LABORATORY I:
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HEAT
In 1101 labs, you used conservation of energy to determine whether or not the internal energy of a system
changed during an interaction. In these labs, you will investigate more closely the behavior of a system’s
internal energy. In particular, you will use the relationship between an object's change in temperature and its
change in internal energy to solve problems.
OBJECTIVES:
After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to:
•
Use the principle of conservation of energy as a means of describing the behavior of a system when
the internal energy of the system changes.
•
Calculate the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another based on each object’s properties
such as its specific heat capacity, latent heat and mass, as well as their change in temperature.
PREPARATION:
Before coming to lab you should be able to:
•
Distinguish among these concepts:
Heat capacity, specific heat, and latent heat of fusion
•
Use heat capacities to determine the internal energy change of a system based on its temperature change
•
Recognize when two objects are in thermal equilibrium
•
Use the latent heat to determine the internal energy change of a system during a phase change
Lab I - 1
PROBLEM #1:
TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER
You are working with a volunteer group that is renovating old homes. While cleaning up one house
your team often discover pieces of old metal that can’t be identified. Recalling your physics experience,
you decide to set up a system to identify the metals by their specific heat capacity. Your plan is to immerse
the object in a water bath at a different initial temperature than the metal and to measure the
equilibrium temperature. Applying conservation of energy, you can then determine the metal’s specific
heat. However, you know that some energy will be transferred between the water bath and the
environment during the time that the water and metal are coming to equilibrium. Since you cannot
measure this energy “loss”, you decide to choose an initial water temperature that minimizes it. To test
the usefulness of your idea, you try to measure the specific heat capacity of a copper object and compare
it to the known value for the specific heat capacity of copper.
EQUIPMENT
For this problem, you have a piece of
copper and an insulating container
(Styrofoam cup). Tap water, ice, glass
beakers, and a hot plate are available so
you can start with different initial
temperatures of copper and water.
Thermometers and a balance are
provided.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
styrofoam cups
PREDICTION
Based on your previous experience, make an educated guess about how the amount of energy
transferred between the environment and the water-copper system depends on the initial temperature of
the water. Remember that heat transfer occurs over the time it takes for the copper and water to reach
equilibrium.
Sketch a graph that describes your idea of how the energy transfer depends on the initial temperature of
the water. Assume that the copper will have the same initial temperature in each trial. Explain your
reasoning.
The specific heat of copper is given in a table at the end of this lab.
Lab I - 2
PROBLEM # 1: TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Sections 11.2 and 11.3 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.6 and 12.7)
1.
Draw two pictures of the situation, one just before the copper is placed in the water, and the other
after the copper has been placed in the water and they have come to equilibrium. Label the
temperatures and masses of both the water and the copper in each situation. Define your system as
the copper and the water. If energy leaves the system, where does it go?
2.
Using conservation of energy, answer these questions about the situation:
What is the change in internal energy of the copper from before it is put into the water to after the
water and the copper come to equilibrium?
What is the change in internal energy of the water from before the copper is put into it to after the
copper and water come to equilibrium?
How does the change in internal energy of the system relate to the change in internal energy of
the copper and the water?
How does the change in internal energy of the system relate to the amount of energy transferred
between the environment and itself?
EXPLORATION
Decide on an initial temperature for the copper that is the same for each trial. What is the reason for
your choice? How will you determine the copper's initial temperature?
Will you use the same amount of water each time? You can get different water temperatures by using
the ice bath and the hot plates. Each time you use a different water temperature, feel the Styrofoam cup.
Is it hot or cold? What does this tell you about the energy transfer? (Is the water-copper system losing
or gaining energy?) Try putting two cups together, one inside the other. Do you feel less energy
transfer? Try putting a cover on the cup. Do you feel less energy transfer? Arrange your system so that
there is minimal energy transfer to the environment. How many different temperatures will you use to
establish how the transfer of energy depends on the water’s initial temperature?
