of
the code domain power measurement, but nothing specific about the Peak Code Domain Error.
Displaying RHO
Note:
Make sure that all channels except the pilot channel (code 0.64) are OFF, so that only the pilot
channel is available in the measurement.
No specific measurement is required to get the value for RHO. The R&S FSL always calculates this
value automatically regardless of the code domain measurement performed. Besides the results of the
code domain measurements, the numeric result of the RHO measurement is shown in the result
summary, by default shown in screen B.
Test Setup for Base Station Tests
This section describes the default settings of the R&S FSL, if it is used as a CDMA2000 base station
tester. Before starting the measurements, the R&S FSL has to be configured correctly and supplied with
power as described in the Quick Start Guide, "Preparing For Use". Furthermore, the application
firmware of the R&S FSL-K82 must be enabled. Installation and enabling of the application firmware are
described in chapter 4 "Instrument Functions". :
NOTICE
Risk of damage to the instrument
Before taking the instrument into operation, make sure that
•
the housing covers are in place and their screws have been tightened,
•
the ventilation slits are free,
•
no signal voltage levels above the permissible limits are applied to the inputs,
•
the outputs of the unit are not overloaded or wrongly connected.
Failure to comply may result in damage to the instrument
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CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Standard test setup:
EXT REF
EXTERNAL
REFERENCE
SIGNAL
R&S FSL
EXT TRIGGER
RF INPUT
EVEN SECOND
CLOCK TRIGGER
BTS
TX SIGNAL
EXTERNAL
ATTENUATION
Connect the antenna output (or TX output) of the base station to the RF input of the R&S FSL. Use
power attenuator exhibiting suitable attenuation.
The following values for external attenuation are recommended to ensure that the RF input of the
analyzer is protected and the sensitivity of the unit is not reduced too much:
Maximum Power
Recommended external attenuation
55 to 60 dBm
35 to 40 dB
50 to 55 dBm
30 to 35 dB
45 to 50 dBm
25 to 30 dB
40 to 45 dBm
20 to 25 dB
35 to 40 dBm
15 to 20 dB
30 to 35 dBm
10 to 15 dB
25 to 30 dBm
5 to 10 dB
20 to 25 dBm
0 to 5 dB
20 dBm
0 dB
For signal measurements at the output of two-port networks, connect the reference frequency of the
signal source to the rear reference input of the analyzer.
The R&S FSL must be operated with an external frequency reference to ensure that the error limits
of the CDMA2000 specification for frequency measurements on base stations are met. A rubidium
frequency standard can be used as a reference source for example.
If the base station has a trigger output, connect the trigger output of the base station to the rear
trigger input of the analyzer (EXT TRIG GATE).
Presettings
Enter the external attenuation
Enter the reference level
Enter the center frequency
Set the trigger
If used, enable the external reference
Select the standard and the desired measurement
Set the PN offset
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R&S FSL
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91/K91n)
This section describes measurement examples for the WLAN TX Measurements option (K91) and gives
details to signal processing. For further information on measurement examples refer also to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.20. The option R&S FSL-K91n is available from firmware
version 1.90.
Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.11a application
Abbreviations
al , k
symbol at symbol l of sub carrier k
EVM k
error vector magnitude of sub carrier k
EVM
error vector magnitude of current packet
g
signal gain
f
frequency deviation between Tx and Rx
l
symbol index l = [1, nof _Symbols ]
nof _symbols
number of symbols of payload
Hk
channel transfer function of sub carrier k
k
channel index k = [ 31,32]
K mod
modulation dependant normalization factor
relative clock error of reference oscillator
rl , k
sub carrier k of symbol l
This description gives a rough view of the IEEE 802.11a application signal processing. Details are
disregarded in order to get a concept overview.
A diagram of the interesting blocks is shown in Fig. 2-87 First the RF signal is down converted to the IF
frequency f IF = 20.4 MHz. The resulting IF signal rIF (t ) is shown on the left–hand side of the figure. After
bandpass filtering, the signal is sampled by an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) at a sampling rate of
f s1 = 81.6 MHz. This digital sequence is resampled to the new sampling frequency of f s 2 = 80 MHz which is
a multiple of the Nyquist rate (20 MHz). The subsequent digital down converter shifts the IF signal to the
complex base band. In the next step the base band signal is filtered by a FIR filter. To get an idea, the rough
transfer function is plotted in the figure. This filter fulfills two tasks: first it suppresses the IF image frequency,
secondly it attenuates the aliasing frequency bands caused by the subsequent down sampling. After filtering,
the sequence is sampled down by the factor of 4. Thus the sampling rate of the down sampled sequence
r (i ) is the Nyquist rate of f s 3 = 20 MHz. Up to this point the digital part is implemented in an ASIC.
1300.2519.12
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WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
e
~
~
~
r I (t)
F
ADC
-j
I
F
·kT S
2
4"
FIR
Resampler
fs2 = 80 MHz
fs1 = 81.6 MHz
R&S FSL
!HFIR( f )
fs3 = 20MHz
16.4 MHz
f
0
payload
window
frequency
compensation
FFT
rl,k
user defined
compensation
N = 64
pilot
table
al,k
estimation
of
gain, frequency, time
r(i)
r'l,k
1
Hk
gl
t
full
compensation
estimate
data symbols
2.fine timing
al,k
channel
estimation
Hk
parameters
(PL)
Hk
pilots + data
packet search:
1.coarse timing
measurement
of
f res , d#l
l
timing
r''l,k
f coarse
Hk
data
(LS
)
LS
Fig. 2-87
Signal processing of the IEEE 802.11a application
In the lower part of the figure the subsequent digital signal processing is shown. In the first block the
packet search is performed. This block detects the Long Symbol (LS) and recovers the timing. The
coarse timing is detected first. This search is implemented in the time domain. The algorithm is based on
cyclic repetition within the LS after N = 64 samples. Numerous treatises exist on this subject, e.g. [1] to
1 of the Rx–Tx frequency offset f is derived from the metric in
[3]. Furthermore a coarse estimate fˆ
coarse
[6]. This can easily be understood because the phase of r (i ) r * (i + N ) is determined by the frequency
offset. As the frequency deviation f can exceed half a bin (distance between neighbor sub–carriers)
the preceding Short Symbol (SS) is also analyzed in order to detect the ambiguity.
After the coarse timing calculation the time estimate is improved by the fine timing calculation. This is
achieved by first estimating the coarse frequency response Hˆ k( LS) , with k = [ 26, 26] denoting the channel
index of the occupied sub–carriers. First the FFT of the LS is calculated. After the FFT calculation the known
symbol information of the LS sub–carriers is removed by dividing by the symbols. The result is a coarse
estimate Ĥ k of the channel transfer function. In the next step the complex channel impulse response is
computed by an IFFT. Next the energy of the windowed impulse response (the window size is equal to
the guard period) is calculated for every trial time. Afterwards the trail time of the maximum energy is
detected. This trial time is used to adjust the timing.
Now the position of the LS is known and the starting point of the useful part of the first payload symbol
can be derived. In the next block this calculated time instant is used to position the payload window.
Only the payload part is windowed. This is sufficient because the payload is the only subject of the
subsequent measurements.
In the next block the windowed sequence is compensated by the coarse frequency estimate fˆcoarse . This is
necessary because otherwise inter channel interference (ICI) would occur in the frequency domain.
The transition to the frequency domain is achieved by an FFT of length 64. The FFT is performed
symbol–wise for every of the nof _symbols symbols of the payload. The calculated FFTs are described
by rl , k with
the symbol index l = [ 1 , nof _symbols ] and
the channel index k = [ 31 , 32 ] .
1
)
The hat generally describes an estimate. Example: x is the estimate of x.
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R&S FSL
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
In case of an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel the FFT is described by [4], [5]
r l , k = K mod × al , k × gl × H k × e
j ( phasel
( common )
)
+ phasel(,timing
k
+ nl , k
(10)
with
the modulation–dependant normalization factor K mod ,
the symbol al ,k of sub–carrier k at symbol l ,
the gain g l at the symbol l in relation to the reference gain g = 1 at the long symbol (LS),
the channel frequency response H k at the long symbol (LS),
the common phase drift phase (lcommon ) of all sub–carriers at symbol l (see below),
the phase phasel(,ktiming ) of sub–carrier k at symbol l caused by the timing drift (see below),
the independent Gaussian distributed noise samples nl ,k .
The common phase drift in equation (10) is given by
(common)
phasel
= 2 × N s / N × f rest T × l + dyl
(11)
with
N s = 80 being the number of Nyquist samples of the symbol period,
N = 64 being the number of Nyquist samples N = 64 of the useful part of the symbol,
f rest being the (not yet compensated) frequency deviation,
d# l being the phase jitter at the symbol l .
fˆcoarse (see figure 1) is not error–free. Therefore the remaining
represents the not yet compensated frequency deviation in rl ,k . Consequently the
In general, the coarse frequency estimate
frequency error
f rest
overall frequency deviation of the device under test (DUT) is calculated by f = fˆcoarse + f rest . Remark:
The only motivation for dividing the common phase drift in equation (11) into two parts is to be able to
calculate the overall frequency deviation of the DUT.
The reason for the phase jitter d# l in equation (11) may be different. The nonlinear part of the phase
jitter may be caused by the phase noise of the DUT oscillator. Another reason for nonlinear phase jitter
may be the increase of the DUT amplifier temperature at the beginning of the burst. Please note that
besides the nonlinear part the phase jitter d# l also contains a constant part. This constant part is
caused by the not yet compensated frequency deviation f rest . To understand this, please keep in mind
that the measurement of the phase starts at the first symbol l = 1 of the payload. In contrast the channel
frequency response H k in equation (10) represents the channel at the long symbol of the preamble.
Consequently the not yet compensated frequency deviation f rest produces a phase drift between the
long symbol and the first symbol of the payload. Therefore this phase drift appears as a constant value
("DC value'') in d# l .
Referring to the IEEE 802.11a measurement standard Chapter 17.3.9.7 "Transmit modulation accuracy test''
[6], the common phase drift phase(lcommon ) must be estimated and compensated from the pilots. Therefore this
"symbol wise phase tracking'' (Tracking Phase) is activated as the default setting of the R&S FSL–K91/K91n.
Furthermore the timing drift in equation (10) is given by
( timing )
phasel , k
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= 2 × Ns / N × × k × l
(12)
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WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
R&S FSL
with being the relative clock deviation of the reference oscillator. Normally a symbol–wise timing jitter
is negligible and thus not modeled in equation (12). There may be situations where the timing drift has
to be taken into account. This is illustrated by an example: In accordance to [6] the allowed clock
deviation of the DUT is up to max = 20 ppm. Furthermore a long packet with nof _symbols = 400 symbols
is assumed. From equations (10) and (12), it results that the phase drift of the highest sub–carrier
k = 26 in the last symbol l = nof _symbols is 93 degrees. Even in the noise–free case, this would lead to
symbol errors. The example shows that it is actually necessary to estimate and compensate the clock
deviation, which is accomplished in the next block.
Referring to the IEEE 802.11a measurement standard [6], the timing drift phasel(,ktiming ) is not part of the
requirements. Therefore the "time tracking'' (Tracking Time) is not activated as the default setting of the
R&S FSL–K91/K91n.
The time tracking option should rather be seen as a powerful analyzing option.
In addition the tracking of the gain g l in equation (10) is supported for each symbol in relation to the
reference gain g = 1 at the time instant of the long symbol (LS). At this time the coarse channel transfer
function Hˆ ( LS ) is calculated. This makes sense since the sequence r ' is compensated by the coarse
k
l ,k
channel transfer function Hˆ k( LS ) before estimating the symbols. Consequently a potential change of the
gain at the symbol l (caused, for example, by the increase of the DUT amplifier temperature) may lead
to symbol errors especially for a large symbol alphabet M of the MQAM transmission. In this case the
estimation and the subsequent compensation of the gain are useful.
Referring to the IEEE 802.11a measurement standard [6], the compensation of the gain g l is not part
of the requirements. Therefore the "gain tracking'' (Tracking Gain) is not activated as the default setting
of the R&S FSL–K91/K91n.
How can the parameters above be calculated? In this application the optimum maximum likelihood
algorithm is used. In the first estimation step the symbol–independent parameters f rest and
are
estimated. The symbol dependent parameters can be neglected in this step i.e. the parameters are set
to g l = 1 and d# l = 0 . Referring to equation (10) the log likelihood function2
~
~
L1 ( f rest , ) =
nof _ symbols
%
l =1
%
rl , k
2
)
j( ~
phase l( common ) + ~
p hasel(,tik min g )
al , k × H k( LS ) × e
k = 21, 7,7, 21
(13)
with
~
~
phasel(common) = 2 × N s / N × f rest T × l
~
(ti min g )
~
phase
= 2 × N / N × ×k ×l
s
l
~
~
f rest and . The trial parameters leading to
the minimum of the log likelihood function are used as estimates fˆrest and ˆ . In equation (13)(13) the
must be calculated as a function of the trial parameters
known pilot symbols al ,k are read from a table.
In the second step for every symbol l the log likelihood function
L2 ( g~l , d#~l ) =
%
rl , k
2
) ( LS )
j( ~
phasel( common ) + ~
phasel(,tik min g )
al , k × g~l × H k
×e
k = 21, 7,7, 21
with
)
~
phasel(common) = 2 × N s / N × f rest T × l + d#~l
)
)
(ti min g )
phasel
= 2 × Ns / N × × k ×l
2 The tilde generally describes an estimate. Example: ~
x is the trial parameter of x.
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R&S FSL
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
is calculated as a function of the trial parameters g~l and d#~l . Finally, the trial parameters leading to the
minimum of the log likelihood function are used as estimates ĝ l and d#ˆl .
This robust algorithm works well even at low signal to noise ratios with the Cramer Rao Bound being
reached.
After estimation of the parameters, the sequence rl ,k is compensated in the compensation blocks.
In the upper analyzing branch the compensation is user–defined i.e. the user determines which of the
parameters are compensated. This is useful in order to extract the influence of these parameters. The
resulting output sequence is described by r 'l ,k .
In the lower compensation branch the full compensation is always performed. This separate
compensation is necessary in order to avoid symbol errors. After the full compensation the secure
estimation of the data symbols aˆl ,k is performed. From equation (10) it is clear that first the channel
transfer function H k must be removed. This is achieved by dividing the known coarse channel estimate
Hˆ ( LS) calculated from the LS. Usually an error free estimation of the data symbols can be assumed.
k
In the next block a better channel estimate Hˆ k( PL ) of the data and pilot sub–carriers is calculated by using all
nof _symbols symbols of the payload (PL). This can be accomplished at this point because the phase is
compensated and the data symbols are known. The long observation interval of nof _symbols symbols (compared
to the short interval of 2 symbols for the estimation of Hˆ ( LS ) ) leads to a nearly error–free channel estimate.
k
In the following equalizer block r 'l ,k is compensated by the channel estimate. The resulting channel–
compensated sequence is described by r ' 'l ,k . The user may either choose the coarse channel estimate
Hˆ k( LS ) (from the long symbol) or the nearly error–free channel estimate Hˆ k( LS ) (from the payload) for
equalization. In case of using the improved estimate Hˆ ( LS ) a 2 dB reduction of the subsequent EVM
k
measurement can be expected.
According to the IEEE 802.11a measurement standard [6], the coarse channel estimation Hˆ k( LS ) (from
the long symbol) has to be used for equalization. Therefore the default setting of the R&S FSL–K91 is
equalization from the coarse channel estimate derived from the long symbol.
In the last block the measurement variables are calculated. The most important variable is the error
vector magnitude
EVM k =
1
nof _ symbols
nof _ symbols
%
rl',' k
K mod × al , k
2
(14)
l =1
of the sub–carrier k of the current packet. Furthermore the packet error vector magnitude
EVM =
1
52
26
% EVM
2
k
(15)
k = 26( k & 0)
is derived by averaging the squared EVM k versus k . Finally the average error vector magnitude
EVM =
1
nof _ packets
nof _ packets
% EVM
2
(counter )
(16)
counter =1
is calculated by averaging the packet EVM of all nof _ packets detected packets. This parameter is
equivalent to the so–called "RMS average of all errors ErrorRMS '' of the IEEE 802.11a measurement
commandment (see [6], Chapter 17.3.9.7).
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WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
R&S FSL
Literature
[1]
Speth, Classen, Meyr: ''Frame synchronization of OFDM systems in frequency selective fading
channels", VTC '97, pp. 1807–1811
[2]
Schmidl, Cox: ''Robust Frequency and Timing Synchronization of OFDM", IEEE Trans. on
Comm., Dec. 1997, pp. 1613–621
[3]
Minn, Zeng, Bhargava: ''On Timing Offset Estimation for OFDM", IEEE Communication Letters,
July 2000, pp. 242–244
[4]
Speth, Fechtel, Fock, Meyr: ''Optimum Receiver Design for Wireless Broad–Band Systems
Using OFDM – Part I", IEEE Trans. On Comm. VOL. 47, NO 11, Nov. 1999
[5]
Speth, Fechtel, Fock, Meyr: ''Optimum Receiver Design for Wireless Broad–Band Systems
Using OFDM – Part II", IEEE Trans. On Comm. VOL. 49, NO 4, April. 2001
[6]
IEEE 802.11a, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
specifications
Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.11b application
Abbreviations
'
timing offset
f
frequency offset
(
phase offset
ARG{K}
calculation of the angle of a complex value
EVM
error vector magnitude
ĝ I
estimate of the gain factor in the I–branch
ĝ Q
estimate of the gain factor in the Q–branch
ĝ Q
accurate estimate of the crosstalk factor of the Q–branch in the I–branch
hˆs (v)
estimated baseband filter of the transmitter
hˆr (v)
estimated baseband filter of the receiver
ô I
estimate of the IQ–offset in the I–branch
ôQ
estimate of the IQ–offset in the I–branch
r (v )
measurement signal
sˆ(v)
estimate of the reference signal
sˆn (v)
estimate of the power normalized and undisturbed reference signal
REAL{K}
calculation of the real part of a complex value
IMAG{K}
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calculation of the imaginary part of a complex value
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R&S FSL
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
This description gives a rough overview of the signal processing concept of the IEEE 802.11b
application.
A block diagram of the measurement application is shown in Fig. 2-88. The baseband signal of an IEEE
802.11b wireless LAN system transmitter is sampled with a sampling rate of 44 MHz.
Fig. 2-88
Signal processing of the IEEE 802.11b application
The first task of the measurement application is to detect the position of the bursts within the
measurement signal r1 (v ) . The detection algorithm is able to find the positions of the beginning of
short and long bursts and can distinguish between them. The algorithm also detects the initial state of
the scrambler. This is required if IEEE 802.11 signals should be analyzed, because this standard does
not specify the initial state of the scrambler.
With the knowledge of the start position of the burst, the header of the burst can be demodulated. The
bits transmitted in the header provide information about the length of the burst and the modulation type
used in the PSDU.
After the start position and the burst length is fully known, better estimates of timing offset, timing drift,
frequency offset and phase offset can be calculated using the entire data of the burst.
At this point of the signal processing a demodulation can be performed without decision error. After
demodulation the normalized and undisturbed reference signal s (v ) is available.
If the frequency offset is not constant and varies with time, the frequency– and phase offset in several
partitions of the burst must be estimated and corrected. Additionally, timing offset, timing drift and gain
factor can be estimated and corrected in several partitions of the burst. These corrections can be
separately switched off in the demodulation settings menu.
Knowing the normalized power and undisturbed reference signal, the transmitter baseband filter is
estimated by minimizing the cost function
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WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91)
N 1
L1 =
% r( ) × e
j2
~
f
+L
~
j (
×e
%
=0
R&S FSL
2
~
)
hs (i ) × s n (
i ) o~I
jo~Q
(17)
i= L
r (v) is the over sampled measurement signal,
sˆn (v) the over sampled power normalized and undisturbed reference signal, N the observation
~
~
~ ~ ~
length, L the filter length, f , ( , o
I , oQ and hs (v ) the variation parameters of the frequency–,
of a maximum–likelihood–based estimator, where
the phase, the IQ–offset and the coefficients of the transmitter filter. The frequency–, the phase– and
the IQ–offset are estimated jointly with the coefficients of the transmitter filter to increase the estimation
quality.
Once the transmitter filter is known, all other unknown signal parameters are estimated with a
maximum–likelihood–based estimation, which minimizes the cost function
N 1
L2 =
% r(
~
~
'~ ) × e j 2 f × e j (
g~ I × s I ( )
jg~Q × sQ ( ) + g~Q × sQ ( ) o~I
jo~Q
2
(18)
=0
where
g~ I resp. g~Q are the variation parameters of the gain used in the I– resp. the Q–branch,
the crosstalk factor of the Q–branch into the I–branch and
g~Q is
s I (v) resp. sQ (v) are the filtered reference
signal of the I– resp. the Q–branch. The unknown signal parameters are estimated in a joint estimation
process to increase the accuracy of the estimates.
The accurate estimates of the frequency offset, the IQ–imbalance, the quadratur–mismatch and the
normalized IQ–offset are displayed by the measurement software. The IQ–imbalance
IQ Imbalance =
)
)
gQ + gQ
)
gI
(19)
is the quotient of the estimates of the gain factor of the Q–branch, the crosstalk factor and the gain
factor of the I–branch, the quadrature–mismatch
{
)
)
Quadrature Mismatch = ARG g Q + j × g Q
}
(20)
is a measure for the crosstalk of the Q–branch into the I–branch. The normalized IQ–offset
IQ Offset =
oˆI2 + oˆQ2
2
1
)+ gˆ I2 + gˆ Q2 *,
2
(21)
is defined as the magnitude of the IQ–offset normalized by the magnitude of the reference signal.
At this point of the signal processing all unknown signal parameters such as timing–, frequency–,
phase–, IQ–offset and IQ–imbalance have been evaluated and the measurement signal can be
corrected accordingly.
Using the corrected measurement signal r (v ) and the estimated reference signal
quality parameters can be calculated. The mean error vector magnitude (EVM)
N 1
EVM =
% r (v )
sˆ(v)
sˆ(v) the modulation
2
v =0
N 1
% sˆ(v)
v =0
2
(22)
is the quotient of the root–mean–square values of the error signal power and the reference signal
power, whereas the instant error vector magnitude
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EVM (v) =
r (v) sˆ(v)
N 1
% sˆ(v)
2
v =0
(23)
is the momentary error signal magnitude normalized by the root mean square value of the reference
signal power.
In [2] a different algorithm is proposed to calculate the error vector magnitude. In a first step the IQ–
offset in the I–branch
oˆ I =
1
N
N 1
% REAL{r(v)}
v =0
(24)
and the IQ–offset of the Q–branch
oˆ Q =
1
N
N 1
% IMAG{r(v)}
v =0
(25)
are estimated separately, where r(v) is the measurement signal which has been corrected with the
estimates of the timing–, frequency– and phase offset, but not with the estimates of the IQ–imbalance
and IQ–offset. With these values the IQ–imbalance of the I–branch
gˆ I =
1
N
N 1
% REAL{r(v)
oˆ I }
v =0
(26)
and the IQ–imbalance of the Q–branch
gˆ Q =
1
N
% IMAG{r(v)
oˆ Q }
N 1
v =0
(27)
are estimated in a non–linear estimation in a second step. Finally, the mean error vector magnitude
Verr(v)
1
2
N 1
% [REAL{r (v)}
=0
=
N 1
% [IMAG{r (v)}
1 )
[g + g) ]
2
]
) 2 1
gI +
2
)
oI
)
oQ
]
) 2
gQ
=0
(28)
2 2
Q
2
I
can be calculated with a non data aided calculation. The instant error vector magnitude
Verr(v)
=
[
1
REAL{r (v)} oˆ I
2
gˆ I
]2 + 12 [IMAG{r (v)}
[
oˆQ
gˆ Q
]2
]
(29)
1
2 2
gˆ I2 + gˆ Q
2
is the error signal magnitude normalized by the root mean square value of the estimate of the
measurement signal power. The advantage of this method is that no estimate of the reference signal is
needed, but the IQ–offset and IQ–imbalance values are not estimated in a joint estimation procedure.
Therefore, each estimation parameter is disturbing the estimation of the other parameter and the
accuracy of the estimates is lower than the accuracy of the estimations achieved by equation (17). If the
EVM value is dominated by Gaussian noise this method yields similar results as equation (18).
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Literature
[1]
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access
Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications, IEEE Std 802.11–1999, Institute of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc., 1999.
[2]
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access
Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higher–Speed Physical Layer
Extensions in the 2.4 GHz Band, IEEE Std 802.11b–1999, Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers, Inc., 1999.
802.11b RF carrier suppression
Definition
The RF carrier suppression, measured at the channel center frequency, shall be at least 15 dB below
the peak SIN(x)/x power spectrum. The RF carrier suppression shall be measured while transmitting a
repetitive 01 data sequence with the scrambler disabled using DQPSK modulation. A 100 kHz
resolution bandwidth shall be used to perform this measurement.
Measurement with the R&S FSL
The RF carrier suppression as defined in the standard is a determination of peak ratios. The
unscrambled 01 data sequence provides a spectrum with distinct peaks enveloped by the transmit filter
spectrum. An IQ offset leads to an additional peak at the center frequency.
The following measurement sequence can be used in normal spectrum mode:
1. Use power trigger or external trigger
1. Use gated sweep with gate delay at payload start and gate length = payload length
(Delay–Comp ON and RBW = 50 MHz for gate settings)
2. Set RBW = 100 kHz
3. Set Sweep Time = 100 ms
4. Set Span = 20 MHz
5. Set Detector = RMS
6. Set Marker 1 to center frequency
7. Use Marker 2 as Delta Marker and set it to max. peak
Fig. 2-89 is a screenshot of this measurement. The delta marker shows directly the RF carrier
suppression in dB (white circled value).
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Fig. 2-89 RF carrier suppression measurement
Comparison to IQ offset measurement in K91/K91n list mode
The IQ offset measurement in K91 returns the actual carrier feed through normalized to the mean
power at the symbol timings. This measurement doesn't need a special test signal and is independent
of the transmit filter shape.
The RF carrier suppression measured according to the standard is inversely proportional to the IQ
offset measured in K91 list mode. The difference (in dB) between the two values depends on the
transmit filter shape and should be determined with one reference measurement.
The following table lists exemplary the difference for three transmit filter shapes
Transmit filter
IQ-Offset [dB]
rectangular
RF-Carrier-Suppression [dB]
11 dB
Root raised cosine,
Gaussian,
( ±0.5 dB ) :
= 0.3
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IQ Impairments
IQ Offset
An IQ–Offset indicates a carrier offset with fixed amplitude. This results in a constant shift of the IQ
axes. The offset is normalized by the mean symbol power and displayed in dB.
Gain Imbalance
An ideal I/Q modulator amplifies the I and Q signal path by exactly the same degree. The imbalance
corresponds to the difference in amplification of the I and Q channel and therefore to the difference in
amplitude of the signal components. In the vector diagram, the length of the I vector changes relative to
the length of the Q vector.
The entry is displayed in dB and %, where 1 dB offset is roughly 12 % according to the following:
Imbalance [dB] = 20log ( | GainQ | / | GainI |)
Positive values mean that the Q vector is amplified more than the I vector by the corresponding
percentage:
Negative values mean that the I vector is amplified more than the Q vector by the corresponding
percentage:
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Quadrature Error
An ideal I/Q modulator sets the phase angle to exactly 90 degrees. With a quadrature error, the phase
angle between the I and Q vector deviates from the ideal 90 degrees, the amplitudes of both
components are of the same size. In the vector diagram, the quadrature error causes the coordinate
system to shift.
A positive quadrature error means a phase angle greater than 90 degrees:
A negative quadrature error means a phase angle less than 90 degrees:
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WiMAX, WiBro Measurements (Options K92/K93)
This section describes measurement examples for the WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA
Measurements option (R&S FSL–K93) and gives details to signal processing. For further information on
measurement examples refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
The WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements option (R&S FSL–K92/K93) includes the
functionality of the WiMAX 802.16 OFDM Measurements option (R&S FSL–K92). Accordingly both
options are described together in this section, differentiated by the corresponding standards:
WiMAX 802.16 OFDM Measurements (R&S FSL–K92/K93)
IEEE 802.16–2004/Cor 1–2005 OFDM physical layer mode
The corresponding remote control mode is OFDM. In chapter 2, "Instrument Functions", the
short forms IEEE 802.16–2004 OFDM is used to reference this standard.
WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements option (R&S FSL–K93)
IEEE 802.16–2004/Cor 1–2005, IEEE 802.16e–2005 OFDMA physical layer mode
The corresponding remote control mode is OFDMA. In chapter 2, "Instrument Functions", the
short form IEEE 802.16e–2005 OFDMA is used to reference this standard.
IEEE 802.16–2004/Cor 1–2005, IEEE 802.16e–2005 based WiBro
The corresponding remote control mode is WiBro. In chapter 2, "Instrument Functions", the
short form IEEE 802.16e–2005 WiBro is used to reference this standard.
The options are available from firmware version 1.40 (R&S FSL–K92) and 1.50 (R&S FSL–K93).
Basic Measurement Example
This section provides step–by–step instructions for working through an ordinary measurement. The
following steps are described:
1. Setting up the measurement
2. Performing the level detection
3. Performing the main measurement
Test setup
In this example, a DUT using IEEE 802.16–2004 is be used.
Connect the DUT to the R&S FSL using the RF input of the R&S FSL. The DUT generates a signal
modulated using 16QAM 2/3.
Setting up the measurement
1. Activate the WIMAX mode (for details refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Measurement
Mode Selection – MODE Key").
2. Press the Settings General/Demod softkey once to select and open the General Settings dialog
box.
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In the Frequency field, enter the desired frequency to measure.
If a frequency is entered, which maps to a specific channel, the Channel No field updates.
In the Frequency Band field, select the signal to be analyzed. The target band is either one of
the bands given as example in the IEEE 802.16–2004 standard3 or an unspecified band.
In the Channel BW or Sampling Rate field depending on the characteristics of the signal to be
analyzed, select a value. The second parameter is derived from the first according to the
standard4.
In the G = Tg/Tb field, select a useful time ratio according to the characteristics of the signal to
be analyzed.
Under Level Settings, deactivate the Auto Lev option. In this example, the level detection
measurement is executed manually (for details see Performing the level detection).
3. Press the Settings General/Demod softkey twice to select and open the Demod Settings dialog
box.
3 B.3.2 Wireless MAN-OFDM/OFDMA PHY symbol and performance parameters.
4 8.3.2.2 Derived Parameter definitions
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In the Link Mode field, select the link mode of the bursts to be analyzed.
In the Demodulator field, select the used modulation scheme.
Performing the level detection
1. Connect the DUT to the RF input of the R&S FSL.
2. Start the level detection measurement by pressing the SWEEP hardkey and then the Auto Level
softkey.
During the level detection measurement the status message Running is displayed in the status bar
at the bottom of the screen.
After successful level detection, the status message Measurement Complete is displayed, the
signal level field for the selected input displays the detected signal level and the Magnitude Capture
Buffer (screen A) displays the zero span trace obtained during the measurement sequence.
Note:
An automatic level detection can be performed in two ways:
Once by pressing the Auto Level softkey in the sweep menu.
At the start of each measurement sweep by activating the Auto Lev option in the General
settings dialog box under Level Settings.
Performing the main measurement
1. Select single sweep measurements by pressing the SWEEP hardkey and then the Run softkey to
select Single.
2. Start the measurement by pressing the RUN hardkey.
During the measurement, the status message Running is displayed.
Measurement results are updated once the measurement has completed. The results are displayed
in graphical form. The display can be toggled to a tabular list of measurement points by pressing
the Display Graph/List softkey (in the WiMAX/WiBro menu or trace menu).
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Signal Processing of the IEEE 802.16–2004 OFDM
Measurement Application
Abbreviation
Description
N FFT = 256
FFT length
al , k
symbol from the alphabet at symbol–index l of sub carrier k
EVM k
error vector magnitude of sub carrier k
EVM
error vector magnitude of current packet
g
signal gain
f
frequency deviation between Tx and Rx
nof _symbols
symbol index l = [1, nof _Symbols ]
number of symbols of payload
Hk
channel transfer function of sub carrier k
k
channel index k = [ 128,127]
K mod
modulation dependent normalization factor
l
relative clock error of reference oscillator
rl , k
received symbol at symbol–index l of sub carrier k
Pilots = {–88, –63, –38, –13, 13, 38, 63, 88}
This description gives a rough view of the IEEE 802.16–2004 OFDM measurement application signal
processing. Details are disregarded in order to get a concept overview.
A diagram of the interesting blocks is shown in Fig. 2-90. First the RF signal is down–converted to the
IF frequency f IF = 20.4 MHz. The resulting IF signal rIF (t ) is shown on the left–hand side of the figure.
After bandpass filtering, the signal is sampled by an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) at a sampling
rate of f s1 = 81.6 MHz. This digital sequence is resampled to the new sampling frequency of
f s 2 = 80 MHz which is a multiple of the Nyquist rate (20 MHz). The subsequent digital down–converter
shifts the IF signal to the complex base band. In the next step the base band signal is filtered by a FIR
filter. To get an idea, the rough transfer function is plotted in the figure. This filter fulfils two tasks: first it
suppresses the IF image frequency, secondly it attenuates the aliasing frequency bands caused by the
subsequent down–sampling. After filtering, the sequence is sampled down by the factor of 4. Thus the
sampling rate of the down–sampled sequence r (i ) is the Nyquist rate of f s 3 = 20 MHz. Up to this point
the digital part is implemented in an ASIC.
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Fig. 2-90
R&S FSL
Signal processing of the IEEE 802.16 OFDM measurement application
In the lower part of the figure the subsequent digital signal processing is shown. In the first block the
packet search is performed. This block detects the Short Preamble (SP) and recovers the timing. The
coarse timing is detected first. This search is implemented in the time domain. The algorithm is based
on cyclic repetition within the SP after N = N FFT 2 = 128 samples. Note this cyclic repetition occurs also
in the Long Preamble (LP). Numerous treatises exist on this subject, e.g. [1]–[3]. Furthermore a coarse
5 of the Rx–Tx frequency offset f is derived from the metric in [6]. This can easily be
estimate fˆ
coarse
understood because the phase of r (i ) r * (i + N ) is determined by the mod 2 frequency offset. As the
frequency deviation
f can exceed several bins (distance between neighbor sub–carriers) the SP is
further used to solve this n2 [offset over several bins] ambiguities.
After the coarse timing calculation the time estimate is improved by the fine timing calculation. This is
achieved by first estimating the coarse frequency response Hˆ k(SP ) , with k = [ 100, 100] denoting the
channel index of the occupied sub–carriers. First the FFT of the SP is calculated. After the FFT
calculation the known symbol information of the SP sub–carriers is removed by dividing by the symbols.
The result is a coarse estimate Ĥ k of the channel transfer function. In the next step the complex
channel impulse response is computed by an IFFT. Next the energy of the windowed impulse response
(the window size is equal to the guard period) is calculated for every trial time. Afterwards the trail time
of the maximum energy is detected. This trial time is used to adjust the timing.
Now the position of the SP is known and the starting point of the useful part of the first payload symbol
can be derived. In the next block this calculated time instant is used to position the payload window.
Only the payload part is windowed. This is sufficient because the payload is the only subject of the
subsequent measurements.
In the next block the windowed sequence is compensated by the coarse frequency estimate fˆcoarse .
This is necessary because otherwise inter channel interference (ICI) would occur in the frequency
domain.
The transition to the frequency domain is achieved by an FFT of length 256. The FFT is performed
symbol–wise for every of the nof _symbols symbols of the payload. The calculated FFTs are described
by rl ,k with
5 In this paper the hat generally describes an estimate. Example: ~
x is the estimate of x.
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the symbol index l = [ 1 , nof _symbols ] and
the channel index k = [ 128 , 127 ] .
In case of an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel the FFT is described by [4], [5]
rl ,k = K mod al ,k g l H k e
(
)
j phasel( commom ) + phasel(,timing
k
)
+
nl ,k
(30)
with
the modulation–dependent normalization factor K mod
the alphabet symbol al ,k at symbol–index l of sub–carrier k
the gain g l at the symbol l in relation to the reference gain g = 1 at the Short Preamble (SP)
the channel frequency response H k at the Short Preamble (SP)
the common phase drift phase(lcommon ) of all sub–carriers at symbol l (see below)
the phase phasel(,ktiming ) of sub–carrier k at symbol l caused by the timing drift (see below)
the independent Gaussian distributed noise samples nl ,k
The common phase drift in equation (29) is given by
phase (lcommon ) = 2
Ns N
f rest T l + d# l
(31)
with
N s = N g + N b being the number of Nyquist samples of the symbol period
N = N b = 256 being the number of Nyquist samples of the useful part of the symbol
f rest being the (not yet compensated) frequency deviation
d# l being the phase jitter at the symbol l
fˆcoarse (see Fig. 2-90) is not error–free. Therefore the
represents the not yet compensated frequency deviation in rl ,k .
In general, the coarse frequency estimate
remaining frequency error
f rest
Consequently the overall frequency deviation of the device under test (DUT) is calculated by
f = fˆcoarse + f rest . Remark: The only motivation for dividing the common phase drift in equation (11)
into two parts is to be able to calculate the overall frequency deviation of the DUT.
The reason for the phase jitter d# l in equation (11) may be different. The nonlinear part of the phase
jitter may be caused by the phase noise of the DUT oscillator. Another reason for nonlinear phase jitter
may be the increase of the DUT amplifier temperature at the beginning of the burst. Please note that
besides the nonlinear part the phase jitter d# l also contains a constant part. This constant part is
caused by the not yet compensated frequency deviation f rest . To understand this, please keep in mind
that the measurement of the phase starts at the first symbol l = 1 of the payload. In contrast the channel
frequency response H k in equation (29) represents the channel at the Short Preamble of the preamble.
Consequently the not yet compensated frequency deviation f rest produces a phase drift between the
Short Preamble and the first symbol of the payload. Therefore this phase drift appears as a constant
value ("DC value'') in d# l .
Referring to the IEEE 802.16–2004 measurement standard Chapter 8.3.10.1.2 "Transmitter
constellation error and test method'' [6], the common phase drift phase(lcommon ) must be estimated and
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compensated from the pilots. Therefore the "symbol wise phase tracking'' (Tracking Phase) is activated
as the default setting of the R&S FSL–K92/K93.
Furthermore the timing drift in equation (29) is given by
)
phasel(,timing
= 2
k
Ns N
k l
(32)
with being the relative clock deviation of the reference oscillator. Normally a symbol–wise timing jitter
is negligible and thus not modeled in equation (32). There may be situations where the timing drift has
to be taken into account. This is illustrated by an example: In accordance to [6] the allowed clock
deviation of the DUT is up to max = ± 8 ppm. Furthermore the maximal length of a frame
nof _symbols = 2420 symbols6 is assumed. From equations (29) and (32), it results that the phase drift
of the highest sub–carrier k = 100 in the last symbol l = nof _symbols is to–do degrees. Even in the
noise–free case, this would lead to symbol errors. The example shows that it is actually necessary to
estimate and compensate the clock deviation, which is accomplished in the next block.
)
is not part of
Referring to the IEEE 802.16–2004 measurement standard [6], the timing drift phasel(,timing
k
the requirements. Therefore the "time tracking'' (Tracking Time) is not activated as the default setting of
the R&S FSL–K92/K93.
The time tracking option should rather be seen as a powerful analyzing option.
In addition the tracking of the gain g l in equation (29) is supported for each symbol in relation to the
reference gain g = 1 at the time instant of the Short Preamble (SP). At this time the coarse channel
transfer function Hˆ k( SP ) is calculated. This makes sense since the sequence r 'l ,k is compensated by the
coarse channel transfer function Hˆ k( SP ) before estimating the symbols. Consequently a potential change
of the gain at the symbol l (caused, for example, by the increase of the DUT amplifier temperature)
may lead to symbol errors especially for a large symbol alphabet M of the MQAM transmission. In this
case the estimation and the subsequent compensation of the gain are useful.
Referring to the IEEE 802.16–2004 measurement standard [6], the compensation of the gain g l is not
part of the requirements. Therefore the "gain tracking'' (Tracking Gain) is not activated as the default
setting of the R&S FSL–K92/K93.
The unknown deviations of gain, frequency and time are calculated by an optimum maximum likelihood
procedure, which works well even at low signal to noise ratios with the Cramer Rao Bound being
reached. After estimation of these parameters, the received signal is fully compensated for the decision
of the ideal reference signal aˆl ,k and compensated according to the user settings to get the
measurement signal r 'l ,k . Then the measurement signal is equalized by the inverse channel transfer
function. According to the chosen setting, either the preamble estimation of the channel transfer
function or a data aided estimation using the ideal reference signal is used. According to the IEEE
802.16–2004 measurement standard [6], the coarse channel estimation Hˆ k( SP ) (from the short
preamble) has to be used for equalization. Therefore the default setting of the R&S FSL–K92/K93 is
equalization from the coarse channel estimate derived from the short preamble.
In the last block the measurement variables are calculated. The most important variable is the error
vector magnitude
EVM k =
nof _Symbols
1
nof _Symbols
%
l =1
r ' 'l ,k
K mod al ,k
2
(33)
of the sub–carrier k of the current packet. Furthermore the packet error vector magnitude
6 Assuming the maximal System Sampling Rate Fs = 32MHz.
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100
EVM =
1
200
%
EVM k2
k = 100
( k & 0)
(34)
is derived by averaging the squared EVM k versus k . Finally the average error vector magnitude
EVM =
nof _ packets
1
nof _ packets
%
counter = 1
EVM 2 (counter )
(35)
is calculated by averaging the packet EVM of all nof _ packets detected packets. This parameter is
equivalent to the so–called "RMS average of all errors ErrorRMS '' of the IEEE 802.16–2004
measurement commandment (see [6], Chapter 8.3.10.1.2).
Analysis Steps
Preamble related result
Remark
Rough frequency estimation
In case of subchannelization, a rough frequency estimation is obtained by
exploiting the cyclic prefix of the OFDM symbols.
Preamble power
Preamble EVM
Uses payload channel estimation for equalization.
Frequency error vs. preamble
Phase error vs. preamble
Channel estimation
Used for equalizing
Payload related result
Remark
Fine frequency estimation
Estimation on pilots used for phase correction if 'Phase Tracking' is
selected. Phase tracking needs at least one pilot.
In case of subchannelization, the value shown in the result summary table
is estimated on pilots and data.
Clock offset estimation
Estimation on pilots used for timing correction if 'Timing Tracking' is
selected. Timing tracking needs at least two pilots.
In case of subchannelization, the value shown in the result summary table
is estimated on pilots and data.
IQ Offset
Power at spectral line 0 normalized to the total transmitted power.
Gain Imbalance
Estimation not available in case of subchannelization.
Quadrature Error
Estimation not available in case of subchannelization.
Payload channel estimation
Combined with the preamble channel estimation.
Burst related result
Remark
EVM All carriers
EVM Data carriers
EVM Pilot carriers
According to standard normalized to the average power of all 200 used
carriers.
Burst Power
Crest Factor
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Subchannelization
Subchannelization can be used in uplink bursts to allocate only a subset of the available OFDM sub
carriers. The measurement software can distinguish between downlink bursts, uplink bursts without
subchannelization and uplink bursts with a selectable subchannel index. Thus it is possible to analyze
the complete WirelessMAN traffic with one capture buffer shot.
Synchronization
The synchronization of uplink bursts using subchannelization is performed after the synchronization on
standard downlink and uplink preambles:
1. Synchronization of downlink and uplink bursts without subchannelization.
2. Pre–analysis of the bursts without subchannelization to determine their length.
3. Extraction of TX power areas without already detected bursts.
4. Synchronization of uplink bursts with the selected subchannel index.
In the following sections, the influence of subchannelization on results is discussed.
Channel Results
The standard requires an interpolation of order 0 for the channel estimation on unallocated sub carriers,
i.e. the estimated channel coefficient of the nearest allocated sub carrier shall be used for those sub
carriers not part of the allocated subchannels.
For the derived channel results like group delay or flatness difference, the unallocated carriers are not
taken into account.
Fig. 2-91
Spectrum Flatness
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Frequency and Clock Offset
The measurement software allows selectable compensation of phase, timing and gain errors based on
pilot estimations. However, in case of subchannelization the number of pilots is decreased. Bursts with
odd subchannel indices do not provide pilots at all. The following table lists the restrictions on the
tracking ability for subchannelization:
Tracking
Subchannel Index
16 (8 Pilots)
8, 24 (4 Pilots)
4, 12, 20, 28 (2 Pilots)
2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30
(1 Pilot)
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19,
21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31 (No
Pilot)
Phase
Available
Available
Available, but uses rough
frequency offset estimation
from the synchronization step
only
Timing
Available
Not available
Not available
Gain
Available
Available
Not available
While the tracking functionality has to use pilot based estimates, the actual results for frequency and
clock offset in the result summary can be data aided. In case of subchannelization the final estimation
of frequency and clock offset is done using the already decided data sequence, which gives stable
results even without pilots.
EVM
The error vector magnitude of a single constellation point is defined by
EVM(l,k) =
r (l , k ) a (l , k )
1
N used
k = N used / 2
%
2
a (l , k )
2
k = N used / 2
k &0
where r (l , k ) is the received constellation point and a (l , k ) is the transmitted constellation point at the
l
th
symbol and carrier number k .
In case of subchannelization, it is required by the standard to include the unallocated carriers k unalloc by
assuming a (l , k unalloc ) = 0 in the denominator of the EVM calculation.
Thus the EVM All Carriers result for one burst in the result summary equals
EVM_All_Carr =
1 L 1
%
L l =1 N used
L
k = N used / 2
%
r (l , k ) a (l , k )
k = N used / 2
k &0
k = N used / 2
1
1
%
L l =1 N used
%
a (l , k )
2
2
k = N used / 2
k &0
where L is the number of symbols in the burst.
This definition is according to the relative constellation error defined in the IEEE 802.16–2004 standard.
Using the equations above, the error power is normalized by the average transmitted power in all 200
carriers. Please notify, that by this definition the same absolute error power leads to different EVM
results depending on the number of allocated carriers in case of subchannelization.
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IQ Impairments
IQ imbalance in an OFDM transmitter or receiver leads to an interference of the symbols al ,
k
with the
symbols a l ,k . In case of subchannelization, the used sub carriers are always situated in such a way, that
al,
k
= 0 , if a l ,k & 0 . There is no impact of IQ imbalance on the actually allocated carriers of a
subchannelization transmission. The effect can only be seen on the unallocated carriers and yields a
pattern around the origin of the constellation diagram.
Fig. 2-92
Constellation vs Symbol
The unsymmetrical allocation of the sub carriers prevents a measurement of gain imbalance and
quadrature error in case of subchannelization. The influence of the occupied carriers a l ,k on the
unoccupied carriers a l ,
k
could be measured, but there is no possibility to distinguish them from an
unknown channel coefficient.
RSSI
See [6] section "8.3.9.2 RSSI mean and standard deviation''. The Received Signal Strength Indication
[RSSI] is basically the preamble power. The result summary provides the RSSI statistics according to
the standard. A possible method to compute RSSI[k] at the antenna connector is given in [6] equation
(87). RSSI[k] is the RSSI measurement based on the k–th signal/preamble.
The RSSI statistics of the result summary is calculated as follows:
1. RSSI row:
Statistic {min, mean, max} of the R[k]=RSSI[k].
The mean value is µ̂ RSSI dBm [k] according to [6] formula (89).
2. RSSI Standard Deviation row:
/̂ RSSI dB according to [6] formula (91).
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CINR
See [6] section "8.3.9.3 CINR mean and standard deviation''. The result summary provides the Carrier
Interference Noise Ratio [CINR] statistics according to the standard. One possible method to estimate
the CINR of a single message is to compute the ratio of the sum of signal power and the sum of
residual error for each data sample, using equation [6] (92).
N 1
CINR[k ] =
% s[k , n]
2
n =0
N 1
% r[k , n]
s[k , n]
2
n=0
with
r[k,n]
received/measured sample n within message k
s[k,n]
corresponding detected/reference
corresponding to received symbol n
sample
(with
channel
state
weighting)
The CINR statistics of the result summary is calculated as follows:
1. CINR row:
Statistic {min, mean, max} of the CINR[k].
The mean value is µ̂ CINR dB [k] according to [6] formula (94).
2. CINR Standard Deviation row
/̂ CINR dB according to [6] formula (96).
Literature
[1]
Speth, Classen, Meyr: ''Frame synchronisation of OFDM systems in frequency selective fading channels", VTC '97,
pp. 1807–1811
Schmidl, Cox: ''Robust Frequency and Timing Synchronization of OFDM", IEEE Trans. on Comm., Dez. 1997, pp. 1613–
621
Minn, Zeng, Bhargava: ''On Timing Offset Estimation for OFDM", IEEE Communication Letters, July 2000, pp. 242–244
Speth, Fechtel, Fock, Meyr: ''Optimum Receiver Design for Wireless Broad–Band Systems Using OFDM – Part I", IEEE
Trans. On Comm. VOL. 47, NO 11, Nov. 1999
Speth, Fechtel, Fock, Meyr: ''Optimum Receiver Design for Wireless Broad–Band Systems Using OFDM – Part II", IEEE
Trans. On Comm. VOL. 49, NO 4, April. 2001
IEEE 802.16–2004, Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems; 1 October 2004; Medium
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
Signal Processing of the IEEE802.16–2005 OFDMA/WiBro
Measurement Application
Symbol
Description
al , k , aˆl , k
data symbol (actual, decided)
f res
residual carrier frequency offset
f , fˆcoarse
carrier frequency offset between transmitter and receiver (actual, coarse estimate)
0
relative sampling frequency offset
gl
gain
H l ,k , Hˆ l ,k
channel transfer function (actual, estimate)
i
time index
iˆcoarse , iˆfine
timing estimate (coarse, fine)
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Symbol
Description
k , k p , k d , k ch n
subcarrier index (general, pilot, data, subchannel n )
l
OFDM symbol index
N FFT
length of FFT
Ng
number of samples in cyclic prefix (guard interval)
Ns
number of Nyquist samples
N sc
number of subcarriers
n
subchannel index, subframe index
nl , k
noise sample
1l
common phase error
Q, Qˆ
R&S FSL
I/Q imbalance (actual, estimate)
r (i )
received sample in the time domain
rl , k , rl2, k , rl2,2k , rl2,22k
received sample (uncompensated, fully compensated, partially compensated,
equalized) in the frequency domain
T
useful symbol time
Tg
guard time
Ts
symbol time
Abbreviation
Description
AWGN
additive white Gaussian noise
BER
bit error rate
CFO
carrier frequency offset
CINR
carrier to interference and noise ratio
CIR
channel impulse response
CP
cyclic prefix (guard interval)
CPE
common phase error
CTF
channel transfer function
DL
downlink
EVM
error vector magnitude
FFT
fast Fourier transformation
IF
intermediate frequency
ISI
intersymbol interference
OFDM
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
OFDMA
orthogonal frequency division multiple access
PAPR
peak to average power ratio
RSSI
received signal strength indicator
SFO
sampling frequency offset
UL
uplink
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WiMAX, WiBro Measurements (Options K92/K93)
Introduction
The following description provides a brief overview of the digital signal processing used in the IEEE
802.16 OFDMA measurement application.
From the received IF signal as the point of origin to the actual analysis results like EVM or CINR, the
digital signal processing can be divided into four major groups:
• Data capturing
• Synchronization
6
3
• Channel estimation / equalization 5 OFDMA measuremen t application
3
• Analysis
4
The description of the IEEE802.16–2005 OFDMA/WiBro measurement signal processing is structured
accordingly.
Signal Processing Block Diagram
I/Q -d a ta
(c a p tu re b u ffe r)
w in d o w
fre q u e n c y
c o m p e n s a tio n
w in d o w
p o w e r
d e te c tio n
s u b fra m e
d e te c tio n
D fˆ c o a r s e
iˆ c o a r s e
M U X
iˆ f i n e
c o a rs e
c h a n n e l e s t.
( p r e a m b le )
c o a rs e
c h a n n e l e s t.
( p ilo ts )
m e a s u re m e n t p a th
Hˆ
p re a m b le
Hˆ
p ilo ts
M U X
fin e tim in g
re fe re n c e p a th
c a r r ie d o u t tw ic e
fo r U L s u b fra m e s
fu ll
c o m p e n s a tio n
r
l,k
tr a c k in g
e s tim a tio n
Fig. 2-93
e q u a liz e r
a n d s y m b o l
d e c is io n
r l' , k
S F O
re s . C F O
Hˆ
C P E
g a in
u s e r d e fin e d
c o m p e n s a tio n
s u b c a r r ie r
s e le c tio n
F F T
r l ' ,' k
p re a m b le
Hˆ
fin e
I/Q - im b a la n c e
e s tim a tio n
aˆ
D Qˆ
l,k
fin e
c h a n n e l e s t.
( s y m b o ls )
e q u a liz e r
a n a ly s is
r l ' ,' k'
Signal processing of the IEEE 802.16 OFDMA measurement application
The block diagram in Fig. 2-93 shows the OFDMA measurement application from the capture buffer
containing the I/Q data to the actual analysis block. Outcome of the fully compensated reference path
(green) are the estimates aˆ l , k of the transmitted data symbols al , k . Depending on the user defined
compensation, the received samples rl2,22k of the measurement path (orange) still contain the transmitted
signal impairments of interest. The analysis block reveals these impairments by comparing the
reference and the measurement path. Prior to the analysis, diverse synchronization and channel
estimation tasks have to be accomplished.
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Synchronization
The first of the synchronization tasks is to detect areas of sufficient power within the captured I/Q data
stream. The subframe detection block determines the beginning and end of each subframe and
coarsely estimates both timing and carrier frequency offset. The fine timing block prior to the FFT allows
a timing improvement using a level–based search for the beginning and end of the coarsely estimated
channel impulse response. In the DL the coarse estimate of the CIR can be directly obtained from the
preamble. Other than that the UL consists only of payload information with scattered pilots in the
subcarrier–symbol plane, thus several OFDM symbols have to be observed to get a reliable estimate of
the CIR. Since the OFDM symbols need to be phase synchronized prior to the channel estimation, the
blue blocks in Fig. 2-93 have to be carried out twice. In the first iteration the timing estimate iˆcoarse is
used to position the window of the FFT. Having found the pilot–based estimate of the CIR, the fine
timing estimate iˆfine is used in the second iteration.
After the time to frequency transformation by an FFT of length N FFT , the tracking estimation block is
used to estimate the following:
•
•
•
•
relative sampling frequency offset 0
residual carrier frequency offset f res
common phase error 1 l
gain g l
Corresponding to [3] and [4], the uncompensated samples
rl ,k can be expressed as
j 1l
j 2 N s N FFT f res T l
N s N FFT 0 k l
rl , k = g l al , k H l , k e{
e1j 24
4244
3 e1442443 + nl , k
CPE
SFO
(36)
res. CFO
with
•
•
•
•
•
data symbol al , k on subcarrier k at OFDM symbol l
channel transfer function H l , k
number of Nyquist samples N s within the symbol time Ts
useful symbol time T = Ts Tg
independent and Gaussian distributed noise sample nl , k
Within one OFDM symbol both the CPE and the residual CFO respectively cause the same phase
rotation for each subcarrier, while the rotation due to the SFO linearly depends on the subcarrier index.
A linear phase increase in symbol direction can be observed for the residual CFO as well as the SFO.
The results of the tracking estimation block are used to compensate the samples rl , k . While a full
compensation is performed in the reference path, the signal impairments that are of interest to the user
are left uncompensated in the measurement path.
Channel Estimation / Equalization
According to Fig. 2-93, there are two coarse and one fine channel estimation blocks. Which of the two
coarse estimation blocks is used depends on the link direction. For DL subframes the coarse channel
estimation is based on the preamble and directly follows the coarse frequency compensation block. The
pilot–based estimation for UL subframes is tapped behind the full compensation block of the reference
path. Both of the coarse estimation blocks use available training symbols to determine initial estimates
Hˆ l ,k of the channel transfer function at fixed positions in the subcarrier–symbol plane. Based on these
nodes, the missing CTF values are obtained by interpolation in both time and frequency direction. The
coarse estimation results are used for the above mentioned fine timing and to equalize the samples rl2,k
of the reference path prior to symbol decision. Based on the decided data symbols, a fine channel
estimation is performed and then used to equalize the partially compensated samples of the
measurement path.
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Analysis
The analysis block of the OFDMA measurement application allows to calculate a variety of
measurement variables.
EVM
The most important variable is the error vector magnitude (EVM).
EVM l , k =
rl2,22k
aˆ l , k
ˆal , k
(37)
on subcarrier k at OFDM symbol l . The subsequent average values can be derived from (37).
1. EVM of subchannel n at OFDM symbol l :
1
N sc
EVM l , subchannel n =
% EVM
k ch n
2
l , k ch n
(38)
2. EVM of all pilot subcarriers:
EVM pilots =
1
N sc
%% EVM
1
N sc
%% EVM
l
kp
2
l ,kp
(39)
2
l ,kd
(40)
3. EVM of all data subcarriers:
EVM data =
l
kd
4. EVM of all used subcarriers:
EVM all =
1
N sc
)
% 8% EVM
l
+8 k p
2
l ,kp
*
+ % EVM l2,kd 7 (41)
kd
,7
The number of subcarriers respectively taken into account is denoted by N sc .
CINR
The carrier to interference and noise ratio is determined for each subframe n . The computation is
based on the partially compensated samples rl2,2k , the decided symbols aˆ l , k , and the channel estimates
Ĥ k (DL: preamble and fine; UL: fine).
%% | aˆ
CINR(n) =
%% | r 22
l
k
l ,k
l
l ,k
Hˆ k |2
aˆl , k Hˆ k |2
(42)
k
Further CINR statistics are defined in the standards [5], [6].
;
9(1
µˆ CINR (n) = :
µˆ
(dB)
CINR
CINR (0)
ˆ
avg ) µ CINR ( n 1) +
avg
n=0
CINR (n) n > 0
(n) = 10 log µˆ CINR (n) dB
(43)
;3
CINR (0)
n=0
2
( n) = :
xˆ CINR
2
2
39(1 avg ) xˆ CINR (n 1) + avg CINR (n) n > 0
(dB)
2
2
/ˆ CINR (n) = 5 log ( xˆCINR
(n)) dB
(n) µˆ CINR
2
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RSSI
The received signal strength indicator is determined for each subframe n . The computation is based on
the time domain samples r (i ) extracted by the subframe detection block.
RSSI (n) ~ | r (i ) |2
(44)
Further RSSI statistics are defined in the standard [5], [6].
;
9(1
µˆ RSSI (n) = :
µˆ
(dB)
RSSI
RSSI (0)
ˆ
avg ) µ RSSI (n 1) +
avg
n=0
RSSI (n) n > 0
(n) = 10 log µˆ RSSI (n) dB
(45)
;3
RSSI (0)
n=0
2
( n) = :
xˆ RSSI
2
2
ˆ
39(1 avg ) xRSSI (n 1) + avg RSSI (n) n > 0
(dB)
2
2
/ˆ RSSI (n) = 5 log ( xˆ RSSI
(n) µˆ RSSI
(n)) dB
2
I/Q Imbalance
The I/Q imbalance estimation block allows to evaluate the
modulator gain balance = | 1 + Q |
(46)
and the
quadrature mismatch = arg {1 + Q }
respectively based on the block's estimate
(47)
Q̂ .
Other Measurement Variables
Without going into detail, the OFDMA measurement application additionally provides the following
results:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Burst power
Constellation diagram
Group delay
I/Q offset
PAPR
Pilot BER
Spectral flatness
Literature
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
Speth, M., Classen, F., and Meyr, H.: Frame Synchronization of OFDM Systems in Frequency Selective Fading
Channels. IEEE VTC'97, May 1997, pp. 1807–1811.
Schmidl, T. M. and Cox, D. C.: Robust Frequency and Timing Synchronization of OFDM. IEEE Trans. on Commun. Vol.
45 (1997) No. 12, pp. 1613–1621.
Speth, M., Fechtel, S., Fock, G., and Meyr, H.: Optimum Receiver Design for Wireless Broad–Band Systems Using
OFDM – Part I. IEEE Trans. on Commun. Vol. 47 (1999) No. 11, pp. 1668–1677.
Speth, M., Fechtel, S., Fock, G., and Meyr, H.: Optimum Receiver Design for OFDM–Based Broadband Transmission –
Part II: A Case Study. IEEE Trans. on Commun. Vol. 49 (2001) No. 4, pp. 571–578.
IEEE 802.16–2004™: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems (2004).
IEEE Std 802.16e™–2005 and IEEE Std 802.16™–2004/Cor1–2005: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access Systems (2006)
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3
Manual Operation
Manual Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 4, "Basic Operations".
