®
Innova Electronics Corp.
11231 Young River Ave.
Fountain Valley, CA 92708
Printed in Taiwan
Instruction MRP #93-0320
Copyright © 2010 IEC. All Rights Reserved.
© 2010
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS OBD? .......................................................................................................
YOU CAN DO IT! ...............................................................................................................
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFETY FIRST! ......................................................................................................
ABOUT THE DIAGNOSTIC TOOL
VEHICLES COVERED ............................................................................................
BATTERY REPLACEMENT ....................................................................................
DIAGNOSTIC TOOL CONTROLS
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS .............................................................................
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS ...........................................................................................
ONBOARD DIAGNOSTICS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS ........................................................................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)...............................................................
OBD2 MONITORS ..................................................................................................
PREPARATION FOR TESTING
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET .........................................
BEFORE YOU BEGIN .............................................................................................
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS ..............................................................................
USING THE DIAGNOSTIC TOOL
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE .........................................................................
THE ENHANCED MAIN MENU ...............................................................................
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs .................................................................................
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) .............................................
I/M READINESS TESTING .....................................................................................
CHRYSLER/JEEP OBD1 SYSTEMS
CHRYSLER/JEEP OBD1 SYSTEMS ......................................................................
VEHICLES COVERED ............................................................................................
INSTRUMENT PANEL INDICATOR LIGHTS .........................................................
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC) ...........................................................................
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE .........................................................................
FORD OBD1 SYSTEMS
FORD COMPUTER SYSTEM OVERVIEW ............................................................
VEHICLES COVERED ............................................................................................
TEST CONNECTORS .............................................................................................
CONNECTING THE TOOL .....................................................................................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) ..............................................................
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES .......................................................................
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS ......................................................
GM OBD1 SYSTEMS
YOUR VEHICLE'S COMPUTER SYSTEM .............................................................
VEHICLES COVERED ............................................................................................
ABOUT THE TOOL .................................................................................................
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC) ...........................................................................
MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHT (MIL) .............................................................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC's) .............................................................
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE .........................................................................
TOYOTA/LEXUS OBD1 SYSTEMS
ON-BOARD VEHICLE DIAGNOSTICS (OBD1) .....................................................
VEHICLES COVERED ............................................................................................
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC) ...........................................................................
INSTRUMENT PANEL MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHTS (MIL) .....................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES ..........................................................................
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE .........................................................................
SERVICING DTCS
SERVICING DTCs - OBD I .....................................................................................
ERASING DTCS
ERASING DTCs (OBD I SYSTEMS) .......................................................................
ADDITIONAL TESTS
VIEWING FREEZE FRAME DATA .........................................................................
VIEWING VEHICLE INFORMATION ......................................................................
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS ..........................................................................
GENERIC (GLOBAL) OBD2 PID LIST ..............................................................................
GLOSSARY
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................
WARRANTY AND SERVICING
LIMITED ONE YEAR WARRANTY .........................................................................
SERVICE PROCEDURES .................................................................
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OBD2&1
Introduction
WHAT IS OBD?
WHAT IS OBD?
The Enhanced OBD2 Diagnostic Tool is designed to work on all
OBD2 compliant vehicles. All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars, light
trucks and SUVs) sold in the United States are OBD2 compliant.
One of the most exciting improvements in the
automobile industry was the addition of onboard diagnostics (OBD) on vehicles, or in more
basic terms, the computer that activates the
vehicle’s “CHECK ENGINE” light. OBD1 was
designed to monitor manufacturer-specific
systems on vehicles built from 1981 to 1995.
Then came the development of OBD2, which is
on all 1996 cars and light trucks sold in the U.S. Like its predecessor,
OBD2 was adopted as part of a government mandate to lower vehicle
emissions. But what makes OBD2 unique is its universal application for
all late model cars and trucks - domestic and import. This sophisticated
program in the vehicle’s main computer system is designed to detect
failures in a range of systems, and can be accessed through a universal
OBD2 port, which is usually found under the dashboard. For all OBD
systems, if a problem is found, the computer turns on the “CHECK
ENGINE” light to warn the driver, and sets a Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) to identify where the problem occurred. A special diagnostic tool,
such as the Enhanced OBD2 Diagnostic Tool, is required to retrieve
these codes, which consumers and professionals use as a starting point
for repairs.
The Enhanced OBD2 Diagnostic Tool provides the additional ability to
retrieve enhanced DTCs from most Chrysler/Jeep, Ford/Mazda,
GM/Izusu, Honda/Acura and Toyota/Lexus vehicles, as well as vehicle
information. The types of enhanced data available depends on the
vehicle make.
OBD2&1
1
You Can Do It!
EASY TO USE - EASY TO VIEW - EASY TO DEFINE
Easy To Use . . . .
„
Connect the Diagnostic Tool to the
vehicle’s test connector.
„
Turn the ignition key "On.”
„
The tool will automatically link to the
vehicle’s computer.
Easy To View . . . .
„
The Diagnostic Tool retrieves stored
codes, Freeze Frame data and I/M
Readiness status.
„
Codes, I/M Readiness status and
Freeze Frame data are displayed on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display screen.
System status is indicated by LED
indicators.
Easy To Define . . . .
2
„
Read code definitions
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
„
View Freeze Frame data.
from
the
OBD2&1
Safety Precautions
SAFETY FIRST!
SAFETY FIRST!
To avoid personal injury, instrument damage and/or
damage to your vehicle; do not use the OBD2 Diagnostic
Tool before reading this manual.
This manual describes common test procedures used
by experienced service technicians. Many test procedures
require precautions to avoid accidents that can result in
personal injury, and/or damage to your vehicle or test
equipment. Always read your vehicle's service manual and
follow its safety precautions before and during any test or
service procedure. ALWAYS observe the following general
safety precautions:
When an engine is running, it produces carbon monoxide,
a toxic and poisonous gas. To prevent serious injury or
death from carbon monoxide poisoning, operate the
vehicle ONLY in a well-ventilated area.
To protect your eyes from propelled objects as well as hot
or caustic liquids, always wear approved safety eye
protection.
When an engine is running, many parts (such as the
coolant fan, pulleys, fan belt etc.) turn at high speed. To
avoid serious injury, always be aware of moving parts.
Keep a safe distance from these parts as well as other
potentially moving objects.
Engine parts become very hot when the engine is running.
To prevent severe burns, avoid contact with hot engine
parts.
P RND L
Before starting an engine for testing or troubleshooting,
make sure the parking brake is engaged. Put the
transmission in park (for automatic transmission) or
neutral (for manual transmission). Block the drive wheels
with suitable blocks.
Connecting or disconnecting test equipment when the
ignition is ON can damage test equipment and the
vehicle's electronic components. Turn the ignition OFF
before connecting the Diagnostic Tool to or disconnecting
the Diagnostic Tool from the vehicle’s Data Link Connector
(DLC).
OBD2&1
3
Safety Precautions
SAFETY FIRST!
To prevent damage to the on-board computer when taking
vehicle electrical measurements, always use a digital
multimeter with at least 10 megOhms of impedance.
Fuel and battery vapors are highly flammable. To prevent
an explosion, keep all sparks, heated items and open
flames away from the battery and fuel / fuel vapors. DO
NOT SMOKE NEAR THE VEHICLE DURING TESTING.
Don't wear loose clothing or jewelry when working on an
engine. Loose clothing can become caught in the fan,
pulleys, belts, etc. Jewelry is highly conductive, and can
cause a severe burn if it makes contact between a power
source and ground.
4
OBD2&1
About the Diagnostic Tool
VEHICLES COVERED
VEHICLES COVERED
The Enhanced OBD2 Diagnostic Tool is designed to work on all OBD2
compliant vehicles. All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars and light trucks)
sold in the United States are OBD2 compliant.
Federal law requires that all 1996 and newer cars and light
trucks sold in the United States must be OBD2 compliant; this
includes all Domestic, Asian and European vehicles.
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles are OBD2 compliant. To find out if a
1994 or 1995 vehicle is OBD2 compliant, check the following:
1. The Vehicle Emissions Control Information (VECI) Label. This
label is located under the hood or by the radiator of most vehicles. If
the vehicle is OBD2 compliant, the label will state “OBD II
Certified.”
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
ENGINE FAMILY
DISPLACEMENT
VEHICLE
MANUFACTURER
EFN2.6YBT2BA
2.6L
OBD II
CERTIFIED
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA AND STATE
OF CALIFORNIA REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO
1999 MODEL YEAR NEW TLEV PASSENGER CARS.
REFER TO SERVICE MANUAL FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
TUNE-UP CONDITIONS: NORMAL OPERATING ENGINE TEMPERATURE,
ACCESSORIES OFF, COOLING FAN OFF, TRANSMISSION IN NEUTRAL
EXHAUST EMISSIONS STANDARDS
CERTIFICATION
IN-USE
SPARK PLUG
TYPE NGK BPRE-11
GAP: 1.1MM
OBD II
CERTIFIED
STANDARD CATEGORY
TLEV
TLEV INTERMEDIATE
CATALYST
2. Government Regulations require that all
OBD2 compliant vehicles must have a
“common”
sixteen-pin
Data
Link
Connector (DLC).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10111213141516
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles have 16-pin connectors but are
not OBD2 compliant. Only those vehicles with a Vehicle
Emissions Control Label stating “OBD II Certified” are OBD2
compliant.
Data Link Connector (DLC) Location
The 16-pin DLC is usually
located under the instrument
panel (dash), within 12 inches
(300 mm) of center of the panel,
on the driver’s side of most
vehicles. It should be easily
accessible and visible from a
kneeling position outside the
vehicle with the door open.
OBD2&1
LEFT CORNER
OF DASH
NEAR
CENTER
OF DASH
BEHIND
ASHTRAY
5
About the Diagnostic Tool
BATTERY REPLACEMENT
On some Asian and European vehicles the DLC is located
behind the “ashtray” (the ashtray must be removed to
access it) or on the far left corner of the dash. If the DLC
cannot be located, consult the vehicle’s service manual for
the location.
BATTERY REPLACEMENT
Replace batteries when the battery symbol
is visible on display
and/or the 3 LEDS are all lit and no other data is visible on screen.
1. Locate the battery cover on the back of the Diagnostic Tool.
2. Slide the battery cover off (use your fingers).
3. Replace batteries with three AA-size batteries (for longer life, use
Alkaline-type batteries).
4. Reinstall the battery cover on the back of the Diagnostic Tool.
Adjustments After Battery Installation
The first time the Diagnostic Tool is turned on, you must select the
desired display language (English, French or Spanish) and unit of
measurement (USA or metric) as follows:
1. Press the POWER/LINK
button to
turn the Diagnostic Tool “ON.”
„
The Select
displays.
Language
screen
and DOWN
buttons,
2. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight the desired
display language.
3. When the desired display language is
button to
selected, press the ENTER
confirm your selection.
„
The Select Unit screen displays.
and DOWN
buttons,
4. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight the desired
unit of measurement.
5. When the desired unit of measurement is selected, press the
button to confirm your selection.
ENTER
After the initial language and unit of measurement selections
are performed, these, as well as other settings, can be
changed as desired. Proceed to “ADJUSTMENTS AND
SETTINGS” on page 104 for further instructions.
6
OBD2&1
Diagnostic Tool Controls
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
12
11
8
7
9
10
1
2
4
3
5
6
Figure 1. Controls and Indicators
See Figure 1 for the locations of items 1 through 12, below.
1.
ERASE button - Erases Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs),
and “Freeze Frame” data from your vehicle’s computer, and resets
Monitor status.
2.
ENTER button - When in MENU mode, confirms the selected
option or value.
3.
DTC SCROLL button - Displays the DTC View screen and/or
scrolls the LCD display to view DTCs and Freeze Frame data.
4.
POWER/LINK button - When the Diagnostic Tool IS NOT
connected to a vehicle, turns the Diagnostic Tool “On” and “Off”.
When the Diagnostic Tool is connected to a vehicle, links the
Diagnostic Tool to the vehicle’s PCM to retrieve diagnostic data from
the computer’s memory.
To turn the Diagnostic Tool "On", you must press and hold the
POWER/LINK
button for approximately 3 seconds.
5.
FF/M button – When pressed while linked to a vehicle, places
the Diagnostic Tool in “Test Mode.” Three options are available:
Freeze Frame, Vehicle Info and Tool Settings.
OBD2&1
7
Diagnostic Tool Controls
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
6.
DOWN button - When in MENU mode, scrolls DOWN through
the menu and submenu selection options. When LINKED to a
vehicle, scrolls DOWN through the current display screen to display
any additional data.
7.
UP button - When in MENU mode, scrolls UP through the menu
and submenu selection options. When LINKED to a vehicle, scrolls
UP through the current display screen to display any additional data.
8. GREEN LED - Indicates that all engine systems are running
normally (all Monitors on the vehicle are active and performing their
diagnostic testing, and no DTCs are present).
9. YELLOW LED - Indicates there is a possible problem. A “Pending”
DTC is present and/or some of the vehicle’s emission monitors have
not run their diagnostic testing.
10. RED LED - Indicates there is a problem in one or more of the
vehicle’s systems. The red LED is also used to show that DTC(s)
are present. DTCs are shown on the Diagnostic Tool’s display. In
this case, the Malfunction Indicator (“Check Engine”) lamp on the
vehicle’s instrument panel will light steady on.
11. Display - Displays settings Menu and submenus, test results,
Diagnostic Tool functions and Monitor status information. See
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS, following, for more details.
12. CABLE - Connects the Diagnostic Tool to the vehicle’s Data Link
Connector (DLC).
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
2
1
11 12
13
3
4
5
6
14
7
10
8
9
Figure 2. Display Functions
See Figure 2 for the locations of items 1 through 14, following.
1. I/M MONITOR STATUS field - Identifies the I/M Monitor status area.
8
OBD2&1
Diagnostic Tool Controls
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
2. Monitor icons - Indicate which Monitors are supported by the
vehicle under test, and whether or not the associated Monitor has
run its diagnostic testing (Monitor status). When a Monitor icon is
solid, it indicates that the associated Monitor has completed its
diagnostic testing. When a Monitor icon is flashing, it indicates that
the vehicle supports the associated Monitor, but the Monitor has not
yet run its diagnostic testing.
3.
Vehicle icon - Indicates whether or not the Diagnostic Tool is
being properly powered through the vehicle’s Data Link Connector
(DLC). A visible icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
4.
Link icon - Indicates whether or not the Diagnostic Tool is
communicating (linked) with the vehicle’s on-board computer. When
visible, the Diagnostic Tool is communicating with the computer. If
the Link icon is not visible, the Diagnostic Tool is not communicating
with the computer.
5.
Computer icon - When this icon is visible it indicates that the
Diagnostic Tool is linked to a personal computer. Optional software
is available that makes it possible to upload retrieved data to a
personal computer.
6.
Diagnostic Tool Internal Battery icon - When visible, indicates
the Diagnostic Tool batteries are “low” and should be replaced. If the
batteries are not replaced when the battery symbol is "on", all 3
LEDs will light up as a last resort indicator to warn you that the
batteries need replacement. No data will be displayed on screen
when all 3 LEDs are lit.
7. DTC Display Area - Displays the Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
number. Each fault is assigned a code number that is specific to that
fault.
8. Test Data Display Area - Displays DTC definitions, Freeze Frame
data and other pertinent test information messages.
9. FREEZE FRAME icon - Indicates that there is Freeze Frame data
from “Priority Code” (Code #1) stored in the vehicle’s computer
memory.
10. PERMANENT icon - Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a
“Permanent” code.
11. PENDING icon - Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a
“Pending” code.
12. MIL icon - Indicates the status of the Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL). The MIL icon is visible only when a DTC has commanded the
MIL on the vehicle’s dashboard to light.
13. Code Number Sequence - The Diagnostic Tool assigns a
sequence number to each DTC that is present in the computer’s
memory, starting with “01.” This number indicates which code is
currently displayed. Code number “01” is always the highest priority
code, and the one for which “Freeze Frame” data has been stored.
OBD2&1
9
Diagnostic Tool Controls
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
If “01” is a “Pending” code, there may or may not be “Freeze
Frame” data stored in memory.
14. Code Enumerator - Indicates the total number of codes retrieved
from the vehicle’s computer.
10
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Introduction of Electronic Engine Controls
Electronic Computer Control Systems make it possible
for vehicle manufacturers to comply with the tougher
emissions and fuel efficiency standards mandated by
State and Federal Governments.
As a result of increased air pollution (smog) in large cities,
such as Los Angeles, the California Air Resources Board
(CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
set new regulations and air pollution standards to deal with
the problem. To further complicate matters, the energy crisis of
the early 1970s caused a sharp increase in fuel prices over a
short period. As a result, vehicle manufacturers were not only
required to comply with the new emissions standards, they also
had to make their vehicles more fuel-efficient. Most vehicles
were required to meet a miles-per-gallon (MPG) standard set by the U.S.
Federal Government.
Precise fuel delivery and spark timing are needed to reduce vehicle
emissions. Mechanical engine controls in use at the time (such as
ignition points, mechanical spark advance and the carburetor)
responded too slowly to driving conditions to properly control fuel
delivery and spark timing. This made it difficult for vehicle manufacturers
to meet the new standards.
A new Engine Control System had to be designed and integrated with
the engine controls to meet the stricter standards. The new system had
to:
„
Respond instantly to supply the proper mixture of air and fuel for any
driving condition (idle, cruising, low-speed driving, high-speed
driving, etc.).
„
Calculate instantly the best time to “ignite” the air/fuel mixture for
maximum engine efficiency.
„
Perform both these tasks without affecting vehicle performance or
fuel economy.
Vehicle Computer Control Systems can perform millions of calculations
each second. This makes them an ideal substitute for the slower
mechanical engine controls. By switching from mechanical to electronic
engine controls, vehicle manufacturers are able to control fuel delivery
and spark timing more precisely. Some newer Computer Control
Systems also provide control over other vehicle functions, such as
transmission, brakes, charging, body, and suspension systems.
OBD2&1
11
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Basic Engine Computer Control System
The Computer Control System consists of an on-board
computer and several related control devices (sensors,
switches, and actuators).
The on-board computer is the heart of the Computer
Control System. The computer contains several programs
with preset reference values for air/fuel ratio, spark or
ignition timing, injector pulse width, engine speed, etc.
Separate values are provided for various driving conditions,
such as idle, low speed driving, high-speed driving, low load,
or high load. The preset reference values represent the ideal
air/fuel mixture, spark timing, transmission gear selection,
etc., for any driving condition. These values are programmed
by the vehicle manufacturer, and are specific to each vehicle model.
Most on-board computers are located inside the vehicle behind the dashboard,
under the passenger’s or driver’s seat, or behind the right kick panel. However,
some manufacturers may still position it in the engine compartment.
Vehicle sensors, switches, and actuators are located throughout the
engine, and are connected by electrical wiring to the on-board computer.
These devices include oxygen sensors, coolant temperature sensors,
throttle position sensors, fuel injectors, etc. Sensors and switches are
input devices. They provide signals representing current engine
operating conditions to the computer. Actuators are output devices. They
perform actions in response to commands received from the computer.
The on-board computer receives information inputs from sensors and
switches located throughout the engine. These devices monitor critical
engine conditions such as coolant temperature, engine speed, engine
load, throttle position, air/fuel ratio etc.
The computer compares the values received from these sensors with its
preset reference values, and makes corrective actions as needed so
that the sensor values always match the preset reference values for the
current driving condition. The computer makes adjustments by
commanding other devices such as the fuel injectors, idle air control,
EGR valve or Ignition Module to perform these actions.
TYPICAL COMPUTER
CONTROL SYSTEM
OUTPUT DEVICES
Fuel Injectors
Idle Air Control
EGR Valve
Ignition Module
On-Board
Computer
INPUT DEVICES
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Throttle Position Sensor
Fuel Injectors
12
INPUT DEVICES
Oxygen Sensors
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
Vehicle operating conditions are constantly changing. The computer
continuously makes adjustments or corrections (especially to the air/fuel
mixture and spark timing) to keep all the engine systems operating
within the preset reference values.
On-Board Diagnostics - First Generation (OBD1)
With the exception of some 1994 and 1995 vehicles,
most vehicles from 1982 to 1995 are equipped with
some type of first generation On-Board Diagnostics.
Beginning in 1988, California’s Air Resources Board
(CARB), and later the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
required vehicle manufacturers to include a self-diagnostic
program in their on-board computers. The program would be
capable of identifying emissions-related faults in a system. The
first generation of Onboard Diagnostics came to be known as
OBD1.
OBD1 is a set of self-testing and diagnostic instructions
programmed into the vehicle’s on-board computer. The
programs are specifically designed to detect failures in the sensors,
actuators, switches and wiring of the various vehicle emissions-related
systems. If the computer detects a failure in any of these components or
systems, it lights an indicator on the dashboard to alert the driver. The
indicator lights only when an emissions-related problem is detected.
The computer also assigns a numeric code for each specific problem
that it detects, and stores these codes in its memory for later retrieval.
These codes can be retrieved from the computer’s memory with the use
of a “Code Reader” or a “Scan Tool.”
On-Board Diagnostics - Second Generation (OBD2)
In addition to performing all the
functions of the OBD1 System, the
The OBD2 System is
OBD2 System has been enhanced with
an enhancement of the
new Diagnostic Programs. These
OBD1 System.
programs closely monitor the functions
of various emissions-related components and systems (as well as other
systems) and make this information readily available (with
the proper equipment) to the technician for evaluation.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) conducted
studies on OBD1 equipped vehicles. The information that was
gathered from these studies showed the following:
„
A large number of vehicles had deteriorating or degraded
emissions-related components. These components were
causing an increase in emissions.
OBD2&1
13
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Because OBD1 systems only detect failed components, the
degraded components were not setting codes.
„
Some emissions problems related to degraded components only
occur when the vehicle is being driven under a load. The emission
checks being conducted at the time were not performed under
simulated driving conditions. As a result, a significant number of
vehicles with degraded components were passing Emissions Tests.
„
Codes, code definitions, diagnostic connectors, communication
protocols and emissions terminology were different for each
manufacturer. This caused confusion for the technicians working on
different make and model vehicles.
To address the problems made evident by this study, CARB and the
EPA passed new laws and standardization requirements. These laws
required that vehicle manufacturers to equip their new vehicles with
devices capable of meeting all of the new emissions standards and
regulations. It was also decided that an enhanced on-board diagnostic
system, capable of addressing all of these problems, was needed. This
new system is known as “On-Board Diagnostics Generation Two
(OBD2).” The primary objective of the OBD2 system is to comply with
the latest regulations and emissions standards established by CARB
and the EPA.
The Main Objectives of the OBD2 System are:
„
To detect degraded and/or failed emissions-related components or
systems that could cause tailpipe emissions to exceed by 1.5 times
the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) standard.
