THE AUTHORS
Stuart Nakamoto is an associate professor in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.
John Halloran is an associate professor in the same department.
Yuichi Kishimoto is a professor in the faculty of business at St. Andrews University, Osaka, Japan.
Hajime Kazumi is a graduate assistant in the same faculty.
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction
Japan in the World Coffee Market
Green Coffee
Other Coffee Products
Distribution Channels in Japan
Consumer Profile and Perceptions
Summary
References
Appendix: Coffee Imports and Domestic Supplies in Japan
1
1
1
1
3
7
9
9
10
Tables
1. Leading importing nations of coffee and coffee products
2. Green coffee imports into Japan, by major suppliers, 1983-1986
3. Reported prices of green coffee imports into Japan, by supplier
4. Consumption of coffee products over time in Japan
5. Consumption of coffee products in Japan, by location
Al. Green coffee imports into Japan, 1986
A2. Coffee imports into Japan, 1960-1987
A3. Domestic supplies of regular and instant coffee in Japan
1
3
3
7
7
10
11
12
Figures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Coffee import volume to Japan, by type, 1986
Coffee imports to Japan, 1959-1986
Distribution channels of coffee in Japan
Relative consumption of selected beverages in Japan, 1985
Consumer image of selected beverages in Japan
2
2
4
6
8
THE COFFEE MARKET IN JAPAN
Stuart Nakamoto, John Halloran, Yuichi Kishimoto and Hajime Kazumi
INTRODUCTION
imports of 596 million lb were an 11+ percent in­
crease over those for 1986.
This report presents available information on
the coffee market in Japan. Data are summarized
in the narration or presented in figures and tables
in the text and the appendix. All information. is
from the United Coffee Institute in Tokyo, unless
otherwise cited.
JAPAN IN THE WORLD COFFEE MARKET
Japan is the world's fifth-largest importer of
coffee and coffee products (Table 1). In the 1985-86
crop year, Japan imported the equivalent of 4.6
million bags (275,000 metric tons) of green coffee,l
a 10.6 percent increase over the previous year.
Only the United States, West Germany, France,
and Italy imported more. In 1989, Japan was tied
with France as the third-largest consuming
nation (McCabe 1989).
More than 88 percent of Japan's imports con­
sisted of green coffee, followed by about 6 percent
instant (or soluble) coffee and about 0.2 percent
roasted coffee (Figure 1). The remaining 5 percent
represents coffee extract or concentrate, used
mainly as a flavoring in processed products.
Of the various coffee products, only green
coffee has no import tariff. Other coffee products
are charged varying rates of up to 35 percent,
depending on agreements, trade regulations, and
the trading status of the exporting nation with
Japan.
Green Coffee
Japan imported 535 million lb of green coffee
in 1986, with a value of $1.02 billion (172 billion
yen at a conversion rate of 168.5 yen/dollar). Ex­
cept for recessionary periods, there has been a
steady increase in green coffee imports since 1959
(Figure 2 and Table Al). Imports from 1979 to 1987
grew at an annual rate of 5.6 percent, and 1987
1 "Green coffee" refers to the commonly traded product form.
The pulp is removed from coffee berries (or cherry coffee), and
the remaining bean is dried to get· parchment coffee.
Parchment coffee is further processed to remove the hull from
the bean, at which stage the product is called green coffee.
Green coffee is then roasted and ground before being brewed to
get the final cup of coffee. "Regular coffee" refers to the ground,
roasted product, as opposed to instant coffee.
Coffee imports have come from 50 countries,
encompassing practically all major producing
nations (Table A2). Average prices ranged from
$1.27Ilb to $4.861lb. Brazil, Colombia, and Indo­
nesia account for the majority of supplies. The
market share of these three countries has in­
creased from 53 percent in 1982 to 57-65 percent in
the following five years (Table 2).