Will the time it takes for the copper and water to come to equilibrium affect the amount of energy
transferred to the environment? During the time that you are taking your measurements of the copperwater system, set aside a cup (configured to minimize energy transfer to the environment) of water at the
same initial temperature and observe its temperature change. Use several different initial temperatures
for the water. Is there a difference in the two systems’ temperature change over time?
How would the following actions affect the amount of energy transferred into the environment?
shaking or stirring the water
spilling water out of the Styrofoam cup
slowly transferring the copper from the hot or cold-water bath to the Styrofoam's water
Lab I - 3
PROBLEM #1: TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER
Do you need to take into account the heat capacity of the thermometer? Will you avoid the added
complication of the thermometer transferring energy to the water by pre-warming or pre-cooling the
thermometer to the water's temperature?
WARNING: The hot plate and the heated water can both burn you!
How can you tell when the copper and the water reach equilibrium? Does the location of the
thermometer in the water bath have any effect on the equilibrium temperature?
Plan the procedure that you are going to use. You will use the same procedure when you do the actual
analysis of your unknown metals.
MEASUREMENT
Using your experience from the exploration section and your answers to the method questions, take the
necessary measurements to determine how the initial temperature of the water affects the energy
transferred to the environment while the water and copper come to equilibrium. Do not forget
uncertainties.
Be careful when using the hot water!
In addition, determine how the amount of energy transferred to the environment depends on time by
observing the temperature of a cup of water set apart from the copper-water system.
ANALYSIS
Use your answers to the method questions to calculate the amount of energy transferred between the
system and the environment for each of the different initial temperatures that you used. Is the amount
of energy transferred reasonable? Compare it to the change of the internal energy of the water. If the
numbers don't seem reasonable, explain why.
Is the amount of energy transferred positive or negative? What is happening between the system and
the environment if the energy transfer is positive? Negative?
CONCLUSION
How does the amount of energy transferred depend on the initial temperature of the water? What
initial temperature of water minimizes the energy transfer? How precise and reliable is your
measurement scheme?
Energy transfer may depend on many variables, are there some you do not take into account?
Lab I - 4
PROBLEM #2:
TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER II
While working at an antique shop you come across several old door hinges in a back room. Your boss
wants to know what type of metal they are, as that will affect how much he can sell them for. Recalling
your physics experience, you decide to identify the metal by its specific heat capacity. Your plan is to
immerse the object in a water bath at a different initial temperature than the metal and to measure the
equilibrium temperature. Applying conservation of energy, you can then determine the metal’s specific
heat. However, you know that some energy will be transferred between the water bath and the
environment during the time that the water and metal are coming to equilibrium. Since you cannot
measure this energy “loss”, you decide to choose an initial water temperature that minimizes it. In the
shops work room, you have proper equipment to alter the temperature of the metal, but not the
temperature of the water. Thus you decide you will have to use water of a constant temperature and
vary the temperature of the metal. To test the efficiency of your idea, you try to measure the specific heat
capacity of a copper object and compare it to the known value for the specific heat capacity of copper.
EQUIPMENT
For this problem, you have a piece of
copper and an insulating container
(Styrofoam cup). Tap water, ice, glass
beakers, and a hot plate are available so
you can start with different initial
temperatures of copper and water.
Thermometers and a balance are
available.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
styrofoam cups
PREDICTION
Based on your experience, make an educated guess about how the amount of energy transferred
between the environment and the water-copper system depends on the initial temperature of the
copper. Remember that energy transfer occurs over the time the water and copper take to reach
equilibrium. Sketch a graph showing the relationship between energy transferred and the initial
temperature of the copper. Assume that you will keep the water’s initial temperature constant for each
trial. Explain your reasoning.
The specific heat of copper is given in a table at the end of this lab.
Lab I - 5
PROBLEM # 2: TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER II
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Sections 11.2 and 11.3 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.6 and 12.7)
1.
Draw two pictures of the situation, one just before the copper is placed in the water, and the other
after the copper has been placed in the water and they have come to equilibrium. Label the
temperatures and masses of both the water and the copper in each situation. Define your system as
the copper and the water. If energy leaves the system, where does it go?