„
To expand emissions-related system monitoring. This includes a set
of computer run diagnostics called Monitors. Monitors perform
diagnostics and testing to verify that all emissions-related
components and/or systems are operating correctly and within the
manufacturer’s specifications.
„
To use a standardized Diagnostic Link Connector (DLC) in all
vehicles. (Before OBD2, DLCs were of different shapes and sizes.)
„
To standardize the code numbers, code definitions and language
used to describe faults. (Before OBD2, each vehicle manufacturer
used their own code numbers, code definitions and language to
describe the same faults.)
„
To expand the operation of the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL).
„
To standardize communication procedures and protocols between
the diagnostic equipment (Scan Tools, Code Readers, etc.) and the
vehicle’s on-board computer.
OBD2 Terminology
The following terms and their definitions are related to OBD2 systems.
Read and reference this list as needed to aid in the understanding of
OBD2 systems.
14
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Powertrain Control Module (PCM) - The PCM is the OBD2
accepted term for the vehicle’s “on-board computer.” In addition
to controlling the engine management and emissions systems,
the PCM also participates in controlling the powertrain
(transmission) operation. Most PCMs also have the ability to
communicate with other computers on the vehicle (ABS, ride
control, body, etc.).
„
Monitor - Monitors are “diagnostic routines” programmed into the
PCM. The PCM utilizes these programs to run diagnostic tests, and
to monitor operation of the vehicle’s emissions-related components
or systems to ensure they are operating correctly and within the
vehicle’s manufacturer specifications. Currently, up to eleven
Monitors are used in OBD2 systems. Additional Monitors will be
added as the OBD2 system is further developed.
Not all vehicles support all eleven Monitors.
„
Enabling Criteria - Each Monitor is designed to test and monitor
the operation of a specific part of the vehicle’s emissions system
(EGR system, oxygen sensor, catalytic converter, etc.). A specific
set of “conditions” or “driving procedures” must be met before the
computer can command a Monitor to run tests on its related system.
These “conditions” are known as “Enabling Criteria.” The
requirements and procedures vary for each Monitor. Some Monitors
only require the ignition key to be turned “On” for them to run and
complete their diagnostic testing. Others may require a set of
complex procedures, such as, starting the vehicle when cold,
bringing it to operating temperature, and driving the vehicle under
specific conditions before the Monitor can run and complete its
diagnostic testing.
„
Monitor Has/Has Not Run - The terms “Monitor has run” or
“Monitor has not run” are used throughout this manual. “Monitor
has run,” means the PCM has commanded a particular Monitor to
perform the required diagnostic testing on a system to ensure the
system is operating correctly (within factory specifications). The term
“Monitor has not run” means the PCM has not yet commanded a
particular Monitor to perform diagnostic testing on its associated part
of the emissions system.
„
Trip - A Trip for a particular Monitor requires that the vehicle is
being driven in such a way that all the required “Enabling Criteria”
for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing are met.
The “Trip Drive Cycle” for a particular Monitor begins when the
ignition key is turned “On.” It is successfully completed when all the
“Enabling Criteria” for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic
testing are met by the time the ignition key is turned “Off.” Since
each of the eleven monitors is designed to run diagnostics and
testing on a different part of the engine or emissions system, the
“Trip Drive Cycle” needed for each individual Monitor to run and
complete varies.
OBD2&1
15
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
„
OBD2 Drive Cycle - An OBD2 Drive Cycle is an extended set of
driving procedures that takes into consideration the various types of
driving conditions encountered in real life. These conditions may
include starting the vehicle when it is cold, driving the vehicle at a
steady speed (cruising), accelerating, etc. An OBD2 Drive Cycle
begins when the ignition key is turned “On” (when cold) and ends
when the vehicle has been driven in such a way as to have all the
“Enabling Criteria” met for all its applicable Monitors. Only those
trips that provide the Enabling Criteria for all Monitors applicable to
the vehicle to run and complete their individual diagnostic tests
qualify as an OBD2 Drive Cycle. OBD2 Drive Cycle requirements
vary from one model of vehicle to another. Vehicle manufacturers
set these procedures. Consult your vehicle’s service manual for
OBD2 Drive Cycle procedures.
Do not confuse a “Trip” Drive Cycle with an OBD2 Drive Cycle. A
“Trip” Drive Cycle provides the “Enabling Criteria” for one specific
Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing. An OBD2 Drive
Cycle must meet the “Enabling Criteria” for all Monitors on a
particular vehicle to run and complete their diagnostic testing.
„
Warm-up Cycle - Vehicle operation after an engine off period where
engine temperature rises at least 40°F (22°C) from its temperature
before starting, and reaches at least 160°F (70°C). The PCM uses
warm-up cycles as a counter to automatically erase a specific code
and related data from its memory. When no faults related to the
original problem are detected within a specified number of warm-up
cycles, the code is erased automatically.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are
meant to guide you to the proper
service procedure in the vehicle’s
service manual. DO NOT replace parts
based only on DTCs without first
consulting the vehicle’s service manual
for proper testing procedures for that
particular system, circuit or component.
Diagnostic Trouble
Codes (DTCs) are
codes that identify a
specific problem area.
DTCs are alphanumeric codes that are used to identify a
problem that is present in any of the systems that are
monitored by the on-board computer (PCM). Each trouble
code has an assigned message that identifies the circuit,
component or system area where the problem was found.
OBD2 diagnostic trouble codes are made up of five characters:
„
The 1st character is a letter. It identifies the “main system”
where the fault occurred (Body, Chassis, Powertrain, or Network).
„
The 2nd character is a numeric digit. It identifies the “type” of code
(Generic or Manufacturer-Specific).
Generic DTCs are codes that are used by all vehicle
manufacturers. The standards for generic DTCs, as well as
their definitions, are set by the Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE).
16
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Manufacturer-Specific DTCs are codes that are controlled by
the vehicle manufacturers. The Federal Government does not
require vehicle manufacturers to go beyond the standardized
generic DTCs in order to comply with the new OBD2
emissions standards. However, manufacturers are free to
expand beyond the standardized codes to make their systems
easier to diagnose.
„
The 3rd character is a numeric digit. It identifies the specific
system or sub-system where the problem is located.
„
The 4th and 5th characters are numeric digits. They identify the
section of the system that is malfunctioning.
OBD2 DTC EXAMPLE
P0201 - Injector Circuit Malfunction, Cylinder 1
B
C
P
U
-
Body
Chassis
Powertrain
Network
0
1
2
3
-
Generic
Manufacturer Specific
Generic
Includes both Generic and Manufacturer
Specific Codes
P0201
Identifies the system where the
problem is located:
1 - Fuel and Air Metering
2 - Fuel and Air Metering (injector circuit
malfunction only)
3 - Ignition System or Misfire
4 - Auxiliary Emission Control System
5 - Vehicle Speed Control and Idle Control
System
6 - Computer Output Circuits
7 - Transmission
8 - Transmission
Identifies what section of the system
is malfunctioning
OBD2&1
17
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
DTCs and MIL Status
When the vehicle’s on-board computer detects
a failure in an emissions-related component or
system, the computer’s internal diagnostic
program assigns a diagnostic trouble code
(DTC) that points to the system (and subsystem)
where the fault was found. The diagnostic
program saves the code in the computer’s
memory. It records a “Freeze Frame” of
conditions present when the fault was found, and lights the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL). Some faults require detection for two trips in a row
before the MIL is turned on.
The “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” (MIL) is the accepted term
used to describe the lamp on the dashboard that lights to warn
the driver that an emissions-related fault has been found.
Some manufacturers may still call this lamp a “Check Engine”
or “Service Engine Soon” light.
There are two types of DTCs used for emissions-related faults: Type “A”
and Type “B.” Type “A” codes are “One-Trip” codes; Type “B” DTCs are
usually Two-Trip DTCs.
When a Type “A” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer commands the MIL “On” when the failure is first found.
„
If the failure causes a severe misfire that may cause damage to the
catalytic converter, the MIL “flashes” once per second. The MIL
continues to flash as long as the condition exists. If the condition
that caused the MIL to flash is no longer present, the MIL will light
“steady” On.
„
A DTC is saved in the computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
A “Freeze Frame” of the conditions present in the engine or emissions
system when the MIL was ordered “On” is saved in the computer’s
memory for later retrieval. This information shows fuel system status
(closed loop or open loop), engine load, coolant temperature, fuel trim
value, MAP vacuum, engine RPM and DTC priority.
When a Type “B” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer sets a Pending DTC, but the MIL is not ordered “On.”
“Freeze Frame” data may or may not be saved at this time
depending on manufacturer. The Pending DTC is saved in the
computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
If the failure is found on the second consecutive trip, the MIL is
ordered “On.” “Freeze Frame” data is saved in the computer’s
memory.
„
If the failure is not found on the second Trip, the Pending DTC is
erased from the computer’s memory.
The MIL will stay lit for both Type “A” and Type “B” codes until one of
the following conditions occurs:
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OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
„
If the conditions that caused the MIL to light are no longer present
for the next three trips in a row, the computer automatically turns the
MIL “Off” if no other emissions-related faults are present. However,
the DTCs remain in the computer’s memory as a history code for 40
warm-up cycles (80 warm-up cycles for fuel and misfire faults). The
DTCs are automatically erased if the fault that caused them to be
set is not detected again during that period.
„
Misfire and fuel system faults require three trips with “similar
conditions” before the MIL is turned “Off.” These are trips where the
engine load, RPM and temperature are similar to the conditions
present when the fault was first found.
After the MIL has been turned off, DTCs and Freeze Frame
data stay in the computer’s memory.
„
Erasing the DTCs from the computer’s memory can also turn off the
MIL. See ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) on
page 48, before erasing codes from the computer’s memory. If a
Diagnostic Tool or Scan Tool is used to erase the codes, Freeze
Frame data will also be erased.
OBD2 MONITORS
To ensure the correct operation of the various emissions-related
components and systems, a diagnostic program was developed and
installed in the vehicle’s on-board computer. The program has several
procedures and diagnostic strategies. Each procedure or diagnostic
strategy is made to monitor the operation of, and run diagnostic tests on,
a specific emissions-related component or system. These tests ensure
the system is running correctly and is within the manufacturer’s
specifications. On OBD2 systems, these procedures and diagnostic
strategies are called “Monitors.”
Currently, fifteen Monitors are supported by OBD2 systems. Additional
monitors may be added as a result of Government regulations as the
OBD2 system grows and matures. Not all vehicles support all fifteen
Monitors. Additionally, some Monitors are supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only, while others are supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only.
Monitor operation is either “Continuous” or “Non-Continuous,”
depending on the specific monitor.
Continuous Monitors
Three of these Monitors are designed to constantly monitor their
associated components and/or systems for proper operation.
Continuous Monitors run constantly when the engine is running. The
Continuous Monitors are:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM)
Misfire Monitor
Fuel System Monitor
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19
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Non-Continuous Monitors
The other twelve Monitors are “non-continuous” Monitors. “Noncontinuous” Monitors perform and complete their testing once per trip.
The “non-continuous” Monitors are:
Oxygen Sensor Monitor
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor
Catalyst Monitor
Heated Catalyst Monitor
EGR System Monitor
EVAP System Monitor
Secondary Air System Monitor
The following Monitors became standard beginning in 2010.
The majority of vehicles produced before this time will not
support these Monitors
NMHC Monitor
NOx Adsorber Monitor
Boost Pressure System Monitor
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor
PM Filter Monitor
The following provides a brief explanation of the function of each Monitor:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM) - This Monitor
continuously checks all inputs and outputs from sensors,
actuators, switches and other devices that provide a signal to the
computer. The Monitor checks for shorts, opens, out of range value,
functionality and “rationality.”
Rationality: Each input signal is compared against all other
inputs and against information in the computer’s memory to see
if it makes sense under the current operating conditions.
Example: The signal from the throttle position sensor indicates
the vehicle is in a wide-open throttle condition, but the vehicle is
really at idle, and the idle condition is confirmed by the signals
from all other sensors. Based on the input data, the computer
determines that the signal from the throttle position sensor is not
rational (does not make sense when compared to the other
inputs). In this case, the signal would fail the rationality test.
The CCM is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The CCM may be either a “One-Trip” or
a “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the component.
20
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Fuel System Monitor - This Monitor uses a Fuel System
Correction program, called Fuel Trim, inside the on-board
computer. Fuel Trim is a set of positive and negative values that
represent adding or subtracting fuel from the engine. This program is
used to correct for a lean (too much air/not enough fuel) or rich (too
much fuel/not enough air) air-fuel mixture. The program is designed to
add or subtract fuel, as needed, up to a certain percent. If the correction
needed is too large and exceeds the time and percent allowed by the
program, a fault is indicated by the computer.
The Fuel System Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles
and “compression ignition” vehicles. The Fuel System Monitor may be a
“One-Trip” or “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the severity of the
problem.
Misfire Monitor - This Monitor continuously checks for engine misfires.
A misfire occurs when the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder does not ignite.
The misfire Monitor uses changes in crankshaft speed to sense an engine
misfire. When a cylinder misfires, it no longer contributes to the speed of the
engine, and engine speed decreases each time the affected cylinder(s) misfire.
The misfire Monitor is designed to sense engine speed fluctuations and
determine from which cylinder(s) the misfire is coming, as well as how bad the
misfire is. There are three types of engine misfires, Types 1, 2, and 3.
- Type 1 and Type 3 misfires are two-trip monitor faults. If a fault is sensed
on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as
a Pending Code. The MIL is not commanded on at this time. If the fault is
found again on the second trip, under similar conditions of engine speed,
load and temperature, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and the
code is saved in its long term memory.
- Type 2 misfires are the most severe type of misfire. When a Type 2
misfire is sensed on the first trip, the computer commands the MIL to
light when the misfire is sensed. If the computer determines that a
Type 2 misfire is severe , and may cause catalytic converter damage,
it commands the MIL to “flash” once per second as soon as the
misfire is sensed. When the misfire is no longer present, the MIL
reverts to steady “On” condition.
The Misfire Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles.
Catalyst Monitor - The catalytic converter is a device that is
installed downstream of the exhaust manifold. It helps to oxidize
(burn) the unburned fuel (hydrocarbons) and partially burned fuel
(carbon monoxide) left over from the combustion process. To
accomplish this, heat and catalyst materials inside the converter react
with the exhaust gases to burn the remaining fuel. Some materials
inside the catalytic converter also have the ability to store oxygen, and
release it as needed to oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. In
the process, it reduces vehicle emissions by converting the polluting
gases into carbon dioxide and water.
The computer checks the efficiency of the catalytic converter by
monitoring the oxygen sensors used by the system. One sensor is located
before (upstream of) the converter; the other is located after (downstream
of) the converter. If the catalytic converter loses its ability to store oxygen,
OBD2&1
21
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
the downstream sensor signal voltage becomes almost the same as the
upstream sensor signal. In this case, the monitor fails the test.
The Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
Catalyst Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Heated Catalyst Monitor - Operation of the “heated” catalytic
converter is similar to the catalytic converter. The main difference
is that a heater is added to bring the catalytic converter to its operating
temperature more quickly. This helps reduce emissions by reducing the
converter’s down time when the engine is cold. The Heated Catalyst
Monitor performs the same diagnostic tests as the catalyst Monitor, and
also tests the catalytic converter’s heater for proper operation.
The Heated Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. This Monitor is also a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Monitor - The Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR) system helps reduce the formation of
Oxides of Nitrogen during combustion. Temperatures above 2500°F
cause nitrogen and oxygen to combine and form Oxides of Nitrogen in
the combustion chamber. To reduce the formation of Oxides of Nitrogen,
combustion temperatures must be kept below 2500°F. The EGR system
recirculates small amounts of exhaust gas back into the intake manifold,
where it is mixed with the incoming air/fuel mixture. This reduces
combustion temperatures by up to 500°F. The computer determines
when, for how long, and how much exhaust gas is recirculated back to
the intake manifold. The EGR Monitor performs EGR system function
tests at preset times during vehicle operation.
The EGR Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The EGR Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Evaporative System (EVAP) Monitor - OBD2 vehicles are
equipped with a fuel Evaporative system (EVAP) that helps
prevent fuel vapors from evaporating into the air. The EVAP system
carries fumes from the fuel tank to the engine where they are burned
during combustion. The EVAP system may consist of a charcoal
canister, fuel tank cap, purge solenoid, vent solenoid, flow monitor, leak
detector and connecting tubes, lines and hoses.
Fumes are carried from the fuel tank to the charcoal canister by hoses
or tubes. The fumes are stored in the charcoal canister. The computer
controls the flow of fuel vapors from the charcoal canister to the engine
via a purge solenoid. The computer energizes or de-energizes the purge
solenoid (depending on solenoid design). The purge solenoid opens a
valve to allow engine vacuum to draw the fuel vapors from the canister
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OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
into the engine where the vapors are burned. The EVAP Monitor checks
for proper fuel vapor flow to the engine, and pressurizes the system to
test for leaks. The computer runs this Monitor once per trip.
The EVAP Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
EVAP Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip,
the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a Pending
Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time. If the
fault is sensed again on the second trip, the PCM commands the MIL
“On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor Heater
Monitor tests the operation of the oxygen sensor’s heater. There
are two modes of operation on a computer-controlled vehicle: “openloop” and “closed-loop.” The vehicle operates in open-loop when the
engine is cold, before it reaches normal operating temperature. The
vehicle also goes to open-loop mode at other times, such as heavy load
and full throttle conditions. When the vehicle is running in open-loop, the
oxygen sensor signal is ignored by the computer for air/fuel mixture
corrections. Engine efficiency during open-loop operation is very low,
and results in the production of more vehicle emissions.
Closed-loop operation is the best condition for both vehicle emissions
and vehicle operation. When the vehicle is operating in closed-loop, the
computer uses the oxygen sensor signal for air/fuel mixture corrections.
In order for the computer to enter closed-loop operation, the oxygen
sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600°F. The oxygen sensor
heater helps the oxygen sensor reach and maintain its minimum
operating temperature (600°F) more quickly, to bring the vehicle into
closed-loop operation as soon as possible.
The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only. The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor monitors how
much oxygen is in the vehicle’s exhaust. It generates a varying
voltage of up to one volt, based on how much oxygen is in the exhaust
gas, and sends the signal to the computer. The computer uses this
signal to make corrections to the air/fuel mixture. If the exhaust gas has
a large amount of oxygen (a lean air/fuel mixture), the oxygen sensor
generates a “low” voltage signal. If the exhaust gas has very little
oxygen (a rich mixture condition), the oxygen sensor generates a “high”
voltage signal. A 450mV signal indicates the most efficient, and least
polluting, air/fuel ratio of 14.7 parts of air to one part of fuel.
The oxygen sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600-650°F,
and the engine must reach normal operating temperature, for the
computer to enter into closed-loop operation. The oxygen sensor only
functions when the computer is in closed-loop. A properly operating
oxygen sensor reacts quickly to any change in oxygen content in the
OBD2&1
23
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
exhaust stream. A faulty oxygen sensor reacts slowly, or its voltage
signal is weak or missing.
The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Secondary Air System Monitor - When a cold engine is first
started, it runs in open-loop mode. During open-loop operation,
the engine usually runs rich. A vehicle running rich wastes fuel and
creates increased emissions, such as carbon monoxide and some
hydrocarbons. A Secondary Air System injects air into the exhaust
stream to aid catalytic converter operation:
1. It supplies the catalytic converter with the oxygen it needs to oxidize
the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons left over from the
combustion process during engine warm-up.
2. The extra oxygen injected into the exhaust stream also helps the
catalytic converter reach operating temperature more quickly during
warm-up periods. The catalytic converter must heat to operating
temperature to work properly.
The Secondary Air System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Secondary Air System Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves this fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Catalyst (NMHC) Monitor - The
non-methane hydrocarbon catalyst is a type of catalytic converter.
It helps to remove non-methane hydrocarbons (NMH) left over from the
combustion process from the exhaust stream. To accomplish this, heat
and catalyst materials react with the exhaust gases to convert NMH to
less harmful compounds. The computer checks the efficiency of the
catalyst by monitoring the quantity of NMH in the exhaust stream. The
monitor also verifies that sufficient temperature is present to aid in
particulate matter (PM) filter regeneration.
The NMHC Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles only.
The NMHC Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
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OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
NOx Aftertreatment Monitor - NOx aftertreatment is based on a
catalytic converter support that has been coated with a special
washcoat containing zeolites. NOx Aftertreatment is designed to reduce
oxides of nitrogen emitted in the exhaust stream. The zeolite acts as a
molecular "sponge" to trap the NO and NO2 molecules in the exhaust
stream. In some implementations, injection of a reactant before the
aftertreatment purges it. NO2 in particular is unstable, and will join with
hydrocarbons to produce H2O and N2. The Nox Aftertreatment Monitor
monitors the function of the Nox aftertreatment to ensure that tailpipe
emissions remain within acceptable limits.
The Nox Aftertreatment Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The Nox Aftertreatment Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If
a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault
in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the
MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Boost Pressure System Monitor - The boost pressure system
serves to increase the pressure produced inside the intake
manifold to a level greater than atmospheric pressure. This increase in
pressure helps to ensure compete combustion of the air-fuel mixture.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor is supported by “compression
ignition” vehicles only. The Boost Pressure System Monitor is a “TwoTrip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor - The exhaust gas sensor is used
by a number of systems/monitors to determine the content of the
exhaust stream. The computer checks for component integrity, system
operation, and tests for faults in the system, as well as feedback faults
that may affect other emission control systems.
The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the
fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not
command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
OBD2&1
25
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
PM Filter Monitor - The particulate matter (PM) filter removes
particulate matter from the exhaust stream by filtration. The filter
has a honeycomb structure similar to a catalyst substrate, but with the
channels blocked at alternate ends. This forces the exhaust gas to flow
through the walls between the channels, filtering the particulate matter
out. The filters are self-cleaning by periodic modification of the exhaust
gas concentration in order to burn off the trapped particles (oxidizing the
particles to form CO2 and water). The computer monitors the efficiency
of the filter in trapping particulate matter, as well as the ability of the filter
to regenerate (self-clean).
The PM Filter Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles
only. The PM Filter Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on
the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
OBD2 Reference Table
The table below lists current OBD2 Monitors, and indicates the following
for each Monitor:
A.
26
Monitor Type (how often does the Monitor run; Continuous or
Once per trip)
B.
Number of trips needed, with a fault present, to set a pending DTC
C.
Number of consecutive trips needed, with a fault present, to
command the MIL “On” and store a DTC
D.
Number of trips needed, with no faults present, to erase a Pending
DTC
E.
Number and type of trips or drive cycles needed, with no faults
present, to turn off the MIL
F.
