Manual GS200/GS200i - Grundpraktikum Physik

Training Aid
ULTRASONIC ECHOSCOPE
GS200/GS200i
Reflection and Transmission Measurements
A-scan, B-scan, TM-mode, CT-mode & B-imaging
User Manual
www.gampt.de
Revision:
Version 0.70 EN, Januar 26, 2016
Gesellschaft für Angewandte Medizinische Physik und Technik mbH
Hallesche Straße 99F
06217 Merseburg
Phone: +49 3461/278691-0
Fax:
+49 3461/278691-101
E-mail: info@gampt.de
Visit us on the internet: www.gampt.de
© GAMPT mbH
All rights are reserved for GAMPT mbH. No part of this manual may be reproduced or processed, copied or distributed in any form without the prior approval of GAMPT mbH.
GAMPT mbH is not liable for damages occurring as a result of incorrect use, or for repairs and alterations carried out by third parties not authorized by GAMPT mbH.
Subject to technical alterations. Errors excepted.
Printed: 02/01/2016
Version: 0.70 EN
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1
Safety information ..................................................................................4
2
Scope of delivery .....................................................................................4
3
Introduction ...........................................................................................5
4
Ultrasonic echoscope ...............................................................................6
4.1
The basic unit GS200.................................................................................. 6
4.2
The extended device version GS200i ............................................................ 6
4.3
Control elements on the front side ............................................................. 7
4.3.1 Receiver/transmitter unit (RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER) .........................................8
4.3.2 TGC unit (Time Gain Control) ........................................................................8
4.3.3 BNC outputs (MONITOR) ............................................................................ 11
4.4
Connection ports on the rear side of GS200/GS200i ...................................... 12
4.4.1 Fuse replacement..................................................................................... 12
4.4.2 External triggering ................................................................................... 13
4.5
Ultrasonic probes ................................................................................... 14
4.5.1 Single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i) .................................................. 14
4.5.2 Array transducer (GS200i) .......................................................................... 15
5
Software............................................................................................... 17
5.1
General program structure ...................................................................... 17
5.1.1 User interface of the program ..................................................................... 17
5.1.2 Function switches ..................................................................................... 18
5.1.3 Diagrams ................................................................................................ 18
5.1.3.1 Diagram tool bars......................................................................... 18
5.1.3.2 Zooming and shifting of diagram contents using the mouse................. 19
5.1.3.3 Measuring cursors ........................................................................ 22
5.1.4 Print command ........................................................................................ 23
5.2
Program start......................................................................................... 24
5.2.1 Initialization............................................................................................ 24
5.2.2 Simulation mode...................................................................................... 25
5.3
Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)........... 26
5.3.1 Starting, interrupting, and completing the measuring mode ........................... 26
5.3.2 Visualization of the measurement signals in an A-scan diagram........................ 26
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Table of Contents
5.3.3 Measuring and program parameters ............................................................ 27
5.3.3.1 Params tab .................................................................................. 28
5.3.3.2 USB tab ...................................................................................... 31
5.3.3.3 Draw tab ..................................................................................... 32
5.3.3.4 Scanner tab ................................................................................. 35
5.3.4 Information on device settings and program status......................................... 36
5.3.4.1 Device information (Front panel) .................................................... 36
5.3.4.2 Information on program and measuring operation ............................ 37
5.3.4.3 Scanner status ............................................................................. 40
5.3.5 A-mode................................................................................................... 41
5.3.5.1 Time-of-flight and amplitude measurements.................................... 42
5.3.5.2 Measuring accuracy ...................................................................... 44
5.3.5.3 Frequency spectrum and frequency filter ......................................... 45
5.3.5.4 Cepstrum and cepstrum filter ......................................................... 48
5.3.6 B-mode................................................................................................... 51
5.3.7 M-mode.................................................................................................. 54
5.3.8 CT-mode ................................................................................................. 56
5.3.8.1 Ultrasonic computer tomography ................................................... 56
5.3.8.2 CT-mode tab................................................................................ 57
5.3.8.3 Internal and external triggering of CT-scans...................................... 59
5.3.8.4 Procedure of a CT measurement ..................................................... 61
5.4
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i).................................... 64
5.4.1 Characteristic features of the Imaging Mode.................................................. 64
5.4.2 Start, interrupt and terminate the measuring mode ....................................... 65
5.4.3 Scan modes ............................................................................................. 65
5.4.4 Measuring and program parameters ............................................................ 66
5.4.4.1 Main tab ..................................................................................... 67
5.4.4.2 TGC tab....................................................................................... 69
5.4.4.3 M-Line tab .................................................................................. 70
5.4.4.4 Image tab.................................................................................... 70
5.4.4.5 Palette tab .................................................................................. 73
5.4.4.6 Cine tab ...................................................................................... 74
5.4.5 Features of the info field............................................................................ 75
5.4.5.1 Probe detection ........................................................................... 75
5.4.5.2 Measuring cursor ......................................................................... 76
6
Accessories ........................................................................................... 77
2
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Table of Contents
6.1
CT equipment......................................................................................... 77
6.1.1 CT control unit UCT200 .............................................................................. 77
6.1.2 CT scanner............................................................................................... 78
7
Experiments ......................................................................................... 80
8
Technical data....................................................................................... 81
9
8.1
Echoscope.............................................................................................. 81
8.2
Ultrasonic probes ................................................................................... 82
8.3
CT devices .............................................................................................. 82
Literature............................................................................................. 83
10 Revisions of the user manual .................................................................. 83
11 Index ................................................................................................... 84
!
Please read through the whole user manual before using the device and
accessories.
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Safety information
1
Safety information
Prior to taking the ultrasonic echoscope and the accessories into operation, please carefully read the
notes below to ensure your own health and safety and operational safety of the device.
The opening slits on the device are for ventilation and must be kept absolutely free in order to
prevent the device from overheating. It is recommended to use the folding feet on the device.
Make sure that the voltage values and fusing stated for the device are adhered to in the electricity supply.
Never try to insert objects through the openings on the device, because this can lead to short
circuits or electric shocks.
Only the ultrasonic transducers supplied by GAMPT mbH must be connected to the ports
named “PROBE 1“ and “PROBE 2“. Caution! During transmission mode voltage up to 300 V
may be applied to the ports.
Attention, the ultrasonic echoscope is a laboratory device not a medical product! The ultrasonic
probes must not be used with persons or other living beings.
!
2
Compliance with the special operating and safety information in the individual chapters is
mandatory.
Scope of delivery
Device:
GS200
GS200i
Order number:
10400
10410
Connecting cable:
Measurement software:
Ultrasonic transducer:
4
Mains cable
USB cable
•
•
•
Mains cable
USB cable
•
GS-EchoView
•
GS-EchoView
•
Convex array transducer
•
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Introduction
3
Introduction
Ultrasonic echoscopy (sonography) is one of the most important examination methods in medicine
and materials engineering. Despite the vast number of ultrasonic devices used for the most varied
applications, all are based on the same fundamental principle: transmission of a mechanical wave,
reflection/transmission of the wave and recording it in an echogram.
Fig. 1:
Echoscope GS200i, including equipment
With our range of ultrasonic echoscopes we provide highly sensitive measuring devices for ultrasonic
examination in pulse echo mode (reflection or transmission) using single-element transducers
(GS200/GS200i) or in B/M imaging mode using an array transducer (GS200i only).
The devices may be used together with an oscilloscope to combine to simple ultrasonic echoscopes
for A-scan measurements with single-element transducers, for example required for non-destructive
material testing (NDT).
The range of application of these devices is extended by far if they are connected to a computer and
operated using the GS-EchoView measuring and control software. On the one hand, the software
allows for direct control of the echoscopes and auxiliary devices (CT scanner). On the other hand, the
program ensures substantial assessment and detailed imaging of the measured ultrasonic signals.
The software is designed such that it ensures clear tracking of the process path from the measured
ultrasonic signal to an A-scan, B-scan (regardless of the use of an array transducer or manual use
with single-element transducers), TM-scan or ultrasonic computer tomogram.
Various ultrasonic probes and a considerable range of test objects and other accessories allow for a
large variety of practical experiment set-ups with regard to physical principles of ultrasound, the
principle of imaging processes or for industrial and medical applications.
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Ultrasonic echoscope
The basic unit GS200
4
Ultrasonic echoscope
4.1
The basic unit GS200
The new product range of ultrasonic echoscopes produced from 2014 currently comprises two device
models: GS200 and GS200i
The basic unit GS200 (GAMPT-Scan 200) is a high-resolution A-scan device and represents the basic
configuration of echoscopes within this product range. The GS200 is designed for operation with single-element ultrasonic transducers as described in chapter 4.5.1. It is equipped with two probe connections that can each be used individually in pure pulse echo mode (reflection) with an ultrasonic
transducer connected, or together in transmission mode with two equal-type ultrasonic transducers.
The GS200 has a USB interface for transfer of measuring and control data between the device and a
computer connected. For computer operation mode of the device, the GS-EchoView measuring and
control software is included in the scope of delivery. (A detailed description of the program is provided in chapter 5.)
In combination with an oscilloscope, the GS200 may also be used in stand-alone operations.
4.2
The extended device version GS200i
The GS200i is the same as GS200, except with an extra component for imaging ultrasonic examinations, including an ultrasonic array transducer according to the B-scan procedure i.e.:
GS200i = GS200 + Imaging module.
The scope of delivery includes a convex array transducer (see chapter 4.5.2). The connection port for
the array transducer is located on the rear of the GS200i (chapter 4.4).
Setting and performance of measurements using the array transducer are only possible in computer
operation mode with the GS-EchoView program.
i
!
6
Factory-retrofitting of the basic unit GS200 at a later stage implementing an additional component for B-imaging operation together with an array transducer is possible. For this purpose, please contact your vendor or GAMPT mbH.
GS200/GS200i and the ultrasonic transducers have been specifically adapted to one another.
Please only connect the ultrasonic transducer to the device specifically provided by GAMPT.
GAMPT will not assume any warranty or liability if transducers of other makes are connected
to the devices.
GAMPT mbH · Hallesche Straße 99F · D-06217 Merseburg · Phone +49 3461/2786910 · www.gampt.de
Ultrasonic echoscope
4.3
Control elements on the front side
Control elements on the front side
The major control elements and connection ports for measuring operation using single-element
transducers are located on the front side of the GS200/GS200i. For better illustration of the basic
operating principle of the device, the individual components of the echoscope have been grouped
according to their functions and are also visually separated accordingly.
Fig. 2: Front view of the GS200i
i
A
Power supply unit
(1) On/Off switch of the device
B
Receiver/transmitter unit
(2) Probe port 2
(3) Rotary switch for transmitter output level
(4) Mode selector switch
transmitter / receiver
(5) Rotary switch for
receive gain
(6) Probe port 1
C
Time gain control
(7) Rotary switch for slope
(8) Rotary switch for start point
(9) Rotary switch for width
(10) Rotary switch for threshold
D
BNC outputs for oscilloscope
(11) Trigger signal
(12) TGC signal
(13) Ultrasonic signal
(14) A-scan signal
The control elements on the front side of the echoscope do not have any effect on the extension module of GS200i. In the imaging mode of the GS200i, all settings (transmitting level,
gain, TGC ...) are performed via the measuring and control software GS-EchoView.
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Ultrasonic echoscope
Control elements on the front side
4.3.1 Receiver/transmitter unit (RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER)
Two rotary switches are provided on the front side of the device for adjustment of transmitting level
and receive gain.
The transmitting level (OUTPUT) is adjusted by means of rotary switch 3 (figure 2). It can be increased
in 5-dB increments up to 30 dB, with the maximum transmitting level of 30 dB corresponding to an
output voltage of approx. 300 Volt.
!
If the transmitting level is set to a lower level or to zero (OFF), it will take a few seconds until
the actual transmitting output effectively drops to the set lower value (this drop lag depends
on the magnitude of the change).
Setting of the receive gain (GAIN) is performed by means of rotary switch 5 (figure 2). It can be adjusted within a range from 0 to 35 dB in increments of 5 dB.
Selection of the mode of operation (reflection or transmission), i.e. switching of the probe ports 6
and 2 as transmitting output, receiving input, or both, is carried out with the help of rotary switch 4
(figure 2).
Receiver/transmitter setting
!
Switch position
Transmitter
Receiver
Mode of operation
1|1
Probe 1
Probe 1
Reflection
1|2
Probe 1
Probe 2
Transmission
2|1
Probe 2
Probe 1
Transmission
2|2
Probe 2
Probe 2
Reflection
For transmission measurements, we recommend always using ultrasound probes of the
same type and frequency.