2.
Using conservation of energy, answer these questions about the situation:
What is the change in internal energy of the copper from before it is put into the water to after the
water and the copper come to equilibrium?
What is the change in internal energy of the water from before the copper is put into it to after the
copper and water come to equilibrium?
How does the change in internal energy of the system relate to the change in internal energy of
the copper and the water?
How does the change in internal energy of the system relate to the amount of energy transferred
between the environment and itself?
EXPLORATION
Decide on an initial temperature for the water that will be kept constant for each measurement. Will
you use the same amount of water each time?
How will you determine the copper's initial temperature?
You can obtain different copper temperatures by putting it in hot or cold water. Each time you use a
different copper temperature, feel the Styrofoam cup. Is it hot or cold? What does this tell you about the
energy transfer? Is the water-copper system losing or gaining energy? Put two cups together, one inside
the other. Do you feel less energy transfer? Try putting a cover on the cup. Do you feel less energy
transfer?
How many different temperatures will you use to establish how the amount of energy transferred
depends on the copper's initial temperature?
Will the time it takes for the copper and water to come to equilibrium affect the amount of energy
transferred? During the time that you are taking your measurements, set aside a cup of water, and
observe its temperature. Use several different initial temperatures for the water. Does the temperature of
the isolated water change with time?
How would the following actions affect the amount of energy transfer?
shaking or stirring the water
spilling some of the water from the Styrofoam cup
slowly transferring the copper from the hot or cold-water bath to the Styrofoam's water
Lab I - 6
PROBLEM # 2: TEMPERATURE AND ENERGY TRANSFER II
Do you need to take into account the heat capacity of the thermometer? Will you avoid the added
complication of the thermometer transferring energy to the water by pre-warming or pre-cooling the
thermometer to the water's temperature?
WARNING: The hot plate and the heated water can both burn you.
How can you tell when the copper and the water reach equilibrium? Does the location of the
thermometer in the water bath have an effect on your ability to determine the equilibrium temperature?
Plan the procedure that you are going to use. You will use the same procedure when you analyze your
unknown metal.
MEASUREMENT
Using your experience from the exploration section and your answers to the method questions, make
the necessary measurements to determine how the initial temperature of the copper affects the energy
transferred to the environment while the water and copper come to equilibrium. Do not forget to
determine the uncertainties in your measurements.
Be especially careful if you use hot water!
ANALYSIS
Use your answers to the method questions to calculate the amount of energy transferred between the
system and the environment for each of the different initial temperatures that you used. Is the amount
of energy transferred reasonable? Compare it to the change of the internal energy of the water. If the
numbers don't seem reasonable, can you explain why?
Is the amount of energy transferred positive or negative? What is happening between the system and
the environment if the energy transfer is positive? Negative?
CONCLUSION
How does the amount of energy transferred depend on the initial temperature of the metal? What initial
temperature gave the smallest energy transfer?
Upon what other variables does the energy transfer depend?
What initial temperatures for the water and the metal will you use to test unknown metals? Are your
methods precise enough to conclude what type of metal was found at the archeological site?
Lab I - 7
PROBLEM #3:
IDENTIFYING UNKNOWN METALS
You are working with an archeological team that is excavating a lost city. Your team has found metal
fragments among the ruins. The types of metals used by a civilization can help determine its level of
technology. Unfortunately, the metal fragments are unidentifiable by visual inspection! Recalling your
physics experience, you decide to identify the metal by its specific heat capacity. Your plan is to immerse
the object in a water bath at a different initial temperature than the metal and to measure the
equilibrium temperature. Applying conservation of energy, you can then determine the metal’s specific
heat. Using methods that will minimize the amount of energy lost you can estimate how much error
energy “loss” will introduce into your measurement. Thus, you are ready to identify the two unknown
metals that your team found by measuring their specific heat capacities!