Number of warm-up periods needed to erase the DTC from the
computer’s memory after the MIL is turned off
OBD2&1
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Name of
Monitor
A
B
C
D
E
F
Comprehensive
Component Monitor
Continuous
1
2
1
3
40
Misfire Monitor
(Type 1 and 3)
Continuous
1
2
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
Misfire Monitor
(Type 2)
Continuous
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
80
Fuel System Monitor
Continuous
1
1 or 2
1
3 - similar
conditions
Catalytic Converter
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Heater Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR)
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Evaporative
Emissions Controls
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Secondary Air
System (AIR) Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
NMHC Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Nox Adsorber Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Boost Pressure
System Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
PM Filter Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
OBD2&1
27
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
The purpose of this form is to help you gather preliminary information on
your vehicle before you retrieve codes. By having a complete account of
your vehicle's current problem(s), you will be able to systematically
pinpoint the problem(s) by comparing your answers to the fault codes
you retrieve. You can also provide this information to your mechanic to
assist in diagnosis and help avoid costly and unnecessary repairs. It is
important for you to complete this form to help you and/or your
mechanic have a clear understanding of your vehicle's problems.
NAME:
DATE:
VIN*:
YEAR:
MAKE:
MODEL:
ENGINE SIZE:
VEHICLE MILEAGE:
*VIN: Vehicle Identification Number, found at the base of the windshield
on a metallic plate, or at the driver door latch area (consult your vehicle
owner's manual for location).
TRANSMISSION:
❏
Automatic
❏
Manual
Please check all applicable items in each category.
DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM:
28
OBD2&1
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
WHEN DID YOU FIRST NOTICE THE PROBLEM:
❏
Just Started
❏
Started Last Week
❏
Started Last Month
❏
Other:
m
LIST ANY REPAIRS DONE IN THE PAST SIX MONTHS:
PROBLEMS STARTING
❏ No symptoms
❏
Cranks, but will not start
❏
❏
Starts, but takes a long
time
❏
Right after vehicle
comes to a stop
❏
While idling
❏
During acceleration
When parking
Will not crank
ENGINE QUITS OR STALLS
❏
No symptoms
❏
Right after starting
❏
When shifting into gear
❏
During steady-speed
driving
❏
IDLING CONDITIONS
❏
No symptoms
❏
Is too slow at all times
❏
Is too fast
❏
Is sometimes too fast or
too slow
❏
Is rough or uneven
❏
Fluctuates up and down
RUNNING CONDITIONS
❏
No symptoms
❏
Backfires
❏
Runs rough
Lacks power
❏
❏
❏
❏
Bucks and jerks
Misfires or cuts out
Engine knocks, pings or
rattles
❏
Poor fuel economy
❏
Surges
❏
Hesitates or stumbles on
accelerations
❏
Dieseling or run-on
OBD2&1
29
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS (if applicable)
❏
❏
❏
❏
No symptoms
Shifts too early or too late
Changes gear incorrectly
PROBLEM OCCURS
Morning
❏
❏
❏
Vehicle does not move
when in gear
Jerks or bucks
Afternoon
❏
Anytime
❏
Hot
ENGINE TEMPERATURE WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
❏
Cold
❏
Warm
DRIVING CONDITIONS WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
Short - less than 2 miles
2 - 10 miles
Long - more than 10 miles
Stop and go
While turning
While braking
At gear engagement
With A/C operating
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
With headlights on
During acceleration
Mostly driving downhill
Mostly driving uphill
Mostly driving level
Mostly driving curvy
roads
Mostly driving rough
roads
DRIVING HABITS
❏
❏
❏
❏
❏
Mostly city driving
Highway
Park vehicle inside
Park vehicle outside
❏
❏
Drive less than 10 miles per day
Drive 10 to 50 miles per day
Drive more than 50 miles per
day
GASOLINE USED
❏
❏
❏
87 Octane
89 Octane
❏
91 Octane
More than 91 Octane
WEATHER CONDITIONS WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
❏
❏
32 - 55° F (0 - 13° C)
Below freezing (32° F / 0° C)
❏
Above 55° F (13° C)
CHECK ENGINE LIGHT / DASH WARNING LIGHT
❏
Sometimes ON
❏
❏
Always ON
Never ON
PECULIAR SMELLS
❏
❏
❏
"Hot"
Sulfur ("rotten egg")
Burning rubber
❏
❏
❏
Gasoline
Burning oil
Electrical
STRANGE NOISES
❏
❏
30
Rattle
Knock
❏
❏
Squeak
Other
OBD2&1
Preparation for Testing
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
The Enhanced OBD2 Diagnostic
Tool aids in monitoring electronicand emissions-related faults in
your vehicle and retrieving fault
codes related to malfunctions in
these
systems.
Mechanical
problems such as low oil level or
damaged hoses, wiring or electrical connectors can cause poor engine
performance and may also cause a fault code to set. Fix any known
mechanical problems before performing any test. See your vehicle’s service
manual or a mechanic for more information.
Check the following areas before starting any test:
„
Check the engine oil, power steering fluid, transmission fluid (if
applicable), engine coolant and other fluids for proper levels. Top off
low fluid levels if needed.
„
Make sure the air filter is clean and in good condition. Make sure all
air filter ducts are properly connected. Check the air filter ducts for
holes, rips or cracks.
„
Make sure all engine belts are in good condition. Check for cracked,
torn, brittle, loose or missing belts.
„
Make sure mechanical linkages to engine sensors (throttle, gearshift
position, transmission, etc.) are secure and properly connected. See
your vehicle’s service manual for locations.
„
Check all rubber hoses (radiator) and steel hoses (vacuum/fuel) for
leaks, cracks, blockage or other damage. Make sure all hoses are
routed and connected properly.
„
Make sure all spark plugs are clean and in good condition. Check
for damaged, loose, disconnected or missing spark plug wires.
„
Make sure the battery terminals are clean and tight. Check for
corrosion or broken connections. Check for proper battery and
charging system voltages.
„
Check all electrical wiring and harnesses for proper connection.
Make sure wire insulation is in good condition, and there are no bare
wires.
„
Make sure the engine is mechanically sound. If needed, perform a
compression check, engine vacuum check, timing check (if
applicable), etc.
OBD2&1
31
Preparation for Testing
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
Always refer to the manufacturer’s service manual for your vehicle
before performing any test or repair procedures. Contact your local car
dealership, auto parts store or bookstore for availability of these
manuals. The following companies publish valuable repair manuals:
„
Haynes Publications
861 Lawrence Drive
Newbury Park, California 91320
Phone: 800-442-9637
Web: www.haynes.com
„
Mitchell 1
14145 Danielson Street
Poway, California 92064
Phone: 888-724-6742
Web: www.m1products.com
„
Motor Publications
5600 Crooks Road, Suite 200
Troy, Michigan 48098
Phone: 800-426-6867
Web: www.motor.com
FACTORY SOURCES
Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Isuzu, Hyundai and Subaru Service
Manuals
„
32
Helm Inc.
14310 Hamilton Avenue
Highland Park, Michigan 48203
Phone: 800-782-4356
Web: www.helminc.com
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition.
Each DTC has a set of testing procedures, instructions and
flow charts that must be followed to confirm the location of
the problem. This information is found in the vehicle's
service manual. Always refer to the vehicle's service manual
for detailed testing instructions.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing
any test. See BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for
details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See SAFETY PRECAUTIONS on page 3 for more
information.
1. Turn the ignition off.
2. Locate the vehicle's 16-pin Data Link
Connector (DLC). See page 5 for
connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover
that must be removed before
connecting the Diagnostic Tool
cable connector.
If the Diagnostic Tool is ON, turn it
OFF by pressing the POWER/LINK
button BEFORE connecting
the Diagnostic Tool to the DLC.
3. Connect the Diagnostic Tool cable connector to the vehicle’s DLC.
The cable connector is keyed and will only fit one way.
„
If you have problems connecting the cable connector to the DLC,
rotate the connector 180° and try again.
„
If you still have problems, check the DLC on the vehicle and on
the Diagnostic Tool. Refer to your vehicle’s service manual to
properly check the vehicle’s DLC.
4. Turn the ignition on. DO NOT start the engine.
5. When the Diagnostic Tool’s cable connector is properly connected
to the vehicle’s DLC, the unit automatically turns ON.
OBD2&1
33
Using the Diagnostic Tool
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
If the unit does not power on automatically when connected to
the vehicle’s DLC connector, it usually indicates there is no
power present at the vehicle’s DLC connector. Check your fuse
panel and replace any burned-out fuses.
„
If replacing the fuse(s) does not correct the problem, consult
your vehicle’s repair manual to identify the proper computer
(PCM) fuse/circuit, and perform any necessary repairs before
proceeding.
6. The Diagnostic Tool will automatically
start a check of the vehicle’s computer
to determine which type of communication protocol it is using. When the
Diagnostic Tool identifies the computer’s communication protocol, a communication link is established. The
protocol type used by the vehicle’s
computer is shown on the display.
A PROTOCOL is a set of rules
and procedures for regulating
data
transmission
between
computers, and between testing
equipment and computers. As of
this writing, five different types of
protocols (ISO 9141, Keyword
2000, J1850 PWM, J1850 VPW and CAN) are in use by
vehicle manufacturers. The Diagnostic Tool automatically
identifies
the
protocol
type and
establishes
a
communication link with the vehicle’s computer.
7. After approximately 10~60 seconds, the Diagnostic Tool will
retrieve and display any Diagnostic Trouble Codes, Monitor Status
and Freeze Frame Data retrieved from the vehicle’s computer
memory.
„
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
- Verify the connection at the DLC,
and verify the ignition is ON.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 5
seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer.
- Ensure your vehicle is OBD2 compliant. See VEHICLES
COVERED on page 5 for vehicle compliance verification
information.
34
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, the message “No
Powertrain DTCs or Freeze Frame
Data presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer. Press the DTC
button to view your Enhanced
DTC’s display. Press the DTC
SCROLL
button to enter the “enhanced” mode (see THE
ENHANCED MAIN MENU on page 38).
„
The Diagnostic Tool is capable of retrieving and storing up to 32
codes in memory, for immediate or later viewing.
8. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
display elements.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is linked to
(communicating with) the vehicle’s computer.
„
The I/M Monitor Status icons indicate the type and number of
Monitors the vehicle supports, and provides indications of the
current status of the vehicle’s Monitors. A solid Monitor icon
indicates the associated Monitor has run and completed its
testing. A blinking Monitor icon indicates the associated Monitor
has not run and completed its testing.
„
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved, and
whether or not the displayed code
commanded the MIL on. If the code
being displayed is a PENDING code,
the PENDING icon is shown. If the
code
being
displayed
is
a
PERMANENT code, the PERMANENT icon is shown.
„
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) and related code definition
are shown in the lower section of the display.
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the Diagnostic Tool display area
and
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use the
buttons, as necessary, to view the additional information.
If a definition for the currently displayed code is not available,
an advisory message shows on the Diagnostic Tool’s display.
9. Read and interpret Diagnostic Trouble Codes/system condition
using the display and the green, yellow and red LEDs.
OBD2&1
35
Using the Diagnostic Tool
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the display) as
visual aids to make it easier to determine engine system
conditions.
„
Green LED – Indicates that all
engine systems are “OK” and
operating normally. All monitors
supported by the vehicle have run
and performed their diagnostic
testing, and no trouble codes are
present. All Monitor icons will be
solid.
„
Yellow LED – Indicates one of the following conditions:
A. A PENDING CODE IS PRESENT –
If the yellow LED is illuminated, it
may indicate a Pending code is
present. Check the Diagnostic
Tool’s display for confirmation. A
Pending code is confirmed by the
presence of a numeric code and the
word PENDING on the Diagnostic
Tool’s display.
B. MONITOR NOT RUN STATUS – If
the Diagnostic Tool’s display shows
a zero (indicating there are no
DTC’s present in the vehicle’s
computer memory), but the yellow
LED is illuminated, it may be an
indication that some of the
Monitors supported by the vehicle
have not yet run and completed
their diagnostic testing. Check the
Diagnostic Tool’s display for confirmation. All Monitor icons
that are blinking have not yet run and completed their
diagnostic testing; all Monitor icons that are solid have run
and completed their diagnostic testing.
36
„
Red LED – Indicates there is a
problem with one or more of the
vehicle’s systems. The red LED is
also used to indicate that DTC(s)
are present (displayed on the
Diagnostic Tool’s screen). In this
case, the Malfunction Indicator
(Check Engine) lamp on the
vehicle’s instrument panel will be
illuminated.
„
DTC’s that start with “P0”, “P2” and some “P3” are
considered Generic (Universal). All Generic DTC definitions
are the same on all OBD2 equipped vehicles. The Diagnostic
Tool automatically displays the code definitions (if available)
for Generic DTC’s.
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
DTC’s that start with “P1” and some
“P3” are Manufacturer specific codes
and their code definitions vary with
each vehicle manufacturer. When a
Manufacturer specific DTC is retrieved,
the LCD display shows a list of vehicle
manufacturers. Use the UP
and
buttons, as necessary, to
DOWN
highlight the appropriate manufacturer, then press the ENTER
button to display the correct code definition for your vehicle. A
confirmation message shows on the LCD display.
- If the correct manufacturer is
shown, press the ENTER
button to continue.
- If the correct manufacturer is not
shown, press the DTC SCROLL
button to return to the list of
vehicle manufacturers.
If the manufacturer for your vehicle is not listed, use the UP
buttons, as necessary, to select Other
and DOWN
button for additional
manufacturer and press the ENTER
DTC information.
If the definition for the currently
displayed code is not available, an
advisory message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s LCD display.
10. If more than one DTC was retrieved,
and to view Freeze Frame Data, press
and release the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary.
„
„
OBD2&1
Each time the DTC SCROLL
button is pressed and
released, the Diagnostic Tool will scroll and display the next
DTC in sequence until all DTCs in its memory have displayed.
In OBD2 systems, when an emissions-related engine malfunction
occurs that causes a DTC to set, a record or snapshot of engine
conditions at the time that the malfunction occurred is also saved in
the vehicle’s computer memory. The record saved is called Freeze
Frame data. Saved engine conditions include, but are not limited to:
engine speed, open or closed loop operation, fuel system
commands, coolant temperature, calculated load value, fuel
pressure, vehicle speed, air flow rate, and intake manifold pressure.
See VIEWING FREEZE FRAME DATA on page 101.
If more than one malfunction is present that causes more than
one DTC to be set, only the code with the highest priority will
contain Freeze Frame data. The code designated “01” on the
Diagnostic Tool display is referred to as the PRIORITY code,
and Freeze Frame data always refers to this code. The priority
code is also the one that has commanded the MIL on.
37
Using the Code Reader
THE ENHANCED MAIN MENU
Retrieved information can be uploaded to a Personal Computer
(PC) with the use of optional software (see instructions included
with the software for more information).
11. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool enters the
“enhanced” mode.
„
See VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs on page 39 to view enhanced
DTCs for your vehicle.
„
If you do not wish to view enhanced DTCs, press the FF/M
button to return to the OBD2 DTC screen.
If a Manufacturer specific DTC was retrieved during the
code retrieval process, and the manufacturer selected for
the code was not Chrysler/Jeep, Ford/Mazda, GM/Isuzu,
Honda/Acura, or Toyota/Lexus, pressing the DTC
SCROLL
button after display of the last retrieved
DTC returns the screen to the first retrieved DTC (the
Enhanced DTC menu is not displayed).
12. Determine engine system(s) condition by viewing the Diagnostic Tool’s
display for any retrieved Diagnostic Trouble Codes, code definitions and
Freeze Frame data, interpreting the green, yellow and red LEDs.
„
If DTC’s were retrieved and you are going to perform the repairs
yourself, proceed by consulting the Vehicle’s Service Repair
Manual for testing instructions, testing procedures, and flow
charts related to retrieved code(s).
„
If you plan to take the vehicle to a professional to have it
serviced, complete the PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC
WORKSHEET on page 28 and take it together with the retrieved
codes, freeze frame data and LED information to aid in the
troubleshooting procedure.
„
To prolong battery life, the Diagnostic Tool automatically shuts
“Off” approximately three minutes after it is disconnected from
the vehicle. The DTCs retrieved, Monitor Status and Freeze
Frame data (if any) will remain in the Diagnostic Tool’s memory,
and may be viewed at any time by turning the unit “On”. If the
Diagnostic Tool’s batteries are removed, or if the Diagnostic
Tool is re-linked to a vehicle to retrieve codes/data, any prior
codes/data in its memory are automatically cleared.
THE ENHANCED MAIN MENU
Following the code retrieval procedure (see CODE RETRIEVAL
PROCEDURE on page 33), when the last retrieved DTC has been
displayed and the DTC SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic
Tool enters the “enhanced” mode. The “enhanced” mode provides the
ability to retrieve enhanced DTCs from most Chrysler/Jeep, Ford/Mazda,
GM/Isuzu, Honda/Acura and Toyota/Lexus vehicles. The types of
enhanced data available depends on the vehicle make.
38
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
The screen shown when the Diagnostic Tool enters the “enhanced” mode
depends on the type(s) of DTC(s) returned during the code retrieval process:
„
If no DTCs were retrieved, or only
generic DTCs were retrieved, the
Enhanced Main Menu displays. Use the
and DOWN
buttons, as
UP
necessary, to highlight the desired
button
option, then press the ENTER
to view the selected information.
If the manufacturer of the vehicle from which codes were
button to return
retrieved is not listed, press the FF/M
to the OBD2 DTC screen. Enhanced data is not available
for your vehicle.
„
If a Manufacturer specific DTC was
retrieved, and the manufacturer selected
for the code was Chrysler, Jeep, Ford,
Mazda, General Motors, Isuzu, Honda,
Acura, Toyota or Lexus, the Select Data
menu displays. Use the UP
and
buttons, as necessary, to
DOWN
highlight the desired option, then press
button to view the selected information, or, press the
the ENTER
button to return to the OBD2 DTC screen.
FF/M
„
If a Manufacturer specific DTC was retrieved, and the manufacturer
selected for the code was not Chrysler, Jeep, Ford, Mazda, General
Motors, Isuzu, Honda, Acura, Toyota or Lexus the “enhanced” mode
is bypassed, and the OBD2 DTC screen shows the first code
retrieved. Enhanced data is not available for your vehicle.
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
Refer to the appropriate paragraph to view enhanced data for your
vehicle:
„
„
„
„
„
Chrysler/Jeep.........................................
Ford/Mazda............................................
GM/Isuzu................................................
Honda/Acura ..........................................
Toyota/Lexus .........................................
page 39
page 41
page 43
page 45
page 46
Chrysler/Jeep Enhanced DTCs
When the Diagnostic Tool enters the “enhanced” mode (and
Chrysler/Jeep is selected, if prompted), the Chrysler Enhanced menu
displays. You may view either “Engine DTCs” or “Transmission DTCs.”
OBD2&1
39
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
button.
option, then press the ENTER
Transmission DTCs are not supported on most Chrysler/Jeep vehicles manufactured prior to 2002.
„
A “One moment please” message
displays while the Diagnostic Tool
retrieves the selected DTCs.
„
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer, a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
-
Verify the ignition is ON, then
press the ENTER
button to
continue.
2. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
LCD display elements.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
„
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved.
„
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
and related code definition are
shown in the lower section of the
LCD display.
I/M MONITOR STATUS icons are not displayed when
viewing enhanced DTCs.
In the case of long code definitions, or when viewing
Freeze Frame data, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use
the
and
buttons, as necessary, to view the
additional information.
„
40
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, a “No Enhanced
DTC’s are presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer” is displayed.
Press the FF/M
button to return
to the Chrysler Enhanced menu.
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
3. If more than one code was retrieved press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
„
Whenever the Scroll function is used to view additional codes,
the Diagnostic Tool’s communication link with the vehicle’s
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
button again.
POWER/LINK
4. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool returns to the
Chrysler Enhanced menu.
„
To view additional enhanced DTCs, repeat steps 1 through 4, above.
„
To exit the enhanced mode, use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to select Exit from the Chrysler
button. The
Enhanced menu, then press the ENTER
Diagnostic Tool returns to the OBD2 DTC screen.
Ford/Mazda Enhanced DTCs
Mazda Enhanced DTCs are available for Mazda-branded
Ford vehicles only.
When the Diagnostic Tool enters the “enhanced” mode (and
Ford/Mazda is selected, if prompted), the Ford/Mazda Enhanced menu
displays. You may view DTCs for either the “Continuous Memory Test”,
“KOEO (Key On Engine Off) Test” or “KOER (Key On Engine Running)
Test.”
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
button.
option, then press the ENTER
When choosing to view KOER
Test DTCs, start the vehicle’s
engine before making your
selection.
„
A “One moment please” message
displays, while the Diagnostic Tool
retrieves the selected DTCs.
„
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer, a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s Display.
- Verify the ignition is ON, then
press the ENTER
button to
continue.
„
OBD2&1
If the KOER Test was selected, and
the vehicle’s engine is not running,
an advisory message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
41
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
- Press the FF/M
Enhanced menu.
button to return to the Ford/Mazda
2. An “instructional” message shows on the Diagnostic Tool’s display.
Perform test procedures as appropriate.
„
If the Continuous Memory or KOEO
test was selected, turn the ignition
OFF, then back ON. Press the
button to start the test.
ENTER
- A “One moment please” message
displays while the test is in
progress.
„
If the KOER test was selected,
button to
press the ENTER
continue.
- A “One moment please” message
displays while the test is in
progress.
- Turn the steering wheel to the
right, then release.
- Press and release the brake pedal.
- Cycle the overdrive switch (if equipped).
3. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
LCD display elements.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
„
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved.
„
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
and related code definition are
shown in the lower section of the
LCD display.
I/M MONITOR STATUS icons are not displayed when
viewing enhanced DTCs.
In the case of long code definitions, or when viewing
Freeze Frame data, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use
the
and
buttons, as necessary, to view the
additional information.
42
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
„
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, a “No Enhanced
DTC’s are presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer” is displayed.
Press the FF/M
button to return
to the Ford/Mazda Enhanced menu.
4. If more than one code was retrieved press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
„
Whenever the Scroll function is used to view additional codes,
the Diagnostic Tool’s communication link with the vehicle’s
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
button again.
POWER/LINK
5. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool returns to the
SCROLL
Ford/Mazda Enhanced menu.
„
To view additional enhanced DTCs, repeat steps 1 through 5,
above.
„
To exit the enhanced mode, use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to select Exit from the Ford/Mazda
button. The
Enhanced menu, then press the ENTER
Diagnostic Tool returns to the OBD2 DTC screen.
General Motors/Isuzu Enhanced DTCs
When the Diagnostic Tool enters the “enhanced” mode (and General
Motors/Isuzu is selected, if prompted), the GM/Isuzu Enhanced menu
displays. You may view the “MIL DTC”, “Current DTC”, “Fail Since Clear
DTC” or “History DTC.”