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R&S FSL
Instrument Functions
Contents of Chapter 4
Instrument Functions – Analyzer....................................................................................................4.1
Measurement Parameters................................................................................................................4.2
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key..............................................................................4.3
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key .......................................................................4.5
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key ................................................................................4.11
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key .....................................4.13
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key................................................................4.18
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key ...........................................................................4.24
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key............................................................................................4.28
Setting Traces – TRACE Key ...................................................................................................4.39
Measurement Functions ................................................................................................................4.52
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key.........................................................................4.53
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key .........................................................................4.66
Power Measurements – MEAS Key .........................................................................................4.75
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key .................................................................4.118
Measurement Modes....................................................................................................................4.128
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key..........................................................................4.129
Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key ..............................................................................4.131
Models and Options .....................................................................................................................4.133
Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)...........................................................................4.134
Analog Demodulation (Option K7) ..........................................................................................4.140
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8) ....................................................................................4.158
Power Meter (Option K9) ........................................................................................................4.186
Spectrogram Measurement (Option K14)...............................................................................4.191
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20) ..................................................................................4.203
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30) .............................................................................4.247
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72) ..................................................................4.271
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82).................................................................................4.295
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84) ....................................................................................4.356
WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91 / K91n) ......................................................................4.409
WiMAX, WiBro Measurements (Options K92/K93) ................................................................4.441
Instrument Functions - Basic Settings.......................................................................................4.490
General Settings, Printout and Instrument Settings.................................................................4.491
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration - SETUP Key .................................................4.492
Saving and Recalling Settings Files - FILE Key .....................................................................4.510
Manual Operation - Local Menu .............................................................................................4.519
Measurement Documentation - PRINT Key ...........................................................................4.520
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Instrument Functions – Analyzer
Instrument Functions – Analyzer
In this section, all analyzer functions of the R&S FSL and their application are explained in detail. The
basic settings functions are described in section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings".
For every key a table is provided in which all submenus and corresponding commands are listed. The
description of the submenus and commands follows the order of the table. The commands for the
optional remote control (if any) are indicated for each softkey. The description is divided into the
following topics:
•
"Measurement Parameters" on page 4.2
This section describes how to reset the instrument, to set up specific measurements and to set the
measurement parameters. Examples of basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples". Advanced examples are described in chapter
"Advanced Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Functions" on page 4.52
This section informs about how to select and configure the measurement functions. Examples of
basic operations are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic Measurement Examples".
Advanced examples are described in chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
•
"Measurement Modes" on page 4.128
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and
the access to the menus of all active measurement modes.
•
"Models and Options" on page 4.133
This section informs about optional functions and their application that are included in the basic unit
configuration.
More basic information on operation is given in the Quick Start Guide. The front and the rear view of the
instrument together with a table of all available keys and a short description are provided in chapter
"Front and Rear Panel". Chapter "Preparing for Use" informs how to start working with the instrument
for the first time. A brief introduction on handling the instrument is given in chapter "Basic Operations".
This includes also the description of the keys for basic operations like switching the instrument on and
off or starting a measurement.
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Measurement Parameters
R&S FSL
Measurement Parameters
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement parameters are described. This includes
the following topics and keys. For details on changing the mode refer to "Measurement Mode Selection
– MODE Key" on page 4.129.
•
"Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key" on page 4.3
•
"Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key" on page 4.5
•
"Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key" on page 4.11
•
"Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key" on page 4.13
•
"Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key" on page 4.18
•
"Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key" on page 4.24
•
"Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key" on page 4.28
•
"Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.39
Table 4-1: Sweep range variables
Abbreviation
Definition
R&S FSL3
value
R&S FSL6
value
R&S FSL18
value
fmax
max. frequency
3 GHz
6 GHz
18 GHz*
fmin
min. frequency available
0 Hz
0 Hz
0 Hz
spanmin
smallest selectable span > 0 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
10 Hz
* In remote control, the query of the maximum frequency returns 20 GHz. For further details refer to
chapter 6.
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Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default setting and therefore provides a defined initial
state as a known starting point for measurements
Note:
If the LOCAL LOCKOUT function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
–
"Initial configuration" on page 4.4
Task
–
To preset the instrument
To preset the instrument
1. Define the data set for the preset:
–
To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see Initial configuration), in the file menu,
deactivate the Startup Recall softkey.
–
To retrieve a customized settings file, in the file menu, activate the Startup Recall softkey,
press the Startup Recall Setup softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
2. Press the PRESET key to trigger a preset.
Remote: *RST or SYSTem:PRESet (for details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands",
section "Common Commands" or section "SYSTem Subsystem").
Note:
In order to save the current settings after reboot of the instrument, create a shutdown file by
switching the analyzer in the standby mode (press the On/Off key on the FRONT panel and
wait until the yellow LED is ON). With the battery pack option, use a USB keyboard and
terminate the analyzer firmware with ALT+F4 to create the shutdown file.
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Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
R&S FSL
Initial configuration
The initial configuration is selected in a way that the RF input is always protected against overload,
provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized by using the Startup Recall softkey in
the file menu. For further information refer to section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving
and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
Table 4-2: Initial configuration
Parameter
Setting
mode
Spectrum Analyzer
center frequency
fmax / 2
center frequency step size
0.1 * center frequency
span
R&S FSL3: 3 GHz
R&S FSL6: 6 GHz
R&S FSL18: 18 GHz
RF attenuation
auto
(R&S FSL3/6: 0 dB;
R&S FSL18: 10 dB)
reference level
R&S FSL3/6: –20 dBm;
R&S FSL18: –10 dBm
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBm
sweep time
auto
resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
video bandwidth
auto (10 MHz)
FFT filters
off
span / RBW
50
RBW / VBW
0.33
sweep
cont
trigger
free run
trace 1
clr write
trace 2/3/4/5/6
blank
detector
auto peak
frequency offset
0 Hz
reference level offset
0 dB
reference level position
100 %
grid
abs
cal correction
on
noise source
off
input
RF
tracking generator (models 13, 16, 28)
off
1300.2519.12
4.4
E-11
R&S FSL
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to specify the frequency axis, and to set the frequency offset and the signal track
function. The frequency axis can be specified either by the start and stop frequency or by the center
frequency and the span.
To open the frequency menu
Press the FREQ key.
The frequency menu is displayed. The Frequency Center edit dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu" on page 4.7
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Tasks
–
To specify the frequency axis by the start and stop frequency
–
To specify the frequency axis by the center frequency and the span
–
To specify the step size for the arrow keys and the rotary knob
–
To modify the frequency axis by an offset
–
To track signals (only possible if span >0)
1300.2519.12
4.5
E-11
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S FSL
To specify the frequency axis by the start and stop frequency
1. Press the Start softkey and enter a start frequency.
2. Press the Stop softkey and enter a stop frequency.
To specify the frequency axis by the center frequency and the span
3. Press the FREQ key and enter a center frequency in the Frequency Center edit dialog box.
4. Press the SPAN key and enter the bandwidth you want to analyze.
Note:
Entering a value of 0 Hz will cause a change to the zero span analysis mode.
To specify the step size for the arrow keys and the rotary knob
1. Press the CF Stepsize softkey.
The softkeys are displayed according to the selected frequency span (zero span or span > 0).
2. To define the step size of the center frequency:
–
Only if span > 0: Press 0.1*Span, 0.5*Span or x*Span to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the span.
–
Only if span = 0: Press 0.1*RBW, 0.5*RBW or x*RBW to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the =Center softkey to set the step size to the value of the center frequency and to
remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the =Marker softkey to set the step size to the value of the marker and to remove the
dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
–
Press the Manual softkey and enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Note:
The step size assigned to arrow keys corresponds to the selected value; the step size of the
1
rotary knob is /10 of it.
To modify the frequency axis by an offset
Press the Frequency Offset softkey and enter the offset to shift the displayed frequency span.
To track signals (only possible if span >0)
1. Press the Signal Track softkey.
The softkeys of this submenu are displayed to start and stop signal tracking with specified
parameters.
2. Press the Track On/Off softkey to switch signal tracking on or off.
3. Press the Track BW softkey and enter a bandwidth for signal tracking.
4. Press the Track Threshold softkey and enter the threshold for signal tracking.
5. Press the Select Trace softkey and select the trace for signal tracking.
1300.2519.12
4.6
E-11
R&S FSL
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
Softkeys of the frequency menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Center
Start
Stop
CF Stepsize
0.1*Span/0.1*RBW
0.5*Span/0.5*RBW
x*Span/x*RBW
=Center
=Marker
Manual
Frequency Offset
Signal Track
Track On/Off
Track BW
Track Threshold
Select Trace
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the center frequency. The allowed range of values for the
center frequency depends on the frequency span.
span > 0: spanmin / 2
span = 0: 0 Hz
fcenter
fcenter
fmax – spanmin / 2
fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the
frequency range, for R&S FSL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the fmax
value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The preset and full span values
remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:CENT 100MHz
1300.2519.12
4.7
E-11
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S FSL
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. The following range of values is allowed:
fmin
fstart
fmax – spanmin
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of
the frequency range, for R&S FSL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the
fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The preset and full span
values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 20MHz
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. The following range of values for the stop
frequency is allowed:
fmin + spanmin
fstop
fmax
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of
the frequency range, for R&S FSL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the
fmax value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. For the R&S FSL18 model,
the fmax value is extended to 20 GHz. The preset and full span values remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
CF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency. In addition to the =Center,
=Marker and Manual softkeys, the other softkeys are displayed depending on the selected
frequency span.
The step size can be coupled to the span (span > 0) or the resolution bandwidth (span = 0) or it
can be manually set to a fixed value.
0.1*Span (span > 0)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10% of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
0.1*RBW (zero span)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10% of the resolution bandwidth. This is the
default setting.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
1300.2519.12
4.8
E-11
R&S FSL
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
0.5*Span (span > 0)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50% of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
0.5*RBW (zero span)
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50% of the resolution bandwidth.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
x*Span (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as % of the span.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
x*RBW (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as % of the resolution
bandwidth. Values between 1 and 100% in steps of 1% are allowed. The default setting is 10%.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
=Center
Sets the step size to the value of the center frequency and removes the coupling of the step size
to span or resolution bandwidth. This function is especially useful during measurements of the
signal harmonic content because by entering the center frequency each stroke of the arrow key
selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
=Marker
Sets the step size to the value of the current marker and removes the coupling of the step size
to span or resolution bandwidth. This function is especially useful during measurements of the
signal harmonic content at the marker position because by entering the center frequency each
stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
1300.2519.12
4.9
E-11
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
R&S FSL
Frequency Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency offset that shifts the displayed frequency range by
the specified offset. The allowed values range from –100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is
0 Hz.
Remote: FREQ:OFFS 10 MHz
Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to modify the parameters for signal tracking: search bandwidth, threshold
value and trace.
The search bandwidth and the threshold value are shown in the diagram by two vertical lines
and one horizontal line, which are labeled as TRK. After each sweep the center frequency is set
to the maximum signal found within the searched bandwidth. If no maximum signal above the
set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth, the track mechanism stops.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
Track On/Off (span > 0)
Switches the signal tracking on or off.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
Track BW (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The frequency range is
calculated as a function of the center frequency.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 1MHZ
Track Threshold (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the threshold value for signal tracking.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR –70DBM
Select Trace (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the trace on which the signal is tracked.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 1
1300.2519.12
4.10
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key is used to set the frequency span to be analyzed.
To open the span menu
Press the SPAN key.
The span menu is displayed. For span > 0 an edit dialog box to enter the frequency is displayed.
For zero span, an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the span menu" on page 4.11
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the span (alternatives)
To specify the span (alternatives)
1. To set the span, use the Span Manual, Full Span, Zero Span and Last Span softkeys.
2. To define a frequency range, use the Start and Stop softkeys.
3. For zero span, press the Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a sweep time.
Softkeys of the span menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Span Manual
Sweeptime Manual
Start
Stop
Full Span
Zero Span
Last Span
1300.2519.12
4.11
E-11
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
R&S FSL
Span Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency span. The center frequency is kept constant.
The following range is allowed:
span = 0: 0 Hz
span >0: spanmin
fspan
fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet. To help analyze signals located at the end of the
frequency range, for R&S FSL models with an upper frequency limit of 6 GHz or less, the fmax
value is extended by 0.05 GHz for direct entry via the key pad. The preset and full span values
remain unchanged.
Remote: FREQ:SPAN 2GHz
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the start frequency. For details see Start softkey in the
frequency menu.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 20MHz
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the stop frequency. For details see Stop softkey in the
frequency menu.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
Full Span
Sets the span to the full frequency range of the R&S FSL specified in the data sheet. This
setting is useful for overview measurements.
Remote: FREQ:SPAN:FULL
Zero Span
Sets the span to 0 Hz (zero span). The x–axis becomes the time axis with the grid lines
corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time (SWT).
Remote: FREQ:SPAN 0Hz
Last Span
Sets the span to the previous value. With this function e.g. a fast change between overview
measurement and detailed measurement is possible.
1300.2519.12
4.12
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input –
AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the level range and unit, the scaling and the RF
attenuation.
To open the amplitude menu
Press the AMPT key.
The amplitude menu is displayed. The Reference Level dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu" on page 4.14
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the amplitude
1300.2519.12
4.13
E-11
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
R&S FSL
To specify the amplitude
1. Set the reference level, offset and position, using the Ref Level, Ref Level Offset and Ref Level
Position softkeys.
2. Select the level range and the unit for the level axis, using the Range Log and Unit softkeys.
3. Set the scaling, using the Range Linear and/or Grid Abs / Rel softkeys.
4. Set the attenuation, using the RF Atten Manual or RF Atten Auto softkeys.
Softkeys of the amplitude menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Range Log
Range Linear
Range Linear %
Range Lin. Unit
Preamp On/Off
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
More
Ref Level Offset
Ref Level Position
Grid Abs / Rel
Unit
Input 50 L / 75 L
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm, dBMV,
etc).
The reference level value is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly, which is
indicated by the IFOVL status display.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV –60dBm
Range Log
Selects logarithmic scaling for the level display range and opens the Range Log dialog box to
select a value for the level range.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y 120DB
1300.2519.12
4.14
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
Range Linear
Selects linear scaling for the level display range and opens a submenu to select the type of
linear scaling.
Range Linear %
Selects linear scaling in % for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal grid lines are labelled in
%. The grid is divided in decadic steps.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit (Unit softkey). Delta markers are displayed in %
referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear
scaling.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
Range Lin. Unit
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit (Unit softkey). Delta markers are displayed in dB
referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB
Preamp On/Off (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
The preamplifier has only an effect below 6 GHz.
Remote: INP:GAIN:STAT 0N
RF Atten Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation, irrespective of the reference level.
The attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps. The range is specified in the data sheet. If the defined
reference level cannot be set for the set RF attenuation, the reference level will be adjusted
accordingly.
The RF attenuation defines the level at the input mixer according to the formula:
levelmixer = levelinput – RF attenuation
The maximum mixer level allowed is –10 dBm. Mixer levels above this value may lead to
incorrect measurement results, which are indicated by the OVLD status display.
Remote: INP:ATT 30 DB
1300.2519.12
4.15
E-11
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
R&S FSL
RF Atten Auto
Sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of the selected reference level. This ensures
that the optimum RF attenuation is always used. It is the default setting.
Remote: INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y–axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV:OFFS –10dB
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the maximum
AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from –200 to +200%, 0%
corresponding to the lower and 100% to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 100PCT
Grid Abs / Rel (not available with Range Linear)
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis.
Absolute scaling
The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute value of the
reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
Relative scaling
The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling is in dB
whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details on unit
settings see Unit softkey).
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:MODE ABS
Unit
Opens the Unit dialog box to select the unit for the level axis. The default setting is dBm. If a
transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
In general, the spectrum analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display
is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sinewave signal. In the default state, the level is
displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance (50 L or 75 L),
conversion to other units is possible. The units dBm, dBmV, dBµV, V and W are directly
convertible.
Remote: CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
1300.2519.12
4.16
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
Input 50 D / 75 D
Uses 50 L or 75 L as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is 50 L .
Changes the reference impedance for the measured levels
The setting 75 L should be selected, if the 50 L input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 L adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 L in series to the input impedance of the
instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log ( 75 L / 50 L).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument (50 L)R.
Remote: INP:IMP 50OHM
1300.2519.12
4.17
E-11
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
R&S FSL
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key is used to set the resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth (VBW) and sweep time (SWT).
The values available for resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth depend on the selected filter type.
For details on channel filters see also "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.20.
To open the bandwidth menu
Press the BW key.
The bandwidth menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu" on page 4.22
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.20
Tasks
–
To specify the bandwidth
–
To choose the appropriate filter type
1300.2519.12
4.18
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
To specify the bandwidth
1. Set the resolution bandwidth using the Res BW Manual or Res BW Auto softkey.
2. Set the video bandwidth using the Video BW Manual or Video BW Auto softkey.
3. Set the sweep time using the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey.
4. Press the Filter Type softkey and select the appropriate filters.
To choose the appropriate filter type
All resolution bandwidths are realized with digital filters. With option Narrow IF Filters, R&S FSL–B7, the
range is enlarged (for details refer to the data sheet).
The video filters serve for smoothing the displayed trace. Using video bandwidths that are small
compared to the resolution bandwidth, only the signal average is displayed and noise peaks and pulsed
signals are repressed. If pulsed signals are to be measured, it is recommended to use a video
bandwidth that is large compared to the resolution bandwidth (VBW * 10 x RBW) for the amplitudes of
pulses to be measured correctly.
The following filter types are available:
•
Gaussian filters
The Gaussian filters are set by default. The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
•
EMI (6dB) filters
The EMI (6dB) filters are available from firmware version 1.30. The available bandwidths are
specified in the data sheet.
•
FFT filters
The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
The FFT algorithm offers considerably higher measurement speeds with all the other settings
remaining the same. The reason is that for analog filters the sweep time required for a particular
2
span is proportional to (span/RBW ). When using the FFT algorithm, however, the sweep time is
proportional to (span/RBW).
FFT filters are particularly suitable for stationary signals (sinusoidal signals or signals that are
continuously modulated in time). For burst signals (TDMA) or pulsed signals, normal filters are
preferable. When the tracking generator is used as signal source for the DUT, filtering with the FFT
algorithm is not useful. The FFT option is thus not available if the tracking generator is switched on.
If the FFT filters are activated, the sweep time display (SWT) is replaced by the acquisition time
(AQT) display. The sweep time is defined by the selected bandwidth and span, and cannot be
changed. The video bandwidth is not defined and therefore cannot be set.
The sample detector and the peak detector are available. If the Detector Auto Select softkey in the
trace menu is activated, the peak detector is selected.
•
channel filters
details see "List of available RRC and channel filters"
•
RRC filters
details see "List of available RRC and channel filters"
1300.2519.12
4.19
E-11
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
R&S FSL
List of available RRC and channel filters
For power measurement a number of especially steep–edged channel filters are available (see the
following table).
For filters of type RRC (Root Raised Cosine), the filter bandwidth indicated describes the sampling rate
of the filter. For all other filters (CFILter) the filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth.
Table 4-3: Filter types
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100
Hz
CFILter
200
Hz
CFILter
300
Hz
CFILter
500
Hz
CFILter
1
kHz
CFILter
1.5
kHz
CFILter
2
kHz
CFILter
2.4
kHz
CFILter
2.7
kHz
CFILter
3
kHz
CFILter
3.4
kHz
CFILter
4
kHz
CFILter
4.5
kHz
CFILter
5
kHz
CFILter
6
kHz
CFILter
8.5
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9
kHz
CFILter
AM radio
10
kHz
CFILter
12.5
kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15
kHz
CFILter
16
kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18
kHz,
RRC
TETRA
20
kHz
CFILter
21
kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3
kHz,
RRC
IS 136 (NADC)
=0.35
=0.35
Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satelite
25
kHz
CFILter
30
kHz
CFILter
50
kHz
CFILter
100
kHz
CFILter
150
kHz
CFILter
FM radio
192
kHz
CFILter
PHS
200
kHz
CFILter
300
kHz
CFILter
500
kHz
CFILter
1300.2519.12
CDPD, CDMAone
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
4.20
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
1.0
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288
MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1,28
MHz
RRC
1.5
MHz
CFILter
2.0
MHz
CFILter
3.0
MHz
CFILter
3.75
MHz
CFILter
3.84
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096
MHz,
=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5.0
MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
MHz
CFILter
Note:
DAB
The 20 MHz channel filter is unavailable in sweep mode.
The 3.84 and 4.096 MHz filters (marked with an asterisk in the table) require an IF filter model
index 3.
1300.2519.12
4.21
E-11
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Res BW Manual
Res BW Auto
Video BW Manual
Video BW Auto
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Filter Type
Res BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available resolution
bandwidths are specified in the data sheet. For details on the correlation between resolution
bandwidth and filter type refer to "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.19.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the
RBW display.
Remote: BAND:AUTO OFF
Remote: BAND 1MHz
Res BW Auto (span > 0)
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span. If the span is changed, the resolution
bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended, if a favorable setting of the resolution bandwidth in relation to the
selected span is desired.
Remote: BAND:AUTO ON
Video BW Manual (not available for FFT filter)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths are
specified in the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the VBW
display.
Remote: BAND:VID:AUTO OFF
Remote: BAND:VID 10 kHz
1300.2519.12
4.22
E-11
R&S FSL
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
Video BW Auto (not available for FFT filter)
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is changed,
the video bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended, if a minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution
bandwidth. Narrow video bandwidths require longer sweep times due to the longer settling time.
Wide bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
Remote: BAND:VID:AUTO ON
Sweeptime Manual (not available for FFT filter)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
Option TV Trigger, B6
(available from version 1.10)
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
100 µs (zero span)
absolute min. sweep time value:
1 µs (zero span)
25 µs (zero span)
2.5 ms (span > 0)
–
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer to the
data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or
upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green asterisk (*) at the SWT
display. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level
measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for the resolution or video filters. In
this case, the R&S FSL displays the error message UNCAL and marks the indicated sweep time
with a red asterisk (*).
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
Sweeptime Auto (not available for FFT filter and zero span)
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth (RBW). If
the span, resolution bandwidth or video bandwidth are changed, the sweep time is automatically
adjusted.
The R&S FSL always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying the
signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Filter Type
Opens the Filter Type dialog box to select the filter type.
For detailed information on filters see "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.19 and
"List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.20.
Remote: BAND:TYPE NORM
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Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
R&S FSL
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single sweep are
possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the sweep menu
Press the SWEEP key.
The sweep menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu" on page 4.25
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Task
–
To specify the sweep settings
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R&S FSL
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
To specify the sweep settings
1. Press the Sweep Count softkey and enter the sweep count.
2. Set the sweep time by using the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey.
3. Press the Sweep Points softkey and enter the number of sweep points.
4. Select the sweep mode using the Continuous Sweep or Single Sweep softkey.
5. To repeat the single sweep, press the Continue Single Sweep softkey.
Softkeys of the sweep menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this menu provides additional functionality.
For details refer to "Softkeys of the sweep menu (Spectrogram view)" on page 4.195.
Command
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Continue Single Sweep
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Sweep Count
Sweep Points
Continuous Sweep
Sets the continuous sweep mode: the sweep takes place continuously according to the trigger
settings. This is the default setting. The trace averaging is determined by the sweep count value
(see Sweep Count softkey).
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides additional
functionality. For details refer to Continuous Sweep Start/Stop softkey in the sweep menu of
this option.
Remote: INIT:CONT ON
Single Sweep
Sets the single sweep mode: after triggering, starts the number of sweeps that are defined by
using the Sweep Count softkey. The measurement stops after the defined number of sweeps
has been performed.
Remote: INIT:CONT OFF
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Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
R&S FSL
Continue Single Sweep
Repeats the number of sweeps set by using the Sweep Count softkey, without deleting the
trace of the last measurement.
This is particularly of interest when using the trace configurations Average or Max Hold to take
previously recorded measurements into account for averaging / maximum search. For details on
trace configuration refer to "Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.39.
Remote: INIT:CONM
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. For details see Sweeptime Manual softkey in
the bandwidth menu.
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
Sweeptime Auto
Sets the automatic sweep time mode. For details see Sweeptime Auto softkey in the bandwidth
menu.
Remote: SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be performed in the single sweep
mode. Values from 0 to 32767 are allowed. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one sweep is performed.
The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a diagram.
The sweep count set in the sweep menu is the same as that in the trace menu (for further details
see Sweep Count softkey). If the trace configurations Average, Max Hold or Min Hold are set,
the sweep count value also determines the number of averaging or maximum search
procedures (for details on trace configuration see "Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on page 4.39.
Example:
TRACE key – Trace Mode softkey – Mode Max Hold softkey
SWEEP key – Sweep Count softkey – Average Sweep Count dialog box: enter 10
Single Sweep softkey: R&S FSL performs the Max Hold function over 10 sweeps.
Remote: SWE:COUN 64
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R&S FSL
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values to be collected during one
sweep.
–
Entry via rotary knob:
In the range from 101 to 1001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in steps of 100
points.
In the range from 1001 to 32001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in steps of 1000
points.
–
Entry via keypad:
All values in the defined range can be set.
The default value is 501 sweep points. If a value
off automatically.
501 is set, the auto peak detector is turned
Remote: SWE:POIN 501
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key is used to set trigger mode, trigger threshold, trigger delay, trigger polarity and for gated
sweep the gate configuration.
To open the trigger menu
Press the TRIG key.
The trigger menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu" on page 4.33
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Trigger mode overview" on page 4.31
Tasks
–
To specify the trigger settings
–
To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)
–
To trigger on TV signals (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
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R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
To specify the trigger settings
1. Press the Trg / Gate Source softkey to select the trigger mode (for details see "Trigger mode
overview" on page 4.31).
2. Press the Trg / Gate Level softkey to set the trigger level.
3. Press the Trigger Offset softkey to set the trigger offset.
4. For details on gated sweep operation, see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep,
B8)" on page 4.29.
5. For details on TV signal triggering, see "To trigger on TV signals (zero span and option TV Trigger,
B6)".
To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal is inactive, the
spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition of frequency components
generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can also be examined for an inactive carrier. The
sweep can be controlled by an external gate or by the internal power trigger.
Gated sweep operation is also possible for span = 0. This enables – e.g. in burst signals – level
variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
1. Press the Gate Settings submenu softkey to define the settings of the gate mode.
At the center frequency a transition to zero span is made and the time parameters gate delay and
gate length are displayed as vertical lines to adjust them easily.
When quitting the Gate Settings submenu, the original span is retrieved so the desired
measurement can be performed with the accurately set gate.
2. To set the parameters gate delay and gate length highly accurate, press the Sweep Time softkey to
alter the x–axis in a way that the signal range concerned (e.g. one full burst) is displayed.
3. Press the Gate Delay softkey to set the sampling time in a way that the desired portion of the signal
is shown.
4. Press the Gate Mode Lvl/Edge softkey to set the gate mode.
5. If the Edge gate mode has been selected, press the Gate Length softkey to set the sampling
duration in a way that the desired portion of the signal is shown.
6. Press the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey to set the polarity of the trigger source.
7. Press the Gated Trigger softkey to activate the gated sweep mode.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label GAT is displayed on the
screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the gate is configured.
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
Fig. 4-1: TDMA signal with GATE OFF
Fig. 4-2: Pulsed signal with GATE ON
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R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Fig. 4-3: Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
To trigger on TV signals (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
1. Press the TV Trig Settings submenu softkey to switch the TV trigger on and define the settings for
triggering on TV signal.
2. To configure the TV trigger, press the Vert Sync, Vert Sync Odd Field, Vert Sync Even Field or
Hor Sync softkey.
3. Press the Video Pol Pos/Neg softkey to set the polarity of the video signal.
4. Press the Lines 625/525 softkey to set the line system to be used.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Trigger mode overview
The R&S FSL offers the following trigger modes:
•
Free Run
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started
immediately.
•
External
Triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector EXT TRIG / GATE IN on the rear panel.
•
Video
Triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold from 0% to
100% of the diagram height.
•
IF Power
Triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement channel.
For this purpose, the R&S FSL uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency. Its
threshold can be set in a range between –50 dBm and –10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting
trigger level at the RF input is calculated via the following formula:
Mixerlevelmin + RFAtt – PreampGain
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4.31
Mixerlevelmax + RFAtt – PreampGain
E-11
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency is 20 MHz. The R&S FSL is triggered as soon as the
trigger threshold is exceeded within a 10 MHz range around the selected frequency (= start
frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even if the
carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
•
TV (option TV Trigger, B6, available from firmware version 1.10)
Triggering of the measurement on TV signals. In this trigger mode, only the Auto Peak and the
Sample detectors are available (for details refer to "Detector overview" on page 4.42).
In order to display different sections of a TV video signal, the R&S FSL derives several trigger
signals from the video signals. This allows triggering as well on the frame repetition as on each line
of the TV video signal.
The filter bandwidth is constant: 4.0 MHz for standards with 525 lines or 5.0 MHz for standards with
625 lines. The position of the filter is determined by the firmware in order to place the 3 dB filter
bandwidth on the center frequency, as shown in the diagramm below. For the center frequency, the
value of the vision carrier frequency should be set.
fv = vision carrier frequency
fa = aural carrier frequency
fc = chrominance sub–carrier frequency
BW = –3dB filter bandwidth
Fig. 4-4: 3 dB Filter bandwidth (option TV Trigger, B6, available from firmware version 1.10)
•
Time Trigger (available from firmware version 1.60)
Triggering of the measurement by a time intervall, set via the Repetition Intervall softkey.
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R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Softkeys of the trigger menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Trg / Gate Source
Trg / Gate Level
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset / Repetition Intervall
Gated Trigger
Gate Settings
Gate Mode Lvl/Edge
Gate Delay
Gate Length
Trg / Gate Source
Trg / Gate Level
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Sweep Time
More
IF Power Retrigger Holdoff
IF Power Retrigger Hysteresis
TV Trig Settings
Vert Sync
Vert Sync Odd Field
Vert Sync Even Field
Hor Sync
Video Pol Pos/Neg
Lines 625/525
TV Free Run On/Off
Trg / Gate Source
Opens the Trigger / Gate Source dialog box to select the trigger / gate mode. For detailed
information on trigger modes see "Trigger mode overview" on page 4.31.
The gate–related settings are only available with option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8. As gate
modes, all modes apart from the TV Trigger mode (option TV Trigger, B6, available from
firmware version 1.10) are available. For details see also "To use gated sweep operation (option
Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
The default setting is Free Run. If a trigger mode other than Free Run has been set, the
enhancement label TRG is displayed.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR IMM | VID | IFP | EXT | TV | TIME (Free Run, Video, IF Power,
Extern, TV Trigger, Time Trigger)
Remote: SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT (Extern)
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
Trg / Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger / gate level. The gate–related settings are only
available with option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8. For details see also "Trigger mode overview"
on page 4.31 and "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote: TRIG:LEV:VID 50PCT
Remote: TRIG:LEV:IFP –30DBM
Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg
Sets the polarity of the trigger / gate source. The gate–related settings are only available with
option Gated Sweep, R&S FSL–B8.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting is
Pos. The setting applies to all modes with the exception of the Free Run mode.
level triggering
In the setting Pos the sweep is stopped by the logic ´0´ signal and
restarted by the logical ´1´ signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
edge triggering
The sweep is continued on a ´0´ to ´1´ transition for the gate length
duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Remote: TRIG:SLOP POS
Remote: SWE:EGAT:POL POS
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start of the
sweep. The time may be entered in multiples of 125 ns in the range –100 s to 100 s (default
0 s).
offset > 0:
start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
sweep starts earlier (pre–trigger)
only possible for span = 0 and gated trigger switched off
not possible if RMS or average detector activated
maximum allowed range and the maximum resolution limited by the sweep time:
rangemax = – 499/500 x sweep time
resolutionmax = sweep time/500
Note:
For the option TV Trigger, B6 (available from firmware version 1.10), the allowed offset ranges
from –50 Bs to +50 Bs. If the trigger source is changed to TV trigger and the set trigger offset is
out of range, the trigger offset is adopted to the closest value allowed.
In the External or IF Power trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger and
gate. Therefore changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as well.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote: TRIG:HOLD 10US
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R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
Repetition Intervall (Time Trigger mode)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time intervall after which the sweep is started. The
possible values range from 100 ms to 5000 s.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: TRIG:TIME:RINT 50
Gated Trigger (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Switches the sweep mode with gate on or off .
This softkey requires the following trigger mode:
span > 0
External or IF Power
span = 0
External or IF Power or Video
If a different mode is active, the IF Power trigger mode is automatically selected.
If the gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector EXT
TRIGGER/GATE or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the analyzer.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Remote: SWE:EGAT ON
Remote: SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP | EXT
Gate Settings (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens a submenu to make all the settings required for gated sweep operation.
In the Time Trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Gate Mode Lvl/Edge (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Sets the gate mode. As settings level–triggered or edge–triggered gate mode can be selected.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:TYPE EDGE
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
Gate Delay (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate delay time between the gate signal and the
continuation of the sweep. Values between 125 ns and 100 s are allowed. The delay position on
the time axis in relation to the sweep is indicated by a line labeled GD.
This is useful for e.g. taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the stabilization of
an RF carrier.
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting the External or IF
Power trigger mode, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as
well.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:HOLD 1US
Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate length. Values between 125 ns and 100 s are
allowed. The gate length in relation to the sweep is indicated by a line labeled GL.
The length of the gate signal defines if the sweep is to be interrupted. Only in the edge–triggered
mode the gate length can be set, while in the level–triggered the gate length depends on the
length of the gate signal.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:LENG 100US
Sweep Time (option Gated Sweep, B8)
Opens an edit dialog box to change the sweep time in order to obtain a higher resolution for
positioning gate delay and gate length. When quitting the Gate Settings submenu, the original
sweep time is retrieved.
For details also see "To use gated sweep operation (option Gated Sweep, B8)" on page 4.29.
IF Power Retrigger Holdoff
Opens an edit dialog box to define the value for the IF power trigger holdoff. This softkey is only
available if the IF power trigger is selected as the trigger source. The holdoff value in s is the
time which must pass since another IF power trigger event may happen. The range of the value
is between 150 ns and 10 s in the step width of 10 ns.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: TRIG:IFP:HOLD 200 ns
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R&S FSL
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
IF Power Retrigger Hysteresis
Opens an edit dialog box to define the value for the IF power trigger hysteresis. This softkey is
only available if the IF power trigger is selected as the trigger source. The hysteresis in dB is the
value the input signal must decay below the IF power trigger level in order to allow an IF power
trigger starting the measurement. The range of the value is between 3 dB and 50 dB in the step
width of 1 dB.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: TRIG:IFP:HYST 10DB
TV Trig Settings (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Switches the TV trigger on and opens a submenu to configure the TV signal parameters.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR TV
Vert Sync (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the trigger on the vertical sync signal. The R&S FSL triggers on the frame repetition signal
without distinction between the two fields.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:FIEL:SEL ALL
Vert Sync Odd Field (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the trigger on the vertical sync signal of the first field.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:FIEL:SEL ODD
Vert Sync Even Field (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the trigger on the vertical sync signal of the second field.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:FIEL:SEL EVEN
Hor Sync (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the trigger on the horizontal sync signal and opens an edit dialog box to enter the
corresponding line. Depending on the selected line system (for details see Lines 625/525
softkey), values from 1 to 525 or 1 to 625 are allowed. If the range is exceeded, the maximum
possible line number will be set.
The default setting is 17, which is used to trigger according to CCIR 473–4 on test line 17.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:LINE:NUM 17
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Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
R&S FSL
Video Pol Pos/Neg (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the polarity of the video signal. Default setting is Neg.
Positive video polarity is to be selected e.g. for standard L signals, negative video polarity for
signals according to the standards B/G/I/M (color standard PAL or NTSC).
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:SSIG:POL NEG
Lines 625/525 (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Sets the line system to be used. Default setting is 625 lines.
Option TV Trigger, B6, is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: TRIG:VID:FORM:LPFR 625
TV Free Run On/Off (zero span and option TV Trigger, B6)
Activates or deactivates the free run trigger mode for option TV Trigger, B6. For details on
trigger modes refer to "Trigger mode overview" on page 4.31. In this mode, only the trace modes
Clear Write and View are available (see also "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: TRIG:VID:CONT ON
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the analysis of the
measurement data.
The R&S FSL is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A trace consists
of a maximum of 501 measurement points on the horizontal axis (frequency or time). If more measured
values than measurement points are available, several measured values are combined in one
measurement point.
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (Clear Write, View and Blank). For details on trace modes see "Trace mode
overview" on page 4.40.
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (Average, Max Hold and Min Hold). For details on trace modes
see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40. For details on averaging see "Description of the
averaging method" on page 4.41.
•
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors see "Detector
overview" on page 4.42.
To open the trace menu
Press the TRACE key.
The trace menu is displayed. The Trace Configuration dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu" on page 4.43
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Trace mode overview" on page 4.40
–
"Detector overview" on page 4.42
–
"Description of the averaging method" on page 4.41
–
"ASCII file export format" on page 4.51
Task
–
To specify the trace settings
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
To specify the trace settings
1. Press the Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6 softkey to select the trace.
2. Press the Trace Mode softkey to select the trace mode for the selected trace (for details see "Trace
mode overview" on page 4.40).
3. Press the Detector Auto Select softkey for automatic detector selection or press the Detector
Manual Select softkey to select a detector (for details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42).
4. To change the sweep count setting, which also determines trace averaging, press the Sweep
Count softkey.
5. To deactivate the reset of the traces in Min Hold and Max Hold mode after some specific
parameter changes, press the Hold/Cont softkey.
6. To copy a trace into another trace memory, press the Copy Trace softkey.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new contents are
displayed in the View mode.
7. To export the active trace in ASCII format:
–
Press the More softkey.
–
If necessary, press the Decim Sep softkey to change the decimal separator with floating–point
numerals.
–
Press the ASCII File Export softkey to enter the ASCII file export name.
The active trace is saved in ASCII format on the flash disk or a USB device.
Trace mode overview
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after completion of a
measurement. Traces that are not activated are hidden. Each time the trace mode is changed, the
selected trace memory is cleared.
The R&S FSL offers 6 different trace modes:
•
Clear Write
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. All available detectors can be selected.
This is the default setting.
•
Max Hold
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S FSL saves the
sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the previous one. The
detector is automatically set to Positive Peak.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is filled up
upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements or if the TV trigger is active and the TV Free
Run On/Off softkey is set to ON (option TV Trigger, B6).
•
Min Hold
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The R&S FSL saves
for each sweep the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the trace
memory. The detector is automatically set to Negative Peak.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible. Noise,
interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal is recognized by its
constant level.
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
This mode is not available for statistics measurements or if the TV trigger is active and the TV Free
Run On/Off softkey is set to ON (option TV Trigger, B6).
•
Average
The average is formed over several sweeps. All available detectors can be selected. If the detector
is automatically selected, the sample detector is used. For details see also "Description of the
averaging method" on page 4.41.
This mode is not available for statistics measurements or if the TV trigger is active and the TV Free
Run On/Off softkey is set to ON (option TV Trigger, B6).
•
View
The current contents of the trace memory is frozen and displayed.
If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference level (see below),
can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that the trace and the current
instrument setting do not correspond any more is indicated by the enhancement label "*" at the left
edge of the grid.
If level range or reference level are changed, the R&S FSL automatically adapts the measured data
to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made after the measurement in
order to show details of the trace.
•
Blank
Hides the selected trace.
Description of the averaging method
Averaging is carried out over the measurement points derived from the measurement samples. Several
measured values may be combined in a measurement point. This means that with linear level display
the average is formed over linear amplitude values. The sweep mode (continuous or single sweep, for
details see "Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key" on page 4.24) and running averaging apply to
the average display analogously. In principle, two methods for calculating the average are used:
continuous averaging and averaging over the selected number of sweeps.
•
sweep count > 1
Depending on the relation of the following two parameters, two different situations exist:
n = number of sweeps performed since measurement start
c = sweep count (number of sweeps forming one statistics cycle)
–
n
c
In single sweep or continuous sweep mode during the first statistics cycle, averaging over the
selected number of sweeps is performed. The average trace n is calculated at each
measurement point according to:
Avg (n) =
1
n 1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
n
n
Equ. 4–1
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Until the first statistics cycle is completed (n < c), a preliminary average is displayed which
represents the arithmetic mean value over all measured sweeps. With n increasing, the
displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there are more single sweeps for averaging.
When the first statistics cycle is completed (n = c), the average trace is saved in the trace
memory.
–
n>c
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
In continuous sweep mode after the first statistics cycle, continuous averaging is performed.
The average trace n is calculated at each measurement point according to:
Avg (n) =
1
c 1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
c
c
Equ. 4–2
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
In single sweep mode, the same formula holds true if the Continue Single Sweep softkey is
pressed.
•
sweep count = 0
In continuous sweep mode, a continuous average is calculated according to Equ. 4–3.
with c = 10:
Avg (n) =
9
1
Avg (n 1) + Curr (n)
10
10
Equ. 4–3
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Due to the weighting between the current trace and the average trace, past values have practically
no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps. With this setting, signal noise is
effectively reduced without need for restarting the averaging process after a change of the signal.
•
sweep count = 1
The current trace is displayed. No averaging is performed. This is a special case of Equ. 4–1 with
n = 0.
Detector overview
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by you or set
automatically by R&S FSL. The detector activated for the specific trace is identified in the respective
trace display field in form of an abbreviation (for details see detector list).
The detectors of the R&S FSL are implemented as pure digital devices. They collect signal power data
within each measured point during a sweep. The default number of sweep points is 501. The following
detectors are available:
Detector
Indicator
Function
auto peak detector
(Auto Peak)
Ap
determines the maximum and the minimum value within a
measurement point
peak detector
(Positive Peak)
Pk
determines the maximum value within a measurement point
min peak detector
(Negative Peak)
Mi
determines the minimum value within a measurement point
sample detector
(Sample)
Sa
selects a random value within a measurement point
RMS detector (RMS)
Rm
determines the root mean square power within a
measurement point
average detector
(Average)
Av
determines the linear average power within a measurement
point
quasi peak detector
(Quasi Peak)
QP
determines the quasipeak power within a measurement point
for EMI measurements (available from firmware version 1.10)
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
If the TV trigger is active, only the auto peak and the sample detector are available.
The result obtained from the selected detector within a measurement point is displayed as the power
value at this measurement point.
All detectors work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement speed is
independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
Note:
During a frequency sweep, R&S FSL increments the 1st local oscillator in steps that are smaller
than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This makes sure that the oscillator step speed is
conforming to the hardware settling times and does not affect the precision of the measured
power.
The number of measured values taken during a sweep is independent of the number of
oscillator steps. It is always selected as a multiple or a fraction of 501 (= default number of trace
points displayed on the screen). Choosing less then 501 measured values (e.g. 125 or 251) will
lead to an interpolated measurement curve, choosing more than 501 points (e.g. 1001, 2001 ...)
will result in several measured values being overlaid at the same frequency position.
Softkeys of the trace menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trace menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Trace Mode
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
Average
View
Blank
Detector Auto Select
Detector Manual Select
Detector Auto Peak
Detector Positive Peak
Detector Negative Peak
Detector Sample
Detector RMS
More
Detector Average
Detector Quasi Peak
Sweep Count
Hold/Cont
More
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Menu / Command
R&S FSL
Command
Copy Trace
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Trace Math
Trace Math Position
Average Mode
LOG
LIN
POWER
Trace 1 2 3 4 5 6
Selects the active trace (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (see
Clear Write mode), the other traces are switched off (see Blank mode).
Remote: (selected via numeric suffix of :TRACe<1...6>)
Trace Mode
Opens a submenu to select the trace mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page
4.40.
Clear Write
Selects the Clear Write mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT
Max Hold
Selects the Max Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH
Min Hold
Selects the Min Hold mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Average
Selects the Average mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER
View
Selects the View mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW
Blank
Selects the Blank mode. For details see "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:TRAC OFF
Detector Auto Select
Selects the optimum detector for the selected trace and filter mode. This is the default setting.
For details see also "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
Trace mode
Detector (band–pass filter)
Detector (FFT filter)
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Max Peak
Average
Sample
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Max Peak
Remote: DET:AUTO ON
Detector Manual Select
Opens a submenu to select the detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
Detector Auto Peak
Selects the Auto Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET APE
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
Detector Positive Peak
Selects the Positive Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET POS
Detector Negative Peak
Selects the Negative Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET NEG
Detector Sample
Selects the Sample detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET SAMP
Detector RMS
Selects the RMS detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET RMS
Detector Average
Selects the Average detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET AVER
Detector Quasi Peak
Selects the Quasi Peak detector. For details see "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DET QPE
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps used for averaging. Values from 0 to
32767 are allowed. The default setting is 0. The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a
diagram. The sweep count set in the trace menu is the same as that in the sweep menu (for
further details see Sweep Count softkey).
In the continuous sweep mode, the sweep count value determines the trace averaging:
–
sweep count = 0: continuous averaging
–
sweep count = 1: no averaging
–
sweep count > 1: averaging over the selected number of sweeps; in the continuous sweep
mode averaging is performed until the set number of sweeps is attained and is then continued
as continuous averaging (see also "Description of the averaging method" on page 4.41).
Remote: SWE:COUN 64
Hold/Cont
Switches on or off the reset of the traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode after some
specific parameter changes have been made. The default setting is off.
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement
results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new measurement after
parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false results (e.g. with span
changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter changes, the automatic reset
can be switched off.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE:HCON ON
Copy Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace memory, in which the currently
selected trace shall be copied.
Remote: TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
ASCII File Export
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII format to the
specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see "ASCII file export format" on page
4.51.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible
to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the Decim Sep softkey.
Remote: FORM ASC
Remote: MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
Decim Sep
Selects the decimal separator with floating–point numerals for the ASCII file export to support
evaluation programs (e.g. MS Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ','
(comma) can be set. For details see also ASCII File Export softkey.
Remote: FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Trace Math
Opens the Trace Mathematics dialog box to define which trace is subtracted from trace 1. The
result is displayed in trace 1 and refers to the zero point defined with the Trace Math Position
softkey. The following substractions can be performed:
T1–>T1–T2
Substracts trace 2 from trace 1.
T1–>T1–T3
Substracts trace 3 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T4
Substracts trace 4 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T5
Substracts trace 5 from trace 1
T1–>T1–T6
Substracts trace 6 from trace 1
If the Trace Math Off option is activated, the function is switched off (default setting).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC1:MATH (TRACE1 – TRACE2)
Remote: CALC:MATH:STAT ON
Trace Math Position
Opens an edit dialog box to define the zero point in % of the diagram height. The range of
values extends from –100% to +200%.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT
Average Mode
Opens a submenu to select the averaging method for the average trace mode. The submenu
contains the following softkeys.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Command
LOG
LIN
POWER
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
Logarithmic averaging is preferred to display signals with a low signal to noise ratio. While
positive peak values are decreased in logarithmic averaging due to the characteristics involved,
it is also true that negative peaks are increased relative to the average value.If the distorted
amplitude distribution is averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller than the actual average
value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a 2.5 dB factor.
Therefore the R&S FSL offers the selection of linear averaging. The trace data is converted to
linear values prior to averaging, then averaged and reconverted to logarithmic values. After
these conversions the data is displayed on the screen. The average value is always correctly
displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
In case of stationary sinusoidal signals all averaging methods have the same results.
LOG
Activates logarithmic averaging.
This averaging method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale (see Range Log
softkey). In this case the values are averaged in dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling) the
behaviour is the same as with linear averaging (see LIN softkey). For further information on
logarithmic scaling refer to the Average Mode softkey.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: CALC:MATH:MODE LOG
LIN
Activates linear voltage or power averaging, depending on the selected unit.
Linear averaging means that the power level values are converted into linear units prior to
averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back into its original unit.
The averaging is done in two ways (depending on the set unit – see Unit softkey):
–
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to averaging, i.e.
averaging is done in W.
–
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBMV, dBMA or dBpW: the data is converted into V prior to
averaging, i.e. averaging is done in V.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: CALC:MATH:MODE LIN
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
POWER
Activates linear power averaging.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to averaging. After the averaging, the
data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the LIN softkey, the averaging is always done in W.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: CALC:MATH:MODE POW
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R&S FSL
Setting Traces – TRACE Key
ASCII file export format
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon: parameter name;
numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword "Trace <n>" (<n> = number of
stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several columns (depending on measurement)
which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header
Description
Type;FSL;
Instrument model
Version;5.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Oct 2006;
Date of data set storage
Mode;ANALYZER;
Instrument mode
Center Freq;55000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;90000;Hz
Frequency range (0 Hz in zero span and statistics measurements)
x–Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x–axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Start;10000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Stop;100000;Hz
Unit: Hz for span > 0, s for span = 0, dBm/dB for statistics measurements
Ref Level;–30;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;75;%
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits (0% = lower edge)
y–Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y–axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x–axis LOG, % with x–axis LIN
Rf Att;20;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace: CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;AUTOPEAK;
Detector set: AUTOPEAK,MAXPEAK,MINPEAK,AVERAGE,RMS,SAMPLE,QUASIPEAK
Sweep Count;20;
Number of sweeps set
File contents:
data section of the file
Description
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x–Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: Hz with span > 0; s with span = 0; dBm/dB with statistics measurements
y–Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values: dB*/V/A/W depending on the selected unit with y–axis LOG or % with y–
axis LIN
Values; 501;
Number of measurement points
10000;–10.3;–15.7
Measured values: <x value>, <y1>, <y2>; <y2> being available only with detector
AUTOPEAK and containing in this case the smallest of the two measured values for a
measurement point.
10180;–11.5;–16.9
10360;–12.0;–17.4
...;...;
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Setting Traces – TRACE Key
R&S FSL
Measurement Functions
In this section all menus necessary for setting measurement functions are described. This includes the
following topics and keys:
•
"Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page 4.53
•
"Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key" on page 4.66
•
"Power Measurements – MEAS Key" on page 4.75
•
"Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key" on page 4.118
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and for quickly
selecting a display section. The R&S FSL provides four markers per trace.
Marker
Active marker
Temporary marker
M1
M3
T1
D2
Delta marker
Fig. 4-5: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be moved by the user
is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers are used in addition to the markers
and delta markers to evaluate the measurement results. They disappear when the associated function
is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed in the marker
field. The marker field is located at the upper right corner of the display and shows the following:
•
marker type (M1 in the example)
•
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
•
level (–33.09 dBm in the example)
•
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
Fig. 4-6: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement markers (markers
and delta markers). In addition, the functions for frequency counter, fixed reference point for relative
measurement markers and enlargement of the measurement area are assigned to this key.
Also the following measurements can be carried out:
•
Noise density (Noise Meas On/Off softkey; see also "Measurement of noise density" on page 4.56)
•
Frequency measurement (Sig Count On/Off softkey; see also "Frequency measurement with the
frequency counter" on page 4.56)
•
Filter or signal bandwidth (n dB down softkey)
•
AF demodulation (Marker Demod softkey; see also "AF demodulation" on page 4.56)
For further information on markers see also "Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key" on page
4.66.
To open the marker menu
Press the MKR key.
The marker menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a peak search on
the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is opened and
the current frequency / time value is displayed.
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S FSL
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu" on page 4.57
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"AF demodulation" on page 4.56
–
"Frequency measurement with the frequency counter" on page 4.56
–
"Measurement of noise density" on page 4.56
Tasks
–
To define the basic marker settings
–
To set a fixed reference point (phase noise measurement)
–
To set the demodulation mode and duration
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
To define the basic marker settings
1. Press the MKR key to open the marker menu.
Marker 1 is activated and positioned on the maximum value of the trace as normal marker. If
several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value (peak) of the trace
which has the lowest number (1 to 3) and is not frozen (View mode). In case a marker is already
located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest level (next peak).
2. To change to another trace, press the Marker to Trace softkey and enter the number of the trace
on which the marker is to be placed.
The marker changes to selected trace, but remains on the previous frequency or time. If a trace is
turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also deactivated.
3. To switch on a delta marker, press the Marker 2 softkey.
Marker 2 is switched on as a delta marker. The frequency and level of marker 2 are displayed in
relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
4. To change the marker type of marker 2, press the /Marker Norm/Delta softkey.
Marker 2 becomes a normal marker. The frequency and level of marker 2 are displayed as absolute
values in the marker field.
5. To switch off marker 2, press the Marker 2 softkey again.
Marker 2 is deactivated. Marker 1 becomes the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of
marker 1 are displayed in the marker field.
To set a fixed reference point (phase noise measurement)
1. Press the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey.
The submenu with the Phase Noise On/Off softkey switched on is displayed. The level and
frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point.
2. To set the maximum of the selected trace as reference point, press the Peak Search softkey.
3. To define the values for the reference point, proceed as follows:
–
Press the Ref Point Level softkey and enter a reference level value.
–
If span > 0, press the Ref Point Frequency softkey and enter a frequency reference value.
–
If span = 0, press the Ref Point Time softkey and enter a reference time value.
To set the demodulation mode and duration
1. Press the Marker Demod softkey.
The submenu with the Mkr Demod On/Off softkey switched on is displayed.
2. To change the demodulation mode, press the AM or FM softkey.
For details see "AF demodulation" on page 4.56.
3. To modify the demodulation time for span > 0, press the Mkr Stop Time softkey.
4. To change to continuous demodulation for span > 0, press the Cont Demod softkey.
5. To tune the volume for acoustic monitoring, press the Volume softkey.
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S FSL
AF demodulation
The R&S FSL provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators, a displayed
signal can be identified acoustically by using headphones.
CAUTION
Risk of hearing damage
Check the volume setting carefully before putting on the headphones in order to
protect your hearing.
For span > 0, the demodulation is not continuous. The frequency at which the demodulation takes place
is set by the active marker. If the level of the selected frequency is above the threshold line, the sweep
stops for the selected time (stop time) and the RF signal is demodulated. For span = 0, the
demodulation is continuously active irrespective of the stop time set.
Frequency measurement with the frequency counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, the R&S FSL is equipped with a frequency
counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate frequency. Using the
measured IF, the R&S FSL calculates the frequency of the RF input signal by applying the known
frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement uncertainty depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency reference
used (external or internal reference). Although the R&S FSL always operates synchronously
irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a more exact result than a measurement
performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
•
The marker measures only the position of the point on the trace and infers from this value the signal
frequency. The trace, however, contains only a limited number of points. Depending upon the
selected span, each point may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the
frequency resolution.
•
The resolution, with which the frequency can be measured with a marker, is dependant on the
selected resolution bandwidth which in return affects the necessary measurement time. For this
reason, the bandwidth is normally made as wide as possible and the sweep time as short as
possible. This results in a loss of frequency resolution.For the measurement with the frequency
counter, the sweep is stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired
resolution and then the sweep is allowed to continue.
Measurement of noise density
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of the marker. For
span = 0, all points of the trace are used to determine the noise power density. For span > 0, two points
to the right and left of the marker are used for the measurement to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With logarithmic amplitude units (dBm, dBmV,
dBmMV, dBMA), the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz, i.e. as level in 1 Hz bandwidth with
reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V, A, W), the noise voltage density is evaluated in
MV/Hz, the noise current density in MA/Hz or the noise power density in MW/Hz.
In the default setting, the R&S FSL uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to Average to stabilize the measured values.
With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in this case it produces too low noise
levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable
measurement results.
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement yields correct
values:
•
Detector: Sample or RMS
•
Video bandwidth:
0.1 resolution bandwidth with sample detector
3 x resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
•
Trace averaging:
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to average to stabilize the measured
values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in this case it produces
too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain
stable measurement results.
The R&S FSL uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from the marker level:
•
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the bandwidth correction value
is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 x lg (1 Hz/BWNoise), where BWNoise is the noise or
power bandwidth of the set resolution filter (RBW).
•
RMS detector: With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are required since
this detector already indicates the power with every point of the trace.
•
Sample detector: As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is added to the
marker level. This is the difference between the average value and the RMS value of white noise.
With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally. Logarithmic averaging is thus fully taken
into account which yields a value that is 1.45 dB lower than that of linear averaging.
•
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement frequency) points
of the trace are averaged.
•
For span > 0, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a sweep).
Note:
The R&S FSL noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density level. It is
calculated by deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise level and
adding 174 to the result.
Softkeys of the marker menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, the edit dialog box for markers and delta
markers is extended. For details refer to "Markers and marker values" on page 4.193.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker Norm/Delta
Noise Meas On/Off
Phase Noise/Ref Fixed
Phase Noise On/Off
Ref Point Level
Ref Point Frequency/
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S FSL
Command
Ref Point Time
Peak Search
Phase Noise 1 2 3 4
Reference Fixed
Reference Fixed On/Off
Ref Point Level
Ref Point Frequency/
Ref Point Time
Peak Search
Sig Count On/Off
More
Marker 3
Marker 4
Marker to Trace
Marker Demod
Mkr Demod On/Off
AM
FM
Mkr Stop Time
Cont Demod
Volume
n dB down
All Marker Off
More
Marker Zoom
Marker Peak List
New Search
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl
Peak Excursion
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
More
Peak List Off
Threshold
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Marker Stepsize
Stepsize Standard
Stepsize Sweep Points
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4/Marker Norm/Delta
The Marker <no> softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box to
enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the selected
marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the Stepsize
Standard or Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 4
are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into markers with
absolute value display by means of the Marker Norm/Delta softkey. If marker 1 is the active
marker, pressing the Marker Norm/Delta softkey switches on an additional delta marker.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT ON
Remote: CALC:DELT:X <value>
Remote: CALC:DELT:X:REL?
Remote: CALC:DELT:Y?
Noise Meas On/Off
Switches the noise measurement for the active marker on or off. The corresponding marker
becomes the normal marker. For more details on noise measurement see "Measurement of
noise density" on page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS:RES?
Phase Noise/Ref Fixed
The function of this softkey depends on the setting of the Noise Meas softkey:
–
Noise Meas On: activates phase noise measurements.
–
Noise Meas Off: freezes the current position of marker 1 as a reference for relative
measurements. Additionally it opens a submenu to set all values of a reference point. Instead of
using the current values of the reference marker (marker 1) as reference point for the delta
markers, level and frequency or time are set to fixed values and used as reference point.
Phase Noise On/Off
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and frequency
or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can be altered using the
corresponding softkeys (Ref Point Level, Ref Point Frequency, Ref Point Time and Peak
Search).
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S FSL
Ref Point Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the delta
markers refer to this reference level.
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y –10dBm
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0) / Ref Point Time (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or
time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase noise
measurement, input of reference time is not possible..
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 5MS
Peak Search
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote: CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX
Phase Noise 1 2 3 4
Selects the normal marker or the delta markers, activates the marker and opens an edit dialog
stands for delta marker 1.
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to.
Reference Fixed
Opens a submenu for relative measurement to a fixed reference value.
Reference Fixed On/Off
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and frequency
or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can be altered using the
corresponding softkeys (Ref Point Level, Ref Point Frequency, Ref Point Time and Peak
Search).
Remote: CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
Sig Count On/Off
Switches the frequency counter on/off. The frequency is counted at the position of the reference
marker (marker 1). If no marker is activated, marker 1 is switched on and set at the largest
signal.
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a result. The
result is displayed in the marker field (see "Fig. 4-6: Marker values" on page 4.53), labeled with
[Tx CNT]. For more details see "Frequency measurement with the frequency counter" on page
4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:COUN ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace, on which the marker is to be placed.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
Remote: CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
Marker Demod
Opens a submenu to set the demodulation mode and duration. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.56.
Mkr Demod On/Off
Switches the demodulation on/off. For more details see also "AF demodulation" on page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
AM
Sets AM as demodulation mode. This is the default setting. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM
FM
Sets FM as demodulation mode. Default setting is AM. For more details see also "AF
demodulation" on page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM
Mkr Stop Time
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the demodulation stop time for span > 0. For more details see
also "AF demodulation" on page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s
Cont Demod (span > 0)
Switches the continuous demodulation on or off. If the sweep time is long enough, the set
frequency range can be monitored acoustically. For more details see also "AF demodulation" on
page 4.56.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON
Volume
Opens an edit dialog box to regulate the volume for acoustic monitoring. For more details see
also "AF demodulation" on page 4.56.
Remote: SYST:SPE:VOL 0.5
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S FSL
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary
markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary markers
T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the entered value (ndB) are
displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference
marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the markers T1 and
T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left and marker T2
to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker field, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
span = 0
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of noise
display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0)
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0)
All Marker Off
Switches all markers off.
Remote: CALC:MARK:AOFF
Marker Zoom (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a display range for the zoom. The area around marker 1 is
expanded accordingly and more details of the spectrum can be seen. If no marker is activated,
marker 1 is switched on and set on the largest signal..
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency of the
signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency. The zoomed
display range is then configured and the new settings are used by the R&S FSL for further
measurements.
As long as switching to the new frequency display range has not yet taken place, pressing the
softkey will abort the procedure. If an instrument setting is changed while using this function, the
procedure is aborted.
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Marker Peak List
Opens the Peak List dialog box and a submenu to define criterias for the sort order and the
contents of the peak list. The number of listed peaks is indicated in the title bar. For all listed
peaks the frequency and level values are given. Maximal 50 entries are listed.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?
New Search
Starts a new peak search and enters the results in the peak list.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl
Defines the criteria for sorting:
Freq
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time
values (span = 0)
Lvl
sorting in ascending order of the level
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y
Peak List Off
Switches the peak list function off.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
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Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
R&S FSL
ASCII File Export
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box and saves the content of the marker peak list in
ASCII format to the specified file and directory. The file consists of a data section containing the
peak list.
Example:
Peak;1
1089743590;Hz
–105.24;dBm
...