4.3.2 TGC unit (Time Gain Control)
Sound undergoes attenuation during propagation within a medium. Sound attenuation results in a
decrease of the sound signal intensity with increasing run time or depth. By means of TGC (Time Gain
Control) (referring to a time-dependent or depth-dependent gain) it is possible to partly compensate
for attenuation of the intensity of the ultrasound signal. In this way it is possible to amplify and visualize echoes of deep discontinuities.
The following TGC parameters may be modified by means of the rotary switches 11 to 14 (figure 2):
8
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Ultrasonic echoscope
•
•
•
•
Control elements on the front side
THRESHOLD (rotary switch 10): Threshold value for the starting point of TGC
WIDE (rotary switch 9): Width, i. e. the time or depth range to which the TGC is applied
SLOPE (rotary switch 7): Gradient of the gain [dB/µs or dB/mm]
START (rotary switch 8): Starting point of the TGC
The TGC is infinitely variable between 0 and maximum approx. 30 dB. The maximum adjustable time
range to which the TGC can be applied is approx. 150 µs. By changing the start value, the TGC curve
can be shifted along the time axis.
i
The GS-EchoView measuring and control software provides a separate diagram window that
displays the TGC in the form of a curve (figure 3). The TGC diagram is always available parallel with the A-scan diagram in all program modes.
1 - THRESHOLD
2 - WIDE
3 - SLOPE
4 - START
Fig. 3:
Diagram with TGC curve (GS-EchoView).
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Ultrasonic echoscope
Control elements on the front side
The two figures below illustrate the principle of functioning of the TGC.
Fig. 4:
Amplitude scan without TGC.
Figure 4 shows the amplitude scan of a reflection measurement without TGC using a homogeneous
test specimen. The scan shows a number of echo pulses resulting from repeated reflections at the
bottom of the specimen (material-air boundary). Based on the attenuation of sound inside the material and the mere partial reflection at the border between test specimen and transducer head, the
amplitude of the echo impulses decreases with increasing run time and number of reflections.
Fig. 5:
Amplitude scan with TGC.
Figure 5 shows an amplitude scan performed in the same test specimen as figure 4 applying the same
measurement conditions but also implementing time gain control.
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Ultrasonic echoscope
Control elements on the front side
4.3.3 BNC outputs (MONITOR)
For stand-alone operation of the echoscope together with an oscilloscope, GS200/GS200i is equipped
with four BNC outputs. These are located on the front side of the device in the MONITOR section (figure 2).
After switch-on of the GS200/GS200i the following analogue signals may be picked up at these outputs:
•
•
•
•
TRIGGER:
TGC:
US SIGNAL:
A-SCAN:
Trigger signal for pulse activation of the 1-, 2-, and 4-MHz probes
Signal of the time gain control
Ultrasound signal (actual measurement signal)
A-Scan or amplitude signal (envelope of the ultrasound signal)
TRIGGER - CH1
TGC - CH2
US-SIGNAL - CH3
A-SCAN - CH4
Fig. 6:
BNC outputs and appertaining oscilloscope signals.
In stand-alone operation without external triggering, activation of an ultrasonic transducer connected to the front side of the GS200/GS200i is performed by means of a fixed trigger frequency of
500 Hz (pulse repetition period 2 ms). For this frequency a fixed value is specified in the firmware and
it is not possible to set or adjust this value at the device.
For PC operation including the GS-EchoView program, setting and adjustment of this trigger frequency is performed by means of the PRF parameter (see page 30).
Moreover, triggering of pulse generation may be performed by an external trigger that is connected
to the rear side of the echoscope (chapter 4.4.2).
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Ultrasonic echoscope
4.4
Connection ports on the rear side of GS200/GS200i
Connection ports on the rear side of GS200/GS200i
Fig. 7:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Rear side of GS200/GS200i
On/Off switch for external triggering
BNC connection port for external triggering
Socket for power supply connection
Connection port for array transducer (GS200i only)
USB port
4.4.1 Fuse replacement
A fuse insert is integrated in the lower section of the power
supply socket (3). This accommodates the fuse for the device and a spare fuse.
For replacement of the device fuse, the fuse insert must be
pulled out from the power supply socket (figure 8).
Fuse type required:
12
T 1A (see chapter 8.1)
Fig. 8:
Power supply socket with the
fuse insert partly pulled out.
GAMPT mbH · Hallesche Straße 99F · D-06217 Merseburg · Phone +49 3461/2786910 · www.gampt.de
Ultrasonic echoscope
!
!
Connection ports on the rear side of GS200/GS200i
The device operates using mains supply voltage. Contact with live parts is extremely dangerous and may even cause death. Switch off the device and disconnect the mains supply cable
from the socket before pulling out the fuse insert.
Only replace the fuse by a fuse of the type specified in the manual. Use of incorrect or unsuitable fuse types may cause fire hazards.
4.4.2 External triggering
In general, triggering of the ultrasonic probes for generation of pulses is either performed internally
at a fixed frequency value of 500 Hz (stand-alone mode) or based on a pulse repetition rate which can
be set and adjusted in the GS-EchoView software (PRF page 30).
Moreover, there is an external triggering option available for the echoscope. The external trigger is
connected to the echoscope via BNC input 2 (figure 7) on the rear side of the device.
Fig. 9:
Switch and BNC port for an external trigger (left: switched off; right: switched on).
In stand-alone operation change-over of the echoscope to an external trigger is performed by means
of switch 1 (see figures. 7 and 9), that is located directly above the BNC port.
In PC operation the external triggering option is used for synchronization of the mechanical movements of the CT scanner with the ultrasonic measurement processes of the echoscope (e.g. in CT
mode, chapter 5.3.8). Here, switch-over to external triggering is automatically executed by the software.
i
With the trigger switch being switched on, the echoscope expects an external trigger signal,
both in stand-alone operation and in PC operation with the GS-EchoView software. Therefore, the trigger switch ought to be used in stand-alone operation only. In PC operation, the
trigger switch on the rear side of the echoscope should generally always be switched off (figure 9, left image) and switch-over to external triggering should be made in the software.
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Ultrasonic echoscope
4.5
Ultrasonic probes
Ultrasonic probes
4.5.1 Single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
For GS200/GS200i single-element transducers are available at nominal frequencies of 1, 2, and
4 MHz (figure 10). These ultrasonic probes are specifically designed for GS200/GS200i. They are characterized by high sound intensity and short sound pulses. This makes it particularly suitable for
pulse-echo operation. Depending on the operating mode of the probe ports, the ultrasonic transducers operate as transmitter or receiver (transmission) or as transmitter/receiver (reflection).
Fig. 10:
Ultrasonic single-element transducers (blue: 1 MHz, red: 2 MHz, green: 4 MHz)
The 1 MHz probes marked blue (order no. 10151) are particularly suitable for examinations with
great penetration depths due to their high sound intensity. Application of 1 MHz probes is particularly recommended for examination of highly attenuating materials and for generation or Rayleigh
or shear waves.
The 2 MHz probes marked red (order no. 10152) are suitable for a particularly wide range of applications. Due to their higher frequency, the axial resolution is significantly higher than with 1 MHz
probes. In contrast to that, the attenuation characteristics of most materials are not too high at
2 MHz so that it is easily possible to reach examination regions of medium depth.
The 4 MHz probes marked green (order no. 10154) are characterized by extremely short oscillation
decay behavior resulting in highest axial resolution. They are predominantly used in cases where
resolution of very small structures is required. Penetration depth (which may be limited in some
materials) is no problem, especially for examination of liquids. The high resolution and associated
spectral bandwidth make these ultrasonic probes required for examinations of thin plates, for example.
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Ultrasonic echoscope
Ultrasonic probes
The ultrasonic probes are hardware-coded in accordance with their frequency values so that they can
be automatically identified by the measuring system.
All ultrasonic probes have a robust metal housing and the sound output surface is made of waterresistance casting material. The probes are equipped with robust special plugs for connection with
the echoscope.
Fig. 11:
!
Connecting/disconnecting a single-element transducer to GS200/GS200i)
When establishing or when disconnecting the connection between an ultrasonic transducer
and the echoscope, the connection plug of the transducer must be specifically held as illustrated in figure 11. Tensile load acting on the connection cable must be avoided to prevent
disconnection of the cable from the connector piece.
4.5.2 Array transducer (GS200i)
The scope of delivery of the GS200i includes an ultrasonic array transducer similar to those used e. g.
in medicine for examination of the abdomen.
The ultrasonic transducer comprises an array of 64 individual elements arranged in a convex structure. For control of the array transducer and for recording and processing of signals, a separate extension module is integrated into the GS200i ultrasonic echoscope. The connection port for the array
transducer is located on the rear of the GS200i (see figures 7 and 13).
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Ultrasonic echoscope
Ultrasonic probes
Fig. 12:
Convex ultrasonic array transducer.
Fig. 13:
Connection port for the array transducer on the rear side of GS200i.
!
The echoscope must be taken out of operation prior to connecting or disconnecting the ultrasonic array transducer.
16
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Software
5
General program structure
Software
The scope of delivery of the GS200/GS200i includes the GS-EchoView control and measuring software.
Moreover, the current program version is available on-line for download at www.gampt.de.
On the one hand, the program is used for control of the echoscope and the CT control unit (order
no. 60210) for the CT scanner (order no. 60200). On the other hand, it is used for recording, evaluation, and display of the measured data retrieved by the echoscope.
5.1
General program structure
5.1.1 User interface of the program
The user interface of the echoscope software is generally divided into a maximum of four areas with
varying contents depending on the selected program modes.
Programmfenster | Program Window
1
Menü | Menu
Schalterleiste | Button Bar
2
3
Parameterfeld
Diagrammbereich
Parameter
Panel
Plot Area
Fig. 14:
4
Infofeld
Info
Panel
Schematic program structure
1 - Button bar. This section primarily contains the mode selector switches used for calling up the
various program modes (A-mode, B-mode, M-mode, CT-mode and Imaging). Depending on the program mode selected, additional function switches may appear. In the program module GS-Image
(imaging mode with the GS200i; chapter 5.4.1) the button bar is not available.
2 - Parameter panel. This panel can be optionally shown or hidden and contains all relevant adjustable program and measuring parameters in a structurally grouped manner. Assignment of the parameter groups that can be called up via the tabs varies by the respective program modes. For clarity
and overview purposes, it is possible to optionally show or hide individual parameter groups.
3 - Plot area. Depending on the program mode, in the central area of the program interface it is possible to display one to none diagrams for evaluation and visualization of the measuring data supplied
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
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Software
General program structure
by the echoscope. Except for Imaging mode, every diagram can be separately configured and controlled via tool bars (see chapter 5.1.3.1 Diagram tool bars).
4 - Info panel. This field provides information about settings to be performed at the front side of the
echoscope (operating mode, transmitting power, gain, probes connected) and information about the
program and device status.
5.1.2 Function switches
Program functions and operations, such as starting of the measuring operation, switch-over to another program mode, update of data in the info panel, etc., are called up by means of switches.
Depending on the function, switches may provide different performance and layout options. Possible
switch conditions are described below.
Condition
Layout
Description
1
Switch is deactivated, function/action cannot be carried out
2
Switch is activated, function/action can be called up 1)
3
Switch is activated, function/action is being carried out 1)
Some functions automatically reset the switch to condition 2 after performance of the action. Other
functions and actions must be directly completed by clicking the buttons.
i
1)
In certain situations it is not possible to access switches although they are in condition 2 or
3. For example, in B, M, or CT mode it is not possible to access the Start A-scan and Freeze
switches or the switches for changing the program mode during a B-scan, M-scan or CT
measurement.
5.1.3 Diagrams
i
The following descriptions refer to the diagrams in A-, B-, M-, and CT-mode of the
GS-EchoView program.
5.1.3.1 Diagram tool bars
Configuration and control of the diagrams is performed via the tool bars.
When moving the mouse cursor over a diagram, the main tool bar is displayed in it upper right corner. It comprises two icon groups. The upper group contains functions for copying, printing and saving or for adjustment of the graphic display of the measuring data (curve type, color, dots, etc.). The
other group provides zoom functions.
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Software
General program structure
If the mouse cursor is moved over the x- or y-axis, the respective tool bar is opened. The axis tool bars
only contain zoom functions for the respective axis.
Overview of diagram tools
Main tool bar:
1 2 3 4 5 6
test
1
2
7 8 9 10 11 12
x-axis tool bar:
test
7 8 9 12
y-axis tool bar:
tes 7
8
t
9
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Hold/Resume - Interrupting
or continuing
the diagram
update.