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
button.
option, then press the ENTER
„
A “One moment please” message
displays while the Diagnostic Tool
retrieves the selected DTCs.
„
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer, a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
- Verify the ignition is ON, then
press the FF/M
button to
continue.
OBD2&1
43
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
2. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
LCD display elements.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
„
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved.
„
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
and related code definition are
shown in the lower section of the
LCD display.
I/M MONITOR STATUS icons are not displayed when
viewing enhanced DTCs.
In the case of long code definitions, or when viewing
Freeze Frame data, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use
the
and
buttons, as necessary, to view the
additional information.
„
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, a “No Enhanced
DTC’s are presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer” is displayed.
button to return
Press the FF/M
to the GM Enhanced menu.
3. If more than one code was retrieved press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
„
Whenever the Scroll function is used to view additional codes,
the Diagnostic Tool’s communication link with the vehicle’s
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
button again.
POWER/LINK
4. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool returns to the
GM/Isuzu Enhanced menu.
„ To view additional enhanced DTCs, repeat steps 1 through 4,
above.
„
44
To exit the enhanced mode, use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to select Exit from the GM/Isuzu
button. The
Enhanced menu, then press the ENTER
Diagnostic Tool returns to the OBD2 DTC screen.
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
Honda/Acura Enhanced DTCs
When the Diagnostic Tool enters the
“enhanced” mode (and Honda/Acura is
selected, if prompted), the Honda Acura
Enhanced menu displays. Depending on the
protocol used to communicate with your
vehicle, the Honda/Acura Enhanced menu
provides options to view:
„
Confirmed DTCs or Temporary DTCs
„
Confirmed DTCs or Pending DTCs
and DOWN
buttons,
1. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight the desired
button.
option, then press the ENTER
„
A “One moment please” message
displays while the Diagnostic Tool
retrieves the selected DTCs.
„
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer, a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
-
Verify the ignition is ON, then
press the ENTER
button to
continue.
2. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
LCD display elements.
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
„
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved.
„
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
and related code definition are
shown in the lower section of the
LCD display.
I/M MONITOR STATUS icons are not displayed when
viewing enhanced DTCs.
In the case of long code definitions, or when viewing
Freeze Frame data, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use
the
and
buttons, as necessary, to view the
additional information.
OBD2&1
45
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
„
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, a “No Enhanced
DTC’s are presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer” is displayed.
Press the FF/M
button to return
to the Honda/Acura Enhanced menu.
3. If more than one code was retrieved press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
„
Whenever the Scroll function is used to view additional codes,
the Diagnostic Tool’s communication link with the vehicle’s
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
button again.
POWER/LINK
4. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool returns to the
Honda/Acura Enhanced menu.
„
To view additional enhanced DTCs, repeat steps 1 through 4, above.
„
To exit the enhanced mode, use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to select Exit from the Honda/Acura
button. The
Enhanced menu, then press the ENTER
Diagnostic Tool returns to the OBD2 DTC screen.
Toyota/Lexus Enhanced DTCs
When the Diagnostic Tool enters the
“enhanced” mode (and Toyota/Lexus is
selected, if prompted), the Toyota/Lexus
Enhanced menu displays. Depending on
the protocol used to communicate with your
vehicle, the Toyota/Lexus Enhanced menu
provides options to view:
„
„
Current DTCs, History DTCs or Pending
DTCs
Current DTCs, Historical DTCs or
Readiness DTCs
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
button.
option, then press the ENTER
„
„
46
A “One moment please” message
displays, while the Diagnostic Tool
retrieves the selected DTCs.
If the Diagnostic Tool fails to link to
the vehicle’s computer, a “Linking
Failed” message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s Display.
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
VIEWING ENHANCED DTCs
- Verify the ignition is ON, then press the ENTER
continue.
2. To read the display:
button to
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 8 for a description of
LCD display elements.
„
„
„
A visible
icon indicates that the Diagnostic Tool is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
The upper right hand corner of the
display shows the number of the
code currently being displayed, the
total number of codes retrieved.
The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
and related code definition are shown
in the lower section of the LCD display.
I/M MONITOR STATUS icons are not displayed when
viewing enhanced DTCs.
In the case of long code definitions, or when viewing
Freeze Frame data, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area
to indicate the presence of additional information. Use
the
and
buttons, as necessary, to view the
additional information.
„
The Diagnostic Tool will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, a “No Enhanced
DTC’s are presently stored in the
vehicle’s computer” is displayed.
Press the FF/M
button to return
to the Toyota/Lexus Enhanced menu.
3. If more than one code was retrieved press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
„
Whenever the Scroll function is used to view additional codes,
the Diagnostic Tool’s communication link with the vehicle’s
computer disconnects. To re-establish communication, press the
POWER/LINK
button again.
4. When the last retrieved DTC has been displayed and the DTC
SCROLL
button is pressed, the Diagnostic Tool returns to the
Toyota/Lexus Enhanced menu.
„
To view additional enhanced DTCs, repeat steps 1 through 4,
above.
„
To exit the enhanced mode, press the FF/M
Diagnostic Tool returns to the OBD2 DTC screen.
OBD2&1
button. The
47
Using the Diagnostic Tool
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
When the Diagnostic Tool’s ERASE function is used to
erase DTCs from the vehicle's on-board computer,
"Freeze Frame" data and manufacturer-specific enhanced
data are also erased.
If you plan to take the vehicle to a Service Center for repair, DO NOT
erase the codes from the vehicle's computer. If the codes are erased,
valuable information that might help the technician troubleshoot the
problem will also be erased.
Erase DTCs from the computer's memory as follows:
When DTCs are erased from the vehicle's computer memory,
the I/M Readiness Monitor Status program resets the status of
all Monitors to a not run "flashing" condition. To set all of the
Monitors to a DONE status, an OBD2 Drive Cycle must be
performed. Refer to your vehicle's service manual for
information on how to perform an OBD2 Drive Cycle for the
vehicle under test.
The Diagnostic Tool must be
connected to the vehicle’s DLC to
erase the codes from the
computer’s memory. If you press
the ERASE
button when the
Diagnostic Tool is not connected
to the vehicle’s DLC, the erase
instruction screen displays.
The Erase function can be performed only from the OBD2
DTC screen. The Erase function cannot be performed while
the Diagnostic Tool is in “enhanced” mode.
1. If not connected already, connect the
Diagnostic Tool to the vehicle's DLC,
and turn the ignition "On.” (If the
Diagnostic Tool is already connected
and linked to the vehicle's computer,
proceed directly to step 3. If not,
continue to step 2.)
2. Perform
the
CODE
RETRIEVAL
PROCEDURE as described on page 33.
Wait until the codes are displayed on
the Diagnostic Tool’s LCD and then
proceed to step 3.
48
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
3. Press and release the ERASE
shows on the LCD display.
button. A confirmation message
„
If you are sure you want to proceed,
and DOWN
use the UP
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
Yes, then press the ENTER
button to erase DTCs from the
vehicle’s computer.
„
If you do not want to continue with the erase process, use the
and DOWN
, as necessary, to highlight No, then
UP
button to exit the erase mode.
press the ENTER
4. If you chose to erase DTCs, a progress
screen displays while the erase function
is in progress.
„
If the erase was successful, a
confirmation message shows on the
display. Press the POWER/LINK
button to return to the DTC
screen.
„
If the erase was not successful, an
advisory message shows on the
display. Verify that the Diagnostic
Tool is properly connected to the
vehicle’s DLC and that the ignition is
on, then repeat steps 2 and 3,
above.
Erasing DTCs does not fix the problem(s) that caused the
code(s) to be set. If proper repairs to correct the problem that
caused the code(s) to be set are not made, the code(s) will
appear again (and the check engine light will illuminate) as
soon as the vehicle is driven long enough for its Monitors to
complete their testing.
I/M READINESS TESTING
I/M is an Inspection and Maintenance program legislated by the
Government to meet federal clean-air standards.
The program requires that a vehicle be taken periodically to an
Emissions Station for an "Emissions Test" or "Smog Check,” where the
emissions-related components and systems are inspected and tested
for proper operation. Emissions Tests are generally performed once a
year, or once every two years.
On OBD2 systems, the I/M program is enhanced by requiring vehicles
to meet stricter test standards. One of the tests instituted by the Federal
Government is called I/M 240. On I/M 240, the vehicle under test is
driven under different speeds and load conditions on a dynamometer for
240 seconds, while the vehicle's emissions are measured.
OBD2&1
49
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
Emissions tests vary depending on the geographic or regional
area in which the vehicle is registered. If the vehicle is
registered in a highly urbanized area, the I/M 240 is probably
the type of test required. If the vehicle is registered in a rural
area, the stricter “dynamometer type” test may not be required.
I/M Readiness Monitors
I/M Readiness shows whether the various emissions-related systems on
the vehicle are operating properly and are ready for Inspection and
Maintenance testing.
State and Federal Governments enacted Regulations, Procedures and
Emission Standards to ensure that all emissions-related components
and systems are continuously or periodically monitored, tested and
diagnosed whenever the vehicle is in operation. It also requires vehicle
manufacturers to automatically detect and report any problems or faults
that may increase the vehicle's emissions to an unacceptable level.
The vehicle's emissions control system consists of several components
or sub-systems (Oxygen Sensor, Catalytic Converter, EGR, Fuel
System, etc.) that aid in reducing vehicle emissions.
To have an efficient Vehicle Emission Control System, all the emissionsrelated components and systems must work correctly whenever the
vehicle is in operation.
To comply with State and Federal Government regulations, vehicle
manufacturers designed a series of special computer programs called
"Monitors" that are programmed into the vehicle's computer. Each of
these Monitors is specifically designed to run tests and diagnostics on a
specific emissions-related component or system (Oxygen Sensor,
Catalytic Converter, EGR Valve, Fuel System, etc.) to ensure their
proper operation. Currently, there are a maximum of eleven Monitors
available for use.
Each Monitor has a specific function to test and diagnose only
its designated emissions-related component or system. The
names of the Monitors (Oxygen Sensor Monitor, Catalyst
Monitor, EGR Monitor, Misfire Monitor, etc.) describe which
component or system each Monitor is designed to test and
diagnose.
Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Readiness
Monitor Status Information
I/M Readiness Monitor Status shows which of the vehicle's Monitors
have run and completed their diagnosis and testing, and which ones
have not yet run and completed testing and diagnosis of their
designated sections of the vehicle's emissions system.
„
50
If a Monitor was able to meet all the conditions required to enable it
to perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine
system, it means the monitor "HAS RUN.”
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
„
If a Monitor has not yet met all the conditions required for it to
perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine system;
it means the Monitor "HAS NOT RUN.”
The Monitor Run/Not Run status does not show whether
or not a problem exists in a system. Monitor status only
indicates whether a particular Monitor has or has not run
and performed the self-diagnosis and testing of its
associated system.
Performing I/M Readiness Quick Check
When a vehicle first comes from the factory, all Monitors
indicate a “HAVE RUN” status. This indicates that all Monitors
have run and completed their diagnostic testing. The “HAVE
RUN” status remains in the computer's memory, unless the
Diagnostic Trouble Codes are erased or the vehicle's
computer memory is cleared.
The Diagnostic Tool allows you to retrieve Monitor/System Status
Information to help you determine if the vehicle is ready for an
Emissions Test (Smog Check). In addition to retrieving Diagnostic
Trouble Codes, the Diagnostic Tool also retrieves Monitor Run/Not Run
status. This information is very important since different areas of the
state/country have different emissions laws and regulations concerning
Monitor Run/Not Run status.
Before an Emissions Test (Smog Check) can be performed, your
vehicle must meet certain rules, requirements and procedures legislated
by the Federal and state (country) governments where you live.
1. In most areas, one of the requirements that must be met before a
vehicle is allowed to be Emissions Tested (Smog Checked) is that
the vehicle does not have any Diagnostic Trouble Codes present
(with the exception of PENDING Diagnostic Trouble Codes).
2. In addition to the requirement that no Diagnostic Trouble Codes be
present, some areas also require that all the Monitors that a
particular vehicle supports indicate a "Has Run" status condition
before an Emissions Check may be performed.
3. Other areas may only require that some (but not all) Monitors
indicate a "Has Run" status before an Emissions Test (Smog Check)
may be performed.
Monitors with a "Has Run" status indicate that all the
required conditions they needed to perform diagnosis and
testing of their assigned engine area (system) have been
met, and all diagnostic testing has completed successfully.
Monitors with a "Has Not Run" status have not yet met the
conditions they need to perform diagnosis and testing of
their assigned engine area (system), and have not been
able to perform diagnostic testing on that system.
The green, yellow and red LEDs provide a quick way to help you
determine if a vehicle is ready for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
Follow the instructions below to perform the Quick Check.
OBD2&1
51
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
Perform the CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE as described on page
33, then interpret the LED indications as follows:
Interpreting I/M Readiness Test Results
1. GREEN LED - Indicates that all engine
systems are "OK" and operating
normally (all Monitors supported by the
vehicle have run and performed their
self-diagnostic testing). The vehicle is
ready for an Emissions Test (Smog
Check), and there is a good possibility
that it can be certified.
2. YELLOW LED - Determine from the CODE RETRIEVAL
PROCEDURE (page 33) which of the two possible conditions is
causing the yellow LED to light.
„
If a "PENDING" Diagnostic Trouble
Code is causing the yellow LED to
light, it is possible that the vehicle
will be allowed to be tested for
emissions and certified. Currently,
most areas (states / countries) will
allow an Emissions Test (Smog
Check) to be performed if the only
code in the vehicle's computer is a
"PENDING" Diagnostic Trouble
Code.
„
If the illumination of the Yellow LED
is being caused by monitors that
“have not run” their diagnostic
testing, then the issue of the vehicle
being ready for an Emissions Test
(Smog Check) depends on the
emissions regulations and laws of
your local area.
- Some areas require that all Monitors indicate a "Has Run"
status before they allow an Emissions Test (Smog Check) to
be performed. Other areas only require that some, but not all,
Monitors have run their self-diagnostic testing before an
Emissions Test (Smog Check) may be performed.
- From the code retrieval procedure, determine the status of
each Monitor (a solid Monitor icon shows Monitor "Has Run"
status, a flashing Monitor icon indicates "Has Not Run" status).
Take this information to an emissions professional to
determine (based on your test results) if your vehicle is ready
for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
52
OBD2&1
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
3. RED LED - Indicates there is a problem
with one or more of the vehicle's
systems. A vehicle displaying a red LED
is definitely not ready for an Emissions
Test (Smog Check). The red LED is
also an indication that there are
Diagnostic Trouble Code(s) present
(displayed on the Diagnostic Tool's
screen). The Malfunction Indicator
(Check Engine) Lamp on the vehicle's
instrument panel will light steady. The problem that is causing the
red LED to light must be repaired before an Emissions Test (Smog
Check) can be performed. It is also suggested that the vehicle be
inspected/repaired before driving the vehicle further.
If the Red LED was obtained, there is a definite problem present in
the system(s). In these cases, you have the following options.
„
„
Repair the vehicle yourself. If you are going to perform the
repairs yourself, proceed by reading the vehicle service manual
and following all its procedures and recommendations.
Take the vehicle to a professional to have it serviced. The
problem(s) causing the red LED to light must be repaired before
the vehicle is ready for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
Using the I/M Readiness Monitor Status to Confirm a Repair
The I/M Readiness Monitor Status function can be used (after repair of a
fault has been performed) to confirm that the repair has been performed
correctly, and/or to check for Monitor Run Status. Use the following
procedure to determine I/M Readiness Monitor Status:
1. Using retrieved Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) and code
definitions as a guide, and following manufacturer's repair
procedures, repair the fault or faults as instructed.
2. After the fault or faults have been repaired, connect the Diagnostic
Tool to the vehicle's DLC and erase the code or codes from the
vehicle's computer memory.
„
See page 48 for procedures for ERASING DIAGNOSTIC
TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) from the vehicle's on-board
computer.
„
Write the codes down on a piece of paper for reference before
erasing.
3. After the erase procedure is performed, most of the Monitor icons on
the Diagnostic Tool’s display will be flashing. Leave the Diagnostic
Tool connected to the vehicle, and perform a Trip Drive Cycle for
each "flashing" Monitor:
Misfire, Fuel and Comprehensive Component Monitors run
continuously and their icons will always be on solid, even after
the erase function is performed.
OBD2&1
53
Using the Diagnostic Tool
I/M READINESS TESTING
„
Each DTC is associated with a specific Monitor. Consult the
vehicle's service manual to identify the Monitor (or Monitors)
associated with the faults that were repaired. Follow the
manufacturer's procedures to perform a Trip Drive Cycle for the
appropriate Monitors.
„
While observing the Monitor icons on the Diagnostic Tool’s
display, perform a Trip Drive Cycle for the appropriate Monitor or
Monitors.
If the vehicle needs to be driven in order to perform a Trip
Drive Cycle, ALWAYS have a second person help you.
One person should drive the vehicle while the other
person observes the Monitor icons on the Diagnostic Tool
for Monitor RUN status. Trying to drive and observe the
Diagnostic Tool at the same time is dangerous, and could
cause a serious traffic accident.
4. When a Monitor's Trip Drive Cycle is performed properly, the Monitor
icon on the Diagnostic Tool’s display changes from "flashing" to
"solid,” indicating that the Monitor has run and finished its diagnostic
testing.
54
„
If, after the Monitor has run, the MIL on the vehicle's dash is not lit, and
no stored or pending codes associated with that particular Monitor are
present in the vehicle's computer, the repair was successful.
„
If, after the Monitor has run, the MIL on the vehicle's dash lights
and/or a DTC associated with that Monitor is present in the
vehicle's computer, the repair was unsuccessful. Refer to the
vehicle's service manual and recheck repair procedures.
OBD2&1
Chrysler/Jeep OBD1 Systems
CHRYSLER/JEEP OBD1 SYSTEMS
CHRYSLER/JEEP OBD1 SYSTEMS
Chrysler Motors On-Board Computer Systems
Chrysler Motors introduced its first electronic fuel injected vehicle in late
1983. The on-board computer management systems used on Chrysler
vehicles have evolved over the years, and their names have changed
accordingly.
1983-87: The on-board computer used in these vehicles is a splitsystem, composed of two separate units: the Logic Module and the
Power Module. The Logic Module contains a microprocessor which
processes data received from sensors located throughout the vehicle
and makes decisions (based on these inputs) which effect engine
operation. The Logic Module is usually located on the right-hand side,
behind the kick panel. The Power Module supplies operating power to
the Logic Module, and contains the circuits which control the highcurrent devices. Power Module operation is controlled by the Logic
Module. The Power Module is located in the engine compartment, near
the vehicle’s battery.
1987-90: This system is called a Single Module Engine Controller
(SMEC). This system still uses two separate circuit boards (Logic
Module and Power Module). However, both circuit boards are located in
a common enclosure.
1989-95: This system is called a Single Board Engine Controller
(SBEC). On this system, the Logic Module and Power Module circuit
boards are integrated on a single circuit board.
1993-97:
Beginning in 1993, the computer was renamed the
Powertrain Control Module (PCM). In addition to controlling the engine
management system and emission system, the computer also takes
an active role in controlling powertrain (transmission system)
operation.
Unless otherwise specified, all references to “computer” within
this manual also apply to “Logic Module/ Power Module”,
“SMEC”, “SBEC” or “PCM”.
Jeep On-Board Computer Systems
1993-95: In 1993, Jeep on-board computer systems (fuel injected
vehicles only) were converted to the Chrysler on-board computer
systems. All 1993 through 1995 fuel injected Jeep and Chrysler vehicles
are equipped with similar on-board computer systems.
OBD2&1
55
Chrysler/Jeep OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED / INSTRUMENT PANEL INDICATOR LIGHTS / DLC
VEHICLES COVERED
This section covers Chrysler fuel injected vehicles from 1983-1995.
Type
Passenger
Cars
Light Truck
and Vans
Jeep
Model
Year
1983-1995
1987-1995
1992-1995
1993-1995
Model
Chrysler, Dodge and Plymouth Fuel
Injected Models Only (Excluding
Lasor/Talon 1.8L, 2.0L (ALL YEARS), 1990
Monaco/Premier, 1993-1995 Intrepid, LHS,
Concorde and Vision, 1995 Avenger,
Stealth (ALL YEARS) and Cirrus 2.5L (ALL
YEARS))
Chrysler, Dodge and Plymouth Fuel
Injected Models Only
Diesel Models
Jeep Fuel Injected Models Only
INSTRUMENT PANEL INDICATOR LIGHTS
Your vehicle’s instrument panel has either a “Power Loss”, “Check
Engine” or “Malfunction Indicator Lamp”, depending on the year of the
vehicle. These lights are designed to warn you of component
malfunctions.
POWER
LOSS
CHECK
ENGINE
MALFUNCTION
INDICATOR
LAMP
If your instrument panel indicator lights do not come on when
you turn on the ignition, please refer to your vehicle’s service
manual. You may have problems in the car’s circuitry. It is
recommended that you fix these problems before retrieving
DTC’s from your vehicle’s computer.
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC)
Chrysler vehicles are equipped with special
test connectors that make it possible to
connect specialized testing equipment that
communicates with the vehicle’s on-board
computer. Chrysler’s vehicle test connectors
are usually dark in color (BLACK or GREY)
and are located under the hood.
56
OBD2&1
Chrysler/Jeep OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC
definition. Each DTC has a set of testing procedures,
instructions and flow charts that must be followed to
confirm the location of the problem. This information
is found in the vehicle’s service manual. Always refer to
the vehicle’s service manual for detailed testing
instructions.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing
any test. See BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See Safety Precautions on page 3 for more information.
1. Locate the vehicle’s Data Link Connector (DLC). See Data Link
Connector (DLC) on page 56 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool’s cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the
Chrysler Connector Cable Adaptor
attached) to the Tool, then connect the
adaptor to the vehicle’s DLC. Press the
button to turn the
POWER/LINK
Tool ON.
„
Set the parking brake, and make
sure all vehicle accessories are
turned off.
3. Turn the ignition ON. DO NOT start the
engine.
„
The Chrysler OBD1 Menu displays.
4. To view codes in the Diagnostic Tool’s
memory:
„
OBD2&1
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
Review DTCs, then press the
button.
ENTER
57
Chrysler/Jeep OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
5. To retrieve codes from the vehicle’s
computer:
„
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
the model year of the vehicle, then
button.
press the ENTER
6. Prepare the vehicle to retrieve codes:
„
For 1988-1995 Chrysler/Jeep vehicles: The Tool will
automatically begin the code retrieval process. Proceed to step
6 to continue.