The highest priced green coffee in 1984-1986
was from the United States, reflecting imports of
Kona Coffee (Table 3). Since Jamaica Blue Moun­
tain is generally recognized as having the highest
quality and consequently, is the most expensive
coffee in the world, the reported figures probably
include the lower grades of High Mountain and
Prime Washed. Both the U.S. and Jamaican im­
ports were priced much higher than the mean for
all imports, indicative of their higher quality.
Other Q>1fee Products
In addition to the 1986 green coffee imports of
$1 billion, Japan also imported $115 million of
other coffee products. These consisted of $78
million of instant coffee, $4 million of roasted
product, $24 million of sweetened coffee extract,
and $8 million of coffee extract without sugar.
Instant coffee imports peaked strongly in 1979
with a green coffee equivalent of 55.4 million Ib,
but have declined since then at an annual rate of
-2.9 percent (Table A2). Brazil and Colombia
Table 1. Leading importing nations of coffee and
coffee products.
Country
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
------ Bags (x 1000) -----United States
19,629
19,527
21,090
West Germany
9,209
9,006
9,491
France
5,696
5,832
5,477
Italy
3,790
4,497
4,663
Japan
4,287
4,130
4,569
Total
65,527
64,142
66,874
Note: Includes green coffee, roasted beans, instant coffee,
and concentrate in green coffee equivalents.
1
Concentrate (5.0%)
Roasted beans (0.21010)
Green coffee (88.3010)
o Green coffee
II Concentrate
mB Instant coffee
• Roasted beans
Percentages are in green coffee equivalents.
Figure 1. Coffee import volume to Japan, by type, 1986.
VOLUME
(million fbs)
700
TO
0
-
0
-
-
0
-
-
0
-
-
00
-
00
-
0
-
000.00
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
_
-
-
-
-
•
-
I
600
_.
- .
-
__
-
-
-
_
-
__
-.
Total
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
500
400
300
__
~
__
o
_
Green coffee
200
100
O-+----+----l~...,...__+_-;---t---+--+___+____+-+__+____+-_+____+____+-_+____t____1-...;___+-t___t____t_-+___+____;
'59
'61
'63
'65
'67
'69
'71
'73
YEAR
Figure 2. Coffee imports to Japan, 1959-1986.
2
75
'79
'81
'83
'SS
Table 2. Green coffee imports into Japan, by major suppliers, 1983-1986.
----1983----
----1984----
Supplier Volume
(million Ib)
Brazil
138.3
Indonesia 67.8
Colombia 60.5
India
28.6
Ivory Coast 26.7
Honduras 23.2
Jamaica
1.57
Yemen
0.66
USA
0.15
Other
102.4
----1986----
----1987---­
Volume
(million Ib)
Supplier Volume
(million lb)
Supplier Volume
(million Ib)
Brazil
165.6
Indonesia 96.2
Colombia 68.7
Honduras 28.8
27.2
Peru
Guatemala 19.1
Jamaica
1.83
Yemen
0.71
USA
0.06
101.6
Other
Indonesia 109.1
Brazil
107.2
Colombia 88.4
Honduras 42.2
Peru
33.7
Guatemala 19.0
Jamaica
1.92
Yemen
0.73
USA
0.09
Other
132.4
Indonesia
Brazil
Colombia
Honduras
Peru
Ethiopia
Jamaica
Yemen
USA
Other
----1985----
Supplier
Volume
(million lb)
Brazil
147.5
Indonesia 85.2
Colombia
62.1
Honduras 32.5
EI Salvador 22.9
India
21.3
Jamaica
2.49
Yemen
0.51
USA
0.18
Other
117.2
Supplier
136.5
124.1
94.5
35.9
24.6
23.3
1.78
0.66
0.02
154.4
Table 3. Reported prices of green coffee imports into Japan, by supplier.
----1986----
Top Five
USA
Bolivia
Venezuela
Jamaica
Central African Rep.