Switch-over between the following mouse modes:
Mouse Shift: Shifting the contents of a window, i.e.
a zoomed diagram in the diagram window
Mouse Zoom: Opening the zoom window
in the diagram
Copy - copying the diagram into the Windows buffer memory
Print - printing diagrams
Save - saving the diagram as BMP or JPEG file
Setup - calling up the diagram settings
Zoom In - zooming into the diagram
Zoom Out - zooming out of the diagram
Zoom Auto – automatic zoom or resetting the diagram scales to
standard values (depending on the diagram contents)
Backward Zoom History – going back by one zoom step
Forward Zoom History – going forward by one zoom step
Setting for the type of zoom window that can be opened with
the help of the mouse:
tes Opening any zoom window
tes Opening a zoom window for the x-axis
(scaling of the y-axis is not changed)
tes Opening any zoom window for the y-axis
(scaling of the x-axis is not changed)
5.1.3.2 Zooming and shifting of diagram contents using the mouse
With the help of the mouse it is possible to zoom into the contents of a diagram (Mouse Zoom) and to
shift zoomed contents within the diagram window (Mouse Shift). Selection of mouse assignment options is performed via tool 2 in the main tool bar (see overview above). In the Mouse Zoom mode, the
tool icon is a hand and in the Mouse Shift mode the icon is a magnifying glass.
Mouse Zoom
For zooming, the mouse is moved over the diagram window and the left mouse key is clicked; keeping the left mouse key pressed, the zoom window is opened. The type of zoom window (user-defined,
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Software
General program structure
parallel with x-axis or parallel with y-axis) is determined by means of tool 12 of the respective tool
bar (see overview on page 19).
Click tes in the main tool bar.
Fig. 15:
Expanding any optional zoom window using the mouse
Click tes in the x-axis tool bar.
Fig. 16:
Expanding a zoom window for the x-axis
Click tes in the y-axis tool bar.
Fig. 17:
20
Expanding a zoom window for the y-axis
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Software
General program structure
Mouse Shift
Zoomed diagram contents can be freely shifted within the diagram window. For shifting, the mouse
is moved over the diagram window and the left mouse key is clicked; keeping the left mouse key
pressed, the diagram is moved into the required direction.
Fig. 18:
Free shifting of zoomed diagram content
Axially parallel shift
It is also possible to shift zoomed contents parallel to the axis within the diagram window, independently of the set mouse mode. For this purpose, the mouse is moved over the x- or y-axis and the left
mouse key is clicked; keeping the left mouse key pressed, the diagram is moved into the required
direction.
70
Fig. 19:
80
90
100
40
50
60
70
Shift parallel to the x-axis
0.6
0.0
0.4
-0.2
0.2
-0.4
0.0
-0.6
-0.2
Fig. 20:
Shift parallel to the y-axis
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General program structure
5.1.3.3 Measuring cursors
In general, for every diagram two measuring cursors (Cursor 1 and Cursor 2) are pre-set. With its help
it is possible to make statement e.g. of absolute and relative run times / depths or amplitudes. The
measuring cursors can be shown or hidden by means of a check box in the lower left corner of the
diagram.
Fig. 21:
Selected measuring cursor in the A-scan diagram.
The measuring cursors are designed as cross-line cursors comprising two measuring lines of which
one runs parallel with the x-axis and the other runs parallel with the y-axis. For each of the two
measuring cursors, the appertaining x/y coordinates for their current position (intersection points of
the measuring lines with the axes of the diagram) are displayed below the diagram (Cursor 1 and
Cursor 2). Moreover, the differential values between the x- and y-coordinates of the two cross-line
cursors are displayed (delta Cursors).
i
It is possible to define additional cursors by means of the set-up function in the main tool bar.
However, only the coordinates and differential values of the pre-set cursors 1 and 2 are displayed below the diagram.
Positioning the measuring cursors
Double-clicking the left mouse key moves measuring cursor 1 to the position of the mouse pointer in
the diagram and double-clicking the right mouse key moves similarly measuring cursor 2. Moreover,
the measuring lines of a cursor can be individually or jointly be selected and shifted by means of the
22
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Software
General program structure
mouse (figure 21). For that purpose, the mouse pointer is positioned above the respective measuring
line, which is then visually highlighted. The selected measuring line can only be moved within the
diagram with the left mouse key pressed and held.
5.1.4 Print command
Fig. 22:
Print command
The Print command in the program menu is perfectly suitable for quickly capturing the program
status (measurement curves, parameter settings, status information). This command generates a
screen shot of the program interface and displays it in a preview window. From there, it is possible to
directly print the screen shot or save it as a pixel graphic (jpg, bmp).
Fig. 23: Preview window of the print function
In the same way it is possible to use the print function in the main tool bar of the diagrams to create a
screen shot of an individual diagram (chapter 5.1.3.1 Diagram tool bars).
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5.2
Program start
Program start
5.2.1 Initialization
During program start, the GS-EchoView program performs an initialization phase.
During this phase the connection status with the GS200/GS200i echoscope is first verified. Subsequently, the measuring parameters and program settings are loaded that were saved during the last
closing of the program. Finally, the device and program status is determined and displayed in the
info panel.
After initialization is completed, the program is in stand-by mode.
Fig. 24:
i
i
24
GS-EchoView after program start
The program is always started in A-mode. Starting there, all other activities or evaluations
can be selected and started.
In stand-by mode of the program, the info panel is not updated (e.g. during probe replacement, change of the transmission level or gain level, etc.) since no data transfer is taking
place between the program and the echoscope. However, with the help of the Refresh switch
it is possible to force an update of the info panel without having to change the program to
measuring mode.
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Program start
5.2.2 Simulation mode
The software is equipped with a simulation mode that is activated if no echoscope is connected or if
the connected device is off-line (i.e. fault in the USB connection, device switched off, etc.). In this
case, a warning is displayed upon program start (figure 25).
Fig. 25:
Warning displayed at connection fault or aborted connection.
In that case the user has the following possibilities:
A) Inspection of the connection to the echoscope (USB and mains cable, device switched
on) and subsequently attempt to re-establish the connection.
B) The program is directly started in simulation mode.
If the echoscope is correctly connected and switched on but it is still not possible to establish a connection, the USB settings of the program must be checked. For that purpose, the program is started
in simulation mode and the USB tab is called up in the parameter panel (see chapter 5.3.3.2 from
page 31).
i
The program behavior described above also occurs if the connection between the echoscope
and the computer (program) is lost during program operation.
Simulation data
The software also contains simulation data that are used for simulating ultrasonic measurements.
Depending on the program mode, some of the display and evaluation functions may be directly applied to the simulation data.
!
By carrying out simulated measurements using the simulation data, saved measuring parameters of a previous on-line measurement are overwritten. Use the save and load functions for parameters in Additionals in the Params tab.
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5.3
Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.1 Starting, interrupting, and completing the measuring mode
After program start is completed, the program is in stand-by mode. There is no data transfer taking
place from and to the echoscope. Only by clicking the Start A-scan button, the program changes to
measuring mode.
In measuring mode, the echoscope continuously performs ultrasonic scans. The analogue measuring
signals are digitized in the echoscope and provided for data transfer to the computer via the USB
interface. The digitized measuring data are constantly retrieved, processed and visualized by the
program in the form of curves or as ultrasonic image in diagrams.
Clicking the Start A-scan button again, stops the measuring operation.
i
In B, M, and CT mode the measuring system is automatically switched to measuring operation upon start of a B-, M- or CT-scan. For stopping the measuring operation, the current B-,
M- or CT-scan must be previously stopped.
While the Hold/Resume tool of the diagrams (page 19) only interrupts the update function of the
diagrams, the Freeze button interrupts the entire measuring operation of the program and echoscope. In that case, the echoscope will stop triggering and generation of ultrasonic pulses. Moreover,
the data transfer from and to the echoscope is interrupted. I.e. the measuring operation is virtually
frozen.
Clicking the Freeze button again, the measuring operation is continued.
i
During performance of a B, M, or CT measurement, interruption of the measuring operation
by means of the Freeze button is not possible.
5.3.2 Visualization of the measurement signals in an A-scan diagram
For graphic illustration of ultrasonic signals in A-scan diagrams three different methods are available
(figure 26):
•
HF:
Amp:
•
Both:
•
26
Only the ultrasonic signal (i.e. the digitized measuring signal) is displayed.
Only the amplitude signal (i.e. the envelope of the ultrasonic signal calculated
by the program) is displayed.
Both the ultrasonic and the amplitude signal are displayed.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Fig. 26: Display modes of an amplitude scan
5.3.3 Measuring and program parameters
In the Parameters field, on the left side of the program interface, almost all functions, parameters,
and setting options are provided that are required for performance, recording and evaluation of ultrasonic measurements using the 1, 2 or 4 MHz ultrasonic probes.
Fig. 27:
Tab for measuring and program parameters
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The parameters and functions are grouped by topics in the following tabs:
Tab
Description
Params
Basic parameters and generally all measuring and auxiliary parameters for Ascans applicable in all program modes (chapter 5.3.3.1).
USB
Functions for inspection and resetting of USB connections between the echoscope and the CT control unit. Change-over between on-line and simulation
mode of the program (chapter 5.3.3.2).
Draw
Basic color settings for all diagrams. Storage options for the diagram settings
(chapter 5.3.3.3).
A-mode
Parameters, settings, and functions for performance and evaluation of ultrasonic measurements according to the A-scan method (chapter 5.3.5).
B-mode
Parameters and settings for generation and evaluation of manually created Bscans using single-element transducers (chapter 5.3.6).
M-mode
Parameters and settings for generation and evaluation of ultrasonic images
according to the Time-Motion method (chapter 5.3.7).
CT-mode
Parameters and settings for generation and visualization of ultrasonic computer tomograms (chapter 5.3.8).
Scanner
Scanner moving functions (chapter 5.3.3.4)
5.3.3.1 Params tab
The Params tab includes measuring and software parameters that apply for all four program modes.
Within the tab, the individual parameters are classified in two groups: A-scan parameters and Additionals.
A-scan parameters :: Sample rate
The analogue measuring signals are digitized in the echoscope for data transmission via the USB interface. For digitizing, the user can select one of the four sampling rates available - 10, 25, 50 or
100 MHz (see figure 28).
A-scan parameters :: Measurement range :: Begin/End [µs]
The measurement range represents the run time range of an ultrasonic signal or the depth range of
the ultrasonic measurement that is measured and recorded by the echoscope. The range is defined
by means of a beginning value in µs (Begin) and an end value in µs (End).
The maximum measurement range (End minus Begin) depends on the selected sampling rate.
28
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Fig. 28:
Ultrasonic echo pulse, digitized at sampling rates of 10 and 100 MHz (4-MHz probe).
Fig. 29:
A-scan on the left represents run time measurement and on the right represents depth measurement
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
A-scan parameters :: Measurement range :: Sound velocity
Amplitude scans may be performed as run time or depth measurements (figure 29). Selection is made
by specification of the scaling unit at Unit in diagrams:
•
µs (microseconds) for run time measurement or
•
mm (millimeters) for depth measurement.
Indication of the propagation velocity (velocity of sound) required for calculating a depth measurement can be made in the Sound velocity input field
Additionals :: delete Yoffset
The amplitude of an ultrasonic signal may have an offset of several millivolts (measurement curve on
the left in figure 30). This amplitude offset has an effect on calculation of the envelope of the ultrasonic signal. Activation of the delete Yoffset parameter results in automatic correction of the offset for
every amplitude scan (measurement curve on the right in figure 30).
Fig. 30:
Amplitude scans with and without amplitude offset correction
Additionals :: PRF
Activation of the ultrasonic transducers for generation of sound pulses and subsequent analoguedigital conversion of the signal channels (ultrasonic signal and TGC signal) in the echoscope is triggered by a specific frequency. This trigger frequency is either pre-defined (stand-alone operation,
external trigger) or dependent on the PRF parameter (PC operation with GS-EchoView).
Only one signal channel is processed per trigger pulse. If both the ultrasonic signal and the TGC signal are requested by the program, analogue-digital conversion of the signals is performed alternately. While the ultrasonic signal is always requested by the program in measuring mode, the TGC
signal is only requested with the TGC window open.