„
For 1984-1988 Chrysler vehicles ONLY: WITHOUT starting
the engine, turn ignition ON, OFF, ON, OFF and ON again within
5 seconds to activate the code retrieval process. Proceed to
step 6 to continue.
7. When the Tool is in the process of
retrieving codes, a “One Moment
Please...” message shows on the Tool’s
LCD display.
„
If the Tool fails to link to the vehicle’s
computer, a “Vehicle is not
responding” message shows on the
Tool’s LCD display. Do the following:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Check the cable connections at
the Tool and at the vehicle’s DLC.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10-12
seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer.
- Press the ENTER
necessary.
„
button and repeat steps 4 through 7 as
If the Diagnostic Tool cannot link to
the vehicle’s computer, the message
“Contact Technical Support” displays.
- Press The FF/M
button to
return to the Chrysler OBD1 Menu.
- Turn the ignition off, and
disconnect the Diagnostic Tool.
- Contact Technical Support for
assistance.
8. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle
successfully a "Code retrieval was
successful..." message shows temporarily on the Tool’s LCD display followed
by any retrieved DTCs.
58
OBD2&1
Chrysler/Jeep OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
The Tool will display a code only if
codes are present in the vehicle's
computer memory. If no codes are
present, a "No DTC's are presently
stored in the vehicle's computer"
message is displayed.
9. If more than one code was retrieved
press the DTC SCROLL
button, as
necessary, to display additional codes
one at a time.
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in
the upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area to
indicate the presence of additional information. Use the
buttons, as necessary, to view the additional
and
information.
10. Disconnect the Tool from the vehicle and turn the ignition key OFF.
11. To prolong battery life, the Tool automatically shuts "Off" after
approximately three minutes of no button activity. The DTCs
retrieved will remain in the Tool's memory, and may be viewed at
any time. If the Tool’s batteries are removed, or if the Tool is relinked to a vehicle to retrieve codes, any prior codes in its memory
are automatically cleared.
12. Follow the testing and repair procedures outlined in the vehicle's
service repair manual to correct "hard" DTCs. Codes should be
addressed and eliminated in the order they were received, erasing
(see SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97) and retesting after
each repair is made to be sure the fault was eliminated.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions. See SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page
97 for information on interpreting LEDs and servicing DTCs.
OBD2&1
59
Ford OBD1 Systems
FORD COMPUTER SYSTEM OVERVIEW - VEHICLES COVERED
FORD COMPUTER SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The Enhanced OBD2 & 1 Tool is compatible only with EEC-IV
Computer Control systems.
IMPORTANT: When the computer is in Self-Test mode (is
testing the sensors or actuators for proper operation), it relies
on voltage signals that is sends to and / or receives from the
sensors or actuators to determine whether or not these
components are operating properly. The sensors and
actuators are all connected to the computer by wires. If any
defects are present in any part of the circuit that connects
these devices to the computer (such as defective connectors
or wires, faulty grounds, improper voltage, shorts etc.), the
voltage signal that the computer receives from these devices
will be affected. The computer has no way of determining if
the improper voltage signal is being caused by a defect in the
circuit or by the sensors or actuators themselves. Keep this in
mind when servicing fault codes, and do not replace any
devices (sensors or actuators) before checking the complete
circuit (or circuits) that are part of the device from which the
code was generated.
VEHICLES COVERED
CAR - Ford, Lincoln, Mercury Computer System/Tool Application
Table
The following table lists the year and model of all the cars that are
covered by the OBD2 & 1 Tool.
8th
VIN
Digit**
Fuel Systems
(Carburetor
Model)
1.6L I-4
5, 2
EFI, EFI Turbo
2.3L I-4
5
EFI Turbo
R, J
FBC (6149)*
1.6L I-4
4, 5, 8
EFI EFI Turbo
Escort, EXP, Lynx
2.3L I-4
2.3L I-4 OHC
A, J, R
FBC
(YFA)* (6149)*
Capri, Cougar, LTD, Marquis,
Mustang, Tempo, Topaz
2.3L I-4
T, W
EFI Turbo
Capri, Cougar, Merkur XR4Ti,
Mustang, T-Bird
2.3L I-4 HSC
S, X
CFI
Tempo, Topaz
3
CFI
Capri, Cougar, LTD, Marquis,
Mustang, T-Bird
Engine
Application/Special Notes
Computer
System
1981-1982
2.3L I-4 HSC
Escort, EXP, LN7, Lynx
EEC-IV
Capri, Cougar, Mustang, TBird
Capri, Fairmont, LTD, Marquis,
Mustang, Tempo, Topaz,
Zephyr
1984-1986
3.8L V-6
60
EEC-IV
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED - CARS
8th
VIN
Digit**
Fuel Systems
(Carburetor
Model)
5.0L V-8
F, M
CFI, SEFI
1.9L I-4
J, 9
EFI, CFI, SFI
2.0L I-4
A
SEFI
2.3L I-4
A
FBC (YFA)*
Engine
Application/Special Notes
Computer
System
1984-1986 (Cont)
Capri, Continental, Colony
Park, Cougar, Country Squire,
Crown Victoria, Grand
Marquis, LTD, Mark VII,
Marquis, Mustang, T-Bird,
Town Car
EEC-IV
1987-1993
Escort, EXP, Lynx, Tracer
Capri, LTD, Marquis, Mustang
(1996 models)
2.3L I-4 OHC
A, M
EFI
2.3L I-4
T, W
EFI Turbo
2.3L I-4 HSC
S, X
CFI, EFI, SEFI
Tempo, Topaz
D
EFI, CFI
Sable, Taurus
3.0L V-6
3.0L V-6 SHO
1, U, Y
EFI, SEFI, SFI
Probe, Sable, Taurus, Tempo,
Topaz (VIN 1 Taurus models
are Flexible Fuel)
3.8L V-6
3, 4, C,
R
CFI, EFI, SFI
Capri, Continental, Cougar,
LTD, Marquis, Mustang, Sable,
T-Bird,Taurus
4.6L V-8
W, V
SEFI
Crown Victoria, Grand
Marquis, Mark VII, Town Car
5.0L V-8
F, M,
E, T,
D, 4
SEFI
Capri, Continental, Cougar,
Crown Victoria, Grand Marquis,
Mark VII, Mustang, Mustang
Cobra, T-Bird, Town Car
1.9L I-4
J
SFI
Escort, Topaz, Tracer
2.0L I-4
A
SFI
Probe
3.0L V-6
1, U, Y
SFI
Sable, Taurus, Tempo (VIN 1
Taurus models are Flexible Fuel)
4
R
SFI
Continental, Cougar, Sable,
Taurus, T-Bird
4.6L V-8
W, V
SFI
Crown Victoria, Grand
Marquis, Mark VIII, Town Car
5.0L V-8
T, D
SFI
2.5L I-4
EEC-IV
Probe (1993 manual
transmission only)
Mustang
Capri, Cougar, Merkur,
Mustang, T-Bird, XR4Ti
1994
3.8L V-6
3.8L V-6 SC
EEC-IV
Mustang, Mustang Cobra
1995
1.9L I-4
J
SFI
Escort, Tracer
2.0L I-4
A, 3
SFI
Contour, Mystique, Probe
2.5L V-6
L
SFI
Contour, Mystique
3.0L V-6
1, U
SFI
Sable, Taurus (VIN 1 Taurus
models are Flexible Fuel)
SFI
Cougar, Sable, Taurus, T-Bird
3.0L V-6 SHO
Y
3.8L V-6
4
3.8L V-6 SC
R
OBD2&1
EEC-IV
61
Ford OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED - TRUCKS/VANS
Engine
8th
VIN
Digit**
Fuel Systems
(Carburetor
Model)
4.6L V8 DOHC
V
SFI
Mark VIII
5.0L V-8 HO
T
SFI
Mustang
5.0L V-8 SHP
D
Application/Special Notes
Computer
System
1995 (Cont)
EEC-IV
NOTES
* Carburetor Model. Carburetor model numbers are usually stamped on top of the
carburetor, or on a metal tab attached to the carburetor. Consult your vehicle’s repair manual
for proper identification.
**VIN Number. The VIN number(s) used in this column identify the vehicle’s engine type.
This number is the 8th digit of the VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). Consult your vehicle’s
repair manual for details.
Application Table Definitions. CFI = Central Fuel Injection; DOHC = Dual Overhead Cam;
EFI = Electronic Fuel Injection; FBC = Feedback Carburetor; HSC = High Swirl Combustion;
MFI = Multiport Fuel Injection; OHC = Overhead Cam; SC = Super Charged; SEFI =
Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection; SFI = Sequential Fuel Injection; SHO = Super High
Output
TRUCKS/VANS - Ford Computer System Tool Application Table
The following table lists the year and model of all the trucks and vans
that are covered by the OBD2 & 1 Tool.
Engine
8th
VIN
Digit**
Fuel Systems
(Carburetor
Model)
S
FBC (2150A)*
Application/Special Notes
Computer
System
1983
2.8L V-6
Bronco II and Ranger Pickup
EEC-IV
1984
2.8L V-6
S
FBC (2150A)*
4.9L I-6
Y
FBC (YFA)*
5.0L V-8
F
FBC (2150A)*
5.8L V-8
G
FBC (2150A)*
2.3L I-4 OHC
A
EFI
2.9L V-6
T
EFI
2.8L V-6
S
FBC (2150A)*
4.9L I-6
Y, 9
FBC (YFA)*,
EFI
5.0L V-8
5.0L V-8
F
N
FBC (2150A)*
EFI
5.8L V-8
G
FBC (2150A)*
7.3L V-8
M
Diesel
7.5L V-8
G
EFI
2.3L I-4 OHC
A
EFI, MFI
2.9L V-6
T
EFI
3.0L V-6
U
EFI, SEFI, SFI
Bronco II, Ranger Pickup
EEC-IV
Bronco, E and F Series
Trucks/Vans (8500 lb. GVW or
less only)
1985-1990
Aerostar, Bronco II, Ranger
(excluding Diesel)
EEC-IV
Bronco, E and F Series
Trucks/Vans (8500 lb. GVW or
less only)
E and F Series Trucks/Vans
(8500 lb. GVW or less only)
1991-1994
62
Ranger
EEC-IV
Aerostar, Ranger
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED - TRUCKS/VANS - TEST CONNECTORS
8th
VIN
Digit**
Fuel Systems
(Carburetor
Model)
4.0L V-6
X
EFI, MFI
4.9L I-6
Y, H
EFI, MFI, SFI
5.0L V-8
N
EFI, MFI, SFI
5.8L V-8
H, R
EFI, MFI, SFI
7.3L V-8
M
Diesel
7.3L V-8
K
Turbo Diesel
7.5L V-8
G
EFI, MFI
3.0L V-6
U
SFI
Engine
Application/Special Notes
Computer
System
1991-1994 (Cont)
Aerostar, Explorer, Ranger
EEC-IV
Bronco, E and F Series
Trucks/Vans (8500 lb. GVW or
less only)
E and F Series Trucks/Vans
(Excludes 1994 diesel models)
1995
Aerostar (Excludes Explorer,
Ranger and Windstar)
4.0L V-6
X
SFI
4.9L I-6
Y
SFI
E and F series Trucks and
Vans (Excludes Natural Gas
equipped vehicles)
Bronco, E and F series Trucks
and Vans
5.0L V-8
N
SFI
5.8L V-8
H, R
MFI
7.5L V-8
G
MFI
EEC-IV
E-350; F-250-350 (Excludes
California ); F-Super Duty
(Excludes Diesel)
NOTES
* Carburetor Model. Carburetor model numbers are usually stamped on top of the carburetor, or on a metal tab attached to the carburetor. Consult your vehicle’s repair manual for
proper identification.
**VIN Number. The VIN number(s) used in this column identify the vehicle’s engine type.
This number is the 8th digit of the VIN (Vehicle Identification Number). Consult your vehicle’s
repair manual for details.
Application Table Definitions. EFI = Electronic Fuel Injection; FBC = Feedback Carburetor;
MFI = Multiport Fuel Injection; OHC = Overhead Cam; SC = Super Charged; SEFI =
Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection; SFI = Sequential Fuel Injection
TEST CONNECTORS
Ford vehicles are equipped with
special test connectors that make
it possible to connect specialized
testing
equipment
that
communicates with the vehicle's
onboard computer. Ford's vehicle
test connectors are usually dark in
color
(BLACK
or
GREY).
Sometimes they have a plastic
cover over them or are labeled
EEC Test. The connectors can be
found in the following general
locations in the engine compartment:
OBD2&1
6-PIN
SINGLE
PIN
EEC-IV TEST CONNECTOR
63
Ford OBD1 Systems
CONNECTING THE TOOL - DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
„
Near the front corner (right or left).
„
Near the fender well (right or left).
„
Near the fire wall (right or left).
CONNECTING THE TOOL
The Tool's Ford Connector Cable Adaptor is designed to
match the vehicle's computer DLC. When properly connected,
the vehicle's DLC should match the pre-molded guides around
the adaptor. Make sure the adaptor and the vehicle's DLC
mate properly before applying force. Forcing the adaptor onto
the DLC improperly may result in damage to the adaptor
and/or Tool, and possible damage to the vehicle's computer
system.
„
Connect the Tool to BOTH.
1. large, six pin female connector with
molded housing
2. small, single pin female connector
EEC-IV
TEST
CONNECTOR
1988 and newer vehicles
may have more than one
similar connector for other
systems
(i.e.
Anti-Lock
CODE
Brakes). Only the connector
READER
with an extra single pin is the
correct test connector for
computer service codes use. If you have any questions about
the correct connector, please refer to your vehicle's service
manual for detailed information.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes, or Fault Codes, can be used to identify
engine systems or components that are malfunctioning. The computer
records codes for two types of problems:
„
"Hard" Diagnostic Trouble Codes
"Hard" DTCs represent problems which are happening now and
cause the instrument panel Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or
Check engine light to illuminate and remain on until the failure is
repaired. A DTC is stored in the vehicle's computer memory for
each fault detected. A Tool or Scanner can be used to retrieve
DTCs that are stored in the vehicle's computer memory.
„
Intermittent/History DTCs
Intermittent/History DTCs are stored in the computer's memory for
problems that occur intermittently, or for problems that happened in
the past but are not currently present. Intermittent DTCs may cause
the Malfunction Indicator light to flicker or stay on until the
intermittent malfunction goes away. However, the corresponding
64
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - OVERVIEW - REVIEWING DTCs
fault code will be stored in memory as a history DTC. If the
malfunction that caused the history DTC to set does not recur within
a predetermined length of time (usually within 40-80 ignition key
start cycles), the computer will automatically erase the related fault
code from its memory.
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES
Overview of Ford Code Retrieval Process
Ford's computer self-diagnostic system is divided into four main
sections:
1. "Key On Engine Off" (KOEO) Self-Test
2. "Continuous Memory" (CM) Self-Test
3. "Key On Engine Running" (KOER) Self-Test
4. Other EEC-IV System tests
These Self-Tests are specially designed to monitor and/or test the
various components and circuits that are controlled by the vehicle's
computer, and to save and/or transmit diagnostic test results to the Tool
in the form of numerical fault codes.
The "Continuous Memory" Self-Test is designed to run continuously
whenever the vehicle is normal operation. If a fault is detected by the
"Continuous Memory" Self-Test, a fault code is saved in the vehicle's
computer memory for later retrieval.
Ford’s On-Board Diagnostic Self-Tests are designed in such a way that
in order to properly diagnose a problem, you must perform all the SelfTests, in the proper sequence.
As described previously, some tests are designed to detect problems
only when the vehicle is in normal operation. Some tests are designed
to activate components and detect problems only with the Key On and
Engine Off. Other tests are designed to activate components and test
their operation only with the Key On and Engine Running. Do not take
short cuts. If you fail to perform a test, or you perform a test out of
sequence, you might miss a problem that is only detected during that
part of the test.
Reviewing DTCs
To view codes in the Diagnostic Tool’s memory:
1. Locate the vehicle’s Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool’s cable connector.
OBD2&1
65
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - KOEO TEST
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adapter attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adapter to
the
vehicle’s
DLC.
Press
the
button to turn the
POWER/LINK
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
The Ford OBD1 Menu displays.
and DOWN
buttons,
3. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight Review DTCs,
button.
then press the ENTER
Key On Engine Off (KOEO) Test
During the KOEO Self-Test, two groups of codes are retrieved by the
Tool.
„
The first group of codes retrieved by the Tool are called "KOEO
codes". A "KOEO" icon will show in the upper right corner of the
LCD display to indicate that the code retrieved is a "KOEO" code.
„
The second group of codes are called "Continuous Memory" codes.
A "CM" icon will show in the upper right corner of the LCD display to
indicate that the code retrieved is a "Continuous Memory" code.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See Safety Precautions on page 3 for more information.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool's cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
The Ford OBD1 Menu displays.
and
buttons, as
Use the
necessary, to make menu selections.
66
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES – KOEO TEST
3. From the Ford OBD1 Menu, highlight KOEO Test, then press the
button.
ENTER
„
The LCD display shows instructions
to prepare the vehicle for the KOEO
Test.
4. Start and warm-up engine to normal
operating temperature. Press the FF/M
button to continue.
5. Turn ignition key OFF and wait for the on screen prompt. If you wish
button.
to exit the KOEO test at this time, press the FF/M
6. Turn the ignition ON. DO NOT start the engine. If your vehicle is
equipped with one of the following engine types, perform the added
procedures described below:
„
For 4.9L engines with standard transmission: Press and hold
the clutch until all codes are sent (steps 7 through 9).
„
For 7.3L diesel engines: Press and hold accelerator until all
codes are sent (steps 7 through 9).
„
For 2.3L turbo engines with
octane switch: Put switch in
premium position.
7. Press the FF/M
button to continue.
8. While codes are being retrieved, a "One
moment please KOEO test is in
progress..." message shows on the
Tool's LCD display.
As soon as the ignition is turned "on", the vehicle's computer
enters the Self-Test mode. Clicking sounds will be heard
coming from the engine. This is normal. It indicates that the
vehicle's computer is activating relays, solenoids, and other
components to check their operation.
WARNING: On some vehicles equipped with an Electric
Cooling Fan, the computer activates the cooling fan to
check its operation. To avoid injury, keep hands or any
part of your body a safe distance from the engine during
this test.
„
If the Tool fails to link to the
vehicle's computer, a "Vehicle is not
responding" message shows on the
Tool's LCD display. Do the following:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Check the cable connections at
the Tool and at the vehicle's DLC.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10 seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer.
OBD2&1
67
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - KOEO TEST
BE SURE to perform the added procedures in step 6, if
appropriate for your vehicle, BEFORE turning the
ignition ON.
- Press ENTER
„
button to continue.
If the Diagnostic Tool cannot link to
the vehicle’s computer, the message
“Contact Technical Support” displays.
- Press The FF/M
button to
return to the Chrysler OBD1 Menu.
- Turn the ignition off, and
disconnect the Diagnostic Tool.
- Contact Technical Support for assistance.
9. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle successfully a "Code
retrieval was successful..." message shows temporarily on the
Tool's LCD display followed by any retrieved DTCs.
„
The Tool will display a code only if
codes are present in the vehicle's
computer memory.
„
If no problems are found during the
KOEO Self-Test, the computer
sends a "PASS" code (code 11 or
111) to the Tool.
„
If no Continuous Memory codes are
present in the vehicle's computer
memory, the Tool will display a
"PASS" code (code 11 or 111).
Most
Ford
EEC-IV
vehicle
computers up to 1991 use a twodigit code system. From 1991 to
1995 most use a three digit code
system.
10. If more than one code was retrieved, press DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in
the upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area to
indicate the presence of additional information. Use the
buttons, as necessary, to view the additional
and
information.
11. Disconnect the Tool from the vehicle and turn the ignition key OFF.
12. To prolong battery life, the Tool automatically shuts "Off" after
approximately three minutes of no button activity. The DTCs
retrieved will remain in the Tool's memory, and may be viewed at
any time. If the Tool's batteries are removed, or if the Tool is relinked to a vehicle to retrieve codes, any prior codes in its memory
are automatically cleared.
68
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - ENGINE TIMING CHECK
13. Follow the testing and repair procedures outlined in the vehicle's
service repair manual to correct "hard" DTCs. Codes should be
addressed and eliminated in the order they were received, erasing
(see SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97) and retesting after
each repair is done to be sure the fault was eliminated.
IMPORTANT: DO NOT service "Continuous Memory" codes
at this time. Before "Continuous Memory" codes can be
serviced, both the KOEO and the KOER Self-Tests must pass
(a PASS code 11 or 111 is obtained). After both of these tests
have passed, erase the vehicle's computer memory (see
SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97), take the vehicle for a
short drive, then repeat the KOEO Self-Test. If any Continuous
Memory faults are present, service them all this time. Consult
the vehicle's service repair manual for servicing Continuous
Memory Fault Codes.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions. SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97 for
information on interpreting LEDs and servicing DTCs.
Do not proceed to the ignition timing check procedure or the
KOER test until a PASS code (code 11 or 111) for KOEO test
is obtained.
Engine Timing Check
Before performing the KOER Self-Test, the vehicle's Ignition
Base Timing and the computer's ability to electronically control
timing advance must be checked for proper operation.
Maladjustment of ignition timing, or a problem in the advance
circuit, might generate false fault codes when performing the
KOER Self-Test that would cause the test to be invalid. Use
the following procedures to check for proper ignition timing
and to verify the computer's ability to electronically advance
ignition timing.
The following "Timing Check" procedure is only
applicable to 1992 and older vehicles (excluding diesel
engines). For 1993 and newer vehicles, refer to the
vehicle's service repair manual for procedures to check
and adjust timing. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO ADJUST TIMING
ON THESE VEHICLES WITHOUT MANUFACTURER'S
SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURES.
For 1992 and older vehicles, the Tool can be used in combination with a
timing light to check ignition timing and the vehicle computers ability to
advance ignition timing.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. Read and follow Safety Precautions on page 3 before
performing this test.
OBD2&1
69
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - ENGINE TIMING CHECK
„
A timing light is required to perform this test.
„
The vehicle must pass the KOEO Test (page 66) before performing
this test.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool's cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press ENTER
button
to continue.
„
The Ford OBD1 Menu displays.
and
buttons,
Use the
as necessary, to make menu
selections.
3. From the Ford OBD1 Menu, highlight
Timing Check, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Select Model Year screen
displays.
4. From the Select Model Year screen,
highlight the vehicle model year, then
button.
press the ENTER
„
For 1993 and newer vehicles: The
message “Follow instructions in
vehicle service manual to perform
timing check” displays. Press the
button to exit. Refer to
FF/M
the vehicle’s service manual for
timing check procedures.
„
For 1992 and older vehicles: The
message “Warm up engine to
operating temperature” displays
5. Start and warm-up engine to normal
operating temperature. Press the
ENTER
button to continue.