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible
to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the Decim Sep softkey.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: FORM ASC
Remote: MMEM:STOR:PEAK 'test'
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Marker Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of all markers and delta markers.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Stepsize Standard
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measurement point to the next, if the marker or
delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob (Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4
softkeys). If more measured values than measurement points exist, it is not possible to read out
all measured values. In this case, use the Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN
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R&S FSL
Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
Stepsize Sweep Points
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measured value to the next, if the marker or delta
marker value is changed via the rotary knob (Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4 softkeys). If
more measured values than measurement points exist, every single measured value is
accessible and its value is displayed in the marker field.
The number of measured values is defined in the sweep menu via the Sweep Points softkey.
This functionality is available for all base unit measurements with the exception of statistics
(APD and CCDF softkeys in the measurement menu).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S FSL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
The MKR–> key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of the marker
frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and
minima. For details on markers in general, see "Using Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page
4.53.
To open the marker–> menu
Press the MKR–> key.
The marker–> menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated and a peak
search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last activated marker is
opened and the current frequency / time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu" on page 4.70
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Effect of different peak excursion settings (example)" on page 4.68
Tasks
–
To search for a maximum
–
To search for a minimum
–
To specify the search limits
–
To specify the search range
–
To examine a signal at the center in detail
–
To specify the suitable peak excursion
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R&S FSL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
To search for a maximum
1. To search the highest maximum, press the Peak softkey.
2. To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey.
3. To start the search, press Next Peak the softkey.
To search for a minimum
1. To search the minimum, press the Min softkey.
2. To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey.
3. To start the search, press the Next Min softkey.
To specify the search limits
1. To define the lower limit, press the Left Limit softkey.
2. To define the upper limit, press the Right Limit softkey.
3. To define the threshold, press the Threshold softkey.
4. To switch the search limits off, press the Search Lim Off softkey.
To specify the search range
Press the Exclude LO softkey to include the frequency 0 Hz in the marker search functions.
To examine a signal at the center in detail
1. Press the PRESET key to set the R&S FSL to the default setting.
2. Press the MKR–> key to open the marker–> menu.
3. Marker 1 is activated and set to the largest signal of the trace.
4. Press the Center =Mkr Freq softkey to set to the marker frequency.
5. The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency
is not exceeded.
6. Press the Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey to set the reference level to the measured marker level.
7. Press the SPAN key.
8. The edit dialog box to enter a frequency span is displayed.
9. Reduce the span, e.g. using the rotary knob.
To specify the suitable peak excursion
1. If the next peak mode abs of softkey Next Peak Mode < abs > / Next Min Mode < abs > is used,
the default value is sufficient, since, in this mode, the next lower maximum or next higher minimum
will always be detected.
2. If the next peak mode < or > of softkey Next Peak Mode < abs > / Next Min Mode < abs > is used,
the 6 dB level change set as a default value may be attained already by the inherent noise of the
instrument. To avoid identifying noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion value
that is higher than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the
displayed inherent noise.
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S FSL
Effect of different peak excursion settings (example)
The following figure shows a trace to be examined.
Fig. 4-7: Trace example
The following table lists the signals as indicated by the marker numbers in the diagram above, as well
as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
signal #
min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
The detected signals and their order are different depending on the peak excursion setting and the peak
search method (whether the next lower maximum or the next relative maximum are searched). The
following results are obtained. All tests start with the marker set to signal 1 by pressing the softkey
Peak.
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R&S FSL
•
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
40 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 no signal is detected, as the signal level does not
decrease by more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode >: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
•
20 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 signal 2 is detected, as the signal level decreases at
least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now greater than the peak excursion.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 2
next peak mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode abs: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
next peak mode >: signal 2
next peak mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
•
6 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods all signals are detected.
next lower maximum
next relative maximum
next peak mode abs: signal 2
next peak mode <: signal 3
next peak mode abs: signal 3
next peak mode >: signal 1
next peak mode abs: signal 4
next peak mode >: signal 2
next peak mode >: signal 4
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the marker–> menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this menu provides additional functionality.
For details refer to "Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Spectrogram view)" on page 4.197.
Menu / Command
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Next Peak Mode < abs >
Center =Mkr Freq
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Next Min Mode < abs >
Search Limits
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
Search Lim Off
Peak Excursion
More
Exclude LO
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak
Select 1 2 3 4
Selects the normal marker or the delta markers, activates the marker and opens an edit dialog
stands for delta marker 1.
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, the edit dialog box for markers and
delta markers is extended. For details refer to "Markers and marker values" on page 4.193.
Remote: CALC:MARK1 ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
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R&S FSL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum of the trace.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Peak softkey in the marker–> menu of this option.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum of the selected trace according to the
mode selected using the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Next Peak softkey in the marker–> menu of this option.
Next Peak Mode < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Peak softkey. Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum left to the marker of the
selected trace.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum of the selected
trace.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum right to the marker of the
selected trace.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Next Peak X Search < abs > and Next Peak Y Search
up/abs/dn softkeys in the marker–> menu of this option.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
Sets the center frequency to the current marker or delta marker frequency. A signal can thus be
set to as center frequency, for example to examine it in detail with a smaller span.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
Sets the reference level to the current marker level.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:REF
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S FSL
Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected trace.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Min softkey in the marker–> menu of this option.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum of the selected trace according to the
mode selected using the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Next Min softkey in the marker–> menu of this option.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
Next Min Mode < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Min softkey. Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum left to the marker of the
selected trace.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum of the selected
trace.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum right to the marker of the
selected trace.
If the Spectrogram Measurement option (K14) is activated, this softkey provides altered
functionality. For details refer to Next Min X Search < abs > and Next Min Y Search up/abs/dn
softkeys in the marker–> menu of this option.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
Search Limits
Opens a submenu to set the limits for maximum or minimum search in the x and y direction.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Left Limit
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span > 0; T1
for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right limit (see also
Right Limit softkey).
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
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R&S FSL
Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
Right Limit
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span > 0; T2
for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right limit (see also Left
Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop frequency.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
Threshold
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the lower
level limit for a Peak search and the upper level limit for a Min search.
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the lower
limit of the peak search level range.
Remote: CALC:THR –20dBm
Remote: CALC:THR ON
Search Lim Off
Deactivates all limits of the search range.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
Remote: CALC:THR:STAT OFF
Peak Excursion
Opens – for level measurements – an edit dialog box to enter the minimum level value by which
a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by the search
functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB. The default setting for
the peak excursion is 6 dB.
For details see also "To specify the suitable peak excursion" on page 4.67 and "Effect of
different peak excursion settings (example)" on page 4.68.
Remote: CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
Exclude LO
Switches the frequency range limit for the marker search functions on or off.
activated
minimum frequency
6 × resolution bandwidth (RBW)
Because of the interference by the first local oscillator to the first
intermediate frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a
signal at 0 Hz. To avoid the marker jumping to the LO at 0 Hz with the
peak function when setting the display range, this frequency is
excluded.
deactivated
no restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote: CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
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Changing Settings via Markers – MKR–> Key
R&S FSL
Auto Max Peak / Auto Min Peak
Adds an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep. This
function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the actual peak
marker position and level.
The actual marker search limit settings (Left Limit, Right Limit, Threshold, Exclude LO
softkeys) are taken into account.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.50.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:AUTO ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:AUTO ON
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions, the R&S FSL is able to measure all the necessary parameters
with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB–AM) for high–frequency transmission of
information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the latter covers a spectrum which is
defined by the modulation, the transmission data rate and the signal filtering. Within a transmission
band each carrier is assigned a channel taking into account these parameters. In order to ensure error–
free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These include
among others:
•
the output power
•
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined percentage of the power
•
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels
The MEAS key is used for complex measurement functions as power measurements, occupied
bandwidth, signal statistic, carrier to noise spacing, AM modulation depth, third–order intercept point,
harmonics and spurious emissions. For measurement examples refer to chapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples" and to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5, "Basic Measurement Examples".
The following measurements can be performed:
•
Power in zero span (Time Domain Power softkey; for details see "Power measurement in zero
span" on page 4.78)
•
Channel power and adjacent–channel power with span > 0 and with a single or several carriers
(CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey)
•
Occupied bandwidth (OBW softkey, for details see "Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page
4.78)
•
Carrier–to–noise ratio (C/N, C/No softkey)
•
Amplitude probability distribution (APD and CCDF softkeys, for details refer to hapter "Advanced
Measurement Examples", "Amplitude Distribution Measurement")
•
Modulation depth (AM Mod Depth softkey)
•
3rd order intercept (TOI softkey, for details refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples",
"Intermodulation Measurements")
To open the power measurement menu
Press the MEAS key.
The power measurement menu is displayed.
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Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the power measurement menu" on page 4.88
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78
–
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.78
–
"Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.79
–
"Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80
–
"Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81
–
"Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement" on page 4.82
–
"Format description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files" on page 4.83
–
"ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 4.88
Tasks
–
To measure the power in zero span
–
To set the channel configuration
–
To measure the occupied bandwidth
–
To measure signal statistics
–
To measure the carrier–to–noise ratio
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To measure the power in zero span
1. Press the Time Domain Power softkey to activate the power measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To limit the power evaluation range, switch on the limits (Limits On/Off softkey) and enter the limits
by using the Left Limit and Right Limit softkeys.
3. Select the type of power measurement by using the Mean or RMS softkey. (RMS or mean power),
the settings for max hold and averaging as well as the definition of limits.
4. To calculate and display the peak value, press the Peak softkey.
5. To calculate and display the standard deviation from the mean value, press the Std Dev softkey.
To set the channel configuration
1. Press the CP, ACP, MC–ACP softkey to active channel or adjacent–channel power measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To use a predefined standard for measurement, press the CP / ACP Standard softkey (for details
on available standards see "Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.79).
3. To configure the parameters independently of the predefined standards, press the CP / ACP
Config softkey (for details see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80).
4. To enter the sweep time, press the Sweep Time softkey.
5. To display the whole diagram, press the Full Size Diagram softkey.
6. To adjust the reference level to the measured channel power, press the Adjust Ref Level softkey.
To measure the occupied bandwidth
1. Press the OBW softkey to activate the measurement of the occupied bandwidth (for details see also
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.78).
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. Press the % Power Bandwidth softkey to enter the percentage of power.
3. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the Channel Bandwidth
softkey.
4. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the Adjust Settings softkey
(for details see also "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80).
5. To adjust the reference level to the measured total power after the first sweep, press the Adjust
Ref Level softkey.
To measure signal statistics
•
To activate and configure the measurement of the amplitude probability distribution (APD), press
the APD softkey (for details refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples", "Amplitude
Distribution Measurement").
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
•
To activate and configure the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF),
press the CCDF softkey (for details refer to hapter "Advanced Measurement Examples", "Amplitude
Distribution Measurement").
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
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To measure the carrier–to–noise ratio
1. Press the C/N, C/No softkey to configure the carrier–to–noise ratio measurement.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. To activate the measurements without reference to the bandwidth, press the C/N softkey.
3. To activate the measurements with reference to the bandwidth, press the C/No softkey.
4. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the Channel Bandwidth
softkey.
5. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the Adjust Settings softkey
(for details see also "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80).
Power measurement in zero span
With the aid of the power measurement function, the R&S FSL determines the power of the signal in
zero span by summing up the power at the individual measurement points and dividing the result by the
number of measurement points. In this way it is possible to measure for example the power of TDMA
signals during transmission or during the muting phase. Both the mean power and the RMS power can
be measured by means of the individual power values.
The result is displayed in the marker field. The measured values are updated after each sweep or
averaged over a user–defined number of sweeps in order to determine e.g. the mean power over
several bursts. For determination of the peak value the maximum value from several sweeps is
displayed.
If both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement range can be limited to
the transmission or to the muting phase with the aid of vertical lines. The ratio between signal and noise
power of a TDMA signal for instance can be measured by using a measurement as a reference value
and after that varying the measurement range.
Upon switching on power measurement the sample detector is activated.
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
An important characteristic of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a radio communications
system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited to enable distortion–free transmission in
adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth is defined as the bandwidth containing a defined
percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10% and 99.9% can be set.
The measurement principle is the following: The bandwidth containing 99% of the signal power is to be
determined, for example. The routine first calculates the total power of all displayed points of the trace.
In the next step, the points from the right edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5% of the total power
is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is positioned at the corresponding frequency. Then the points from the
left edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5% of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is
positioned at this point. 99% of the power is now between the two markers. The distance between the
two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in the marker field.
To ensure correct power measurement, especially for noise signals, and to obtain the correct occupied
bandwidth, the following prerequisites and settings are necessary:
•
Only the signal to be measured is displayed on the screen. An additional signal would falsify the
measurement.
•
RBW << occupied bandwidth
(approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice communication type 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
•
VBW
•
RMS detector
•
Span
3 x RBW
2 to 3 x occupied bandwidth
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Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD–27B) require measurement of the
occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of the R&S FSL has to be changed
accordingly then.
Predefined CP / ACP standards
The test parameters for the channel and adjacent–channel measurements are set according to the
mobile radio standard. The available standards are listed below.
Parameter
Standard
CDMA2000
CDMA 2000
CDMA IS95A FWD
CDMA IS95A forward
CDMA IS95A REV
CDMA IS95A reverse
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse
CDMA J–STD008 FWD
CDMA J–STD008 forward
CDMA J–STD008 REV
CDMA J–STD008 reverse
CDPD
CDPD
NADC IS136
NADC IS136
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
RFID 14443
RFID 14443
TD–SCDMA FWD
TD–SCDMA forward
TD–SCDMA REV
TD–SCDMA reverse
TETRA
TETRA
W–CDMA 3GPP FWD
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
W–CDMA 3GPP REV
W–CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
WIBRO
WIBRO
WiMAX
WiMAX
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11B
WLAN 802.11B
Note:
For the R&S FSL, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center frequency
of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel. The definition of
the adjacent–channel spacing in standards IS95 B / C, IS97 B / C, IS98 B / C and CDMA2000
DS / MC1 / MC3 is different. These standards define the adjacent–channel spacing from the
center of the transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition
is also used for the R&S FSL if the standard settings marked with a dagger are selected.
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Settings of CP / ACP test parameters
•
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin
of approx. 10%.
Note:
If the frequency span is large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the adjacent–channel
bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are available per channel. This
reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the channel filter used, which has a
negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is therefore strongly recommended that the
formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
For channel power measurements the Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span as follows:
(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x transmission channel
bandwidth + measurement margin
For adjacent–channel power measurements, the Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span
as a function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission channel spacing, the
adjacent–channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of adjacent–channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2,
whichever is furthest away from the transmission channels:
(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x (adjacent–channel
spacing + adjacent–channel bandwidth) + measurement margin
The measurement margin is approx. 10% of the value obtained by adding the channel spacing and
the channel bandwidth.
•
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both, acceptable measurement speed and required selection (to suppress spectral
components outside the channel to be measured, especially of the adjacent channels), the
resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or too large. As a general approach, the
resolution bandwidth is to be set to values between 1% and 4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to be measured
and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for standard IS95A REV at an
adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct
results since the spectrum in the neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant
level. For standard NADC/IS136 this is not possible for example, since the spectrum of the transmit
signal penetrates into the adjacent channels and a too large resolution bandwidth causes a too low
selection of the channel filter. The adjacent–channel power would thus be measured too high.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the Adjust Settings softkey sets the resolution
bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
RBW
1/40 of channel bandwidth
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
•
1/40)
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth. A restricted
bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal averaging and thus result in a too low
indication of the power (–2.51 dB at very low video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should
therefore be selected at least three times the resolution bandwidth:
VBW
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The Adjust Settings softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of the channel
bandwidth (see formula above) and the smallest possible VBW with regard to the available step
size will be selected.
•
Detector
The Adjust Settings softkey selects the RMS detector. This detector is selected since it correctly
indicates the power irrespective of the characteristics of the signal to be measured. The whole IF
envelope is used to calculate the power for each measurement point. The IF envelope is digitized
using a sampling frequency which is at least five times the resolution bandwidth which has been
selected. Based on the sample values, the power is calculated for each measurement point using
the following formula:
PRMS =
1
N
N
si2
i =1
si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter
N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point
PRMS = power represented by a measurement point
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels and the value is
displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number of
measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield
less stable results.
•
Trace averaging
The Adjust Settings softkey switches off this function. Averaging, which is often performed to
stabilize the measurement results, leads to a too low level indication and should therefore be
avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the number of averages and the signal
characteristics in the channel to be measured.
•
Reference level
The Adjust Settings softkey does not influence the reference level. It can be separately adjusted
using the Adjust Settings softkey.
Ranges and range settings
In the Spectrum Emission Mask and Spurious Emissions measurements, a range defines a segment,
for which you can define the following parameters separately: start and stop frequency, RBW, VBW,
sweep time, sweep points, reference level, attenuator settings, and limit values. Via the sweep list, you
define the ranges and their settings (for details on settings refer to the Sweep List softkey).
The following rules apply to ranges:
•
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
•
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
•
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
•
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only: A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
•
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only: The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked
in blue color).
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Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick way to change the
configuration. A set of ready–made XML files for different standards is already provided. For details see
Table 4-4. You can also create and use your own XML files (for details see "Format description of
Spectrum Emission Mask XML files" on page 4.83). All XML files are stored under C:\r_s\instr\sem_std.
Use the Edit Power Classes softkey for quick access to the available XML files.
Table 4-4: Provided XML files
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 default DL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 default DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 default UL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 default UL
PowerClass_31_39.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP (31,39)dBm DL
PowerClass_39_43.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP (39,43)dBm DL
PowerClass_43_INF.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP (43,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
W–CDMA 3GPP (–INF,31)dBm DL
PowerClass_29_40.xml
WiBro TTA (29,40)dBm DL
PowerClass_40_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (40,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
WiBro TTA (–INF,29)dBm DL
PowerClass_23_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX DL ETSI–System Type E
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX ETSI–System Type F DL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX ETSI–System Type G DL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz DL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz DL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E UL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F UL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G UL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz UL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz UL
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11a)
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11a
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11b
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11b
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE. 802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\cdma2000\UL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP\DL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\DL
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WIBRO\UL
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\ETSI\...MHz
(1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00 MHz,
14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\DL\IEEE
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\ETSI...MHz
(1.75 MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00 MHz,
14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WIMAX\UL\IEEE
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11_TURBO
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11a
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
C:\R_S\instr\sem_std\WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j
*Used abbreviations:
BC: band class
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association
Note:
For the WIBRO standards, the 1 MHz channel filter is used for every occurrence of a 1 MHz
filter. Within the R&S FSL–K92/93, the 1 MHz filter are Gaussian filters.
Format description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules of the XML
standard. Below, the child nodes, attributes, and structure defined for the data import is described. Build
your own XML files according to these conventions because the R&S FSL can only interpret XML files
of a known structure. For example files look in the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
Note:
It is mandatory to follow the structure exactly as shown below or else the R&S FSL is not able
to interpret the XML file and error messages are shown on the screen. For this reason is it
recommended to make a copy of an existing file (see Save As Standard softkey) and edit the
copy of the file. The default files can be found in the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
Alternatively, edit the settings using the Edit Power Classes dialog box and the Sweep List
dialog box and save the XML file with the Save As Standard softkey afterwards. This way, no
modifications have to be done in the XML file itself.
Basically, the file consists of three elements that can be defined.
•
The first element of the structure is the BaseFormat element. It carries information about basic
settings. In this element only the ReferencePower child node has any effects on the measurement
itself. The other attributes and child nodes are used to display information about the Spectrum
Emission Mask Standard on the measurement screen. The child nodes and attributes of this
element are shown in Table 4-5.
In the example above (PowerClass_39_43.xml under C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP), these
attributes are defined as follows:
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–
Standard="W–CDMA 3GPP"
–
LinkDirection="DL"
–
PowerClass="(39,43)dBm"
R&S FSL
•
The second element is the PowerClass element, which is embedded in the BaseFormat element. It
carries settings information about the power classes. Up to four different power classes can be
defined. For details refer to the Sweep List softkey and the corresponding parameter description.
The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in Table 4-6.
•
The third element is the Range element, which in turn is embedded in the PowerClass element. It
carries the settings information of the range. There have to be at least three defined ranges: one
reference range and at least one range to either side of the reference range. The maximum number
of ranges is twenty. Note that the R&S FSL uses the same ranges in each power class. Therefore,
the contents of the ranges of each defined power class have to be identical to the first power class.
An exception are the Start amd Stop values of the two Limit nodes that are used to determine the
power class. Note also, that there are two Limit nodes to be defined: one that gives the limit in
absolute values and one in relative values. Make sure units for the Start and Stop nodes are
identical for each Limit node. For details refer to the Sweep List softkey and the corresponding
parameter description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in Table 4-7.
The following tables show the child nodes and attributes of each element and show if a child node or
attribute is mandatory for the R&S FSL to interpret the file or not. Since the hierarchy of the XML can
not be seen in the tables, either view one of the default files already stored on the R&S FSL in the
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory or check the structure as shown below.
Below, a basic example of the structure of the file is shown, containing all mandatory attributes and
child nodes. Note that the PowerClass element and the range element are themselves elements of the
Base Format element and are to be inserted where noted. The separation is done here simply for
reasons of a better overview. Also, no example values are given here to allow a quick reference to the
tables above. Italic font shows the placeholders for the values.
•
The Base Format element is structered as follows:
<RS_SEM_ACP_FileFormat Version=”1.0.0.0”>
<Name>Standard</Name>
<Instrument>
<Type>Instrument Type</Type>
<Application>Application</Application>
</Instrument>
<LinkDirection Name=”Name”>
<ReferencePower>
<Method>Method</Method>
</ReferencePower>
<PowerClass Index=”n”>
<!—- For contents of the PowerClass node see
Table 4-6 -->
<!-- Define up to four PowerClass nodes -->
</PowerClass>
</LinkDirection>
</RS_SEM_ACP_File>
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•
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
The PowerClass element is structered as follows:
<PowerClass Index=”n”>
<StartPower Unit=”dBm” InclusiveFlag=”true” Value=”StartPowerValue”/>
<StopPower Unit=”dBm” InclusiveFlag=”false” Value=”StopPowerValue”/>
<DefaultLimitFailMode>Limit Fail Mode</DefaultLimitFailMode>
<Range Index=”n”>
<!-- For contents of the Range node see Table 4-7 -->
<!-- Define up to twenty Range nodes -->
</Range>
…
</PowerClass>
•
The Range element is structered as follows:
<Range Index=”n”>
<Name="Name">
<ChannelType>Channel Type</Channel Type>
<WeightingFilter>
<Type>FilterType</Type>
<RollOffFactor>Factor</RollOffFactor>
<Bandwith>Bandwidth</Bandwidth>
</WeightingFilter>
<FrequencyRange>
<Start>RangeStart</Start>
<Stop>RangeStop</Stop>
</FrequencyRange>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=”Unit” Value="Value”/>
<Stop Unit=”Unit” Value=”Value”/>
</Limit>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=”Unit” Value="Value”/>
<Stop Unit=”Unit” Value=”Value”/>
</Limit>
<RBW Bandwidth=”Bandwidth” Type=”FilterType”/>
<VBW Bandwidth=“Bandwidth“/>
<Detector>Detector</Detector>
<Sweep Mode=“SweepMode“ Time=“SweepTime“/>
<Amplitude>
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<ReferenceLevel Unit=”dBm” Value=”Value”/>
<RFAttenuation Mode=”Auto” Unit=”dB” Value=”Value”/>
<Preamplifier State=”State”/>
</Amplitude>
</Range>
Table 4-5: Attributes and child nodes of the BaseFormat element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
FileFormatVersion
1.0.0.0
Date
“YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS”
Date in ISO 8601 format
No
<string>
Name of the standard
Yes
Type
FSL
Name of the instrument
No
Application
SA | K72 | K82
Name of the application
No
Name
Downlink | Uplink |
None
Yes
ShortName
DL | UL
No
Name
Instrument
LinkDirection
Parameter Description
Mandatory
Yes
ReferencePower
Yes
Method
TX Channel Power |
TX Channel Peak
Power
Yes
ReferenceChannel
<string>
No
Table 4-6: Attributes and child nodes of the PowerClass element
Child Node
StartPower
StopPower
DefaultLimitFailMode
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Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
Mandatory
Index
0…3
Indexes are continuous and
have to start with 0
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
The start power must equal
the stop power of the
previous power class. The
StartPower value of the first
range is -200
Yes
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
"true"
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
"false"
Yes
Absolute | Relative |
Absolute and Relative |
Absolute or Relative
Yes
4.86
The stop power must equal
the start power of the next
power class. The StopPower
value of the last range is 200
Yes
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Table 4-7: Attributes and child nodes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
Mandatory
Index
0…19
Indexes are continous and
have to start with 0
Yes
Name
<string>
Name of the range
Only if ReferenceChannel
contains a name and the
range is the reference
range
ShortName
<string>
Short name of the range
No
ChannelType
TX | Adjacent
Yes
WeightingFilter
Only if ReferencePower
method is “TX Channel
Power” and the range is
the reference range”
Type
RRC | CFILter
Type of the weighting filter
Yes
RollOffFactor
0…1
Excess bandwidth of the filter
Only if the filter type is
RRC
Bandwidth
<Bandwidth in Hz>
Filter bandwidth
Only if the filter type is
RRC
FrequencyRange
Yes
Start
<frequency in Hz>
Start value of the range
Yes
Stop
<frequency in Hz>
Stop value of the range
Yes
A Range must contain exactly
two limit nodes; one of the
limit nodes has to have a
relative unit (e.g. dBc), the
other one must have an
absolute unit (e.g. dBm)
Yes
Limit
Start
Stop
Value
<numeric_value>
Power limit at start frequency
Yes
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc |
dBr | dB
Sets the unit of the start value
Yes
Value
<numeric_value>
Power limit at stop frequency
Yes
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc |
dBr | dB
Sets the unit of the stop value
Yes
LimitFailMode
RBW
VBW
Absolute | Relative |
Absolute and Relative |
Absolute or Relative
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Type
NORM | PULS | CFIL |
RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
VBW
Yes
NEG | POS | SAMP |
RMS | AVER | QUAS
Detector
No (if quoted, it has to be
equal in all ranges)
Mode
Manual | Auto
Sweep Time Mode
Yes
Time
<time in sec>
Sweep Time
No
Detector
Sweep
No (if quoted, it has to be
equal to
DefaultLimitFailMode)
RBW
No
Amplitude
ReferenceLevel
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Yes
No
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
Ref. Level
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel
child node is used
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Child Node
Attribute
R&S FSL
Value
Parameter Description
Mandatory
node is used
RF Atennuation
Mode
Preamplifier
Manual | Auto
RF Attenuator
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel
child node is used
ON | OFF
Preamp
Yes
ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the spectrum analyzer and the general setup. For a
detailed description refer to "ASCII file export format" on page 4.51.
File contents
Description
RefType; CPOWER;
reference range setup, for details see
Edit Reference Range softkey
TxBandwidth;9540000;Hz
Filter State; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;–22500000;–9270000;1000000;2986455000;–74.762840270996094;
–10.576210021972656;–45.762840270996094;PASS;
1;–9270000;–4770000;100000;2991405000;–100.17695617675781;
–35.990325927734375;–1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;–100.17695617675781;
–35.990325927734375;–1.490325927734375;PASS;
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;–74.762840270996094;
–10.576210021972656;–45.762840270996094;PASS;
information about each peak:
<range number>;
<start frequency>;
<stop frequency>;
<resolution bandwidth of range>;
<frequency of peak>;
<absolute power in dBm of peak>;
<relative power in dBc of peak
(related to the channel power)>;
<distance to the limit line in dB
(positive value means above the limit)>;
<limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)>;
Softkeys of the power measurement menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power measurement menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special
option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
All Functions Off
TOI
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker 3
Marker 4
Search Signals
AM Mod Depth
same contents as TOI
menu
Time Domain Power
Peak
RMS
Mean
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R&S FSL
Menu / Command
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Std Dev
Limits On/Off
Left Limit
Right Limit
C/N, C/No
C/N
C/No
Channel Bandwidth
Adjust Settings
CP, ACP, MC–ACP
CP / ACP Standard
CP / ACP Config
# of TX Chan
# of Adj Chan
Channel Settings
Channel
Bandwidth
Channel Spacing
Chan Pwr/Hz
ACP Ref Settings
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
Limit Checking
Limit Chk On/Off
Edit ACP Limit
Power Mode
Clear/Write
Max Hold
Select Trace
Adjust Settings
Sweep Time
Fast ACP On/Off
ACP Abs/Rel
Adjust Ref Level
More
All Functions Off
OBW
% Power Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
APD
Percent Marker
Res BW
# of Samples
Scaling
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S FSL
Submenu / Command
Command
x–Axis Range
y–Axis Max Value
y–Axis Min Value
y–Unit %/Abs
Default Settings
Adjust Settings
Adjust Settings
CCDF
same contents as APD
menu
Spectrum Emission Mask
Sweep List
Edit Sweep List/Close
Sweep List
Insert before Range
Insert after Range
Delete Range
Edit Reference Range
List Evaluation
List Evaluation On/Off
List Full Screen
Margin
Show Peaks
List Up
List Down
Save Evaluation List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Edit Reference Range
Edit Power Classes
Load Standard
Save As Standard
Restore Standard Files
Meas Start/Stop
Spurious Emissions
Sweep List
Edit Sweep List/Close
Sweep List
Insert before Range
Insert after Range
Delete Range
Adjust X–Axis
List Evaluation
List Evaluation On/Off
List Full Screen
Details On/Off
Peaks per Range
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R&S FSL
Menu / Command
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Margin
Show Peaks
More
List Up
List Down
Save Evaluation List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
Meas Start/Stop
More
All Functions Off
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic On/Off
No. of Harmonics
Harmonic Sweep Time
Harmonic RBW Auto
Adjust Settings
Full Size Diagram
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:<function> OFF
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two–tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S FSL input. Marker 1 and
marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker 3 and marker
4 (also both normal markers) are placed on the intermodulation products. When the function is
enabled, the frequency entry is activated for the delta markers. They can be set manually.
The R&S FSL calculates the third order intercept point from the level spacing between normal
markers and delta markers and displays it in the marker field.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
Search Signals
Activates all markers.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
AM Mod Depth
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM–
modulated carrier is required on the screen for ensuring correct operation.
The level value of marker 1 is taken as the carrier level. When this function is activated, marker
2 and marker 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of
the trace as delta markers and marker 2 is activated for the entry.
When the position of marker 2 (delta) is changed, marker 3 (delta) is moved symmetrically with
respect to the reference marker (marker 1).
If the edit dialog box is opened for marker 3, the latter can be moved for fine adjustment
irrespective of marker 2.
The R&S FSL calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels. The AM
modulation depth is calculated from the ratio between the power values at the reference marker
and at the delta markers. If the powers of the two AM side bands are unequal, the mean value of
the two power values is used for AM modulation depth calculation.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?
Time Domain Power (zero span)
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the power
measurement. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:STAT ON
Peak (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
RMS (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
Mean (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Std Dev (zero span)
Activates the calculation of the standard deviation of measurement points from the mean value
and displays them as measured value. The measurement of the mean power is automatically
switched on at the same time. For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on
page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
Limits On/Off (zero span)
Switches the limitation of the evaluation range on or off. Default setting is off.
If switched off, the evaluation range is not limited. If switched on, the evaluation range is defined
by the left and right limit. If only one limit is set, it corresponds to the left limit and the right limit is
defined by the stop frequency. If the second limit is also set, it defines the right limit.
For more details see also "Power measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
Left Limit (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 1. For more details see also "Power
measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT <value>
Right Limit (zero span)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 2. For more details see also "Power
measurement in zero span" on page 4.78.
Remote: CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH <value>
C/N, C/No (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements without
(C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
C/N (span > 0)
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio on or off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is
activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace where marker 1 is located. To shift marker 1 and
measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu. To determine the
maximum value of the current trace, use the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey in the marker
menu.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
C/No (span > 0)
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio with reference to a 1 Hz bandwidth on or
off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace where marker 1 is located. To shift marker 1 and
measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu. To determine the
maximum value of the current trace, use the Phase Noise/Ref Fixed softkey in the marker
menu.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN0
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement channel bandwidth. The default setting is 14
kHz.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Adjust Settings (span > 0)
Enables the RMS detector (see also "Detector overview" on page 4.42) and adjusts the span to
the selected channel bandwidth according to:
4 x channel bandwidth + measurement margin
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later on.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES CN | CN0
CP, ACP, MC–ACP
Activates the active channel or adjacent–channel power measurement either for a single carrier
signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and
opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement. With default settings the
measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the display points within the specified
channels (IBW method).
If multi–carrier ACP measurement is activated, the number of measured values is increased to
ensure that adjacent–channel powers are measured with adequate accuracy.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CPOW|ACP|MCAC
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW|ACP|MCAC
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
CP / ACP Standard
Opens an edit dialog box to select the settings according to predefined standards. For details on
the available standards see "Predefined CP / ACP standards" on page 4.79. By default no
standard is set.
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters:
–
channel spacing and adjacent–channel spacing
–
channel bandwidth, adjacent–channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
–
resolution bandwidth
–
video bandwidth
–
detector
–
# of adjacent channels
–
trace averaging (switched off)
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <standard>
CP / ACP Config
Opens a submenu to configure the channel power and adjacent channel power measurement
independently of the predefined standards (for details see also "To set the channel
configuration" on page 4.77 and "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80).
# of TX Chan (MC–ACP)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of carrier signals to be taken into account in
channel and adjacent–channel power measurements. Values from 1 to 12 are allowed.
Remote: POW:ACH:TXCH:COUN 4
# of Adj Chan
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels to be considered in the
adjacent–channel power measurement. Values from 0 to 12 are allowed.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels:
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel are
measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and of the
next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the power of
the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1), and of the next but one
higher and lower adjacent channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
...
...
12
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and the
power of the all higher and lower channels (alternate channel 1 to 11) are measured.
Remote: POW:ACH:ACP 1
Channel Settings
Opens a submenu to define the channel settings.
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
Channel Bandwidth
Opens the TX/ACP Channel Bandwidth dialog box to enter the channel bandwidths for the
transmission channels and the adjacent channels. The entry TX is only available for the multi–
carrier ACP measurement.
The transmission–channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard. The
correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see CP / ACP Standard
softkey).
Measurements in zero span (see Fast ACP On/Off softkey) are performed in the zero span
mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements requiring channel
bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected standard the IBW method is to be used.
With the IBW method (see Fast ACP On/Off softkey), the channel bandwidth limits are marked
by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. It can in this way be visually
checked whether the entire power of the signal under test is within the selected channel
bandwidth.
If measuring according to the IBW method (Fast ACP Off), the bandwidths of the different
adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent channels often have the
same bandwidth, the other channels Alt1 and Alt2 are set to the bandwidth of the adjacent
channel on entering the adjacent–channel bandwidth (ADJ). Thus only one value needs to be
entered in case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths. The same holds true for the Alt2
channels (alternate channels 2) if the bandwidth of the Alt1 channel (alternate channel 1) is
entered.
For details on available channel filters see "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page
4.20.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID:ACH 30kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID:ALT2 30kHz
Channel Spacing
Opens the TX/ACP Channel Spacing dialog box to enter the channel spacings for the TX
channels and for the adjacent channels.
The entry TX is only available for the multi–carrier ACP measurement.
–
TX channels (left column)
TX1–
2
spacing between the first and the second carrier
TX2–
3
spacing between the second and the third carrier
...
...
The spacings between all adjacent TX channels can be defined separately. In order to allow a
convenient setup for the system with equal TX channel spacing, the value of TX spacing 1–2 is
copied in all the spacing below after entry, the TX spacing 2–3 is copied in all the spacing
below after entry and so forth. For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency is as
follows:
–
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate
the frequency between those two channels. This
frequency is aligned to the center frequency.
Adjacent channels (right column)
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the modification of
of the adjacent–channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher adjacent–channel
spacings (Alt1, Alt2, ...): they are all multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value / old
spacing value). Thus only one value needs to be entered in case of equal channel spacing. A
modification of a higher adjacent–channel spacing (Alt1, Alt2, ...) causes a change by the same
factor in all higher adjacent–channel spacings, while the lower adjacent–channel spacings
remain unchanged.
Example:
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz (ADJ), 40
kHz (Alt1), 60 kHz (Alt2), 80 kHz (Alt3), 100 kHz (Alt4), ...
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel (ADJ) is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all other
adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz (Alt1), 120 kHz (Alt2), 160 kHz
(Alt3), ...
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel (Alt4) is set to 150
kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 1.5 to result in 180 kHz
(Alt5), 210 kHz (Alt6), 240 kHz (Alt7), ...
If a ACP or MC–ACP measurement is started, all settings according to the standard including
the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be adjusted afterwards.
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC:CHAN 25kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC 33kHz
Remote: POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100kHz
Chan Pwr/Hz
If deactivated, the channel power is displayed in dBm. If activated, the channel power density is
displayed instead. Thus, the absolute unit of the channel power is switched from dBm to
dBm/Hz. The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power inside a bandwidth of
1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
channel power density = channel power – log10(channel bandwidth)
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density or use the
additional functions ACP Abs/Rel and ACP Ref Settings to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.50.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
ACP Ref Settings (MC–ACP)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the transmission channel to which the adjacent–channel
relative power values should be referenced.
TX Channel 1 – 12
Selection of one of channels 1 to 12.
Min Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as a
reference channel.
Max Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a
reference channel.
Lowest & Highest
Channel
The outer left–hand transmission channel is the reference
channel for the lower adjacent channels, the outer right–hand
transmission channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
Remote: POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:MAN 3
Remote: POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:AUTO MAX
Limit Checking
Opens a submenu to activate and define the limits for the ACP measurement.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Limit Chk On/Off
Activates or deactivates the limit check for the ACP measurement.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?
Edit ACP Limit
Opens the ACP Limits dialog box to define the limits for the ACP measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
–
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both the upper
and the lower adjacent channel.
–
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can be activated
independently.
–
The R&S FSL checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are absolute or
relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or relative levels. If both limits
are active and if the higher of both limit values is exceeded, the measured value is marked by a
preceding asterisk.
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel> 0dB,0dB
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:ABS –10dBm,–10dBm
Remote: CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent–channel>:ABS:STAT ON
For details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section "CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower
Subsystem".
Power Mode
Opens a submenu to select the power mode.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Clear/Write
If this mode is activated, the channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated
directly from the current trace (default mode).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT
Max Hold
If this mode is activated, the power values are calculated from the current trace and compared
with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The higher value is retained. If
activated, the enhancement label Pwr Max is displayed.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.30.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH
Select Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trace number on which the CP/ACP measurement is to be
performed. Only activated traces can be selected (for details on trace modes see "Trace mode
overview" on page 4.40).
Remote: POW:TRAC 2
Adjust Settings
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration (channel
bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The
adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and trace
averaging see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES ACP
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
Sweep Time
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. With the RMS detector, a longer sweep time
increases the stability of the measurement results.
The function of this softkey is identical to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth
menu.
Remote: SWE:TIM <value>
Fast ACP On/Off
Switches between the IBW method (Fast ACP Off) and the zero span method (Fast ACP On).
When switched on, the R&S FSL sets the center frequency consecutively to the different
channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time (=
sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard and
frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136). For details on
available channel filters see "List of available RRC and channel filters" on page 4.20.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore this
requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are output in
dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm.
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results. Reproducibility
increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over a longer time
period. As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 non–correlated measured
values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99% of the measurements are within 0.5 dB of
the true measured value). This holds true for white noise. The measured values are considered
as non–correlated if their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at an interval
of 40 Ms are considered as non–correlated. A measurement time of 40 ms is thus required per
channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep time which the R&S FSL sets in
coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99%),
i.e. the measurement time is to be increased to 200 ms.
Remote: POW:HSP ON
ACP Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative power measurement in the adjacent channels.
Abs
The absolute power in the adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the y–axis,
e.g. in dBm, dBMV.
Rel
The level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the level of the
transmission channel in dBc.
Remote: POW:ACH:MODE REL
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R&S FSL
Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the
RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without
overloading the R&S FSL or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio. For details on
manual settings see "Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an optimum
dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the signal maximum close
to the reference level without forcing an overload message. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path
may be overloaded although the trace is still significantly below the reference level.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
OBW (span > 0)
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration and
opens a submenu to configure the measurement. The occupied bandwidth is displayed in the
marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers. For details see also
"Measurement of occupied bandwidth" on page 4.78.
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate another trace,
marker 1 must be placed on another trace (see Marker to Trace softkey in the marker menu).
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL OBW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
% Power Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the percentage of total power in the displayed frequency range
which defines the occupied bandwidth. Values from 10% to 99.9% are allowed.
Remote: POW:BWID 95PCT
Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel. The
specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters (for details see
"Settings of CP / ACP test parameters" on page 4.80). The default setting is 14 kHz.
For measurements in line with a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified by the
standard for the transmission channel must be entered.
Remote: POW:ACH:BWID 30kHz
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
R&S FSL
Adjust Ref Level (span > 0)
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is activated
after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been completed
and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth for
channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path
may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured
channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be overloaded.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:APD ON
Percent Marker
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus, the power
which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If marker 1 is
deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y:PERC 0...100%
Res BW
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly. The function of this softkey is
identical to the Res BW Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider than
the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude correctly. In
order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz.
The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote: BAND 3 MHz
# of Samples
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into account
for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on the set
resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling rate.
Remote: CALC:STAT:NSAM <value>
Scaling
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x– and y–axis.
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x–Axis Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm, dBMV,
etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu.
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF function
there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x–axis is scaled relatively to
the measured mean power.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV <value>
x–Axis Range
Opens the Range Log dialog box to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected. The function is identical to the Range Log softkey in amplitude
menu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG <value>
y–Axis Max Value
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range. Values on
the y–axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The y–axis scaling is
defined via the y–Unit %/Abs softkey. If the y–axis has logarithmic scale, the distance between
max and min value must be at least one decade.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UPP <value>
y–Axis Min Value
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in
the range 0 < value < 1 are allowed. The y–axis scaling is defined via the y–Unit %/Abs softkey.
If the y–axis has logarithmic scale, the distance between max and min value must be at least
one decade.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW <value>
y–Unit %/Abs
Defines the scaling type of the y–axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT
Default Settings
Resets the x– and y–axis scalings to their preset values.
x–axis ref level:
–20 dBm
x–axis range APD:
100 dB
x–axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y–axis upper limit:
1.0
y–axis lower limit:
1E–6
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Remote: CALC:STAT:PRES
Adjust Settings
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum
power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in order to
obtain maximum power resolution. Adapts the probability scale to the selected number of
samples. Adjusts the reference level to the current input signal. For details see also Adjust Ref
Level softkey.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF)
and opens a submenu.
Remote: CALC:STAT:CCDF ON
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors
compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a flexible
definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: SWE:MODE ESP
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Sweep List
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the Sweep List dialog box. After a preset,
the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each range, you can change
the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the Insert before Range, Insert
after Range, Delete Range softkeys. The measurement results are not updated during editing
but on closing the dialog box (Close Sweep List softkey).
Note:
If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules described in "Ranges and range settings" on
page 4.81.
Parameter
Restriction
Range Start
Range Stop
Filter Type
RBW
VBW
Sweep Time Mode
Sweep Time
Detector
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Ref. Level
RF Att. Mode
RF Attenuator
Preamp
Sweep Points
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Stop after Sweep
Spurious Emissions measurement only
Transd. Factor
Limit Check 1 to 4
Abs Limit Start
Abs Limit Stop
–
Rel Limit Start
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only
Rel Limit Stop
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement only
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement:
The changes of the sweep list are only kept until you load another parameter set (via a preset
or by loading an XML file). If you want to have a parameter set permanently available, create an
XML file for this configuration (for details refer to "Format description of Spectrum Emission
Mask XML files" on page 4.83).
If you load one of the provided XML files (Load Standard softkey), the sweep list contains
ranges and parameters according to the selected standard. For further details refer also to
"Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement" on page 4.82.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
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Range Start/Range Stop (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described in
"Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate span
with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the ranges, the
measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and have a minimum
span of 20 Hz. The first and last range are adapted to the given span as long as the minimum
span of 20 Hz is not violated.
–
Spectrum Emission Mask measurement:
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth. For details refer to the Edit Reference
Range softkey description.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:STAR 100000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: ESP:RANG3:STOP 10000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:STAR 100000000 (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:STOP 10000000 (Spurious Emissions)
Filter Type (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also "To choose the appropriate filter
type" on page 4.19.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:FILT:TYPE RRC (Spurious Emissions)
RBW (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:BAND:RES 5000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:BAND:RES 5000 (Spurious Emissions)
VBW (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:BAND:VID 5000000 (Spurious Emissions)
Sweep Time Mode (Sweep List dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
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Sweep Time (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:SWE:TIME 1 (Spurious Emissions)
Detector (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the detector for the range. For details refer to "Detector overview" on page 4.42.
Remote: LIST:RANGe3:DET SAMP
Ref. Level (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:RLEV 0 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:RLEV 0 (Spurious Emissions)
RF Att. Mode (Sweep List dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote: ESP:RANG2:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG2:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
RF Attenuator (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INP:ATT 10 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:INP:ATT 10 (Spurious Emissions)
Preamp (Sweep List dialog box)
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INP:GAIN:STATe ON (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:INP:GAIN:STATe ON (Spurious Emissions)
Sweep Points (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the number of sweep points per range. For details on possible values refer to the Sweep
Points softkey of the sweep menu.
Remote: LIST:RANG3:POIN 601
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Stop after Sweep (Sweep List dialog box, Spurious Emissions)
Configures the sweep behavior.
On
The R&S FSL stops after one range is swept and continues only if you confirm (a message
box is displayed).
Off
The R&S FSL sweeps all ranges in one go.
Remote: LIST:RANG1:BRE ON
Transd. Factor (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills the
following conditions:
–
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
–
The x–axis is linear.
–
The unit is dB.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:TRAN 'test' (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:TRAN 'test' (Spurious Emissions)
Limit Check 1 to 4 (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges. Possible states are:
Absolute
Checks only the absolute limits defined.
Relative
Checks only the relative limits. Relative limits are defined as relative
to the measured power in the reference range.
Abs and
Rel
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when
both limits are violated.
Abs or Rel
Combines the absolute and relative limit. The limit check fails when
one of the limits is violated.
The limit state affects the availability of all limit settings (Abs Limit Start, Abs Limit Stop, Rel
Limit Start, Rel Limit Stop).
Dependent on the number of active power classes (see Edit Power Classes dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is extended
accordingly.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:STAT AND (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG3:LIM:STAT ON (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: CALC:LIM3:FAIL?
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Abs Limit Start (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check 1 to 4
parameter).
Dependent on the number of active power classes (see Edit Power Classes dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is extended
accordingly.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STAR 10 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:LIM:STAR 10 (Spurious Emissions)
Abs Limit Stop (Sweep List dialog box)
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check 1 to 4
parameter).
Dependent on the number of active power classes (see Edit Power Classes dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is extended
accordingly.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:LIM:ABS:STOP 20 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG1:LIM:STOP 20 (Spurious Emissions)
Rel Limit Start (Sweep List dialog box, Spectrum Emission Mask)
Sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check 1 to 4
parameter).
Dependent on the number of active power classes (see Edit Power Classes dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is extended
accordingly.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STAR –20
Rel Limit Stop (Sweep List dialog box, Spectrum Emission Mask)
Sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see Limit Check 1 to 4
parameter).
Dependent on the number of active power classes (see Edit Power Classes dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is extended
accordingly.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:LIM:REL:STOP 20
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Edit Sweep List/Close Sweep List
Opens/ closes the Sweep List dialog box. Closing the dialog box updates the measurement
results.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Insert before Range
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focussed range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number
of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:RANG3:INS BEF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Insert after Range
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all higher
ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:RANG1:INS AFT (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Delete Range
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:RANG4:DEL (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: LIST:RANG4:DEL (Spurious Emissions)
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Edit Reference Range
Opens the Reference Range dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
–
Peak Power
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
–
Channel Power
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the Channel Power reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended to define
additional settings:
–
Tx Bandwidth
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span
value
span of reference range
–
RRC Filter State
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
–
RRC Filter Settings
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This pane is only available if the RRC filter is activated.
For further details refer to "Ranges and range settings" on page 4.81.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:RTYP PEAK
Remote: ESP:BWID 1MHZ
Remote: ESP:FILT OFF
Remote: ESP:FILT:ALPH 0.5
List Evaluation
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
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List Evaluation On/Off
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:AUTO OFF (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PSE:AUTO OFF (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: TRAC? LIST
List Full Screen
Switches between split screen and full screen.
deactivated
split screen (diagram and list)
activated
list in full screen
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: DISP:WIND2:SIZE LARG
Margin
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:MARG 100 (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PEAK:MARG 100 (Spurious Emissions)
Show Peaks
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active list
evaluation.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: CALC:ESP:PSE:PSH ON (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: CALC:PSE:PSH ON (Spurious Emissions)
List Up/List Down
Scrolls through the evaluation list if the number of found peaks exceeds the number of rows
shown in the evaluation list table.
These softkeys are available from firmware version 1.80.
Save Evaluation List
Opens the ASCII File Export Name dialog box to save the result in ASCII format to a specified
file and directory. For further details refer also to the ASCII File Export softkey.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: MMEM:STOR:LIST 'test'
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
ASCII File Export
An example of an output file is given in "ASCII file export format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on
page 4.88. For further details refer also to the ASCII File Export softkey in the trace menu of the
base unit.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: MMEM:STOR:LIST 'test'
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Edit Power Classes
Opens a dialog box to modify the power class settings.
The dialog box contains the following elements:
–
Used Power Classes
Choose the power classes to be used from this dropdown menu. It is only possible to select either
one of the defined power classes or all of the defined power classes together.
Only power classes for which limits are defined are available for selection.
–
PMin / PMax
Defines the level limits for each power class. The range always starts at -200 dBm (-INF) and
always stops at 200 dBm (+INF). These fields cannot be modified. If more than one Power Class is
defined, the value of PMin must equal the value of PMax of the last Power Class and vice versa.
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–
R&S FSL
Sweep List
Opens the sweep list dialog box. For details see the Sweep List dialog box.
–
Add / Remove
Activates or deactivates power classes to be defined. Up to four power classes can be defined.
The number of active power classes affect the availability of the items of the Used Power
Classes dropdown menu.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:PCL ON
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:PCL MIN <numeric_value>
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:PCL:MAX <numeric_value>
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:PCL:COUN <numeric_value>
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:PCL:LIM ABS
Load Standard
Opens a dialog box to select an XML file which includes the desired standard specification. For
details on the provided XML files refer to "Provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask
measurement" on page 4.82.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:PRES 'WCDMA\3GPP\DL\PowerClass_31_39.xml'
Save As Standard
Opens the Save As Standard dialog box, in which the currently used SEM settings and
parameters can be saved and exported into an *.xml file. Enter the name of the file in the file
name field. For details on the structure and contents of the XML file refer to "Format description
of Spectrum Emission Mask XML files" on page 4.83.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: SENS:ESP:STOR "<file name>"
Restore Standard Files
Copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the C:\R_S\instr\sem_std
folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ESP:PRES:REST
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Power Measurements – MEAS Key
Meas Start/Stop
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
Start
The measurement is currently running.
Stop
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end of the sweep
has been reached.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: ABOR
Remote: INIT:ESP (Spectrum Emission Mask)
Remote: INIT:SPUR (Spurious Emissions)
Remote: INIT:CONM (Spurious Emissions)
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement.
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted RF
products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier. The spurious
emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range. The Spurious Emissions
measurement allows a flexible definition of all parameters.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: SWE:MODE LIST
Adjust X–Axis
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency
matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of the last sweep
range.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
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Details On/Off
Configures the list contents.
On
Displays the whole list contents.
Off
Displays only the highest peaks (one peak per range).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Peaks per Range
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of peaks per range that are stored in the list. Once
the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped in the current
range and continued in the next range. The maximum value is 50.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.80.
Remote: CALC:PSE:SUBR 10
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates the
harmonic distortion measurement. With this measurement it is possible to measure easily the
harmonics e.g. from a VCO. In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in %
and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is unchanged.
In the upper pane, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by display
lines. This provides a very good overview about the measurement. In the lower pane, the mean
RMS results are displayed in numerical values. The THD values are displayed in the marker
field.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
Harmonic On/Off
Activates/deactivates the harmonic distortion measurement.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON
No. of Harmonics
Sets the number of harmonics that shall be measured. The range is from 1 to 26.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHAR 2
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Harmonic Sweep Time
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Harmonic RBW Auto
Enables/disables the automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth. The automatic
adjustment is carried out according to:
RBWn = RBW1 * n
If RBW n is not available, the next higher value is used.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO OFF
Adjust Settings
Activates the frequency search in the frequency range that was set before starting the harmonic
measurement (if harmonic measurement was with span > 0) and adjusts the level.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES
Full Size Diagram (span > 0)
Displays the diagram in full screen size.
Remote: DISP:SIZE LARG|SMAL
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
To open the lines menu
Press the LINES key.
The lines menu and the Select Limit Line dialog box are displayed. For details on the Select Limit
Line dialog box refer to "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the lines menu" on page 4.123
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Display Lines" on page 4.122
–
"Limit Lines" on page 4.123
Task
–
To work with display lines
–
To select a limit line
–
To create a new limit line
–
To edit an existing limit line
–
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
–
To activate/deactivate a limit line
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
To work with display lines
Initial situation: The line is switched on (softkey with highlighted background) or off (softkey without
highlighted background), for example the Display Line 1.
1. Press the Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the first time.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the display line (by rotary knob, step keys or
numerical entry). If the line was switched off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains
switched on.
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the Display Line 1 softkey is closed, but the
line remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. Press the Display Line 1 softkey for the second time.
The edit dialog box for the display line will be opened again.
5. Press the Display Line 1 softkey again.
The line is switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
To select a limit line
1. To display the Select Limit Line dialog box, press the LINES key or go to the main limit line menu.
All limit lines, saved in the default directory, and all subdirectories are displayed. For each limit line,
the following information is given:
Unit
unit of the y–axis
Traces
selected traces to check
Show
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
Compatible
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
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2. To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the Show compatible option. For details
on compatibility refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.123.
3. To navigate into a subdirectory, use the Show Directory and Hide Directory buttons.
To create a new limit line
1. Press the New softkey to define a new limit line.
The Edit Limit Line dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to "Limit Lines"
on page 4.123.
2. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a name, if you want to save the limit line in the main
directory. To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to section "Instrument
Functions – Basic Settings", "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key".
3. To change the span setting, set the focus in the X–Axis field and change the unit via the rotary
knob: Hz for span > 0 Hz or s for zero span.
4. To change between absolute and relative scale mode for the x–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel
option next to the X–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key. Relative scaling is always
suitable, if masks for bursts are to be defined in zero span, or if masks for modulated signals are
required for span > 0 Hz.
absolute:
The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute physical units.
relative:
In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently set center
frequency. In the zero span mode, the left boundary of the diagram constitutes the
reference.
5. To change the scaling of the y–axis, set the focus in the Y–Axis field and change the unit using the
rotary knob.
6. To change between absolute and relative units for the y–axis, set the focus on the abs or rel option
next to the Y–Axis field and press the CHECKMARK key.
absolute:
The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
relative:
The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values with the unit dB
are always relative values.
7. To define the limit line as upper or lower limit line, set the focus on the Upper or Lower option and
press the CHECKMARK key.
8. To change between linear or logarithmic scale of the x–axis, set the focus on the lin or log option
and press the CHECKMARK key.
9. If the scaling of the y–axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that works as a
lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below). Set the focus in the Threshold field and
enter a value.
The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values are defined
in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit value.
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Ref -20 dBm
Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
RBW 300 Hz
VBW 3 kHz
SWT 100 ms
Att 10 dB
Marker [T1]
-28.4 dBm
200.0100 MHz
resulting limit
absolute threshold
relative limit line
Center
200 MHz
10 kHz/
Span 100 kHz
10. To define a signal–level distance to the limit line, press the Edit Margin softkey and enter a value.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin means that the level is below the limit line. If
the limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin means that the level is above the limit line.
11. To enter a comment, press the Edit Comment and enter a comment, e.g. a description of the
application.
12. To enter a new data point:
–
Press the Insert Value Above softkey.
–
Enter the new x and y value in the successive displayed edit dialog boxes.
13. To change a data point:
–
Set the focus on the x and y value to be changed and press the Value softkey.
–
Enter the new x or y value in the displayed edit dialog box.
14. To delete a data point, select the corresponding entry and press the Delete Value softkey.
15. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
a x shift value.
16. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and and
enter an y shift value.
17. Press the Save Limit Line softkey.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm before the limit line is
overwritten.
To edit an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to alter. For details see also "To
select a limit line" on page 4.119.
2. Press the Edit softkey.
3. Edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
4. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
To create a new limit line based upon an existing limit line
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis for a new limit
line. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
2. Press the Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the Edit Limit Line dialog box.
3. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
R&S FSL
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the Shift x button and enter
an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing
limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the Shift y button and enter a
y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit
line which has been shifted in Y direction
6. If required, edit the data as described in "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
7. Save the limit line (Save Limit Line softkey).
To activate/deactivate a limit line
Prerequisites:
•
The x– and y–units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible. For details
refer to "Limit Lines" on page 4.123.
•
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the Select Limit Line dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details
see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the Select Traces to check softkey and
select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the Deselect All softkey.
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is comparable to
that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute values. They are exclusively
used to optically mark relevant frequencies or points in time (span = 0) as well as constant level values.
It is not possible to check automatically whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
The softkeys for setting and switching the display lines on/off work like triple switches. For details see
"To work with display lines" on page 4.119.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
•
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram and can be
shifted in y direction.
•
Two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time – Frequency/Time
Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of the diagram and
can be shifted in x direction.
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations:
•
D1: Display Line 1
•
D2: Display Line 2
•
F1: Frequency Line 1
•
F2: Frequency Line 2
•
T1: Time Line 1
•
T2: Time Line 2
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Limit Lines
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on the display screen
which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper limits for interference radiation or
spurious waves which are allowed from a device under test (DUT). For transmission of information in
TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls
within a specified tolerance band. The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line.
Then, the amplitude curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the
upper or lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit lines stored in the
instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit lines stored in the instrument is only
limited by the capacity of the flash disk used. For details see also "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following applies:
•
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
•
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception of dB based
units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S FSL immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance with the
following guidelines:
•
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order, however, for any
single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical segment of a limit line).
•
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not allowed. If gaps
are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both enabled.
•
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S FSL. A limit line may also
exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is –200
GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the time range representation, negative times may
also be entered. The allowed range is –1000 s to +1000 s.
Softkeys of the lines menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the lines menu. It is possible that your instrument
configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select Traces to check
Deselect All
New
Edit Name
Edit Comment
Edit Margin
Value
Insert Value Above
Delete Value
Save Limit Line
Edit
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Copy to
same contents as
New Limit Line menu
Delete
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Display Lines
R&S FSL
Display Line 1
Display Line 2
Frequency Line 1
Frequency Line 2
Time Line 1
Time Line 2
Select Traces to check
Opens the Select Traces to Check dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One
limit line can be activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.122 .
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also "To
activate/deactivate a limit line" on page 4.122 .
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT OFF
New
Opens the Edit Limit Line dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For details see
also "Limit Lines" on page 4.123 and "To select a limit line" on page 4.119.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Edit Name
Sets the focus on the Name field to enter or change the limit line name. A maximum of 8
characters is permitted for each name. All names must be compatible with the Windows XP
conventions for file names. The limit line data are stored under this name. The instrument stores
all limit lines with LIM as extension.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1
Edit Comment
Sets the focus on the Comment field to enter or change a comment for the limit line. The text
must not exceed 40 characters.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Edit Margin
Sets the focus on the Margin field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The default
setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Value
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected column.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted).
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:CONT:DATA 1MHz,3MHz,30MHz
Remote: CALC:LIM3:UPP:DATA –10,0,0
Remote: CALC:LIM3:LOW:DATA –30,–40,–40
Insert Value Above
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point. This softkey
corresponds to the Insert button in the dialog box.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the last entry
line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values are
permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order rule, an error
message is displayed and the values are discarded.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Delete Value
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted up
accordingly. This softkey corresponds to the Delete button in the dialog box.
The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Save Limit Line
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the Name field.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
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R&S FSL
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.123 and "To
edit an existing limit line" on page 4.121.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: For details refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section "Definition of the limit
line".
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the Edit Limit Line dialog box. If the
limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be easily generated by
parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also "Limit Lines" on page 4.123 and "To create a new limit line based upon an
existing limit line" on page 4.121.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:COPY 2
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.10.
Remote: CALC:LIM3:DEL
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available
depends on the display mode (frequency or time range). For details see also "Display Lines" on
page 4.122 and "To work with display lines" on page 4.119.
Display Line 1 and Display Line 2
Enable or disable the level lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.122 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.119.
Remote: CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:DLIN –20dBm
Frequency Line 1 and Frequency Line 2 (span > 0)
Enable or disable the frequency lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the
lines. For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.122 and "To work with display lines" on
page 4.119.
Remote: CALC:FLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:FLIN 120MHz
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Using Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key
Time Line 1 and Time Line 2 (zero span)
Enable or disable the time lines 1/2 and open an edit dialog box to enter the position of the lines.