30
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The PRF parameter (pulse repetition frequency) then specifies the frequency at which the ultrasonic
signal is to be sampled and processed. If only the ultrasonic signal is requested, the trigger frequency
that can be measured at the trigger output on the front side of the echoscope is approximately corresponding to the PRF value. If the TGC signal is additionally requested, the trigger frequency measured is double the specified PRF value.
i
In CT mode the PRF parameter is not applicable, since triggering is initiated by a different
method.
Additionals :: Averaging
In measurement mode, the data sequences of the individual ultrasonic scans requested by the program are written into a buffer memory. The value of the Averaging parameter defines the number of
buffered data sequences for which an average is calculated. With every new data sequence, the average values are re-calculated, with the oldest measured values being pushed out of the buffer. The
method of moving averaging of the measurement signals results in the measurement signals being
smoothed out due to interferences in the measurement signal being suppressed and variations and
noise on the signal being reduced.
i
5.3.3.2
In order to avoid the disadvantages of smoothing, particularly with high Averaging values
(e.g. slow reaction to fast or sudden changes) for measurements with moved or moving ultrasonic transducers or examination objects, the Averaging parameter is only used in
A-mode.
USB tab
During program start, the program scans the USB interfaces. Devices that are connected and switched
on (echoscope, CT control unit) are normally detected and connected automatically.
If it is not possible to establish a connection with the echoscope, we recommend starting the program
in simulation mode and calling up the USB tab. In the tab, information on the current connection
status and functions for manually establishing a connection with the echoscope or the CT control
unit are provided (figure 31).
i
To be able to successfully establish a connection with the echoscope and/or the CT control
unit, the correct USB ID string must be entered into the ID string field. The USB ID string is
saved in the USB chip of the device. Currently valid USB ID strings are:
GAHS for the echoscope GS200/GS200i and
GACT for the CT control unit
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
A
B
Fig. 31:
C
D
USB tab at various connection statuses
A:
devices not connected or not switched-on
B:
USB connection with echoscope established
no connection established with CT control unit (incorrect USB ID string)
C:
USB connection with echoscope and CT control unit established
D:
echoscope not connected or not switched-on
USB connection with CT control unit established (scanner functions can be used;
chapter 5.3.3.4)
5.3.3.3 Draw tab
Color schemes
In the Draw tab, it is possible to perform basic color settings for the diagrams that will be applicable
for all diagrams and are automatically saved when closing the program. Users can change between
two color schemes:
•
•
32
Dark:
Dark background, bright foreground (axes and writing). This setting is particularly
suitable when working with a monitor (see figure 32).
Bright: Bright background, dark foreground (axes and writing). This color scheme is best
suitable for printing diagrams or screen shots (see figure 33).
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Fig. 32:
Basic color scheme Dark
Fig. 33:
Basic color scheme Bright
The background and foreground colors of the two color schemes can be adjusted by means of the
Background and Axes / text buttons. Clicking one of the buttons opens a selection window, in which
the required color adjustments can be made.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The All default colors button resets the color values of both schemes to standard values.
i
The settings of the two color schemes are applicable for all diagrams in A-mode, B-mode, Mmode, and CT-mode and are automatically saved when closing the program.
All other settings of the diagrams are separately performed in the set-up menu of the respective diagram (chapter 5.1.3.1 Diagram tool bars).
Saving/loading of diagram settings
Using the Load and Save buttons (figure 34) it is possible to save and load the settings for all diagrams in A-mode, B-mode, M-mode, and CT-mode at once. With the help of the Auto load and
Auto save the user can activate or deactivate automatic loading and/or saving of the diagram settings
during start-up and closing of the program.
Fig. 34: All diagrams settings function group in the Draw tab
!
Please note that during closing of the program, the last saved diagram settings are overwritten without further notice if the Auto save parameter is activated.
Below, a brief description of the program behavior at various settings of the Auto load and Auto save
parameters with regard to saving and backup of diagram settings is provided.
At program start-up the default settings are loaded. Any modified diagram settings are not saved when closing the program.
At program start-up the settings last saved are loaded. When closing the
program, the program overwrites the data backed up last by the current
diagram settings.
At program start-up the settings last saved are loaded. Any modified diagram settings are not saved when closing the program.
At program start-up the default settings are loaded. When closing the
program, the program overwrites the data backed up last by the current
diagram settings.
34
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.3.4 Scanner tab
With the function switches Move Angle and Move Path it is possible to position the motor carriage of the CT scanner and rotate
the magnetic plate at the carriage.
The parameters Speed and Length define the movement speed
and path length for the carriage. In view of the magnetic plate,
Speed and Angle define the rotation speed and rotation angle.
The direction of movement or rotation can be set by selecting
one of the options Left or Right.
Movement or rotation can be stopped at any time by pressing
Cancel moving.
With the Define zero point button the distance between the
current carriage position and the right end stop (zero point) can
be determined in millimeters by driving against the end stop
and defined as zero point. Then, this carriage position and any
other position between the limits can be approached in a defined manner by means of the Move to zero point button.
Fig. 35:
i
Control functions for
the CT scanner
The Scanner tab is only displayed if the program detects the connected CT control unit
(GAMPT 60210). In older program versions the functions can be found in the CT-mode tab.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.4 Information on device settings and program status
On the right side of the program window, information on the status of the measuring system is displayed in the info panel.
The displayed information is constantly updated during measuring operation. Data transfer between
the PC and echoscope is not taking place in stand-by mode. In this case the display can be manually
updated after a change or modification (replacement of a probe, change in the transmission level
and gain, change of program parameters, etc.) by means of the Refresh button.
5.3.4.1 Device information (Front panel)
The Front panel group displays information on the connected ultrasonic transducers and on device
settings that are performed at the front side of the echoscope.
Operating mode of the echoscope
The Mode display field provides information on the set operating mode of the echoscope (reflection
or through transmission) and on the mode of application of the connected ultrasonic transducers. In
the display the letter T is for transmitter, R is for receiver and the number refers to the probe connection port at the echoscope (PROBE 1 or PROBE 2).
36
Display
PROBE 1
PROBE 2
Operating mode
T1 –R1
reflection
Transmitter and receiver
not active
Reflection
T1 –R2
transmission
Transmitter
Receiver
Transmission
T2 - R2
transmission
Receiver
Transmitter
Transmission
T2 – R2
reflection
not active
Transmitter and receiver
Reflection
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Transmission level of the echoscope
...
The Output field displays the transmission level set at the echoscope. In the Mode indicator field, the
user can read to which connection port, Probe 1 or Probe 2, the transmission level is applied.
Gain of the echoscope
...
The Gain field displays the amplification of the signal of the ultrasonic transducer set at the echoscope.
Connected ultrasonic transducers
The fields Probe 1 and Probe 2 indicate whether or not an ultrasonic transducer is connected to the
respective probe input and whether or not the transducer was detected by the system. The GAMPT
ultrasonic transducers are equipped with a hardware code so that they can be detected automatically.
Display
Description
no probe
There is no ultrasonic transducer connected
Unknown
An ultrasonic transducer is connected but cannot be detected (e.g. in case of defective transducer coding).
1 MHz
An ultrasonic transducer with a transducer frequency of 1 MHz is connected.
5.3.4.2 Information on program and measuring operation
The fields of the Status display panel provide information on the program and measuring status.
Triggering of ultrasonic pulse generation
Periodical triggering of the ultrasonic transducers for generation of an ultrasonic pulse may be performed internally (stand-alone operation or PC operation) or externally by means of a trigger. The
trigger field indicates whether the echoscope is set to internal or external triggering (see chapter 4.4.2 External triggering).
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Data status
This field indicates whether the system operates using current measuring data (on-line data) from
the echoscope or using saved data (simulation data) in simulation mode (see chapter 5.2.2
Simulation mode).
Status of the FFT filter
Spectral analysis of the measured ultrasonic amplitude signal is possible by means of the program. A
variable frequency filter can be superimposed on the frequency spectrum which is determined with
the help of an FFT function (fast Fourier transformation). In operating condition, this FFT filter is
directly applied to the measuring signal (see description Frequency spectrum and frequency filter on
page 45).
Status of HF data
For digitization in the echoscope, the analogue ultrasonic measuring signal is limited to a voltage
range between –1 Volt and +1 Volt. All voltage values that are higher and lower are cut out (figure 36
and 37). This kind of overdriving of the measurement signal by exceeding transmitting power or exceeding gain is indicated as HF data overrun in the status display.
!
Since the envelope (Amp signal) of the ultrasonic measurement signal is also calculated in
cases where the measurement signal is overdrived, the HF data overrun status message must
always be taken into account. Particularly for amplitude measurements, the transmission
level and gain level must be selected such that the voltage amplitude of the measurement
signal does not exceed ±1 Volt.
38
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Fig. 36:
Amplitude signal within the valid value range between –1 V and +1 V
Fig. 37:
Overdriven measurement signal cut out at ±1 Volt
Status of average value calculation
The Average status indicator displays whether average value calculation is taking place and if so, how
many individual scans (data sequences) are used. Setting of the average value calculation is performed in the Params tab via the Averaging parameter (see page 31 section Additionals :: Averaging).
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Frame rate
The Frame rate indicates the update frequency for graphical display of the measurement results
(diagrams). The maximum obtainable Frame rate depends on various factors, such as:
•
•
•
•
•
duration of data transmission between echoscope and computer,
computing power of the PC,
number of measurement points (determined by sampling rate and measurement range),
number of diagrams opened, or
number of notifications.
!
Frame rate must not be mistaken for the PRF parameter. The values of these two parameters
may significantly deviate from one another. While PRF is limited by the processing speed of
the electronic components (ADC, micro-controller, etc.), Frame rate depends on the factors
described above.
5.3.4.3 Scanner status
The Scanner group displays status information that is
specifically relate to the CT scanner and measurements
using the CT scanner
While handling the CT scanner or during a measurement, the latest values with regard to position of the
motor carriage and angle position of the magnetic
plate or on the sequence of the measurement (number
of the current scan cycle, duration of measurement)
can be found here.
Moreover, the current status of the limit switches of
the CT scanner is displayed (see chapter 6.1.2):
Fig. 38:
i
40
Examples of status information on
scanner and measurement
•
•
green : Limit switch is free (OFF).
red : Limit switch at the end stop (ON).
The Scanner group is only displayed if the program detects a connected CT control unit
(GAMPT 60210). In older program versions the fields can be found in the CT-mode tab.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.5 A-mode
As described above, the GS-EchoView measurement software is always started up in A-mode. In this
program mode it is possible to perform ultrasonic measurements according to the A-scan method, in
pulse-echo mode (reflection) or in through transmission mode (transmission).
Fig. 39:
Program view in A-mode operation
The parameters for measurements are set and adjusted in the Params tab and with the help of the
control elements on the front side of the echoscope.
Start measurement operation as is described in chapter 5.3.1. Then, the echoscope will continuously
perform ultrasonic scans and provide the measurement data for transfer to the PC. The GS-EchoView
program retrieves the provided measurement data from the echoscope and displays them in a graphic chart. The Frame rate displayed in the info panel specifies the update rate of the diagrams, i.e. the
number of data sequences that can be actually displayed by the program.
For illustration and evaluation of the measurement data in A-mode of the program, four diagrams
are available: A-scan (Dia1), TGC (Dia2), Spectrum FFT (Dia3) and Cepstrum (Dia4). In the A-mode tab
it is possible to individually switch the diagrams on and off.
Since all other imaging ultrasonic procedures in the program are based on amplitude scans, the Ascan and TGC diagrams are also available B-, M- and CT-mode.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.5.1 Time-of-flight and amplitude measurements
With the help of the measurement cursor (chapter 5.1.3.3) the times-of-flight of sound and echo
amplitudes can be measured in the A-scan diagram.
Time-of-flight measurement
Time-of-flight measurements are carried out, e.g. to determine the depth of discontinuities in a body
or to determine the velocity of sound in a certain material. With the sound velocity known, scaling of
the x-axis can be switched over from time of flight to depth (see figure 29).
For measuring the time of flight of an echo signal or the depth of a discontinuity, the vertical measuring line of one of the measuring cursors must be moved to the starting point of the rising edge of
the echo pulse to be measured (figure 40).
Fig. 40:
!
Positioning of the measuring cursors for time-of-flight measurement in the Amp representation of an
ultrasonic scan.
Measurements of the absolute time of flight may be faulty, e.g. due to co-measurement of
the time of flight within the matching layers of the ultrasonic transducers. These faults may
be avoided by relative time-of-flight measurements using both measuring cursor (use of
multiple reflections, use of a delay path, determination of the difference by measurement of
times of flight for various sound paths).
Amplitude measurement
Amplitude measurements are performed e.g. for determining the sound attenuation in a material.