EQUIPMENT
For this problem, you will have two
metal objects and an insulating
container (Styrofoam cup Tap water, ice,
gals beakers, and a hot plate are
available so you can start with different
initial temperatures of metal and water.
Thermometers are provided and a
balance is available to measure the
relevant masses.
Note: The two different metals are
difficult to differentiate visually. Use
their differing densities to distinguish
them.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
styrofoam cups
PREDICTION
Calculate the specific heat capacity of a metal object in terms of quantities that are known or can be
measured.
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Sections 11.2 and 11.3 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.6 and 12.7)
1.
Lab I - 8
Make two pictures of the situation, one just before the metal object is placed in the water, and one
after the metal object has been placed in the water and they have come to equilibrium. Label the
quantities that you will be able to look up (see table on page 25) or measure. Label quantities that
designate the energy of each object in the system. Draw and label arrows to represent energy
transfers.
PROBLEM #3: IDENTIFYING UNKNOWN METALS
2.
Using conservation of energy, answer these questions about the situation:
What is the change in internal energy of the metal object from (a) just before it is put into the water
to (b) after it and the water have reached equilibrium?
What is the change in internal energy of the water from just (a) before the metal object is put into it
to (b) after the metal and the water have reached equilibrium?
Assuming there is energy transfer into or out of the system, as you measured in Problems 1 and 2,
what is the relationship between the metal's internal energy change and the water's internal
energy change?
You should now be able to solve for the specific heat capacity of the unknown metal as a function of
variables that you can either measure or look up.
EXPLORATION
Review your exploration notes from Problem #1 or #2 of this Lab. Plan the procedure that you will use
to determine the specific heat capacity of the unknown metals.
WARNING: The hot plate and the heated water can both burn you.
MEASUREMENT
Choose your technique so that you minimize the energy transfer between your system and the
environment.
Using your measurement plan, make the necessary measurements to determine the specific heat
capacities of the unknown metals. Make sure that you have a good plan before you start -- you could
waste a lot of time with a poor procedure. Do not forget to discuss uncertainties.
Be careful when using the hot water!
ANALYSIS
Use your Prediction equation to calculate the specific heat capacity of each unknown metal taking into
account the value of the energy transfer you measured in problem #1 or #2. Include an estimate of the
uncertainty of each value.
Use the table on page 25 to identify the unknown metals.
uncertainty range?
What other metals fall within your
Lab I - 9
PROBLEM #3: IDENTIFYING UNKNOWN METALS
CONCLUSION
What are the two unknown metals? What will you tell your team leader?
How could you use the table of densities on page 25 to verify that you have identified the metals
correctly? Calculate the densities of the unknown metals. Do the densities of the metals agree with the
corresponding specific heat capacities?
Lab I - 10
PROBLEM #4:
THE COMPOSITION OF A COMPOUND OBJECT
You have a summer job working for a metal parts company. You are working on devising an
inexpensive quality control measurement for a product that is a mixture of aluminum and copper. Your
assignment is to devise a procedure to determine if the product has the correct fraction of aluminum
without destroying it. You decide to do this by measuring its specific heat.
EQUIPMENT
You will have a compound metal object
and an insulating container (Styrofoam
cup). Tap water, ice, glass beakers, and a
hot plate are available so you can start
with different initial temperatures of
copper and water. Thermometers are
provided and a balance is available to
measure masses.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
styrofoam cups
PREDICTION
Use the specific heat of an object to calculate the fraction of its total mass that is aluminum in terms of
quantities that are known or can be measured.
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Sections 11.2 and 11.3 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.6 and 12.7)
1.
Draw two pictures of the situation at different times, one just before the metal object is placed in the
water, and one after the metal object has been placed in the water and they come to equilibrium.
Label the quantities that you will be able to measure or look up (see the table on page 25). Label
quantities that designate the energy of each object in the system. Draw and label arrows to represent
energy transfers.
2.