6. When prompted, turn off all vehicle accessories, turn ignition key
OFF and wait for the on screen prompt. If you wish to exit the
button.
Timing Check procedure at this time, press the FF/M
70
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - ENGINE TIMING CHECK
7. When instructed by the message on the Tool's display, start the
button.
engine and press the ENTER
„
A "One moment please preparation
for test is in progress” message
shows temporarily on the Tool's
LCD display, followed by the
message "Perform Timing Check
within two minutes."
8. When "Perform Timing Check within 2
minutes" displays, perform the Timing
Check as follows:
„
The vehicle's computer is programmed to advance ignition timing
20° (±3°) above the vehicle's "base
timing" value, and to freeze this
setting for two minutes from the time
the "Perform Timing Check within 2
minutes" message displays. This
allows the user to check the
computer's ability to advance ignition timing.
„
Within this two-minute period, follow instructions in the vehicle's
service repair manual to check the ignition timing with a timing
light and ensure that it is 20° above the specified base timing
value (±3°).
Example: If base timing specification is 10° BTDC, the acceptable
timing light reading should be in the range of 27° to 33° BTDC.
Base-timing specifications can be found on the Vehicle
Emission Control Information (VECI) decal. The decal is
located under the hood or near the radiator. If the VECI decal
is missing or damaged, refer to your vehicle's service repair
manual for specifications.
9. If timing light readings are within the acceptable range:
„
Base timing and the vehicle computer's ability to advance timing
are working properly.
„
Proceed to the KOER Self-Test below.
10. If timing light readings are not within the acceptable range:
„
Base timing may be out of adjustment, or the computer may
have problems with the timing advance circuit.
„
Refer to the vehicle's service repair manual for procedures on
adjusting and/or repairing ignition timing. Repairs to ignition
timing must be made before proceeding to the KOER Test.
OBD2&1
71
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - KOER TEST
Key on Engine Running (KOER) Self-Test
IMPORTANT: The KOEO Self-Test (page 66) must be
performed first, and a "pass code" (code 11 or 111) must be
obtained before performing the KOER Self-Test; otherwise,
results of the KOER Self-Test may be invalid.
Ignition timing and timing advance must be operating properly
in order for the KOER Self-Test results to be considered valid.
Perform an Engine Timing check (page 69) before performing
the KOER Self-Test.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. Read and follow Safety Precautions on page 3 before
performing this test.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
The Ford OBD1 Menu displays.
and
buttons, as
Use the
necessary, to make menu selections.
3. From the Ford OBD1 Menu, highlight
KOER Test, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The message “Make sure ignition timing is within factory
specifications” displays. If necessary, press the FF/M
button to exit, and perform an Engine Timing Check (page 69).
button to continue.
Otherwise, press the ENTER
4. The message “Warm up engine to
operating temperature” displays. Start
and warm-up engine to normal
operating temperature. Press the
button to continue.
ENTER
72
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURES - KOER TEST
5. When prompted, turn off all vehicle
accessories, turn ignition key OFF and
wait for the on screen prompt. If you
wish to exit the KOER test at this time,
button.
press the FF/M
6. When instructed by the message on the
Tool's display, start the engine and
press the ENTER
button to continue.
A "One moment please KOER test is in
progress..." message shows temporarily
on the Tool's LCD display.
7. The Tool will retrieve the Cylinder
Identification (ID) Code. The Cylinder ID
Code identifies the number of cylinders
for the vehicle under test.
„
If the Tool cannot retrieve the
Cylinder ID Code, an advisory
message displays. Press the FF/M
button to exit and repeat the
Key On Engine Off (KOEO) test
(page 66) until DTC 11 or 111
displays.
8. Perform the following procedures when
prompted by the message on the Tool's
display.
„
Turn the steering wheel 1/2 turn to
right, hold for four seconds and
release.
„
Press the brake pedal to the floor
and then release it.
„
Cycle the Overdrive Switch (if equipped).
„
Quickly press the accelerator pedal
to the floor and then release it.
9. After the above procedures are
performed a "One moment please
KOER test is in progress..." message
shows temporarily on the Tool's LCD
display, followed by a "Retrieving
codes" message.
Most Ford EEC-IV vehicle computers up to 1991 use a twodigit code system. From 1991 to 1995 most use a three-digit
code system.
OBD2&1
73
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - CYLINDER BALANCE TEST
10. If no problems are found during the
KOER Self-Test, the computer sends a
"PASS code" (code 11 or 111) to the
Tool. Code 11 or 111 indicates that all
the relays and actuators and their
related circuits that were tested during
the KOER Self-Test are OK, and no
faults were found.
11. After the Tool retrieves all the KOER Self-Test DTCs, turn the engine off,
and disconnect the Tool from the vehicle's test connectors. The DTCs
retrieved are now stored in the Tool's memory.
All retrieved DTCs will remain in the Tool's memory. If the
KOER Test procedure is performed again, DTC's from a prior
test will automatically clear and will be replaced by the most
current DTCs retrieved.
12. All KOER codes that are retrieved by the Tool during the KOER
Self-Test represent problems that are present now (at the time the
test is performed). The related vehicle problems that caused the
codes to be sent must be repaired using the procedures described
in the vehicle's repair manual.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions. See SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97
for information on interpreting LEDs and servicing DTCs.
13. After all repairs have been completed, repeat the KOER Self-Test.
14. If a "pass code" (code 11 or 111) is
received, it indicates that the repairs
were successful and all the related
systems are working properly.
15. If a "pass code" (code 111 or 111) is not
received, the repair was unsuccessful.
Consult the vehicle's service manual
and recheck repair procedure.
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS
These tests are additional, supplemental tests, and are not
needed to retrieve Diagnostic Trouble Codes. Ford has
included them to further assist the technician / do-it-yourselfer
in the troubleshooting of vehicle problems.
Cylinder Balance Test (Vehicles equipped with Sequential
Electronic Fuel Injected (SEFI) systems only)
The Cylinder Balance Test assists in finding a weak or noncontributing
cylinder. The computer shuts off fuel (cuts off power to injectors) to each
cylinder, in sequence, and monitors for RPM changes (drop). Based on
this information, the computer determines if all the cylinders are
contributing power equally (for proper engine operation), or if some
cylinders are only contributing partially or not contributing at all.
74
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - CYLINDER BALANCE TEST
SEFI Introduction
Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection (SEFI) belongs to a family of fuel
injection systems called "Multi-port/Multipoint Fuel Injection". Multi-port
(MFI) fuel injection systems contain one fuel injector per cylinder, and
the vehicle's computer electronically controls their operation. On some
multi-port fuel injection systems, the injectors all fire at the same time
and at every engine revolution. On other systems the injectors fire in
groups and/or at every other engine revolution. What distinguishes
Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection systems from other multi-port fuel
injection systems is that each injector is independently energized and
fires sequentially one after the other in the proper firing order. This gives
the vehicle's computer more control to cut the fuel to one injector at a
time (this can't be accomplished on the other systems because they fire
in groups of two ore more injectors).
Cylinder Balance Test Procedure
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. Read and follow Safety Precautions on page 3 before
performing this test.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
button to turn the
POWER/LINK
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
The Ford OBD1 Menu displays.
and
buttons, as
Use the
necessary, to make menu selections.
3. From the Ford OBD1 Menu, highlight
Cylinder Balance Test, then press the
button.
ENTER
„
An advisory message displays. If the vehicle is not equipped
with Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection (SEFI), press the FF/M
button to exit. Otherwise, press the ENTER
button to
continue.
4. Start and warm-up engine to normal operating temperature. Press
button to continue.
the ENTER
OBD2&1
75
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - CYLINDER BALANCE TEST
5. When prompted, turn off all vehicle
accessories, turn ignition key OFF and
wait for the on screen prompt. If you
wish to exit the Cylinder Balance test at
button.
this time, press the FF/M
6. When instructed by the message on the
Tool's display, start the engine and
button.
press the ENTER
„
A "One moment please preparation
for test is in progress..." message
shows temporarily on the Tool's
LCD display.
7. When prompted by the message on the
Tool's display, lightly press the
accelerator pedal half way and release
to activate the cylinder balance test.
For 1986 models ONLY: Fully
press accelerator once and
release.
„
The computer is now in Cylinder
Balance Test mode, and will start
cutting fuel to each cylinder in
sequence to determine if all the
cylinders are contributing equally. It
may take up to five minutes
before the test results are
transmitted to the Tool.
8. If the vehicle's computer fails to enter
Cylinder Balance Test mode, do the
following:
„
Lightly press the accelerator pedal
again as described in step 7 above.
9. After the Cylinder Balance Test is
completed, the test results are sent to
the Tool.
„
The computer compares the power
contribution that each cylinder
makes to engine operation.
10. If all cylinders are contributing equally,
the computer determines that power
distribution is normal and a “System
Pass” message will display.
76
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS – RELAY AND SOLENOID TEST
If the computer detects a problem with a cylinder(s) when
performing the initial Cylinder Balance Test, it needs to repeat the
test two more times to properly determine which cylinder or
cylinders are malfunctioning. If this is the case, the Tool will
display the “Lightly press the accelerator half way and release”
message again instead of the “System Pass”. Proceed to step 11.
11. If a cylinder is not contributing at the same level as the other
cylinders, the computer prompts you to repeat the test two more
times by displaying the “Lightly press the accelerator half way and
release” message again. Each time the message displays, perform
the procedures as instructed.
12. After the repeat Cylinder Balance tests
have completed, the computer will identify
which cylinder (or cylinders) are not
contributing equally, and will send this
information to the Tool’s LCD display.
„
If any weak cylinders are identified,
consult the vehicle’s service repair
manual to perform further testing
and/or repairs.
Relay and Solenoid Test (Output State Check)
The "Output State Check" is a special program in the vehicle's computer
that allows the user to energize (turn ON) and de-energize (turn OFF),
on command, most of the actuators (relays and solenoids) that are
controlled by the computer.
Use this test to check computer output voltages and relay/solenoid
operation.
The fuel injectors and fuel pump are not energized during this
test. Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test.
See BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle.
Read and follow Safety Precautions on page 3 before
performing this test.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See TEST
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
Some DLCS have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
OBD2&1
77
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - RELAY AND SOLENOID TEST
„
The Ford OBD1 menu displays.
Use the
necessary,
selections.
and
to
buttons, as
make
menu
3. From the Ford OBD1 menu, highlight
Output State Check, then press the
button.
ENTER
4. The message “Warm up engine to
operating temperature” displays. Start
and warm-up engine to normal
operating temperature. Press the
button to continue.
ENTER
5. When prompted, turn ignition key OFF
and wait for the on screen prompt. If you
wish to exit the Output State Check at
button.
this time, press the FF/M
6. Turn ignition ON. DO NOT start the
engine. If your vehicle is equipped with
one of the following engine types,
perform
the
added
procedures
described below:
„
For 4.9L engines with standard transmission: Press and hold
the clutch until the "Output State Check Active" screen displays.
„
For 7.3L diesel engines: Press and hold accelerator until the
"Output State Check Active" screen displays
„
For 2.3L turbo engines with octane switch: Put switch in
premium position.
7. Press the ENTER
button to continue.
8. A "One moment please test is in
progress..." message shows on the
Tool's LCD display.
As soon as the ignition is turned
"on", the vehicle's computer enters
the Self-Test mode. Clicking
sounds will be heard coming from
the engine. This is normal.
WARNING: On some vehicles equipped with an Electric
Cooling Fan, the computer activates the cooling fan to
check its operation. To avoid injury, keep hands or any
part of your body a safe distance from engine during the
test.
78
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS – RELAY AND SOLENOID TEST
„
If the Tool fails to link to the vehicle's
computer, a “Vehicle is not
responding” message shows on the
Tool’s LCD display. Do the following:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Check the cable connections at
the Diagnostic Tool and at the
vehicle’s DLC.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10 seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer.
BE SURE to perform the added procedures in step 6, if
appropriate for your vehicle, BEFORE turning the ignition ON.
- Press the ENTER
„
button to continue.
If the Diagnostic Tool cannot link to
the vehicle's computer, the message
“Contact Technical Support” displays.
- Press the FF/M
button to
return to the Ford OBD1 Menu.
- Turn the ignition OFF, and
disconnect the Diagnostic Tool.
- Contact Technical Support for
assistance.
9. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle
successfully an "Output State check
active..." message shows temporarily on
the Tool's LCD display. This message is
followed by a display that instructs you
how to perform the test.
10. When prompted, press the accelerator
pedal once, then release. This activates
the Output State Check and energizes
most of the actuators (relays and
solenoids) that are controlled by the
vehicle's computer.
If your vehicle is equipped with an Integrated Vehicle Speed
Control, disconnect the vacuum supply hose from the speed
control servo before pressing the accelerator. Reconnect
vacuum hose after test.
11. To de-energize the actuators, press the accelerator pedal again and
release, the actuators are now de-energized.
12. The procedure can be repeated as many times as desired by
pressing and releasing the accelerator pedal to energize and deenergize the actuators.
OBD2&1
79
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - WIGGLE TEST
13. Consult the vehicle's service repair manual for a list of actuators
(solenoids and relays) controlled by the computer that apply to the
vehicle under test, and which actuators should energize and deenergize when performing the Output State Check. All applicable
actuators should be on when energized and off when de-energized.
14. If an actuator is not responding to the Output State Check, follow the
procedures described in the vehicle's service manual to check
computer actuator output circuit voltages and/or grounds.
15. The Output State Check will stay active as long as desired. To quit
the Output State Check, turn the ignition OFF and disconnect the
Tool from the vehicle.
Wiggle Test
Since any DTC’s from Wiggle Test results are saved in
Continuous Memory, it is suggested that you clear any DTC’s
in Continuous Memory before performing Wiggle Test (see
SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97 for procedures). This
way you start with a clean slate, and any faults detected during
the procedure will be related to that particular circuit tested.
Use this test to check for intermittent faults in some circuits.
Circuits Tested:
1984 & Newer - Air Charge Temp Sensor (ACT), Barometer Pressure
Sensor (BP), Engine Coolant Temp Sensor (ECT), Exhaust Gas
Oxygen Sensor (EGO), EGR Valve Position Sensor (EVP), Manifold
Absolute Pressure (MAP), Throttle Position Sensor (TP), Vane Air Temp
Sensor (VAT)
1985 & Newer - Vane Air Flow Sensor (VAF)
1986 & Newer - Pressure Feedback EGR Sensor (PFE)
1990 & Newer - Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO), Ignition
Diagnostic Monitor (IDM) (DIS or Dual Plug DIS only), Idle Tracking
Switch (ITS), Mass Air Flow Sensor (MAF)
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. Read and follow Safety Precautions on page 3 before
performing this test.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector
CONNECTORS on page 63 for connector location.
(DLC).
TEST
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Ford
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle's
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
80
The Ford OBD1 menu displays.
OBD2&1
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - WIGGLE TEST
Use the
necessary,
selections.
and
to
buttons, as
make
menu
3. From the Ford OBD1 menu, highlight
Wiggle Test, then press the ENTER
button.
4. The message “Warm up engine to
operating temperature” displays. Start
and warm-up engine to normal
operating temperature. Press the
button to continue.
ENTER
5. When prompted, turn ignition key OFF
and wait for the on screen prompt. If you
wish to exit the KOEO test at this time,
button.
press the FF/M
6. Select the desired Wiggle Test from the
menu displayed.
„
To perform the KOEO Wiggle Test:
- Highlight KOEO Wiggle Test.
- Turn ignition ON. DO
START THE ENGINE.
- Press the ENTER
continue.
„
NOT
button to
To perform the KOER Wiggle Test:
- Highlight KOER Wiggle Test.
- Turn the ignition ON and start the
engine.
- Press the ENTER
button to continue.
7. A "One moment please test is in
progress" message shows temporarily
on the Tool’s LCD display.
„
If the Tool fails to link to the vehicle's
computer, a "Vehicle is not
responding" message shows on the
Tool's LCD display. Do the following:
For KOEO Wiggle Test:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10 seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer. Press the ENTER
button to continue.
For KOER Wiggle Test:
- Turn the engine OFF, wait 10 seconds, then turn back ON.
button to continue.
Press the ENTER
OBD2&1
81
Ford OBD1 Systems
ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR EEC-IV SYSTEMS - WIGGLE TEST
BE SURE to perform the added procedures in step 6, if
appropriate for your vehicle, BEFORE turning the ignition ON.
- Press ENTER
„
button to continue.
If the Diagnostic Tool cannot link to
the vehicle’s computer, the message
“Contact Technical Support” displays.
- Press the FF/M
button to
return to the Ford OBD1 menu.
- Turn the ignition OFF, and disconnect the Diagnostic Tool.
- Contact Technical Support for
assistance.
8. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle
successfully, a "Wiggle test is active..."
message shows temporarily on the
Tool’s LCD display. This is followed by a
message instructing you how to perform
the test.
„
Press the FF/M
button if you
wish to exit the Wiggle Test at this
time.
9. Wiggle, tap and move the suspected
sensor or wiring.
„
If no faults are detected when
performing the Wiggle Test, a
"System Pass" message displays.
„
If a fault is detected when
performing the Wiggle Test, a
"Circuit Fault detected" message
displays.
If the Wiggle Test detects
any problems, the related
DTC will be stored by the
computer in "Continuous
Memory". To view any
Wiggle Test DTC’s you
must perform the KOEO
Test. See page 66 for
KOEO Test procedures.
10. Follow the procedures in the vehicle's service repair manual to
perform troubleshooting and repairs for Wiggle Test results.
11. The Wiggle Test will stay active as long as desired. To quit the
Wiggle Test, turn the ignition OFF and disconnect the Tool from the
vehicle.
82
OBD2&1
GM OBD1 Systems
YOUR VEHICLE’S COMPUTER SYSTEM - VEHICLES COVERED
YOUR VEHICLE'S COMPUTER SYSTEM
Today's vehicles are equipped with computer self-testing abilities that
can locate problems in your vehicle and store them as Diagnostic
Trouble Codes (DTC's) in the vehicle's onboard computer. The Tool
allows you access to the computer's memory and retrieves the DTC's.
VEHICLES COVERED
This Tool may be used to retrieve engine service codes from most
General Motors (GM) domestic cars and trucks (EXCEPT Geo, Nova,
Saturn and Sprint).
Model
Year
1982-93
Make
Buick
Cadillac
Chevrolet
Oldsmobile
Pontiac
1994
Trucks and
Vans
Buick
Chevrolet
Pontiac
1995
Trucks and
Vans
Chevrolet
Trucks and
Vans
OBD2&1
Model
Century, Electra, Electra Wagon, Estate Wagon,
Le Sabre, Le Sabre Wagon, Park Avenue, Reatta,
Regal, Grand National, Riviera, Roadmaster,
Skyhawk, Skylark, Somerset
De Ville, El Dorado, Fleetwood, Seville
Berreta, Camaro, Caprice, Cavalier, Celebrity,
Chevette, Citation, Corisca, Corvette, El Camino,
Impala, Lumina, Monte Carlo
Achieva, Calais, Custom Cruiser, Cutlass Calais,
Ciera, Cutlass Cruiser, Cruiser Wagon, Cutlass
Supreme, Supreme Classic, Delta 88, Eightyeight, Firenze, Ninety-eight, Omega, Toronado,
Touring Sedan, Trofeo
6000, 6000 STE, Bonneville, Fiero, Firebird,
Grand Am, Grand Prix, J 2000, Lemans,
J Parisienne, Phoenix, Safari, Safari Wagon,
Sunbird, T 1000
All one ton capacity or less with gas engines
Roadmaster 5.7 liter
Camaro 3.4 liter/5.7 liter, Caprice 5.7 liter,
Caprice 5.7 liter, Cavalier 3.1 liter,
Lumina 3.1 liter
Firebird 3.4 liter/5.7 liter, Sunbird 2.0 liter/
3.1 liter
All one ton capacity or less with gas engines
Caprice 4.3 liter
All one ton capacity or less with gas engines
(EXCEPT S/T Series vehicles)
83
GM OBD1 Systems
ABOUT THE TOOL - DLC - MIL - DTCs
In addition to the list on the previous page, this Tool IS
ALSO COMPATIBLE with OBD1 GM models that are
equipped with "Climate Control Computers".
For 1994 and 1995 vehicles, only the models listed above are
compatible with the Tool.
ABOUT THE TOOL
The Tool is a device that connects to your vehicle's Data Link Connector
to retrieve any Diagnostic Trouble Codes that are stored in the vehicle's
on-board computer.
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC)
Your vehicle test connector is known as the
Assembly Line Data Link (ALDL) connector,
Assembly Line Communication Link (ALCL)
Connector or the Data Link Connector
(DLC). The GM DLC connector contains 12 pins and is usually black in
color. On most GM vehicles, the connector is found under the left side of
the dashboard.
MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHT (MIL)
Your vehicle's instrument panel has a Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
also called the "Check Engine" or "Service Engine soon" light. The MIL
is an indicator to warn the vehicle operator of a problem in the computer
control system.
CHECK ENGINE
SERVICE
ENGINE
SOON
If your instrument panel indicator lights do not come on when
you turn on the ignition, please refer to your vehicle's service
manual. You may have problems in the vehicle's circuitry.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTC's)
The service codes are also called "fault codes", "Diagnostic Trouble
Codes" (DTC's) or "trouble codes". These codes can be used to identify
systems or components that are malfunctioning. The computer records
codes for two types of problems:
„
"Hard" Diagnostic Trouble Codes
"Hard" DTCs represent problems that are occurring now and cause
the instrument panel Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or Check
Engine light to illuminate and remain on until the failure is repaired.
A DTC is stored in the vehicle's computer memory for each fault
detected. A Tool or Scanner can be used to retrieve DTCs that are
stored in the vehicle's computer memory.
84
OBD2&1
GM OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
Intermittent/History DTCs
Intermittent/History DTCs are stored in the computer's memory for
problems that occur intermittently, or for problems that happened in
the past but are not currently present. Intermittent DTCs may cause
the Malfunction Indicator light to flicker or stay on until the
intermittent malfunction goes away. However, the corresponding
fault code will be stored in memory as a history DTC. If the
malfunction that caused the history DTC to set does not recur within
a predetermined length of time (usually within 40-80 ignition key
start cycles), the computer will automatically erase the related fault
code from its memory.
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition.
Each DTC has a set of testing procedures, instructions
and flow charts that must be followed to confirm the
location of the problem. This information is found in the
vehicle's service manual. Always refer to the vehicle's
service manual for detailed testing instructions.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing
any test. See BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31
for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See Safety Precautions on page 3 for more
information.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See DATA LINK
CONNECTOR (DLC) on page 84 for connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool's cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the GM
Connector Cable Adaptor attached) to
the Tool, then connect the adaptor to
the
vehicle’s
DLC.