For details see also "Display Lines" on page 4.122 and "To work with display lines" on page
4.119.
Remote: CALC:TLIN:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:TLIN 10ms
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R&S FSL
Measurement Modes
This section describes the provided measurement modes, the change of measurement modes and the
access to the menus of all active measurement modes. For details refer to the following sections:
•
"Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.129
•
"Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key" on page 4.131
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Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key
The MODE key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode and a fast
change of the measurement mode. You can choose from the following measurement modes:
•
Spectrum Analyzer mode
•
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7)
•
Bluetooth mode (Bluetooth Measurements option, K8)
•
Cable TV Analyzer mode (Cable TV Measurements option, K20)
•
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30)
•
3G FDD BTS mode (3GPP Base Station Measurements option, K72)
•
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode (CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements option, K82)
•
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode (1xEV-DO Base Station Measurements option, K84)
•
WLAN mode (WLAN TX Measurements option, K91/K91n)
•
WiMAX mode (WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements option, K92/K93)
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
The menu of the current measurement mode is displayed and the Measurement Modes dialog box
is opened.
2. To activate another mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK key. More
than one measurement mode can be activated simultaneously.
3. To deactivate an activated mode, select the corresponding option and press the CHECKMARK
key.
Spectrum Analyzer mode
In the Spectrum Analyzer mode the functions provided correspond to those of a conventional
spectrum analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal over the selected
frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a fixed frequency, displays the
waveform of the video signal. This mode is set in the initial configuration.
Analog Demodulation mode (Analog Demodulation option, K7)
The Analog Demodulation mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides measurement functions for demodulating AM, FM, or PM signals. For
details refer to "Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" on page 4.140.
Bluetooth mode (Bluetooth Measurements option, K8)
The Bluetooth mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This
mode provides measurements to test the conformity of signal sources to the Bluetooth RF Test
Specifications. For details refer to "Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)" on page 4.158.
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Cable TV Analyzer mode (Cable TV Measurements option, K20)
The Cable TV Analyzer mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides ready–made measurements for analog and digital TV signals where most
of the parameters are set automatically. For details refer to "Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)" on
page 4.203.
Noise mode (Noise Figure Measurements option, K30)
The Noise mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode
provides accurate and flexible noise measurement functions. For details refer to "Noise Figure
Measurements Option (K30)" on page 4.247.
3G FDD BTS mode (3GPP Base Station Measurements option, K72)
The 3G FDD BTS mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software.
This mode provides test measurements for WCDMA downlink signals (base station signals) according
to the test specification. For details refer to "3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)" on page
4.271.
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode (CDMA2000 Base Station Measurements option,
K82)
The CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides test measurements on forward link signals (base station) according to the
3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership Project 2). For details refer to "CDMA2000 BTS
Analyzer (Option K82)" on page 4.295.
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode (1xEV-DO Base Station Measurements option, K84)
The 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional
software. This mode provides test measurements on forward link signals (base station) according to the
3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership Project 2). For details refer to "1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer
(Option K84)" on page 4.356.
WLAN mode (WLAN TX Measurements option, K91/K91n)
The WLAN mode requires an instrument equipped with the corresponding optional software. This mode
provides Wireless LAN TX measurement functions according to IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, j and n standards.
For details refer to "WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91 / K91n)" on page 4.409.
WiMAX mode (WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA Measurements option, K92/K93)
The WiMAX mode requires an instrument equipped with the WiMAX IEEE 802.16 OFDM, OFDMA
Measurements option (R&S FSL–K93). This mode provides WiMAX and WiBro measurement functions
according to IEEE standards 802.16–2004 OFDM and 802.16e–2005 OFDMA/WiBro. It includes the
WiMAX 802.16 OFDM Measurements option (R&S FSL–K92). For details refer to "WiMAX, WiBro
Measurements (Options K92/K93)" on page 4.441.
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R&S FSL
Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key
Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key
The MENU key provides a quick access to the menu of the current measurement mode. For details on
measurement modes refer to "Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.129.
To access the main menu of an active measurement mode
Press the MENU key.
The menu of the current measurement mode is displayed.
If the tracking generator, the power meter, and the spectrogram are available in the current
measurement mode, softkeys for these functions are also provided In the Spectrum Analyzer
mode with active acoustic monitoring, the softkey Marker Demod Volume to control the volume
control for acoustic monitoring is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page 4.131
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Optional softkeys of the menu menu
Apart from the softkeys of the current measurement mode, the following optional softkeys are available
in the menu menu. It is possible that the basic unit does not provide all these softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Tracking Generator
Power Meter
Spectrogram
Marker Demod Volume
Tracking Generator (models 13, 16 and 28)
Displays the menu of the Tracking Generator measurement mode. For details refer to
"Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)" on page 4.134.
Power Meter (Power Sensor Support option, K9)
Displays the menu of the Power Meter measurement mode. For details refer to "Power Meter
(Option K9)" on page 4.186.
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R&S FSL
Spectrogram (Spectrogram Measurement option, K14)
Displays the menu of the Spectrogram Measurement option. For details refer to "Spectrogram
Measurement (Option K14)" on page 4.191.
Marker Demod Volume (Spectrum Analyzer mode)
Opens a dialog box to regulate the volume for acoustic monitoring.
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Measurement Mode Menus – MENU Key
Models and Options
This section describes models and firmware options that are not included in the basic unit configuration.
If hardware options are controlled via the firmware, the provided softkeys are described in the
corresponding menu section. The information, with which special option or model these softkeys are
supplied, is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
A list of all available hardware and firmware options is provided on CD-ROM. To check the options your
instrument provides, refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use". For details on
models and firmware options refer to the following sections:
•
"Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)" on page 4.134
•
"Analog Demodulation (Option K7)" on page 4.140
•
"Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)" on page 4.158
•
"Power Meter (Option K9)" on page 4.186
•
"Spectrogram Measurement (Option K14)" on page 4.191
•
"Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)" on page 4.203
•
"Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)" on page 4.247
•
"3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)" on page 4.271
•
"CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)" on page 4.295
•
"1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)" on page 4.356
•
"WLAN TX Measurements (Option K91 / K91n)" on page 4.409
•
"WiMAX, WiBro Measurements (Options K92/K93)" on page 4.441
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R&S FSL
Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)
During operation the tracking generator emits a signal exactly at the input frequency of the R&S FSL.
The tracking generator can be used in all measurement modes. Acquisition of test setup calibration
values (see Source Cal softkey) and normalization using these correction values (see Normalize
softkey) is only possible in the tracking generator measurement mode. For details on measurement
modes refer to "Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.129.
FFT filters (for details see "To choose the appropriate filter type" on page 4.19) are not available if the
tracking generator is active.
For measurements with running tracking generator it is recommended to set the start frequency to 3 x
resolution bandwidth in order to meet the data sheet accuracy.
Note:
The RF characteristics of some DUTs are especially sensitive concerning the input VSWR. In
such cases insertion of 10–20 dB attenuation between the DUT and the tracking generator
output is recommended.
To open the tracking generator menu
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Tracking Generator softkey.
The tracking generator menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the tracking generator menu" on page 4.137
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Transmission measurement" on page 4.135
–
"Reflection measurement" on page 4.135
–
"Calibration mechanism" on page 4.136
Tasks
–
To calibrate for transmission and reflection measurement
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Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)
To calibrate for transmission and reflection measurement
Prerequisite: The instrument is in tracking generator measurement mode (for details refer to
"Measurement Mode Selection – MODE Key" on page 4.129).
1. Press the Source Power softkey to enter the generator output level.
If the tracking generator is off, it is switched on.
2. To enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator, press the Power Offset softkey.
3. Press the Source Cal softkey to open the submenu for calibration.
4. To record a reference trace for transmission measurement, press the Cal Trans softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are indicated
by message boxes.
5. To record a reference trace for reflection measurement, press the Cal Refl Short or Cal Refl Open
softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are indicated
by message boxes.
6. Press the Normalize softkey to switch on the normalization.
7. Press the Ref Value Position softkey to display the reference line.
8. Press the Ref Value softkey to enter a value to shift the reference line.
9. Press the Recall softkey to restore the settings used for source calibration.
Transmission measurement
This measurement will yield the transmission characteristics of a two–port network. The built–in tracking
generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the input connector of the DUT. The input of the
R&S FSL is fed from the output of the DUT. A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the
effects of the test setup (e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
DUT
GEN OUTPUT
RF INPUT
Fig. 4-8: Test setup for transmission measurement
Reflection measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection–coefficient measurement
bridge.
GEN OUTPUT
Bridge
RF INPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-9: Test setup for reflection measurement
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R&S FSL
Calibration mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently measured power and a
reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement (transmission/reflection). The
hardware settings used for measuring the reference curve are included in the reference dataset.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a wide area without
stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose the reference dataset (trace with 501 measured values) is stored internally as a table
of 501 points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current device settings are taken into
account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the intermediate values is applied.
If the span increases, the values at the left or right border of the reference dataset are extrapolated to
the current start or stop frequency, i.e. the reference dataset is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This
enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border if normalization is switched on and a
deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 4-8: Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement label
Reason/Limitation
high
NOR
no difference between reference setting and measurement
medium
APX (approximation)
change of the following settings:
coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
reference level, RF attenuation
start or stop frequency
output level of tracking generator
detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
change of frequency:
max. 501 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to a doubling of the span)
–
Aborted normalization
Note:
more than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep limits (in case of span
doubling)
At a reference level of –10 dBm and at a tracking generator output level of the same value the
R&S FSL operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the R&S FSL is in danger of being
overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is higher than the reference line. In this case,
either the message OVLD for overload or IFOVL for exceeded display range (clipping of the
trace at the upper diagram border = overrange) is displayed in the status line.
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator (Source Power softkey in the tracking
generator menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu)
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Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)
Softkeys of the tracking generator menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the tracking generator menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
For the description of the other main softkeys refer to "Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page
4.131.
Menu / Command
Command
Source On/Off
Source Power
Power Offset
Source Cal
Cal Trans
Cal Refl Short
Cal Refl Open
Normalize
Ref Value Position
Ref Value
Recall
Source On/Off
Switches the tracking generator on or off. Default setting is off.
If the tracking generator is switched off, the corresponding hardware settings and the
normalization are discarded. To switch off the tracking generator but keep the hardware settings
and the normalization, enter –400 dBm into the edit dialog box displayed by pressing the
Source Power softkey.
Remote: OUTP:STAT ON
Source Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a tracking generator output power. The default output power is
–20 dBm. The range is specified in the data sheet. Additionally, the value –400 dBm is available
to switch off the tracking generator but keep the hardware settings.
If the tracking generator is off, it is automatically switched on if an output power value is entered.
For details on switching on or off refer to the Source On/Off softkey.
Remote: SOUR:POW –20dBm
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Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)
R&S FSL
Power Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from
–200 dB to +200 dB in 1 dB steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated
by the enhancement label LVL.
With this offset for example attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking
generator can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during
data entry. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an attenuator
subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote: SOUR:POW:OFFS –10dB
Source Cal
Opens a submenu to configure calibration for transmission and reflection measurement. For
details on the test setups see "Transmission measurement" on page 4.135 and "Reflection
measurement" on page 4.135.
Cal Trans
Starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is used to calculate the difference for
the normalized values.
Remote: CORR:METH TRAN
Cal Refl Short
Starts a sweep as reference trace for short–circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is calculated
by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of the two calibration
measurements is free.
Remote: CORR:METH REFL
Cal Refl Open
Starts a sweep as reference trace the open–circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is calculated
by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of the two calibration
measurements is free.
Remote: CORR:COLL OPEN
Normalize
Switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains a
reference trace. For details on normalization see "Calibration mechanism" on page 4.136.
Remote: CORR ON
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R&S FSL
Tracking Generator (Models 13, 16 and 28)
Ref Value Position
Switches the reference line on or off. The reference line marks the reference position at which
the normalization result (calculated difference with a reference trace) is displayed. For details on
the reference line see "Calibration mechanism" on page 4.136.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
Ref Value
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a position value that shifts the reference line vertically. By
default the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between the currently measured
trace and the reference trace.
If, e.g. after a source calibration, a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between
DUT and R&S FSL input, the measurement trace will be moved by 10 dB down. Entering a
reference value of –10 dB will shift the reference line also by 10 dB down and place the
measurement trace on the reference line. The deviation from the nominal power level can be
displayed with higher resolution (e.g. 1 dB/div). The power is still displayed in absolute values.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL –10dB
Recall
Restores the settings that were used during source calibration. This can be useful if device
settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency deviation, reference
level, etc).
Remote: CORR:REC
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
The digital signal processing in the R&S FSL, used in the analyzer mode for digital IF filters, is also
ideally suited for demodulating AM, FM, or PM signals. The firmware option R&S FSL–K7 provides the
necessary measurement functions.
The R&S FSL is equipped with a demodulator that is capable of performing AM, FM, and PM
demodulation at a time. Additionally maximum, minimum and average or current values can be
obtained parallelly over a selected number of measurements.
By sampling (digitization) already at the IF and digital down–conversion to the baseband (I/Q), the
demodulator achieves maximum accuracy and temperature stability. There is no evidence of typical
errors of an analog down–conversion and demodulation like AM to FM conversion and vice versa,
deviation error, frequency response or frequency drift at DC coupling.
This option is available from firmware version 1.10.
To open the analog demodulation menu
If the Analog Demodulation mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and
activate the Analog Demodulation option.
If the Analog Demodulation mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The analog demodulation menu is displayed. If the tracking generator (models 13, 16 and 28) or the
power meter (option Power Sensor Support, K9) is available, softkeys for these functions are also
provided.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the analog demodulation menu" on page 4.144
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.150
–
"Softkeys of the span menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.152
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.153
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.155
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.155
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (Analog Demodulation mode)" on page 4.156
Apart from the power measurement menu that is not available in the Analog Demodulation mode, all
other menus are provided as described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu
descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Circuit description – block diagrams" on page 4.141
–
"Demodulation bandwidth" on page 4.142
–
"AF trigger" on page 4.142
–
"Stability of measurement results" on page 4.142
–
"Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on page 4.143
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Circuit description – block diagrams
The software demodulator runs on the main processor of the analyzer. The demodulation process is
shown in Fig. 4-10: Block diagram of software demodulator. All calculations are performed
simultaneously with the same I/Q data set. Magnitude (= amplitude) and phase of the complex I/Q pairs
are determined. The frequency result is obtained from the differential phase.
For details on the analyzer signal processing refer to chapter "Remote Control – Commands", section
"TRACe:IQ Subsystem".
Fig. 4-10: Block diagram of software demodulator
The AM DC, FM DC and PM DC raw data of the demodulators is fed into the Trace Arithmetic block
that combines consecutive data sets. Possible trace modes are: Clear Write, Max Hold, Min Hold and
Average (for details refer to section "Trace mode overview" on page 4.40). The output data of the Trace
Arithmetic block can be read via remote control.
The collected measured values are evaluated by the selected detector (for details refer to chapter
"Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview". The result is displayed on the screen and can be
read out via remote control.
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
In addition, important parameters are calculated:
•
A counter determines the modulation frequency for AM, FM, and PM.
•
average power = carrier power (RF power)
•
average frequency = carrier frequency offset (FM)
•
The modulation depth or the frequency or phase deviation is displayed.
•
AC coupling is possible with FM and PM display. The deviations are determined from the trace
data. +Peak, –Peak, ½ Peak–Peak and RMS are displayed.
Demodulation bandwidth
The demodulation bandwidth is not the 3 dB bandwidth but the useful bandwidth which is distortion–free
with regard to phase and amplitude.
Therefore the following formulas apply:
•
AM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x modulation frequency
•
FM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x (frequency deviation + modulation frequency)
•
PM: demodulation bandwidth
2 x modulation frequency x (1 + phase deviation)
Note:
If the center frequency of the analyzer is not set exactly to the signal frequency, the demodulation
bandwidth must be selected larger by the carrier offset, in addition to the requirement described
above. This also applies if FM or PM AC coupling has been selected.
In general, the demodulation bandwidth should be as narrow as possible to improve the S/N ratio. The
residual FM caused by noise floor and phase noise increases dramatically with the bandwidth,
especially with FM.
AF trigger
The analog demodulation option allows triggering to the demodulated signal. The display is stable if a
minimum of five modulation periods are within the recording time.
Triggering is always DC–coupled. Therefore triggering is possible directly to the point where a specific
carrier level, phase or frequency is exceeded or not attained.
Stability of measurement results
Despite amplitude and frequency modulation, the display of carrier power and carrier frequency offset is
stable.
This is achieved by a digital filter which sufficiently suppresses the modulation, provided, however, that
the measurement time is 3 x 1 / modulation frequency, i.e. that at least three periods of the AF signal
are recorded.
The mean carrier power for calculating the AM is also calculated with a digital filter that returns stable
3 x 1 / modulation frequency, i.e. at least three cycles of the AF
results after a measurement time of
signal must be recorded before a stable AM can be shown.
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset
Depending on the sample rate, the maximum demodulation bandwidths listed in the table can be
obtained during the measurement. The permissible value range of the measurement time and trigger
offset depends on the selected demodulation bandwidth. If the AF filter or the AF trigger are not active,
the measurement time enlarges by 20%.
Demod.
bandwidth
Sample rate
Measurement time
Trigger offset
Min.
Max. with
AF filter or
AF trigger
active
Max.
with
AF filter and
AF trigger
deactive
Min.
Max.
18 MHz
32 MHz
31.25 ns
12.5 ms
15 ms
–12.5 ms
507.9 ms
10 MHz
32 MHz
31.25 ns
12.5 ms
15 ms
–12.5 ms
507.9 ms
8 MHz
16 MHz
62.5 ns
25 ms
30 ms
–25 ms
1.015 s
5 MHz
8 MHz
125 ns
50 ms
60 ms
–50 ms
2.031 s
3 MHz
4 MHz
250 ns
100 ms
120 ms
–100 ms
4.063 s
1.6 MHz
2 MHz
500 ns
200 ms
240 ms
–200 ms
8.126 s
800 kHz
1 MHz
1 µs
400 ms
480 ms
–400 ms
16.25 s
400 kHz
500 kHz
2 µs
800 ms
960 ms
–800 ms
32.50 s
200 kHz
250 kHz
4 µs
1.6 s
1.92 s
–1.6 s
65.00 s
100 kHz
125 kHz
8 µs
3.2 s
3.84 s
–3.2 s
130.0 s
50 kHz
62.5 kHz
16 µs
6.4 s
7.68 s
–6.4 s
260.0 s
25 kHz
31.25 kHz
32 µs
12.8 s
15.36 s
–12.8 s
520.0 s
12.5 kHz
15.625 kHz
64 µs
25.6 s
30.72 s
–25.6 s
1040 s
6.4 kHz
7,8125 kHz
128 µs
51.2 s
61.44 s
–51.2 s
2080 s
3.2 kHz
3,90625 kHz
256 µs
102.4 s
122.88 s
–102.4 s
4160 s
1.6 kHz
1,953125 kHz
512 µs
204.8 s
245.76 s
–204.8 s
8321 s
800 Hz
976,5625 Hz
1.024 ms
409.6 s
491.52 s
–409.6 s
16643 s
400 Hz
488,28125 Hz
2.048 ms
819.2 s
983.04 s
–819.2 s
33287 s
200 Hz
244,140625 Hz
4.096 ms
1638.4 s
1966.08 s
–1638.4 s
66574 s
100 Hz
122,0703125 Hz
8.192 ms
3276.8 s
3932.16 s
–3276.8 s
133148 s
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the analog demodulation menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the analog demodulation menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special
option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Modulation AM/FM/PM
Result Display
AF Time Domain
AF Spectrum
RF Time Domain
RF Spectrum
Select Trace
Diagram Full Size
Demod BW
Meas Time
AF Range
Dev per Division/dB per Division
Reference Position
Reference Value
Deviation Lin/Log
Demod Settings
AF Coupling AC/DC
AF Filter
Low Pass AF Filter
High Pass AF Filter
Deemphasis
Zero Phase Reference Point
Phase Wrap On/Off
Phase Unit Rad/Deg
More
Zoom
Modulation AM/FM/PM
Selects the display of demodulated AM, FM, or PM signal. In single sweep mode, the data is
determined from the current I/Q data set, i.e. a change to AM/FM/PM does not trigger a new
measurement.
If FM is selected, the average value of the demodulated signal is mapped depending on the AF
Coupling AC/DC softkey setting.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM'
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Result Display
Opens a submenu to select the measurement result to be displayed. The RF or AF signal in the
zero span or the RF or AF frequency spectrum determined via FFT can be selected for display.
In order to display the measurement results, the screen is divided in two halves. In the upper
half, the measurement results are displayed as a trace. In the lower half the results of additional
evaluation functions are shown.
All displays are determined from the I/Q data set recorded for the measurement. In single sweep
mode, the single data set recorded can be evaluated in all displays simply by switching the
result display.
AF Time Domain
Selects the AF display in zero span, calculated from the AM, FM, or PM signal.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM'
AF Spectrum
Selects the display of the AF spectrum. The AF spectrum can be calculated from the AM, FM, or
PM signal in zero span.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:FM:AFSP'
RF Time Domain
Selects the display of the RF signal in zero span. In contrast to normal analyzer operation, the
level values are determined from the recorded I/Q data set as root–mean–square values.
The softkey is not available if the RF spectrum display is selected.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:RFP'
RF Spectrum
Selects the display of the RF signal in span > 0. In contrast to normal spectrum analyzer
operation, the measured values are determined using FFT from the recorded I/Q data set.
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:SPECTRUM'
Select Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace for which the data is to be displayed in
the lower half of the screen. Only activated traces can be selected.
Diagram Full Size
Switches the diagram to full screen size.
Remote: DISP:SIZE LARG
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
Demod BW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the demodulation bandwidth of the analog demodulation. The
demodulation bandwidth determines the sampling rate for recording the signal to be analyzed.
For details on the relation between demodulation bandwidth and sampling rate refer to "Sample
rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on page 4.143.
Remote: BAND:DEM 1MHz
Meas Time
Opens an editor for entering the measurement time of the analog demodulation. For details on
the measurement time values refer to "Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on
page 4.143.
Remote: ADEM:MTIM 62.5US
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
AF Range
Opens a submenu for determining the diagram scaling for AF displays.
The range for RF displays is set via the amplitude menu. For details refer to "Setting the Level
Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key" on page 4.13.
Dev per Division
Opens an edit dialog box to set the modulation depth or the phase or frequency deviation per
division:
AM display:
0.0001% to 1000%
FM display:
1 Hz/div to 1 MHz/div
PM display:
0.0001 rad/div to 1000 rad/div
The softkey is not available if logarithmic display is set (Deviation Lin/Log softkey).
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:PDIV 50kHz
dB per Division
Opens an edit dialog box to set the modulation depth or the FM or PM deviation to be displayed
in the range 0.1 dB/div to 20 dB/div.
The softkey is not available if linear display is set (Deviation Lin/Log softkey).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:PDIV 5DB
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Reference Position
Determines the position of the reference line for the modulation depth or the phase or frequency
deviation on the y–axis of the diagram. By default, this line is set to 0.
The position is entered as a percentage of the diagram height with 100 % corresponding to the
upper diagram border. The default setting is 50 % (diagram center) for the display of the AM,
FM, or PM signal, and 100% (upper diagram border) for the AF spectrum display of the AM, FM,
or PM signal.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT
Reference Value
Determines the modulation depth or the frequency or phase deviation at the reference line of the
y–axis. The reference value is set separately for each display of the AM, FM, and PM signal and
the AF spectrum of the AM, FM, and PM signal.
–
AM/FM/PM signal display
The trace display takes individual frequency/phase offsets into account (in contrast, the AF
Coupling AC/DC softkey permits automatic correction by the average frequency/phase offset
of the signal, and can therefore not be activated simultaneously).
Possible values: 0 and
–
± 10000% (AM), 0 and ± 10 MHz (FM), 0 and ± 10000 rad (PM).
AF spectrum display of the AM/FM/PM signal
In the default setting, the reference value defines the modulation depth or the FM/PM deviation
at the upper diagram border.
Possible values: 0 and 10000% (AM), 0 and 10 MHz (FM), 0 and 10000 rad (PM).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0HZ
Deviation Lin/Log
Switches between logarithmic and linear display of the modulation depth or the frequency or
phase deviation.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
Demod Settings
Opens a submenu for the demodulation settings.
AF Coupling AC/DC
Controls the automatic correction of the frequency offset and phase offset of the input signal:
–
FM signal display
If DC is selected, the absolute frequency is displayed, i.e. an input signal with an offset relative
to the center frequency is not displayed symmetrically with respect to the zero line.
If AC is selected, the frequency offset is automatically corrected, i.e. the trace is always
symmetric with respect to the zero line.
–
PM signal display
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
If DC is selected, the phase runs according to the existing frequency offset. In addition, the DC
signal contains a phase offset of ± .
If AC is selected, the frequency offset and phase offset are automatically corrected, i.e. the
trace is always symmetric with respect to the zero line.
The softkey is not available with the AF spectrum display of the FM or PM signal.
Remote: ADEM:AF:COUP DC
AF Filter
Opens a submenu to select the appropriate filters. The bandwidth of the demodulated signal can
be reduced by high pass or low pass filters and also a de–emphasis can be switched on. The
selected filters are used for AM, FM and PM demodulation in common. Individual settings are
not possible.
Low Pass AF Filter
Opens the Low Pass AF Filter dialog box to select the filter type. Relative and absolute low
pass filter are available.
–
Relative low pass filters:
The filters (3 dB) can be selected in % of the demodulation bandwidth. The filters are designed
as 5th–order Butterworth filter (30 dB/octave) and active for all demodulation bandwidths.
–
Absolute low pass filters:
The filter are indicated by the 3 dB cutoff frequency. The 3 kHz and 15 kHz filters are designed
as 5th–order Butterworth filter (30 dB/octave). The 150 kHz filter is designed as 8th–order
Butterworth filter (48 dB/octave).
The absolute low pass filters are active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
3 kHz:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
15 kHz:
50 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
150 kHz:
400 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
Remote: FILT:LPAS ON
Remote: FILT:LPAS:FREQ 150kHz
Remote: FILT:LPAS:FREQ 25PCT
High Pass AF Filter
Opens the High Pass AF Filter dialog box to switch on a high pass filter with the given limit to
separate the DC component. The filters are indicated by the 3 dB cutoff frequency. The filters
are designed as 2nd–order Butterworth filter (12 dB/octave).
The high pass filters are active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
50 Hz:
200 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
300 Hz:
800 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
16 MHz
Remote: FILT:HPAS ON
Remote: FILT:HPAS:FREQ 300Hz
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Deemphasis
Opens the Deemphasis dialog box to switch on a deemphasis with the given time constant.
The deemphasis is active in the following demodulation bandwidth range:
25 Ms:
25 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
50 Ms:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
75 Ms:
6.4 kHz
demodulation bandwidth
18 MHz
750 Ms:
800 Hz
demodulation bandwidth
4 MHz
The following table shows the required demodulation bandwidth for an error less than 0.5 dB up
to a maximum AF frequency.
deemphasis
25 Ms
50 Ms
75 Ms
750 Ms
max. AF frequency
25 kHz
12 kHz
8 kHz
800 Hz
required demodulation bandwidth
200 kHz
100 kHz
50 kHz
6.4 kHz
For higher AF frequencies the demodulation bandwidth must be increased.
Remote: FILT:DEMP ON
Remote: FILT:DEMP:TCON 750us
Zero Phase Reference Point
Defines the position at which the phase of the PM–demodulated signal is set to 0 rad. The entry
is made with respect to time. In the default setting, the first measured value is set to 0 rad.
This softkey is only available in the PM display with DC coupling.
Remote: ADEM:PM:RPO 500us
Phase Wrap On/Off
Activates/deactivates the phase wrap.
On
The phase will be displayed in the range ±180° ( ± ). For example, if the phase
exceeds +180°, 360° is subtracted from the phase value, with the display thus
showing >–180°.
Off
The phase will not be wrapped.
This softkey in available in the PM signal displays.
Remote: CALC:FORM PHAS
Phase Unit Rad/Deg
Sets the phase unit to rad or deg for displaying PM signals.
Remote: UNIT:ANGL RAD
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
Zoom
Activates or deactivates the zoom function. The zoom function is not available if the number of
measurement points falls below 501.
activated:
A 1–to–1 allocation is selected, i.e. each measurement point corresponds to a
measured value. The start of the zoom window can be determined in the
associated field by entering the time.
deactivated:
If more measured values than measurement points are available, several
measured values are combined in one measurement point according to the
method of the selected trace detector. For details on detectors refer to
"Detector overview" on page 4.42.
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM ON
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM:STARt 30US
Softkeys of the frequency menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(FREQ key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Center
CF Stepsize
0.1*Span/0.1*Demod BW
0.5*Span/0.5*Demod BW
x*Span/x*Demod BW
=Center
Manual
AF Center
AF Start
AF Stop
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
CF Stepsize
For details refer to the CF Stepsize softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.1*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the 0.1*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
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R&S FSL
Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
0.1*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see 0.1*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.5*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the 0.5*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
0.5*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see 0.5*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
x*Span (RF Spectrum)
For details refer to the x*Span softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
x*Demod BW (AF/RF Time Domain, AF Spectrum)
For details see x*RBW softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
=Center
For details refer to the =Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Manual
For details refer to the Manual softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
AF Center (AF Spectrum)
Opens an edit box to enter the center frequency within the AF spectrum.
Remote: ADEM:AF:CENT 1MHZ
AF Start
Opens an edit box to define the start frequency within the AF spectrum.
Remote: ADEM:AF:STAR 0HZ
AF Stop
Opens an edit box to define the stop frequency within the AF spectrum.
The maximum AF stop frequency corresponds to half the demodulation bandwidth.
Remote: ADEM:AF:STOP 2MHZ
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the span menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(SPAN key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Span Manual/AF Span Manual
Demod Bandwidth
Full Span/AF Full Span
Span Manual (RF Spectrum)
If the RF spectrum display is active, values between the sampling rate/200 and the
demodulation bandwidth/2 are allowed.
For further details refer to the Span Manual softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:SPAN:ZOOM 5 MHz
AF Span Manual (AF Spectrum)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency range for the AF spectrum display. Values
between the sampling rate/1000 and the demodulation bandwidth/2 are allowed.
Remote: ADEM:AF:SPAN 2.5 MHz
Demod Bandwidth
For details see Demod BW softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Full Span (RF Spectrum)
If the RF spectrum display is active, the full frequency range corresponds to the demodulation
bandwidth.
For further details refer to the Full Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:SPAN:ZOOM MAX
AF Full Span (AF Spectrum)
Sets the span to the maximum frequency range for the AF spectrum display. The maximum
frequency range corresponds to the demodulation bandwidth.
Remote: ADEM:AF:SPAN:FULL
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(AMPT key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Range Log/Range Linear
AF Range
Dev per Division/dB per Division
Reference Position
Reference Value
Deviation Lin/Log
Preamp On/Off
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
More
Ref Level Offset
Ref Level Position
Grid Abs / Rel
Unit
Input 50 L / 75 L
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Log (RF result display)
This softkey is only available for the RF result display. For the RF result display, the AF Range
softkey is used.
For details refer to the Range Log softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Linear (RF result display)
This softkey is only available for the RF result display. For the RF result display, the AF Range
softkey is used.
For details refer to the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
AF Range (AF result display)
For details refer to the AF Range softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
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Dev per Division
For details refer to the Dev per Division softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
dB per Division
For details refer to the dB per Division softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Reference Position
For details refer to the Reference Position softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Reference Value
For details refer to the Reference Value softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Deviation Lin/Log
For details refer to the Deviation Lin/Log softkey in the analog demodulation menu.
Preamp On/Off (option RF Preamplifier, B22)
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Position
For details refer to the Ref Level Position softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Grid Abs / Rel (not available with Range Linear)
For details refer to the Grid Abs / Rel softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
Unit (PM AF result display)
For details refer to the Unit softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Input 50 D / 75 D
For details refer to the Input 50 D / 75 D softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(BW key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Res BW
Demod BW
Meas Time
Res BW (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The range is specified in
the data sheet.
Remote: ADEM:SPEC:BAND 10 kHz
Demod BW
For details refer to the Demod BW softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Meas Time
For details refer to the Meas Time softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(SWEEP key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey
is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in
the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Continue Sgl Sweep
Meas Time
Sweep Count
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Continuous Sweep
For details refer to the Continuous Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Single Sweep
For details refer to the Single Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Continue Sgl Sweep
For details refer to the Continue Single Sweep softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base
unit.
Meas Time
For details refer to the Meas Time softkey in the in the analog demodulation menu.
Sweep Count
For details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the trigger menu (Analog Demodulation mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu in Analog Demodulation mode
(TRIG key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Trigger Source
Trigger Level
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset
Trigger Source
Opens the Trigger dialog box to select the trigger mode. Additional to the trigger modes
described in section "Trigger mode overview" on page 4.31, the following trigger modes are
available:
Selected option
Specified threshold
AM (Offline)
modulation depth of the AM signal
FM (Offline)
frequency of the FM signal
PM (Offline)
phase of the PM signal
RF (Offline)
level of the RF signal
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Analog Demodulation (Option K7)
In Analog Demodulation mode, the next measurement is triggered if the selected input signal
exceeds the threshold specified using the Trg / Gate Level softkey. A periodic signal modulated
onto the carrier frequency can be displayed in this way. It is recommended that the measurement
time covers at least five periods of the audio signal.
For further details refer to the Trg / Gate Source softkey in the trigger menu.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR IMM | IFP | EXT | FM | PM | AM | RF (Free Run, IF Power,
Extern, FM (Offline), PM (Offline), AM (Offline), RF (Offline))
Trigger Level
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Level softkey in the in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey in the in the trigger menu of the
base unit.
Trigger Offset
For details on the relation between demodulation bandwidth (option Analog Demodulation,
R&S FSL–K7) and trigger offset refer to "Sample rate, measurement time and trigger offset" on
page 4.143.
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the in the trigger menu of the base unit.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
This option provides measurements to test the conformity of signal sources to the Bluetooth RF Test
Specification (Bluetooth SIG). For background information on Bluetooth measurements refer to chapter
"Advanced Measurement Examples".
This option is available from firmware version 1.30.
To open the Bluetooth menu
If the Bluetooth mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and activate the
Bluetooth option.
If the Bluetooth mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The Bluetooth menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the Bluetooth menu" on page 4.167
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.172
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.173
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.175
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.177
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.180
–
"Softkeys of the measurement menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.181
The span menu is not available in the Bluetooth mode. All other menus are provided as described for
the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160
–
"Labels used in the measurement displays" on page 4.161
Tasks
–
To adapt the settings to the characteristics of the DUT
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Measurements overview
The Bluetooth Measurements option provides the following measurement types:
–
"Output Power" on page 4.161
–
"Adjacent Channel Power" on page 4.162
–
"Modulation Characteristics" on page 4.162
–
"Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance" on page 4.163
–
"Carrier Frequency Drift" on page 4.164
–
"Relative Transmit Power (EDR)" on page 4.164
–
"In–band Spurious Emissions (EDR)" on page 4.165
–
"Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy (EDR)" on page 4.166
–
"Differential Phase Encoding (EDR)" on page 4.166
The basic parameter settings are described in section "To adapt the settings to the characteristics of the
DUT" on page 4.159. The settings that can be configured individually for each measurement are the
following:
•
RBW (the IF bandwidth set up for modulation measurements is valid for all measurements)
•
VBW
•
RBW auto mode
•
VBW auto mode
•
trace mode
•
detector
•
sweep count
•
sweep time auto mode
•
sweep time
They are available in the corresponding menus as soon as the corresponding measurement is selected.
Changes to these settings are always related to the selected measurement. The settings defined in the
RF Test Specification can thus be modified individually for development or production. By using the
start recall function, the individual configuration of the various tests can be preserved over a preset.
To adapt the settings to the characteristics of the DUT
1. Set the spectrum analyzer to its default state.
–
Press PRESET.
The R&S FSL is set to its default state.
2. Select the Bluetooth operating mode.
–
Press MODE key.
–
In the Measurement Modes dialog box, select Bluetooth.
The Bluetooth mode is activated and the main menu of the option is displayed.
3. Select the transmit channel.
–
Press Channel softkey and enter the desired channel number.
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4. Select the packet length.
–
Press Packet Type softkey.
The list of available packet type is displayed.
–
Select the desired packet length and confirm the selection with ENTER.
5. Select the power class of the DUT.
–
Press Power Class softkey and enter the power class.
6. Configure the sync settings (LAP).
–
Press Find Sync softkey.
The submenu menu for configuration of the sync information is displayed.
–
Press LAP softkey and enter the lower address part of the Bluetooth device address of the
DUT. The sync word used for the sync search will be calculated.
7. Select a measurement.
–
Press the MEAS key and select the desired measurement in the softkey menu.
–
Configure measurement time, measurement control and the number of measurement cycles by
pressing the corresponding softkeys. For further information refer to section "Softkeys of the
measurement menu (Bluetooth mode)" on page 4.181.
Further information
This section provides background information on measurements and displayed information.
Position of a Bluetooth burst
The RF Test Specification allows different methods to determine the position of a Bluetooth burst:
•
The burst is defined by the p0 bit and the automatically determined packet length (Find Sync On).
•
The burst is defined by the two 3dB points (Find Sync Off and Find Burst On). The search of the
3dB points is defined in the RF Test Specification as the alternative method compared with the p0
bit method.
Burst length
with FIND SYNC OFF
Burst length
(=packet length)
with FIND SYNC ON
3dB
Fig. 4-11 Definition of a Bluetooth burst
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Labels used in the measurement displays
•
Enhancement label TDF
Offset values, set with the Antenna Gain softkey that are larger or smaller than 0 dB will activate the
enhancement label TDF at the right diagram border.
Measurements
In this section, every measurement type is introduced by a short description.
Output Power measurement
The Output Power measurement (Output Power softkey) determines the maximum and average output
power during a burst of the equipment under test (EUT). For this purpose a complete packet is recorded
in the zero span.
Fig. 4-12 Output power measurement
The peak value is determined from the complete contents of the measurement curve, whereas the
average power is calculated from an area of at least 20% to 80% of the burst.
During the Output Power measurement the Bluetooth demodulator is active in order to determine the
sync word within the signal, which is later–on used as the trigger basis. The Bluetooth demodulator is
placed in a signal path without video filter. This is why the video filter cannot be activated with the
Output Power measurement.
The EUT (equipment under test) must keep the following limits according to the RF Test Specification:
•
PAV < 100 mW (20 dBm) EIRP
•
PPK < 200 mW (23 dBm) EIRP
•
If the EUT is conforming to power class 1:
PAV > 1 mW (0 dBm)
•
If the EUT is conforming to power class 2:
0.25 mW (–6 dBm) < PAV < 2.5 mW ( 4 dBm)
•
If the EUT is conforming to power class 3:
PAV < 1 mW (0 dBm)
A violation of these limits is marked on the screen in red color.
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Adjacent Channel Power measurement
The measurement of the TX Output Spectrum – Adjacent Channel Power measurement (TX Spec ACP
softkey) measures the power of all adjacent channels.
Fig. 4-13 TX Spectrum ACP measurement
The following limits are given by the RF Test Specification:
•
PTX (f)
–20 dBm for |M–N| = 2
•
PTX (f)
–40 dBm for |M–N|
3
with M = Transmit channel of the equipment under test, N = adjacent channel to be measured
A violation of these limits will be marked by red color and an asterisk (*).
Modulation Characteristics measurement
The measurement of the modulation characteristics (Modulation Char softkey) determines the
maximum frequency deviation of all 8 bit sequences of the payload.
Additionally the average value of the maximum frequency deviation of a packet will be calculated. For
this purpose the equipment under test is configured in a way that packets with bit pattern "11110000"
and "10101010" are transmitted alternately. According to the RF Test Specification this sequence has
to be repeated 10 times.
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Fig. 4-14 Modulation Characteristics measurement
Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance measurement
The measurement of the Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance (Init Carr Freq Tol softkey) determines the
carrier offset of the four preamble bits. According to the RF Test Specification the calculation of the
carrier offset is performed from the middle of the first preamble bit to the middle of the bit following the
preamble.
With Clear/Write trace mode and single sweep operation the selected number of sweeps will be
processed and according to the RF Test Specification the results of all sweeps will be compared with
the defined tolerance. If a different trace mode is selected, the analyzer can alternatively combine
several traces and determine the measurement results from the resulting trace.
Fig. 4-15 Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance measurement
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Carrier Frequency Drift measurement
The measurement of the Carrier Frequency Drift (Carr Freq Drift softkey) determines the maximum
frequency drift between the average value of the preamble bits and any 10 bit group of the payload.
Additionally the maximum drift rate between all 10 bit groups in the payload is determined every 50µs.
With Clear/Write trace mode and single sweep operation the selected number of sweeps will be
processed and according to the RF Test Specification the results of all sweeps will be compared with
the defined tolerance. If a different trace mode is selected, the analyzer can alternatively combine
several traces and determine the measurement results from the resulting trace.
Fig. 4-16 Carrier Frequency Drift measurement
Relative Transmit Power (EDR) measurement
The measurement of the Relative Transmit Power (Rel TX Power softkey) is an enhanced data rate
measurement (EDR). It determines the average transmission power of the GFSK and DPSK modulated
parts of the signal and calculates the ratio of those values.
The measurement results must conform to the requirement:
•
(PGFSK – 4dB) < PDPSK < (PGFSK + 1dB)
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Fig. 4-17 Relative Transmit Power (EDR) measurement
In–band Spurious Emissions (EDR) measurement
The measurement of the In–band Spurious Emissions (Spurious Emissions softkey) is an enhanced
data rate measurement (EDR). It verifies whether the level of unwanted signals within the used
frequency band lies below the required level. The analyzer records the signal only in those parts of the
signal in which the device transmits DPSK–modulated data.
The signal must meet the following conditions:
•
PTX (f)
–20 dBm for |M–N| = 2
•
PTX (f)
–40 dBm for |M–N|
3
with M = transmit channel of the equipment under test, N = adjacent channel to be measured
•
The adjacent channel power between 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz from the carrier (Adj500kHz Low/Upp)
shall be at least 26 dB below the maximum power of the carrier (TX Channel (Ref)).
Fig. 4-18 In–band Spurious Emissions (EDR) measurement
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Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy (EDR) measurement
The measurement of the Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy (Carr Freq Stability
softkey) is an enhanced data rate measurement (EDR). It verifies that the modulation accuracy and the
frequency stability are working within the required limits. According to the RF Test Specification, the
software records 200 blocks, each with a length of 50 Ms for the evaluation. The number of blocks to be
recorded can be changed by the softkey Block Count.
Fig. 4-19 Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy (EDR) measurement
Differential Phase Encoding (EDR) measurement
The measurement of the Differential Phase Encoding (Diff Phase softkey) is an enhanced data rate
measurement (EDR). It checks in the time range of the DPSK modulation whether the device modulates
the data correctly.
Fig. 4-20 Differential Phase Encoding (EDR) measurement
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Softkeys of the Bluetooth menu
This menu provides the softkeys for the basic settings, which are common to all tests. The following
table shows all softkeys available in the Bluetooth menu. It is possible that your instrument configuration
does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or
(measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Channel
Packet Type
Packet Bytes SCO
Power Class
Antenna Gain
Find Sync
Find Sync On/Off
LAP
Sync Offset
Find Burst On/Off
Burst Offset
Search Len Auto
Search Len Manual
More
Select Trace
Points / Symbol
Channel
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the transmission channel number. From the number of the
channel the center frequency is calculated in accordance to the RF Test Specification. The
default setting is channel number 0.
Setting the channel number is in principle equal to changing the center frequency. The major
difference is that the center frequency is not limited to available frequency band values, i.e.
values outside the frequency band and between the discrete channels can be selected (see also
Center softkey in the frequency menu).
Remote: CONF:BTO:CHAN 20
Packet Type
Opens a dialog box to select the number of occupied slots in the sent packet. The AUTO value
is identical to 5 Slot Packet. The default value is packet type 1 Slot Packet.
The number of occupied slots is used for the automatic calculation of the sweep time
(Sweeptime Auto softkey) and the search length of the sync word (Search Len Auto softkey).
The actually transmitted packet type is determined automatically by the Bluetooth demodulator
(which means that the selected packet type need not necessarily correspond to the really
transmitted packet type; it will only affect the settings for sweep time and search length as
described above).
Remote: CONF:BTO:PTYP DH5
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Packet Bytes SCO
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of payload bytes that are transmitted in a packet.
For SCO packets, the payload length must be adjusted because those packets have no payload
header.
Remote: CONF:BTO:PBSC 50
Power Class (Output Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to set one the Bluetooth power classes (1 to 3). The selection of the
power class determines the limits. The default setting is power class 1 (100 mW).
Remote: CONF:BTO:PCL 3
Antenna Gain
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a level offset in order to take the gain of an antenna into
account for displaying power values. The default setting is 0 dB (see also Labels used in the
measurement displays).
Remote: CORR:EGA:INP 10DB
Find Sync
Opens a submenu to set the signal processing functions of the analyzer in order to determine
the position of the first preamble bit p0 by correlation with the sync word. For this purpose a
sufficient record length of the FM demodulated signal is necessary.
For further information refer to "Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160.
Find Sync On/Off
Activates or deactivates the search of the sync word. The default setting is activated.
The results of the modulation measurements Modulation Characteristics, Initial Carrier
Frequency Tolerance, Carrier Frequency Drift can only be calculated if the softkey is activated.
The measurement of the Output Power can be performed with either this softkey or the Find
Burst On/Off softkey activated. If both softkeys are activated, the search area for the sync word
will be limited to the area of the detected burst. If the Find Burst On/Off softkey is not activated
or no burst is identified, the total record length (search length) is investigated.
For further information refer to "Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160.
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:SYNC ON
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
LAP
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the lower 24 bit (Lower Address Part, LAP)of the Bluetooth
Device Address (BD_ADDR) of the equipment under test (EUT).
The LAP is used to calculate the 64–bit sync word. The sync word in return is used to determine
the start of a packet by correlation and to determine the position of the first preamble bit p0
using the method described in the RF Test Specification.
The values for the lower address part range from 000000h to FFFFFFh. The default setting is
0000000h.
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:SYNC:LAP #HA3F45B
Sync Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to define the number of bits to be displayed in front of the of the first
preamble bit p0. If the sync word is identified, but the selected measurement time cannot be
displayed due to the selected sync offset, the message SYNC OFFSET INVALID is displayed.
The value range depends on the search length and the upper limit of symbols (400001 points /
symbol). The default setting for the sync offset is 0.
This softkey is only available if the Find Sync On/Off softkey is activated.
Search Length
Access
Code
Sync
Word
Sync Offset > 0
Header
Payload
Meas Time (User)
Sync Offset = 0
Meas Time (User)
Sync Offset < 0
Meas Time (User)
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:SYNC:OFFS 10
Find Burst On/Off (Output Power)
Activates the burst search if the Find Sync On/Off softkey is deactivated. Beside the
synchronization on the sync word, the Output Power measurement can perform a burst search
to evaluate the signal according to the standard.
If the Find Sync On/Off softkey is not activated and no burst is identified, the message BURST
NOT FOUND is displayed, and the corresponding bit in the STATus:QUEStionable:SYNC
register is set during remote operation.
For further information refer to "Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160.
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:PULS OFF
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Burst Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to define the time to be displayed before the identified burst. The
values range from –10 ms to + 10 ms, with negative values moving the burst to the left, positive
values to the right. The default setting for the burst offset is 0.
If the burst is identified, but the selected measurement time cannot be displayed due to the
selected burst offset, the message BURST OFFSET INVALID is displayed.
This softkey is only available if the Find Sync On/Off softkey is deactivated and the Find Burst
On/Off softkey is activated.
Search Length
Burst
Access
Code
Header
Payload
Trigger (optional)
Burst Offset > 0
Burst Offset = 0
Meas Time (User)
Meas Time (User)
Burst Offset < 0
Meas Time (User)
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:PULS:OFFS 1MS
Search Len Auto
Activates or deactivates the automatic selection of the search length for the search of the sync
word or the burst, depending on the selected packet type. The automatic search length is
determined as follows:
Trigger free run:
search length = 3 * packet length + | sync offset or burst offset |
All other trigger modes:
search length = 1 * packet length + 1 Slot + | sync offset or burst offset |
If the selected measurement time is higher than the packet length, the following difference is
added to the search length:
measurement time – packet length
In the default setting, the automatic calculation of the search length is activated.
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:TIME:AUTO OFF
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Search Len Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the search length used for determining the sync word or the
burst. The unit of the search length is seconds; the values range from 100 µs to (400001 / points
per symbol) µs. The default setting is 1825 µs.
The selected number of points / symbol and the maximum search length is listed in the table
below.
Points per symbol
Max. search length
(number of slots)
2
104.4
4
52.2
8
26.1
16
13.1
32
6.5
For information on the correlation of trigger and record length refer to the Search Len Auto
softkey.
Remote: DDEM:SEAR:TIME 100US
Select Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to select the measurement curve whose numeric results will be
displayed in the lower half of the screen. The default curve selected is trace 1.
Remote: CONF:BTO:TRAC2:SEL
Points / Symbol
(Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Opens an edit dialog box to change the number of measurement samples per symbol. For Basic
Rate measurements, the possible values are 2, 4, 8, 16, 32. The default value is 4. For EDR
measurements, the default value is set and cannot be changed.
The RF Test Specification requests an oversampling factor of at least 4. With this oversampling
factor a 5 Slot Packet corresponds to 12500 measurement samples (= 2500 samples / slot).
Remote: CONF:BTO:PRAT 16
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Softkeys of the frequency menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in Bluetooth mode (FREQ key).
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Center
CF–Stepsize
0.1*Chan Spacing
= Chan Spacing
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to change the center frequency.
If the frequency channel has been set via the Channel softkey, a change of the center
frequency is possible, but the relation to the frequency channel will be lost, which means that the
value range for the center frequency is not limited to frequencies within valid frequency
channels.
The return to the fixed relation between center frequency and Bluetooth frequency channels is
performed when Channel softkey is pressed or when another measurement is selected. The
center frequency will be rounded to the nearest frequency channel.
Remote: FREQ:CENT 100MHz
CF–Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency.
0.1*Chan Spacing
Sets the step size of the center frequency to 1/10 of the channel spacing.
= Chan Spacing
Sets the step size of the center frequency to the size of the channel spacing.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in Bluetooth mode (AMPT key).
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Range
Range
Reference Position
Reference Value
Zoom
Range Log
Range Linear
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
More
Ref Level Offset
Ref Level Position
Input 50 L / 75 L
Ref Level
The maximum input power of the A/D converter (defined by this value) must be equal or higher
than the maximum power of the signal under test.
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Opens a submenu for scaling the x– and y–axis.
Range (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the range for the frequency deviation.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y 110dB
Reference Position (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the position of the reference line for the frequency deviation on
the y–axis of the diagram. The unit is % of the diagram height, with 100% corresponding to the
upper diagram border.
Remote: DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Reference Value (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the FM deviation at the reference line on the y–axis. This
allows individual frequency offsets to be taken into account for the display of the measurement
curves. The valid value range is 0 to ± 1 MHz; the default setting is 0 Hz.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0
Range Log
(Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Rel TX Power, Spurious Emissions, Carr Freq Stability, Diff Phase)
For details refer to the Range Log softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Linear
(Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Rel TX Power, Spurious Emissions, Carr Freq Stability, Diff Phase)
For details refer to the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Position
For details refer to the Ref Level Position softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Input 50 D / 75 D
For details refer to the Input 50 D / 75 D softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu in Bluetooth mode (BW key). It
is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Res BW Manual
Res BW Auto
Video BW Manual
Video BW Auto
Filter Type
Meas Filter
Meas Time Manual
(Output Power, Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift, Rel TX Power, Carr Freq
Stability, Diff Phase)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement time. The valid value range is 1 µs to
(400001 / points per symbol) µs.
Remote: CONF:BTO:SWE:TIME 10MS
Meas Time Auto
(Output Power, Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift, Rel TX Power, Carr Freq
Stability, Diff Phase)
Activates the automatic calculation of the measurement time. The automatic sweep time
corresponds to the settings defined in the RF Test Specification. By default, the automatic
sweep time calculation is activated.
Remote: CONF:BTO:SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
Sweeptime Manual (TX Spec ACP)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. The valid value range is 10 µs (minimum
measurement time for one channel) to 16000 s. The default setting is 79 s.
Remote: CONF:BTO:SWE:TIME 10MS
Sweeptime Auto (TX Spec ACP)
Activates the automatic calculation of the sweep time. The automatic sweep time corresponds to
the settings defined in the RF Test Specification. By default, it is activated.
Remote: CONF:BTO:SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Res BW Manual (Output Power, Rel TX Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the resolution bandwidth. The values range from 1 MHz to 3
MHz. The default value is 3 MHz.
Remote: CONF:BTO:BAND 1KHZ
Res BW Auto (Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Rel TX Power, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the bandwidth according to the values defined in the RF Test Specification.
Remote: CONF:BTO:BAND:AUTO ON
Video BW Manual (TX Spec ACP)
The default value is 300 kHz, according to the values defined in the RF Test Specification.
For further details refer to the Video BW Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base
unit.
Remote: CONF:BTO:BAND:VID 100HZ
Video BW Auto (TX Spec ACP, Spurious Emissions)
Sets the video bandwidth according to the values defined in the RF Test Specification. In the In–
band Spurious Emissions measurement, the video bandwidth is always adjusted automatically.
Therefore the softkey is activated by default and its state cannot be changed.
Remote: CONF:BTO:BAND:VID:AUTO ON
Filter Type (Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Spurious Emissions, Rel TX Power)
Opens the Filter Type dialog box to select the filter type. For the measurements Output Power
and Rel TX Power, a Gaussian or a channel filter can be selected. For the measurements TX
Spec ACP and Spurious Emissions, the filter type is a Gaussian filter.
Remote: BAND:TYPE NORM
Meas Filter (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Activates or deactivates a filter that limits the bandwidth for the modulation measurements.
Since the RF Test Specification Rev 2.0.E.3 it is required to use this filter and therefore it is
activated by default.
The filter is flat within 1.04 MHz (ripple: only 0.02 dB) and has steep slopes outside this area.
The filter has the following characteristics:
–
passband ripple up to ± 550 kHz < 0.5 dB (peak to peak)
–
minimum attenuation in the transition band
±
650 kHz:
3 dB
±
1 MHz:
14 dB
±
2 MHz:
44 dB
Remote: DDEM:FILT:MEAS BTO
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in Bluetooth mode (SWEEP key).
In the Bluetooth mode, the sweep menu is used for direct entry into the measurement menu of the
currently selected measurement. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all
softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this
information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Start Test
Continue Test
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Block Count
Adjust Gate
Sweep Count
Power Avg Start
Power Avg Stop
Zoom
No. of ACP Chan
Channel List Start
More
Gate Delay
Gate Length
GFSK Start
GFSK Stop
DPSK Start
DPSK Stop
Start Test (Modulation Char)
Initiates a new measurement. All frequency deviation values obtained earlier are discarded.
The bit pattern in the payload is detected automatically. The frequency deviation of a packet is
determined according to the procedure defined in the RF Test Specification.
Remote: INIT;*WAI
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Continue Test (Modulation Char)
Measures the frequency deviation of further packets after the bit pattern has been changed at
the EUT, just like the Start Test softkey did for the first bit pattern type. The results of the
preceding measurement are preserved and are taken into account for the new measurements.
Remote: INIT:CONM;*WAI
Continuous Sweep
Selects the continuous measurement operation. This is the default setting of the instrument.
Remote: INIT:CONT ON;*WAI
Single Sweep
(Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift, Rel TX Power, Spurious
Emissions, Carr Freq Stability, Diff Phase)
Selects the single measurement operation and starts a measurement cycle.
Remote: INIT:CONT OFF;*WAI
Block Count (Carr Freq Stability)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of blocks to be measured. Every block has the
length of 50 Ms. The default value is 200 blocks.
This softkey is only available in single sweep operation.
Remote: CONF:BTO:CFST:BCO 1000
Adjust Gate (Spurious Emissions)
Adjusts the gate settings according to the pre–measurement results.
Remote: CONF:BTO:IBS:GATE:AUTO ONCE
Sweep Count
(Output Power, TX Spec ACP, Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift, Rel TX Power,
Spurious Emissions, Diff Phase)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be initiated by Single Sweep
softkey. The valid value range is 0 to 32767.
Remote: CONF:BTO:SWE:COUN 20
Power Avg Start (Output Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the start position of the evaluation area for the average burst
power. The values range from 0 to 100%, the default setting is 20%.
For further information refer to "Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160.
Remote: CONF:BTO:POW:AVER:STAR 10PCT
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Power Avg Stop (Output Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the stop position of the evaluation area for the average burst
power. The values range from 0 to 100%, the default setting is 80%.
For further information refer to "Position of a Bluetooth burst" on page 4.160.
Remote: CONF:BTO:POW:AVER:STAR 90PCT
Zoom (Modulation Char, Init Carr Freq Tol, Carr Freq Drift)
Activates or deactivates the zoom function. Opens an edit dialog box to enter the zoom start
position. The valid value range for the zoom start position is 0 to (measurement time – 500 /
sampling rate). The default setting for the zoom function is 0s (off).
With active zoom function, an area of only 501 samples is displayed.
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM ON
Remote: ADEM:ZOOM:STAR 500us
No. of ACP Chan (TX Spec ACP, Spurious Emissions)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels, for which the power is to be
measured. The values range from 0 to 78. A minimum value of 3 is recommended. The default
setting is 78 (all channels).
As with the ACP measurement of the basic instrument firmware this value refers to the number
of adjacent channels on one side of the TX channel. This means that with a selected value of 10
the analyzer will measure in total 21 channels (10 lower channels + TX channel + 10 upper
channels).
The frequency range required for the measurement is set up automatically. The center
frequency will also be adapted automatically dependent on the selected TX channel.
The measurement of the adjacent channels is limited to the available Bluetooth frequency band,
which means that at maximum 79 channels (23 channels in France) will be measured.
Remote: CONF:BTO:ACLR:ACP 10 (TX Spec ACP)
Remote: CONF:BTO:IBS:ACP 20 (Spurious Emissions)
Channel List Start (TX Spec ACP, Spurious Emissions)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel with which the result display table starts. Because
of the multiplicity of the measurements results not all channels can be displayed simultaneously.
Gate Delay (Spurious Emissions)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time between trigger event and start of the DPSK packet.
That is the measurement start time.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:HOLD 100us
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Gate Length (Spurious Emissions)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time in seconds. Usually, this is the length of the
DPSK section.
Remote: SWE:EGAT:LENG 10ms
GFSK Start (Rel TX Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the start time for the power measurement of the GFSK
sections of the packet. The default value is 10%.
The abbreviation GFSK stands for Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying.
Remote: CONF:BTO:RTP:GAV:STAR 20
GFSK Stop (Rel TX Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the stop time for the power measurement of the GFSK
sections of the packet. The default value is 90%.
The abbreviation GFSK stands for Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying.
Remote: CONF:BTO:RTP:GAV:STOP 80
DPSK Start (Rel TX Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the start time for the power measurement of the DPSK
sections of the packet. The default value is 10%.
The abbreviation DPSK stands for Differential Phase Shift Keying.
Remote: CONF:BTO:RTP:DAV:STAR 20
DPSK Stop (Rel TX Power)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the stop time for the power measurement of the DPSK
sections of the packet. The default value is 90%.
The abbreviation DPSK stands for Differential Phase Shift Keying.
Remote: CONF:BTO:RTP:DAV:STOP 80
Softkeys of the trigger menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu in Bluetooth mode (FREQ key). It
is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Trigger Source
Trg/Gate Level
Trigger Polarity
Trigger Offset
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Trigger Source
Opens the Trigger dialog box to select one of the following trigger sources: Free Run, External,
IF Power.
For further details refer to the Trg / Gate Source softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trg/Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger / gate level. This softkey is not available, if the
trigger source Free Run is selected.
For further details refer to the Trg / Gate Level softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Polarity
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Offset
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the measurement menu (Bluetooth mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the measurement menu in Bluetooth mode (MEAS
key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
In the Bluetooth mode, the sweep menu is used for direct entry into the measurement menu of the
currently selected measurement. Therefore only the softkeys to select a measurement are described in
this section. All other softkeys are linked to the description in section Softkeys of the sweep menu
(Bluetooth mode) or Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (Bluetooth mode).
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Output Power
Continuous Sweep
Command
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweep Count
Power Avg Start
Power Avg Stop
TX Spec ACP
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Sweep Count
No. of ACP Chan
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S FSL
Command
Channel List Start
Modulation Char
Start Test
Continue Test
Continuous Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweep Count
Zoom
Init Carr Freq Tol
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweep Count
Zoom
Carr Freq Drift
see contents of the Init
Carr Freq Tol submenu
EDR
Rel TX Power
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweep Count
More
GFSK Start
GFSK Stop
DPSK Start
DPSK Stop
Spurious Emissions
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Adjust Gate
Sweep Count
No. of ACP Chan
Channel List Start
More
Gate Delay
Gate Length
Carr Freq Stability
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
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Menu / Command
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Submenu / Command
Command
Meas Time Auto
Block Count
Diff Phase
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Meas Time Manual
Meas Time Auto
Sweep Count
Output Power
Opens a submenu to configure the Output Power measurement. For further details refer to
"Output Power measurement" on page 4.161.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS OPOW
Remote: CALC:BTO:OPOW?