Selected
Brazil
Colombia
Honduras
Indonesia
----1985----
----1984----
$4.86
$4.44
$4.35
$4.04
$3.32
USA
Jamaica
Yemen
Switzerland
Cuba
$4.18
$3.54
$2.22
$2.15
$2.08
USA
Jamaica
Yemen
Cuba
Kenya
$3.93
$3.19
$2.15
$1.61
$1.61
$2.23
$2.05
$2.09
$1.43
Brazil
Colombia
Honduras
Indonesia
$1.23
$1.43
$1.43
$1.18
Brazil
Colombia
Honduras
Indonesia
$1.36
$1.46
$1.44
$1.27
Mean $1.91
Mean $1.33
Mean $1.39
Note: Prices are in dollars per pound. Reported prices vary from computed prices in Table 2 for
Bolivia and Venezuela.
accounted for 60 percent of the 15 million lb (actual
product weight) imported in 1986. Ecuador and the
United States together contributed 18 percent, or 2.9
million lb. Instant coffee from the United States
was highest priced at an average of $9.24/lb,
compared to $3.68/lb, $4.08Ilb, and $4.60Ilb for the
other major supplying countries.
In terms of other coffee products, more than
75 percent of the 1.1 million lb of roasted coffee
imported in 1986 came from the United States.
Brazil consistently supplies more than 90 percent
of the sweetened extract, and nearly 90 percent of
the coffee extract without sugar.
The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (1988)
reported that 1987 imports of instant coffee de­
clined from 1986 by 1.3 percent, to 14.8 million lb,
while roasted beans and sugarless extract in-
creased more than 2.5-fold, to 5.1 million lb and
10.7 million lb, respectively. No figures were
reported for sweetened extract.
DISTRmUTION CHANNELS IN JAPAN
As indicated above, imports of instant coffee
into Japan have declined over time. However,
consumption of both ground and instant coffee, as
evidenced by domestic supply, has increased
steadily (Table A3). The total supply of ground
coffee in Japan has grown at an annual rate of 8.3
percent, and instant coffee has grown by
6 percent. Processing in Japan, therefore, ac­
counts for practically all the net supply of ground
coffee and about 85 percent of the net supply of
instant coffee.
3
Production Region
Importer · Trading Company
I
Coffee Wholesalers
~,
Roasters
r­
I
I
I
I
I
't'
- - - - -...~~ Food Processors
L
_
--.
Food Wholesalers
I
Hotels,
TeaRooms,
Coffee
Houses,
Restaurants
Franchise
Chains
Figure 3. Distribution channels of coffee in Japan.
4
-----;,
Department
Stores,
Supermarkets
~'"
Miscellaneous
Food
Retailers
Most coffee is imported in green form. Domestic
production of ground and instant then uses
roughly proportionate shares of green coffee im­
ports. 2 The per unit price of instant coffee is
generally more than twice the price of ground
coffee.
Figure 3 diagrams the primary, secondary,
and tertiary channels of distribution for coffee in
Japan. Orders typically are placed when prices
are favorable (45 percent) or at a given inventory
level independent of price, usually three months
(40 percent) or 30 days (13 percent) before delivery.
The major channel, accounting for 75 percent, is
from the production region through an importer­
trading company to a green coffee wholesaler,
then to the roaster. Twenty-five percent of imports
go directly to wholesalers or roasters.
There are three major roasters and 500
smaller firms engaged in roasting. Ueshima
Coffee Co. and Kimura Coffee had a combined 59
percent of market share in 1986. Other roasters
include Art Coffee and MJB Sales (Japan).
Instant coffee is dominated by three compa­
nies: Nestle (Japan), Ajinomoto/General Foods,
and Suzuki Coffee. Market shares in 1986 were
67.8 percent for Nestle and 24.2 percent for Ajino­
moto (Yano Keizai Kenkyujo 1987), versus respec­
tive shares of 73 percent and 18 percent in 1979
(Yano Economic Research 1981).