For measuring the amplitude of an echo signal, the horizontal measuring line of one of the measuring cursors is used (figure 41).
The amplitude value of an individual echo signal is not diagnostically conclusive on its own. Therefore, comparative measurements are generally carried out. The amplitude scans in figure 41 show
e.g. amplitude measurements at acrylic cylinders of different lengths. In this example, decrease of
42
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
the amplitude of the pulse signal with increasing time of flight represents a measure for sound attenuation in acrylic.
Fig. 41:
!
Transmission measurements at acrylic cylinders of different lengths
(top-down: 40 mm, 80 mm and 120 mm).
To be able to compare the measured amplitude values, the measurements must be performed under equal conditions (transmitting power, gain, set-up, ...). Consequently, it is not
possible to compare e.g. values from TGC amplified ranges with other amplitude values.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.5.2 Measuring accuracy
The analogue measuring signals of the ultrasonic transducers are digitized in the echoscope prior to
transfer to the PC. Display of the individual measurement points (see figure 42 diagram on the right)
can be switches on and off by means of the set-up tool
(Channels::Points::Visible) in the main tool
bar or the diagrams.
i
Fig. 42:
Resolution of analogue-digital conversion
Time of flight: Depending on the sampling rate (see chapter 5.3.3.1 Params tab).
At a sampling rate of 100 MHz it consequently is 10 ns.
Amplitude:
approx. 1 mV
Display of measured values in various zoom views
The numeric values (individual points, axis scaling, and cursor positions) that can be read from the
diagrams generally are “interpolated” values that seem to become more and more accurate through
auto-scaling during zooming (see figure 42).
Therefore, we recommend generally not using numeric values with higher accuracy than the resolutions of AD conversion stated above. For this reason, the cursor values below the curves are always
displayed with an accuracy of 0.01 µs and/or 0.001 V.
Naturally, the accuracy with which the measuring cursors are positioned within the diagram increases with increasing zoom. However, the extent of improvement of measuring accuracy achieved
by more precise positioning, also depends on the absolute value of the variable to be measured relative error.
44
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.5.3 Frequency spectrum and frequency filter
Frequency spectrum
In A-mode of the program it is possible to perform a frequency analysis of the ultrasonic scan called
up. The frequency spectrum of the ultrasonic scan is calculated by means of a fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and is displayed in the Spectrum FFT diagram (figure 43).
Fig. 43:
A-Scan (left) with appertaining frequency spectrum (right)
i
The frequency range of the calculated FFT spectrum depends on the sampling rate of the
measurement. Resolution of the spectrum is limited by the number of measuring points used
for calculation.
At the first start of the program, all measurement points of an A-scan are used for calculation of the
frequency spectrum. To restrict the data range, the FFT range check box must be activated. The data
range for spectrum calculation is highlighted in gray. The data range can be adjusted at will by shifting the left and right limit of this range with the mouse (see figure 44).
Fig. 44:
Frequency spectrum for the section of the measurement signal between 17.4 µs and 23.6 µs.
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Fig. 45:
Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The signal range for which the calculation of the frequency spectrum is performed, is always
displayed in the upper left part of the spectrum diagram. In this way it is possible to specify
whether the calculated frequency spectrum is applicable for the entire data set or only part of
the measuring data, even if the data range for FFT is not highlighted in the A-scan diagram.
In older program versions the vertical measurement lines are used to limit the data range for
calculating the frequency spectrum (figure 45). Here it should be noted, that at measurement
of times of flight / depths by means of the measurement lines, the data range for calculating
the FFT spectrum is also changed.
Limiting the data range for FFT calculation by using vertical measurement lines in older program versions.
Frequency filter
A frequency filter can be superimposed on the frequency spectrum. This allows for elimination of
certain (interfering) signal proportions from the measuring signal.
The frequency filter can be activated and deactivated by means of the FFT Filter on button in the
A-mode tab (figure 46). According to the filter parameters set there, a band-pass, high- or low-pass
and/or a band-stop filter can be generated. The Middle parameter determines the position of the
filter on the spectrum and Width determines the filter width. The Gate form parameter defines the
slopes of the filter edges. A value of 0 corresponds to a rectangular shape and negative values result
in a band-stop filter.
With the frequency filter activated, the filter curve and the filtered spectrum are displayed in the
spectrum diagram in addition to the spectrum, itself.
The filtered frequency spectrum is calculated backwards using an inverse FFT. In the A-scan diagram
only filtered measuring data are displayed.
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Fig. 46:
Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Measurement using a 2 MHz probe without filter in the top range and band-pass filter in the bottom
range.
When delimiting the data range of the ultrasonic signal for calculation of the frequency spectrum,
the frequency filter is only applied to the data of this signal range (Fig. 47).
Fig. 47:
Band-pass filter applied to a frequency spectrum that was only calculated for a part of the measurement signal.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The activated frequency filter is not only active in A-mode but also in B-, M-, and CT-mode of
the program. It has priority over all other evaluations for application on the measurement
data transmitted by the echoscope so that all other evaluation steps of the imaging methods
(A, B, M, and CT) are carried out using filtered measurement data.
Therefore, with unfavorable filter settings, the generated ultrasonic images may have more
or less distinct artifacts or they simply cannot be evaluated (figure 47).
The frequency filter can only be activated and deactivated in A-mode. By having the filter
status displayed in the info panel, it is possible to check frequency filter activity at any time,
also in other program modes. Status info: | FFT filter on.
5.3.5.4 Cepstrum and cepstrum filter
Cepstrum
The Cepstrum diagram is another option for spectral evaluation in the A-mode of the program. The
cepstrum is generally determined by repeated application of a fast Fourier transformation; but this
time it is applied to the frequency spectrum described above. The name cepstrum originates from the
name spectrum with the first four letters being arranged in reverse order.
The cepstrum analysis provides information repetition of certain intervals within the frequency spectrum (these are visualized in cepstrum in the form of peaks). Such information may be useful e.g. for
evaluation of multiple echoes at very thin layers (figure 48).
i
48
The dimension of the independent cepstrum variables is identical with the dimension of independent variables of the starting function from which the spectrum was derived. Depending on the unit set for the A-scan diagram (µsec or mm; see figure 29 on page 29) in cepstrum
it is possible to read times-of flight, e.g. of a thin layer or directly the thickness of such a layer.
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Fig. 48:
Amplitude scan, frequency spectrum and cepstrum using the example of thin acrylic plates
(top: one plate with a thickness of 9.7 mm; bottom two plates with a thickness of 7.8 mm and 9.7 mm,
respectively).
Cepstrum filter
A cepstrum filter can be superimposed on the cepstrum. This filter calculates back transformation of
the cepstrum data that are displayed as a bright blue line in the Spectrum FFT diagram with standard
settings of the program (e.g. for smoothing out the frequency spectrum).
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
The cepstrum filter can be activated and deactivated by means of the Cepstrum filter on button in
the A-mode tab (figure 49). The filter parameters Middle, Width and Gate form are set equally as described above for frequency filter.
With the filter activated, the filter curve and the filtered cepstrum are also displayed in the cepstrum
diagram.
Fig. 49:
Cepstrum filter activated
i
In contrast to the frequency filter, the cepstrum filter does not have any effect on the
measuring data of the ultrasonic scan.
50
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.6 B-mode
In B-mode of the GS-EchoView program it is possible to record B(rightness)-scan images using singleelement transducers. The figure below illustrates a B-scan of an acrylic test block (GAMPT 10201).
Fig. 50:
Program view in B-mode operation
Three diagrams are available for evaluation: B-scan (Dia 1), A-scan (Dia 2) and TGC (Dia 3). A-scan and
TGC diagram are adapted to the B-scan diagram in terms of alignment. In this way it is possible to
directly track generation of a B-scan image by stringing together gray value- or color value-coded
amplitude scans.
The actual start of recording a B-scan image (B-scan measurement) is triggered by means of the Start
B-scan button. Subsequently, the ultrasonic transducer is manually evenly pulled over the surface
of the test object along the desired intersection line. The measurement is stopped by actuating the
button again, which is named Stop B-scan while the B-scan measurement is performed.
After completion of the B-scan measurement, the measuring cursor and the tools of the diagram tool
bar can be used for evaluation of the B-scan image.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
During a B-scan measurement, all other switches, diagram tools and measuring cursors are
deactivated.
If the program is still in stand-by mode when the measurement is started, it is automatically
switched to measuring mode. After completion of the measurement, the program will remain in measuring mode; i.e. the program continues to perform amplitude scans.
Coding of the amplitude scans
By coding, the amplitude scans are transformed into line scans with every measuring point of a scan
being assigned a gray or colored value according to its amplitude. Normalization and scaling of the
gray and color values can be performed automatically or manually specified. The Levels group in the
B-mode tab is intended for that.
•
•
•
Show levels:
diagram.
Gray scale:
Auto min/max:
Fig. 51:
Display of the gray tone or color tone scale on the right opposite the B-scan
Switch-over between grayscale and color scale encoding.
Automatic or manual (Level min/max) normalization of scaling.
Greyscale / color scale encoding and allocation of time / location coordinates to a B-scan measurement.
Time/location coordinates of a B-scan
y-axis: The y-axis of the B-scan diagram is used for mapping of the time of flight or the depth. Selection is again made by setting the diagram unit (µsec or mm) for the A-scan in the Params tab. For
correct conversion of time of flight and depth, the correct sound velocity of the medium through
which ultrasound is transmitted must naturally also be specified.
x-axis: With B-scan measurement, the duration of the measurement is recorded and displayed in the
Image width group in the B-mode tab. If the length of the intersection line of the B-scan along which
the ultrasonic transducer was moved is known, the measured time values can be assigned to local
coordinates. For that purpose, the path length must be specified and the check box next to the equal
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
sign (=) must be activated. In this way the time values on the x-axis are converted to paths and/or
distances (see figure 51; time coordinates on the left, location coordinates on the right).
!
The prerequisite for allocation of time coordinates to location coordinates is that the scan
must be performed at consistent speed. And the start and stop times must match the distance. However, slight deviations may occur during assessment using the measuring cursor.
Selection of the measuring signal to be coded
In general, B-scan images are generated by coding of the amplitude signal, i.e. the envelope of the
actual ultrasonic signal. In the program this is performed if the Amp or Both view option is set for the
A-scan diagram. In contrast to that, in HF view the measured ultrasonic signal is coded. This result in
ultrasonic images similar to those e.g. known from TOFD measurements in non-destructive material
testing (see figure below).
Fig. 52:
Grey value-coding of the HF (ultrasonic) signal
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.7 M-mode
In M-mode of the GS-EchoView program ultrasonic measurements may be performed according to
the TM (Time-Motion) method. Representation and function are similar to B-mode of the program
(see chapter 5.3.6 from page 51). Figure 53 illustrates a TM measurement using the example of a
model of a human heart (GAMPT 10220).
Equal to a B-scan the amplitudes of the ultrasonic signal echoes of an A-scan are mapped on the yaxis of the TM-scan in gray or color values. The time-shifted echoes occurring with a high PRF are
mapped on the horizontal time axis one next to the other. In contrast to the B-scan method, the ultrasonic transducer is not moved during measurement. Moreover, in the TM image only the last ultrasonic echoes of a definable time window are displayed. In this way a continuous curve chart running from right to left is generated; it represents the temporal movement of the structure under test.
Fig. 53:
Program view in M-mode operation
The actual start of recording a TM-scan is triggered by means of the Start M-scan button. The measurement is stopped by actuating the button again, which is named Stop M-scan while the TM-scan is
performed.
After completion of the TM-scan measurement, the measuring cursors and the tools of the diagram
tool bar can be used for evaluation of the B-scan image.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
During a TM measurement, all other switches, diagram tools and measuring cursors are deactivated.
If the program is still in stand-by mode when the measurement is started, it is automatically
switched to measuring mode. After completion of the measurement, the program will remain in measuring mode; i.e. the program continues to perform amplitude scans.
Time window of an M-scan
While the B-scan image always consists of all amplitude scans of the measurement, the TM-scan image only comprises a certain number of amplitude scans. The size of the mapped time window of the
TM-scan is set in the M-mode tab by means of the Image width parameter. For example, a value of
10 sec means that the TM-scan comprises the amplitude scans of the last 10 seconds. This makes it
possible to optimally and promptly track movements and modifications of a structure under test over
a longer period.
i
Temporal resolution of the TM-scan depends on the set PRF value and is mainly limited by
the maximum possible frame rate of the program.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.8 CT-mode
i
Fig. 54:
We are sure that the contemplation in this chapter is also interesting for users who do not use
a CT scanner. However, it must be noted that the measurements described in this chapter
can only be performed using a CT scanner (GAMPT 60200) and the corresponding controller
unit (GAMPT 60210) (see chapter 6.1 CT equipment).