Using conservation of energy, answer these questions about the situation:
Lab I - 11
PROBLEM #4: THE COMPOSITION OF A COMPOUND OBJECT
What is the change of internal energy of the metal object? Consider the metal object as being two
individual objects, one made of copper and the other of aluminum.
What is the change in internal energy of the water?
Assuming there is no energy transfer into or out of the metal-water system, what is the relationship
between the metal's internal energy change and the water's internal energy change? Is this a valid
assumption? How would you change your relationship to account for this energy transfer?
How many unknowns are there in your conservation of energy equation? Are there any other
relationships between the mass of the aluminum and the copper that can be used to reduce the
number of unknowns?
3.
Solve your equations for the fraction of the mass of the metal object that is aluminum in terms of
quantities that can be determined in this problem.
EXPLORATION
Review your exploration notes from previous problems of this Lab to plan your measurement
procedure.
WARNING: The hot plate and the heated water can both burn you.
MEASUREMENT
Make the necessary measurements consistent with your plan to determine the fraction of aluminum in
the metal object. Make sure that your procedure minimizes the energy transfer from your system.
ANALYSIS
Use your prediction to calculate the fraction of the object’s mass that is aluminum. Estimate the
uncertainty in this measurement.
CONCLUSION
What fraction of the metal object's mass is aluminum? How precise is your measurement?
Use the densities found in the Table on page 25 as the basis of another method of determining the
fraction of the object’s mass that is aluminum.
Lab I - 12
PROBLEM #5:
LATENT HEAT AND THE MASS OF ICE
One of your friends has an idea for a better coffee brewing-machine, but needs your help. Coffee usually
comes out too hot to drink because the ideal brewing temperature is higher than the ideal drinking
temperature. This machine would brew the coffee at the high temperature, and then add a little ice so
that it is cool enough to drink. Since no one wants the coffee to taste watered-down, the machine
would initially brew the coffee with less water to compensate for the melted ice. Your contribution is to
determine the amount of ice needed to bring the coffee from brewing temperature to drinking
temperature. Before investing the money in building the machine, you decide to test your calculation
with some ice and an insulated cup of water.
EQUIPMENT
You will have Styrofoam cups, water and
ice. A thermometer is available and a
balance is provided.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
styrofoam cups
PREDICTION
Calculate the mass of the ice that completely melts in the water in terms of quantities that can found in a
“thermal properties table” at the end of this lab, or that can be measured.
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Section 11.4 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.8)
1.
Draw three pictures of the situation: (a) just before the ice is placed in the water, (b) while the ice is
melting, and (c) when the water from the melted ice and the original amount of water in the cup
have come to equilibrium. Label the quantities that you will be able to measure. Label quantities
that designate the energy of each object in the system. Draw and label arrows to represent energy
transfers. Write down the quantities you can find either from the table on page 25 or from your
previous measurements.
2.
Using conservation of energy, answer these questions about the situation:
Lab I - 13
PROBLEM #5: LATENT HEAT AND THE MASS OF ICE
What is the change in internal energy of the ice from (a) just before it is put into the Styrofoam cup to
(b) after it is put in the Styrofoam cup but before it begins to melt (even though this happens at
different times for different parts of the ice)?
What is the change in internal energy of the ice from (a) just before it melts to (b) just after it melts?
What is the change in internal energy of the water from the melted ice from (a) just after the ice has
melted to (b) the time the melted-ice water comes to equilibrium with the water originally in the
Styrofoam cup?
What is the change in internal energy of the water from (a) just before the ice is put in the Styrofoam
cup to (b) after the ice is put into the cup and the melted-ice water comes to equilibrium with the
original water in the Styrofoam cup?
If there was no transfer of energy into or out of the Styrofoam cup, what would the relationship be
between the ice's total internal energy change and the original water's internal energy change? Is
this a valid assumption, that no energy is transferred? What corrections need to be applied for
energy transfer out of the system?
3.
Solve your equations for the mass of the ice in terms of quantities that you can look up or can
measure.