Remote: CALC:BTO:OPOW:AVER? MAX
TX Spec ACP
Opens a submenu to configure the TX Spec ACP measurement. For further details refer to
"Adjacent Channel Power measurement" on page 4.162.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS ACLR
Remote: CALC:BTO:ACLR?
Remote: CALC:BTO:ACLR:EXC?
Modulation Char
Opens a submenu to configure the Modulation Char measurement. For further details refer to
"Modulation Characteristics measurement" on page 4.162.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS MCH
Remote: CALC:BTO:MCH:DF1:AVER? MIN
Remote: CALC:BTO:MCH:DF1:MAX? MIN
Remote: CALC:BTO:MCH:DF2:PERC?
Remote: CALC:BTO:MCH:RAT? MIN
Init Carr Freq Tol
Opens a submenu to configure the Init Carr Freq Tol measurement. For further details refer to
"Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerance measurement" on page 4.163.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS IFCT
Remote: CALC:BTO:ICFT? AVER
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Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
R&S FSL
Carr Freq Drift
Opens a submenu to configure the Carr Freq Drift measurement. For further details refer to
"Carrier Frequency Drift measurement" on page 4.164.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS CFDR
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFDR?
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFDR:RATE?
EDR
Opens a submenu with all available enhanced data rate measurements.
Rel TX Power
Opens a submenu to configure the Rel TX Power measurement. For further details refer to
"Relative Transmit Power (EDR) measurement" on page 4.164.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS RTP
Remote: CALC:BTO:RTP? MIN
Remote: CALC:BTO:RTP:GFSK? MIN
Remote: CALC:BTO:RTP:RAT? MIN
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement. For further details refer to
"In–band Spurious Emissions (EDR) measurement" on page 4.165.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS IBS
Remote: CALC:BTO:IBS?
Remote: CALC:BTO:IBS:EXC?
Remote: CALC:BTO:IBS:HADJ? LOW
Carr Freq Stability
Opens a submenu to configure the Carr Freq Stability measurement. For further details refer to
"Carrier Frequency Stability and Modulation Accuracy (EDR) measurement" on page 4.166.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS CFST
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:FERR? MIN
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:FERR:BLOC? AVER
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:FERR:INIT? MAX
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:DEVM? AVER
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:DEVM:PEAK?
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:DEVM:D99Pct?
Remote: CALC:BTO:CFST:COUNt?
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R&S FSL
Bluetooth Measurements (Option K8)
Diff Phase
Opens a submenu to configure the Diff Phase measurement. For further details refer to
"Differential Phase Encoding (EDR) measurement" on page 4.166.
Remote: CONF:BTO:MEAS DPEN
Remote: CALC:BTO:DPEN:NERR?
Remote: CALC:BTO:DPEN?
Remote: CALC:BTO:DPEN:BER?
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Power Meter (Option K9)
R&S FSL
Power Meter (Option K9)
For precise power measurement a power sensor is connected to the instrument via the front panel
(USB connector) or the rear panel (power sensor, option R&S FSL–B5). The Power Sensor Support
firmware option provides the power measurement functions for this test setup (see Fig. 4-21: Power
sensor support – standard test setup). Both manual operation and remote control are supported. The
functions of this firmware option are described in this section. For details on the connectors and
compatible power sensors refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1, "Front and Rear Panel".
Fig. 4-21: Power sensor support – standard test setup
To open the power meter menu
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Power Meter softkey.
The power meter menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the power meter menu" on page 4.187
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Tasks
–
To zero the power meter
–
To use the power meter
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Power Meter (Option K9)
To zero the power meter
1. Press the Zero softkey.
A dialog box is displayed that prompts you to disconnect all signals from the input of the power
sensor.
2. Disconnect all signals from the input of the power sensor and press ENTER to continue.
3. Wait until zeroing is complete.
A corresponding message is displayed.
To use the power meter
1. Press the Frequency Coupling softkey to select the coupling option.
2. If you have selected the Manual coupling option, press the Frequency Manual softkey to enter the
frequency of the signal which power you want to measure.
3. Press the Unit/Scale softkey to set the unit for the power result display.
4. If you have selected dB or % as units (relative display), define a reference value:
–
To set the currently measured power as a reference value, press the Meas–>Ref softkey.
–
To enter a reference value, press the Reference Value softkey.
5. Press the Meas Time/Average softkey to select the measurement time. For recommendations refer
to the Meas Time/Average softkey description.
Softkeys of the power meter menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power meter menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
For the description of the other main softkeys refer to "Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page
4.131.
Command
Power Meter On/Off
Frequency Manual
Frequency Coupling
Unit/Scale
Zero
Meas Time/Average
More
Meas–>Ref
Reference Value
Use Ref Lev Offset
Number of Readings
Ext Power Trigger
Trigger Level
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Power Meter (Option K9)
R&S FSL
Power Meter On/Off
Switches the power measurement on or off.
Remote: PMET ON
Frequency Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency of the signal to be measured. The power sensor
has a memory with frequency–dependent correction factors. This allows extreme accuracy for
signals of a known frequency.
Remote: PMET:FREQ 1GHZ
Frequency Coupling
Opens the Frequency Coupling dialog box to select the coupling option. The frequency can be
coupled automatically to the center frequency of the instrument or to the frequency of marker 1,
or manually to a set frequency (see Frequency Manual softkey).
Remote: PMET:FREQ:LINK CENT
Unit/Scale
Opens the Unit/Scale dialog box to select the unit with which the measured power is to be
displayed.
If dB or % is selected, the display is relative to a reference value that is defined with either the
Meas–>Ref softkey or the Reference Value softkey.
Remote: UNIT:PMET:POW DBM
Remote: UNIT:PMET:POW:RAT DB
Zero
Starts zeroing of the power sensor. For details on the zeroing process refer to "To zero the
power meter" on page 4.187.
Remote: CAL:PMET:ZERO:AUTO ONCE;*WAI
Meas Time/Average
Opens the Meas Time dialog box to select the measurement time or to switch to manual
averaging mode. In general, results are more precise with longer measurement times. The
following settings are recommended for different signal types to obtain stable and precise
results:
Short
Stationary signals with high power (> –40dBm), because they require only a
short measurement time and short measurement time provides the highest
repetition rates.
Normal
Signals with lower power or of modulated signals
Long
Signals at the lower end of the measurement range (<–50 dBm) or
signals with lower power to minimize the influence of noise.
Manual
Switches to manual averaging mode. The average count is set with the
Number of Readings softkey.
This parameter is available from firmware version 1.70.
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R&S FSL
Power Meter (Option K9)
Remote: PMET:MTIM SHOR
Remote: PMET:MTIM:AVER ON
Meas–>Ref
Sets the currently measured power as a reference value for the relative display. The reference
value can also be set manually via the Reference Value softkey.
Remote: CALC:PMET:REL:AUTO ONCE
Reference Value
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference value for relative measurements in the unit dBm.
Remote: CALC:PMET:REL –30DBM
Use Ref Lev Offset
If activated, takes the reference level offset set for the analyzer (Ref Level Offset softkey) into
account for the measured power. If deactivated, takes no offset into account.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.50.
Remote: PMET:ROFF OFF
Number of Readings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of readings (averagings) to be performed after a
single sweep has been started. This softkey is only available if manual averaging is selected
(Meas Time/Average softkey).
The values for the average count range from 0 to 256 in binary steps (1, 2, 4, 8,…). For average
count = 0 or 1, one reading is performed. The averaging and sweep count of the trace menu are
independent from this setting.
Results become more stable with extended average, particularly if signals with low power are
measured. This setting can be used to minimize the influence of noise in the power meter
measurement.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.70.
Remote: PMET:MTIM:AVER:COUN 8
Ext Power Trigger
Activates the creation of a trigger signal in the power sensor. When pressing the softkey, the
following softkeys of the power meter menu become unavailable: Unit/Scale, Reference Value,
Use Ref Lev Offset and Number of Readings.
Pressing the softkey causes the transmission of the following remote commands to the power
sensor:
*RST
SENS:AVER:STAT OFF
TRIG:MAST:STAT ON
TRIG:SOUR INT
TRIG:SLOP POS
TRIG:DTIM 100e-6
INIT:CONT ON
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Power Meter (Option K9)
R&S FSL
This softkey is only available in conjunction with a NRP-Z81 power sensor.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: SENS:PMET:TRIG ON
Trigger Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger level.
This softkey is only available in conjunction with a NRP-Z81 power sensor.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.90.
Remote: SENS:PMET:TRIG:LEV -10 dBm
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Spectrogram Measurement (Option K14)
Spectrogram Measurement (Option K14)
The Spectrogram Measurement option provides a graphical view of frequency and amplitude changes
over a time interval. For display details refer to "Spectrogram view" on page 4.192.
Not all measurement types can be displayed in the Spectrogram view. If the Spectrogram Measurement
option is active and a measurement cannot be displayed in form of a spectrogram, the softkey of the
corresponding measurement is disabled.
If the Spectrogram view is active, all parameter settings set in the Spectrum Analyzer mode are kept,
and vice versa.
This option is available from firmware version 1.60.
To open the spectrogram menu
1. Press the MENU key.
2. Press the Spectrogram softkey.
The spectrogram menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the spectrogram menu" on page 4.194
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Spectrogram view)" on page 4.195
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (Spectrogram view)" on page 4.197
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Spectrogram view)" on page 4.197
All other menus are provided as described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu
descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Spectrogram view" on page 4.192
–
"Markers and marker values" on page 4.193
–
"Maximum number of frames" on page 4.193
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Spectrogram view
The Spectrogram view is divided into two panes: the spectrum analyzer result display (upper pane) and
the spectrogram result display (lower pane).
•
spectrum analyzer result display
As in Spectrum Analyzer mode, all traces are displayed and available. For trace 1, the View and
Blank trace modes are not available.
During the measurement, always the current trace is displayed.
If no measurement is running, the trace to be displayed is selected via:
–
the Select Frame softkey
–
the edit dialog box for markers and delta markers (MKR key, Marker 1/2/3/4 softkeys or MKR–
softkey)
> key, Select 1 2 3 4
The selected trace is displayed with its corresponding, activated markers (D2 in the example). The
position of the markers activated for other traces is only displayed in the marker field (M1 in the
example).
•
spectrogram result display
In a Cartesian diagram, the chronological power distribution (y–axis) over a frequency or time range
(x–axis) is displayed. The different levels are displayed in different colors.
Only the data of trace 1 is displayed in the spectrogram. The result display is build up by horizontal
lines so–called frames, each representing a trace. The frames are sorted in chronological order:
Starting from the current trace (frame 0) at the y–axis value zero, the last trace (frame –1), the trace
before the last trace (frame –2), and so on, are displayed with increasing y–axis value. The
maximum number of frames to be recorded is defined by the History Depth softkey.
A frame consists of a maximum of 501 measurement points. If more measured values than
measurement points are available (set via the Sweep Points softkey), several measured values are
combined in one measurement point using the selected detector (Auto Peak detector not available,
for details on detectors refer to "Detector overview" on page 4.42).
Fig. 4-22 Spectrogram (example)
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Spectrogram Measurement (Option K14)
A color map below the spectrogram shows the level and color assignment: the minimum level on
the left (–101.0 dBm in the example), the maximum level on the right (–1.0 dBm in the example).
The used colors are defined via the Color softkey. The level and color assignment is derived
automatically from the levels.
Below the right corner of the spectrogram, the frame number is displayed (# 0 in the example). If
the time stamp is activated, the time stamp instead of the frame number is displayed (for details
refer to the Time Stamp On/Off softkey).
The position of a marker (rhomb symbol) is displayed in the spectrogram result display only if the
marker is located in the visible area. If the marker is located outside the visible area, only its values
are displayed in the marker field.
Markers and marker values
In the spectrum analyzer result display, the marker information of all activated markers is displayed in
the marker field. Additional to the marker values of the base unit (for details see "Using Markers and
Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page 4.53), the frame number is given (# 0 in the example).
In the spectrogram result display, in maximum 4 markers and delta markers can be activated for
different frames at the same time. To assign a marker to a frame, the edit marker dialog box is
extended. Additionally to the marker value, the frame number must be defined.
When the marker edit dialog box is opened, the Marker 1 field is in edit mode. To change to the frame
number field, use the FIELD RIGHT key.
If a marker is activated when the measurement is halted (Continuous Sweep Start/Stop softkey), the
marker is set and visible in both result displays (provided that it is located in the visible area of the
spectrogram result display). If the marker value or the frame number is altered, the new position is
reflected in both result displays.
Maximum number of frames
The following table shows the correlation between the number of measurement points and the
maximum number of frames stored in the history buffer:
Measurement points
501
Max. number of frames
20,000
1,001
12,488
2,001
6,247
4,001
3,124
8,001
1,562
16,001
781
32,001
391
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Softkeys of the spectrogram menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the spectrogram menu (MENU key). It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a
special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
For the description of the other main softkeys refer to "Optional softkeys of the menu menu" on page
4.131.
Command
Spectrogram On/Off
History Depth
Color
Maximize Size
Time Stamp On/Off
Spectrogram On/Off
Activates or deactivates the Spectrogram Measurement option.
Remote: CALC:SPEC ON
History Depth
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of frames to be stored in the history buffer. The
maximum number of frames depends on the number of sweep points (Sweep Points softkey)
and is determined according to "Maximum number of frames" on page 4.193.
If the history buffer is full, the oldest frame results are overwritten by the new ones.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:HDEP 1000
Color
Opens the Frame Color dialog box to select the frame color setting.
Color
RGB colors
Radar
black – green – white
Grayscale
black and white
Remote: CALC:SPEC:COL RAD
Maximize Size
Changes the screen layout.
Activated
Enlarges the spectrogram result display and scales down the spectrum
analyzer result display.
Deactivated
Divides the screen in two equally sized panes.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:SIZE LARG
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Time Stamp On/Off
Defines the displayed item in the right lower corner.
On
The time stamp (system time of the sweep start) is displayed instead of the frame
number.
Off
The frame number is displayed.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:TST ON
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Spectrogram view)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu of the Spectrogram Measurement
option (SWEEP key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a
softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Command
Continuous Sweep Start/Stop
Single Sweep
Select Frame
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Sweep Count
More
Sweep Points
Continue Frame On/Off
Frame Count
Spectrogram Clear
Continuous Sweep Start/Stop
Stops or continues the measurement in continuous sweep mode. The trace averaging is
determined by the sweep count value (for details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the trace
menu of the base unit).
Continuous Sweep Start
The measurement is stopped. Press the softkey to continue the
measurement.
Continuous Sweep Stop
The measurement is running. Press the softkey to stop the
measurement.
Remote: INIT:CONT ON
Single Sweep
For details refer to the Single Sweep softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
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Select Frame
Opens an edit dialog box to select the frame if no measurement is running. If the active marker
value is altered, the value of the selected frame is updated accordingly.
During a measurement, the value is fixed to 0 and this softkey is not available.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:FRAM:SEL –10
Sweeptime Manual
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Auto
For details refer to the Sweeptime Auto softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Sweep Count
For details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Sweep Points
For details refer to the Sweep Points softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Continue Frame On/Off
Determines whether the results of the last measurement are deleted before starting a new
measurement.
On
Repeats the single sweep measurement without deleting the spectrogram results of
the last measurement. One of the following trace modes is to be used: Max Hold, Min
Hold, Average.
Off
Deletes the last measurement results before performing a single sweep
measurement.
This softkey takes effect in single sweep mode only.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:CONT ON
Frame Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of frames to be recorded in a single sweep
measurement, whereas the Sweep Count entry determines how many sweeps are combined
according to the selected trace mode (Max Hold or Min Hold) in one trace (frame). The
maximum number of frames is determined according to "Maximum number of frames" on page
4.193.
This softkey takes effect in single sweep mode only.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:FRAM:COUN 200
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Spectrogram Clear
Deletes the spectrogram result display and the history buffer.
Remote: CALC:SPEC:CLE
Softkeys of the marker menu (Spectrogram view)
Additional to the functionality of the base unit (for details refer to "Softkeys of the marker menu" on page
4.57), the edit dialog box for markers and delta markers is extended. For details refer to "Markers and
marker values" on page 4.193.
Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Spectrogram view)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu of the Spectrogram
Measurement option (MKR–> key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all
softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this
information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Search Mode
Next Peak X Search < abs >
Next Peak Y Search up/abs/dn
Next Min X Search < abs >
Next Min Y Search up/abs/dn
Marker Search Type
Select Search Area
Center =Mkr Freq
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Search Mode
identical to Search Mode menu
above
Search Limits
Left Limit
Right Limit
Threshold
Search Lim Off
Peak Excursion
Exclude LO
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Select 1 2 3 4
The edit dialog box for markers and delta markers is extended as described in "Markers and
marker values" on page 4.193.
For further details refer to the Select 1 2 3 4
softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Remote: CALC:MARK2:SPEC:FRAM –20
Remote: CALC:DELT3:SPEC:FRAM –50
Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum according to the selected search
type (Marker Search Type softkey).
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX (in x direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX (in x direction)
Remote: CALC:MARK:SPEC:Y:MAX (y direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT4:SPEC:Y:MAX (y direction)
Remote: CALC:MARK2:SPEC:XY:MAX (xy direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT2:SPEC:XY:MAX (xy direction)
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum according to the mode selected using
the Search Mode softkey. For the XY Search (Marker Search Type softkey), this softkey is not
available.
Remote: for search in x direction see Next Peak X Search < abs > softkey
Remote: for search in y direction see Next Peak Y Search up/abs/dn softkey
Search Mode
Displays a submenu to define the search mode for the Next Peak and Next Min softkeys.
Next Peak X Search < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Peak softkey, if the X Search is selected (Marker Search Type
softkey). Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum left to the marker of the
selected frame.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum of the selected
frame.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum right to the marker of the
selected frame.
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Remote: CALC:MARK2:MAX:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:MARK2:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT2:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Next Peak Y Search up/abs/dn
Selects the mode of the Next Peak softkey, if the Y Search is selected (Marker Search Type
softkey). Three settings are available:
up
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum above the current marker
position (constant x–axis value).
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum in y–axis direction
(constant x–axis value).
dn
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum below the current marker
position (constant x–axis value).
Remote: CALC:MARK2:SPEC:Y:MAX:ABOV (up)
Remote: CALC:DELT2:SPEC:Y:MAX:ABOV (up)
Remote: CALC:MARK:SPEC:Y:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT4:SPEC:Y:MAX:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:MARK3:SPEC:Y:MAX:BEL (dn)
Remote: CALC:DELT3:SPEC:Y:MAX:BEL (dn)
Next Min X Search < abs >
Selects the mode of the Next Min softkey, if the X Search is selected (Marker Search Type
softkey). Three settings are available:
<
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum left to the marker of the
selected frame.
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum of the selected
frame.
>
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum right to the marker of the
selected frame.
Remote: CALC:MARK2:MIN:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT (<)
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH (>)
Remote: CALC:MARK2:MIN:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT2:MIN:NEXT (abs)
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Next Min Y Search up/abs/dn
Selects the mode of the Next Min softkey, if the Y Search is selected (Marker Search Type
softkey). Three settings are available:
up
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum above the current marker
position (constant x–axis value).
abs
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher minimum in y–axis direction
(constant x–axis value).
dn
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum below the current marker
position (constant x–axis value).
Remote: CALC:MARK2:SPEC:Y:MIN:ABOV (up)
Remote: CALC:DELT2:SPEC:Y:MIN:ABOV (up)
Remote: CALC:MARK:SPEC:Y:MIN:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:DELT4:SPEC:Y:MIN:NEXT (abs)
Remote: CALC:MARK3:SPEC:Y:MIN:BEL (dn)
Remote: CALC:DELT3:SPEC:Y:MIN:BEL (dn)
Marker Search Type
Displays the Marker Search Type dialog box to select the search direction:
X Search
The selected frame is searched for peaks (Next Peak X Search < abs >
softkey) or minima (Next Min X Search < abs > softkey).
Y Search
The frames are searched with constant x–axis value for peaks (Next Peak Y
Search up/abs/dn softkey) or minima (Next Min Y Search up/abs/dn
softkey).
XY Search
All frames are searched in x and y–axis direction for peaks or minima. Only
the absolute search mode is available.
Select Search Area
Displays the Marker Search Area dialog box to select the search area:
Visible
The search takes only place in the area displayed in the Spectrogram view.
Memory
The search takes place in the whole data range stored in the history buffer.
Remote: CALC:MARK2:SPEC:SAR MEM
Remote: CALC:DELT2:SPEC:SAR MEM
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
For details refer to the Center =Mkr Freq softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
For details refer to the Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
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Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest minimum according to the selected search
type (Marker Search Type softkey).
For further details refer to the Min softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN (in x direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT:MIN (in x direction)
Remote: CALC:MARK:SPEC:Y:MIN (y direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT4:SPEC:Y:MIN (y direction)
Remote: CALC:MARK3:SPEC:XY:MIN (xy direction)
Remote: CALC:DELT3:SPEC:XY:MIN (xy direction)
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum according to the mode selected using
the Search Mode softkey. For the XY Search (Marker Search Type softkey), this softkey is not
available.
Remote: for search in x direction see Next Min X Search < abs > softkey
Remote: for search in y direction see Next Min Y Search up/abs/dn softkey
Search Limits
For details refer to the Search Limits softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Left Limit
For details refer to the Left Limit softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Right Limit
For details refer to the Right Limit softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Threshold
For details refer to the Threshold softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Search Lim Off
For details refer to the Search Lim Off softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Peak Excursion
For details refer to the Peak Excursion softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
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Exclude LO
For details refer to the Exclude LO softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
The Cable TV Measurements option provides ready–made measurements for analog and digital TV
signals where most of the parameters are set automatically. Thus the measurements can be carried out
fast and with a minimum of effort.
Averaging can be applied to the measurement results. If the results are presented in a table, only the
values in the table are averaged, not the trace itself. For details refer to "Setting Traces – TRACE Key"
on page 4.39. Measurement specific settings as signal levels, limits etc. are saved using the save /
recall function described in section "Instrument Functions – Basic Settings", "Instrument Setup and
Interface Configuration – SETUP Key".
This option is available from firmware version 1.30.
To open the Cable TV Analyzer menu
If the Cable TV Analyzer mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and
activate the Cable TV Analyzer option.
If the Cable TV Analyzer mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The Cable TV Analyzer menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the Cable TV Analyzer menu" on page 4.223
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)" on page 4.226
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)" on page 4.228
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)" on page 4.229
–
"Softkeys of the measurement menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)" on page 4.230
The bandwidth, span, trigger and lines menus are not available in the Cable TV Analyzer mode. All
other menus are provided as described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu
descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Information in the status bar" on page 4.209
–
"Channel tables" on page 4.210
–
"Modulation standards" on page 4.210
–
"Signal level" on page 4.211
–
"Attenuation adjustment" on page 4.211
–
"Labels used in the measurement displays" on page 4.212
–
"Short list of cable TV terms and abbreviations" on page 4.213
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Tasks
–
"To edit a channel table" on page 4.205
–
"To create a channel table" on page 4.206
–
"To copy a channel table" on page 4.206
–
"To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207
–
"To edit a modulation standard" on page 4.208
–
"To copy a modulation standard" on page 4.208
–
"To perform a measurement using a channel table" on page 4.208
–
"To perform a measurement without a channel table" on page 4.209
Measurements overview
All measurements can be performed with or without using a channel table (see also "To perform a
measurement using a channel table" on page 4.208 and "To perform a measurement without a channel
table" on page 4.209). In this section, the measurements are performed using a channel table. For
every measurement type, a short introduction is given. For a more detailed description on every
measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
The measurements are divided into three groups:
analog TV
Using an analog modulation standard, the measurement of one single channel is
performed.
digital TV
Using a digital modulation standard, the measurement of one single channel is
performed.
TV analyzer
Measurements on the entire TV network, i.e. several or all channels, are
performed.
For detailed information on the softkeys provided for each measurement type, refer to "Softkeys of the
measurement menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)" on page 4.230.
The following measurement types are provided:
•
analog TV measurements:
–
"Spectrum" on page 4.213
–
"Carriers" on page 4.214
–
"C/N" on page 4.214
–
"CSO" on page 4.215
–
"CTB" on page 4.216
–
"Video Scope" on page 4.217
–
"Vision Modulation" on page 4.217
–
"Hum" on page 4.218
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•
•
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
digital TV measurements:
–
"Spectrum" on page 4.218
–
"Overview" on page 4.219
–
"Constellation Diagram (Modulation Analysis)" on page 4.219
–
"Modulation Errors (Modulation Analysis)" on page 4.220
–
"Echo Pattern (Channel Analysis)" on page 4.220
–
"Channel Power" on page 4.221
–
"APD" on page 4.221
–
"CCDF" on page 4.222
TV analyzer measurement:
–
"Tilt" on page 4.222
To edit a channel table
1. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
The Channel Tables dialog box is displayed.
If a measurement is running, the channel table used in the measurement (so–called active channel
table) is the channel table in focus. For further details refer also to "Channel tables" on page 4.210.
2. In the Channel Tables dialog box, focus the channel table you want to edit.
3. Press the Edit softkey.
The Channel Table dialog box and the edit submenu is displayed. Each line in the channel table
represents one channel.
The channels are displayed as they are entered and are not sorted automatically. If you prefer the
entries ordered with respect to their channel number, enter the channels accordingly.
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4. In the Name and Description field, edit the name and the description for the channel table via the
keypad.
If the name of a channel table is changed, the channel table with the old name is not overwritten but
retained, and a new channel table is created additionally.
In the title bar, *(unsaved changes) is displayed.
5. To edit an existing channel:
–
In the No. and Comment column, edit the channel number and a comment for the channel via
the keypad.
–
In the Modulation Standard column, open the list of all available modulation standards via the
ENTER key and select a modulation standard from the list. If you want to create, edit or view a
modulation standard, press the Modulation Options softkey. For further information refer to
"To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207.
–
In the RF MHz column, set an RF value. The RF represents the characteristic frequency of a
channel. Its interpretation depends on the modulation standard, e.g. for analog TV. For detailed
information refer to the RF softkey on page 4.226.
If the modulation standard is changed from an analog to a digital one, the RF frequency is
changed automatically. Therefore it is recommended to proceed in the described order, i.e. to
set the modulation standard first.
–
In the Width MHz column, set a width value.
6. To create a new channel:
–
Set the focus on a channel and press the Copy Channel softkey.
–
Change the entries of the channel as desired.
7. To delete a channel, press the Delete Channel softkey.
8. To leave the whole channel table without saving the changes, press the Discard Changes softkey.
9. To save your changes, press the Save Changes softkey.
If the channel table contains invalid entries, an error message is displayed and saving is denied.
To create a channel table
1. In the Channel Setup submenu, press the New softkey to create a new channel table. For further
details refer also to "Channel tables" on page 4.210.
2. Continue as described in "To edit a channel table" on page 4.205, step 4.
To copy a channel table
1. Press the Channel Setup softkey.For further details refer also to "Channel tables" on page 4.210.
2. In the Channel Tables dialog box, focus the channel table you want to copy.
3. Press the Copy softkey.
4. Continue as described in "To edit a channel table" on page 4.205, step 4.
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To create a new modulation standard
1. In the Channel Setup submenu, press the Edit, New, or Copy softkey.
2. In the Modulation Options submenu, press the New softkey.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box is displayed. As soon as you change entries, in the
title bar, *(unsaved changes) is displayed.
3. Enter a name for the modulation standard. It is recommended to include the TV standard in the
name, e.g. XY_DVB–C 16QAM.
If a modulation standard with the entered name already exists, the name is not accepted and a
message box is displayed. The input field remains editable.
4. Select the Signal Type. Depending on this setting, the fields and entries of the New Modulation
Standard dialog box are configured. Therefore it is recommended to proceed in the described
order.
5. For the Analog TV signal type, define the following parameters:
TV standard, sound system, group delay, color system, bar line, quiet line, sideband position. The
entries that can be selected may depend on the setting of the previous parameter.
For every parameter a default value is set. Change this setting if necessary.
6. For the Digital TV signal type, define the following parameters:
TV standard, constellation, symbol rate, roll–off, sideband position. The entries that can be selected
may depend on the setting of the previous parameter.
7. Press the previous key twice to go back to the Channel Table dialog box.
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8. Press the Save Changes softkey to save the changes.
The new modulation standard can be used for any channel.
9. To discard the changes, press the Discard Changes softkey.
To edit a modulation standard
1. In the Channel Setup – Edit / New / Copy submenu, press the Modulation Options softkey.
In the Modulation Standards dialog box, all modulation standards defined for this channel table
are displayed.
2. In the Modulation Standards dialog box, set the focus on the modulation standard you want to
edit.
3. Press the Edit softkey.
The Modulation Standard Options dialog box is displayed.
4. For further instructions see "To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207.
To copy a modulation standard
1. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
2. In the Channel Tables dialog box, focus the channel table that contains the modulation standard
you want to copy.
3. Press the Copy softkey (for further details see "To create a channel table" on page 4.206).
4. Enter a name for the copied channel table.
5. If you want to alter the channel table, continue as described in "To edit a channel table" on page
4.205, step 4.
6. If you want to alter the modulation standard, press the Modulation Options softkey and then the
Edit softkey (for further details see "To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207).
To perform a measurement using a channel table
1. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
The Channel Tables dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the channel table you want to use for the measurement and press the ENTER key or the
Activate softkey.
If no adequate channel table is available, you can edit or create a channel table, or perform the
measurement without a channel table (For details refer to "To edit a channel table" on page 4.205,
"To create a channel table" on page 4.206 or "To perform a measurement without a channel table"
on page 4.209).
3. Press the MEAS key.
4. In the measurement menu, press the softkey for the measurement you want to perform.
5. Set up the measurement as described for every measurement type in section "Measurements" on
page 4.204.
6. Press the RUN key to start the measurement.
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To perform a measurement without a channel table
1. Press the Channel Setup softkey.
The Channel Tables dialog box is displayed.
2. Select no channel table < none > and press the ENTER key or the Activate softkey.
3. Press the MEAS key.
4. In the measurement menu, press the Analog TV or Digital TV softkey.
5. Press the softkey for the measurement you want to perform.
6. Press the Analog TV Settings or Digital TV Settings softkey to setup the modulation parameters.
The Analog TV Settings or Digital TV Settings dialog box is displayed.
7. Enter the parameters for the measurement.
–
analog TV: for details refer to the Analog TV Settings softkey in the analog TV measurement
menu.
–
digital TV: for details refer to the Digital TV Settings softkey in the digital TV measurement
menu.
8. Press the Adjust Attenuation softkey to set the signal level appropriately.
9. Press the RUN key to start the measurement.
Information in the status bar
The status bar provides valuable information for working with the application. The information is
supplied context–sensitively and always refers to the graphical user interface element in focus. The
following types of information are displayed:
•
possible range for a parameter
•
description what to do
•
hints
•
warnings
•
information on synchronization
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Channel tables
Channel tables are lists of channels, as they occur in a cable TV network. They provide a quick access
to the channels to be analyzed. Depending on its designation, a channel table can contain all channels
of a cable TV network or it can be restricted to a subset of all available channels, e.g. to all digital DVB–
C channels of the cable TV network.
In the Channel Tables dialog box, all available channel tables are sorted in alphabetic order. The name
of a channel table displayed in the list corresponds to the file name of the channel table, excluding the
file extension (*.cht).
The first list entry is < none >. If this entry is selected, no channel table is used. This can be useful for
measurements where no appropriate channel table is available, or if the Cable TV Measurements
option (K20) is used in a R&D laboratory. The Tilt measurement is not possible if no channel table is
used. For a step–by–step instruction refer to "To perform a measurement without a channel table" on
page 4.209.
Some channel tables are provided with the option. In these channel tables, all modulation standards are
set to < unused > (for further details refer to "Modulation standards" on page 4.210). Based on this set,
you can customize your own channel tables. Use the Restore Default Tables softkey to restore the
provided channel tables.
Modulation standards
A modulation standard is a set of parameters defining the modulation properties of a TV signal (as used
in a TV channel). The signal type is the characteristic parameter of this set. Modulation standards are
defined for every channel table individually. As a maximum, 40 modulation standards can be created
per channel table. If, in a channel table, the modulation standard of a channel is set to < unused >, no
modulation standard is defined for this channel and therefore no measurements can be performed for
this channel.
If no channel table < none > is activated, a default modulation standard can be edited and changed via
the Analog TV Settings or Digital TV Settings softkey, but these changes are not saved permanently.
Pressing the PRESET key restores the default settings.
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Signal level
The signal level represents the expected RMS (digital TV) or peak (analog TV) channel power. This
power is only valid for one single channel, which is the current measurement channel. The signal level
is not identical to the level of the signal fed into the R&S FSL's RF input. This signal may consist of
many TV channels and hence have a much higher total power than the current channel to be
investigated.
In most measurements the signal level determines the upper horizontal display line. The signal level
value is related to the reference level by a constant offset. The reference level value is the maximum
value the AD converter can handle without distortion of the measured value. The signal level can either
be entered via the Signal Lvl key or by using the auto scale function (e.g. Auto Range softkey in the
Tilt measurement).
Attenuation adjustment
To get valid measurement results it is very important to set the R&S FSL's hardware, i.e. the attenuator
and the preamplifier, in a reasonable way. This can either be done manually or by relying on the Adjust
Attenuation softkey. Apart from the hardware setting, the displayed grid depends on the signal level of
the signal present in the current measurement channel.
RF Overload
Detector
RF Input
Attenuator
IF Overload
Detector
IF Stages...
Preamplifier
ADC
Fig. 4-23 R&S FSL hardware overview (only relevant parts for attenuation adjustment)
Fig. 4-23 shows the R&S FSL's hardware. It only comprises blocks that effect the level settings
described in this section. The signal from the device under test, e.g. a single cable TV transmitter or a
test point of a cable TV network with many channels, is plugged into the R&S FSL's RF input. The level
of the signal is reduced by the electronic attenuator or increased by the preamplifier (option B22
required). Then the signal is fed into the first mixer.
The level of this signal is typically referred to as mixer level. The mixer level is a very crucial parameter.
If the mixer level is too high the mixer will be overloaded. As a result, non–linear effects are produced,
e.g. intermodulation products, and the intermodulation products (e.g. CTB or CSO) of the device under
test can not be distinguished from those of the R&S FSL's mixer. To reveal this, the R&S FSL's
hardware has two overload detectors. The RF overload detector reports a mixer overload and the IF
overload detector indicates an overload of the analog to digital converter (ADC). The combination of the
results of both detectors control the overload message OVL displayed on the R&S FSL's screen.
Increasing the attenuation reduces the signal to noise ratio but also reduces the mixer's non–linear
effects. For cable TV measurements such as CTB, CSO, CCDF, and APD that measure non–linearities,
it is recommended to chose a higher attenuation than for other measurements.
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Attenuator setting
Preamplifier setting
30 dB
off
25 dB
off
20 dB
off
15 dB
off
10 dB
off
5 dB
off
0 dB
off
15 dB
on
10 dB
on
5 dB
on
0 dB
on
R&S FSL
To adjust the attenuation manually, refer to the table above that lists reasonable combinations of
attenuator and preamplifier settings. The maximum total attenuation is achieved with the setting of the
first line. If you want to set the R&S FSL hardware manually you should start with the maximum
attenuation and then reduce the total attenuation until an overload will be reported (OVL displayed on
the screen). Depending on the intended measurement, you should then choose an attenuation of about
one or two steps higher than the setting that caused an overload. Be aware, that the manual attenuator
and the preamplifier setting is kept for all measurements. For further details refer to the RF Atten
Manual and Preamp On/Off softkeys.
Alternatively, you can automatically adjust the attenuator and the preamplifier using the Adjust
Attenuation softkey. The Cable TV Measurements option sets the optimum values for the
measurement. If you change to another measurement, these values may be altered automatically in
order to find the optimum setting (e.g. low noise or low distortion) for the chosen measurement.
Labels used in the measurement displays
Positions of special values are marked as vertical lines in the measurement display.
Label
Description
VC
Vision Carrier
SC1
Sound Carrier 1
SC2
Sound Carrier 2
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Short list of cable TV terms and abbreviations
Term or abbreviation
Description
AM
Amplitude Modulation
Analog modulation technique where the carrier amplitude contains the
information.
bar line
see VITS
DVB–C
Digital Video Broadcasting for Cable Systems
DVB–C uses single carrier QAM as modulation technique.
DVB–T
Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial
DVB–T uses OFDM as modulation technique.
NTSC
National Television System Committee
Technique for transmitting color information in analog TV systems. NTSC is
for example adopted by the USA, Canada and Japan.
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Digital multicarrier modulation technique. OFDM is used in terrestrial TV
networks, e.g. DVB–T systems.
PAL
Phase Alternation Line
Technique for transmitting color information in analog TV systems used in
many European countries.
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Digital modulation technique, where both phase and amplitude carry
information.
SECAM
Système en Couleur avec Mémoire
Technique for transmitting color information in analog TV systems. SECAM
is adopted by France, countries of the Eastern block and most Arabic
countries.
VITS
Vertical Interval Test Signal
Line of a TV picture where a special test signal is transmitted. VITS lines
are used for in–service measurements (cf. Quiet Line, Bar Line). These
lines are invisible, i.e. they are located before the first or after the last visible
line of the TV picture.
Measurements
In this section, every measurement type is introduced by a short description and by a basic step–by–
step instruction. Also a list with all parameters that can be altered is presented.
Spectrum – analog TV
This measurement gives an overview of the active measurement channel. The spectrum is displayed as
a full screen trace. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Spectrum softkey.
4. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
5. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
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Carriers – analog TV
This measurement determines the carrier powers (vision carrier, one or two sound carriers) and their
frequencies in analog TV channels and compares them against limits. The sound carrier power
frequencies are displayed relative to the measured vision carrier power frequency. The following
parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Carriers softkey.
4. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
5. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
6. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
C/N – analog TV
This measurement determines the carrier–to–noise ratio. The measurement consists of two sub–
measurements: reference power measurement and noise measurement. The following parameters can
be set:
Parameter
reference power
measurement method
(In–Service, Off–Service, Quiet Line)
measurement frequencies
(CF, Span)
noise reference bandwidth
noise floor correction
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the C/N softkey.
4. To change the setting of the reference power:
–
Press the Reference Power softkey.
–
Press the Reference Channel, Same as Meas Channel, or Manual Reference Power softkey
and, if necessary, enter a value.
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5. To configure the measurement, press the C/N Setup softkey.
The C/N Setup dialog box is displayed.
–
Under Measurement Method, activate one of the options. For details refer to the C/N Setup
softkey in the measurement menu.
–
Only for In–Service and Off–Service measurement method: Under Measurement
Frequencies, enter the center frequencies and span values. Set the span values relative to the
vision carrier of the current measurement.
–
In the Noise Reference Bandwidth field, enter a number in order to change the default value.
–
If the DUT's noise is close to the noise of the spectrum analyzer, activate the Noise Floor
Correction option.
6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To activate the carrier measurement with the next sweep, press the Meas Carrier softkey.
Prerequisite is, that in the C/N Setup dialog box under Measurement Methods the Off–Service
option is selected.
8. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
9. Press the RUN key.
10. Only for In–Service and Off–Service measurement method: To measure in the next frequency
span defined via the C/N setup, press the Next Meas Frequency softkey.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
CSO – analog TV
This measurement determines the carrier–to–second order beat ratio (CSO). The measurement
consists of two sub–measurements: reference power measurement and beat measurement of second
order intermodulation products. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
reference power
measurement method
(Off–Service, Quiet Line)
measurement frequencies
(CF, Span)
noise floor correction
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the CSO softkey.
4. To change the setting of the reference power:
–
Press the Reference Power softkey.
–
Press the Reference Channel, Same as Meas Channel, or Manual Reference Power softkey
and, if necessary, enter a value.
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5. To configure the measurement, press the CSO Setup softkey.
The CSO Setup dialog box is displayed.
–
Under Measurement Method, activate one of the options. For details refer to the CSO Setup
softkey in the measurement menu.
–
Only for Off–Service measurement method: Under Measurement Frequencies, enter the
center frequencies and span values.
–
If the DUT's noise is close to the noise of the spectrum analyzer, activate the Noise Floor
Correction option.
6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To activate the carrier measurement with the next sweep, press the Meas Carrier softkey.
Prerequisite is, that in the CSO Setup dialog box under Measurement Methods the Off–Service
option is selected.
8. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
9. Press the RUN key.
10. Only for Off–Service measurement method: To measure in the next frequency span defined via the
C/N setup, press the Next Meas Frequency softkey.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
CTB – analog TV
This measurement determines the carrier–to–composite triple beat ratio (CTB). The measurement
consists of two sub–measurements: reference power measurement and beat measurement of third
order intermodulation products. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
reference power
measurement frequencies
(CF, Span)
noise floor correction
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the CTB softkey.
4. To change the setting of the reference power:
–
Press the Reference Power softkey.
–
Press the Reference Channel, Same as Meas Channel, or Manual Reference Power softkey
and, if necessary, enter a value.
5. To configure the measurement, press the CTB Setup softkey.
The CTB Setup dialog box is displayed.
–
Under Measurement Frequencies, enter the center frequencies and span values.
–
If the DUT's noise is close to the noise of the spectrum analyzer, activate the Noise Floor
Correction option.
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6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
9. To measure in the next frequency span defined via the C/N setup, press the Next Meas Frequency
softkey.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Video Scope – analog TV
This measurement determines the luminance signal as a function of the time. The following parameters
can be set:
Parameter
channel number
field
line
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Video Scope softkey.
4. For the TV standard M in combination with another color system than PAL, press the Field 1/2
softkey to select field 1 or 2.
5. Press the Line softkey to enter the line number.
6. To change the sweep time, press the Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a value.
7. To define a trigger offset, press the Trigger Offset softkey and enter a value.
8. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
9. Press the RUN key.
Note:
The y–axis of the diagram is scaled in Volt for all TV standards except M. If the selected TV
standard is M, the y–axis of the diagram is scaled in IRE.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Vision Modulation – analog TV
This measurement determines the residual picture carrier and the modulation depth. The following
parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
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2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Vision Modulation softkey.
4. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
5. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
6. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Hum – analog TV
This measurement determines the hum values. The hum is a not–wanted amplitude modulation with a
modulating frequency below 1 KHz and typically equal to the power line frequency or its harmonics. The
following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Analog TV softkey.
3. Press the Hum softkey.
4. To adjust the range of the y–axis, press the Auto Range softkey.
5. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Spectrum – digital TV
This measurement gives an overview of the active measurement channel. The spectrum is displayed as
a full screen trace. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Spectrum softkey.
4. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
5. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
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Overview – digital TV
This measurement determines the modulation accuracy of digitally modulated single carrier cable TV
signals. The measurement results are displayed in a table: MER (rms) for the root mean square of the
modulation error rate, MER (peak) for the peak of the modulation error rate, EVM (rms) for the root
mean square of the error vector magnitude, EVM (peak) for the peak of the error vector magnitude,
Carrier Frequency Offset, and Symbol Rate Offset. Less important result parameters are displayed
in the result table of the Modulation Errors (Modulation Analysis) – digital TV measurement. The
following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Overview softkey.
4. To magnify one parameter, press the Zoom softkey and activate the parameter. To go back to the
default setting, activate None.
5. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Constellation Diagram (Modulation Analysis) – digital TV
This measurement displays the constellation diagram. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Modulation Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Const Diagram softkey.
5. To zoom into one quadrant, press the Zoom softkey and activate the parameter. To go back to the
general view, activate None.
6. To display the constellation diagram unchanged, while the I/Q samples are collected in the
background, press the Freeze softkey. To switch back to the continual update the display, press the
Freeze softkey again.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
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Modulation Errors (Modulation Analysis) – digital TV
This measurement determines the modulation accuracy. The measurement results are displayed in a
table: Amplitude Imbalance (amplification difference of I and Q signal caused by a non–ideal IQ
modulator in the transmitter), Quadrature Error (phase offset relative to the ideal phase difference
between the I and Q signal), Carrier Suppression, and Phase Jitter (root mean square of phase
error). The more important result parameters are displayed in the result table of the Overview – digital
TV measurement. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Modulation Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Modulation Errors softkey.
5. To magnify one parameter, press the Zoom softkey and activate the parameter. To go back to the
default setting, activate None.
6. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
8. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Echo Pattern (Channel Analysis) – digital TV
This measurement determines the magnitude of the channel impulse response with respect to the
corresponding time delay. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
unit
velocity factor
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Channel Analysis softkey.
4. Press the Echo Pattern softkey.
5. To change the unit from Ms to km or miles:
–
Press the Velocity Factor softkey to define the velocity of propagation for the unit conversion.
–
Press the Unit softkey to select the unit.
6. To zoom onto the echo pattern, press the Zoom softkey.
7. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
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8. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Channel Power – digital TV
This measurement determines the channel power of a digital TV channel. The following parameters can
be set:
Parameter
channel number
limits
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the Channel Power softkey.
4. To change the limits, press the Edit Table softkey.
5. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
6. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
APD – digital TV
This measurement determines the amplitude probability density function (APD). The following
parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
x– and y–axis scaling
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the APD softkey.
4. To change the scaling parameters of the x– and y–axis:
–
Press the Scaling softkey.
–
Press the corresponding softkey to change the parameters: x–Axis Signal Lvl, x–Axis Range,
y–Axis Max Value, y–Axis Min Value, Default Settings.
5. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
6. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
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CCDF – digital TV
This measurement determines the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the
complex base band signal. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
channel number
power exceeding probability
x– and y–axis scaling
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Press the MEAS key.
2. Press the Digital TV softkey.
3. Press the CCDF softkey.
4. To determine the power exceeded with a given probability, press the Percent Marker softkey.
5. To change the scaling parameters of the x– and y–axis:
–
Press the Scaling softkey.
–
Press the corresponding softkey to change the parameters: x–Axis Signal L, x–Axis Range,
y–Axis Max Value, y–Axis Min Value, Default Settings.
6. To adjust the input attenuator, press the Adjust Attenuation softkey.
7. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Tilt – TV analyzer
This measurement determines the frequency response of the cable TV network by measuring the
channel power of every channel. The whole measurement sequence can take some time, depending on
the number of channels. The following parameters can be set:
Parameter
span
modulation standard
The basic procedure is the following:
1. Select the appropriate channel table and activate it (for details refer to "To perform a measurement
using a channel table" on page 4.208).
2. Press the MEAS key.
3. Press the TV Analyzer softkey.
4. Press the Tilt softkey.
5. To restrict the channels to be measured, press the Tilt Setup softkey:
The Tilt Setup dialog box is displayed.
–
To limit the frequency range, under Span, enter a start and stop frequency.
–
To select only channels of certain modulation standards for the measurement, under
Modulation Standards, activate the modulation standards to be included in the measurement.
6. To adjust the range of the y–axis, press the Auto Range softkey.
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7. Press the RUN key.
For a more detailed description of this measurement type refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement
Examples".
Softkeys of the Cable TV Analyzer menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the Cable TV Analyzer menu. It is possible that your
instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option,
model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Channel Setup
Activate
New
Submenu / Command
Command
Copy Channel
Delete Channel
Modulation Options
New
Delete
Edit
Save Changes
Discard Changes
Copy
same contents as New
menu
Delete
Edit
same contents as New
menu
Restore Default Tables
Adjust Attenuation
Channel Setup
Opens the Channel Tables dialog box with all available channel tables listed, and displays a
submenu to activate, create, edit, copy, and delete channel tables and modulation standards.
For further information on channel tables refer to "Channel tables" on page 4.210 and
"Modulation standards" on page 4.210.
Activate
Activates the channel table in focus. Alternatively to this softkey, the rotary knob or the ENTER
key can be pressed.
Activating a channel table is synonymous to loading the selected channel table and discarding
the previously active channel table. As a prerequisite, the channel table must have at least one
channel with a digital or analog modulation standard. Otherwise the channel table cannot be
loaded and an error message is displayed. If no appropriate channel table exists, select
< none > for no channel table.
Remote: CONF:TV:CTAB:SEL 'TV–ITALY'
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New
Creates a new channel table and opens the Channel Table dialog box with the according
submenu to edit the channel table.
It is recommended to use long names in order to distinguish the channel tables from each other
easily.
For further details refer to "To create a channel table" on page 4.206.
Copy Channel
Copies the channel in focus.
Delete Channel
Deletes the channel in focus. If the channel table consists only of one channel, this channel can
not be deleted.
Modulation Options
Opens the Modulation Standards dialog box with all available modulation standards of the
channel table listed, and displays a submenu to create, edit, and delete a modulation standard.
For further information on modulation standards refer to "Modulation standards" on page 4.210,
"To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207, and "To copy a modulation standard" on
page 4.208.
New
Opens the Modulation Standard Options dialog box to define a new modulation standard for
the channel table.
For further information on modulation standards refer to "Modulation standards" on page 4.210
and "To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207.
Remote: DDEM:SBAN NORM
Remote: DDEM:SRAT 1000000
Remote: DDEM:FILT:ALPH R018
Remote: TV:MST:NAME 'TEST'
Remote: TV:MST:STYP DTV
Remote: TV:MST:FILT:GDEL FLAT
Remote: SET:TV:STAN DK
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:AUD FM65MONO
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:COL SEC
Delete
Deletes the modulation standard focused in the Modulation Standards dialog box.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Edit
Opens the Modulation Standard Options dialog box for the modulation standard in focus.
Alternatively to this softkey, the rotary knob or the ENTER key can be pressed.
For details refer to "Modulation standards" on page 4.210 and "To create a new modulation
standard" on page 4.207.
Remote: DDEM:SBAN NORM
Remote: DDEM:SRAT 1000000
Remote: DDEM:FILT:ALPH R018
Remote: TV:MST:NAME 'TEST'
Remote: TV:MST:STYP DTV
Remote: TV:MST:FILT:GDEL FLAT
Remote: SET:TV:STAN DK
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:AUD FM65MONO
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:COL SEC
Save Changes
Saves all changes in channels and modulation standards, if the channel table passes the
compliance check. For further details refer to "To edit a channel table" on page 4.205.
Discard Changes
After confirmation, discards all changes in channels and modulation standards made for the
current channel table. Reloads and displays the original channel table.
Copy
Copies the channel table in focus and opens the Channel Table dialog box with the according
submenu to edit the channel table. If you enter a name that is already in use you are prompted
to enter another one.
For further details refer to "To create a channel table" on page 4.206.
Delete
Deletes the channel table in focus. If the channel table in focus is also the active channel table,
no channel table < none > will be activated.
Edit
Opens the Channel Table dialog box for the channel table in focus and displays a submenu for
editing this channel table. For details refer to "To edit a channel table" on page 4.205.
Restore Default Tables
Restores the default set of channel tables and the channel table examples.
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R&S FSL
Adjust Attenuation
Adjusts the input attenuator. For details on the adjustment procedure refer to "Attenuation
adjustment" on page 4.211.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
Softkeys of the frequency menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in Cable TV Analyzer mode
(FREQ key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
RF
Channel
RF Stepsize
Manual
Channel Width
Frequency Abs/Rel
RF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the RF frequency. The interpretation of the RF frequency
depends on the signal type (analog TV or digital TV) to measure:
Signal type
RF
< unused >
center frequency
analog TV
vision carrier frequency
digital TV
center frequency
If the modulation standard or the active measurement channel is changed, the RF is
automatically adapted.
If no channel table < none > is activated, the interpretation of the RF frequency depends on the
active measurement.
Remote: FREQ:RF 10MHZ
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Channel
Displays the active channel table to select a particular measurement channel. The active
channel is highlighted.
All channels can be selected, except those with modulation standard < unused >. Incompatible
channels are marked accordingly; for example an analog TV channel inside a digital TV
measurement. If an incompatible channel is selected, the current measurement is aborted, and
the spectrum measurement will become the active measurement. If no channel table < none >
is activated, this softkey is not available.
If you perform a measurement over all possible channels, use the Channel No softkey of the
measurement menu to change from one channel to the next channel of the channel table
quickly.
Remote: FREQ:CHAN 3
RF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the RF step size. If no channel table < none > is activated, this softkey
is not available.
Remote: FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
Manual
For details refer to the Manual softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Channel Width
Takes the channel width of the current measurement channel as RF step size once.
If no channel table < none > is activated, this softkey is not available.
Frequency Abs/Rel
Sets the labeling of the frequency axis.
If absolute labeling is selected, the absolute frequencies are displayed, and all markers are
absolute.
If relative labeling is selected, the reference is set to 0 Hz. The reference depends on the signal
type:
Signal type
Reference
< unused >
center frequency
analog TV
vision carrier frequency
digital TV
center frequency
This softkey is not available in the Tilt measurement.
Remote: SWE:SPAC ABS
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R&S FSL
Softkeys of the amplitude menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in Cable TV Analyzer mode
(AMPT key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Signal Lvl
Range Log
Range Linear
Preamp On/Off
Signal Lvl Position
RF Atten Manual
More
Signal Lvl Offset
Signal Lvl Position
Grid Abs/Rel
Unit
Input 50 L / 75 L
Signal Lvl
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the expected RMS (digital TV) or peak (analog TV) input
power of the signal. This parameter is channel–specific and is set, in a cable network with
multiple channels, only for the signal of interest. However, mostly channels with the same signal
type have the same signal level.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV –60dBm
Range Log
For details refer to the Range Log softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Range Linear
For details refer to the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Preamp On/Off
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Signal Lvl Position
For details refer to the Ref Level Position softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
RF Atten Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation. For details see also "Attenuation adjustment"
on page 4.211.
Signal Lvl Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Grid Abs/Rel
For details refer to the Grid Abs / Rel softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Unit
Opens a list containing all allowed units to select the appropriate unit. These units are used for
scaling diagrams or input/output of parameters and limits.
The variety of the absolute units depends on the selected measurement, as relative unit dB is
used.
The units are selected according to the state of the Range Log and Range Linear softkeys. For
voltage units, the input impedance (Input 50 D / 75 D softkey) is used for the conversion.
Remote: CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Input 50 D / 75 D
For details refer to the Input 50 D / 75 D softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Typically, cable TV networks have an impedance of 75 L (set the softkey to 75 L). For precise
(level) measurements an adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 L in series to the input impedance of the
instrument) should always be used.
Softkeys of the trace menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)
In the Cable TV Analyzer mode, 4 traces are available. In the measurements listed below, averaging is
not carried out over the measurement points (trace) but over the values listed in the result table.
Therefore instead of a trace mode a result mode is selected via the Result Mode softkey.
•
Carriers
•
C/N, CSO, CTB
•
Vision Modulation
•
Hum
•
Overview
•
Modulation Errors
•
Channel Power
•
Tilt
Apart from these differences, the trace menu works as described in "Setting Traces – TRACE Key" on
page 4.39.
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R&S FSL
Softkeys of the measurement menu (Cable TV Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the measurement menu in Cable TV Analyzer mode
(MEAS key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu /
Command
Submenu /
Command
Submenu / Command
Analog TV
Spectrum
Channel No
Command
Adjust Attenuation
Carriers
Channel No
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
C/N
Channel No
Reference Power
Reference Channel
Same as Meas
Channel
Manual Reference
Power
C/N Setup
Insert Line
Delete Line
Next Meas Frequency
Edit Table
Meas Carrier
Adjust Attenuation
CSO
Channel No
Reference Power
same contents as in
C/N submenu
CSO Setup
same contents as in
C/N Setup submenu
Next Meas Frequency
Edit Table
Meas Carrier
Adjust Attenuation
CTB
Channel No
Reference Power
same contents as in
C/N submenu
CTB Setup
same contents as in
C/N Setup submenu
Next Meas Frequency
Edit Table
Meas Carrier
Adjust Attenuation
Analog TV Settings
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Menu /
Command
Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Submenu /
Command
Submenu / Command
Command
More
Video Scope
Channel No
Line
Field 1/2
Sweeptime Manual
Trigger Offset
Adjust Attenuation
Vision Modulation
Channel No
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
Hum
Channel No
Auto Range
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
Analog TV Settings
Digital TV
Spectrum
Channel No
Shoulder Atten On/Off
Adjust Attenuation
Overview
Channel No
Zoom
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
Modulation Analysis
Const Diagram
Channel No
Zoom
Freeze
Adjust Attenuation
Modulation Errors
Channel No
Zoom
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
Channel Analysis
Echo Pattern
Channel No
Unit
Zoom
Velocity Factor
Adjust Attenuation
Adjust Attenuation
Digital TV Settings
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Menu /
Command
Submenu /
Command
R&S FSL
Submenu / Command
Command
More
Channel Power
Channel No
Edit Table
Adjust Attenuation
APD
Channel No
Scaling
x–Axis Signal Lvl
x–Axis Range
y–Axis Max Value
y–Axis Min Value
Default Settings
Adjust Attenuation
CCDF
Channel No
Percent Marker
Scaling
same contents as in
APD submenu
Adjust Attenuation
Digital TV Settings
TV Analyzer
Tilt
Tilt Setup
Auto Range
Adjust Attenuation
Analog TV
Opens a submenu with all available analog TV measurements. Every measurement type
provides its own submenu to set the parameters. Additionally the Analog TV Settings softkey
gives access to the modulation standard information.
This softkey is only available if the active channel table has at least one channel with an analog
TV modulation standard, or if no channel table < none > is activated.
If a digital TV channel is in use when pressing this softkey, automatically the first analog channel
of the active channel table is selected.
For further details refer also to section "Measurements" on page 4.204.
Spectrum
Opens a submenu to measure an analog TV spectrum.
For further information refer to "Spectrum – analog TV" on page 4.213.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS ASP
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Channel No
Opens an edit dialog box to select the measurement channel. Select the previous or next
channel via the rotary knob or the arrow keys, or enter the channel number.
Only compatible channels can be selected, entries of incompatible channel are skipped.
Incompatible channels are channels of a different signal type or channels with the modulation
standard < unused >.
If you want to select a particular channel, use the Channel softkey in the frequency menu. If
channel table < none > is selected, use the RF softkey in the frequency menu for frequency
input.
Remote: FREQ:CHAN 3
Shoulder Atten On/Off
Activates or deactivates the shoulder measurement in accordance to ETSI TR 101290 standard.
If activated, the results (upper and lower shoulder attenuation) are displayed as a list below the
spectrum.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.50.
Remote: CALC:DTV:RES? SAL
Remote: CALC:DTV:RES? SAUP
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS:SATT OFF
Carriers
Opens a submenu to measure the carriers powers.
For further information refer to "Carriers – analog TV" on page 4.214.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS CARR
Remote: CONF:ATV:RES:CARR? ALL
Edit Table
Activates the edit mode to change the limits within the result table. To edit a field, press the
ENTER key. For all available parameters, the limit fields contain default values. If a field is
empty, the corresponding limit can not be set for the measurement.
For the following measurements, the unit for the upper and lower limits differs. The unit is set in
the last table column. Only the limits carrying the set unit are displayed in the table. To display
the other limts, change the unit first.
Measurement
Parameter
Hum
Overview, Modulation Errors
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Unit lower limits
Unit upper limit
dB
%
MER (rms)
dB
%
MER (peak)
dB
%
EVM (rms)
dB
%
EVM (peak)
dB
%
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R&S FSL
Remote: CALCulate:ATV:LIMit Subsystem, CALCulate:ATV:LIMit:RESult Subsystem,
CALCulate:ATV:RESult Subsystem for analog TV
Remote: CALCulate:DTV:LIMit Subsystem, CALCulate:DTV:LIMit:RESult Subsystem,
CALCulate:DTV:RESult Subsystem for digital TV
Meas Carrier
Switches the carrier or noise measurement on or off.
activate
d
Starts a new carrier measurement with the next sweep.
deactiv
ated
Starts a new noise measurement with the next sweep.
This softkey is only available in the Off–Service measurement method (setup dialog box).
Remote: CONF:ATV:CN:MEAS NOIS
Remote: CONF:ATV:CSO:MEAS NOIS
Remote: CONF:ATV:CTB:MEAS NOIS
C/N
Opens a submenu to measure the carrier–to–noise ratio.
For further information refer to "C/N – analog TV" on page 4.214.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS CN
Remote: CALC:ATV:RES:CN? ALL
Reference Power
Opens a submenu to select the reference power method. The state of this submenu is not part
of the measurement parameter set. If you switch from one measurement to another, the settings
of this submenu are unchanged.
The set reference power method is indicated on the softkey:
(Meas Ch)
Reference Channel softkey
(same)
Same as Meas Channel softkey
<value>
Manual Reference Power softkey
Remote: ATV:CN:POW:REF:MODE RCH
Remote: ATV:CSO:POW:REF:MODE RCH
Remote: ATV:CTB:POW:REF:MODE RCH
Reference Channel
Displays the active channel table to select a particular measurement channel. For further details
refer to the Channel softkey in the frequency menu.
Remote: ATV:CN:POW:REF:CHAN:MAN 5
Remote: ATV:CSO:POW:REF:CHAN:MAN 6
Remote: ATV:CTB:POW:REF:CHAN:MAN 5
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Same as Meas Channel
Sets the active measurement channel as reference channel. If the active measurement channel
is changed, e.g. via the Channel No softkey, the reference channel is also changed
automatically. This is the default setting.