In simulation mode, the CT program is also operable without any hardware connected.
Echoscope with CT equipment
5.3.8.1 Ultrasonic computer tomography
X-ray CT, MRT and PET are computer-aided imaging methods that are used in medical, industrial and
research fields of application. Processes, such as radiation absorption, nuclear magnetic resonance
or particle emission are used to generate cross-sectional images by means of measurable physical
quantities.
Ultrasonic computer tomography is another CT method. It differentiates from X-ray CT in that the
attenuation of ultrasonic signals is measured in the object under test instead of attenuation of xrays. However, the evaluation algorithms are identical and even any occurring artifacts are comparable. Moreover, time of flight or velocity of the ultrasonic signal between the transmitter and receiver can be measured with US-CT as an additional variable. Through evaluation of several simultaneously measured parameters, US computer tomography is able to provide additional information
for an object under test.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Differences between X-ray CT and GAMPT ultrasonic CT
With X-ray CT (figure 55 top) a transmitter transmits rays through the object. The x-rays attenuated
by the object are detected and recorded by a receiver at several points simultaneously. Then, the
transmitter-receiver system rotates around the object under test and starts another scan. This is repeated until all required angles are included.
Scan 1
Scan 2
Scan 3
Transducer
X-ray CT
Object
Object
Object
Receiver
Transducer
Object
Fig. 55:
Ob
jec
t
t
jec
Ob
GAMPT US-CT
Receiver
Comparison between x-ray CT and GAMPT ultrasonic CT
With our ultrasonic CT (figure 55, bottom) the transmitter and receiver are fixed. Attenuation of the
intensity and the time of flight are only measured at one location. Therefore, for every angle, the
attenuation values of the object and the sound transition times are measured at several positions
one after the other. For that purpose, the object under test is moved forward and backward between
the transmitter and receiver. Accuracy is calculated from the distance of these measuring points and
the scanning path from the sum of all of these distances. After such a scan, in our system the object
under test is rotated instead of the transmitter-receiver system and the next scan is started.
5.3.8.2 CT-mode tab
Equal to the other program modes, a special tab is also available for this mode containing the modespecific parameters and functions.
Diagram selection
In CT mode up to nine diagrams are available for evaluation:
•
A-scan (Dia 11): Ultrasonic signal of transmission measurement
•
TGC (Dia 12): Time gain control
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
•
Attenuation / Sound velocity (Dia 13): Measuring curves of the sound attenuation or sound
velocity measured along the width of a CT-scan at unchanged angle setting. The measured
values are determined relative to the first measuring point.
•
last scan amplitude / velocity (Dias 21 und 31): Color value-coded images of the respective
scans performed last. The images are only updated after completion of a scan.
•
amplitude / velocity unfiltered (Dias 22 und 32): Unfiltered cross-sectional CT images that result from overlay of all completed scans of the measurement. The images are updated after
every scan so that the tomogram generation can be tracked step-by-step.
•
amplitude / velocity filtered Shep-Logan (Dias 23 und 33): Cross-sectional CT images equal to
Dias 22 and 32 but with application of the Shep-Logan filter that is intended to emphasize the
contours.
Fig. 56:
58
Program view in CT-mode operation with all diagrams (except TGC diagram)
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
CT parameters
Speed: Relative velocity of the motor carriage.
Use external trigger: Defines the trigger type (external/internal) of
the echoscope during the CT-scans. With this check box activated,
triggering is performed externally by the CT control unit.
Length: Defines the width of the desired cross-sectional image of a
CT measurement, i.e. the path in millimeters that the motor carriage travels forward and backward. The value ought to be selected
such that the object under test can be scanned completely.
Fig. 57:
Scanner parameters for
a CT measurement
Angle: Defines the angle (in degrees) by which the sample (i.e. the
magnetic plate at the motor carriage of the CT scanner) is rotated
after every scan. One CT measurement process takes until the
sample is rotated by 360°. In this way, the angle determines the
number of scan cycles of a CT measurement.
Accuracy: Defines the resolution of a scan cycle in millimeters, i.e.
the distance between two measuring points of a scan cycle. The
quotient from length and accuracy is the number of measuring
points per scan cycle.
Fig. 58:
Determining the time of
flight by means of a
threshold value
Threshold for velocity: Defines the threshold value of the A-scan
amplitude in millivolt at which the time of flight or velocity of
sound is calculated (figure 58).
5.3.8.3 Internal and external triggering of CT-scans
Synchronization of the mechanical movements of the CT scanner with generation of ultrasonic pulses
for determination of sound attenuation and time of flight / velocity of a transmission pulse during a
CT-scan, as well as data recording and evaluation are performed in different ways, based on the trigger type selected.
Internal
External
Mechanical movement:
Stepwise. The CT scanner approaches Continuous. The CT scanner travels the
every individual measuring point of distance of a scan cycle at consistent
a scan cycle and stops.
velocity.
Trigger source:
GS-EchoView measurement software CT control unit
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
Internal
External
Triggering:
As soon as the CT scanner approaches a measuring point and
stops there, the measurement software triggers transmission measurement.
After every travelled section of the
overall distance that corresponds to
the Accuracy parameter the CT control
unit transmits the trigger signal for
transmission measurement.
Data recording and
processing:
The measuring data of the transmission measurements are called up by
the measurement software. Sound
attenuation and transition time
and/or velocity of sound are directly
calculated for every measurement
point of a scan cycle.
The measuring data of the transmission measurements are called up by
the measurement software and stored
in a buffer memory. Evaluation of the
transmission measurements is only
performed after completion of the
respective scan cycle.
Update of the diagrams:
A-scan (Dia 11): The measuring lines
of the cursors are positioned over
the A-scan signal according to the
measurement values for signal amplitude (signal attenuation) and
time of flight (velocity of sound).
A-scan (Dia 11): Only A-scans are updated. Measuring values are not
marked by means of the measuring
cursors.
The CT measurement can be interrupted at any time.
The CT measurement can only be interrupted after a complete scan cycle for
one angle setting.
Attenuation / Sound velocity (Dia 13):
The measuring points or measuring
Attenuation / Sound velocity (Dia 13): curves for sound attenuation and
Measuring curves of sound attenua- sound velocity for one scan cycle are
only calculated and displayed after
tion and sound velocity are concompletion of the scan cycle.
stantly updated during the scan
cycle.
Tomograms: The CT images are updated after every scan cycle.
Tomograms: The CT images are updated after every scan cycle.
Interrupting an CT
measurement:
i
For a CT measurement with external triggering by the CT control unit, the BNC sockets on the
rear sides of the echoscope and the CT control unit have to be connected by using a BNC cable.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
5.3.8.4 Procedure of a CT measurement
Step 1: Verifying the connection with the CT control unit
At first, it is important to verify that communication with the CT control unit is operable in addition
to the connection with the GS200/GS200i (chapter 5.3.3.2 USB tab).
i
(+
)
Make sure that the CT control unit is switched to Online mode.
In older program versions, also the Use scanner check box must be activated.
Step 2: Setting the measuring and CT parameters
Then, the general measurement parameters are set in the Params tab and the transmission level,
the receive gain and the measuring mode (transmission T1-R2 or T2-R1) are set at the front side of
the GS200/GS200i.
i
i
At 0 µsec (in A-scan) the amplitude of the transmission signal shows a slight overshooting
that generally exceeds the set threshold value for time-of-flight and/or velocity determination. Select a value shortly before the transmission pulse to be the starting point of the measuring range.
It must be noted, that although it is possible to have TGC activated during CT measurements,
this may well lead to unforeseeable results. The CT algorithm used is not capable of compensating for various gains during measurement. Therefore, we recommend deactivating the
TGC during a CT measurement or setting TGC such that it causes uniform gain throughout
the set measuring range (TGC at a maximum).
In the end the CT parameters described on page 59 will be set.
Step 3: Performing the actual measurement
Now the CT measurement can be started by the Start CT button.
If the Line break check box is activated, the program will automatically interrupt the CT measurement after every scan cycle. A scan cycle corresponds to all single measurements (shots) for one angle setting. The number of single measurements per scan cycle is defined by the parameters Length
and Accuracy.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
If the Shot break check box is set, the program interrupts in dependence on the type of triggering
either the CT measurement after every single measurement (internal triggering) or the update of
diagram Dia13 after every evaluation step of a single measurement (see also table on page 60).
Fig. 59:
“Check list“ for the start of the CT measurement.
Directly after start of the CT measurement, the program requires the user to:
1. position the CT sample (i.e. the motor carriage) in the middle between the two ultrasonic
transducers using switches at the front side of the CT control unit;
2. inspect the motor carriage for freedom of movement with regard to the limit switches and
end stops; and
3. checking the TGC settings.
After positive confirmation of the “Check list” in figure 59, the motor carriage travels to its start position by Length/2 and starts the first scan.
Fig. 60:
Confirmation request for external triggering.
If the Use external trigger check box is activated in older program versions (see page 59), another
prompt for confirming external triggering of the echoscope by the CT control unit is displayed prior
to the CT-scans.
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Echoscope operation with single-element transducers (GS200/GS200i)
If using the internal triggering, a CT measurement can be interrupted at any time by pressing the
Break CT switch. To carry on the measurement, the Continue CT switch is pressed.
If using the external triggering, a CT measurement can only be interrupted automatically by setting
die check boxes Line break and/or Shot break.
If the check box Line break was activated, the next scan cycle of an interrupted CT measurement can
be carried on by pressing the Continue CT or Continue Line switch.
With Continue Shot the next single measurement (at internal triggering) or the next evaluation step
(between two scan cycles at external triggering) is carried out.
To cancel a measurement, press the Cancel CT switch. After that, the motor carriage drives back to its
start position.
During the scans, the respective change in amplitude and time of flight in comparison with the first
measuring point is displayed in diagram 13 in the bottom left corner. At the same time, the position,
current angle and duration of the measurement are displayed in the CT Status field in the CT-mode
tab.
After completion of a scan for an angle (one scan cycle), the measured values are converted to color
values and included in the CT images according to the respective angle (see description in chapter 5.3.8.2). This sequence is repeated after every angle so that formation of the ultrasonic tomogram can be tracked step-by-step.
Recommended parameters for first measurements of the CT sample (GAMPT 60121):
Params tab:
Sample Rate:
Begin / End:
delete Yoffset:
50 MHz
70 µs / 100 µs
activated
Settings at the echoscope:
OUTPUT and GAIN:
TRANSMITTER | RECEIVER MODE:
TGC (THRESHOLD, WIDE, SLOPE, START):
Switch for external triggering:
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
CT-mode tab:
Angle:
Length:
Accuracy:
Threshold:
14.4°
80 mm
0,500 mm
50 mV
15 dB / 15 dB (2 MHz probes)
1|2 or 2|1 (transmission)
all switches in zero position
off (see chapter 4.4.2 on page 13)
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5.4
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
5.4.1 Characteristic features of the Imaging Mode
For measurements with the array transducer, the Imaging mode is called up after starting the
GS-EchoView program. The program then switches to the program module GS-Image.
i
Fig. 61:
GS-Image is an independent program part which is adapted specifically to the imaging module of the GS200i. The imaging module is solely responsible for signal creation and detection
in the imaging mode. The controls on the front of the echoscope have no influence on the
measurements with an array transducer.
View of the GS-Image module after calling imaging mode
Compared to the other program modes, all measuring parameters (power, gain, TGC etc.) in imaging
mode are set via the software.
Signal processing and image creation are already done completely via the imaging module. Further
image processing features, such as tonal corrections (brightness, contrast, ...) or special filter functions (speckle reduction, image sharpening, ...) can be applied in the program to the transferred
ultrasonic images.
Closing the program module GS-Image
In order to switch the program mode or to close the program entirely, you can close the imaging
mode with the close button. This closes GS-Image and opens GS-EchoView in A mode. Here, you can
select all other program modes or quit the software.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
5.4.2 Start, interrupt and terminate the measuring mode
After switching to the imaging mode, the program is in stand-by mode. No data transfer to or from
the echoscope is carried out. Only by clicking the button Get Data, the program switches to measuring mode. From then on, the ultrasonic images obtained by GS200i, are transferred to the PC and
displayed in the plot area.