From the roaster, some coffee passes on to food
processors, and food wholesalers handle some
tertiary flows to retail firms. Four major
categories are defined at the retail level: the insti­
tutional market, including hotels, restaurants,
coffee houses, and tea rooms; franchise chains;
department stores and supermarkets; and mis­
cellaneous food retailers. The most frequently
reported retail outlets for purchasing ground cof­
fee are specialty coffee stores and "super-combis"
(supermarkets), while the majority of instant
coffee comes from only super-combis.
In 1985, there were about 170,000 coffee houses,
or kissaten, in Japan (Karasawa 1988). In 1988,
more than 50,000 coffee houses were reported in
Tokyo alone, more than in any other city in the
world. These are an integral component of city
life. The kissaten is a surrogate office for busi­
ness, and most customers do not just drink coffee.
"They go to meet friends or lovers, to do business
(many offer a wide range of modern business
services), to talk politics, to listen to music, to eat
2 The conversion rates, in terms of green coffee required for
1 lb of finished product are 1.19 lb for roasted (regular) coffee
and 2.6 lb (up to 1983) and 3.0 lb (from 1983-on) for instant
coffee. It was reported that 1.72 g of product is used for one cup
(153 cc) of instant coffee and 7.14 g of grounds per 159 cc cup of
regular coffee.
(most serve light meals or snacks), to study, to
relax, and for a variety of other reasons. Coffee
drinking is only incidental." (Asia Pacific Agri­
business Report 1988a).
The popularity and sales of coffee houses are
reportedly declining, however, with changes in
distribution channels. The main competition is a
trend toward consumption of coffee at home, as
reflected in sales by supermarkets, neighborhood
stores, and specialty coffee shops. Kissaten have
evolved toward either fast-food-type operations3 or
gourmet outlets such ·as luxurious French cafes
where customers can specify not only the type of
coffee but also the roast and brewing methods
(Faddis and Aldridge 1989). While 1988 kissaten
prices were reported to have decreased dramati­
cally to 120-150 yen/cup versus 350-400 yen/cup of
a few years earlier (TCTJ 1988), the gourmet end
commands prices in the neighborhood of 600
yen/cup (Graven 1989).
Canned coffee drinks (iced coffee) were intro­
duced to Japan in the early seventies by Ueshima
Coffee Co. The market has since been increasing
at an average rate of more than 10 percent annu­
ally. Estimated consumption in 1984 was 123
million cases (Hikita 1985); in 1987, it was 200
million cases, or 1.5 billion liters (TCTJ 1988).
The sales volume in 1988 was more than $3.5
billion. Ajinomoto has also introduced a self­
heating canned coffee, in which a chemical
reaction heats the product when a tab is pulled.
Canned coffee drinks are the best-selling
drink on a year-round basis in Japan's two mil­
lion vending machines, and a major determinant
of market share is the number of vending ma­
chines. The makers of Coca-Cola (Georgia brand
coffee) have about 33 percent of the market with
700,000 machines, and Ueshima Coffee Co. has
about a 20 percent market share with fewer than
200,000 machines (Asia Pacific Agribusiness
Report 1988b, TCTJ 1988). The four leading brands
(Georgia, UCC, Daito, and Pokka) have a total
market share of 70-75 percent (Hikita 1985). The
15-20 companies with canned coffee include ma­
jor food companies such as Ajinomoto and beer
brewers such as Kirin, Suntory, Sapporo, and
Asahi (TCTJ 1988).
The household market for regular coffee is
small but increasing. Sales in 1988 for home con­
sumption were increasing at a 5-8 percent rate
over 1987's, which in turn increased 8 percent
from 1986 sales (TCTJ 1988). Because Japanese tea
is a strong substitute and because coffee is re3 Douter Coffee Company, with more than 200 outlets, pio­
neered fast food coffee in 1980 (Graven 1989). The company
plans expansion into South Korea (Karasawa 1988).