Remote: ATV:CN:POW:REF:MODE MCH
Remote: ATV:CSO:POW:REF:MODE MCH
Remote: ATV:CTB:POW:REF:MODE MCH
Manual Reference Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference power. The unit is set via the Unit softkey in the
amplitude menu.
Remote: ATV:CN:POW:REF:MAN 10
Remote: ATV:CSO:POW:REF:MAN 20
Remote: ATV:CTB:POW:REF:MAN 10
C/N Setup
Opens the C/N Setup dialog box to configure the following:
–
Measurement Method
In–Service: While an analog TV signal is present, a gap between two consecutive channels,
where only noise exists, is used to determine the noise power. A noise marker is placed there,
and the noise power is determined.
Off–Service: The current measurement channel has to be switched off. An according message
prompts you to do so. In this channel, a noise marker is placed, and the noise power is
determined.
Quiet Line: While an analog TV signal is present, the carrier–to–noise ratio is measured using
the so–called "Quiet Line''. The measurement is fully automated.
–
Measurement Frequencies
The table contains center frequencies (CF) and span values. The center frequency values are
relative to the vision carrier frequency. One parameter set defines a frequency span and is
used in one measurement. Only selected parameter sets are used in the measurements. If no
parameter set is selected at all, the measurement is performed over all listed parameter sets.
For the Quiet Line measurement method, the table remains empty. For the other measurement
methods, the table must contain at least one parameter set.
–
Noise Reference Bandwidth
The entered value is multiplied with the measured noise power density to determine the noise
power value.
–
Noise Floor Correction
This option activates or deactivates the noise correction factor measurement. By default, the
option is deactivated. In the noise correction factor measurement, the noise of the R&S FSL is
determined. Therefore you are prompted to remove the cable from the R&S FSL's RF input
when activating the option.
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
R&S FSL
Remote: ATV:CN:MEAS:MODE OSER (Measurement Method)
Remote: ATV:CN:TABL1:MFR 1,1000,1000 (Measurement Frequencies)
Remote: ATV:CN:BWID 7MHZ (Noise Reference Bandwidth)
Remote: ATV:CN:POW:NCOR ON (Noise Floor Correction)
Insert Line
Inserts a line in the Measurement Frequencies table to add a parameter set. This softkey is
only active, if the focus is on the Measurement Frequencies table.
Delete Line
Deletes the focused line in the Measurement Frequencies table. This softkey is only active, if
the focus is on the Measurement Frequencies table.
Next Meas Frequency
Switches from one frequency span to the next according to the parameter sets (center
frequency, span) defined under Measurement Frequencies in the setup dialog box. Only
activated entries are considered.
Remote: ATV:CN:CFR:NEXT
Remote: ATV:CSO:CFR:NEXT
Remote: ATV:CTB:CFR:NEXT
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
CSO
Opens a submenu to measure the carrier–to–second order beat ratio (CSO).
For further information refer to "CSO – analog TV" on page 4.215.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS CSO
Remote: CALC:ATV:RES:CSO? ALL
CSO Setup
Opens the CSO Setup dialog box to configure the following:
–
Measurement Method
Off–Service: The current measurement channel has to be switched off. An according message
prompts you to do so. In this channel, a noise marker is placed, and the noise power is
determined.
Quiet Line: While an analog TV signal is present, the carrier–to–second order beat ratio is
measured using the so–called "Quiet Line''. The measurement is fully automated.
–
Measurement Frequencies
The table contains center frequencies (CF) and span values. The center frequency values are
relative to the vision carrier frequency. One parameter set defines a frequency span and is
used in one measurement. Only selected parameter sets are used in the measurements. If no
parameter set is selected at all, the measurement is performed over all listed parameter sets.
For the Quiet Line measurement method, the table remains empty.
–
Noise Floor Correction
This option activates or deactivates the noise correction factor measurement. By default, the
option is deactivated. In the noise correction factor measurement, the noise of the R&S FSL is
determined. Therefore you are prompted to remove the cable from the R&S FSL's RF input
when activating the option.
Remote: ATV:CSO:MEAS:MODE QLIN (Measurement Method)
Remote: ATV:CSO:TABL2:MFR 1,–2000,2000 (Measurement Frequencies)
Remote: ATV:CSO:POW:NCOR ON (Noise Floor Correction)
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
R&S FSL
CTB
Opens a submenu to measure the carrier–to–composite triple beat ratio (CTB). The
measurement always takes place off–service with current measurement channel has to be
switched off. An according message prompts you to do so. In this channel, a noise marker is
placed, and the noise power is determined.
For further information refer to "CTB – analog TV" on page 4.216.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS CTB
Remote: CALC:ATV:RES:CTB? ALL
CTB Setup
Opens the CTB Setup dialog box to configure the following:
–
Measurement Frequencies
The table contains center frequencies (CF) and span values. The center frequency values are
relative to the vision carrier frequency. One parameter set defines a frequency span and is
used in one measurement. Only selected parameter sets are used in the measurements. If no
parameter set is selected at all, the measurement is performed over all listed parameter sets.
–
Noise Floor Correction
This option activates or deactivates the noise correction factor measurement. By default, the
option is deactivated. In the noise correction factor measurement, the noise of the R&S FSL is
determined. Therefore you are prompted to remove the cable from the R&S FSL's RF input
when activating the option.
Remote: ATV:CTB:TABL1:MFR 1,100,10000 (Measurement Frequencies)
Remote: ATV:CTB:POW:NCOR ON (Noise Floor Correction)
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Analog TV Settings
Opens the Analog TV Settings dialog box to modify the modulation standard parameters. The
displayed parameters are derived from the modulation standard referenced in the active channel
table. If no channel table < none > is activated, the default modulation standard is used (for
details see also "Modulation standards" on page 4.210).
For the modulation standard, the changes made via this softkey are only kept as long as a
measurement channel with the same modulation standard is selected. If a measurement
channel with a different modulation standard is selected, or the PRESET key is pressed, the
changes are lost.
If no channel table < none > is activated, the changes of the default modulation standard are
kept as long as the PRESET key is not pressed.
Remote: SET:TV:STAN DK (TV Standard)
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:AUD FM65MONO (Sound System)
Remote: TV:MST:FILT:GDEL FLAT (Group Delay)
Remote: SET:TV:STAN:COL SEC (Color System)
Remote: TRIG:VID:BLIN 16, TRIG:VID:BFI 2, TRIG:VID:BLIN:TYPE CCIR17 (Bar Line)
Remote: TRIG:VID:QLIN 20, TRIG:VID:QFI 2 (Quiet Line)
Remote: DDEM:SBAN NORM (Sideband Position)
Video Scope
Opens a submenu to measure the luminance signal. For this measurement, the TRACE key is
not available.
For further information refer to "Video Scope – analog TV" on page 4.217.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS VSC
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
R&S FSL
Line
Opens an edit dialog box to set the line number of the TV picture. The numbering conventions
depend on the following conditions:
TV standard
Color system
Field number
Line numbering
M
–
–
1, 2, …, 625
M
PAL
–
1, 2, …, 525
M
NTSC
1
1, 2, …, 263
M
NTSC
2
1, 2, …, 262
Remote: TRIG:VID:LINE 17
Field 1/2
Selects the active field. Field 1 is the default state. This softkey is only available for the TV
standard M in combination with another color system than PAL.
For details on numbering conventions of TV picture lines refer to the Line softkey.
Remote: TRIG:VID:FIEL 2
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the total sweep time. Possible values are 25, 50 and 100 Ms.
The set value is indicated on the softkey.
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the trigger offset. The set value is indicated on the
softkey.
Remote: TRIG:HOLD 500us
Vision Modulation
Opens a submenu to measure the residual picture carrier and the modulation depth.
For further information refer to "Vision Modulation – analog TV" on page 4.217.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS VMOD
Remote: CALC:ATV:RES:VMOD? ALL
Hum
Opens a submenu to measure the hum.
For further information refer to "Hum – analog TV" on page 4.218.
Remote: CONF:ATV:MEAS HUM
Remote: CALC:ATV:RES:HUM?
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Cable TV Measurements (Option K20)
Auto Range
Automatically adjusts the x– and y–axis once. Alternatively the range of the y–axis can be
changed via the Range Log softkey or the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ON
Digital TV
Opens a submenu with all available digital TV measurements. Every measurement type
provides its own submenu to set the parameters. Additionally the Digital TV Settings softkey
gives access to the modulation standard information.
This softkey is only available if the active channel table has at least one channel with a digital TV
modulation standard, or if no channel table < none > is activated.
If an analog TV channel is in use when pressing this softkey, automatically the first digital
channel of the active channel table is selected.
For further details refer also to section "Measurements" on page 4.204.
Spectrum
Opens a submenu to measure a digital TV spectrum.
For further information refer to "Spectrum – digital TV" on page 4.218.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS DSP
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Overview
Opens a submenu to measure the modulation accuracy.
For further information refer to "Overview – digital TV" on page 4.219.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS OVER
Remote: CALC:DTV:RES? ALL
Zoom
Opens the Select Result Parameter dialog box to set the zoom:
None
The whole result table is displayed (default setting).
[parameter]
The selected parameter is displayed separately in the upper pane.
Remote: DISP:ZOOM:OVER MERP
Remote: DISP:ZOOM:MERR MERP
Modulation Analysis
Opens a submenu to select one of the following modulation measurements:
–
Const Diagram
–
Modulation Errors
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R&S FSL
Const Diagram
Opens a submenu to display the constellation diagram. For further information refer to
"Constellation Diagram (Modulation Analysis) – digital TV" on page 4.219.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS CONS
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Zoom
Opens the Select Constellation Zoom Mode dialog box to set the zoom:
< none >
The whole constellation diagram is displayed (default setting).
Quadrant 1/2/3/4
The selected quadrant is displayed. A pictogram shows the
quadrant position.
Remote: DISP:ZOOM:QUAD 1
Freeze
Sets the display mode. If activated, the constellation diagram is displayed unchanged, while the
I/Q samples are collected in the background. If deactivated, the constellation diagram is
displayed on basis of the current I/Q samples and, in continuous sweep mode, is updated with
every measurement.
If a new zoom mode (see Zoom softkey) is selected, this softkey is automatically set to off.
Remote: DISP:TRAC1:MODE:FRE ON
Modulation Errors
Opens a submenu to measure the modulation accuracy.
For further information refer to "Modulation Errors (Modulation Analysis) – digital TV" on page
4.220.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS MERR
Remote: CALC:DTV:RES? ALL
Channel Analysis
Opens a submenu to select a measurement for checking the transmission performance of a
channel:
–
Echo Pattern
Echo Pattern
Opens a submenu to measure the magnitude of channel impulse response with respect to the
corresponding time delay.
For further information refer to "Echo Pattern (Channel Analysis) – digital TV" on page 4.220.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS EPAT
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
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Unit
Opens the Unit dialog box to select the unit: s, m.
Remote: CALC:DTV:UNIT:POW:EPAT M
Zoom
Opens an edit dialog box to zoom onto the echo pattern measurement, around 0 Ms. The zoom
factor can vary from 1 to 20.
Remote: DISP:ZOOM:EPAT 2
Remote: DISP:ZOOM:EPAT:STAT ON
Velocity Factor
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the velocity of propagation of the signal in the transmission
channel (e.g. cable), relative to speed of light.
The velocity factor is used to convert the impulse response results from seconds into meter,
when changing the unit via the Unit softkey.
Remote: CORR:RVEL 2
Digital TV Settings
Opens the Digital TV Settings dialog box to modify the modulation standard and equalizer
parameters. For details on the modulation standard parameters, refer also to "Modulation
standards" on page 4.210 and "To create a new modulation standard" on page 4.207.
Under Equalizer, the following equalizer parameters can be modified:
–
Activating or deactivating the equalizer: If the Activate option is activated, the equalizer is
switched on and filters the signal.
–
Activating or deactivating the Freeze Equalizer option: If activated the equalizer coefficients
remain unchanged. If deactivated the equalizer taps are changed with every measurement.
–
Pressing the Reset button sets all equalizer parameters to their default values.
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Remote: SET:TV:STAN DK (TV Standard)
Remote: SOURce:DM:FORM QAM128 (Constellation)
Remote: DDEM:SRAT 1000000 (Symbol Rate)
Remote: DDEM:FILT:ALPH R018 (Roll–Off)
Remote: DDEM:SBAN NORM (Sideband Position)
Remote: DDEM:EQU OFF (Activate Equalizer)
Remote: DDEM:EQU:FRE ON (Freeze Equalizer)
Remote: DDEM:EQU:RES (Reset Equalizer)
Channel Power
Opens a submenu to measure the channel power of a digital TV signal.
For further information refer to "Channel Power – digital TV" on page 4.221.
APD
Opens a submenu to measure the amplitude probability density function (APD) of a digital TV
signal sampled in the complex base band.
For further information refer to "APD – digital TV" on page 4.221.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS APD
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Scaling
For details refer to the Scaling softkey in the power measurement menu of the base unit.
x–Axis Signal Lvl
For details refer to the x–Axis Ref Level softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
x–Axis Range
For details refer to the x–Axis Range softkey in the power measurement menu of the base unit.
y–Axis Max Value
For details refer to the y–Axis Max Value softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
y–Axis Min Value
For details refer to the y–Axis Min Value softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
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Default Settings
For details refer to the Default Settings softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
CCDF
Opens a submenu to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the
amplitude of a digital TV signal sampled in the complex base band.
For further information refer to "CCDF – digital TV" on page 4.222.
Remote: CONF:DTV:MEAS CCDF
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Percent Marker
For details refer to the Percent Marker softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
TV Analyzer
Opens a submenu with all available measurements that can be applied to a set of channels or
all channels of the entire TV network (channel table). In these measurements, both analog and
digital TV channels can be measured together. This softkey is only available if a channel table is
selected.
Every measurement type provides its own submenu to set the parameters. For each
measurement, a channel table must be selected. The choice of no channel table < none > is not
permitted.
For further details refer also to section "Measurements" on page 4.204.
Tilt
Opens a submenu to measure the frequency response of the cable TV system. Each channel is
measured using the information stored in the modulation standard. Channels with the
modulation standard < unused > are not measured.
For further information refer to "Tilt – TV analyzer" on page 4.222.
Remote: CONF:TV:MEAS TILT
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
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Tilt Setup
Opens the Tilt Setup dialog box to define a filter for the Tilt measurement. The following
parameters can be defined for the measurement:
Span
full span or a limited frequency range
Modulation Standards
channels with certain modulation standards (select one or
several) or no restriction (select all)
Remote: FREQ:SPAN:FULL, FREQ:STAR 20MHz, FREQ:STOP 2000MHz (Span)
Remote: TV:TILT:MST:CDIS 'Analog TV', TV:TILT:MST:CEN 'Analog TV' (Modulation
Standards)
Auto Range
Automatically adjusts the x– and y–axis once. Alternatively the range of the y–axis can be
changed via the Range Log softkey or the Range Linear softkey in the amplitude menu of the
base unit.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ON
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
The Noise Figure Measurements option provides noise figure measurements. Using this option, the
noise figure of a Device Under Test, e.g. low–noise FET amplifier circuits, with noise figures of less than
1 dB can be measured. This option is available from firmware version 1.50.
To open the noise figure measurements menu
If the Noise mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and activate the
Noise option.
If the Noise mode is already active, press the MENU key or the MEAS key.
The noise figure measurements menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the noise figure measurements menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.252
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.265
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.266
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.267
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.268
–
"Softkeys of the lines menu (Noise mode)" on page 4.268
The span and trigger menus are not available in the Noise mode. All other menus are provided as
described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement" on page 4.248
–
"Calibration" on page 4.248
–
"Measurement forms" on page 4.249
–
"Measurement settings" on page 4.249
–
"Result displays" on page 4.250
–
"Status bar information" on page 4.252
Tasks
–
To edit tables
–
To work with limit lines
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To edit tables
1. Select the table header using the rotary knob or arrow keys and press rotary knob or the ENTER
key to enter into the edit mode.
2. Focus the field you want to edit using the arrow keys or the rotary knob.
3. Enter the values (for details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, "Basic Operations").
4. To insert a new row above the currently selected row, press the Insert softkey.
5. To delete the currently selected row, press the Delete softkey.
6. Only available for the Frequency Table:
To update the table according to the Frequency Settings, press the Build Tbl softkey.
7. Press the Exit softkey to leave the edit mode.
To work with limit lines
1. Press the LINES key.
The Limit Lines dialog box is displayed. It contains information on name, limit, status, and a
comment.
2. To activate limit lines, select the limit line you want to activate and press the Enable/Disable
softkey.
3. To define a new limit line, press the New softkey and enter the limit line characteristics.
4. To modify a limit line, select the limit line you want to edit and press the Edit softkey.
5. To save a limit line, press the Exit softkey.
If data are missing or if some data are invalid, an error message is displayed.
6. To delete a limit line, select the limit line you want to edit and press the Delete softkey.
Further information
This section provides background information on measurements and displayed information.
Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement
Noise measurements are performed on many different types of device under test (DUT). The type of
DUT to be measured determines the test setup and also how the frequency list is to be generated. To
support these different types of DUT, two different noise figure measurement types are available:
•
Direct measurement
•
Frequency–converting measurement
–
Fixed LO, IF = RF + LO
–
Fixed LO, IF = abs(RF – LO)
The setup for the different measurement types is described with the Schematic softkey. The
measurement mode is set in the Frequency Settings dialog box, Mode field.
Calibration
The calibration measures the noise introduced to a signal by the spectrum analyzer itself to
compensate it in measurements on a device under test. This compensation is called 2nd stage
correction, because the spectrum analyzer is the second stage of the test setup, the DUT being the first
stage.
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If the second stage correction is activated (Measurement Settings dialog box, 2nd Stage Correction
option), a separate calibration measurement is performed before the main measurement (for details on
the measurement setup refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples"). The data measured in
the calibration measurement are used for compensation in the main measurement.
It is strongly recommended to perform calibration before running measurements (Cal softkey). It is
possible to run measurements in an uncalibrated status, but the measurement results will not be
corrected for any noise introduced by the spectrum analyzer itself.
If the list of receive frequencies (RF) is changed, at which the measurements are performed, calibration
is necessary again to ensure that calibration data are available for every measurement step. For details
on frequency settings refer to the Freq Settings softkey.
Measurement forms
Two forms of measurements are possible:
•
frequency list measurement
A measurement is performed at each of the frequencies listed in the frequency list (Freq Settings
softkey). The noise figure of the DUT across a user–specified range of frequencies is measured. In
single sweep mode, each frequency point is measured once and complete. In continuous sweep
mode, one frequency point after the other is measured in turn until the measurement is aborted.
•
fixed frequency measurement
A continuous measurement is performed at the single frequency currently selected in the
Frequency List Results. This individual frequency from the frequency list measurement is
investigated in more detail, for example to see the effect of dynamic changes to the noise figure of
the DUT at a particular frequency (see also Fix Freq softkey).
Measurement settings
The overall measurement settings used to obtain the current measurement results are displayed below
the title bar (see Fig. 4-24). The following settings are listed:
Setting
Defined in
RBW
Measurement Settings dialog box, RBW field
Average
Measurement Settings dialog box, Average field
RF Attenuation
Measurement Settings dialog box, RF Attenuation field
Auto Ref Level
Measurement Settings dialog box, Automatic Ref Level field
2nd Stage Corr
Measurement Settings dialog box, 2nd Stage Correction field
Image Rej
Frequency Settings dialog box, Image Rej field
Fig. 4-24 Measurement settings for the noise figure measurement (example)
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Result displays
The result displays consist of two panes:
•
Current Value pane
In the title bar of this pane, the current measurement mode of the noise figure measurement (on the
left) and the calibration status of the noise figure measurement (on the right, if the second stage
correction is switched on) are displayed.
Below, the settings and measurement results for the currently selected measurement point in the
frequency list are displayed:
Parameter
Description
RF
Receive frequency at the DUT at which the current values were measured (Hz).
LO
Local oscillator frequency (Hz), only displayed for frequency–converting measurements
IF
Intermediate frequency (Hz), only displayed for frequency–converting measurements
ENR
ENR value (dB), refers to the receive frequency (RF)
Loss In
Loss at the input of the DUT (dB), refers to the receive frequency (RF)
Loss Out
Loss at the output of the DUT (dB)
frequency–converting measurements: refers to the intermediate frequency (IF)
direct measurements: refers to the receive frequency (RF)
NF
Noise figure measured (dB)
Noise Temp
Noise temperature (K), derived from measured noise figure
Gain
Gain measured (dB)
Fig. 4-25 Current Value pane (example)
•
Frequency List Result or graph (frequency list results only)
The measurement results are represented according to the measurement form (see "Measurement
forms").
•
frequency list results
The measurement results for all frequencies defined in the Frequency Table are displayed in form
of a graph (see Fig. Graphical result display (example)) or a table (Frequency List Results, see
Fig.Tabular result display (example)), depending on the currently selected result display (see
Display List/Graph softkey). The measurement results are updated as the measurement is in
progress. Under Current Value, the details of the currently selected frequency in the Frequency
List Results are displayed.
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Fig. 4-26 Graphical result display (example)
Fig. 4-27 Tabular result display (example)
•
fixed frequency results
Under Current Value, the measurement results for the fixed frequency are displayed and
continuously updated. The Frequency List Results do not change – these are the results of the
last frequency list measurement.
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Status bar information
The status bar displays the following information:
•
parameter values
If a parameter in a settings dialog box is selected, the minimum and maximum values for the
selected parameter are displayed.
If a Boolean or an enumarated parameter in a dialog box is selected, the minimum and maximum
values are displayed as N/A for not applicable.
•
measurement status
During the measurement, the current measurement status along with detailed information about the
progress is displayed.
•
error messages (with red background)
•
warning messages (with yellow background)
Softkeys of the noise figure measurements menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the noise figure measurements menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a
special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Command
Freq Settings
Display List/Graph
Display Settings
ENR Settings
Loss Settings
Meas Settings
Schematic
Table edit mode
Build Tbl
Exit
Insert
Delete
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Freq Settings
Opens the Frequency Settings dialog box. Alternatively, this dialog box is opened by pressing
the FREQ key (with focus on the Start Freq field).
The Frequency Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Frequency Settings
Start Freq
Stop Freq
Step Freq
Mode
Fixed LO
Image Rej
Frequency Table
Under Frequency Settings, the frequency settings and the measurement mode are set.
Under Frequency Table, the individual measurement steps are listed that will be performed
exactly in the order of the table. They are generated from the start frequency, the stop
frequency, and the step size on basis of the selected mode. If the start frequency is smaller than
the stop frequency, the RF values are generated into a list of ascending frequencies. If the start
frequency is larger, the list is descending. Not more than 100 measurement steps are possible.
If the gap between start and stop frequency is too large, increase the step frequency.
Depending on the measurement type, the Frequency Table contains the following columns:
Measurement type
Column
Description
Direct measurement
Frequency–converting measurement
RF
receive frequency, generated from the Start Freq, the Stop
Freq, and the Step Freq field entries
Frequency–converting measurement
LO
constant LO frequency, defined via the Fixed LO field
IF
IF frequency, calculated according to the Mode field
Image
image frequency, shows whether image frequency filters are
required and for which frequency range the image rejection
of the DUT is needed (Image Rej field)
It is possible to customize the Frequency Table by editing, deleting, and inserting measurement
steps. This might be useful in order to insert extra measurement steps near to a specific
frequency of interest in order to get more detailed results. If the start, stop, or step frequency is
changed, the Frequency Table is generated afresh and all manual modifications are
overwritten. To customize this table, proceed according to "To edit tables" on page 4.248.
Remote: FREQ:LIST:DATA 550MHz,300MHz,900MHz (Frequency Table)
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Start Freq
Specifies the start frequency. This is the first receive frequency (RF) entry in the Frequency
Table and the Frequency List Results (result display).
If the start frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 500MHZ
Stop Freq
Specifies the stop frequency. This is the last receive frequency (RF) entry in the Frequency
Table and the Frequency List Results (result display).
If the stop frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 700MHZ
Step Freq
Specifies the step size between the single measurement steps. If the step frequency is larger
than the difference between the start frequency and the stop frequency, the Frequency Table
and the Frequency List Results (result display) just contain the start and stop frequency.
If the step frequency is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: FREQ:STEP 10MHZ
Mode
Specifies the measurement mode. For details on modes refer to "Measurement modes of the
noise figure measurement" on page 4.248.
If the mode is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: SENS:CONF:MODE:DUT DOWN
Fixed LO
Specifies the fixed local oscillator frequency. This field is only available if a frequency–converting
measurement mode is selected (Mode field). For details on modes refer to Measurement modes
of the noise figure measurement.
If the fixed LO is changed, the Frequency Table is updated accordingly.
Remote: SENS:CONF:MODE:SYST:LOSC:FREQ 1MHZ
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Image Rej
Specifies the suppression applied to the second sideband. This field is only available if a
frequency–converting measurement mode is selected. For details on modes refer to
"Measurement modes of the noise figure measurement" on page 4.248.
The value entered is applied across the complete frequency range. A value of 999.99 dB
corresponds to the generally used single–sideband measurement (SSB), where the second
sideband does not noticeably affect the measurement result. This is the default value. A value of
0 dB corresponds to the double–sideband measurement (DSB), where both sidebands are
converted to the same extent.
Remote: CORR:IREJ 100
Display List/Graph
Configures the result display. The measurement results are displayed either in form of a list of
measurement points or as a graphical trace. For further details refer to "Result displays" on page
4.250.
Remote: DISP:TABL ON
Display Settings
Opens the Graphic dialog box to modify the graphical results display.
Under Results Settings, the settings that affect the overall results display are defined. Under
Noise Trace Settings, the settings related to the graphical display of noise results are defined.
Under Gain Trace Settings, the settings related to the graphical display of gain results are
defined.
The Graphic dialog box contains the following elements:
Results Settings
Combined Trace Display
Noise Trace Settings
Y–Axis
Automatic Scaling
Min Y–Axis NF
Min Y–Axis Temp
Max Y–Axis NF
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Max Y–Axis Temp
Symbols
Gain Trace Settings
Y–Axis
Automatic Scaling
Min Y–Axis
Max Y–Axis
Symbols
Noise and Gain X–Axis Settings
X–Axis
Combined Trace Display
Activates or deactivates the combined trace display of noise and gain results.
On
The noise and gain traces are displayed in the same trace display in different colors.
Off
The noise and gain traces are displayed in different trace displays.
Remote: DISP:FORM SING
Y–Axis
Specifies the type of noise result that is to be displayed graphically:
–
Noise Figure
–
Noise Temperature
–
Off (no noise results are displayed graphically)
Remote: DISP:DATA:TRAC1 NFIG|TEFF
Remote: DISP:TRAC OFF
Automatic Scaling
Activates or deactivates the automatic scaling of the Y–axis.
On
The y–axis is scaled automatically. The automatic scaling algorithm provides the
optimal display of the complete range of results.
Off
The automatic scaling of the y–axis is switched off, and the scale has to be specified
manually:
for noise results via the Min Y–Axis NF/Min Y–Axis Temp/Max Y–Axis NF/Max Y–
Axis Temp fields,
for gain results via the Min Y–Axis/Max Y–Axis fields.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ON
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Min Y–Axis NF/Max Y–Axis NF
Specifies the minimum/maximum noise figure result that can be displayed graphically. It is only
possible to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling
option), and the y–axis is set to Noise Figure (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT –30
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:TOP 30
Min Y–Axis Temp/Max Y–Axis Temp
Specifies the minimum/maximum noise temperature result that can be displayed graphically. It is
only possible to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling
option), and the y–axis is set to Noise Figure (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT –30
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:TOP 30
Symbols
Activates or deactivates the symbol representation. If activated, each measured value is marked
by a symbol. This helps to distinguish result types in a monochrome printout.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:SYMB ON
Y–Axis
Activates or deactivates the graphical display of gain results.
Remote: DISP:TRAC2 OFF
Min Y–Axis/Max Y–Axis
Specifies the minimum/maximum gain result that can be displayed graphically. It is only possible
to enter a value, if the automatic scaling is deactivated (see Automatic Scaling option), and the
y–axis is activated (see Y–Axis field).
Remote: DISP:TRAC2:Y:BOTT 1
Remote: DISP:TRAC2:Y:TOP 10
X–Axis
Specifies the scaling of the x–axis. This parameter is only editable in a frequency–converting
measurement mode.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:X IF
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ENR Settings
Opens the ENR dialog box.
The abbreviation ENR stands for excess noise ratio. Correct ENR values for the noise source
are essential to perform accurate measurements. They are used to calculate the effective noise
temperature of the noise source that in turn is used for calculation of measurement results.
Under ENR Settings, the default ENR value is 15 dB as a constant value that is valid for all
frequencies.
Under ENR Table, the frequency–dependent ENR values are listed. The list can contain up to
100 RF/ENR pairs. The order of the RF values in the list is not important. To modify this table,
proceed as described in "To edit tables" on page 4.248. ENR tables can be saved and recalled at
any time via the FILE key (for details refer to the section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files –
FILE Key"). Additionally to the data saved by the basic unit, all data entered in the ENR Settings
dialog box are saved.
The ENR Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
ENR Settings
Selection
ENR Constant
Room Temperature
ENR Table
Remote: CORR:ENR:MEAS:TABL:DATA 1MHZ,10,2MHZ,12 (ENR Table)
Selection
Defines the used ENR values.
Constant
The value specified in the ENR Constant field is used for all frequencies. The
entries of the ENR Table are ignored.
Table
The entries of the ENR Table provide the basis for the ENR values. Between
these values the R&S FSL uses interpolated values.
Remote: CORR:ENR:MODE SPOT
ENR Constant
Specifies the constant ENR value of the noise source that is used throughout the entire
frequency range. This parameter is only editable if, in the Selection list, Constant is selected.
Remote: CORR:ENR:SPOT 30
Room Temperature
Specifies the current room temperature as an absolute value in Kelvin. This value is used in the
calculation of the noise results.
Remote: CORR:TEMP 291.50
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Loss Settings
Opens the LOSS dialog box to take additional losses due to cables or attenuators into account
that are not considered in the calibration.
Under Loss Input Settings, the additional loss between the noise source and the DUT is
defined. Under Loss Output Settings, the additional loss between the DUT and the analyzer is
defined.
Under Loss Input Table or Loss Output Table, the list can contain up to 100 RF/ENR pairs.
The order of the RF values in the list is not important. To modify this table, proceed as described
in "To edit tables" on page 4.248. Loss tables can be saved and recalled at any time via the FILE
key (for details refer to the section "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – FILE Key").
Additionally to the data saved by the basic unit, all loss input & output data entered in the Loss
Settings dialog box are saved.
The Loss Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Loss Input Settings
Selection
Loss Input Constant
Loss Input Table
Loss Output Settings
Selection
Loss Output Constant
Loss Output Table
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:TABL 1MHz,10,2MHz,12 (Loss Input Table)
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:TABL 1MHz,10,2MHz,12 (Loss Output Table)
Selection
Defines the used Loss values.
Constant
The values specified in the Loss Input Constant/Loss Output Constant fields
are used for all frequencies. The entries of the Loss Input/Output Table are
ignored.
Table
The entries of the Loss Input/Output Table provide the basis for the Loss
values. Between these values the R&S FSL uses interpolated values.
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:MODE SPOT
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:MODE SPOT
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Loss Input Constant/Loss Output Constant
Specifies the constant loss value that is used across the entire frequency range. This parameter
is only editable if, in the Selection list, Constant is selected.
Remote: CORR:LOSS:INP:SPOT 10
Remote: CORR:LOSS:OUTP:SPOT 10
Meas Settings
Opens the Measurement Settings dialog box to modify all settings related to the overall
measurement.
Alternatively, the Measurement Settings dialog box is opened as follows:
–
AMPT key, with focus on the RF Attenuation field
–
BW key, with focus on the RBW field
Under Calibration, the second stage correction can be activated or deactivated. For details
refer also to "Calibration" on page 4.248.
Under Analyzer Settings, the general settings for the spectrum analyzer concerning the level,
attenuation and bandwidth of the signal to be measured are defined.
The Measurement Settings dialog box contains the following elements:
Calibration
2nd Stage Correction
Analyzer Settings
RBW
Sweep Time
Settling Time
Average
RF Attenuation
Automatic Ref Level
Ref Level
Range
Preamplifier
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2nd Stage Correction
Activates or deactivates the second stage correction.
On
The calibration data recorded via the Cal softkey are used to correct the measurement
results. The calibration data are stored independent of the state of the option.
Off
No correction is applied to the measurement results.
For details refer also to "Calibration" on page 4.248.
Remote: CORR ON
RBW
Specifies the resolution bandwidth for the measurement.
A large value improves the averaging of the display considerably, reduces the influence of
external sources of interference, and permits the fastest measurement time possible.
A low value should only be used across a very small frequency range. For measurements at low
frequencies, the RBW must be reduced to prevent the LO frequency of the analyzer from
invalidating the measurement. At receive frequencies of 100 kHz, the RBW must not exceed 10
kHz.
Remote: BAND 1MHz
Sweep Time
Specifies the time one complete measurement sweep takes. Two sweeps are performed for
each measurement step (once with noise source on, once with noise source off).
For narrow bandwidths, the sweep time should be increased in order to give accurate
measurement results.
Remote: SWE:TIME 10s
Settling Time
Specifies the time the DUT takes to settle after a noise source has been turned on or off.
Most noise sources generate an interfering DC component in addition to the noise spectrum. If
the noise source is switched on or off, low–frequency DUTs may require this settling time for
coupling capacitors to be charged or discharged.
Remote: SYST:CONF:DUT:STIM 1000MS
Average
Specifies the number of measurement sweeps over which the average is taken to produce the
displayed measurement results.
The higher the number of sweeps, the more accurate the measurement results, but the
measurement time is significantly longer.
An average value of 1 means that each displayed result is produced from one measurement
sweep. This is sufficient for most cases.
Remote: SWE:COUN 10
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S FSL
RF Attenuation
Specifies the attenuation that is applied to the received RF signal.
To obtain a low noise figure for the analyzer and hence more accurate noise measurements,
0 dB should be set. For high DUT power levels or critical matching, a higher setting is also
possible. A setting of 10 dB will give a much better VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio) of the
analyzer, but will result in a worse noise figure of the analyzer.
Remote: INP:ATT 30 DB
Automatic Ref Level
Activates or deactivates the automatic reference level setting.
Off
Specify a reference level manually (see Ref Level softkey).
On
The reference level is measured automatically. The total measurement time increases.
The automatic reference level measurement is performed as follows:
–
2nd stage correction activated:
At the beginning of the calibration measurement, several measurements are performed at the
first frequency test point and the reference level is calculated from these results taking into
account the maximum gain of the DUT (see Range softkey).
–
2nd stage correction deactivated:
At the beginning of the main measurement, several measurements are performed at the first
frequency test point and the reference level is calculated from these results. The range setting
is not significant.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV:AUTO ON
Ref Level
Specifies the reference level. It is only possible to enter a reference level manually, if the
automatic reference level is deactivated (see Automatic Ref Level softkey).
The reference level should be about 5 to 15 dB above the noise display that occurs with the
DUT connected and the noise source activated.
Even for DUTs with a high–ripple frequency response it can be useful to enter the reference
level manually, because an automatic reference level setting may not always result in optimal
settings.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV 0
Range
Specifies the maximum gain expected from the DUT.
If the 2nd Stage Correction is activated, this value is used to calculate the automatic reference
level to ensure that the expected power of the measured signal will be within the optimum
operating range of the spectrum analyzer (see Automatic Ref Level softkey).
To ensure accurate measurement results, the range should not exceed the actual gain of the
DUT by more than a margin of 10 dB.
Remote: SYST:CONF:DUT:GAIN 10
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Preamplifier
Activates or deactivates the preamplifier of the R&S FSL.
Remote: INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Schematic
Displays the schematic diagram of the test setup for the selected measurement type and the
specified frequency ranges. If the frequency ranges are changed, the schematic diagram is
updated accordingly.
–
Direct measurement
The direct measurement mode is designed for DUTs without frequency–conversion, e.g.
amplifiers.
The schematic display for the direct measurement mode is shown in Fig. 4-28. The upper part
of the figure shows the setup for calibration. The lower part of the figure shows the test setup
for the measurement.
Fig. 4-28 Schematic diagram for direct measurements
–
Frequency–converting measurement
The frequency–converting measurement mode is designed for frequency–converting DUTs that
have a fixed Local Oscillator (LO) frequency, for example, satellite converters with a fixed LO
frequency. .
The schematic display for the frequency–converting measurement mode is shown in Fig. 4-29.
The upper part of the figure shows the setup for calibration. The lower part of the figure shows
the test setup for the measurement.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
R&S FSL
Fig. 4-29 Schematic diagram for frequency converting measurements
Build Tbl
Updates the table according to the Frequency Settings (Freq Settings softkey).
Exit
Exits the edit mode of a table.
Insert
Inserts a row above the currently selected row and sets the focus on the first field of the new
row.
This softkey is only available if the Frequency Table contains less than 100 measurement
steps.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected row. This action requires no confirmation.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Softkeys of the sweep menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in Noise mode (SWEEP key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Sweep Single/Cont
Cal
Fix Freq
Sweep Single/Cont
Selects the sweep mode.
Single
single sweep mode
Cont
continuous sweep mode
If a measurement is started while another measurement is in progress, the first measurement
will be aborted and the new measurement started immediately.
For further details refer to "Measurement forms" on page 4.249.
Remote: CONF:LIST:CONT
Remote: CONF:LIST:SING
Cal
Performs a calibration. The calibration status of the noise figure measurement is displayed in the
title bar. For further details refer to "Calibration" on page 4.248.
This softkey is only available, if the 2nd Stage Correction option in the Measurement Settings
dialog box is activated.
Remote: CONF:CORR
Fix Freq
Starts a fixed frequency measurement for the frequency that is currently selected in the
Frequency List Results. For further details refer to "Measurement forms" on page 4.249 and
"Result displays" on page 4.250.
This softkey is only available after a frequency list measurement has been completed and the
measurement results are displayed in list form (Display List/Graph softkey).
Remote: CONF:SING
Remote: FREQ 10MHz
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R&S FSL
Softkeys of the trace menu (Noise mode)
Using the trace memory facility, you can save graphical display results (max. 3 trace sets) for
comparison with subsequent measurements. This facility is recommended in order to compare and to
document the effects of small changes on the DUT.
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trace menu in Noise mode (TRACE key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Display Graph/List
ASCII File Export
Decim Sep
More
Data –> Mem1
Data –> Mem2
Data –> Mem3
Data On/Off
Mem1 On/Off
Mem2 On/Off
Mem3 On/Off
Display Graph/List
For details refer to the Display List/Graph softkey in the noise figure measurements menu.
ASCII File Export
For details refer to the ASCII File Export softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
Decim Sep
For details refer to the Decim Sep softkey in the trace menu of the base unit.
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Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Data –> Mem1/Data –> Mem2/Data –> Mem3
Saves the current trace results to trace memory <n>. If a trace memory <n> contains data, the
corresponding softkey has a green background. The content of the trace memory <n> is
displayed via the Mem1 On/Off/Mem2 On/Off/Mem3 On/Off softkeys.
If data is transferred to a trace memory that already contains trace data, the new trace data
overwrite the current trace data in the memory.
Remote: CONF:ARR:MEM2 ONCE
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:FIG?
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:GAIN?
Remote: FETC:ARR:MEM2:NOIS:TEMP?
Data On/Off
Switches the display of the current measurement results on or off. The display of trace memory
results is not affected if this softkey is pressed. If a new frequency list measurement is started,
the display of the current result trace is switched on automatically.
Remote: DISP:CURR:DATA OFF
Mem1 On/Off / Mem2 On/Off / Mem3 On/Off
Switches the display of trace memory <n> on or off. This softkey is not available if no data is
held in the selected trace memory.
Remote: DISP:ARR:MEM2 ON
Softkeys of the marker menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu in Noise mode (MKR key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Marker 1
Marker to Trace
All Marker Off
Marker 1
Activates marker 1 and opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for marker 1 to be set to.
Pressing the softkey again deactivates the marker 1. This softkey is only available if
measurement results are displayed.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:X 550 MHZ
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
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Marker to Trace
Opens a dialog box to select the trace (noise figure or gain), on which the marker is to be
placed. This softkey is only available if measurement results are displayed.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:TRAC GAIN
All Marker Off
Switches off the active marker. This softkey is only available if measurement results are
displayed.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:AOFF
Softkeys of the marker–> menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu in Noise mode (MKR–> key). It
is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Peak
Min
Peak
Activates marker 1 and sets it to the highest maximum of the trace.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MAX
Min
Activates marker 1 and sets it to the minimum of the selected trace.
This softkey is available from firmware version 1.60.
Remote: CALC:MARK:MIN
Softkeys of the lines menu (Noise mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the lines menu in Noise mode (LINES key). It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
New
Exit
Insert
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Menu / Command
Noise Figure Measurements Option (K30)
Command
Delete
Edit
same contents as
New menu
Enable/Disable
Delete
New
Displays the Limit Line dialog box in edit mode with all fields necessary to define a new limit
line. For further details see "To work with limit lines" on page 4.248.
In the edit mode, the Limit Line dialog box contains the following elements:
Name
Limit
Comment
Frequency
Limit
Name
Specifies the name of the limit line to uniquely identify every limit line. Any combination of
alphanumeric characters is allowed. If the entered name already exists, an error message is
displayed with the request to alter the name.
Remote: CALC:LIM1:NAME FM1
Limit
Specifies the result type (noise or gain) and the limit type (upper or lower) for the limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:TRAC NFIG
Comment
Specifies a description for the limit line. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed.
Remote: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'
Frequency
Specifies the receive frequencies.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:CONT 1MHz,30MHz,100MHz,300MHz,1GHz
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Limit
Specifies the limits for the receive frequencies.
Remote: CALC:LIM2:LOW –30,–40,–10,–40,–30 (lower limit line)
Remote: CALC:LIM2:UPP –10,0,0,–10,–5 (upper limit line)
Exit
Exits the edit mode of a table.
Insert
Inserts a row above the currently selected row and sets the focus on the first field of the new
row.
Delete
Deletes the currently selected row. This action requires no confirmation.
Edit
Displays the Limit Line dialog box in edit mode with all data of the selected limit line. For further
details refer to the New softkey.
Enable/Disable
Enables or disables the selected limit line. Limit checking is only performed for activated limit
lines. Only one limit line of each type can be active at a given time.
Remote: CALC:LIM:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON
Remote: CALC:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM1:DEL
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
The R&S FSL equipped with the 3GPP Base Station Measurements option performs code domain
power measurements on downlink signals according to the 3GPP standard (Third Generation
Partnership Project, FDD mode). Signals that meet the conditions for channel configuration of 3GPP
standard test models 1 to 5 can be measured, including HSDPA and HSUPA signals (test model 5). In
addition to the code domain power measurements specified by the 3GPP standard, the 3GPP Base
Station Measurements option offers measurements with predefined settings in the frequency domain,
e.g. power measurements.
This option is available from firmware version 1.60.
To open the settings menu
If the 3G FDD BTS mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key and activate
the 3G FDD BTS option.
If the 3G FDD BTS mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The settings menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the settings menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.275
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.279
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.280
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.281
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.281
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.282
–
"Softkeys of the measurement menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.283
The span, bandwidth, and lines menus are not available in the 3G FDD BTS mode. All other menus are
provided as described for the base unit. For details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions.
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System".
Further information
–
"Short list of abbreviations" on page 4.273
–
"Channels of the Code Domain Channel Table and their usage" on page 4.273
–
"Marker values" on page 4.274
Measurements and result displays
The 3GPP Base Station Measurements option provides the following test measurement types and
result displays:
•
code domain power measurements
–
Code Domain Power Diagram (see Code Dom Power Diagram softkey)
–
Code Domain Channel Table (see Code Dom Channel Table softkey)
–
Code Domain Result Summary (see Code Dom Result Summary softkey)
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R&S FSL
The code domain power measurements are performed as specified by the 3GPP standards. A
signal section of approx. 20 ms is recorded for analysis and then searched through to find the start
of a 3GPP FDD frame. If a frame start is found in the signal, the code domain power analysis is
performed for a complete frame starting from slot 0. The different result displays are calculated from
the recorded IQ data set. Therefore it is not necessary to start a new measurement in order to
change the result display. Common settings for these measurements are performed via the settings
menu (MENU key). For details refer to "Softkeys of the settings menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on
page 4.275.
The measurement settings are listed below the title bar:
•
Parameter in example
Description
CF 3.0 GHz
center frequency
Result Summary
Code Domain Result Summary result display
Att 0 dB
attenuation
Ref –20.0 dBm
reference level
Channel 0.256
channel number and spreading code
CPICH Slot 0
common pilot channel slot number
Chan Slot 0
channel slot number
RF measurements
–
Signal Channel Power (see Power softkey)
–
Adjacent–Channel Power (see ACP softkey)
–
Spectrum Emission Mask (see Spectrum Emission Mask softkey)
All these measurements are accessed via the MEAS key (measurement menu). Some parameters are
set automatically according to the 3GPP standard. A list of these parameters is given with each
measurement type. A set of parameters is passed on from the 3GPP Base Station Measurements
option to the base unit and vice versa in order to provide a quick swap (see the following table).
Transferred parameters
center frequency
reference level
attenuation
reference level offset
center frequency step size
trigger source
trigger offset
For a detailed description refer also to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Short list of abbreviations
Term or abbreviation
Description
BTS
base transmission station
CPICH
common pilot channel
DPCH
dedicated physical channel, data channel
FDD
frequency division duplexing
PCCPCH
primary common control physical channel
PICH
paging indication channel.
SCH
synchronization channel, divided into P–SCH (primary synchronization channel) and
S–SCH (secondary synchronization channel)
Channels of the Code Domain Channel Table and their usage
The channel assignment table contains the following (data) channels:
•
CPICH
The common pilot channel is used to synchronize the signal in the case of CPICH synchronization.
It is expected at code class 8 and code number 0.
•
PSCH
The primary synchronization channel is used to synchronize the signal in the case of SCH
synchronization. It is a non–orthogonal channel. Only the power of this channel is determined.
•
SSCH
The secondary synchronization channel is a non–orthogonal channel. Only the power of this
channel is determined.
•
PCCPCH
The primary common control physical channel is used to synchronize the signal in the case of SCH
synchronization. It is expected at code class 8 and code number 1.
•
SCCPCH
The secondary common control physical channel is a QPSK–modulated channel without any pilot
symbols. In the 3GPP test models, this channel can be found in code class 8 and code number 3.
However, the code class and code number need not to be fixed and can vary. For this reason, the
following rules are used to indicate SCCPCH.
HSDPA/HSUPA On/Off softkey set to Off
–
Only one QPSK–modulated channel without pilot symbols is detected and displayed as the
SCCPCH. Any further QPSK–modulated channels without pilot symbols are not detected as
active channels.
–
If the signal contains more than one channel without pilot symbols, the channel that is received
in the highest code class and with the lowest code number is displayed as the SCCPCH. It is
expected that only one channel of this type is included in the received signal. According to this
assumption, this channel is probably the SCCPCH.
HSDPA/HSUPA On/Off softkey set to On
–
All QPSK–modulated channels without pilot symbols are detected. If one of these channels is
received at code class 8 and code number 3, it is displayed as the SCCPCH. QPSK–modulated
channels without pilot symbols and a code class higher than or equal to 7 are marked with the
channel type CHAN. QPSK–modulated channels without pilot symbols and a code class lower
than 7 are marked with channel type HSPDSCH.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
•
R&S FSL
PICH
The paging indication channel is expected at code class 8 and code number 16.
•
DPCH
The dedicated physical channel is a data channel that contains pilot symbols. The displayed
channel type is DPCH. The status is inactive (channel is not active), active (channel is active and
all pilot symbols are correct), or pilotf (channel is active but it contains incorrect pilot symbols).
•
HS–PDSCH (HSDPA)
The high speed physical downlink shared channel does not contain any pilot symbols. It is a
channel type that is expected in code classes equal to or higher than 7: HSPDSCH(QPSK)_
(QPSK–modulated slot of an HS–PDSCH channel), HSPDSCH(16QAM)_ (16QAM–modulated slot
of an HS–PDSCH channel), HSPDSCH(NONE)_ (slot without power of an HS–PDSCH channel).
The modulation type of these channels can be varied depending on the selected slot. The status is
inactive (channel is not active) or active (channel is active and all pilot symbols are correct).
•
HS–SSCH (HSDPA)
The high speed shared control channel does not contain any pilot symbols. It is a channel type that
is expected in code classes equal to or higher than 7. The modulation type should always be
QPSK. The channel does not contain any pilot symbols. The status is inactive (channel is not
active) or active (channel is active and all pilot symbols are correct).
•
CHAN
Any arbitrary channel that does not carry a valid pilot symbol sequence is displayed as an arbitrary
channel. It is not possible to decide which channel type is transmitted. The only prerequisite is that
the channel carries symbols of a sufficient signal to noise ratio.
•
–
Chan Type: CHAN (QPSK–modulated channel without any pilot symbols)
–
Status: inactive if the channel is not active; active if the channel is active
E–HICH
Enhanced HARQ hybrid acknowledgement indicator channel
Carries hybrid ARQ ACK/NACK
•
E–RGCH
Enhanced relative grant channel
Carries relative grant allocation for a UE
•
E–AGCH
Enhanced absolute grant channel
Carries absolute grant allocation for a UE
Marker values
Additional to the marker values of the base unit, displayed in the marker field (for details see "Using
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key" on page 4.53), the symbol rate of the channel (for unassigned
codes 7.5 ksps, see example) is given.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Softkeys of the settings menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the main menu of the 3GPP Base Station
Measurements option (MENU key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all
softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this
information is delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Select Channel
Select CPICH Slot
Code Power Abs/Rel
Power Ref TOT/CPICH
Scrambling Code
Scrambling Code
Scrambling Code Autosearch
Show List
Format Hex/Dec
Adjust Ref Level
More
Invert Q On/Off
Normalize On/Off
Antenna Diversity On/Off
Antenna Number 1/2
Inactive Channel Threshold
HSDPA/HSUPA On/Off
Sync Type CPICH/SCH
Select Channel
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel number and spreading factor, separated by a
decimal point. The chosen channel is marked red in the Code Domain Power Diagram and this
channel is used for channel–based evaluations in the Code Domain Result Summary.
Example:
entry 5.128
Channel 5 is marked at spreading factor 128 (30 ksps), if the channel is active; otherwise code
20 at spreading factor 512 is selected.
Remote: CDP:CODE 30
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R&S FSL
Select CPICH Slot
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the slot number. The chosen slot is evaluated in the Code
Domain Power Diagram and is used for slot–based evaluations in the Code Domain Result
Summary.
The slot number is defined on the basis of the CPICH (i.e. calculated in steps of 2560 chips
starting from the beginning of the frame). The desired slot of the selected channel is converted
according to its timing offset.
Example:
Slot 0 of the CPICH is set. The selected channel has a timing offset of 2816 chips, i.e. slot 0 of
the channel is delayed by 2816 chips with respect to the frame start. Slot 0 of the CPICH
therefore corresponds to slot 14 of the last frame of the channel.
Remote: CDP:SLOT 3
Code Power Abs/Rel (Code Domain Power Diagram)
Sets the scaling of the result display.
Abs
absolute power in dB
Rel
power relative to the reference chosen via the Power Ref TOT/CPICH softkey in
dBm (default setting)
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XPOW:CDP'
Power Ref TOT/CPICH (Code Domain Power Diagram)
Sets the power reference for the relative power displays (see also Code Power Abs/Rel
softkey):
TOT
total power
CPICH
power of the common pilot channel (default setting)
In contrast to the variable total power, the power of the CPICH is the same
in all slots so that it can form the constant reference for the display.
Remote: CDP:PREF TOT
Scrambling Code
Opens the scrambling code menu.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Scrambling Code
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the scrambling code. The scrambling codes are used to
distinguish between different base stations. Each base station has its own scrambling code. The
scrambling code range in hexadecimal format is [0x0 … 0x5FFF]
The scrambling codes are divided into 512 sets, each consisting of a primary scrambling code
and 15 secondary scrambling codes.
The range of the primary scrambling codes is described by n=16*i
with k=0, i [0 ... 511] = [0 ... 1FF].
The range of the secondary scrambling codes is described by j=16*i+k,
with k [1 ... 15] = [1 ... F].
Example:
To enter the primary scrambling code number '1', the digits '10' need to be entered. (i = 1, k = 0).
The entered scrambling code has to coincide with that of the signal. Otherwise, a code domain
power measurement of the signal is not possible.
Remote: CDP:LCOD #H2
Scrambling Code Autosearch
Searches automatically the scrambling code that leads to the highest signal power and stores it
as new scrambling code for further measurements. All scrambling codes of the recorded signal
are taken into account. As a prerequisite, the center frequency and level settings have to be
correct.
The scrambling code search automatically determines the primary scrambling code number. The
secondary scrambling code number is expected to be 0. Other scrambling codes can not be
detected. Therefore, the range for detection is 0x0000 – 0x1FF0h, where the last digit is always
0.
Remote: CDP:LCOD:SEAR
Show List
Displays a result list of the automatic search sequence containing the highest power values
calculated and the corresponding scrambling codes. The power shown is a coarse value for the
CPICH power.
This softkey is only available after a scrambling code auto search has been performed (see
Scrambling Code Autosearch softkey).
Remote: CDP:LCOD:SEAR:LIST?
Format Hex/Dec
Selects the display format of the scrambling codes:
Hex
hexadecimal
Dec
decimal
The default setting is hexadecimal.
Remote: CDP:LCOD #H2
Remote: CDP:LCOD:DVAL 3
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R&S FSL
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the
RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without
overloading the R&S FSL or limiting the dynamic range by an S/N ratio that is too small.
Remote: CDP:LEV:ADJ
Invert Q On/Off
Switches the Q inversion on or off:
ON
The sign of the Q–component of the signal is inverted.
OFF
The sign of the Q–component of the signal remains unchanged (default setting).
Remote: CDP:QINV ON
Normalize On/Off
Activates and deactivates the elimination of the I/Q offset.
Remote: CDP:NORM ON
Antenna Diversity On/Off
Activates or deactivates the antenna diversity mode for the code domain power analysis. The
default setting of this softkey is OFF. The diversity antennas are selected via the Antenna
Number 1/2 softkey.
Remote: CDP:ANT 1
Antenna Number 1/2
Switches between antenna set 1 or 2. The default setting of this softkey is 1. This softkey is only
available if the Antenna Diversity On/Off softkey is activated.
Remote: CDP:ANT 1
Inactive Channel Threshold
Opens an edit dialog box to set the minimum power theshold for a single channel (channel
power compared to total signal power). Only channels with a signal power above this value are
recognized as active channels. Channels with a signal power below this value are considered to
be not active (irrespective of whether they contain pilot symbols or not).
The default value is –60 dB.
Remote: CDP:ICTR –10dB
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HSDPA/HSUPA On/Off
Activates or deactivates the HSUPA/DPA channel detection and the display of the HSUPA/DPA
channels in the channel table.
ON
The high speed channels can be detected (default settings).
The modulation type (QPSK /16QAM) is detected.
OFF
The high speed channel can not be detected.
Pilot symbols are detected.
Remote: CDP:HSDP OFF
Sync Type CPICH/SCH
Defines the synchronization. The default setting of this softkey is CPICH.
CPICH
A synchronization to the CPICH control channel is performed. As a prerequisite,
the CPICH control channel must be present in the signal.
SCH
A synchronization without assuming the presence of a CPICH channel is
performed.
While this setting can also be used with other channel configurations, but the
probability of synchronization failure increases with the number of data channels.
Remote: CDP:STYP SCH
Softkeys of the frequency menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Center
Stepsize Manual
Frequency Offset
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Stepsize Manual
For details refer to the Manual softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Frequency Offset
For details refer to the Frequency Offset softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
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Softkeys of the amplitude menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Ref Level
Adjust Ref Level
Ref Level Offset
dB per Division
Reference Position
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Adjust Ref Level
For details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the settings menu.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
dB per Division
Opens an edit dialog box to set the scaling of the y–axis in dB.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:PDIV +10dB
Reference Position
For details refer to the Ref Level Position softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Softkeys of the trigger menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a
special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Command
Trigger Source
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset
Trigger Source
Opens the Trigger Source dialog box. In the 3GPP Base Station Measurements option, only
the following trigger sources are available:
–
Free Run, External, IF Power
For further details refer to the Trg / Gate Source softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
For details refer to the Trg / Gate Polarity Pos/Neg softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Trigger Offset
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the marker menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a
special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding softkey
description.
Command
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker 3
Marker 4
Marker Norm/Delta
Marker Zoom
All Marker Off
Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4/Marker Norm/Delta
For details refer to the Marker 1, Marker 2, Marker 3, Marker 4, Marker Norm/Delta softkeys in
the trigger menu of the base unit.
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Marker Zoom
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of channels.
All Marker Off
For details refer to the All Marker Off softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the marker–> menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Next Peak Mode < abs >
CPICH
PCCPCH
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Next Min Mode < abs >
CPICH
PCCPCH
Select 1 2 3 4
For further details refer to the Select 1 2 3 4
softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Peak
For further details refer to the Peak softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Next Peak
For further details refer to the Next Peak softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Next Peak Mode < abs >
For further details refer to the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey in the marker–> menu of the
base unit.
CPICH
Sets the active marker/delta marker on the common pilot channel (code number 0 for spreading
factor 256; corresponds to displayed code numbers 0 and 1 of the x–axis).
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:CPIC
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT1:FUNC:CPIC
Remote: CALC:DELT1:Y?
PCCPCH
Sets the active marker/delta marker on the primary common control physical channel (code
number 1 for spreading factor 256; corresponds to displayed code numbers 2 and 3 of the x–
axis).
Remote: CALC:MARK1:FUNC:PCCP
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT1:FUNC:PCCP
Remote: CALC:DELT1:Y?
Min
For further details refer to the Min softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Next Min
For further details refer to the Next Min softkey in the marker–> menu of the base unit.
Next Min Mode < abs >
For further details refer to the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey in the marker–> menu of the base
unit.
Softkeys of the measurement menu (3G FDD BTS mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the measurement menu in 3G FDD BTS mode. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
Command
Auto Level&Code
Code Dom Channel Table
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Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Submenu / Command
R&S FSL
Command
Code Dom Power Diagram
Code Dom Result Summary
Select Channel
Result Summary Normal
Result Summary Extended
Power
CP / ACP Config
# of TX Chan
# of Adj Chan
Channel Settings
Channel Bandwidth
Channel Spacing
Chan Pwr/Hz
ACP Ref Settings
Adjust Ref Lvl
Adjust Settings
Limit Checking
Limit Chk On/Off
Edit ACP Limit
Power Mode
Clear/Write
Max Hold
Select Trace
Adjust Settings
Sweep Time
Fast ACP On/Off
ACP Abs/Rel
Adjust Ref Lvl
ACP
same contents as Power
menu
Spectrum Emission Mask
Limit Line Auto
Limit Line Manual
Limit Line User
Restore Std Lines
30kHz/1MHz Transition
Adjust Ref Level
Auto Level&Code
Starts a sequence performing the following steps:
–
Auto adjust the reference level.
–
Search and select scrambling code with the highest power.
–
Start measurement.
–
Select Code Domain Result Summary result display.
Remote: CDP:ASEQ
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Code Dom Channel Table
Selects the Code Domain Channel Table result display. This channel assignment table can
contain up to 512 entries, corresponding to the 512 codes that can be assigned within the class
of spreading factor 512. For detailed description of the channels refer to "Channels of the Code
Domain Channel Table and their usage" on page 4.273.
In the upper part of the Code Domain Channel Table, all channels that have to be present in the
signal to be analyzed are listed. In the lower part of the table, all data channels contained in the
signal are listed. A data channel is any channel that does not have a predefined channel number
and symbol rate.
The channels are listed in descending order according to symbol rates and, within a symbol rate,
in ascending order according to the channel numbers. Therefore, the unassigned codes are
always to be found at the end of the table.
The following parameters of these channels are determined by the code domain power
measurement:
–
Chan Type
type of channel (active channels only)
If the modulation type of a channel can vary (HS–PDSCH), the value of the measured
modulation type is appended to the channel type. Data channels without a type fully recognized
are characterized as CHAN.
–
SymRate [ksps]
symbol rate at which the channel is transmitted (7.5 ksps to 960 ksps).
–
Chan
number of the channel spreading code (0 to [spreading factor–1]).
–
Status
Unassigned codes are considered to be inactive. A data channel is considered to be active if
the required pilot symbols (see 3GPP specification, exception: PICH) are to be found at the end
of each slot. In addition, the channel should have minimum power (see Inactive Channel
Threshold softkey).
–
PilotL [Bits]
number of pilot bits of the channel
–
PwrAbs [dBm]/ PwrRel [dB]
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R&S FSL
indication of the absolute and relative channel power (referenced to the CPICH or the total
power of the signal)
–
T Offs [Chips]
timing offset = offset between the start of the first slot of the channel and the start of the
analyzed 3GPP FDD frame
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:CDP:ERR:CTAB'
Remote: TRAC? CTAB
Code Dom Power Diagram
Selects the Code Domain Power Diagram result display. Common settings for code domain power
measurements are performed via the settings menu (MENU key). For details refer to "Softkeys of
the settings menu (3G FDD BTS mode)" on page 4.275.