EXPLORATION
This exploration is similar to the other problems of this lab. First decide on the amount of water that
you will use in the Styrofoam cup and then choose an initial temperature of the water that will result in
the least amount of energy transferred to the environment. Then determine how much ice should be
placed in the water so that it doesn't take too long to melt, but it is large enough so that the experiment
produces useful results.
Some procedures speed up the melting process, such as gently stirring or shaking the water, but do they
transfer a measurable amount of energy to your system? Use a cup of water and a thermometer to check
this out.
What do you think is the temperature of the ice? Check it out.
Measuring the mass of the ice before you put it into the water is difficult because some of it can melt
during the weighing process. Decide how you can measure the mass of the ice after you have put it into
the water. Outline the measurement procedure you plan to use.
MEASUREMENT
Using your experience from the exploration, plan your measurement carefully. Make the necessary
measurements consistent with your prediction to calculate the mass of the ice placed in the cup.
Use your plan from your exploration to directly measure the mass of the ice that you added to the water.
Lab I - 14
PROBLEM #5: LATENT HEAT AND THE MASS OF ICE
ANALYSIS
Use your Prediction equation to calculate the mass of the ice that was put into the water. Be sure to
include the uncertainty.
Compare that calculation to the directly measured mass of the ice.
CONCLUSION
How close was the calculated mass of ice based on the temperature change of the water to your
measurement of its mass? Explain any differences. Based on your results, will this machine work?
What were some of the uncertainties that your analysis could not address?
Lab I - 15
PROBLEM #6:
ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND HEAT
You are working on a team to design the lobby for a new office building. The centerpiece of the design
is a large tropical fish tank. A decorative submarine at the bottom of the tank is lit by a light bulb
immersed in the water. You suspect that the light bulb will cause the water temperature to rise, killing
all the fish! If this is true, you will have to install a mechanism to remove energy from the tank at the
same rate that the bulb adds energy. To test your theory, you measure the rate that a light bulb transfers
energy to the water.
EQUIPMENT
You will have the same
equipment as previous
problems. In addition, you
will have a light bulb that
can be submerged in a
liquid, and a battery to
supply the energy for the
light bulb. You will also
have a Digital Multimeter
to measure the electrical
properties of the light bulb
and batteries. You will
use an alcohol solution for
this problem because the
temperature of alcohol will
change more than water
for the same of change in
internal energy.
digital thermometer
o
37 C
+
_
light
bulb
battery
styrofoam cup
PREDICTION
Calculate the energy transfer from the light bulb to the liquid surrounding the bulb for a predetermined
time interval. This will be in terms of the specific heat of the liquid, its mass, and its temperature
change. Based on your experience, make an educated guess of the rate that the energy is transferred
and sketch a graph of energy transferred as a function of time for your guess.
WARM-UP
Read Serway & Vuille, Chapter 11, Section 11.5 (or Cutnell & Johnson 12.6 and 12.7)
1.
Lab I - 16
Make two pictures of the situation, one before the submerged light bulb is turned on, and one at
some time later. Define your system. Label quantities that designate the energy of each object in the
PROBLEM #6: ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND HEAT
system. Draw and label arrows to represent energy transfers. Write down the quantities you can
measure or look up.
2.
Write down the energy conservation equation for this situation, assuming that all the energy from
the light bulb is transferred to the internal energy of the liquid.
How is the total energy output from the light bulb during a time interval related to the rate of energy
transfer (power) from the light bulb? How does this energy output relate to the liquid's change in
internal energy, if you assume no energy is transferred between the liquid and the environment?
How does the internal energy change of the liquid relate to the liquid's temperature change?
3.
Do you think the rate of energy output from the bulb is constant? Increasing with time? Decreasing
with time? Sketch a graph of temperature of the liquid as a function of time that represents your
guess.
How is the slope of the temperature versus time graph related to the rate of energy transfer (power)
from the light bulb to the liquid?
EXPLORATION
WARNING: Denatured alcohol contains a small amount of methanol mixed with the
ethanol. Methanol causes blindness and death in very small quantities! UNDER
NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD DENATURED ALCOHOL BE INGESTED !