5
0)
....~
1
~
~
~
;;
f+
....<
~
(')
0
=s(Jj
~
ttS
Cocoa
....0
Cola
0
....
Beer/Alcohol Bev.
.~.,
Juice
f+
=s
....c..
~~~i~~~fj~i~~i~~~~~~i~~~I~i1fi~£{~~~~I~~~~i~~~~I~~I~~~i~~~~~~[~li~i~~~~£~l~J.~I~~~~~~I~~~
(D
...=str
Can Coffee
<
(D
Other Soda
=
American Tea
(D
..,
~
(D
(Jj
....=s
~
=
ttS
p=
...
CD
~
Milk
Coffee
Japanese Tea
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
I 0 Don't Drink
50%
Em Drink Some
60%
•
70%
Drink A Lot
Adjusted for no responses (1.80/0 to 4.1 %). n =4600
I
80%
90%
100%
garded as a Western drink, most consumers do
not know how to brew coffee, so drink the instant
product. Recent marketing efforts have concen­
trated on households, promoted coffee as a
Japanese after-dinner beverage, and demon­
strated brewing techniques.
The result has been not only more coffee
consumed but increasingly more ground coffee
being consumed in households as opposed to in­
stitutional and business locations. Home use of
coffee is about 58 percent of all consumption. Con­
sumption of ground coffee is shifting toward
households, while relatively more instant coffee is
being used in institutions and business.
CONSUMER PROFILE AND PERCEPTIONS
In Japan, the traditional and most popular
beverage, in terms of percentage of population who
drink it, is Japanese tea. This beverage was
consumed by more than 92 percent of the populace
in 1985 (Figure 4) versus 94 percent in 1980. Coffee
is second in popularity (and may have surpassed
tea as of this writing). Its reported consumption
increased from 78 percent of consumers in 1980 to
83 percent in 1985. Further, coffee is rivaling tea
as a social drink, especially among younger
consumers and with regard to coffee houses. Milk,
juice, sodas other than cola, and American tea are
the next most popular beverages. Alcoholic bever­
ages were not considered.
As reported by consumers, the most desirable
characteristics of coffee, in decreasing order of
importance, are gentle aroma, mild taste, weak
flavor, mild bitterness, and good aftertaste. The
four least mentioned characteristics are strong
sour taste, lingering aftertaste, strong bitterness,
and strong flavor.
The four reasons most often mentioned as to
why consumers drink coffee are, by decreasing
frequency of response, the condition (quality) of
the coffee, taste or flavor, coffee's aroma in prepar­
ation, and to enhance enjoyment of conversation.
All were static over time except for an increase in
citing the condition of the coffee, presumably a re­
flection of a change from instant to ground coffee.
In terms of the different coffee products, regu­
lar or ground coffee is regarded as a luxury item
(Figure 5).4 This placement also suggests that
coffee is regarded as a Western product. Instant
coffee is perceived as more similar to other ordi­
nary beverages. Both ground and instant coffee
drinkers tend to be younger than tea drinkers. In
1984, the 18-39 age bracket drank more coffee than
4 Consumers consider the price of coffee (instant and ground)
to be "moderate," however (TCTJ 1986).
any other age group (TCTJ 1986). Nearly 80
percent of junior high school students drank
coffee, versus 60-70 percent of the 60-and-over
bracket.
The consumption of coffee products has also
been increasing on a per capita basis (Table 4).
Per capita consumption of instant, ground, and
canned coffee increased between 1980 and 1985,
with total consumption growing from seven to
nine cups per week. The 1987 Ukers' International
Tea and Coffee Buyers' guide estimates 1986 per
capita annual consumption of coffee in Japan at
7.1 Ib (2.23 kg). The proportion between products
has remained relatively unchanged except for
some shifts between ground and canned coffee.
On a per capita basis, these figures indicate
Japanese drink twice as much instant as ground
coffee.