Press
the
POWER/LINK
button to turn the
Tool ON, then press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
The GM OBD1 menu displays.
3. To view codes in the Diagnostic Tool’s memory:
OBD2&1
85
GM OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
Review DTCs, then press the
button.
ENTER
4. To retrieve codes from the vehicle’s
computer:
Use the
selections.
„
and
buttons, as necessary, to make menu
To retrieve DTCs from the vehicle
selection currently in the Tool’s
memory:
- From the GM OBD1 menu, highlight Current Selection, turn
ignition key ON (DO NOT start
engine) and press the ENTER
button.
- Proceed to step 5 to continue.
„
To retrieve DTCs from a new
vehicle:
- From the GM OBD1 menu,
highlight Select New Vehicle and
press the ENTER
button; the
“Select Vehicle Year” menu
displays.
- Highlight the desired year, then
button; the
press the ENTER
“Enter the 8th digit of VIN” menu
displays.
- Highlight the 8th digit of the
vehicle’s VIN, then press the
button.
ENTER
If the “Enter 4th VIN Digit” screen
displays (not applicable to all
vehicles), highlight the 4th digit of
the vehicle’s VIN, then press the
button.
ENTER
If the “Truck” screen displays (not
applicable to all vehicles), highlight
Yes or No, as appropriate, then
button.
press the ENTER
- The GM OBD1 menu displays for
your confirmation.
86
OBD2&1
GM OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
- If the information shown in the “Current Selection” field is
correct, highlight Current Selection, turn ignition key ON (DO
NOT start engine) and press the ENTER
button. Proceed
to step 4 to continue.
If the year shown is not correct, highlight Select New Vehicle
button to return to the “Select
and press the ENTER
Vehicle Year” menu to make your corrections.
5. When the Tool is in the process of retrieving codes, a "One moment
please..." message shows on the Tool’s LCD display.
„
If the Tool fails to link to the
vehicle's computer, a "Vehicle is not
responding" message shows on the
Tool’s LCD display. Do the following:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Check the cable connections at
the Tool and at the vehicle’s DLC.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10-12 seconds, then turn back ON
to reset the computer.
- Press the ENTER
necessary.
„
button and repeat steps 4 and 5 as
If the Diagnostic Tool cannot link to
the vehicle’s computer, the message
“Contact Technical Support” displays.
- Press the FF/M
button to
return to the Ford OBD1 menu.
- Turn the ignition OFF, and disconnect the Diagnostic Tool.
- Contact Technical Support for assistance.
6. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle
successfully, a "Code retrieval was
successful..." message shows temporarily on the Tool’s LCD display,
followed by any retrieved DTCs.
„
The Tool will display a code only of
codes are present in the vehicle's
computer memory. If no codes are
present, a "No DTC's are presently
stored in the vehicle's computer" is displayed.
7. If more than one code was retrieved, press the DTC SCROLL
button, as necessary, to display additional codes one at a time.
OBD2&1
87
GM OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area to indicate
and
the presence of additional information. Use the
buttons, as necessary, to view the additional information.
Code 12 will always be present and it has one of the following meanings:
„
If code 12 is the only DTC retrieved and your vehicle "STARTS OK"
then code 12 indicates system "PASS" and all computer control
systems are functioning properly.
„
If code 12 is present and your vehicle "DOES NOT START", then it
may indicate a problem with the ignition control system.
8. Disconnect the Tool from the vehicle and turn the ignition key OFF.
9. To prolong battery life, the Tool automatically shuts "Off" after
approximately three minutes with no button activity. The DTCs
retrieved will remain in the Tool's memory, and may be viewed at
any time. If the Tool’s batteries are removed, or if the Tool is relinked to a vehicle to retrieve codes, any prior codes in its memory
are automatically cleared.
10. Follow the testing and repair procedures outlined in the vehicle's
service repair manual to correct "hard" DTCs. Codes should be
addressed and eliminated in the order they were received, erasing
(see SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97) and retesting after
each repair is made to be sure the fault was eliminated. Code 12 will
appear alone when no other fault codes are present.
„
It may be necessary to test drive the vehicle to reset "hard" fault
codes 13, 15, 24, 44, 45, and 55 after they have been erased.
Whenever codes 51, 52, 54, or 55 are displayed with other
codes, troubleshoot and eliminate the "50 Series" codes first,
then proceed with the lower numbered codes.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions. See SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97
for information on interpreting LEDs and servicing DTCs.
88
OBD2&1
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
ON-BOARD VEHICLE DIAGNOSTICS - VEHICLES COVERED
ON-BOARD VEHICLE DIAGNOSTICS (OBD1)
„
Beginning in 1988, California's Air Resources Board (CARB), and
later, the Federal Government's Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), required vehicle manufacturers to include a self diagnostic
program capable of identifying an emissions-related fault via the
vehicles On-Board Computers (some manufacturers used OBD
before it was required). The first generation of Onboard Diagnostics
came to be known as OBD I.
„
OBD I is a set of self-testing or self-diagnosing instructions that are
programmed into the vehicle's on-board computer.
„
The program is specifically designed to detect failures in the sensors,
actuators, switches and wiring of the various vehicle emissionsrelated systems (fuel injection system, ignition system, EGR system,
catalytic converter, etc.). If the computer detects a failure in any one
of these components or systems, it alerts the driver by illuminating
the "Check Engine" light on the dash.
„
The computer also assigns a numeric code (OBD I systems utilized
a 2 or 3 digit code) for each specific problem that it detects, and
stores these codes in it's memory for later retrieval. The codes can
be retrieved from the computer's memory with the use of a device
called a "Diagnostic Tool" or a "Scan Tool".
With the exception of some 1994 and 1995 vehicles, most
vehicles from about 1982 to 1995 are equipped with OBD I
systems.
VEHICLES COVERED
The following tables identify the Toyota and Lexus OBD1 vehicles that
are covered by the Enhanced OBD2 & 1 Tool.
DLC 1 Cars
Year
1995
1992
1992
1993
1993
1994
1993
1993
1994
1994
Model
Camry Coupe
Camry Sedan
Camry Sedan
Camry Sedan
Camry Sedan
Camry Sedan
Celica
Celica
Celica
Celica
OBD2&1
Eng.
Size
2.2L
2.2L
3.0L
3.0L
2.2L
2.2L
2.0L
2.2L
1.8L
2.2L
Eng.
Code
5S-FE
5S-FE
2VZ-FE
3VZ-FE
5S-FE
5S-FE
3S-GTE
5S-FE
7A-FE
5S-FE
DOHC/
SOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
Other
Turbo
DLC
Type
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
89
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED
Year
1992
Model
Celica
Convertible
1992
1992
1993
1995
1992
1992
1993
1993
1994
1994
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1994
1994
1994
1995
1995
1991
1991
1992
1992
1993
1994
Celica Coupe
Celica Coupe
Celica Coupe
Celica Coupe
Celica Liftback
Celica Liftback
Corolla Sedan
Corolla Sedan
Corolla Sedan
Corolla Sedan
ES-300
GS-300
LS-400
MR2
MR2
MR2
MR2
Paseo
Paseo
SC-300
Supra
Supra
Supra
Supra
Tercel Sedan
Tercel Sedan
Eng.
Size
2.2L
Eng.
Code
5S-FE
DOHC/
SOHC
DOHC
1.6L
2.2L
1.6L
1.8L
2.0L
2.2L
1.6L
1.8L
1.6L
1.8L
3.0L
3.0L
4.0L
2.0L
2.2L
2.0L
2.2L
1.5L
1.5L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
1.5L
1.5L
4A-FE
5S-FE
4A-FE
7A-FE
3S-GTE
5S-FE
4A-FE
7A-FE
4A-FE
7A-FE
3VZ-FE
2JZ-GE
1UZ-FE
3S-GTE
5S-FE
3S-GTE
5S-FE
5E-FE
5E-FE
2JZ-GE
7M-GTE
7M-GE
7M-GTE
7M-GE
3E-E
3E
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
SOHC
SOHC
Eng.
Size
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
Eng.
Code
7M-GE
7M-GE
7M-GE
7M-GE
3VZ-FE
DOHC/
SOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
Other
A/T
A/T
Turbo
Turbo
Turbo
Turbo
Turbo
DLC
Type
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DLC 2 Cars
Year
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
90
Model
Cressida
Cressida
Cressida
Cressida
Camry
Other
DLC
Type
2
2
2
2
2
OBD2&1
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
VEHICLES COVERED
Year
1993
1993
1994
1994
1994
1995
1995
1992
1990
1991
1992
1992
1991
1992
1993
1994
1994
1993
1994
1993
Model
Supra
Supra
Camry
Supra
Supra
Supra
Supra
SC-300
ES-250
ES-250
ES-300
SC-400
LS-400
LS-400
SC-400
SC-400
SC-300
SC-400
GS-300
SC-300
Eng.
Size
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
3.0L
2.5L
2.5L
3.0L
4.0L
4.0L
4.0L
4.0L
4.0L
3.0L
4.0L
3.0L
3.0L
Eng.
Code
2JZ-GTE
2JZ-GE
3VZ-FE
2JZ-GTE
2JZ-GE
2JZ-GTE
2JZ-GE
2JZ-GE
2VZ-FE
2VZ-FE
3VZ-FE
1UZ-FE
1UZ-FE
1UZ-FE
1UZ-FE
1UZ-FE
2JZ-GE
1UZ-FE
2JZ-GE
2JZ-GE
DOHC/
SOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
Eng.
Size
2.4L
2.4L
2.4L
3.0L
2.4L
3.0L
2.4L
3.0L
2.4L
Eng.
Code
2TZ-FE
2TZ-FE
2TZ-FE
3VZ-FE
22R-E
3VZ-FE
22R-E
3VZ-FE
2TZ-FE
DOHC/
SOHC
DOHC
DOHC
DOHC
SOHC
SOHC
SOHC
SOHC
SOHC
DOHC
Other
Turbo
Turbo
Turbo
DLC
Type
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
DLC 1 Light Trucks
Year
1992
1993
1994
1994
1995
1995
1995
1995
1995
Model
Previa
Previa
Previa
T100
4 Runner
4 Runner
Pickup
Pickup
Previa
OBD2&1
Other
DLC
Type
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
91
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC) - MIL
DATA LINK CONNECTOR (DLC)
Toyota vehicles are equipped with special Test Connectors that make it
possible to connect specialized testing equipment that communicates
with the vehicle's onboard computer. This Tool is designed for use with
two types of Toyota DLC connectors; DLC Number 1 and DLC Number
2, as described below.
The Tool's Toyota Connector Cable Adaptor is designed to
match the vehicle's DLC. Make sure the adaptor mates
properly before applying any force when making the
connection. Applying force to the connector when not mated
properly may cause damage to the connectors.
1. Type 1 connector is also known as Data Link Connector Number 1.
The type 1 DLC connector is a rectangular connector and is usually
black or gray in color. The connector is located under the hood
(engine compartment) in the following general locations:
„
Front corner (right or left)
„
Front corner (right or left)
„
Fender well (right or left)
„
Fire wall (right or left)
It has a cover labeled "DIAGNOSTIC",
"DIAGNOSIS", or "CHECK CONN", Use the
square head of the Toyota Connector Cable
Adaptor on vehicles with this type of connector.
2. Type 2 connector is also known as Data
Link Connector (DLC) Number 2. The
type 2 DLC connector is a round
connector and is usually black or gray in
color.
„
The connector is located "under the
dash" on the left hand side.
It may have a protective cap that needs to be removed before
connecting the Tool's DLC. Use the round head of the Toyota
Connector Cable Adaptor on vehicles with this type of connector.
INSTRUMENT PANEL MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHTS
(MIL)
Your vehicle's instrument panel has a Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL)
also called the "Check Engine" or "Service Engine soon" light. The MIL
is an indicator to warn the vehicle operator of a problem in the computer
control system.
CHECK ENGINE
92
SERVICE
ENGINE
SOON
OBD2&1
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES - CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
If your instrument panel indicator lights do not come on when
you turn on the ignition, please refer to your vehicle's service
manual. You may have problems in the car's circuitry. It is
recommended that you fix these problems before retrieving
DTCs from your vehicle’s computer.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES
Diagnostic Trouble Codes, or Fault Codes, can be used to identify
engine systems or components that are malfunctioning. The computer
records codes for the following two types of engine problems:
„
"Hard" Diagnostic Trouble Codes
"Hard" DTCs represent problems that are occurring now and cause
the instrument panel Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or Check
Engine light to illuminate and remain on until the failure is repaired.
A DTC is stored in the vehicle's computer memory for each fault
detected. A Tool or Scanner can be used to retrieve DTCs that are
stored in the vehicle's computer memory.
„
Intermittent/History DTCs
Intermittent/History DTCs are stored in the computer's memory for
problems that occur intermittently, or for problems that happened in
the past but are not currently present. Intermittent DTCs may cause
the Malfunction Indicator light to flicker or stay on until the
intermittent malfunction goes away. However, the corresponding
fault code will be stored in memory as a history DTC. If the
malfunction that caused the history DTC to set does not recur within
a predetermined length of time (usually within 40-80 ignition key
start cycles), the computer will automatically erase the related fault
code from its memory.
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition.
Each DTC has a set of testing procedures, instructions and
flow charts that must be followed to confirm the location of
the problem. This information is found in the vehicle's service
manual. Always refer to the vehicle's service manual for
detailed testing instructions.
OBD2&1
93
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing any test. See
BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 31 for details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See Safety Precautions on page 3 for more
information.
1. Locate the vehicle's Data Link Connector (DLC). See DATA LINK
CONNECTOR (DLC) on page 92 for connection location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover that must be removed before
connecting the Tool's cable connector.
2. Connect the Tool cable (with the Toyota Connector Cable Adaptor
attached) to the Tool, then connect the adaptor to the vehicle’s DLC.
Press the POWER/LINK
button to turn the Tool ON.
„
The Toyota OBD1 menu displays.
3. To view codes in the Diagnostic Tool’s
memory:
„
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
Review DTCs, then press the
button.
ENTER
4. To retrieve codes from the vehicle’s
computer:
„
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight
Read DTCs, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The LCD display shows instructions
to prepare the vehicle to retrieve
codes.
5. Do the following before proceeding to step 4:
„
Turn ignition ON and start engine. Warm engine to operating
temperature. (Shut engine off after warm up).
„
Make sure throttle is closed.
„
Set gear lever in "park" (for automatic transmissions) or “neutral”
for manual transmissions.
„
Turn off all accessories.
6. Turn ignition ON. DO NOT start the
button to
engine. Press the ENTER
continue.
„
94
The Tool will begin the code retrieval process.
OBD2&1
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
7. When the Tool is in the process of
retrieving codes, a "One moment
please..." message shows on the Tool’s
LCD display.
„
If the Tool fails to link to the
vehicle’s computer a “Vehicle is not
responding” message shows on the
Tool’s LCD display. Do the following:
- Verify the ignition is ON.
- Check the cable connections at
the Tool and at the vehicle’s DLC.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 10-12
seconds, then turn back ON to
reset the computer.
- Press the ENTER
repeat steps 3
necessary.
button and
and 4 as
8. If the Tool was able to link to the vehicle
successfully a "Code retrieval was
successful..." message shows temporarily on the Tool’s LCD display followed
by any retrieved DTCs.
„
The Tool will display a code only if
codes are present in the vehicle's
computer memory. If no codes are
present, a "No DTC' are presently
stored in the vehicle's computer"
message is displayed.
9. If more than one code was retrieved
press the DTC SCROLL
, as
necessary, to display additional codes
one at a time.
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in
the upper/lower right-hand corner of the code display area to
indicate the presence of additional information. Use the
buttons, as necessary, to view the additional
and
information.
10. Disconnect the Tool from the vehicle and turn the ignition key OFF.
11. To prolong battery life, the Tool automatically shuts "Off" after
approximately three minutes with no button activity. The DTCs
retrieved will remain in the Tool's memory, and may be viewed at
any time. If the Tool’s batteries are removed, or if the Tool is relinked to a vehicle to retrieve codes, any prior codes in its memory
are automatically cleared.
OBD2&1
95
Toyota/Lexus OBD1 Systems
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
12. Follow the testing and repair procedures outlined in the vehicle's
service repair manual to correct "hard" DTCs. Codes should be
addressed and eliminated in the order they were received, erasing
(see SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97) and retesting after
each repair is made to be sure the fault was eliminated.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions. See SERVICING DTCs - OBD I on page 97
for information on interpreting LEDs and servicing DTCs.
96
OBD2&1
Servicing DTCs
OBD1
SERVICING DTCs - OBD I
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition.
Each DTC has a set of testing procedures, instructions and
flow charts that must be followed to confirm the location
of the problem. This information is found in the vehicle's
service manual. Always refer to the vehicle's service manual
for detailed testing instructions.
1. Determine engine system(s) condition by viewing the
Tool's LCD display for any retrieved Diagnostic Trouble
Codes, code definitions and interpreting the green, yellow
and red LEDs.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are used (with the LCD
display) as visual aids to make it easier to determine engine
system conditions.
2. Green LED - Indicates that all engine
systems are "OK" and operating
normally. No trouble codes are present.
If you are not experiencing any vehicle
problems NO FURTHER TESTING IS
REQUIRED.
„
If you are still experiencing vehicle
problems even through the green
LED illuminates, the problem is not
in the computer control systems.
See the NO CODES troubleshooting section of your vehicle's
repair manual for further troubleshooting instructions.
3. Yellow LED - Indicates an Intermittent or History DTC is present.
Intermittent/History DTCs are stored in the computer's memory for
problems that occur intermittently, or for problems that happened in the
past but are not currently present. Intermittent DTCs may cause the
Malfunction Indicator light to flicker or stay on until the intermittent
malfunction goes away. However, the corresponding fault code will be
stored in memory as a history DTC. If the malfunction that caused the
history DTC to set does not recur within a predetermined length of time
(usually within 40-80 ignitio key start cycles), the computer will
automatically erase the related fault code from its memory.
„
HISTORY DTC - On some vehicles, the computer will keep a record
or history of DTCs that relate to problems that happened in the past
but are no longer present. These DTCs will not command the MIL or
Check Engine light "On", but the yellow LED will be illuminated.
OBD2&1
97
Servicing DTCs
OBD1
4. Red LED - Indicates there is a
problem with one or more of the
vehicle's systems. The red LED is
also used to indicate that DTC(s)
are present (displayed on the
Tool's screen). In this case, the
MIL or Check Engine light on the
vehicle's instrument panel will be
illuminated.
„
If DTC's were retrieved and you are going to perform the repairs
yourself, proceed by consulting the vehicle's service repair
manual for testing instructions, testing procedures, and flow
charts related to retrieved code(s).
„
If you plan to take the vehicle to a professional to have it
serviced, complete the PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC
WORKSHEET on page 28 and take it, together with the
retrieved codes and LED information, to aid in the
Troubleshooting procedure.
Retrieved information can be uploaded to a Personal
Computer (PC) with the use of optional software. For more
information, see instructions included with the optional
software.
98
OBD2&1
Erasing DTCs
OBD1 SYSTEMS
ERASING DTCs (OBD I SYSTEMS)
When the Tool's ERASE function is used to erase DTCs
from the vehicle's on-board computer, manufacturer
specific data (where applicable) is also erased.
If you plan to take the vehicle to a service center for repair, DO NOT
erase the codes from the vehicle's computer. If the codes are erased,
valuable information that might help the technician troubleshoot the
problem will also be erased.
Erase DTC’s from the computer’s memory as follows:
1. Connect the Tool to the vehicle’s DLC. Press the ENTER
to continue.
button
2. Turn the ignition ON. DO NOT start the engine.
For FORD systems only, first perform step 3 below, then turn
button to continue.
ignition “ON” and press the ENTER
3. Press and release the ERASE
shows on the LCD display.
button. A confirmation message
- If you are sure you want to proceed,
press the ERASE
button again to
erase DTCs from the vehicle's
computer.
- If you do not want to continue with
the erase process, press the FF/M
button to exit the erase function.
4. If you chose to erase DTCs, a status
screen displays while the erase function
is in progress.
„
If the erase was successful, a
confirmation message shows on the
Tool’s LCD display. press the
button to exit.
ENTER
Due to the differences in computer
systems, the Tool can be used to
erase codes for some vehicles,
while others require codes to be
erased manually. If the “To erase
DTC’s consult the vehicle’s
service repair manual...” screen
displays, you must consult the
vehicle’s service repair manual for
procedures to erase DTCs.
OBD2&1
99
Erasing DTCs
OBD1 SYSTEMS
„
If the erase was not successful, an
advisory message shows on the
LCD display. Verify that the Tool is
properly connected to the vehicle's
DLC and that the ignition is ON. If
the erase process still does not
complete, turn the ignition OFF, wait
10 seconds, then turn back ON and
repeat steps 2 and 3.
FORD systems will not display an erase was not successful
message. If the “One moment please erase in progress”
message on the display does NOT change after 3 minutes, it
indicates that the erase function has failed. Check the DLC
connections and make sure the ignition key is “ON”. Perform
the ERASE function again.
Erasing DTCs does not fix the problem(s) that caused the
code(s) to be set. If proper repairs to correct the problem that
caused the code(s) to be set are not made, the code(s) will
appear again and the check engine light will illuminate as soon
as the problem that cause the DTC to set manifests itself.
100
OBD2&1
Additional Tests
VIEWING FREEZE FRAME DATA/VIEWING VEHICLE INFORMATION
In addition to retrieving Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs), you can use the
Diagnostic Tool to perform additional diagnostic tests, to view diagnostic and
vehicle information stored in your vehicle's on-board computer, and to
configure the Diagnostic Tool for your particular needs.
VIEWING FREEZE FRAME DATA
In OBD2 systems, when an emissions-related engine malfunction
occurs that causes a DTC to set, a record or snapshot of engine
conditions at the time that the malfunction occurred is also saved in the
vehicle’s computer memory. The record saved is called Freeze Frame
data.
1. While linked to the vehicle, press and
release the FF/M
button.
„
The “Test Modes” Menu displays.
and DOWN
buttons,
2. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight View Freeze
Frame, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Freeze Frame screen displays.
„
Saved engine conditions include but
are not limited to: engine speed,
open or closed loop operation, fuel
system commands, coolant temperature, calculated load value, fuel
pressure, vehicle speed, air flow
rate and intake manifold pressure.
If more than one malfunction is present that causes more
than one DTC to be set, only the code with the highest
priority will contain Freeze Frame data. The code
designated “01” on the Diagnostic Tool’s display is referred
to as the PRIORITY code, and Freeze Frame data always
refers to this code. The priority code is also the one that
has commanded the MIL on.
„
Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to view all
available Freeze Frame data.