Furthermore, by changing into the measuring mode, the program features to set the measuring parameters such as transmitting power, gain or TGC and further program parameters or functions are
enabled. Changing the measuring parameters has direct influence on the creation of the ultrasonic
images.
By clicking again on the button Get Data, the measuring mode is terminated.
By the help of the Freeze button, measuring mode is interrupted and the current ultrasonic image is
frozen. In this state, simple length and area measurements can be made on the frozen ultrasonic
image e.g. with the line and ellipse cursors.
By clicking the button Freeze again, measuring mode is started again.
With help of the Reset button, the imaging module in GS200i is reset. In rare cases, this might be
required, if e.g. no more data are transferred to the PC during measuring mode, causing the program
or the ultrasonic image in the plot area to apparently freeze.
5.4.3 Scan modes
There are two ultrasonic scan modes available:
B-mode: In this mode, ultrasonic images are created according to the B(rightness) image method and
displayed in the central plot area of the program window.
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Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
B+M-mode: In this mode, another ultrasonic image is displayed under the ultrasonic B image, which
is created according to the time motion method. The time motion image is created referring to a so
called M line (green line in the upper sonogram of figure 62) which can be positioned freely with the
setting function of the M line tab in the B image sonogram (siehe chapter 5.4.4.3).
Fig. 62:
B+M-mode measurement of a moved diaphragm (heart model, order no. 10220)
5.4.4 Measuring and program parameters
After starting the measuring mode by clicking on the Get Data button, the setting features for the
measuring parameters are enabled. These are grouped thematically and distributed to the following
tabs in the parameter field:
66
Tab
Description
Main
Basic parameters concerning control of the array transducer and the signal
detection (chapter 5.4.4.1).
TGC
Functions for adding and setting up the TGC (chapter 5.4.4.2).
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Tab
Description
M-Line
Functions concerning M mode and A scan along the M line (chapter 5.4.4.3).
Image
Parameters and filters for signal processing and image creation (chapter 5.4.4.4).
Palette
Functions for tonal correction of the displayed ultrasonic images (chapter 5.4.4.5).
Cine
Functions for recording and playing cine files (chapter 5.4.4.6).
5.4.4.1 Main tab
Frequency
Axial resolution of an ultrasonic measurement depends on the frequency of the ultrasound. The
higher the frequency, the higher the resolution. By increasing the frequency, the penetration depth
of the ultrasound is decreased because ultrasound is attenuated during its propagation, wherein the
attenuation becomes greater with increasing frequncy. Examinations of structures close to the surface should thus be made with a higher frequency and examinations with a higher depth should be
made with a lower frequency.
You can select the ultrasonic frequency via the option fields. The settable values depend on the used
array transducer (GAMPT 10415: 3, 4 und 5 MHz).
Velocity of sound
Just as many ultrasonic devices, the imaging module of the GS200i is calibrated to a medium velocity
of sound in human tissue of 1540 m/s. If the velocity of sound in the examined object deviates from
this value, the measurements can be corrected by indicating the actual velocity of sound. In the
GAMPT phantoms (GAMPT 10420 and 10430), the velocity of sound is approx. 1480 m/s.
Unit of the depth scale
The values on the depth scale can be displayed in millimetres (mm) or micro seconds (µs).
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Measuring depth
With the parameter Depth, the view field of the ultrasonic measuring is adapted to the structures to
be examined. In order to display big or deeper lying structures, high depth values are required. In
order to display structures close to the surface, small depth values are selected.
The number of available depth values depends on the used array transducer. The size of the depth
values depends on the defined velocity of sound.
After changing the depth setting, settings for power, gain, TGC and foci may need to be adapted as
well.
Transmitting power
With the slider Power, the transmitting power is set between 10% (left stop) and 100% (right stop).
With a higher power, the penetration depth of the ultrasound is increased. This way, deeper lying
structures can be displayed better.
After changing the power, the gain may need to be adapted. If the power is decreased, gain must be
increased and vice versa.
!
In medical applications, it is common practice to keep the transmitting power (and thus the
sound power) as small as possible in order to prevent negative impacts on the patients.
Gain
With the slider Gain, the general gain of the received ultrasonic signal is set between 10% (left stop)
and 100% (right stop). Setting the gain influences the echo contrast and can brighten or darken the
ultrasonic image.
After changing gain, the transmitting power may need to be adapted. If the gain is increased, power
must be decreased and vice versa. Setting the gain has no influence on the TGC curve.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Foci
With help of the focus function, the resolution of the ultrasonic images can be increased in one or
several depth areas (focus zones). In order to select single focus zones, the parameter
Group Focal Zones must be set to 1. Only one single focus zone can be selected via the parameter
Focal Position. By increasing the parameter Group Focal Zones, further, neighbouring focus zones are
added.
The number of available focal zones depends on the used array transducer. Depth and size of the
focal zones is fixed and depend on the set measuring depth.
5.4.4.2 TGC tab
Fig. 63:
Ultrasonic measurement of the Ultrasound test phantom (GAMPT 10420) with set TGC
Via the tab TGC (Time Gain Control), a run time or depth dependent gain can be set.
Compared to the TGC setting in the A-scan mode (see chapter 4.3.2), the TGC curve in imaging mode
is defined via support points (minimum 2, maximum 20). The number of support points is defined by
the parameter TGC Control Points.
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Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
With sliders, the gain for each support point can be defined between 0% and 100%. If the selection
field TCGs linked is active, all sliders are moved and set to the value of the slider which is moved.
By enabling or disabling the selection field Show, the set TGC curve left in the plot area is shown or
hidden.
The selection field Adapted links the TGC curve with the M-line (see chapter 5.4.4.3).
5.4.4.3 M-Line tab
Depending on the scan mode, the M-Line tab provides certain functions.
In B-mode, only the selection field A-Scanline is available at first. By enabling the field, an amplitude
scan is displayed in the plot area, on the right of the ultrasonic B image (see figure 63 on page 69).
The position of the amplitude scan is given by the M-line (green line in the B-image). With the slider
M-Line Position, the scan line can be moved freely over the B-image.
In B+M-mode, the M-line also indicates the position, at which scanline the M-mode data is achieved
(see figure 62 on page 66). You can determine the time frame for the time motion image and thus the
refresh rate for the image via another slider, Sweep Speed. Size and number of the adjustable time
values depend on the used array transducer.
5.4.4.4 Image tab
Image orientation
With the option fields normal and reverse, the ultrasonic image can be mirror inverted without turning the probe. This way, the ultrasonic image can be adapted to the actual orientation of the examined structure without having to turn the probe.
i
70
The array transducer is equipped with a direction mark. By observing this direction mark
during a scan, misinterpretations can be avoided.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Zoom
Ultrasonic images can be zoomed in or zoomed out. The zooming value can be selected directly via
the option fields Percent. On the other hand, incremental zooming by a fixed value of 10% (small) or
50% (large) can be achieved via the fields Plus and Minus.
By clicking on the arrow fields, the ultrasonic scan can be moved horizontally and vertically in the
plot area. The movement value depends on the selected option field (small or large). Clicking on the
central arrow field sets the zooming value to 100% and centres the ultrasonic scan in the plot area.
View area
With the slider View Area, the opening angle or the width of the display are can be set. The available
values are between 50% and 100%.
The number of available setting values depends on the used array transducer.
Dynamic range
In order to improve the display of different structures, the dynamic range of the measuring system
can be set with this slider.
The dynamic range describes the ability to display very weak and very strong ultrasonic signals at the
same time (grayscale encoding of the intensity of the ultrasonic signals). This ability is more distinctive when the dynamic range is bigger.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Each examination should be started with the biggest possible dynamic range because the most diagnostic data can be achieved this way. Decreasing the dynamic range, however, will increase the contrast of the ultrasonic image.
The number of adjustable values depends on the used array transducer. By moving the slider to the
right, the dynamic range is increased.
Signal rejection
With the slider Rejection, the value range of the ultrasonic signal is changed. This feature is used to
reject noise signals in ultrasonic images.
By moving the slider to the right, the signal rejection is increased.
Speckle reduction
The feature Speckle Reduction provides filters to reduce the speckle noise and smooth the ultrasonic
image.
In order to activate the speckle reduction, select the corresponding selection field.
Image enhancement
This feature enables smoothing or sharpening the ultrasonic image. By smoothening the image,
noise can be removed or reduced. Sharpening an image makes the structural borders more visible.
In order to enable the function Image Enhancement, select the corresponding selection image.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
5.4.4.5 Palette tab
The Palette tab provides functions for the tonal correction of the B-mode and M-mode ultrasonic
images which enables a change of the graduation of the grey values in ultrasonic images. Below the
slider, the transfer curve is displayed which results from the respectively selected settings.
Gamma correction
Gamma correction changes the grey scale value of the ultrasonic image in a non-linear manner. Low
gamma values (< 1) darken image areas which are too bright. High gamma values (> 1) brighten image areas which are too dark.
In program versions which display number values between 50 and 200, the values must be divided by
100. A displayed value of 100 thus corresponds to an actual gamma value of 1.
Brightness correction
The brightness of the entire ultrasonic image is changed by the brightness correction. High correction values (> 0%) brighten the ultrasonic image. Low correction values (< 0%) darken the image.
Contrast correction
By contrast correction, the separation of different grayscale values can be changed. High correction
values (> 0%) increase the contrast. Low correction values (< 0%) decrease the contrast.
i
Before setting the palette values, the parameters power, gain, TGC and dynamic range
should be set.
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Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
5.4.4.6 Cine tab
Cine buffer
The software automatically records the last ultrasonic images and saves them in the cine buffer. The
size of the cine buffer can be defined in the entry field Buffersize.
After changing the buffer size, the software must be restarted by clicking the button Set Buffersize.
Save cine files
The cine buffer can be saved and be played back as a video later. To save the cine buffer, first stop
and freeze the measurement. Then open the dialogue window to select a location and set a file name
via the button Save. The file extension of a cine file is tvd.
Play cine files
In order to play the cine data, the software must be in off-line mode. To switch between online and
offline mode use the option fields of the group Imaging State.
You can load a cine file to be played with the button Select a tvd - file. Example cine files are provided with the software (embr.tvd and phantom.tvd) which are stored in the directory
C:\GAMPT\Gsechoview\data (default installation directory).
With the buttons Get data and Freeze, playback of the cine file can be started, stopped and quit.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
Fig. 64:
Program view in the Cine-Mode (Imaging State: Offline)
Demo mode
The cine mode is used also used as demo mode if:
•
•
no GS200i is connected to the computer or the device is offline or
no array transducer is connected to the computer or none is detected.
In these cases, a warning message pops up, which you can acknowledge doing one of the following:
•
•
•
!
Check connection of the GS200i (USB and power cable, device switched on) is checked
and try again to establish the connection.
Check the connection of the array transducer and try again to establish the connection.
Start program directly in demo mode.
The echoscope must be taken out of operation prior to connecting or disconnecting the ultrasonic array transducer.
5.4.5 Features of the info field
5.4.5.1 Probe detection
The imaging module is equipped with automatic probe detection. If an array transducer is connected
and detected by the system, the software shows the probe name.
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Software
Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)
5.4.5.2 Measuring cursor
Fig. 65:
Linie and ellipse cursors
For simple distance, area and circumference measurements, distance lines (line cursors) and ellipses
(ellipse cursors) can be plotted into the ultrasonic image. Selection of the measuring cursor type is
done via the option fields Line and Ellipse.
Drawing of distance lines and ellipses
In order to draw a distance line or ellipse, set the mouse pointer to the starting point of a measurement. Press and hold the left mouse button. This changes the mouse symbol from an arrow to a
cross. Then, draw the mouse pointer to the end point of the measurement and release the left mouse
button.
Distance lines and/or ellipses are numbered. The measured distance (for lines) and the circumference and the area (for ellipses) are displayed in the related display fields of the info field.
In order to correct position and orientation of the measuring tools, you can move the end points of
the distance lines or the end points of the ellipse axes with the mouse.
Deleting distance lines and ellipses
By clicking on the button Clear Cursors, all measuring lines and ellipses are deleted.
In order to delete a single line or ellipse, click on the corresponding display field in the info field and
confirm the request for deleting the line or ellipse.
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Accessories
CT equipment
6
Accessories
6.1
CT equipment
With the help of the equipment listed below, in addition to CT measurements it is possible to also
perform mechanically guided B-scan measurements or linear sound field scans of the ultrasonic
transducers described in chapter 4.5.1.