Overall, the majority of coffee is consumed at
home, with 22 percent being consumed at the
workplace or at school (Table 5). The breakdown
is very different between products, however.
Nearly all instant is consumed either at home or
at the workplace or school, and in a 3:1 ratio. This
ratio is similar for ground coffee, but as much is
Table 4. Consumption of coffee products over time
in Japan.
Coffee Type
1985
1980
1983
---------Cups/Week--------3.8
5.0
5.3
2.2
2.5
2.7
0.6
1.0
1.0
Instant
Regular
Can
Total
6.6
8.5
9.0
Table 5. 1985 Consumption of coffee products in
Japan, by location.
Location
Inst. Reg. Can Total*
-------Cup s/Week-------
(%)
At home
3.9
1.1
0.2
5.2
58%
Coffee house
0.0
1.1
0.0
1.1
12%
Work/school 1.3
0.4
0.3
2.0
22%
RestaurantJ
school
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
1%
Other
0.1
0.0
0.5
0.7
7%
Total
(%)
5.3
59%
2.7
29%
1.0
11%
9.0
100%
100%
* Totals may not be exact, due to rounding.
7
Luxury Goods
* Ground Coffee
*American Tea
I Youth I
I Adult
* Cola
Instant Coffee
*
* Sportsman Drinks
(e.g. Gatorade)
~
Milk
* Oolong Tea
* Wheat Tea
Ordinary Goods
Figure 5. Consumer image of selected beverages in Japan.
8
* Japanese Tea
,
consumed in coffee houses as at home. The
consumption pattern for canned coffee is very
different, with 20 percent being consumed at horne,
30 percent at work or school, and half elsewhere.
SUMMARY
Japan is a large coffee market with potential
REFERENCES
Asia Pacific Agribusiness Report. 1988a. Con­
sumer trends. Supplement to Issue 8 (Aug.).
p.5.
_ _. 1988b. Market trends. Issue 5 (May). p. 3.
Faddis, H., and L. Aldridge. 1989. As coffee
comes of age in Japan, brands heed call for
for further growth. Unlike in the U.S. market,
more focused identities. Tea and Coffee Trade
coffee consumption in Japan is still increasing.
Over $1.1 billion of coffee and coffee products were
imported in 1986, and imports have recently
grown at an average 5-6 percent annual rate.
Most roasting and other processing is done in­
country, and most stages of the distribution
channels are fairly concentrated. The level of
market concentration suggests that a viable strat­
egy for entry into the market would depend upon
establishing a working relationship with an ex­
isting market participant.
As opposed to at work or at coffee houses, there
is a trend towards more consumption at horne as
more consumers learn to brew coffee. The
consumption of canned coffee drinks is also in­
creasing, especially out of vending machines.
Japanese coffee drinkers tend to be younger
than their American counterparts, and Japanese
tea is the main competing product instead of soft
drinks. Instant coffee is very popular, and the use
of regular ground coffee is increasing. Japanese
consumers also exhibit a preference for high
quality and view ground coffee as a luxury. These
observations suggest that the prospects in Japan for
high quality coffee products are especially prom­
ising.
J. 161(9):44-46.
Graven, K. 1989. Japan's coffee craze prods firms
to look abroad, Asian Wall St. J. 13(23):1ff.
Hikita, K 1985. Consumption shows remarkable
growth. Tea and Coffee Trade J. 157(11)28-30.
Karasawa, K. 1988. Sophisticated roaster/brewer
from Japan. Tea and Coffee Trade J. 160(11):
16-17.
___. 1985. Consumption doubled in past dec­
ade. Tea and Coffee Trade J. 157(11)31-32.
McCabe, J. P. 1989. Japan's coffee market knows
no limit. Tea and Coffee Trade J. 161(7)6-7.
TCTJ. 1989. International report. Tea and Coffee
Trade J. 161(6)39.
___. 1988. Japan continues its coffee strength?
Tea and Coffee Trade J. 160(7)35-36.