Decide how much liquid to use for best results. How can you minimize any energy transfer to the
environment that you cannot measure? You may want to review your notes from other problems in this
lab so that you do not waste time with a poor measurement plan.
Conduct tests to determine how long your experiment will last.
IMMERSE THE ENTIRE BULB SOCKET!
MAKE SURE YOU DO NOT
Check out how fast the temperature of the liquid changes. How fast does it evaporate? How often do
you need to measure the temperature of the liquid? Why?
Outline the measurement procedure you plan to use.
MEASUREMENTS
Using your decisions in the exploration, make the necessary measurements consistent with your
prediction that will allow you to determine the power output of the light bulb. Using your experience
from other problems in this lab, estimate the energy transfer from your system.
You can check your prediction equation of the power output of the light bulb by determining it in
another manner. Looking ahead in your textbook, you will find that the electrical power output of the
light bulb is the product of the electrical current and voltage. Use the digital multi-meter (DMM) to
measure the electrical current through your light bulb and the voltage across your light bulb.
Lab I - 17
PROBLEM #6: ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND HEAT
See Appendix A for instructions about how to use the DMM to measure current and voltage. BE SURE
TO CONNECT THE DMM CORRECTLY FOR EACH MEASUREMENT, OR YOU WILL DAMAGE
IT!
ANALYSIS
Graph the temperature of the liquid in the Styrofoam cup-versus-time as you collect the data. What is
the value of the slope of this line? What physical quantity does the slope represent? How does this
graph compare to your answer to the third method question?
Calculate the electrical power output of the bulb by multiplying the current through the bulb by the
voltage across the bulb. Current measured in Amperes (A) times voltage measured in volts (V) gives
power in units of J/s.
How do these two values of the power compare? Which of the two results has the greater accuracy for
your purpose? Why?
CONCLUSION
What is the rate that energy is transferred from a light bulb to the water in the fish tank? Is the power
output of the light bulb constant, rising, or falling? Did your results match your prediction? If not, why
not?
Lab I - 18
Thermal Properties of Pure Metals
Heat†
Metal
Density‡
Specific
cal/g °C
0.215
0.110
0.1
0.092
0.031
0.108
0.031
0.243
0.114
0.033
0.060
0.106
0.032
0.180
0.17
0.057
0.293
0.054
0.125
0.093
Aluminum
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Gold
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Platinum
Potassium
Silicon
Silver
Sodium
Tin
Titanium
Zinc
g/cm^3
2.7
7.14
8.71
8.92
19.3
7.86
11.34
1.75
7.3
13.59
10.2
8.9
21.45
.86
2.33
10.5
.97
5.75
4.5
7.04
Latent Heat of
Fusion†
cal/g
95
79
66
49
15
65
5.5
88.0
64
2.7
69
71
24
14.5
430
26.5
27
14.1
100
27
Thermal Properties of Water and Alcohol
Substance
Specific Latent Heat
Heat
of Fusion
cal/g °C
J/kg
Melting
Latent Heat of
Temperature Vaporization
°C
Boiling
Temperature
J/kg
°C
Water
1.00
3.35 x 10 5
0.00
2.256 x 10 6
100.00
Ice
0.50
3.35 x 10 5
0.00
N/A
N/A
Alcohol
0.593
10.42 x 10 5
0.854 x 10 6
78.5
†
‡
-117.3
From Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science by R. E. Bolz & G. L. Tuve,
The Chemical Rubber Co., 1970.
From The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, ed., The Chemical Rubber
Co., 1970.
Lab I - 19
Lab I - 20
þ CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
Use the table on page 25 to answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
Temperature and heat are two different physical quantities. Their difference is confused by the fact that
heat transferred into or out of a substance is sometimes proportional to the change in temperature of the
substance. This question will attempt to clarify this distinction.
a.
Define what is meant by the temperature of a substance.
b.
Define what is meant by "the heat added" to a substance.
c.