This result display shows the power of all occupied code channels in a bar graph. The x–axis is
scaled for the highest code class or the highest spreading factor (512). Code channels with a lower
spreading factor occupy correspondingly more channels of the highest code class. The power of a
code channel is always measured according to its symbol rate. Unused code channels are
assumed to belong to the highest code class and displayed accordingly. The displayed power of an
unused code channel therefore corresponds to the power of a channel with the spreading factor
512 at the respective code position.
The measured power always refers to one slot. The time reference for the start of a slot is the
CIPCH slot. If the signal contains channels with timing offsets, the start of a slot of the channel may
be different from the CPICH slot start. This leads to the power of the bar graphs normally being
averaged over two adjacent slots in such cases. The power shown in the bar graphs thus does not
necessarily correspond to the slot power of the channel the bar graph belongs to.
Detected channels are displayed in yellow color.
The codes where no channel could be detected (non–active channels) are displayed in blue
color. These channel should be checked for their pilot symbols.
The channel that is adjusted via the Select Channel softkey is marked red. If it is an assigned
channel, the entire channel is marked red. If it is an unassigned code, only the entered code is
marked.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
If the HSDPA/HSUPA On/Off softkey is activated, the detection of channels does not depend on
pilot sequences. An active channel merely has to exceed the minimum power (see Inactive
Channel Threshold softkey). Therefore channels of the type HS–PDSCH are recognized as
active (see also Code Dom Channel Table softkey).
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XPOW:CDP'
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Code Dom Result Summary
Opens a submenu to display the Result Summary.
Result Summary Normal
Selects the mormal Code Domain Result Summary result display.
This result display shows the most important measurement results in one table with big letters.
Via the Result Summary Extended softkey you can switch to the extended Code Dom Result
Summary result display.
–
Total Power
total signal power (average power of total evaluated 3GPP FDD frame).
–
Carrier Frequency Error
frequency error relative to the center frequency of the R&S FSL
The absolute frequency error is the sum of the R&S FSL and DUT frequency error. The
specified value is averaged via one slot; the frequency offset of the selected slot applies (via
Select CPICH Slot softkey). The maximum frequency error that can be compensated is
specified in the table below as a function of the sync mode. Transmitter and receiver should be
synchronized as far as possible (see chapter 2).
–
Sync Type
Antenna diversity
Max. Freq. Offset
CPICH
X
5.0 kHz
SCH
OFF
1.6 kHz
SCH
ANT 1
330 Hz
SCH
ANT 2
330 Hz
Composite EVM
difference between the test signal and the ideal reference signal
–
Peak Code Domain Error
projection of the difference between the test signal and the ideal reference signal onto the
selected spreading factor
–
No of Active Channels
number of active channels detected in the signal (Both the detected data channels and the
control channels are considered active channels.)
Remote: CALC:FEED 'XTIM:CDP:ERR:SUMM'
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:WCDP:RES? CDP
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
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R&S FSL
Result Summary Extended
Extends the number of results shown in the normal Code Dom Result Summary result display
(Result Summary Normal softkey) by the results listed below.
This result display consists of two panes. The Global Results (upper pane) contains the results
for the total signal. The Channel Results (lower pane) lists the measurement results of the
selected channel (marked red in the Code Domain Power Diagram).
–
Chip Rate Error
chip rate error in ppm
As a result of a high chip rate error, symbol errors arise and the code domain power
measurement is possibly not synchronized to the 3GPP FDD signal. The result is valid even if
synchronization of the R&S FSL and signal failed.
–
Trigger to Frame
time difference between the beginning of the recorded signal section to the start of the analyzed
3GPP FDD frame
In the case of triggered data collection, this difference is identical with the time difference of
frame trigger (+ trigger offset) – frame start. If synchronization of the R&S FSL and W–CDMA
signal fails, the Trigger to Frame value is not significant.
–
IQ Offset
DC offset of signals in %
–
IQ Imbalance
I/Q imbalance of signal in %
–
CPICH Slot No
number of the CPICH slot at which the measurement is performed (selected via the Select
CPICH Slot softkey).
–
CPICH Power
power of the common pilot channel
–
Symbol Rate
symbol rate at which the channel is transmitted
–
RHO
quality parameter for every slot
–
Channel Code
number of the spreading code of the selected channel
–
Timing Offset
offset between the start of the first slot in the channel and the start of the analyzed 3GPP FDD
frame
–
No of Pilot Bits
number of pilot bits of the selected channel
–
Channel Slot No
channel slot number, obtained by combining the value of the Select CPICH Slot softkey and
the channel's timing offset
–
Channel Power Rel / Abs
channel power, relative (see Power Ref TOT/CPICH softkey) and absolute.
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–
3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Symbol EVM
Peak (%Pk) or average (%rms) of the results of the error vector magnitude
–
Modulation Type
modulation type of an HSDPA channel (QPSK or 16QAM modulation)
Remote: CDP:RSUM EXT
Power
Activates the measurement of the 3GPP FDD signal channel power and opens a submenu. This
measurement is identical to the ACP measurement (see ACP softkey), the default settings are in
accordance with the 3GPP specifications:
Parameter
Default setting
CP / ACP Standard
W–CDMA 3GPP FWD
# of Adj Chan
0 (all adjacent channels deactivated)
The R&S FSL measures the unweighted RF signal power in a bandwidth of
f BW = 5 MHz
(1 + ) 3.84 MHz |
= 0.22
The power is measured in zero span using a digital channel filter of 5 MHz in bandwidth.
According to the 3GPP standard, the measurement bandwidth (5 MHz) is slightly larger than the
minimum required bandwidth of 4.7 MHz.
Remote: CONF:WCDP:MEAS POW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
CP / ACP Config
For further details refer to the CP / ACP Config softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
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R&S FSL
# of TX Chan
For further details refer to the # of TX Chan softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
# of Adj Chan
For further details refer to the # of Adj Chan softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Channel Settings
For further details refer to the Channel Settings softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Channel Bandwidth
For further details refer to the Channel Bandwidth softkey in the power measurement menu of
the base unit.
Channel Spacing
For further details refer to the Channel Spacing softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Chan Pwr/Hz
For further details refer to the Chan Pwr/Hz softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
ACP Ref Settings
For further details refer to the ACP Ref Settings softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Limit Checking
For further details refer to the Limit Checking softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Limit Chk On/Off
For further details refer to the Limit Chk On/Off softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Edit ACP Limit
For further details refer to the Edit ACP Limit softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Power Mode
For further details refer to the Power Mode softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
Clear/Write
For further details refer to the Clear/Write softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
Max Hold
For further details refer to the Max Hold softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
Select Trace
For further details refer to the Select Trace softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
Adjust Settings
For further details refer to the Adjust Settings softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
Sweep Time
For further details refer to the Sweep Time softkey in the power measurement menu of the base
unit.
Fast ACP On/Off
For further details refer to the Fast ACP On/Off softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
ACP Abs/Rel
For further details refer to the ACP Abs/Rel softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
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R&S FSL
Adjust Ref Lvl
For further details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the power measurement menu of the
base unit.
ACP
Activates the Adjacent–Channel Power measurement and opens a submenu for configuration.
This measurement is identical to the ACP measurement of the base unit (see CP, ACP, MC–
ACP softkey in the measurement menu of the base unit), but the default settings are in
accordance with the 3GPP specifications:
Parameter
Default setting
CP / ACP Standard
W–CDMA 3GPP FWD
# of Adj Chan
2
The R&S FSL measures the channel power and the relative power of the adjacent
channels/alternate channels. The results are displayed below the screen.
Remote: CONF:WCDP:MEAS ALCR
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POWer:RES? ACP
Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement and opens a submenu. This measurement
compares the signal power in defined carrier offset ranges with the maximum values specified
by 3GPP.
The following default settings are used in accordance with the 3GPP specifications:
Parameter
Default setting
CP / ACP Standard
W–CDMA 3GPP REV
# of Adj Chan
0
Span
25.5 MHz
BW
50 ms
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3GPP Base Station Measurements (Option K72)
Additional to the graphical result display, the peak list displays the peaks of the frequency
ranges specified by the 3GPP specification. The table contains the following information:
Tx Power
power of the transmission channel
Tx Bandwidth
bandwidth used to measure the Tx power
Range
upper and lower frequency of the evaluated range relative to the center frequency
RBW
bandwidth used to measure the evaluated range
Frequency
exact frequency where the peak was detected
Level
absolute level of the peak
Pwr Rel
peak level relative to the Tx power
Delta
level relative to the limit.
Positive Values show that the peak exceeds the limit from the specification. The values
Level, Pwr Rel and Delta therefore change their color to red and an asterisk appears beside
the Delta values.
Remote: CONF:WCDP:MEAS ESP
Remote: TRAC? TRACE1
Limit Line Auto
If activated, sets the limit line automatically according to the power determined in the useful
channel. If the measurement is carried out in continuous sweep mode and the channel power
changes from sweep to sweep, this can result in the limit line being continuously redrawn. This
softkey is activated by default.
If deactivated, the limit line settings are defined via the Limit Line Manual softkey.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:MODE AUTO
Limit Line Manual
Opens the Manual Power dialog box to select one of the following predefined limit lines
according to the expected power range:
P 43 dBm
39 dBm P < 43 dBm
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31 dBm P < 39 dBm
P < 31 dBm
The power at the different frequency offsets is compared with the selected limit line.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:MODE MAN
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:VAL 39
Limit Line User
Opens the lines menu of the base unit and switches to the standard limit line handling of the
base unit. For details refer to section "Softkeys of the lines menu" on page 4.123 of the base
unit.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:MODE USER
Restore Std Lines
Restores the limit lines defined according to the standard to their factory–set values.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:REST
30kHz/1MHz Transition
Defines the offset frequency at which the resolution bandwidth is changed in the range from 30
kHz to 1 MHz. The default value is 4.0 MHz.
Remote: CALC:LIM:ESP:TRAN 5MHZ
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the total signal power measured. This softkey becomes active
after the occupied bandwidth has been measured in the first sweep and therefore the total signal
power is known.
This ensures that the signal path is not overdriven and that the dynamic range is not limited by a
reference level that is too low.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
The R&S FSL equipped with the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option performs Code Domain
measurements on forward link signals according to the 3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership
Project 2). The "Recommended Minimum Performance Standard for CDMA2000 Spread Spectrum
Base Stations", C.S0010–C version 2.0 dated March 2006, is taken as a basis. This Standard has been
approved by the following authority with the specified designation:
•
TIA:
TIA-97-F-1
•
TTA:
TTAT.3G-C-S0010-C v2.0
When the CDMA2000 specification is mentioned in the document, these standards are meant.
The CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option supports the radio configurations 1 to 5, i.e. all radio
configurations with a single carrier (1X) are supported. Accordingly, IS95A/B signals conforming to radio
configurations 1&2 can be measured with the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option. In addition to the
measurements called for by the CDMA2000 standard in the code domain, the CDMA2000 BTS
Analyzer option features measurements in the spectral range such as channel power, adjacent channel
power, occupied bandwidth and spectrum emission mask with predefined settings.
This option is available from firmware version 1.90.
To open the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
If the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key
and activate the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option.
If the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The Code Domain Analyzer menu is displayed. .
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the Code Domain Analyzer menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.307
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.335
–
"Softkeys of the span menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.336
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.337
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.339
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.340
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.341
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.341
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.343
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.344
–
"Softkeys of the measurement menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.345
The lines menu is not available in the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
The span menu is not available for code domain measurements and signal power measurements. For
details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions of the base unit ("Setting the Frequency Span –
SPAN Key".
The bandwidth menu is not available for code domain measurements and CCDF measurements. For
details refer to the corresponding menu descriptions of the base unit ("Setting the Bandwidths and
Sweep Time – BW Key").
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R&S FSL
To display help to a softkey, press the HELP key and then the softkey for which you want to display
help. To close the help window, press the ESC key. For further information refer to section "How to use
the Help System" in the Quick Start Guide.
Further information
–
"Predefined Channel Tables" on page 4.303
–
"Relationship between channel type and modulation type" on page 4.305
–
"Short list of terms and abbreviations" on page 4.306
–
"Hadamard and BitReverse Code Tables" on page 4.353
Tasks
–
"To edit a channel table" on page 4.297
–
"To create a channel table" on page 4.297
–
"To copy a channel table" on page 4.297
Measurements and result display
The CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option provides the following test measurement types and result
displays. All measurements and result displays are accessed via the MEAS key (measurement
menu)."Code Domain Analysis" on page 4.298
–
"Signal Channel Power" on page 4.300
–
"Adjacent Channel Power" on page 4.300
–
"Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 4.301
–
"Occupied Bandwidth" on page 4.301
–
"Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function" on page 4.302
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To edit a channel table
1. Enter the Channel Table Settings menu and the corresponding dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the channel table to be edited by marking the check box.
3. Press the Edit softkey and the Edit Channel Table dialog box is displayed.
Each row in the table represents one channel. Channels are displayed as entered and not sorted
automatically. To sort the channels use the Sort softkey (for details on how sorting is done see the
Sort softkey).
4. Enter a name and a description of the channel table in the Name and Description field.
5. Add and delete channels by using the corresponding softkeys.
6. To edit an existing channel put the focus on the parameter to be changed.
–
Choose a channel type from the dropdown menu (opens with the ENTER key) in the Channel
Type column. No channel types other than the ones found in the list can be chosen.
–
Assign a channel number in the Walsh Ch.SF column. Note that some channel types have
predefined values and can not be edited.
–
Choose a radio configuration in the Radio Configuration column.
–
Activate or deactivate a channel in State column.
–
The columns Symbol Rate/ ksps, Power/ dB and Domain Conflict can not be edited. The
values are calculated automatically.
For further details also refer to the Edit channel table dialog box.
To create a channel table
1. Enter the Channel Table Settings menu and the corresponding dialog box is displayed.
2. Press the New softkey and a new channel table by the name 'ChannelTable' will be added. The
new channel table contains no channels by default.
For further details refer to the New softkey as well as "To edit a channel table" on page 4.297.
To copy a channel table
1. Enter the Channel Table Settings menu and the corresponding dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the channel table to be copied by marking the check box.
3. Press the Copy softkey and the channel table in focus is copied. The copy is named
'Copy of <SourceChannelTableName>. Except the name, all elements of the channel table in focus
are copied.
For further details refer to the Copy softkey as well as "To edit a channel table" on page
4.297.Measurements and result display
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Measurements and result display
The CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option provides the following test measurement types and result
displays. All measurements and result displays are accessed via the MEAS key (measurement
menu)."Code Domain Analysis" on page 4.298
–
"Signal Channel Power" on page 4.300
–
"Adjacent Channel Power" on page 4.300
–
"Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 4.301
–
"Occupied Bandwidth" on page 4.301
–
"Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function" on page 4.302
Code Domain Analysis
The Code Domain Analyzer performs measurements in the code domain. The following
measurement types and corresponding result displays are available:
Softkey
Definition
Code Domain Power
Code Domain Power result display in relative or absolute scaling
Channel Table
Channel occupancy table
Power vs PCG
Power of the selected channel versus all PCGs
Result Summary
Results in tabular form
Code Domain Error
Code Domain Error Power result display
Composite EVM
Averaged error between the test signal and the ideal reference signal
Peak Code Domain Error
Projection of the maximum error between the test signal and the reference signal
Channel Constell
Channel Constellation result display
EVM vs Symbol
Error Vector Magnitude result display
Composite Constell
Composite Constellation result display
Power vs Symbol
Power of the selected channel and of the selected PCG versus all symbols
Channel Bitstream
Display of decided bits
In the Code Domain Analyzer, the results are displayed in either one screen or in two screens (see
Screen Size Full/Split softkey). Any result can be displayed in either screen. On top of the
measurement screens the following settings and measurement results (so called result displays)
are displayed (with the respective default settings):
Frequency: 2.4020 Ghz
Ref. Level: -20.00 dBm
Ref. Lvl Offset: 0.0 dB
Power Ref: PICH
Count: 0
Attenuation: 0 dB
PCG: 0
Channel: 0.64
Symbol Rate: 19.2 ksps
The result displays are defined in the following way:
Parameter
Defined in
Frequency
Frontend Settings dialog box, Center field
Power Ref
Result Settings dialog box, Power Reference field
PCG
Result Settings dialog box, Power Control Group field
Ref. Level
Frontend Settings dialog box, Ref. Level field
Count
SWEEP menu, Sweep Count softkey
Attenuation
Frontend Settings dialog box, RF Attenuation Auto field
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Parameter
Defined in
Ref. Lvl Offset
Frontend Settings dialog box, Ref. Level Offset field
Channel
Result Settings dialog box, Channel (Code) Number field
Symbol Rate
Automatically calculated (see Add Channel softkey)
In the default setting after the preset, the analyzer is in Spectrum Analyzer mode (for details see
"Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key" on page 4.3). The settings of the Code Domain
Analyzer are not active until the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode is activated (see "To open the
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer" on page 4.295)
Table 4-9: Initial configuration of the Code Domain Analyzer
Parameter
Setting
digital standard
CDMA2000
sweep
continuous
channel table
auto search
trigger source
free run
trigger offset
0s
PN offset
0 chips
inactive channel threshold
–60 dB
channel (code) number
0
power control group
0
capture length
3 PCGs (where PCG stands for Power Control Group)
code order
Hadamard
antenna diversity
OFF
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference level
Ref Level Offset
Center Frequency
Attenuation
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Signal Channel Power
The Power measurement analyses the RF signal power of a single channel with 1.2288 MHz
bandwidth over a single trace. The displayed results are based on the root mean square.
The configuration is according to the CDMA2000 requirements.
Beneath the measurement screen the bandwidth and the associated channel power are
displayed. The other screen elements match that of the screen of the Spectrum Analyzer mode.
The default settings are in accordance with the 3GPP2 specifications.
Setting
Default value
Frequency Span
2 MHz
ACP Standard
CDMA2000 MC1
Number of adjacent channels
0
Adjacent Channel Power
On
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option,
some parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
# of Samples
Refer also to the Power softkey in the measurement menu.
Adjacent Channel Power
The Adjacent Channel Power measurement analyses the power of the TX channel and the
power of adjacent and alternate channels on the left and right side of the TX channel. The
number of TX channels and adjacent channels can be modified as well as the band class.
Beneath the measurement screen the bandwidth and power of the TX channel and the
bandwidth, spacing and power of the adjacent and alternate channels are displayed.
The default settings are in accordance with the 3GPP2 specifications.
Setting
Default value
Adjacent Channel Power
On
ACP Standard
CDMA2000 MC1
Number of adjacent channels
2
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option,
some parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
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Transferred parameter
# of Adjacent Channels
Sweep Time
Span
Fast ACP Mode
For details on the softkeys of the Adjacent Channel Power measurement refer to the Adjacent
Channel Power softkey in the measurement menu.
Spectrum Emission Mask (see Spectrum Emission Mask softkey)
The default settings of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
Frequency Span
8 MHz
Sweep Time
100 ms
Detector
RMS
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option,
some parameters are passed on.
Transferred Parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
Center Frequency
Frequency Offset
Trigger settings
For details on the softkeys of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement refer to the
Spectrum Emission Mask softkey in the measurement menu.
Occupied Bandwidth
The Occupied Bandwidth measurement determines the bandwidth in which the signal power
can be found. By default the bandwidth is displayed in which 99% of the signal is found. The
percentage of the signal power included in the measurement can be modified.
In the top right corner of the screen, the bandwidth and frequency markers are displayed.
The default settings of the Occupied Bandwidth measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
Occupied Bandwidth
ON
Frequency Span
4.2 MHz
Sweep Time
100 ms
RBW
30 kHz
VBW
300 kHz
Detector
RMS
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option,
some parameters are passed on.
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Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
Sweep Time
Span
For details on the softkeys of the Occupied Bandwidth measurement see Occupied
Bandwidth in the measurement menu.
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
The CCDF measurement displays the CCDF and the Crest factor. The CCDF shows
distribution of the signal amplitudes. For the measurement, a signal section of settable length is
recorded continuously in a zero span. The measurement is useful to determine errors of linear
amplifiers.
The Crest factor is defined as the difference of the peak power and the mean power.
Beneath the measurement screen a table containing the number of included samples, mean
and peak power and the Crest factor is displayed.
The default settings of the CCDF measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
CCDF
ON
RBW
10 MHz
Detector
Sample
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option,
some parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
# of Samples
For details on the softkeys of the CCDF measurement see CCDF in the measurement menu.
In a transition from the base unit to the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer option, external trigger sources are
preserved, all other trigger sources are switched to the Free Run trigger mode. Additional trigger
settings are preserved.
For a detailed description refer also to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
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Predefined Channel Tables
Predefined channel tables offer access to a quick configuration for the channel search. The CDMA2000
BTS Analyzer option provides the following set of channel tables compliant with the CDMA2000
specification:
•
RECENT
This channel table always appears first in the list. It contains the channels that were automatically
created during the last measurement with Auto Search channels activated (for details refer to
Channel Table Settings).
•
MPC_RC1 (Base Station Main Path 6 Channels Radio Configuration 1)
Channel table with F-PICH/F-SYNC/F-PCH and 6 data channels (see Table 4-10).
•
MPC_RC4 (Base Station Main Path 6 Channels Radio Configuration 4)
Channel table with F-PICH/F-SYNC/F-PCH and 6 data channels (see Table 4-11).
•
TDC_RC4 (Base Station Transmit Diversity Path 6 Channels Radio Configuration 4)
Channel table with F-PICH/F-SYNC/F-PCH and 6 data channels (see Table 4-12).
In addition to the compliant channel tables, the following channel tables are defined:
•
BPC_RC4 (Base Station Both Paths 6 Channels Radio Configuration 4)
Channel table with F-PICH/F-TDPICH/F-SYNC/F-PCH and 6 data channels (see Table 4-13).
–
The standard does not specify a channel number for the data channels. If you wish to use
channels other than those in the predefined channel tables, you may copy the original tables
and adapt the channels in the copy. For details refer to the step-by-step instructions "To edit a
channel table", "To create a channel table" and "To copy a channel table".
Table 4-10: Base station channel table for main branch in radio configuration 1
Channel type
Number of
channels
Radio
configuration
Code channel
(Walsh Code.SF)
F-PICH
1
–
0.64
F-SYNC
1
–
32.64
F-PCH
1
–
1.64
CHAN
6
1
9.64
1
10.64
1
11.64
1
15.64
1
17.64
1
25.64
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Table 4-11: Base station channel table for main branch in radio configuration 4
Channel type
Number of
channels
Radio
configuration
Code channel
(Walsh Code.SF)
F-PICH
1
–
0.64
F-SYNC
1
–
32.64
F-PCH
1
–
1.64
CHAN
6
4
9.128
4
10.128
4
11.128
4
15.128
4
17.128
4
25.128
Table 4-12: Base station channel table for antenna 2 in radio configuration 4
Channel type
Number of
channels
Radio
configuration
Code channel
(Walsh Code.SF)
F-TDPICH
1
–
16.128
F-SYNC
1
–
32.64
F-PCH
1
–
1.64
CHAN
6
4
9.128
4
10.128
4
11.128
4
15.128
4
17.128
4
25.128
Table 4-13: Base station test model for aggregate signal in radio configuration 4
Channel type
Number of
channels
Radio
configuration
Code channel
(Walsh Code.SF)
F-PICH
1
–
0.64
F-TDPICH
1
–
16.128
F-SYNC
1
–
32.64
F-PCH
1
–
1.64
CHAN
6
4
9.128
4
10.128
4
11.128
4
15.128
4
17.128
4
25.128
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Relationship between channel type and modulation type
Channel type
Channel
Modulation
F-PICH
Pilot channel
BPSK
F-SYNC
Synchronisation channel
BPSK
F-PCH
Paging channel
BPSK
F-TDPICH
Transmit diversity pilot channel
BPSK
F-APICH
Auxiliary pilot channel
BPSK
F-ATDPICH
Auxiliary transmit diversity channel
BPSK
F-BCH
Broadcast channel
QPSK
F-CPCCH
Common power control channel
QPSK
F-CACH
Common assignment channel
QPSK
F-CCCH
Common control channel
QPSK
F-PDCCH
Packet data control channel
QPSK
F-PDCH
Packet data channel
QPSK, 8PSK or 16QAM
CHAN
Data channel radio configuration 1-2
BPSK
CHAN
Data channel radio configuration 3-5
QPSK
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Short list of terms and abbreviations
For a more comprehensive glossary refer to the CDMA2000 standard.
Term or abbreviation
Description
APICH
auxiliary pilot channel
ATDPCH
auxiliary transmit diversity pilot channel
BCH
broadcast channel.
CACH
common assignment channel
CCCH
common control channel
CDEP
code domain error power
CDP
code domain power
Composite EVM
In accordance with the 3GPP2 specifications, determines the square root of the squared
error between the real and the imaginary parts of the test signal and an ideally generated
reference signal (EVM referred to the total signal) in a composite EVM measurement.
CPCCH
common power control channel
Crest factor
ratio of peak to average value of the signal
Inactive Channel Threshold
Minimum power that a single channel must have compared with the total signal to be
recognized as an active channel.
MC1
multi–carrier1 (one carrier system 1X).
MC2
multi–carrier3 (three carrier system 3X).
OTD
orthogonal transmit diversity, two antennas used
PCG
power control group: name in CDMA2000 system for 1536 chips or 1.25 ms interval;
transmitter power is constant during a power control group
PCH
paging channel
PDCH
packet data channel
PDCCH
packet data control channel
PICH
pilot channel 0.64
RC
radio configuration; definition of sampling rate, permissible data rates, modulation types
and use of special channels, and transmit diversity
SF
spreading factor
SYNC
synchronisation channel 32.64
TD
transmit diversity, two antennas used
TDPICH
transmit diversity pilot channel 16.128
x.y
Walsh code x.y, with code number x and spreading factor y of the channel
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Softkeys of the Code Domain Analyzer menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
"The following table shows all softkeys available in the main menu of the CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
option (MENU key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a
softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Note:
Most of the settings of the Code Domain Analyzer can be changed in two ways. One way is to
use the softkeys like in the base unit and previous options, i.e. by pressing the softkeys and by
entering the desired parameters directly in the corresponding fields. The softkey automatically
sets the focus on the desired field.
The other way is to use the dialog boxes, in which most of the settings of the Code Domain
Analyzer can be changed. To change a parameter via the dialog boxes, select the parameter to
be modified with the rotary knob or the cursor keys and press the ENTER key to edit the field
(the blue solid frame becomes a blue dotted frame). Make the desired changes in the field. To
confirm the changes press the ENTER key a second time.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Settings
Settings Overview
Submenu / Command
Command
Frontend Settings
IQ Capture Settings
Demod Settings
Channel Table Settings
New
Copy
Delete
Edit
Add Channel
Delete Channel
Meas
Sort
Save
Cancel
Reload
Restore Default Tables
Result Settings
Screen Focus A/B
Screen Size Full/Split
Select Meas
Code Domain Power
Channel Table
Power vs PCG
Result Summary
Screen Focus A/B
Select Ch/PCG
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Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
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Submenu / Command
Command
More
Code Domain Error
Composite EVM
Peak Code Domain Error
Channel Constell
Screen Focus A/B
Select Ch/PCG
More
EVM vs Symbol
Composite Constell
Power vs Symbol
Channel Bitstream
Screen Focus A/B
Select Ch/PCG
Select Ch/PCG
Adjust Ref Level
Settings
Opens a submenu to configure the Code Domain Analyzer result displays with the following
softkeys:
–
Settings Overview
–
Frontend Settings
–
IQ Capture Settings
–
Demod Settings
–
Channel Table Settings
–
Result Settings
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Settings Overview
This softkey opens the Settings Overview dialog box that visualizes the data flow of the Code
Domain Analyzer and summarizes all of the current settings. In addition, the current settings can
be changed via the Settings Overview dialog box.
To change the settings, either use the rotary knob or the cursor keys to change the focus to any
other block or press one of the following softkeys:
–
Frontend Settings
–
IQ Capture Settings
–
Demod Settings
–
Channel Table Settings
–
Result Settings
When using the rotary knob or the cursor keys, press the ENTER key to open the corresponding
dialog box. The Settings Overview dialog box always remains open while settings are modified.
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Frontend Settings
Opens the Frontend Settings dialog box.
In the Frontend Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Center
Ref. Level
Ref. Level Offset
RF Attenuation Manual
RF Attenuation Auto
Preamplifier
Center (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Ref. Level (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref. Level Offset (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Attenuation Manual (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Attenuation Auto (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Preamplifier (Frontend Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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IQ Capture Settings
Opens the IQ Capture Settings dialog box.
In the IQ Capture Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Capture Length
Swap IQ
Trigger Source
Trigger Polarity
Trigger Offset
Capture Length (IQ Capture Settings dialog box)
Defines the number of power control groups (PCG) that are to be analyzed. The input value is
always in multiples of the PCGs. The maximum capture length value is 64. The default value is
3.
Remote: CDP:IQL 12
Swap IQ (IQ Capture Settings dialog box)
If activated, inverts the sign of the Q-component of the signal. The default setting is OFF.
Remote: CDP:QINV ON
Trigger Source (IQ Capture Settings dialog box)
Selects one of the trigger modes: Free Run or External. Other trigger modes are not available.
The default setting is Free Run. If External trigger mode has been set, the enhancement label
TRG is displayed. For details on the trigger modes refer to Trigger mode overview on page 4.31.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR EXT
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Trigger Polarity (IQ Capture Settings dialog box)
Sets the polarity of the trigger source.
Depending on the required polarity of the edge, the trigger polarity can be set to either positive
or negative. The default setting is Pos. The setting only has an effect if the trigger source is
external.
Remote: TRIG:SLOP POS
Remote: SWE:EGAT:POL POS
Trigger Offset (IQ Capture Settings dialog box)
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Demod Settings
Opens the Demodulation Settings dialog box:
In the Demodulation Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Base SF
Antenna Diversity
Multi Carrier
Time/Phase Estimation
PN Offset
Base SF (Demod Settings dialog box)
Specifies the base spreading factor. If the base spreading factor of 64 is used for channels of
spreading factor 128 (code class 7), an alias power is displayed in the Code Domain Power and
Code Domain Error Power diagrams.
Remote: CDP:SFAC 64
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Antenna Diversity (Demod Settings dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the orthogonal transmit diversity (two-antenna system) and defines the
antenna for which the results will be displayed.
Antenna 1
The signal of antenna 1 is fed in.
The pilot channel (F-PICH) with channel number 0 and spreading factor 64
(0.64) is required.
If a channel table is used in the measurement (see Channel Table), it
must contain the pilot channel (F-PICH), but must not contain the transmit
diversity pilot channel (F-TDPICH).
As reference for the code power (Power Reference), PICH is used.
Antenna 2
The signal of antenna 2 is fed in.
The transmit diversity pilot channel (F-TDPICH) with channel number 16
and spreading factor 128 (16.128) is required.
If a channel table is used in the measurement (see Channel Table), it
must contain the transmit diversity pilot channel (F-TDPICH), but must not
contain the pilot channel (F-PICH).
As reference for the code power (Power Reference), F-TDPICH is used.
Off
The aggregate signal from both antennas is fed in.
The pilot channels of both antennas are required.
If a channel table is used in the measurement (see Channel Table), it
must contain both the transmit diversity pilot channel (F-TDPICH) and the
pilot channel (F-PICH).
As reference for the code power (Power Reference), F-PICH is used.
Remote: CDP:ANT OFF
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Multi Carrier (Demod Settings dialog box)
Activates or deactivates the Multi Carrier mode. The mode improves the processing of multi
carrier signals. It allows the measurement on one carrier out of a multi carrier signal. This is
done by activating a low pass filter and by using a special algorithm for signal detection on multi
carrier signals.
Note that the low pass filter affects the measured signal quality (e.g. EVM and RHO) compared
to a measurement without a filter. The algorithm used for signal detection slightly increases the
calculation time.
The frequency response of the low pass filter is shown below.
Frequency response of low pass filter (Multi Carrier = On)
0
-10
|H(f)| in dB
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Frequency in MHz
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Remote: CONF:CDP:MCAR ON
Time/Phase Estimation (Demod Settings dialog box)
Actives or deactivates the timing and phase offset calculation of the channels as to the pilot
channel. If deactivated or more than 50 active channels are in the signal, the calculation does
not take place and dashes instead of values are displayed as results.
Remote: CDP:TPM ON
PN Offset (Demod Settings dialog box)
Specifies the PN (Pseudo Noise) offset of the base station, which is used to distinguish the base
stations within a CDMA2000 system.
The PN offset determines the offset in the circulating PN sequence in multiples of 64 chips with
reference to the event second clock trigger.
Although the parameter is always available, it only has a function in External trigger mode.
Remote: CDP:PNOF 0...511
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Channel Table Settings
Opens the Channel Table Settings dialog box and the corresponding submenu.
Predefined channel tables are a way to customize measurements. The RECENT channel table
contains the last configuration used before switching from Auto Search to Predefined. The
BPC_RC4, MPC_RC1, MPC_RC4 and TDC_RC4 channel tables are included in the option per
default and are configured according to the standard. For details on the predefined channel
tables refer to Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303. In addition, new channel tables can
be created and saved to be used in measurements. For details refer to the step by step
instructions on how To edit a channel table on page 4.297, To create a channel table on page
4.297 and To copy a channel table on page 4.297.
In the Channel Table Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Channel Table
Inactive Channel Threshold
Channel Table Name
Channel Table (Channel Table Settings dialog box)
Defines the channel table used in the measurement.
Auto Search
Searches the whole code domain (all permissible symbol rates and
channel numbers) for active channels.
The automatic search provides an overview of the channels contained in
the signal. If channels are not detected as being active, change the
threshold (see Inactive Channel Threshold) or select the Predefined
channel search type.
Predefined
Performs the Code Domain Analyzer measurement on the basis of the
active predefined channel table (see Channel Table Name). All
channels of a channel table are assumed to be active. For details see
also Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB[:STAT] ON
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:SEL "MPC_RC4"
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Inactive Channel Threshold (Channel Table Settings dialog box)
Defines the minimum power which a single channel must have compared to the total signal in
order to be regarded as an active channel. Channels below the specified threshold are regarded
as "inactive". The parameter is only available in the Auto Search mode of the Channel Table
Settings dialog box.
The default value is -60 dB. With this value all channels with signals such as the CDMA2000 test
models are located by the Code Domain Power analysis. Decrease the Inactive Channel
Threshold value, if not all channels contained in the signal are detected.
Remote: CDP:ICTR –100 dB ... 0 dB
Channel Table Name (Channel Table Settings dialog box)
In this field a list of the available channel tables is shown. To activate a predefined channel
table, select the corresponding check box by using the cursor keys and pressing the ENTER
key. The selected channel table is then used as the basis for future measurements (until another
is chosen or Auto Search is activated).
An active channel table must completely describe the supplied signal, also in regard to the
transmit diversity (see Antenna Diversity).
Using the softkeys, customized channel tables can be defined or existing channel tables can be
modified. For details refer to the step-by-step instructions To edit a channel table on page 4.297,
To copy a channel table on page 4.297 and To create a channel table on page 4.297.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:CAT?
New
Creates a new channel table name that can be seen in the dialog box from then on. The name
will be automatically set to 'ChannelTable'. By default, the resulting channel table is completely
empty (i.e. it contains no channel at all). Also see the section on how To create a channel table
on page 4.297.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:NAME "NEW_TAB"
Copy
Copies the selected table. All elements of the selected channel table are copied, except the
name which is set to 'Copy of <SourceChannelTableName>'. Also see the section on how To
copy a channel table on page 4.297.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:COPY "CTAB2"
Delete
Deletes the selected channel table. The currently active channel table cannot be deleted.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:DEL "CTAB2"
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Edit
Opens the Edit Channel Table dialog box and the corresponding softkey menu.
The dialog box contains the following items (grey fields can not be modified):
Item
Description
Name
Enter the name of the selected channel table, which will be
saved under <name>.xml. Note that the old channel table
file is not deleted. The name is case sensitive and may not
contain spaces. It must be a valid MS Windows file name.
Description
Further information about the channel table can be entered
Channel Type
Select one of the channel types from the dropdown menu
Walsh Ch.SF
Enter the Channel Number (Ch) and Spreading Factor (SF).
For some channel types the possible values are limited or
preset (e.g. F-PICH, F-TDPICH and F-PDCH).
Symbol Rate/ksps
Display of the symbol rate
RC
The Radio Configuration (RC) can be customized for only
two channel types. For the F-PDCH the values can be
10(QPSK), 10(8PSK) and 10(16QAM). For CHAN channels
the Radio Configuration can either be 1-2 or 3-5.
Power/dB
Contains the measured relative code domain power. The
unit is dB. The fields are filled with values after pressing the
Meas softkey.
State
Indicates whether a channel is active or inactive
DomainConflict
A red bullet is shown if there's a conflict of any sort between
two or more channels (e.g. two conflicting channel codes)
Changes are never saved automatically. For that reason every time a change is made, the text
'*(unsaved changes)' appears in the title bar.
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The corresponding softkey menu contains the following items:
Add Channel
Delete Channel
Meas
Sort
Save
Cancel
Reload
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:NAME "NEW_TAB"
Add Channel
Inserts a new channel below the one selected. The default values for a new channel are:
ChannelType
CHAN
Walsh Ch.SF
1.64
SymbolRate
19.2 ksps (automatically calculated)
RadioConfiguration
3-5
Power
0 dB (automatically calculated)
State
Off
DomainConflict
No (automatically calculated)
To change the channel type use the dropdown menu that opens when selecting / highlighting
the Channel Type field that should be changed and pressing the ENTER key. The radio
configuration settings are changed in the same way.
To change the channel number type another channel number in the form
'ChannelNumber.SpreadingFactor' or simply the code number (see Channel (Code) Number
for details) in the respective field and confirm the change with the ENTER key.
To activate or deactivate a channel, simply select the field and confirm with the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL automatically checks for conflicts between two active channels.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:DATA "0…13, 2…7, 0…127, 0…30, 0, 0, 0 | 1"
Delete Channel
Deletes the selected channel without further notice.
Meas
Initiates a measurement in Automatic Channel Search mode. The measurement results are
applied to the active channel table. The active channel table is overwritten without further notice.
The softkey is only available if the Auto Search mode is selected in the Channel Table
Settings dialog box.
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Sort
Sorts the table according to the following rules.
First off, active channels are separated from inactive channels. Within these categories sorting is
then done first by the channel type (special channels like F-PICH or F-SYNC first, then data
channels) and next by the spreading factor in ascending order. Last, the sorting is done by the
code number, also in ascending order.
Save
Saves the table under its specified name in the xml-format. If you edit a channel table and want
to keep the original channel table, change the name of the edited channel table before saving it.
Cancel
Closes the Edit dialog box and returns to the Channel Table Settings dialog box. Changes
applied to the channel table are lost.
Reload
Reloads the original content of the copied channel table.
Restore Default Tables
Restores the predefined channel tables (see Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303) to their
factory–set values. Existing channel tables with the same name as default channel tables are
replaced by this action. In this way, you can undo unintentional overwriting.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:REST
Result Settings
Opens the Result Settings dialog box.
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The Result Settings dialog box contains the following parameters:
Power Control Group
Channel (Code) Number
Code Order
Code Power
Power Reference
Normalize
Power Control Group (Result Settings dialog box)
In some measurements it is possible to highlight the data of a specific PCG (Power Control
Group). Select the PCG (Power Control Group) on which to put the focus on in this field. The
range of the value depends on the Capture Length defined in the IQ Capture Settings dialog
box. The range is (0 to Capture Length-1).
The defined value is valid for any measurement which takes PCGs into account (for further
information see also the Select Ch/PCG softkey). The selected PCG is highlighted in red on the
screen (as opposed to the others which are displayed in yellow).
Remote: CDP:SLOT 0 ...(IQ_CAPTURE_LENGTH–1)
Channel (Code) Number (Result Settings dialog box)
The entry in this field corresponds to a specific code to be examined. The valid range is from 0
to BSF-1. The base spreading factor (BSF) is either 64 or 128 depending on the setting of the
Base SF field and can not be edited via this field. The selected channel will be marked red in the
Channel Table. In the Code Domain Power display and the Code Domain Error Power display,
all codes belonging to this channel will be marked red.
The defined value is valid for any measurement that takes a selected channel into account (for
further information see also the Select Ch/PCG softkey).
The rotary knob behavior depends on the result display and the graphic display. In the case of
the Code Domain Power and Code Domain Error result displays, the rotary knob behavior
depends on the code order (refer to Code Order) The adjacent channel is always selected with
the rotary knob. In the channel table, the rotary knob is used to scroll through the list.
Remote: CDP:CODE 0...(BASE SF–1)
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Code Order (Result Settings dialog box)
Selects the channel sorting for the Code Domain Power and Code Domain Error result
displays.
Bit-Reverse order
Hadamard order
The channels with concentrated codes are next to one another,
since the code numbers are sorted in bit–reversed order. Thus in the
Code Domain Power result display, the total power of a
concentrated code channel is displayed.
Example (for base spreading factor of 64):
0.64, 32.64, 16.64, 48.64, 8.64, 40.64, ... , 15.64, 47.64,
31.64, 63.64
The codes are sorted in ascending order in the result display.
Example (for base spreading factor of 64):
0.64, 1.64, 2.64, ... , 63.64.
For each code, the power is displayed in this code. If there is a code
channel in the signal that covers several codes, the individual power
of the codes is displayed.
For details refer to Hadamard and BitReverse Code Tables on page 4.353.
Remote: CDP:ORD HAD
Code Power (Result Settings dialog box)
Selects the y-axis scaling for the Code Domain Power result display.
Absolute scaling
dBm
Relative scaling
dB
The reference is determined via the Power Reference.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP[:ABS]"
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP:RAT"
Power Reference (Result Settings dialog box)
Determines the reference power for the relative power result displays (Code Domain Power,
Power vs PCG).
Pilot Channel
The reference power is the power of the pilot channel. Which
pilot channel is used as reference depends on the antenna
diversity (for details see Antenna Diversity).
This is the default setting.
Total Power
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The reference power is the total power of the signal referred per
power control group (PCG) to the corresponding PCG.
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R&S FSL
By default, the power of the channels is referred to the power of the pilot channel (code number
0). The power of the pilot channel is identical over all PCGs and hence can be used as a
constant reference for the result display. In contrast, the total power can vary from PCG to PCG
due to the possibility of a power level change in the different code channels.
In the Power vs PCG result display, with enabled power control and reference to the total power
of the signal, the power control of the selected channel is not necessarily reflected.
Example (theoretical):
There is just one data channel in the signal and its power is controlled.
The power is referred to the total power of the signal (which consists only of the contribution
from this one data channel).
In the Power vs. PCG diagram, a straight line is displayed instead of the expected power
staircase.
For relative result displays, the reference value Total Power is therefore only meaningful if the
signal does not contain power control. For signals with enabled power control, use the Pilot
Channel setting, since the pilot channel is not subject to power control under any
circumstances.
Remote: CDP:PREF TOT
Normalize (Result Settings dialog box)
If activated, this parameter eliminates the DC offset from the signal. By default, the parameter is
deactivated.
Remote: CDP:NORM ON
Screen Focus A/B
Sets the focus on the selected screen. Changes apply only to the focused screen. There are no
restrictions to the display of measurement results, i.e. you can display every result display in
either or both screens.
Remote: DISP:SEL
Screen Size Full/Split
Displays the result display in full screen size, or splits the screen to display two result displays.
To change settings in split screen display, set the focus on the designated result display via the
Screen Focus A/B softkey.
Remote: DISP:FORM SING
Select Meas
Opens a submenu to select one of the measurements and result displays of the Code Domain
Analyzer:
–
Code Domain Power on page 4.323
–
Channel Table on page 4.324
–
Power vs PCG on page 4.325
–
Result Summary on page 4.326
–
Code Domain Error on page 4.328
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–
Composite EVM on page 4.329
–
Peak Code Domain Error on page 4.330
–
Channel Constell on page 4.331
–
EVM vs Symbol on page 4.332
–
Composite Constell on page 4.332
–
Power vs Symbol on page 4.333
–
Channel Bitstream on page 4.334
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
For details on screen layout and default settings refer to the measurement description of the
Code Domain Analysis on page 4.298.
Code Domain Power
Selects the Code Domain Power (CDP) result display with relative scaling.
In this result display, the total signal is taken into account over a single power control group. The
power of the different channels is determined and plotted in a diagram. In this diagram, the x–
axis represents the channel (code) number, which corresponds to the base spreading factor.
The y–axis is a logarithmic level axis that shows the power of each channel. To configure this
result display, use the Result Settings dialog box (Settings softkey menu, Result Settings
softkey).
The Code Domain Power result display supports two sort orders (for details refer to Code Order).
Fig. 4-30: CDP measurement (result displayed in Hadamard code order)
Fig. 4-31: CDP measurement (result displayed in Bit Reverse code order for the same signal)
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
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Active and inactive channels are defined via the Channel Table Settings dialog box (Settings
softkey menu, Channel Table Settings softkey). The power values of the active and
unassigned channels are shown in different colors. In addition, codes with alias power can
occur. These codes obtain power components originating either from a spreading factor higher
than the base spreading factor or from the own and/or another antenna as a result of transmit
diversity.
The following colors are defined:
–
Red: selected channel (Channel (Code) Number)
–
Yellow: active channel
–
Cyan: inactive channel
–
Light blue: alias power of higher spreading factor
–
Magenta: alias power as a result of transmit diversity
Note:
If codes with alias power are displayed, set the highest base spreading factor using the Base
SF.
It is not recommended to select more detailed result displays (such as Channel Constell) for
unassigned codes, since the results are not valid.
Remote: CALC1:FEED "XPOW:CDP:RAT" (relative code power)
Remote: CALC1:FEED "XPOW:CDP" (absolute code power)
Channel Table
Selects the Channel Table result display.
The Channel Table result display may contain up to 128 entries, corresponding to the highest
base spreading factor of 128. The total signal is taken into account over a single power control
group. You can set the number of PCGs by the Capture Length.
In the Channel Table result display, the channels are sorted according to channel type, i.e.
special channels like F-PICH, F-SYNC etc. first, then data channels (CHAN) and last inactive
channels (always shown as '---').
Within a group, channels are sorted according to the spreading factor and then according to
code number, also in ascending order. Within the code number, first active, then inactive
channels are listed. The selected channel (Channel (Code) Number) is marked in red. Active
and inactive data channels are defined via the Channel Table Settings dialog box (Settings
softkey menu, Channel Table Settings softkey).
Fig. 4-32: Channel Table result display
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
For the Code Domain Power measurement, the following parameters are determined for the
channels:
–
Channel Type
Shows type of channel ('---' for inactive channels)
–
Walsh Chan.SF
Channel number including the spreading factor (in the form <Channel>.<SF>).
–
Symb Rate/ksps
Symbol rate with which the channel is transmitted (9.6 ksps to 307.2 ksps).
–
RC
Radio configuration.
–
State
Status display. Unassigned codes are identified as inactive channels.
–
Pwr dBm/Pwr dB
Specification of the absolute (dBm) and relative (dB) (referred to the F-PICH or the total power
of signal) power of the channel
–
T Offs/ns and Ph Offs/mrad
Timing/phase offset between this channel and the pilot channel (enabled via the Demod
Settings softkey, Time/Phase Estimation).
If enabled, the maximum value of the timing/phase offset is displayed together with the
associated channel in the last two lines. Since the timing/phase offset values of each active
channel can be either negative or positive, the absolute values are compared and the maximum
is displayed with the original sign.
Remote: CALC1:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:CTAB"
Power vs PCG
Selects the Power versus Power Control Group (PCG) result display.
In this result display, the power of the selected channel is averaged for each measured PCG and
referred to the pilot power of the PCG. Therefore the unit of the y–axis is dB (relative to the Pilot
Channel). For measurements in which Antenna Diversity is inactive (OFF) or set to 'Antenna 1',
the F-PICH channel is used as reference, while the F-TDPICH channel is used for measurements in
which Antenna Diversity is set to 'Antenna 2'.
Note:
For signals with enabled power control, use the default reference power setting. For details
refer to Power Reference.
The result display consists of the number of the PCGs in the measurement and their respective
power value. You can set the number of PCGs by means of the Capture Length. Subsequently,
the Power vs. PCG result display takes one code channel into account over the entire period of
observation. The selected PCG (Power Control Group) is marked in red.
Note:
For a power–regulated signal, to correctly detect the start of a power control group, the external
trigger must be used.
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R&S FSL
Fig. 4-33: Power vs PCG for an occupied channel with power control
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:PVSL"
Result Summary
Selects the numeric result display of many measurement results. Note the effects of the Trace
Mode softkey differ from other measurements. The Min Hold and Max Hold values are already
given in the Min and Max columns of the Result Summary table. When in Average trace mode,
the Current column is renamed to Average and the corresponding values are displayed. The
current values are displayed in the Current column, when the View trace mode is activated.
The result display is subdivided as follows:
–
Global Results
–
PCG
–
Channel
Fig. 4-34: Result summary
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:SUMM"
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:CDP:RES?
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Global Results
Under Global Results, the measurement results that concern the total signal (that is, all
channels) for the entire period of observation (that is, all PCGs) are displayed:
–
Carrier Frequency Error
Specifies the frequency error referred to the set center frequency of the R&S FSL. The absolute
frequency error is the sum of the frequency error of the R&S FSL and that of the device under
test. Frequency differences between the transmitter and receiver of more than 1.0 kHz impair
synchronization of the Code Domain Power measurement. If at all possible, the transmitter and
the receiver should be synchronized (refer to chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples").
The frequency error is available in the units both Hz and ppm referred to the carrier frequency.
The value of the Carrier Frequency Error in ppm is only displayed in full screen mode.
–
Chip Rate Error
Specifies the chip rate error (1.2288 Mcps) in ppm. A large chip rate error results in symbol
errors and, consequently, possibly in the Code Domain Power measurement not being able to
perform synchronization. This measurement result is also valid if the R&S FSL could not
synchronize to the CDMA2000 signal.
–
Trigger to Frame
Reflects the time offset from the beginning of the recorded signal section to the start of the first
PCG. In case of triggered data recording, this corresponds to the timing offset:
frame trigger (+ trigger offset) – start of first PCG
If it was not possible to synchronize the R&S FSL to the CDMA2000 signal, this measurement
result is meaningless. If the Free Run trigger mode is selected, dashes are displayed.
The Trigger to Frame value is only displayed in full screen mode.
–
Active Channels
Specifies the number of active channels found in the signal. Detected data channels as well as
special channels are regarded as active. With transmit diversity, the result applies to the
selected antenna (refer to Antenna Diversity). No value is displayed in both the Min and Max
columns.
PCG
Under PCG, the measurement results that concern the total signal (that is, all channels) for the
selected power control group (Capture Length) are displayed:
–
Total Power
Shows the total power of the signal.
–
Pilot Power
Shows the power of the pilot channel. If antenna 2 is selected, the power of the F-TDPICH is
displayed, in all other cases that of the F-PICH (for details refer to Antenna Diversity).
The value for the Pilot Power is only displayed in full screen mode.
–
RHO
Shows the quality parameter RHO. According to the CDMA2000 standard, RHO is the
normalized, correlated power between the measured and the ideally generated reference
signal. When RHO is measured, the CDMA2000 standard requires that only the pilot channel
be supplied.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
–
R&S FSL
Composite EVM
The composite EVM is the difference between the test signal and the ideal reference signal
(refer to the Composite EVM softkey).
–
IQ Imbalance / Offset
Shows the IQ imbalance and the DC offset of the signal in %.
The values for IQ Imbalance and IQ Offset are only displayed in full screen mode.
Channel
Under Channel, the measurement results of the selected channel and the selected PCG are
displayed:
–
Power
Shows the channel power of the selected channel and PCG. The result depends on the
selected Code Power and the Power Reference) and absolute channel power.
–
EVM
Shows the peak or mean value of the EVM measurement result (refer to the EVM vs Symbol
softkey).
The value of the EVM is only displayed in full screen mode.
–
Modulation
Displays the modulation type of the channel and PCG: BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK, or 16QAM. No
values are displayed in the Min and Max columns.
–
Timing Offset
Shows the timing offset between the selected channel and the pilot channel (enabled via the
Demod Settings softkey, Time/Phase Estimation).
The Timing Offset is only displayed in full screen mode.
–
Phase Offset
Shows the phase offset between the selected channel and the pilot channel (enabled via the
Demod Settings softkey, Time/Phase Estimation).
The Phase Offset is only displayed in full screen mode.
Select Ch/PCG
This softkey allows to select a specific PCG (Power Control Group) and/ or channel for the
measurement. The key has three different states. Pressing the softkey once, opens a standard
dialog box in which the channel number can be entered. Pressing it for the second time, a
specific PCG can be entered. On the third hit, the softkey becomes unselected.
For details on the effects of the Select Ch/PCG softkey, refer to Channel (Code) Number and
Power Control Group
The following result displays take results for a PCG into account:
–
Code Domain Power on page 4.323
–
Code Domain Error on page 4.329
–
Channel Table on page 4.324
–
Power vs Symbol on page 4.333
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–
Composite Constell on page 4.333
–
Result Summary on page 4.326
–
Channel Bitstream on page 4.334
–
Channel Constell on page 4.332
–
EVM vs Symbol on page 4.332
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
The following result displays take results for a channel into account:
–
Power vs PCG on page 4.325
–
Power vs Symbol on page 4.333
–
Result Summary on page 4.326
–
Channel Bitstream on page 4.334
–
Channel Constell on page 4.332
–
EVM vs Symbol on page 4.332
Remote: CDP:SLOT 0 ...(IQ_CAPTURE_LENGTH–1) (PCG selection)
Remote: CDP:CODE 0...(BASE SF–1) (Channel and Code selection)
Code Domain Error
Selects the Code Domain Error Power (CDEP) result display.
This result display shows the difference in power between measured and ideally generated
reference signals for each code in dB. Since it is an error power, active and inactive channels
can be rated jointly at a glance. The total signal is taken into account over a single power control
group. The error power in the different codes is determined and plotted in a diagram. In this
diagram, the x–axis represents the channel (code) number, which corresponds to the base
spreading factor. The y–axis is a logarithmic level axis that shows the power of each channel. To
configure this result display, use the Result Settings dialog box (Settings softkey menu, Result
Settings softkey).
The Code Domain Error Power result display supports two sort orders, Hadamard and Bit-Reverse
(for details refer to Code Order).
Fig. 4-35: Code Domain Error Power (results shown in Hadamard code order)
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Fig. 4-36: Code Domain Error Power (results for the same signal shown in Bit Reverse code order)
Active and inactive channels are defined via the Channel Table Settings dialog box (Settings
softkey menu, Channel Table Settings softkey). The power values of the active and inactive
channels take on different colors. In addition, codes with alias power can occur. These codes
obtain power components originating either from a spreading factor higher than the base
spreading factor or from the own and/or another antenna as a result of transmit diversity.
The following colors are defined:
–
Red: selected channel (Channel (Code) Number)
–
Yellow: active channel
–
Cyan: inactive
–
Light blue: alias power of higher spreading factor
–
Magenta: alias power as a result of transmit diversity
Note:
If codes with alias power are displayed, set the highest base spreading factor using the Base
SF.
It is not recommended to select more detailed result displays (such as Channel Constell) for
unassigned codes, since the results are not valid.
Remote: CALC1:FEED "XPOW:CDEP"
Composite EVM
Selects the result display of the error vector magnitude (EVM) over the total signal (modulation
accuracy).
In this result display, the square root is determined from the error square between the real and
imaginary parts of the test signal and an ideally generated reference signal (EVM referred to the
total signal).
The result display consists of a composite EVM measured value for each power control group
(PCG). You can set the number of PCGs by the Capture Length. Subsequently, the Composite
EVM result display takes the whole signal into account over the entire period of observation. The
selected PCG (Power Control Group) is marked in red.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Only the channels detected as being active are used to generate the ideal reference signal. If a
channel is not detected as being active, e.g. on account of low power, the difference between
the test signal and the reference signal and the composite EVM is therefore very large (see Fig.
4-37). Distortions also occur if unassigned codes are wrongly given the status of "active
channel". To obtain reliable measurement results, select an adequate channel threshold via the
Inactive Channel Threshold field.
Fig. 4-37: Composite EVM display for the case of all the channels contained in the signal being
detected as active.
Remote: CALC1:FEED "XTIM:CDP:MACC"
Peak Code Domain Error
Selects the Peak Code Domain Error result display.
In this result display, the error between the test signal and the ideally generated reference signal
is projected to the base spreading factor. The unit of the y–axis is dB. The base spreading factor
is selected by the Base SF.
The result display consists of the numeric value per PCG for the peak code domain error. You
can set the number of PCGs by the Capture Length. Subsequently, the Peak Code Domain
Error result display takes the whole signal into account over the entire period of observation. The
selected PCG (Power Control Group) is marked in red.
Only the channels detected as being active are used to generate the ideal reference signal. If a
channel is not detected as being active, e.g. on account of low power, the difference between
the test signal and the reference signal is very large. The result display therefore shows a peak
code domain error that is too high (see Fig. 4-38). Distortions also occur if unassigned codes are
wrongly given the status of "active channel". To obtain reliable measurement results, select an
adequate channel threshold via the Inactive Channel Threshold field.
Fig. 4-38: Peak code domain error for the case of all the channels contained in the signal being
detected as active
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:PCD"
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Channel Constell
Selects the Channel Constellation result display.
The measurement provides information about the channel constellation at symbol level. It shows
the constellation of the modulated signals of the selected channel and PCG (see Select
Ch/PCG). Supported modulation schemes are BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM. In CDMA2000
the modulation scheme depends on the channel type. Inactive channels can be measured, but
the result is meaningless since these channels do not contain data.
The BPSK constellation points are displayed on the x-axis, while the constellation points of
QPSK and 16QAM are located on neither axis.
Fig. 4-39: Channel constellation diagram
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:SYMB:CONS"
EVM vs Symbol
Selects the Symbol Error Vector Magnitude result display.
The result display provides information on the EVM for the selected channel and the selected
PCGs on symbol level. The number of symbols is in the range from 6 to 384 and can be
calculated like this:
Number of symbols = Number of chips in one PCG / ChannelSF / K, with
Number of chips in one PCG = 1536
Channel SF = 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128
K = 1 for Antenna Diversity = OFF
OFF
K = 2 for Antenna Diversity
This calculation thus takes into account the results of a channel for a power control group. The
result is given in %. Inactive channels can be measured, but the result is meaningless since
these channels do not contain data. To set the channel and the PCG, use the Select Ch/PCG
softkey.
Fig. 4-40: Error vector magnitude on symbol level
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:SYMB:EVM"
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Composite Constell
Selects the Composite Constellation result display.
The measurement provides information about the constellation points at chip level. The total
signal is taken into account over the selected PCG. Therefore it is not possible to select a
specific channel number. For each of the 1536 chips, a constellation point is displayed in the
diagram.
Fig. 4-41: Composite constellation diagram
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:COMP:CONS"
Power vs Symbol
Selects the Power versus Symbol result display.
In this result display, the absolute power in dBm at every symbol number is calculated for the
selected channel and the selected PCGs. This calculation thus takes into account the results of
a channel for a specific PCG. To set the channel and the PCG, use the Select Ch/PCG softkey.
Fig. 4-42: Power of a channel on symbol level
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:PVSY"
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Channel Bitstream
Selects the Bitstream result display.
The result display provides information on the demodulated bits for the selected channel and the
selected PCGs. This calculation thus takes into account the results of a channel for a specific
PCG. All bits that are part of inactive channels are marked as being invalid by means of dashes.
For 16QAM modulation '----' is displayed, for 8PSK modulation '---', for QPSK '--' and for BPSK ''. To set the channel and the PCG, use the Select Ch/PCG softkey.
A certain symbol can be selected by using the MKR key. By enetering a number, the marker will
jump to the selected symbol. If there are more symbols than the screen is capable of displaying,
the marker can also be used to scroll inside the list.
Depending on the spreading factor (symbol rate) of the channel, a minimum of 12 and a
maximum of 384 symbols can be contained in a power control group. In case of an active
transmit diversity (Antenna Diversity) the values redeuce to the half. Depending on the
modulation type, a symbol consists of the following bits:
–
BPSK: 1 bit (only the I–component is assigned)
–
QPSK: 2 bits (I–component followed by the Q–component)
–
8PSK: 3 bits
–
16QAM: 4 bits
In accordance with the radio configuration and the channel type, there are BPSK and QPSK
modulated channels in the CDMA2000 system. For details refer to Relationship between
channel type and modulation type on page 4.305.
The order is shown in the following figure:
Fig. 4-43: Phasor diagram for QPSK, BPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM including bit values
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Fig. 4-44: Demodulated bits of a channel for one PCG
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:BSTR"
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the
RF attenuation and reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without overloading
the R&S FSL or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
Current measurements are aborted when pressing the softkey and resumed after the automatic
level detection is finished.
For further details refer also to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the measurement menu of the
base unit.
Remote: CDP:LEV:ADJ
Softkeys of the frequency menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Center
Start
Stop
CF-Stepsize
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. For further details refer to the Start
softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Note that the softkey is unavailable for Code Domain and CCDF measurements.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 800 MHz
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. For further details refer to the Stop
softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Note that the softkey is unavailable for Code Domain and CCDF measurements.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 1.500 MHz
CF-Stepsize
For details including the submenu refer to the CF Stepsize softkey in the frequency menu of the
base unit.