3. When finished, press and release the FF/M
the OBD2 DTC screen.
button to return to
VIEWING VEHICLE INFORMATION
The Vehicle Info function offers three options for retrieving reference
information for the vehicle under test; Vehicle ID, Available Modules
and IPT (In-Use Performance Tracking).
OBD2&1
101
Additional Tests
VIEWING VEHICLE INFORMATION
Retrieving Vehicle ID Information
The Vehicle ID function is applicable to model year 2000 and
newer OBD2-compliant vehicles.
The Diagnostic Tool can retrieve a list of information (provided by the
vehicle manufacturer), unique to the vehicle under test, from the
vehicle's on-board computer. This information may include:
„
The vehicle's VIN number
„
The control module identification number
„
The vehicle's calibration ID(s). These IDs uniquely identify the
software version(s) for the vehicle's control module(s).
„
The Vehicle's Calibration Verification Number(s) (CVNs) required by
ODB2 regulations. CVNs are used to determine if emission-related
calibrations for the vehicle under test have been changed. One or
more CVNs may be returned by the vehicle's computer.
1. While linked to the vehicle, press and
release the FF/M
button.
„
The “Test Modes” Menu displays.
2. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Vehicle Info,
then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Vehicle Info Menu displays.
3. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Vehicle ID,
then press the ENTER
button.
4. A "One moment please..." message
displays while the requested information
is retrieved from the vehicle's computer.
The first time the Vehicle ID function
is used, it may take several minutes
to retrieve the information from the
vehicle's computer.
5. When the retrieval process is completed,
the vehicle ID information is shown on
the Diagnostic Tool's display. Use the
UP
and DOWN
buttons, as
necessary, to view the entire list.
6. When you have finished viewing the retrieved vehicle ID information,
press the FF/M
button to exit.
Viewing Available Modules
The Diagnostic Tool can retrieve a list of modules supported by the
vehicle under test.
102
OBD2&1
Additional Tests
VIEWING VEHICLE INFORMATION
1. While linked to the vehicle, press and
release the FF/M
button.
„
The “Test Modes” Menu displays.
2. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Vehicle Info,
then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Vehicle Info Menu displays.
3. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Available
Modules, then press the ENTER
button.
4. A "One moment please..." message
displays while the requested information
is retrieved from the vehicle's computer.
5. When the retrieval process is completed,
a complete list of modules supported by
the vehicle under test is shown on the
Diagnostic Tool's display. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as
necessary, to view the entire list.
6. When you have finished viewing the list
of available modules, press the FF/M
button to return to the “System
Test Menu.”
Viewing In-use Performance Tracking (IPT)
The Scam Tool can retrieve In-use Performance Tracking (IPT)
statistics for monitors supported by the vehicle under test. Two values
are returned for each monitor; the number of times that all conditions
necessary for a specific monitor to detect a malfunction have been
encountered (XXXCOND), and the number of times that the vehicle has
been operated under the specific conditions for the monitor (XXXCOMP).
Statistics are also provided for the number of times the vehicle has been
operated in OBD monitoring conditions (OBDCOND), and the number of
times the vehicle’s engine has been started (IGNCNTR).
1. While linked to the vehicle, press and
release the FF/M
button.
„
The “Test Modes” Menu displays.
2. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Vehicle Info,
then press the ENTER
button.
OBD2&1
103
Additional Tests
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
„
The Vehicle Info Menu displays.
3. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight IPT, then
press the ENTER
button.
4. A “One moment please . . .” message
displays while the requested information
is retrieved from the vehicle’s computer.
„
If In-use Performance Tracking is
not supported by the vehicle under
test, an advisory message shows on
the Diagnostic Tool’s display. Press
button to exit.
the FF/M
5. When the retrieved process is completed,
In-use Performance Tracking statistics
for monitors supported by the vehicle
under test are shown on the Diagnostic
and
Tool’s display. Use the UP
buttons, as necessary, to
DOWN
view the entire list.
6. When you have finished viewing the
statistics, press the FF/M
button to
exit.
OBDCOND
IGNCNTR
CATCOMP1
IPT
1/16
89
208
114
Press FF/M to exit
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
The Diagnostic Tool lets you make several adjustments and settings to
configure the Diagnostic Tool to your particular needs. It also contains
an OBD2 DTC Library that allows you to search for DTC definitions. The
following functions, adjustments and settings can be performed when
the Diagnostic Tool is in “MENU Mode”:
„
Adjust Brightness: Adjusts the brightness of the display screen.
„
Audible Tone: Turns the Diagnostic Tool’s audible tone “on” and
“off.” When turned “on,” a tone sounds each time a button is pressed.
„
Display Backlight: Turns the display backlight on and off.
„
DTC Library - Library of OBD2 DTC definitions.
„
Firmware Version: Displays the Diagnostic Tool’s firmware version.
„
Select Language: Sets the display language for the Diagnostic Tool
to English, French or Spanish.
„
Unit of Measurement: Sets the Unit of Measurement for the
Diagnostic Tool’s display to USA or metric.
Adjustments and settings can be made only when the
Diagnostic Tool is NOT connected to a vehicle.
104
OBD2&1
Additional Tests
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
To enter the MENU Mode:
1. With the Diagnostic Tool on the Code
Retrieval screen, press and release the
button.
FF/M
„
The “Test Modes” Menu displays.
and DOWN
buttons,
2. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight Tool Settings,
button.
then press the ENTER
„
The Tool Setting Menu displays.
3. Make adjustments and settings as
described in the following paragraphs.
Adjusting Display Brightness
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Adjust
Brightness in the Menu, then press the
button.
ENTER
„
The Adjust
displays.
„
The Brightness field shows the
current brightness setting, from 1 to 4.
Brightness
screen
2. Press the UP
button to decrease the
brightness of the display (make the
display darker).
button to increase
3. Press the DOWN
the brightness of the display (make the
display lighter).
4. When the desired brightness is obtained, press the ENTER
button to save your changes and return to the Menu.
Enabling the Audible Tone
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Audible Tone
in the Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Audible Tone screen displays.
2. Press the UP
or DOWN
button,
as necessary, to highlight ON or OFF as
desired.
3. When the desired option is selected,
button to save your
press the ENTER
changes and return to the Menu.
OBD2&1
105
Additional Tests
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
Using the Backlight
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Display
Backlight in the Menu, then press the
ENTER
button.
„
The Display Backlight screen displays.
2. Press the UP
or DOWN
button,
as necessary, to select the desired
backlight mode, either ON or OFF.
3. When the desired backlight mode is
button to
selected, press the ENTER
save your changes.
„
The display returns to the Menu,
and the backlight turns “on” or “off”
as selected.
Searching for a DTC Definition Using the
DTC Library
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight DTC Library
in the Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
„
*
*
*
*
*
Tool Settings Menu:
Adjust Brightness
Audible Tone
Display Backlight
DTC Library
Firmware Version
The Enter DTC screen displays. The
screen shows the code “P0001”,
with the “P” highlighted.
2. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to scroll to the desired
DTC type (P=Powertrain, U=Network,
B=Body, C=Chassis), then press the
DTC SCROLL
button.
„
The selected character displays “solid”, and the next character is
highlighted.
3. Select the remaining characters in the DTC in the same way,
pressing the DTC SCROLL
button to confirm each character.
When you have selected all the DTC characters, press the ENTER
button to view the DTC definition.
„
If you entered a “Generic” DTC
(DTCs that start with “P0”, “P2” and
some “P3”):
- The selected DTC and DTC
definition (if available) show on
the Diagnostic Tool’s display.
106
OBD2&1
Additional Tests
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
If a definition for the DTC you entered is not available, an advisory
message shows on the Diagnostic Tool’s display.
„
If you entered a “Manufacturer-Specific” DTC (DTCs that start
with “P1” and some “P3”):
- The “Select Manufacturer” screen
displays.
- Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons, as necessary, to highlight the appropriate manufacturer,
button
then press the ENTER
to display the correct DTC for
your vehicle.
If a definition for the DTC you
entered is not available, an
advisory message shows on the
Diagnostic Tool’s display.
4. If you wish to view definitions for
additional DTCs, press the ENTER
button to return to the Enter DTC screen,
and repeat steps 2 and 3.
5. When all desired DTCs have been viewed, press the FF/M
button to exit the DTC Library.
Viewing the Firmware Version
1. Use the UP
and DOWN
buttons,
as necessary, to highlight Firmware
Version in the Menu, then press the
button.
ENTER
„
The Firmware Version screen displays.
„
The screen shows the Diagnostic
Tool’s current firmware version.
2. Press the ENTER
the Menu.
button to return to
Selecting the Display Language
and DOWN
buttons,
1. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight Select
Language in the Menu, then press the
button.
ENTER
„
OBD2&1
The Select Language screen displays.
107
Additional Tests
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
„
The currently selected
Language is highlighted.
display
2. Press the UP
or DOWN
button,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
display language.
3. When the desired display language is
button
highlighted, press the ENTER
to save your changes and return to the
Menu (shown in the selected display language).
Setting the Unit of Measurement
and DOWN
buttons,
1. Use the UP
as necessary, to highlight Unit of
Measurement in the Menu, then press
button.
the ENTER
2. Press the UP
or DOWN
button,
as necessary, to highlight the desired
Unit of Measurement.
3. When the desired Unit of Measurement
value is selected, press the ENTER
button to save your changes and return to
the Menu.
Exiting the MENU Mode
1. Press the FF/M
„
108
button.
The LCD display returns to the DTC screen (if data is currently
stored in the Diagnostic Tool’s memory) or the “To Link” screen
(if no data is stored).
OBD2&1
Generic (Global) OBD2 PID List
The following is a list of Generic (Global) PIDs and their descriptions.
Tool
Display
ACC Pedal D
ACC Pedal E
ACC Pedal F
Air Status
Ambient
Aux Input
Status
BARO
Unit
%
%
%
*C /
*F
-
Value
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
UPS, DNS,
OFF
XXX
PID Description
Accelerator Pedal Position D
Accelerator Pedal Position E
Accelerator Pedal Position F
Commanded Secondary Air Status
Ambient Air Temperature
On / Off
Auxiliary Input Status
kPa
/inHg
%
*C /
*F
*C /
*F
*C /
*F
*C /
*F
%
XXX /
XX.X
XXX.X
XXXX.X
Barometric Pressure
XXX.X
Calculated LOAD Value
Catalyst Temperature Bank 1Sensor 1
Catalyst Temperature Bank 1Sensor 2
Catalyst Temperature Bank 2Sensor 1
Catalyst Temperature Bank 2Sensor 2
Commanded EGR
%
XXX.X
Commanded Evaporative Purge
%
XXX.X
Commanded Throttle Actuator
XXXXX
Distance since DTC Cleared
XXXXX
Distance Traveled while MIL ON
ECU Volts
EGR Error
Eng RPM
EQ Ratio
EQ Ratio 11
km
/mile
km
/mile
s
*C /
*F
V
%
min
-
EQ Ratio 12
-
X.XXX
EQ Ratio 13
-
X.XXX
EQ Ratio 14
-
X.XXX
Calc LOAD
CAT Temp 11
CAT Temp 12
CAT Temp 21
CAT Temp 22
Command
EGR
Command
EVAP
Command
TAC
Dist DTC Clr
Dist MIL ON
ECT
OBD2&1
XXXX.X
XXXX.X
XXXX.X
XXX / XXX
XX.XXX
XXX.X
XXXXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Engine Coolant Temp
Control Module Voltage
EGR Error
Engine RPM
Commanded Equivalence Ratio
Bank 1 - Sensor 1 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 1 - Sensor 2 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 1 - Sensor 3 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 1 - Sensor 4 Equivalence
109
Generic (Global) OBD2 PID List
Tool
Display
Unit
Value
EQ Ratio 21
-
X.XXX
EQ Ratio 22
-
X.XXX
EQ Ratio 23
-
X.XXX
EQ Ratio 24
-
X.XXX
EVAP Press
Pa
/in
H2O
kPa
/PSI
%
kPa
/PSI
kPa
/PSI
*C /
*F
%
%
%
%
%
g/s ;l
b/min
kPa
/PSI
hrs,
min
-
XXXX.XX
/XX.XXX
FP / Vac
Fuel Level
Fuel Press
Fuel Press
Fuel Sys 1
Fuel Sys 1
Fuel Sys 1
Fuel Sys 1
Fuel Sys 1
Fuel Sys 2
Fuel Sys 2
Fuel Sys 2
Fuel Sys 2
Fuel Sys 2
IAT
LOAD Value
LTFT B1
LTFT B2
LTFT B3
LTFT B4
MAF
MAP
MIL On Time
Monitor Status
O2S B1 S1
O2S B1 S1
110
V
mA
XXXX.XXX
/XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX /
XX.X
XXXXX
/XXXX.X
OL
CL
OL-Drive
OL-Fault
CL-Fault
OL
CL
OL-Drive
OL-Fault
CL-Fault
XXX / XXX
PID Description
Ratio
Bank 2 - Sensor 1 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 2 - Sensor 2 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 2 - Sensor 3 Equivalence
Ratio
Bank 2 - Sensor 4 Equivalence
Ratio
Evap System Vapor Pressure
Fuel Rail Pressure relative
toVacuum
Fuel Level Input
Fuel Rail Pressure
Fuel Rail Pressure
Fuel System 1 Status
Fuel System 1 Status
Fuel System 1 Status
Fuel System 1 Status
Fuel System 1 Status
Fuel System 2 Status
Fuel System 2 Status
Fuel System 2 Status
Fuel System 2 Status
Fuel System 2 Status
Intake Air Temperature
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.XX
/XXXX.X
XXX /
XX.X
XXXX, XX
Absolute Load Value
Long Term Fuel Trim-Bank 1
Long Term Fuel Trim-Bank 2
Long Term Fuel Trim-Bank 3
Long Term Fuel Trim-Bank 4
Air Flow Rate from Mass Air Flow
Sensor
Intake Manifold Absolute Pressure
ICONS on
Display
X.XXX
X.XXX
Monitor Status this Driving Cycle
Engine Run Time while MIL ON
Bank 1 - Sensor 1
Bank 1 - Sensor 1 O2S Current
OBD2&1
Generic (Global) OBD2 PID List
Tool
Display
mA
O2S B1 S1 V
O2S B1 S2
O2S B1 S2
mA
O2S B1 S2 V
O2S B1 S3
O2S B1 S3
mA
O2S B1 S3 V
O2S B1 S4
O2S B1 S4
mA
O2S B1 S4 V
O2S B2 S1
O2S B2 S1
mA
O2S B2 S1 V
O2S B2 S2
O2S B2 S2
mA
O2S B2 S2 V
O2S B2 S3
O2S B2 S3
mA
O2S B2 S3 V
O2S B2 S4
O2S B2 S4
mA
O2S B2 S4 V
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
O2S Location
OBD2&1
Unit
Value
PID Description
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 1 - Sensor 1 O2S Voltage
Bank 1 - Sensor 2
Bank 1 - Sensor 2 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 1 - Sensor 2 O2S Voltage
Bank 1 - Sensor 3
Bank 1 - Sensor 3 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 1 - Sensor 3 O2S Voltage
Bank 1 - Sensor 4
Bank 1 - Sensor 4 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 1 - Sensor 4 O2S Voltage
Bank 2 - Sensor 1
Bank 2 - Sensor 1 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 2 - Sensor 1 O2S Voltage
Bank 2 - Sensor 2
Bank 2 - Sensor 2 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 2 - Sensor 2 O2S Voltage
Bank 2 - Sensor 3
Bank 2 - Sensor 3 O2S Current
V
V
mA
X.XXX
X.XXX
X.XXX
Bank 2 - Sensor 3 O2S Voltage
Bank 2 - Sensor 4
Bank 2 - Sensor 4 O2S Current
V
-
X.XXX
O2S11
O2S12
O2S13
O2S14
O2S21
O2S22
O2S23
O2S24
O2S11
O2S12
O2S21
O2S22
O2S31
O2S32
O2S41
O2S42
Bank 2 - Sensor 4 O2S Voltage
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 2
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 3
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 4
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 3
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 4
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 1, Sensor 2
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 2, Sensor 2
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 3, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 3, Sensor 2
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 4, Sensor 1
Oxygen Sensor, Bank 4, Sensor 2
111
Generic (Global) OBD2 PID List
Tool
Display
OBD Support
OBD Support
OBD Support
Unit
-
OBD Support
OBD Support
OBD Support
OBD Support
-
OBD Support
-
OBD Support
-
OBD Support
OBD Support
-
OBD Support
-
OBD Support
-
Value
OBD2
OBD
OBD and
OBD2
OBD1
No OBD
EOBD
EOBD and
OBD2
EOBD and
OBD
EOBD,
OBD and
OBD2
JOBD
JOBD and
OBD2
JOBD and
EOBD
JOBD,
EOBD and
OBD2
On / Off
XXX.X
XX
PID Description
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
OBD Requirements
PTO Status
Rel TPS
Spark Adv
%
deg
STFT B1
STFT B1 S1
STFT B1 S2
STFT B1 S3
STFT B1 S4
STFT B2
STFT B2 S1
STFT B2 S2
STFT B2 S3
STFT B2 S4
STFT B3
STFT B4
Time DTC Clr
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
hrs,
min
sec
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXXX, XX
XXXX
Time Since Engine Start
%
%
%
XXX.X
XXX.X
XXX.X
Absolute Throttle Position
Absolute Throttle Position B
Absolute Throttle Position C
Time Since
Start
TPS
TPS B
TPS C
112
Power Take Off Status
Relative Throttle Position
Ignition Timing Advance #1
Cylinder
Short Term Fuel Trim-Bank 1
Bank 1 - Sensor 1
Bank 1 - Sensor 2
Bank 1 - Sensor 3
Bank 1 - Sensor 4
Short Term Fuel Trim-Bank 2
Bank 2 - Sensor 1
Bank 2 - Sensor 2
Bank 2 - Sensor 3
Bank 2 - Sensor 4
Short Term Fuel Trim-Bank 3
Short Term Fuel Trim-Bank 4
Time since DTC Cleared
OBD2&1
Generic (Global) OBD2 PID List
Tool
Display
Veh Speed
Warm-up DTC
Clr
OBD2&1
Unit
km/h
/
mph
-
Value
XXX / XXX
XXX
PID Description
Vehicle Speed Sensor
# Warm-ups since DTC Cleared
113
Glossary
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
CARB – California Air Resources Board
CCM – Central Control Module
Computer Control System – An electronic control system, consisting
of an on-board computer and related sensors, switches and actuators,
used to ensure peak performance and fuel efficiency while reducing
pollutants in the vehicle’s emissions.
DIY – Do-It-Yourself
DLC – Data Link Connector
Drive Cycle – An extended set of driving procedures that takes into
consideration the various types of driving conditions encountered in real
life.
Driving Condition – A specific environmental or operation condition
under which a vehicle is operated; such as starting the vehicle when
cold, driving at steady speed (cruising), accelerating, etc.
DTC(s) – Diagnostic Trouble Code(s)
EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
EVAP – Evaporative Emissions System
Fault Code – See DTCs
Freeze Frame – A digital representation of engine and/or emissions
system conditions present when a fault code was recorded.
FTP – Fuel Tank Pressure
Generic Code – A DTC that applies to all OBD2 compliant vehicles.
I/M Readiness – An indication of whether or not a vehicle’s emissionsrelated system are operating properly and are ready for Inspection and
Maintenance testing.
I/M Test / Emissions Test / Smog Check – A functional test of a
vehicle to determine if tailpipe emissions are within Federal/State/Local
requirements.
LCD – Liquid Crystal Display
LED – Light Emitting Diode
LTFT – Long Term Fuel Trim, is a program in the vehicle’s computer
designed to add or subtract fuel from the vehicle to compensate for
operating conditions that vary from the ideal A/F ratio (long term).
Manufacturer Specific Code – A DTC that applies only to OBD2
compliant vehicles made by a specific manufacturer.
MIL – Malfunction Indicator Lamp (also referred to as “Check Engine”
light
OBD1 – On-Board Diagnostics Version 1 (also referred to as “OBD I”)
114
OBD2&1
Glossary
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
OBD2 – On-Board Diagnostics Version 2 (also referred to as “OBD II”)
On-Board Computer – The central processing unit in the vehicle’s
computer control system.
PCM – Powertrain Control Module
Pending Code – A code recorded on the “first trip” for a “two-trip” code.
If the fault that caused the code to be set is not detected on the second
trip, the code is automatically erased.
PID – Parameter Identification
STFT – Short Term Fuel Trim, is a program in the vehicle’s computer
designed to add or subtract fuel from the vehicle to compensate for
operating conditions that vary from the ideal A/F ratio. The vehicle uses
this program to make minor fuel adjustments (fine tune) on a short-term
basis.
Trip Drive Cycle – Vehicle operation that provides the necessary
driving condition to enable a vehicle Monitor to run and complete its
diagnostic testing.
VECI – Vehicle Emission Control Information Decal
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Notes
116
OBD2&1
Warranty and Servicing
LIMITED ONE YEAR WARRANTY
The Manufacturer warrants to the original purchaser that this unit is free
of defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and
maintenance for a period of one (1) year from the date of original
purchase.
If the unit fails within the one (1) year period, it will be repaired or
replaced, at the Manufacturer’s option, at no charge, when returned
prepaid to the Service Center with Proof of Purchase. The sales receipt
may be used for this purpose. Installation labor is not covered under this
warranty. All replacement parts, whether new or remanufactured,
assume as their warranty period only the remaining time of this warranty.
This warranty does not apply to damage caused by improper use,
accident, abuse, improper voltage, service, fire, flood, lightning, or other
acts of God, or if the product was altered or repaired by anyone other
than the Manufacturer’s Service Center.
The Manufacturer, under no circumstances shall be liable for any
consequential damages for breach of any written warranty of this unit.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
rights, which vary from state to state. This manual is copyrighted with all
rights reserved. No portion of this document may be copied or
reproduced by any means without the express written permission of the
Manufacturer. THIS WARRANTY IS NOT TRANSFERABLE. For
service, send via U.P.S. (if possible) prepaid to Manufacturer. Allow 3-4
weeks for service/repair.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
If you have any questions, require technical support or information on
UPDATES and OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES, please contact your local
store, distributor or the Service Center.
USA & Canada:
(800) 544-4124 (6:00 AM-6:00 PM, 7 days a week PST)
All others: (714) 241-6802 (6:00 AM-6:00 PM, 7 days a week PST)
FAX: (714) 432-3979 (24 hr.)
Web: www.innova.com
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117
®
Innova Electronics Corp.
17352 Von Karman Ave.
Irvine, CA 92614
Printed in Taiwan
Instruction MRP #93-0320 Rev. A
Copyright © 2010 IEC. All Rights Reserved.
© 2010
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