___. 1986. Study reveals drinking habits. Tea
and Coffee Trade J. 158(1)107-108.
Yano Economic Research Institute Co., Ltd. 1981.
Market share in Japan 1981 (English trans­
lation). Tokyo. pp. 380-381.
Yano Keizai Kenkyujo. 1987. Nihon maketto shea
jiten 1987 (Market share in Japan 1987). (In
Japanese.) Tokyo. pp 972-976.
9
APPENDIX
Coffee Imports and Domestic Supplies in Japan
Table Al. Green coffee imports into Japan, 1986.
Computed
Computed
Country
Volume
(1000 lb)
Bolivia
240.8
Brazil
107,192.5
Burundi
841.8
14,180.6
Cameroon
Central Mr. Rep.
41.7
China
315.5
Columbia
88,443.2
Costa Rica
2,934.3
Cuba
3,440.8
Dominican Rep.
535.5
El Salvador
13,688.3
Ecuador
608.9
Ethiopia
15,332.5'
Guatemala
18,975.2
Haiti
1,121.6
Honduras
42,172.9
India
8,581.2
Indonesia
109,116.7
Ivory Coast
18,230.3
Jamaica
1,917.9
Kenya
697.0
Madagascar
3,656.6
1
2
Value l
(xl 000)
$420
$238,827
$1,792
$21,391
$138
$517
$181,631
$6,273
$9,342
$1,149
$27,343
$993
$34,824
$41,362
$2,044 '
$88,123
$13,825
$155,600
$27,240
$7,752
$1,687
$5,701
Price 2
($/lb)
$1.75
$2.23
$2.13
$1.51
$3.32
$1.64
$2.05
$2.14
$2.72
$2.15
$2.00
$1.63
$2.27
$2.18
$1.82
$2.09
$1.61
$1.43
$1.49
$4.04
$2.42
$1.56
Country
Volume
(1000 lb)
Value l
(xl 000)
Price 2
($/lb)
Mexico
Nicaragua
Papua New Guinea
Peru
Philippines
P. Yemen
Rwanda
Singapore
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Uganda
United States
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
Zaire
Zimbabwe
10,557.7
7,346.1
906.1
33,667.8
3,351.6
363.6
944.5
32.4
1,930.7
7,702.1
874.6
12,013.1
86.4
64.4
552.1
372.7
1,229.3
474.5
$20,267
$12,876
$1,857
$64,632
$4,973
$1,029
$1,451
$5,805
$17,203
$1,140
$18,125
$419
$106
$702
$1,099
$2,181
$967
$1.92
$1.75
$2.05
$1.92
$1.48
$2.83
$1.54
$1.39
$3.01
$2.23
$1.30
$1.51
$4.86
$1.66
$1.27
$2.95
$1.77
$2.04
19.5
$25
$1.29
534,755.1 $1,022,896
$1.91
Other
Total
$45
Conversion rate: US$l =168.52 yen.
Certain computed prices do not correspond to reported figures in Table 3, notably for Bolivia and Venezuela.
10
Table A2. Coffee imports into Japan, 1960-1987.