Softkeys of the span menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Note that the span menu is not available for code domain measurements and the signal power
measurement.
Command
Span Manual
Sweeptime Manual
Start
Stop
Full Span
Last Span
Span Manual
For details refer to the Span Manual softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Manual
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Start
For details refer to the Start softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Stop
For details refer to the Stop softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Full Span
For details refer to the Full Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Last Span
For details refer to the Last Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the amplitude menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Adjust Ref Level
Ref Level Offset
Preamp On/Off
Scaling
Auto Scale Once
y-Axis Maximum
y-Axis Minimum
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Adjust Ref Level
For details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer menu.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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R&S FSL
Preamp On/Off
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Note that this softkey is only available if the hardware option RF Preamplifier B22 is installed.
Scaling
Opens a submenu with the following softkeys:
Auto Scale Once
y-Axis Maximum
y-Axis Minimum
This submenu is only available for code domain measurements.
Auto Scale Once
Automatically scales the y-axis of the grid of the selected screen with respect to the measured
data.
The softkey is available for the following measurements: Code Domain Power, Code Domain
Error, Composite EVM. Peak Code Domain Error, Peak Code Domain Error vs PCG, Power vs
PCG, EVM vs Symbol and Power vs Symbol.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ONCE
y-Axis Maximum
Opens a dialog box to set the maximum value for the y-axis of the grid of the selected screen.
The softkey is available for the following measurements: Code Domain Power, Code Domain
Error, Composite EVM. Peak Code Domain Error, Peak Code Domain Error vs PCG, Power vs
PCG, EVM vs Symbol and Power vs Symbol.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:MAX -40
y-Axis Minimum
Opens a dialog box to set the minimum value for the y-axis of the grid of the selected screen.
The softkey is available for the following measurements: Code Domain Power, Code Domain
Error, Composite EVM. Peak Code Domain Error, Peak Code Domain Error vs PCG, Power vs
PCG, EVM vs Symbol and Power vs Symbol.
Remote: :DISP:TRAC:Y:MIN 50
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the bandwidth menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Note that the softkeys of the bandwidth menu are not available for code domain measurements and are
inactive for the CCDF measurement.
Command
Res BW Manual
Res BW Auto
Video BW Manual
Video BW Auto
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Filter Type
Res BW Manual
For details refer to the Res BW Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Res BW Auto
For details refer to the Res BW Auto softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Video BW Manual
For details refer to the Video BW Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Video BW Auto
For details refer to the Video BW Auto softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Manual
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Auto
For details refer to the Sweeptime Auto softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Filter Type
For details refer to the Filter Type softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the sweep menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the sweep menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Continuous Sweep
Single Sweep
Continue Single Sweep
Sweeptime Manual
Sweeptime Auto
Sweep Count
Sweep Points
Continuous Sweep
For details refer to the Continuous Sweep softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Single Sweep
For details refer to the Single Sweep softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Continue Single Sweep
For details refer to the Continue Single Sweep softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Manual
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
The softkey is not available for code domain and the CCDF measurements.
Sweeptime Auto
For details refer to the Sweeptime Auto softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
The softkey is not available for code domain and the CCDF measurements.
Sweep Count
For details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
Sweep Points
For details refer to the Sweep Points softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Softkeys of the trigger menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trigger menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Trigger Source
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
Trigger Offset
Trigger Source
For details refer to the Trigger Source softkey of the IQ Capture Settings dialog box.
Trigger Polarity Pos/Neg
For details refer to the Trigger Polarity softkey of the IQ Capture Settings dialog box.
Trigger Offset
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the trace menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the trace menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode.
It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Trace Mode
Screen Focus A/B
Screen Size Full/Split
Scaling
Sweep Count
Trace Mode
Opens a dialog box, in which the trace mode can be selected. For details on the various trace
modes refer to the Trace mode overview on page 4.40.
Note that the Blank trace mode is not available for the code domain measurements. Also note
that the Trace Mode softkey is not available for the Result Summary measurement. This is
because in this measurement the minimum, mean and maximum values are already supported
(see Result Summary).
Remote: DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Screen Focus A/B
For details refer to the Screen Focus A/B softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer root menu
(main menu).
Screen Size Full/Split
For details refer to the Screen Size Full/Split softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer root menu
(main menu).
Scaling
For details refer to the Scaling softkey in the amplitude menu.
Auto Scale Once (Scaling menu)
For details refer to the Auto Scale Once softkey in the amplitude menu.
y-Axis Maximum (Scaling menu)
For details refer to the y-Axis Maximum softkey in the amplitude menu.
y-Axis Minimum (Scaling menu)
For details refer to the y-Axis Minimum softkey in the amplitude menu.
Sweep Count
For details refer to the Sweep Count softkey in the sweep menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Softkeys of the marker menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
The softkeys of the marker menu are not available for the Result Summary, Channel Table and CCDF
measurements.
Command
Marker 1
Marker 2
Marker 3
Marker 4
Marker Norm/Delta
All Marker Off
Percent Marker
Marker 1/Marker 2/Marker 3/Marker 4Marker Norm/Delta
The Marker <no> softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box to
enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the selected
marker. If two screens are active in the Code Domain Analyzer, each of the screens has its own
set of markers.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 4
are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into markers with
absolute value display by means of the Marker Norm/Delta softkey. If marker 1 is the active
marker, pressing the Marker Norm/Delta softkey switches on an additional delta marker.
For the Channel Bitstream measurement only one marker (Marker 1) is available. It can be used
for scrolling and to display the number and value of a bit.
Remote: CALC:MARK ON
Remote: CALC:MARK:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y?
Remote: CALC:DELT ON
Remote: CALC:DELT:X <value>
Remote: CALC:DELT:X:REL?
Remote: CALC:DELT:Y?
All Marker Off
For details refer to the All Marker Off softkey in the marker menu of the base unit.
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R&S FSL
Percent Marker
"Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus, the power
which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If marker 1 is
deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
This softkey is only available for the CCDF measurement.
Remote: CALC:MARK:Y:PERC 0…100%
Softkeys of the marker–> menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker–> menu in CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
The softkeys of the marker-> menu are not available for the Result Summary, Channel Table and
CCDF measurements.
Command
Select 1 2 3 4
Peak
Next Peak
Next Peak Mode < abs>
F-PICH
F-TDPICH
More
Select 1 2 3 4
Min
Next Min
Next Min Mode < abs>
Select 1 2 3 4
Selects the normal marker or the delta markers, activates the marker and opens an edit dialog
stands for delta marker 1.
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to.
Since the Channel Bitstream measurements supports only one marker, this softkey is not
available for that measurement.
Remote: CALC:MARK1 ON
Remote: CALC:MARK1:X <value>
Remote: CALC:MARK1:Y?
Peak
For details refer to the Peak softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Next Peak
For details refer to the Next Peak softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
Next Peak Mode < abs>
For details refer to the Next Peak Mode < abs > softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
F-PICH
Sets the marker to the F-PICH channel. The softkey is only available if the x-axis of the active
screen is a code axis.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:PICH
F-TDPICH
Sets the marker to the F-TDPICH channel. The softkey is only available if the x-axis of the active
screen is a code axis.
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:TDP
Min
For details refer to the Min softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
Next Min
For details refer to the Next Min softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
Next Min Mode < abs>
For details refer to the Next Min Mode < abs > softkey in the MKR-> menu of the base unit.
Softkeys of the measurement menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the measurement menu in CDMA2000 BTS
Analyzer mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a
softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Submenu / Command
Code Domain Analyzer
Power
Adjacent Channel Power
ACP Config
Sweep Time
Fast ACP On/Off
ACP Abs/Rel
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Menu / Command
R&S FSL
Submenu / Command
Adjust Ref Level
Spectrum Emission Mask
Edit Sweep List
List Evaluation
Edit Reference Range
Edit Power Classes
Bandclass
Load Standard
Save As Standard
Meas Start/Stop
Restore FSL K82 Files
Occupied Bandwidth
% Power Bandwidth
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
CCDF
Percent Marker
Res BW
# of Samples
Scaling
Adjust Settings
Code Domain Analyzer
AActivates the Code Domain Analyzer and opens the Code Domain Analyzer menu. Select the
desired result display via this menu. For details refer to Softkeys of the Code Domain Analyzer
menu (CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer mode) on page 4.307.
For details on the measurements in the code domain, initial configuration and screen layout refer
to the description of the Code Domain Analysis on page 4.298.
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS CDP
Power
Activates the Signal Channel Power measurement, in which the power of a single channel is
determined.
For details on screen layout and default values see the description of the Signal Channel Power
on page 4.300.
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS POW
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW (result query)
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Adjacent Channel Power
Activates the Adjacent Channel Power measurement.
In this measurement the power of the carrier and its adjacent and alternate channels is determined.
For details on screen layout and default values see the description of the Adjacent Channel Power
on page 4.300.
Also opens the Adjacent Channel Power submenu containing the following softkeys:
Bandclass
ACP Config
Sweep Time
Fast ACP On/Off
ACP Abs/Rel
Adjust Ref Level
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS ACLR
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP (result query)
Bandclass (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
softkey:Band Class (K82)"Opens a dialog box to select the bandclass. The following
bandclasses are available:
Band Class 0
800 MHz Cellular Band
Band Class 1
1.9 GHz PCS Band
Band Class 2
TACS Band
Band Class 3
JTACS Band
Band Class 4
Korean PCS Band
Band Class 5
450 MHz NMT Band
Band Class 6
2 GHz IMT-2000 Band
Band Class 7
700 MHz Band
Band Class 8
1800 MHz Band
Band Class 9
900 MHz Band
Band Class 10
Secondary 800 MHz
Band Class 11
400 MHz European PAMR Band
Band Class 12
800 MHz PAMR Band
Band Class 13
2.5 GHz IMT-2000 Extension Band
Band Class 14
US PCS 1.9 GHz Band
Band Class 15
AWS Band
Band Class 16
US 2.5 GHz Band
Band Class 17
US 2.5 GHz Forward Link Only Band
Remote: CONF:CDP:BCL <value>
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R&S FSL
ACP Config (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
For details on the softkey and submenus refer to the CP / ACP Config softkey in the Adjacent
Channel Power submenu of the base unit.
Sweep Time (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
For details refer to the Sweep Time softkey in the Adjacent Channel Power submenu of the
base unit.
Fast ACP On/Off (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
For details refer to the Fast ACP On/Off softkey in the Adjacent Channel Power submenu of the
base unit.
ACP Abs/Rel (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
For details refer to the ACP Abs/Rel softkey in the Adjacent Channel Power submenu of the
base unit.
Adjust Ref Level (Adjacent Channel Power submenu)
For details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer menu.
Spectrum Emission Mask
Performs a comparison of the signal power in different carrier offset ranges with the maximum
values specified in the CDMA2000 specification. With the exception of a few softkeys this
measurement is identical to the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement of the base unit (refer to
Spectrum Emission Mask on page 4.104).
For details on screen layout and default values see the description of the Spectrum Emission
Mask on page 4.301.
Also opens the Spectrum Emission Mask submenu containing the following softkeys:
Edit Sweep List
List Evaluation
Edit Reference Range
Edit Power Classes
Bandclass
Load Standard
Save As Standard
Meas Start/Stop
Restore FSL K82 Files
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS ESP
Remote: CALC:LIM:FAIL?
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Edit Sweep List
For details on the Edit Sweep List softkey and its submenu refer to the Edit Sweep List softkey
in the Spectrum Emission Mask submenu of the base unit.
List Evaluation
For details on the List Evaluation softkey and its submenu refer to the List Evaluation softkey in
the Spectrum Emission Mask submenu of the base unit.
Edit Reference Range
Opens the Reference Range dialog box. For details refer to the Edit Reference Range softkey
in the Spectrum Emission Mask submenu of the base unit.
Edit Power Classes
Opens the Power Classes dialog box. For details refer to the Edit Power Classes softkey in the
Spectrum Emission Mask submenu of the base unit.
Bandclass
Opens a dialog box, to select a specific bandclass.
A list of the supported bandclasses can be found in the description of the Bandclass softkey in
the ACP measurement menu.
The settings for each bandclass are provided in *.xml files that are located in the directory
C:\R_S\INSTR\sem_std\cdma2000\dl. The files themselves are named C2K_DL_BC01.XML
(bandclass 1) to C2K_DL_BC17.XML (bandclass 17). By selecting one of the bandclasses from
the dialog box, the correct file will be loaded automatically. The file can also be loaded manually
(see Load Standard softkey).
Remote: CONF:CDP:BCL <value>
Load Standard
Opens the Load Standard dialog box, in which the *.xml file to be imported can be selected. If a
file is imported, the SEM settings specified in the file will be used. All previous SEM settings will
be lost.
Remote: ESP:PRES "<file name>"
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R&S FSL
Save As Standard
Opens the Save As Standard dialog box, in which the currently used SEM settings and
parameters can be saved and exported into an *.xml file. Enter the name of the file in the file
name field.
It is also possible to save the settings under one of the default bandclass file names (see
Bandclass softkey). When overwriting one of the default files, the customized settings will be
linked to the corresponding bandclass while the default settings are lost.
To restore the default bandclass settings press the Restore FSL K82 Files softkey.
Remote: ESP:STOR "<file name>"
Meas Start/Stop
For details on the Meas Start/Stop softkey refer to the Meas Start/Stop softkey in the Spectrum
Emission Mask submenu of the base unit.
Restore FSL K82 Files
"softkey:Restore FSL K82 Files (K82)"Restores all default files of the K82 option into the
C:\R_S\INSTR\SYSTEM_ROOT_RW\sem_std\cdma2000\dl directory. If changes have been
applied to the files, these will be lost.
Remote: ESP:PRES:REST
Occupied Bandwidth
Activates measurement of the bandwidth assigned to the signal.
For details on screen layout and default values see the description of the Occupied Bandwidth
on page 4.301.
Also opens the Occupied Bandwidth submenu containing the following softkeys:
% Power Bandwidth
Channel Bandwidth
Adjust Ref Level
Adjust Settings
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS OBAN
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBAN (result query)
% Power Bandwidth
For details refer to the % Power Bandwidth softkey in the OBW submenu of the base unit.
Channel Bandwidth
For details refer to the Channel Bandwidth softkey in the ACP Config submenu of the base
unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Adjust Ref Level
For details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer menu.
Adjust Settings
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration (channel
bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The
adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can be changed later.
Remote: POW:ACH:PRES OBW
CCDF
Starts the measurement of the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function and the Crest
factor.
For details on screen layout and default values see the description of the Complementary
Cumulative Distribution Function on page 4.302.
Also opens the CCDF submenu containing the following softkeys:
Percent Marker
Res BW
# of Samples
Scaling
More
Adjust Settings
Remote: CONF:CDP:MEAS CCDF
Percent Marker
For details refer to the Percent Marker softkey in the CCDF submenu of the base unit.
Res BW
For details refer to the Res BW softkey in the CCDF submenu of the base unit.
# of Samples
For details refer to the # of Samples softkey in the CCDF submenu of the base unit.
Scaling
For details refer to the Scaling softkey and the corresponding submenu in the CCDF submenu
of the base unit.
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Adjust Settings
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration (channel
bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The
adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can be changed later.
Remote: CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
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R&S FSL
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Hadamard and BitReverse Code Tables
The following tables show the code sequences with Hadamard and BitReverse orders for the Code
Domain Power and Code Domain Error Power result displays.
As an example, the corresponding cells for channel 8.32 (channel number 8 for spreading factor 32) are
marked to show where the different codes of this channel are located.
Table 4-14: Code table for base spreading factor 64
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CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
R&S FSL
Table 4-15: Code table for base spreading factor 128 (part 1)
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R&S FSL
CDMA2000 BTS Analyzer (Option K82)
Table 4-16: Code table for base spreading factor 128 (part 1)
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
The R&S FSL equipped with the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option performs Code Domain measurements
on forward link signals according to the 3GPP2 Standard (Third Generation Partnership Project 2) high
rate packet data. The standard, which was defined for packet-oriented data communications, is
generally referred to as 1xEV-DO (First EVolution Data Only).
This option is available from firmware version 2.00
To open the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer
If the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode is not the active measurement mode, press the MODE key
and activate the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option.
If the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode is already active, press the MENU key.
The Code Domain Analyzer menu is displayed.
Further Information
–
Measurements and result display
–
Channel Type Characteristics
–
Predefined Channel Tables
Menu and softkey description
–
"Softkeys of the Code Domain Analyzer Menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.365
–
"Softkeys of the frequency menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.390
–
"Softkeys of the span menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.391
–
"Softkeys of the amplitude menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.392
–
"Softkeys of the bandwidth menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.394
–
"Softkeys of the sweep menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.395
–
"Softkeys of the trigger menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.396
–
"Softkeys of the trace menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.396
–
"Softkeys of the marker menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.397
–
"Softkeys of the marker–> menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.399
–
"Softkeys of the measurement menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)" on page 4.400
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Measurements and result display
The 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option provides the following test measurement types and result displays.
All measurements and result displays are accessed via the MEAS key (measurement menu).
–
"Code Domain Analysis" on page 4.357
–
"Signal Channel Power" on page 4.358
–
"Adjacent Channel Power" on page 4.359
–
"Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 4.360
–
"Occupied Bandwidth" on page 4.360
–
"Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)" on page 4.361
–
"Power vs Time" on page 4.362
Code Domain Analysis
The Code Domain Analyzer performs measurements in the code domain. The following
measurement types and corresponding result displays are available:
Softkey
Definition
Code Domain Power
Code Domain Power result display
General Results
General results in tabular form
Channel Results
Results for a specific channel in tabular form
Power vs Chip
Power of the selected channel versus all chips
Power vs Symbol
Power of the selected channel and of the selected slot versus all symbols
Composite EVM
Averaged error between the test signal and the ideal reference signal
Channel Table
Channel occupancy table
Bitstream
Display of decided bits
Peak Code Domain Error
Projection of the maximum error between the test signal and the reference signal
Code Domain Error
Code Domain Error Power result display
Symbol Constellation
Symbol constellation result display
EVM vs Symbol
Error Vector Magnitude result display
Composite Constellation
Composite constellation result display
In the Code Domain Analyzer, the results are displayed in either one screen or in two screens (see
Screen Size Split/Full softkey). Any result can be displayed in either screen. On top of the
measurement screens the following settings and measurement results (so called result displays)
are displayed (with the respective default settings):
Frequency: 3.000 Ghz
Ref. Level: -20.00 dBm
Ref. Lvl Offset: 0.0 dB
Code Power: REL
Count: 0
RF Attenuation: 0 dB
Slot: 0 of 3
Code: 0.32
Channel Type: PILOT
In the default setting after the preset, the analyzer is in Spectrum Analyzer mode (for details see
"Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key" on page 4.3). The settings of the Code Domain
Analyzer are not active until the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode is activate (see "To open the 1xEVDO BTS Analyzer" on page 4.356)
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Parameter
Setting
Digital standard
1xEV-DO, Revision 0
Sweep
Continuous
Channel table
Auto Search
Trigger source
Free Run
Trigger offset
0s
PN offset
0 chips
Inactive channel threshold
-40 dB
Channel type
PILOT
Code number
0
Slot
0
Capture length
3 slots
R&S FSL
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred
parameter
Reference level
Ref Level Offset
Attenuation
Center Frequency
Frequency offset
Signal Channel Power
The Power measurement analyses the RF signal power of a single channel with 1.2288 MHz
bandwidth over a single trace. The displayed results are based on the root mean square.
The configuration is according to the 1xEV-DO0 requirements.
Beneath the measurement screen the bandwidth and the associated channel power are displayed.
The other screen elements match that of the screen of the Spectrum Analyzer mode.
The default settings are in accordance with the 3GPP2 specifications.
Setting
Default value
Frequency Span
2 MHz
ACP Standard
1xEV-DO0 MC1
Number of adjacent channels
0
Adjacent Channel Power
On
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO0 BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
# of Samples
Refer also to the Power softkey in the measurement menu.
Adjacent Channel Power
The Adjacent Channel Power measurement analyses the power of the TX channel and the power of
adjacent and alternate channels on the left and right side of the TX channel. The number of TX
channels and adjacent channels can be modified as well as the band class.
Beneath the measurement screen the bandwidth and power of the TX channel and the bandwidth,
spacing and power of the adjacent and alternate channels are displayed.
The default settings are in accordance with the 3GPP2 specifications.
Setting
Default value
Adjacent Channel Power
On
ACP Standard
1xEV-DO0 MC1
Number of adjacent channels
2
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
# of Adjacent Channels
Sweep Time
Span
Fast ACP Mode
For details on the softkeys of the Adjacent Channel Power measurement refer to the Adjacent
Channel Power softkey in the measurement menu.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Spectrum Emission Mask
The Spectrum Emission Mask measurement shows the quality of the measured signal by
comparing the power values in the frequency range near the carrier against a spectral mask that is
defined by the 3GPP2 specifications. The limits depend on the selected bandclass. In this way, the
performance of the DUT can be tested and the emissions and their distance to the limit be
identified.
Note that the 3GPP2 standard does not distinguish between spurious and spectral emissions.
Beneath the measurement screen a table showing the peak list. In the peak list the values for the
worst spectral emissions are displayed including their frequency and power.
The default settings of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
Frequency Span
8 MHz
Sweep Time
100 ms
Detector
RMS
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred Parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
Center Frequency
Frequency Offset
Trigger settings
For details on the softkeys of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement refer to the Spectrum
Emission Mask softkey in the measurement menu.
Occupied Bandwidth
The Occupied Bandwidth measurement determines the bandwidth in which the signal power can be
found. By default the bandwidth is displayed in which 99% of the signal is found. The percentage of
the signal power included in the measurement can be modified.
In the top right corner of the screen, the bandwidth and frequency markers are displayed.
The default settings of the Occupied Bandwidth measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
Occupied Bandwidth
ON
Frequency Span
4.2 MHz
Sweep Time
100 ms
RBW
30 kHz
VBW
300 kHz
Detector
RMS
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
VBW
Sweep Time
Span
For details on the softkeys of the Occupied Bandwidth measurement see Occupied Bandwidth in
the measurement menu.
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
The CCDF measurement displays the CCDF and the Crest factor. The CCDF shows distribution of
the signal amplitudes. For the measurement, a signal section of settable length is recorded
continuously in a zero span. The measurement is useful to determine errors of linear amplifiers.
The Crest factor is defined as the difference of the peak power and the mean power.
Beneath the measurement screen a table containing the number of included samples, mean and
peak power and the Crest factor is displayed.
The default settings of the CCDF measurement are listed in the table below.
Setting
Default value
CCDF
ON
RBW
10 MHz
Detector
Sample
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
RBW
# of Samples
For details on the softkeys of the CCDF measurement see CCDF in the measurement menu.
In a transition from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option, external trigger sources are
preserved, all other trigger sources are switched to the Free Run trigger mode. Additional trigger
settings are preserved.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Power vs Time
The Power vs Time measurement examines a specified number of half slots. Up to 36 half slots can
be captured and processed simultaneously. That means that for a standard measurement of 100
half slots only three data captures are necessary. After the capturing of the data theR&S FSL
averages the measured values and compares the results to the emission envelope mask. You can
define the emission envelope mask in the corresponding submenu.
Setting
Default value
Frequency Span
0 (Zero Span)
Sweep Time
833.38 Ms
RBW
3 MHz
VBW
10 MHz
Detector
RMS
Trace Mode
Average
In order to provide a quick swap from the base unit to the 1xEV-DO0 BTS Analyzer option, some
parameters are passed on.
Transferred Parameter
Reference Level
Ref Level Offset
Center Frequency
Frequency Offset
Trigger settings
For details on the softkeys of the Power vs Time measurement see Power vs Time in the
measurement menu.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Channel Type Characteristics
The following table shows the relationship between symbol rate, spreading factor, number of symbols,
number of bits, number of chips and the channel type.
Channel
Type
Spreading
Factor
Symbol Rate Modulation Type
Chips per Slot
Symbols per
Bits per Slot and Code
Slot and Code
Mapping I or Q
Mapping Complex
PILOT
32
38.4 ksps
BPSK-I or BPSK-Q
96*2=192
6
6
12
MAC
Rev. 0
Rev. A
19.2 ksps
64
128 9.6 ksps
BPSK-I or BPSK-Q
64*4=256
4
2
4
2
8
4
Rev. 0
32
38.4 ksps
BPSK-I or BPSK-Q
Rev. A
64
19.2 ksps
BPSK-I or BPSK-Q
2
4
8
16
32
1
2
4
8
16
2
4
8
16
32
1
2
4
8
16
4
8
16
32
64
2
4
8
16
32
76.8 ksps
QPSK, 8-PSK,
16QAM
PREAMBLE
DATA
16
Preamble length
64:
128:
256:
512:
1024:
64:
128:
256:
512:
1024:
Mapping always Complex
Modulation Type
400*4
-PreambleChips
=DataNettoChips
1600-0 = 1600
1600-64 = 1536
1600-128 = 1472
1600-256 = 1344
1600-512 = 1088
1600-1024=576
QPSK
100
96
92
84
68
36
200
192
184
168
136
72
8-PSK
16QAM
400
384
368
336
272
144
300
288
276
252
204
104
Predefined Channel Tables
Predefined channel tables offer access to a quick configuration for the channel search. The 1xEV-DO
BTS Analyzer option provides the following set of channel tables compliant with the 1xEV-DO
specification:
•
DPQPSK:
Channel table with channel types PILOT/MAC/PREAMBLE/DATA with modulation type QPSK in
channel type DATA and the following listed active codes in channel types.
•
DO8PSK:
Channel table with channel types PILOT/MAC/PREAMBLE/DATA with modulation type 8–PSK in
channel type DATA and the following listed active codes in channel types.
•
DO16QAM:
Channel table with channel types PILOT/MAC/PREAMBLE/DATA with modulation type 16–QAM in
channel type DATA and the following listed active codes in channel types.
•
DO_IDLE:
Channel table with channel types PILOT/MAC – known as IDLE slot, since it does not contain any
active channels in the DATA channel type.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Tabelle 4-17: Base station channel table DOQPSK with QPSK modulation in DATA area
Channel Type
Number of
Channels
Code Channel (Walsh
Code.SF)
Mosulation /
Mapping
Pilot
1
0.32
BPSK-I
Mac
5
2.64 (RA)
3.64
4.64
34.64
35.64
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-Q
BPSK-Q
Preamble (64 chips long)
1
3,32
BPSK-I
Data
16
0.16
1.16
2.16
...
13.16
14.16
15.16
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
Tabelle 4-18: Base station channel table DO8PSK with 8-PSK modulation in DATA area
Channel Type
Number of Channels
Code Channel (Walsh
Code.SF)
Mosulation /
Mapping
Pilot
1
0.32
BPSK-I
Mac
5
2.64 (RA)
3.64
4.64
34.64
35.64
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-Q
BPSK-Q
Preamble (64 chips long)
1
3,32
BPSK-I
Data
16
0.16
1.16
2.16
...
13.16
14.16
15.16
8-PSK
8-PSK
8-PSK
8-PSK
8-PSK
8-PSK
Tabelle 4-19: Base station channel table DO16QAM with 16QAM modulation in DATA area
Channel Type
Number of Channels
Code Channel (Walsh
Code.SF)
Mosulation /
Mapping
Pilot
1
0.32
BPSK-I
Mac
5
2.64 (RA)
3.64
4.64
34.64
35.64
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-I
BPSK-Q
BPSK-Q
Preamble (64 chips long)
1
3,32
BPSK-I
Data
16
0.16
1.16
2.16
...
13.16
14.16
15.16
16-QAM
16-QAM
16-QAM
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Tabelle 4-20: Base station test model DO_IDLE for idle slot configuration
Channel Type
Number of Channels
Code Channel (Walsh
Code.SF)
Mosulation /
Mapping
Pilot
1
0.32
BPSK-I
Mac
5
2.64 (RA)
BPSK-I
Softkeys of the Code Domain Analyzer Menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the main menu of the 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer option
(MENU key). It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Menu / Command
Settings
Settings Overview
Command
Frontend Settings
IQ Capture Settings
Demod Settings
Channel Table Settings
New
Add Channel
Delete Channel
Meas
Sort
Save
Cancel
Reload
Copy
Same as New
Delete
Edit
Same as New
Restore Default Tables
Result Settings
Screen Focus A/B
Screen Size Split/Full
Select Meas
Chan Type
Select Code/Slot
Adjust Ref Level
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Settings
Opens a submenu to configure the Code Domain Analyzer result displays with the following
softkeys:
–
Frontend Settings
–
IQ Capture Settings
–
Demod Settings
–
Channel Table Settings
–
Result Settings
Settings Overview
This softkey opens the Settings Overview dialog box that visualizes the data flow of the Code
Domain Analyzer and summarizes all of the current settings. In addition, the current settings can
be changed via the Settings Overview dialog box.
To change the settings, either use the rotary knob or the cursor keys to change the focus to any
other block or press one of the following softkeys:
–
Frontend Settings
–
IQ Capture Settings
–
Demod Settings
–
Channel Table Settings
–
Result Settings
When using the rotary knob or the cursor keys, press the ENTER key to open the corresponding
dialog box. The Settings Overview dialog box always remains open while settings are modified.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Frontend Settings
Opens the Frontend Settings dialog box and corresponding softkey submenu.
In the Frontend Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Center
Ref Level
Ref Level Offset
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
Preamp On Off
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Manual
For details refer to the RF Atten Manual softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
RF Atten Auto
For details refer to the RF Atten Auto softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Preamp On Off
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
IQ Capture Settings
Opens the IQ Capture Settings dialog box and corresponding softkey submenu.
In the IQ Capture Settings dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Capture Length
Swap IQ On Off
Trigger Source
Trigger Polarity
Trigger Offset
Capture Length
Enter the number of slots to be analyzed in the range from 2 to 12. The capture length is always
a multiple of the slot. The default setting is 3 slots.
Remote: CDP:IQL 12
Swap IQ On Off
To invert the sign of the Q-component of the signal activate the Swap IQ check box. The default
setting is OFF.
Remote: CDP:QINV ON
Trigger Source
Availbale trigger modes are Free Run and External. For more details on trigger modes refer to
"Trigger mode overview" on page 4.31. The default setting is Free Run.
Remote: TRIG:SOUR EXT
Trigger Polarity
Set the polarity of the trigger source. The sweep starts either after a positive or negative edge of
the trigger signal. The default setting is Positive.
Trigger Polarity available only for an External trigger source.
Remote: TRIG:SLOP POS
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Trigger Offset
For details refer to the Trigger Offset softkey in the trigger menu of the base unit.
Demod Settings
Opens the Demod Settings dialog box and corresponding softkey submenu.
In the Demod dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Revision 0 A
Multi Carrier On Off
Time Phase Estimation On Off
PN Offset
Revision 0 A
Specifies the characteristics of the signal you want to analyze. Select whether to analyze a
signal of Revision 0 or Revision A. For details on the characteristics of the revisions of the 1xEVDO standard refer to Channel Type Characteristics.
In revision A the number of active users increases. That means that the spreading factor
(number of orthogonal codes) doubles for channel types MAC and PREAMBLE.
The amount of returned trace data in the MAC and PREAMBLE channels is different for
Revision 0 and A, depending on the channel type and selected evaluation (see table above).
The R&S FSL detects all the channels on a per slot basis. Therefore the R&S FSL recognizes
changes in the channel configuration and modulation over the recorded slots.
In revision A the following modulation types are added within some of the MAC channels:
–
ON/OFF keying ACK on the I branch (OOKA-I),
–
ON/OFF keying ACK on the Q branch (OOKA-Q),
–
ON/OFF keying NACK on the I branch (OOKN-I) and the
–
ON/OFF keying NACK on the Q branch (OOKN-Q)
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R&S FSL
If the 2 bits within an ON/OFF keying modulation are identical, the modulation is not possible to
be recognized as an ON/OFF keying modulation. If both bits are containing ‘1’ information (ON)
the modulation is identical to a BPSK and will be recognized as BPSK. If both bits are containing
‘0’ information (OFF) there is no power within that code and slot and therefore no modulation is
detected. Is the evaluation set to MAPPING COMPLEX the separate I and Q branch detection
within the result summary is not any longer selected and the modulation type will be a 2BPSK
with the coding number 5 via remote.
Remote: CONF:CDP:REV 0
Multi Carrier On Off
Activates or deactivates the Multi Carrier mode. The mode improves the processing of multi
carrier signals. It allows the measurement on one carrier out of a multi carrier signal. This is
done by activating a low pass filter and by using a special algorithm for signal detection on multi
carrier signals.
Note that the low pass filter affects the measured signal quality (e.g. EVM and RHO) compared
to a measurement without a filter. The algorithm used for signal detection slightly increases the
calculation time.
The frequency response of the low pass filter is shown below.
Frequency response of low pass filter (Multi Carrier = On)
0
-10
|H(f)| in dB
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Frequency in MHz
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Remote: CONF:CDP:MCAR ON
Time Phase Estimation On Off
Actives or deactivates the timing and phase offset calculation of the channels as to the pilot
channel. If deactivated or more than 50 active channels are in the signal, the calculation does
not take place and dashes instead of values are displayed as results.
Remote: CDP:TPM ON
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
PN Offset
Set the PN (Pseudo Noise) offset. The PN offset is used to distinguish the individual base
stations in a 1xEV-DO network.
The PN offset determines the offset in the circulating PN sequence in multiples of 64 chips with
reference to the event second clock trigger.
Although the parameter is always available, it only has a function in External trigger mode.
Remote: CDP:PNOF 512
Channel Table Settings
Opens the Demod Settings dialog box and corresponding softkey submenu. The dialog box
also displays the available predefined channel tables.
Predefined channel tables are a way to customize measurements. The RECENT channel table
contains the last configuration used before switching from Auto Search to Predefined. The
DO16QAM, DO8PSK, DO_IDLE and DOQPSK channel tables are included in the option per
default and are configured according to the standard. For details on the predefined channel
tables refer to Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303. In addition, you can create new
channel tables to be used in measurements. For details refer to the New softkey.
In the Demod dialog box, the following parameters can be modified:
Channel Table
Inactive Channel Threshold
Available Channel Tables
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
The softkey menu contains the following softkeys:
New
Copy
Delete
Edit
Restore Default Tables
Channel Table
Define whether to use a predefined channel table or an automatically generated channel table in
the measurements.
Auto Search
Searches the whole code domain (all permissible symbol rates and
channel numbers) for active channels.
The automatic search provides an overview of the channels contained in
the signal. If channels are not detected as being active, change the
threshold (see Inactive Channel Threshold) or select the Predefined
channel search type.
Predefined
Performs the Code Domain Analyzer measurement on the basis of the
active predefined channel table (see Channel Table Name). All
channels of a channel table are assumed to be active. For details see
Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB[:STAT] ON
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:SEL "DOQPSK"
Inactive Channel Threshold
Defines the minimum power which a single channel must have compared to the total signal in
order to be regarded as an active channel Channels below the specified threshold are regarded
as "inactive". The parameter is only available in the Auto Search mode of the Channel Table
Settings dialog box. .
The default value is -40 dB. With this value all channels with signals such as the 1xEV-DO test
models are located by the Code Domain Power analysis. Decrease the Inactive Channel
Threshold value, if not all channels contained in the signal are detected.
Remote: CDP:ICTR -40
Available Channel Tables
This field shows the available channel tables. To activate a predefined channel table, select the
corresponding check box by using the cursor keys and pressing the ENTER key. The selected
channel table provides a basis for future measurements (until another is chosen or Auto Search
is activated).
Using the softkeys, customized channel tables can be defined or existing channel tables can be
modified.
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
New
Creates a new channel table name that can be seen in the dialog box from then on. The name
will be automatically set to 'ChannelTable'. By default, the resulting channel table is completely
empty (i.e. it contains no channel at all).
The submenu contains the following items:
Add Channel
Delete Channel
Meas
Sort
Save
Cancel
Reload
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:NAME "NEW_TAB"
Add Channel
Inserts a new channel below the one selected. The default values for a new channel are:
ChannelType
MAC
Walsh Ch.SF
2.64
SymbolRate
19.2 ksps (automatically calculated)
Modulation
BPSK-I
Power
0 dB (automatically calculated)
State
Off
DomainConflict
No (automatically calculated)
To change the channel type use the dropdown menu that opens when selecting / highlighting
the Channel Type field that should be changed and pressing the ENTER key. The radio
configuration settings are changed in the same way.
To change the channel number type another channel number in the form
'ChannelNumber.SpreadingFactor' or simply the code number (see Select Code Slot for
details) in the respective field and confirm the change with the ENTER key.
To activate or deactivate a channel, simply select the field and confirm with the ENTER key.
The R&S FSL automatically checks for conflicts between two active channels.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:DATA "0…13, 2…7, 0…127, 0…30, 0, 0, 0 | 1"
Delete Channel
Deletes the selected channel without further notice.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Meas
Initiates a measurement in Automatic Channel Search mode. The measurement results are
applied to the active channel table. The active channel table is overwritten without further notice.
The softkey is only available if the Auto Search mode is selected in the Channel Table
Settings dialog box.
Sort
Sorts the table according to the following rules.
First off, active channels are separated from inactive channels. Within these categories sorting is
then done first by the channel type and next by the spreading factor in ascending order. Last,
the sorting is done by the code number, also in ascending order.
Save
Saves the table under its specified name in the xml-format. If you edit a channel table and want
to keep the original channel table, change the name of the edited channel table before saving it.
Cancel
Closes the Edit dialog box and returns to the Channel Table Settings dialog box. Changes
applied to the channel table are lost.
Reload
Reloads the original content of the copied channel table.
Copy
Copies the selected table. All elements of the selected channel table are copied, except the
name which is set to 'Copy of <SourceChannelTableName>'.
The submenu is the same as that of the New softkey.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:COPY "CTAB2"
Delete
Deletes the selected channel table. The currently active channel table cannot be deleted.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:DEL "CTAB2"
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Edit
Opens the Edit Channel Table dialog box and the corresponding softkey menu.
The dialog box contains the following items (grey fields can not be modified):
Item
Description
Name
Enter the name of the selected channel table, which will be
saved under <name>.xml. Note that the old channel table
file is not deleted. The name is case sensitive and may not
contain spaces. It must be a valid MS Windows file name.
Description
Further information about the channel table can be entered
Channel Type
Select one of the channel types from the dropdown menu
Walsh Ch.SF
Enter the Channel Number (Ch) and Spreading Factor (SF).
For some channel types the possible values are limited or
preset (e.g. F-PICH, F-TDPICH and F-PDCH).
Symbol Rate/ksps
Display of the symbol rate
RC
The Radio Configuration (RC) can be customized for only
two channel types. For the F-PDCH the values can be
10(QPSK), 10(8PSK) and 10(16QAM). For CHAN channels
the Radio Configuration can either be 1-2 or 3-5.
Power/dB
Contains the measured relative code domain power. The
unit is dB. The fields are filled with values after pressing the
Meas softkey.
State
Indicates whether a channel is active or inactive
DomainConflict
A red bullet is shown if there's a conflict of any sort between
two or more channels (e.g. two conflicting channel codes)
Changes are never saved automatically. For that reason every time a change is made, the text
'*(unsaved changes)' appears in the title bar.
The corresponding softkey menu contains the same items as the New softkey.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:NAME "NEW_TAB"
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Restore Default Tables
Restores the predefined channel tables (see Predefined Channel Tables on page 4.303) to their
factory–set values. Existing channel tables with the same name as default channel tables are
replaced by this action. In this way, you can undo unintentional overwriting.
Remote: CONF:CDP:CTAB:REST
Result Settings
Opens the Result Settings dialog box.
The Result Settings dialog box contains the following parameters:
Select Code Slot
Channel Type
Mapping
Mapping Auto
Code Dom Overview
CDP Average
Code Power
Normalize
Select Code Slot
This softkey toggles between code selection and slot selection.
If the focus is on Code Selection, select a code number. Enter the code as a decimal. The range
depends on the specified channel type. For channel type PILOT and PREAMBLE values
between 0 and 31 are valid. For channel type MAC the range is between 0 and 63 and for DATA
only 63 is valid.
The following measurements take results for a Code into account: Power vs Symbol, Channel
Results, Bitstream, Symbol Constellation, EVM vs Symbol. In the following result displays, the
selcted code is highlighted in red:Code Domain Power, Channel Table, Code Domain Error.
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
If the focus is on Slot selection, select a slot. Enter the number as a decimal. The range of the
values is from 0 to (Capture Length -1). Refer to Capture Length for further details.
The following measurements take results for a Slot into account: Code Domain Power, Code
Domain Error, Channel Table, Power vs Chip, Power vs Symbol, Composite Constellation,
General Results, Channel Results, Bitstream, Symbol Constellation, EVM vs Symbol. In the
Composite EVM and Peak Code Domain Error the selected slot is highlighted in red.
Remote: CDP:CODE 0...(CAPTURE LENGTH -1)
Remote: CDP:CODE 0...31 | 63
Channel Type
Select one of the following channel types for the measurement:
Also opens a softkey submenu conatining the following items:
Pilot
MAC
Preamble
Data
For further details on the characteristics of the channel types refer to Channel Type
Characteristics on page 4.363.
Remote: CDP:CTYP PIL
Pilot
Selects the Pilot channel type.
Remote: CDP:CTYP PIL
MAC
Selects the MAC channel type.
Remote: CDP:CTYP MAC
Preamble
Selects the Preamble channel type.
Remote: CDP:CTYP PRE
Data
Selects the Data channel type.
Remote: CDP:CTYP DATA
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Mapping
The mapping mode determines whether the complex signal, the I or the Q branch is analyzed in
the measurement.
Use manual mapping to obtain the option of examining any channel type as either a complex
signal or in the I and Q branch. This setting is valid for any channel type. Also refer to Mapping
Auto.
Remote: CDP:MMOD COMPL | I | Q
Mapping Auto
Automatically sets the type of mapping to be used in the measurement according to the
following table:
Channel type
Mapping
Pilot
I or Q
MAC
I or Q
Preamble
I or Q
Data
Complex
Remote: CDP:MMOD AUTO
Code Dom Overview
Activate the Overview mode and screen A displays the I branch and screen B the Q branch of
the signal.
This softkey is only available for Code Domain Power and Code Domain Error Power
measurements. When active, the Mapping and Mapping Auto softkeys are not available.
Remote: CDP:OVER ON
CDP Average
Activate CDP average and the Code Domain Analysis is averaged over all slots. For channel
type Data and Preamble this calculation assumes that preambles of different length do not occur
in the slots. If active, ALL is displayed in the Slot field above the measurement screen.
This softkey is only available for Code Domain Analysis and is required by the 1xEV-DO
standard.
Remote: CDP:AVER ON
Code Power
Selects for the Code Domain Power measurement whether the y–values are displayed as an
absolute (dBm) or relative (dB). In Relative mode the reference is the total power of the channel
type.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP"
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP:RAT"
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Normalize
Eliminates the DC offset from the signal.
The default setting of the parameter is OFF.
Remote: CDP:NORM OFF
Screen Focus A/B
Sets the focus on the selected screen. Changes apply only to the focused screen. There are no
restrictions to the display of measurement results, i.e. you can display every result display in
either or both screens.
Remote: DISP:WIND1:SSEL
Screen Size Split/Full
Displays the result display in full screen size, or splits the screen to display two result displays.
To change settings in split screen display, set the focus on the designated result display via the
Screen Focus A/B softkey.
Remote: DISP:FORM SING
Select Meas
Opens a dialog box to select one of the measurements and result displays of the Code Domain
Analyzer:
–
Code Domain Power
–
General Results
–
Channel Results
–
Power vs Chip
–
Power vs Symbol
–
Composite EVM
–
Channel Table
–
Bitstream
–
Peak Code Domain Error
–
Code Domain Error
–
Symbol Constellation
–
EVM vs Symbol
–
Composite Constellation
For details on screen layout and default settings refer to the measurement description of the
Measurements and result display.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Code Domain Power
Selects the Code Domain Power (CDP) result display. By default the display is set to relative
scaling.
In this result display, the total signal for one channel type is taken into account over a single slot.
The R&S FSL determines the power of the different codes and plots them in a diagram. In this
diagram, the x–axis represents the code. The y–axis is a logarithmic level axis that shows the
power of each code (either in absolute or relative values - see Code Power). To configure this
result display, use the Result Settings dialog box (Settings softkey menu, Result Settings
softkey).
The number of codes on the x axis depends on the channel type (see Channel Type). Select
the slot to be analyzed with Select Code Slot.
Activate CDP Average to perform a measurement over all slots. The CDP Average analysis is
required by the standard. In case of Data and Preamble channel types the standard assumes
that preambles of different lengths do not occur in the slots.
The power values of the assigned and unassigned codes are displayed in different colors:
–
Yellow: assigned code
–
Cyan: unassigned code
For details on the inactive channel threshhold refer to Inactive Channel Threshold.
Set the mapping with Mapping. There is also an auto mapping function available (see Mapping
Auto). It causes complex mapping to be analyzed separately for the Data channel type and
mapping for the I or Q branch to be analyzed separately for the other channel types. In the latter
case the I/Q selection can be set by means of the SELECT I/Q softkey. For a separate analysis
of the I and Q branch, activate Code Dom Overview mode. Screen A displays the I branch and
screen B the Q branch of the signal.
Another option for obtaining an overview of the CDP is to enable complex mapping (see
Mapping). The code domain power is then constantly displayed as a complex analysis on
screen A for the selected channel type.
In case of an analysis of the Data channel, the results of complex analysis are approximately 3
dB higher than the results of a separate I or Q analysis. This is because 50% of the power
values are distributed to I and Q, respectively, for the complex modulation types of the DATA
channel type.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP:RAT"
Remote: CALC:FEED "XPOW:CDP"
Remote: CDP:OVER ON
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
General Results
Under General Results, the measurement results that concern the total signal or the entire
period of observation are displayed. The upper part of the result display shows the global
results, i.e. results for all channels:
–
Carrier Frequency Error (absolute and relative)
Shows the frequency error referred to the center frequency. The absolute frequency error is the
sum of the frequency error of the analyzer and that of the device under test.
Differences of more than 4.0 kHz between transmitter and receiver frequency impair the
synchronization of the CDP measurement. If at all possible, the transmitter and the receiver
should be synchronized.
The unit of the frequency error is either Hz or ppm referred to the carrier frequency.
–
Chip Rate Error
Shows the chip rate error (1.2288 Mcps) in ppm. A large chip rate error results in symbol errors
and, consequently, in possible synchronization errors for CDP measurements.
This measurement result is also valid if the analyzer was not able to synchronize onto the 1xEV–
DO signal.
–
Trigger to Frame
This measurement result reproduces the timing offset from the beginning of the acquired signal
section until the start of the first slot. In case of triggered data acquisition, this corresponds to the
timing offset frame to trigger (+ trigger offset) until the start of the first slot. If the analyzer was
not able to synchronize onto the 1xEV–DO signal, the value of Trg to Frame is not meaningful.
For the Free Run trigger mode, dashes (–––) are displayed.
–
RHO Pilot
Shows the quality parameter RHO for the pilot channel. According to the standard, RHO is
measured over all slots.
–
RHO ov -1/2
Shows the quality parameter RHO for all chips and over all slots. According to the standard, the
averaging limit is on the half slot limit.
–
RHO MAC
Shows the quality parameter RHO for the MAC channel
–
RHO DATA
Shows the quality parameter RHO for the Data channel
The bottom part of General Results shows results specific to the selected slot:
–
Power PILOT
Shows the absolute power of the Pilot channel in dBm.
–
Power MAC
Shows the absolute power of the MAC channel in dBm.
–
Power DATA
Shows the absolute power of the Pilot channel in dBm.
–
Power PREAMBLE
Shows the absolute power of the Preamble channel in dBm.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
–
R&S FSL
Composite EVM
The composite EVM value is the difference between the test signal and ideal reference signal
(also see Composite EVM).
–
Max. Pwr DATA
Shows the maximum power of the Data channel. This is the highest value of the I- and Q-branch
of the Data channel.
–
Min. Pwr. DATA
Shows the minimum power of the Data channel. This is the smallest value of the I- and Qbranch of the Data channel.
–
Data Mode Type
Shows the modulation type of the Data channel.
–
Act. MAC Chs
Shows the number of active MAC channels.
–
Act. DATA Chs
Shows the number of active Data channels.
–
Preamble Length
Shows the length of the preamble in chips. If no preamble is present in the slot, this value is 0.
–
RHO
Shows the quality parameter RHO calculated over a slot.
–
Max. inact. Pwr MAC
Shows the maximum power of inactive MAC channels. This is the highest inactive channel from
the I- and Q-branch of the MAC channels.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:SUMM"
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES?
Channel Results
Under Channel Results, the measurement results that concern a specific channel are displayed.
The upper part of the result display shows common results for the selected channel:
–
Power
Shows the total power of the selected channel type.
–
IQ Imbalance
Shows the IQ imbalance of the signal in percent.
–
Pk CDE (SF xx/IQ)
The Peak Code Domain Error measurement specifies a projection of the difference between test
signal and ideal reference signal to the spreading factor that belongs to the channel type. This
spreading factor is shown in brackets.
–
IQ Offset
Shows the DC offset of the signal in percent.
The bottom part of the result display shows results specific to the selected channel type and the
selected slot:
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R&S FSL
–
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Symbol Rate
Shows the symbol rate with which the channel is transmitted.
–
Channel.SF
Shows the code number and its associated spreading factor.
–
Symbol EVM
Shows the peak and the mean values of the Error Vector Magnitude measurement (also see
EVM vs Symbol).
–
Timing Offset
Shows the timing offset between the selected channel and the first active channel in the channel
type (also see Time Phase Estimation On Off).
–
Phase Offset
Shows the phase offset between the selected channel and the first active channel in the channel
type (also see Time Phase Estimation On Off).
–
Channel Pwr Rel
Shows the relative channel power (referred to the total power of the channel type).
–
Channel Pwr Abs
Shows the absolute channel power (referred to the total power of the channel type).
–
Modulation Type
Shows the modulation type of the channel.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:SUMM"
Remote: CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES?
Power vs Chip
Selects the Power vs Chip result display.
This result display shows the chip powers for the selected slot. Thus, there are 2048 power
values in one trace. This analysis accordingly takes the total signal for the duration of one slot
into account.
Select the slot to be analyzed with Select Code Slot.
Due to the symmetric structure of the 1xEV-DO forward link signal, it is easy to identify which
channel types in the slot have power.
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:PVCH"
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Power vs Symbol
Selects the Power versus Symbol result display.
This result display shows the power of each symbol for the selected code (see Select Code
Slot) and the Channel Type.
The result display shows the absolute power at each symbol time for a selected code of a
specific channel and the selected slot. It thus takes results of a code of the selected channel
type into account.
The number of symbols on the x axis is between 2 and 100.
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:PVSY"
Composite EVM
Selects the result display of the error vector magnitude (EVM) over the total signal (modulation
accuracy).
In this result display, the square root is determined from the error square between the real and
imaginary parts of the test signal and an ideally generated reference signal (EVM referred to the
total signal).
The result display consists of a composite EVM measured value for each slot. You can set the
number of slots by the Capture Length. Subsequently, the Composite EVM result display takes
the whole signal into account over the entire period of observation. The selected slot is marked
in red.
Only the channels detected as being active are used to generate the ideal reference signal. If a
channel is not detected as being active, e.g. on account of low power, the difference between
the test signal and the reference signal and the composite EVM is therefore very large.
Distortions also occur if unassigned codes are wrongly given the status of "active channel". To
obtain reliable measurement results, select an adequate channel threshold via the Inactive
Channel Threshold field.
Remote: CALC2:FEED "XTIM:CDP:MACC"
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Channel Table
Selects the Channel Occupancy Table analysis.
In this result display all active channels are displayed. Therefore the channel table can contain
up to 146 entries: one entry for Pilot and Preamble channel each, 16 entries for the Data
channel and 128 entries for the MAC channel (64 on the I and Q branch respectively). The
Channel Table result display takes into account the total signal over one slot. Select the slot to
be analyzed in the Select Code Slot field.
The channels are listed in the following order: first the Pilot channel, then the MAC and
Preamble channels and the Data channel last. Within the channel types, the channels are sorted
by ascending code number.
The R&S FSL determines the following parameters for the channels:
–
Channel Type
Shows the channel type of the active channel. Possible values are Pilot, MAC and Data. For the
Preamble channel, the length in chips is similarly specified, thus resulting in the following options
for the Preamble channel type: PRE64, PRE128, PRE256, PRE512 or PRE1024.
–
CHAN.SF
Channel number including the spreading factor (in the form <Channel>.<SF>).
–
Symb Rate
Symbol rate with which the channel is transmitted.
–
Modulation / Mapping
Shows the modulation type of the channel. For Data channels possible values are QPSK, 8-PSK
and 16 QAM. For all other channel types possible values are either BPSK-I or BPSK-Q.
–
Pwr Abs / Pwr Rel
Specification of the absolute and relative power (referred to the total power in the channel type)
of the channel.
–
T Offs
Shows the timing offset between the current channel and the first active channel. It can be
enabled by means of Time Phase Estimation On Off.
–
Ph Offs
Phase offset between this channel and the first active channel. It can be enabled by means of
Time Phase Estimation On Off.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:CTAB"
Bitstream
Selects the Bitstream result display.
The result display provides information on the demodulated bits for the selected channel type
and the selected code. It thus takes into account results of a code in the selected channel type
for one slot.
Depending on the symbol rate of the channel type, the number of chips of the channel type, and
the modulation type, a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 400 bits can be contained in a slot
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Depending on the modulation type, a symbol consists of the following bits:
–
BPSK: 1 bit (only the I or the Q component is assigned; in case of complex mapping a 2BPSK
modulation is displayed with both the I and Q components)
–
QPSK: 2 bits (I–component followed by the Q–component)
–
8PSK: 3 bits
–
16QAM: 4 bits
Depending on the channel type, the following modulation types are available:
Pilot:
BPSK-I
MAC:
BPSK-I / BPSK-Q
Preamble:
BPSK-I
Data:
QPSK / 8-PSK / 16QAM
All bits that are part of unassigned codes are marked as being invalid by means of dashes. For
16QAM modulation '----' is displayed, for 8PSK modulation '---', for QPSK '--' and for BPSK '-'. To
set the channel and the slot, use the Select Code Slot softkey.
A certain symbol can be selected by using the MKR key. By enetering a number, the marker will
jump to the selected symbol. If there are more symbols than the screen is capable of displaying,
the marker can also be used to scroll inside the list.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:BSTR"
Peak Code Domain Error
Selects the Peak Code Domain Error result display.
In this result display, the error between the test signal and the ideally generated reference signal
is projected to the base spreading factor. The unit of the y–axis is dB. You can not specify the
spreading factor; it is automatically set by the channel type.
The result display consists of the numeric value per slot for the peak code domain error. You
can set the number of slots in the Capture Length field. Subsequently, the Peak Code Domain
Error result display takes the whole signal (i.e. all channel types) into account over the entire
period of observation. The selected slot is marked in red.
Only the channels detected as being active are used to generate the ideal reference signal. If a
channel is not detected as being active, e.g. on account of low power, the difference between
the test signal and the reference signal is very large. The result display therefore shows a peak
code domain error that is too high for all slots. Distortions also occur if unassigned codes are
wrongly given the status of "active channel". To obtain reliable measurement results, select an
adequate channel threshold via the Inactive Channel Threshold field.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:ERR:PCD"
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Code Domain Error
Selects the Code Domain Error Power (CDEP) result display.
This result display shows the difference in power between measured and ideally generated
reference signals for each code in dB. Since it is an error power, active and inactive channels
can be rated jointly at a glance. The total signal is taken into account over a single slot. The
error power is determined and plotted in a diagram. In this diagram, the x–axis represents the
code number, which depends on the channel type. The y–axis is a logarithmic level axis that
shows the power of each code. To configure this result display, use the Result Settings dialog
box (Settings softkey menu, Result Settings softkey).
The power values of the assigned and unassigned codes are displayed in different colors:
–
Yellow: assigned code
–
Cyan: unassigned code
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP"
Symbol Constellation
Selects the Symbol Constellation result display.
The measurement shows the constellation of the modulated signals of the selected code against
the channel type and slot (see Select Code Slot and Channel Type). Supported modulation
schemes are BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK and 16QAM. Unassigned codes can be measured, but the
result is meaningless since these do not contain data.
The BPSK constellation points are displayed on the x-axis, while the constellation points of
QPSK and 16QAM are located on neither axis.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:SYMB:CONS"
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
EVM vs Symbol
Selects the Symbol Error Vector Magnitude result display.
The result display provides information on the EVM for the selected channel type and the
selected code on symbol level. The number of symbols is in the range from 2 to 100.
Evaluation of the symbol error vector magnitude for unassigned codes is possible, but the
results are not valid.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:SYMB:EVM"
Composite Constellation
Selects the Composite Constellation result display.
The measurement provides information about the constellation points at chip level. The total
signal is taken into account over the selected slot. Therefore it is not possible to select a specific
code. For each chip, a constellation point is displayed in the diagram. The number of displayed
chip is dependent on the channel type and, in case of Preamble and Data channels, on the
length of the preamble. The number of chips lies between 64 and 1600 chips.
Remote: CALC:FEED "XTIM:CDP:COMP:CONS"
Chan Type
Opens submenu containing the following softkeys:
Command
Screen Focus A/B
Select Meas
Chan Type Pilot Mac
Chan Type Preamble Data
Code Dom Overview
Mapping Auto
Mapping Complex I Q
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Screen Focus A/B
For details refer to Screen Focus A/B.
Select Meas
For details refer to Select Meas.
Chan Type Pilot Mac
Select either the Pilot or Mac channel type.
For further details on the characteristics of the channel types refer to Channel Type
Characteristics on page 4.363.
Remote: CDP:CTYP MAC | PIL
Chan Type Preamble Data
Select either the Preamble or Data channel type.
For further details on the characteristics of the channel types refer to Channel Type
Characteristics on page 4.363.
Remote: CDP:CTYP PRE | DATA
Code Dom Overview
For details refer to Code Dom Overview.
Mapping Auto
For details refer to Mapping Auto.
Mapping Complex I Q
For details refer to Mapping.
Select Code/Slot
For details refer to Select Code Slot.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Adjust Ref Level
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the
RF attenuation and reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without overloading
the R&S FSL or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
Current measurements are aborted when pressing the softkey and resumed after the automatic
level detection is finished.
For further details refer also to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the measurement menu of the
base unit.
Remote: CDP:LEV:ADJ
Softkeys of the frequency menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the frequency menu in 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Command
Center
Start
Stop
CF-Stepsize
Center
For details refer to the Center softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. For further details refer to the Start
softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Note that the softkey is unavailable for Code Domain and CCDF measurements.
Remote: FREQ:STAR 800 MHz
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. For further details refer to the Stop
softkey in the frequency menu of the base unit.
Note that the softkey is unavailable for Code Domain and CCDF measurements.
Remote: FREQ:STOP 1.500 MHz
CF-Stepsize
For details including the submenu refer to the CF Stepsize softkey in the frequency menu of the
base unit.
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Softkeys of the span menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the span menu in 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode. It
is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the corresponding
softkey description.
Note that the span menu is not available for code domain measurements and the signal power
measurement.
Command
Span Manual
Sweeptime Manual
Start
Stop
Full Span
Last Span
Span Manual
For details refer to the Span Manual softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Sweeptime Manual
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the bandwidth menu of the base unit.
Start
For details refer to the Start softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Stop
For details refer to the Stop softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Full Span
For details refer to the Full Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
Last Span
For details refer to the Last Span softkey in the span menu of the base unit.
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1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
R&S FSL
Softkeys of the amplitude menu (1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer mode)
The following table shows all softkeys available in the amplitude menu in 1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer
mode. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or measurement mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Menu / Command
Command
Ref Level
Adjust Ref Level
Ref Level Offset
Preamp On/Off
Scaling
Auto Scale Once
y-Axis Maximum
y-Axis Minimum
RF Atten Manual
RF Atten Auto
Ref Level
For details refer to the Ref Level softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Adjust Ref Level
For details refer to the Adjust Ref Level softkey in the Code Domain Analyzer menu.
Ref Level Offset
For details refer to the Ref Level Offset softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Preamp On/Off
For details refer to the Preamp On/Off softkey in the amplitude menu of the base unit.
Note that this softkey is only available if the hardware option RF Preamplifier B22 is installed.
Scaling
Opens a submenu with the following softkeys:
Auto Scale Once
y-Axis Maximum
y-Axis Minimum
This submenu is only available for code domain measurements.
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R&S FSL
1xEV-DO BTS Analyzer (Option K84)
Auto Scale Once
Automatically scales the y-axis of the grid of the selected screen with respect to the measured
data.
The softkey is available for the following measurements: Code Domain Power, Code Domain
Error, Composite EVM. Peak Code Domain Error, Peak Code Domain Error vs PCG, Power vs
PCG, EVM vs Symbol and Power vs Symbol.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:AUTO ONCE
y-Axis Maximum
Opens a dialog box to set the maximum value for the y-axis of the grid of the selected screen.
The softkey is available for the following measurements: Code Domain Power, Code Domain
Error, Composite EVM. Peak Code Domain Error, Peak Code Domain Error vs PCG, Power vs
PCG, EVM vs Symbol and Power vs Symbol.
Remote: DISP:TRAC:Y:MAX -40
y-Axis Minimum
Opens a dialog box to set t