Under what conditions is the heat added to the substance proportional to the change in temperature of
the substance?
d.
Under what circumstances can we add heat to a substance, but NOT change its temperature?
e.
Explain why the behavior described in part d proves that heat and temperature are fundamentally
different quantities.
A block of lead at 100 o C is put into an equal mass of cold water at 0 o C in an insulated container. The
system is allowed to come to equilibrium.
a.
Which has greater magnitude, the heat energy transferred out of the lead, or the heat energy
transferred into the water? Explain your reasoning.
b.
Which undergoes a temperature change of greater magnitude, the lead or the water? Explain your
reasoning.
c.
Is the final equilibrium temperature greater than, less than or equal to 50 o C? Explain.
Suppose you heated 1 kg of each of the substances listed below at a constant rate for the same length of
time. Rank the order of the substances from the lowest (1) to highest (6) temperature change.
____
____
aluminum
copper
____
____
iron
lead
____
____
silver
water
Explain your reasoning.
4.
Suppose you heated 1 kg of each of the substances listed below until they were at their melting temperature,
and then continued to heat substance at a constant rate. Rank the order of the substances from the shortest
(1) to the longest time to melt (6).
____
____
aluminum
copper
____
____
iron
lead
____
____
silver
water
Explain your reasoning.
5.
Suppose 1 kg of each of the substances listed below drops 10 o C. Rank the order of the substances from
the smallest (1) to the highest (6) amount of heat energy transferred to the surroundings.
____
____
aluminum
copper
____
____
iron
lead
____
____
silver
water
Explain your reasoning.
Lab I - 21
CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING
6.
When you put water at 25 o C into an ice tray and freeze it in a refrigerator, is more heat energy transferred in
bringing the water to the freezing temperature or during the process of freezing? Or are equal amounts of
heat transferred? Explain your reasoning.
7.
When you stir the hot coffee in a cup, the energy you input with the spoon
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
moves the cup back and forth.
cancels out if you stir both back and forth.
cools the coffee by decreasing the kinetic energy of its molecules.
increases the kinetic energy of the molecules of the coffee.
You can't input energy to coffee by stirring it.
Explain your choice.
8.
Lab I - 22
A cook put two large saucepans of potatoes on a gas stove to boil. When they were both boiling, she
turned the gas under one down to low so that the water was just kept boiling. She left the other on high.
Which will cook more quickly, the potatoes on high, the potatoes on low, or will they cook at the same
rate? Explain your reasoning.
TA Name:
PHYSICS 1102 LABORATORY REPORT
Laboratory I
Name and ID#:
Date performed:
Day/Time section meets:
Lab Partners' Names:
Problem # and Title:
Lab Instructor's Initials:
Grading Checklist
Points
LABORATORY JOURNAL:
PREDICTIONS
(individual predictions and warm-up completed in journal before each lab session)
LAB PROCEDURE
(measurement plan recorded in journal, tables and graphs made in journal as data is
collected, observations written in journal)
PROBLEM REPORT:*
ORGANIZATION
(clear and readable; logical progression from problem statement through conclusions;
pictures provided where necessary; correct grammar and spelling; section headings
provided; physics stated correctly)
DATA AND DATA TABLES
(clear and readable; units and assigned uncertainties clearly stated)
RESULTS
(results clearly indicated; correct, logical, and well-organized calculations with
uncertainties indicated; scales, labels and uncertainties on graphs; physics stated correctly)
CONCLUSIONS
(comparison to prediction & theory discussed with physics stated correctly ; possible
sources of uncertainties identified; attention called to experimental problems)
TOTAL(incorrect or missing statement of physics will result in a maximum of 60% of
the total points achieved; incorrect grammar or spelling will result in a maximum of 70%
of the total points achieved)
BONUS POINTS FOR TEAMWORK
(as specified by course policy)
* An "R" in the points column means to rewrite that section only and return it to your lab instructor
within two days of the return of the report to you.
Lab I - 23
Lab I - 24
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