•
•
•
CT scanner
CT control unit
CT reservoir
order no. 60200
order no. 60210
order no. 60120
CT sample
Hydrophone support
Hydrophone
•
•
•
order no. 60121
order no. 60123
order no. 10250
6.1.1 CT control unit UCT200
The CT control unit is the electronic control system for the CT scanner. The device may be operated
and controlled both by means of the GS-EchoView program via the USB interface and manually by
means of the switches at the front side of the device.
Fig. 66:
Front and rear side of the CT control unit
Front side
Rear side
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Switch for travel of the motor carriage
Switch for rotation of the magnetic plate
Connection port for the CT scanner
Switch for velocity selection
On/Off switch
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
(7)
(8)
Socket for power supply connection
including fuse
USB interface
Trigger output
77
Accessories
CT equipment
Fuse replacement
Replacement of the fuse of the device may be performed analogously to the descriptions in chapter 4.4.1 on page 12 for the echoscope GS200/GS200i.
6.1.2 CT scanner
By means of the CT scanner a sensor (ultrasonic converter, hydrophone) or an object under test (CT
sample) can be rotated in a defined manner or moved forward and backward on a linear axis.
The scanner is equipped with a stepper motor for linear movement of the motor carriage (4) and a
second stepper motor for rotation of the magnetic plat (5). The stepper motors are manually controlled via the CT control unit or by means of the GS-EchoView program.
The motor carriage is equipped with two limit switches for automatic limitation of the travel range
and shut-down of the stepper motor (see figure 68). The appertaining end stops (3) can be optionally
positioned.
Fig. 67:
CT scanner (status 12/2014)
(1)
(2)
(3)
78
Clamping screw
Connecting cable
End stop
(4)
(5)
(6)
Motor carriage
Magnetic plat
Sample holder
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Accessories
Fig. 68:
i
i
CT equipment
Status indication in the GS-EchoView software and position of the limit switches: left switch free (OFF)
and right switch in end stop position (ON)
Update of the limit switch status indication is performed within the GS-EchoView software
only after the motor carriage is stopped. If the carriage is at an end stop, for example, and is
then moved in the other direction to switch off the limit switch, the status display will only
change from red to green after the carriage is stopped again.
If moving the motor carriage is not possible in one direction although the corresponding
limit switch has not yet reached its end stop, the first thing to do is to check the switch for
correct mechanical functioning.
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Experiments
7
Experiments
The list below contains suggestions on experiments that can be performed using the GS200/GS200i
and corresponding accessories. Brief descriptions of and information on the required equipment,
with regard to set-up or for performance is provided in our catalogue and on our website.
Physical basics
PHY01
PHY02
PHY03
PHY04
PHY05
PHY06
PHY07
PHY08
PHY09
PHY10
PHY20
PHY21
PHY22
Basics of pulse echo method (A-Scan)
Sound velocity in solids
Acoustic attenuation in solids
Acoustic attenuation in liquids
Spectral investigations
Frequency dependence of resolution power
Shear waves in solids
Ultrasonic B-scan
Ultrasonic computer tomography (CT)
Characteristics of sound field
Determination of focus zone
Reflection and transmission at boundaries
Phase shift and resonance effects
Industrial applications
IND01
IND03
IND06
IND07
IND08
IND09
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)
Level measurement
Angle beam testing
Crack depth determination (TOFD)
Detection of discontinuities
Transit time flow meter
Medical Applications
MED01 Ultrasonic TM-mode (echocardiography)
MED02 Ultrasonic imaging at breast phantom (mammasonography)
MED04 Biometry at the eye phantom
Only GS200i:
MED07 (Experiment for the ultrasound test phantom)
MED08 (Experiment for the ultrasound fetal phantom)
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Technical data
8
Technical data
8.1
Echoscope
Echoscope
Basic unit GS200 (GAMPT 10400)
Frequency range
1-5 MHz
Measuring operation:
Switchable between
•
Reflection (pulse echo) mode and
•
Transmission mode
Transmission signal:
Dirac pulse (< 1 µs, max. 300 V)
Transmission output:
0-30 dB (changeable in increments of 5 dB)
Gain:
0-35 dB (changeable in increments of 5 dB
TGC:
•
•
•
•
Front side connection
ports:
•
•
Rear side connection ports:
•
•
•
Setting of start time, threshold value, slope and time-of-flight
range (depth range) infinitely variable
Minimum start time approx. 6 µsec
Maximum time range approx. 150 µsec
Maximum gain approx. 30 dB
2 connection ports for ultrasonic single-element probes (transmission and receiving mode optionally selectable)
BNC connection ports for tapping the analogue TRIGGER, TGC,
US-SIGNAL and A-SCAN signals
Mains connection
BNC input for external trigger, including on/off switch
(logic level max. 5 V)
Connection port for array transducer (GS200i only)
Mains voltage:
100-240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power consumption:
Max. 100 VA
Fuse:
T 1A (EN 60127-2-3)
G fuse link, time-lag, 1 A, 5 mm × 20 mm
Dimensions:
Approx. 256 mm × 169 mm × 327 mm (W × H × D)
Expansion to GS200i (GAMPT 10410)
Additional component:
Internal imaging module for array transducers with automatic probe
detection
Imaging methods:
B, B+M
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Technical data
8.2
Ultrasonic probes
Ultrasonic probes
Single-element transducers (GAMPT 10151, 10152 and 10154)
Frequency:
1, 2 and 4 MHz
Dimensions:
65 mm × 27 mm (L × D without cable)
Active transducer element: Disk with a diameter of 16 mm
Cable:
Length approx. 1.5 m; LEMO plug for connection with one of the PROBE
outputs of the GS200/GS200i
Array transducer (GAMPT 10415)
Frequency range:
3-5 MHz
Transducer array:
Convex, 64 individual elements
8.3
CT devices
CT control unit UCT200 (GAMPT 60210)
Front side connection port: Stepper motor control (SCANNER), bipolar 5 V, max. 2 A
Rear side connection ports:
•
•
•
Mains connection
BNC trigger output
USB interface
Mains voltage:
100-240 V, 50/60 Hz
Power consumption:
Max. 50 VA
Fuse:
T 1A (EN 60127-2-3)
G fuse link, time-lag, 1 A, 5 × 20 mm
Dimensions:
Approx. 185 mm × 170 mm × 325 mm (W × H × D)
CT scanner (GAMPT 60200)
Linear movement:
•
•
•
Rotary movement:
•
•
•
Dimensions:
82
Max. travel distance approx. 400 mm
Resolution < 10 µm
Max. travel velocity approx. 18 cm/min
360°
Resolution approx. 0.225°
Max. rotary velocity approx. 1 U/s
Approx. 210 mm × 353 mm × 520 mm (W × H × D)
GAMPT mbH · Hallesche Straße 99F · D-06217 Merseburg · Phone +49 3461/2786910 · www.gampt.de
Literature
9
Literature
•
Millner, R.: Ultraschalltechnik – Grundlagen und Anwendung. Physik-Verlag, 1987
•
Kuttruff, H.: Physik und Technik des Ultraschalls. S. Hirzel-Verlag Stuttgart, 1988
•
Krautkrämer, J., Krautkrämer, H.: Werkstoffprüfung mit Ultraschall. Springer Verlag, 1968
Further:
•
Sutilov, V. A.: Physik des Ultraschalls. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1984
•
Morse, P. M., Ingard, K. U.: Theoretical Acoustics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968
10
Revisions of the user manual
Revision
Revision date
Description
0.50
0.60
Feb 17, 2015
Dez 09, 2015
Initial release, GS-EchoView version 4.15.1.27
GS-EchoView Version 4.2.15.6.17
Added chapters “Scanner tab” and “Scanner status”
Updated chapter “Frequency spectrum and frequency filter”
Updated chapter “CT-mode”
0.70
Jan 26, 2016
Added chapter “Echoscope operation with array transducer (GS200i)”
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Index
11
Index
Demo mode (GS-Image) 75
A
Depth measurement 30
A-mode 41
Amplification (GAIN) 37
Amplification (Imaging module) 68
Amplitude measurement 42
Array transducer 15, 64, 82
A-SCAN (BNC output) 11
A-scan visualization (HF, Amp, Both) 26
A-Scanline 70
Device information (GS-EchoView) 36
Diagram settings (GS-EchoView) 34
Diagrams (GS-EchoView) 18
Dynamic range 71
E
Ellipse cursor 76
External triggering 13, 59
Averaging 31
Averaging status 39
F
B
FFT filter status 38
Focus zone 69
B+M-mode 66
Frame rate 40
B-mode 51
B-mode (GS-Image) 65
BNC sockets 7, 11, 12
Brightness 73
Frequency (GS-Image) 67
Frequency filter 46
Frequency spectrum 45
Front side 7
Function switches (Software) 18
C
Fuse 12
Cepstrum 48
Cepstrum filter 49
Cine buffer 74
Color scale encoding 52
Color schemes 32
Computer tomography 56
Connection ports 7, 12, 13
Contrast 73
Control elements 7
CT measurement 61
G
GAIN (control element) 8
Gamma correction 73
Grayscale encoding 52
GS200 4, 6, 7, 12, 81
GS200i 4, 6, 7, 12, 81
GS-EchoView 17
GS-Image 64
CT-mode 56
I
CT-mode parameters 59
Image enhancement 72
Image orientation 70
D
Data status (GS-EchoView) 38
84
Imaging mode 64
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Index
Imaging module 6
Internal triggering 59
L
Line break 61
Line cursor 76
M
Measurement range (A-scan) 28
Measuring accuracy (A-scan) 44
Measuring cursor (GS-EchoView) 22
Measuring cursor (GS-Image) 76
Measuring depth (GS-Image) 68
Measuring mode (GS-EchoView) 26
Measuring mode (GS-Image) 65
Measuring parameter (GS-EchoView) 27
Measuring parameter (GS-Image) 66
M-Line 70
M-mode (TM) 54
MONITOR (BNC sockets) 11
O
Operating mode 8
Operating mode (Echoscope) 36
OUTPUT (control element) 8
P
Power supply connection 12
Power supply unit 7
PRF 30
Printing (GS-EchoView) 23
Probe identification (GS-EchoView) 37
Probe identification (GS-Image) 75
Program parameter (GS-EchoView) 27
Program parameter (GS-Image) 66
Program structure 17
R
Rear side 12, 16
Receive gain (GS200) 8
Receiver 7, 8
RECEIVER (control elements) 8
Reflection 8
Rejection 72
Resolution (A-scan) 44
S
Safety information 4
Sampling rate 28
Scan modes (GS-Image) 65
Scanner control 35
Scanner status 40
Scope of delivery 4
Shot break 61
Signal overdrive 38
Simulation mode (GS-EchoView) 25
Single-element transducer 14, 26, 82
SLOPE (control element) 9
Software 17
Sound velocity (GS-EchoView) 30
Sound velocity (GS-Image) 67
Speckle reduction 72
START (control element) 9
Status information (GS-EchoView) 37
Sweep speed 70
T
Tab Cine 74
Tab CT-mode 57
Tab Draw 32
Tab Image 70
Tab Main 67
Tab M-Line 70
Tab Palette 73
Ultrasonic echoscope GS200/GS200i · User manual version 0.70
85
Index
Tab Params 28
Transmitting level 8
Tab Scanner 35
Transmitting power (Imaging module) 68
Tab TGC 69
TRIGGER (BNC output) 11
Tab USB 31
Triggering 59
Tabs (GS-EchoView) 28
Triggering connection port 12
Tabs (GS-Image) 66
Triggering frequency 11, 13
Temporal resolution (M-mode) 55
Triggering On/Off switch 12
TGC 8
Triggering status (GS-EchoView) 37
TGC (BNC output) 11
TGC (GS-Image) 69
U
TGC action 10
Ultrasonic probe 14, 15, 82
TGC Control elements 7
USB connection port 12
TGC diagram (GS-EchoView) 9
USB ID string 32
TGC slope 9
USB Settings 32
TGC starting point 9
US-SIGNAL (BNC output) 11
TGC threshold value 9
TGC width 9
THRESHOLD (control element) 9
Time Gain Control (TGC) 8
Time window (M-mode) 55
Time/location coordinates 52
Time-of-flight measurement 30, 42
TOFD 53
Tool bar (GS-EchoView) 18
Transmission 8
Transmission level (OUTPUT) 37
Transmitter 7, 8
TRANSMITTER (control elements) 8
86
V
View area 71
W
WIDE (control element) 9
Y
Yoffset 30
Z
Zooming (GS-EchoView) 19
Zooming (GS-Image) 71
GAMPT mbH · Hallesche Straße 99F · D-06217 Merseburg · Phone +49 3461/2786910 · www.gampt.de
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