---- Green ---Volume
(1000Ib)
% Change
Year
--- Instant! --Volume
(1000Ib)
% Change
---- Total 2 ---Volume
(1000Ib)
% Change
------------ Green coffee equivalents -----------1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
17,920.0
23,608.9
33,238.2
33,829.1
37,941.4
48,097.7
41,116.6
101,727.7
89,794.2
99,882.1
130,394.9
177,493.7
150,927.8
219,792.2
287,622.4
188,207.8
241,246.9
325,169.2
295,106.2
223,942.0
385,220.1
385,317.1
385,972.0
409,327.4
449,846.5
491,898.0
509,780.6
534,754.4
595,879.2
31.7
40.8
1.8
12.2
26.8
-14.5
147.4
-11.7
11.2
30.5
36.1
-15.0
45.6
30.9
-34.6
2R.2
34.8
-9.2
-24.1
72.0
0.0
0.2
6.1
9.9
9.3
3.6
4.9
11.4
304.3
185.2
10,021.7
18,158.2
18,819.7
20,956.3
23,231.9
10,716.3
5,285.4
9,631.4
15,075.6
19,646.6
17,721.6
12,131.9
7,971.1
24,773.2
27,174.4
26,188.8
32,499.5
23,291.4
55,394.0
41,892.8
44,882.8
48,230.0
41,065.9
42,201.5
34,616.3
38,949.1
38,434.0
-39.1
5310.7
81.2
3.6
11.4
10.9
-53.9
-50.7
82.2
56.5
30.3
-9.8
-31.5
-34.3
210.8
9.7
-3.6
24.1
-28.3
137.8
-24.4
7.1
7.5
-14.9
2.8
-18.0
12.5
-1.3
18,361.0
23,959.5
43,484.8
52,163.7
57,186.7
69,219.4
64,461.0
112,613.8
95,269.2
109,725.2
145,668.9
197,250.5
168,839.1
232,287.9
296,184.4
213,510.2
269,060.7
351,907.0
327,923.2
247,747.2
441,646.1
428,793.1
439,723.3
470,035.4
505,491.8
554,008.5
567,273.7
605,819.3
NA
30.5
81.5
20.0
9.6
21.0
-6.9
74.7
-15.4
15.2
32.8
35.4
-14.4
37.6
27.5
-27.9
26.0
30.8
-6.8
-24.4
78.3
-2.9
2.5
6.9
7.5
9.6
2.4
6.8
NA
=1.0 lb of instant; since 1983 this ratio has been 3:1. Some figures in the Tea & Coffee Trade
Journal are inconsistent with the data presented here, implying the use of a different conversion factor for green coffee
equivalents.
2 Includes roasted beans and extract.
Note: NA =Not Available.
1 Until 1982, 2.6lb of green
11
Table A3. Domestic supplies of regular and instant coffee in Japan.
REGULAR COFFEE
Year
Domestic
Production
(1000Ib)
1977
101,430
185
273
1978
110,250
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
132,300
142,664
145,089
149,940
164,052
171,549
191,615
206,609
Year
Domestic
Production
(1000Ib)
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
43,454
42,268
59,352
55,321
58,371
64,706
66,302
71,054
72,776
76,379
Imports
(1000Ib)
364
234
542
423
412
355
439
1,091
Total
Supply
(1000Ib)
10,833
7,764
18,465
13,964
14,961
16,077
15,794
16,231
13,314
1.4,981
Value
Computed
Price*
($Ilb)
0
0
101,615
$495,762
110,523
$550,223
0
84
415
542
494
494
256
139
132,664
142,813
145,217
149,821
163,970
171,410
191,798
207,561
$554,919
$619,780
$626,857
$581,002
$676,216
$710,256
$820,106
$1,393,390
$4.88
$4.98
$4.18
$4.34
$4.32
$3.88
$4.12
$4.14
$4.28
$6.71
Value
Computed
Price*
($/lb)
$607,389
$704,728
$961,121
$780,850
$783,613
$776,574
$816,707
$867,813
$910,091
$1,366,568
$11.19
$14.09
$12.35
$11.27
$10.69
$9.61
$9.95
$9.94
$10.57
$14.96
INSTANT COFFEE
Total
Supply
Imports
(1000Ib)
(1000Ib)
Exports
* Computed price = value/total supply.
12
Exports
(1000Ib)
°
°
°
°
°
°
°
0
0
0
54,287
50,031
77,817
69,286
73,332
80,782
82,097
87,285
86,090
91,360
Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Noel P. Kefford, Director and Dean, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture
and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822. An Equal Opportunity Employer providing
programs and services to the. citizens of Hawaii without regard to race color, national origin, or sex.
INFORMATION TEXT SERIES 037-7/90 (1M)
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