APPLICATION GUIDELINE &
SERVICE MANUAL
R- 410A & R- 22 Split System AC & HP
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
PAGE
UNIT IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
UNIT IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Servicing Systems on Roofs With Synthetic Materials 22
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
INSTALLATION GUIDELINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Service Valves and Pumpdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Residential New Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Liquid Line Filter Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Add- On Replacement (Retrofit) - R- 22 to R- 410A . . . 6
Suction Line Filter Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Seacoast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
LOW- AMBIENT COOLING GUIDELINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
LONG LINE GUIDELINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
MAKE PIPING CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
ACCESSORY DESCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM REPAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CABINET ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Leak Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Coil Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
ELECTRICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Compressor Removal and Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Aluminum Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
System Clean- Up After Burnout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Contactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Evacuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
TROUBLESHOOTING WITH SUPERHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Cycle Protector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
TWO STAGE NON- COMMUNICATING N4A7/N4H6 . . . 40
Crankcase Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Operating Ambient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Time- Delay Relay (TDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Airflow Selections (ECM Furnaces) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Pressure Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Airflow Selection for Variable Speed
Furnaces (non- communicating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Defrost Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Defrost Control Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 /
1190281 DEFROST CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
DEFROST CONTROL (Fast # 1174185) . . . . . . . . . . . 14
System function and Sequence of operation
(Fast # 1174185) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Troubleshooting (Fast # 1174185) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FAST# 1185790 DEFROST CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Quiet Shift- 2 (non- communicating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
ECM Fan Motor (single stage equipment) . . . . . . . . . . 16
PSC Fan Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Compressor Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Low- Voltage Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
COPELAND SCROLL COMPRESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LG SCROLL COMPRESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Characteristics of the LG Scroll Compressor: . . . . . . . 18
COMPRESSOR TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Compressor Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Mechanical Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Airflow Selection for FVM4X Fan Coils
(non- communicating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
SYSTEM FUNCTION AND SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
(N4A7/N4H6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Compressor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Quiet Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Quiet Shift- 2 (non- communicating) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Defrost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Defrost Speedup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
CHECK CHARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
SINGLE- STAGE AC (*SA5, *SA6) GENERAL SEQUENCE
OF OPERATION - STANDARD THERMOSTAT . . . . . . . . 42
AC CONTROL FUNCTIONS AND SEQUENCE OF
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
SINGLE- STAGE HEAT PUMP (*SH4, *SH5, *SH6)
GENERAL SEQUENCE OF OPERATION - STANDARD
THERMOSTAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND SEQUENCE OF
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
421 08 5400 03 9/19/2017
TROUBLESHOOTING (SINGLE- STAGE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
TWO- STAGE *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Troubleshooting circuit board FAST # 1185237,
1186140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Application Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Model Plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Systems Communication Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Airflow Selections for *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9
Using Non- Communicating Thermostats . . . . . . . . . . 52
Pressure Switch Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Control Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Brown- Out Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Defrost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
230v Brown- Out Protection Defeated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Quiet Shift- 2 (Communicating models)
(FAST # 1185237, 1186140) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
230V Line (Power Disconnect) Detection . . . . . . . . . . 58
Liquid- Line Solenoid Accessory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Contactor Shorted Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Compressor Voltage Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
CHECK CHARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Heating Check Chart Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Compressor Thermal Cutout - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6,
*CH9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
(*CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Low or High Contactor Open / No 230V at
Compressor Contactor - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9 . . 58
Cooling and Heating Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Troubleshooting units for proper switching between
low & high stages - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9 . . . . . . . 59
Communication and Status Function Lights
For Communicating Control only, Green
communications (COMM) Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Unloader Test Procedure - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9 59
Temperature Thermistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Compressor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Thermistor Sensor Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Fan Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Time Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Pressure Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Failed Thermistor Default Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
CARE AND MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Desert and Seacoast Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Muffler, Accumulator, Reversing Valve (RVS) . . . . . . . 56
Cleaning Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Thermistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Cleaning Outdoor Fan Motor and Blade . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Control Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Electrical Controls and Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Refrigerant Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Final Check- Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
INDEX OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2
UNIT IDENTIFICATION
system malfunctions. This section explains how to obtain
the model and serial number from the unit rating plate.
These numbers are needed to service and repair the
R- 410A and R- 22 air conditioner or heat pump. Model and
serial numbers can be found on unit rating plate.
Troubleshooting Charts for Air Conditioners and Heat
Pumps are provided in the appendix at back of this manual.
They enable the service technician to use a systematic
approach to locate the cause of a problem and correct
Table 1—Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Model Number Nomenclature
OUTDOOR UNIT MODEL NUMBER IDENTIFICATION GUIDE
Digit Position:
1
2
3
4
5, 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Example Part Number:
N
4
A
3
18
C
K
A
1
0
0
* = Mainline
N = Entry
4 = R- 410A
X = R- 410A
A = Air Conditioner
H = Heat Pump
3 = 13 SEER
4 = 14 SEER
5 = 15 SEER
6 = 16 SEER
7 = 17 SEER
9 = 19 SEER
BRANDING
REFRIGERANT
18 = 18,000 BTUH = 1- 1/2 tons
24 = 24,000 BTUH = 2 tons
30 = 30,000 BTUH = 2- 1/2 tons
36 = 36,000 BTUH = 3 tons
42 = 42,000 BTUH = 3- 1/2 tons
48 = 48,000 BTUH = 4 tons
60 = 60,000 BTUH = 5 tons
A = Standard Grille
C = Coastal
G = Coil Guard Grille
TYPE
NOMINAL EFFICIENCY
NOMINAL CAPACITY
FEATURES
H = 208/230- 3- 60
K = 208/230- 1- 60
L = 460- 3- 60
VOLTAGE
Sales Code
Engineering Revision
Extra Digit
Extra Digit
Continued on next page
3
OUTDOOR UNIT MODEL NUMBER IDENTIFICATION GUIDE (single phase)
Digit Position:
1
2
3
4
5, 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Example Part Number:
*
C
A
9
24
G
K
A
2
0
0
* = Mainline
BRANDING
C = Two stage
communicating
KEY
S = Single stage
CHARACTERISTIC
communicating
A = Air Conditioner
TYPE
H = Heat Pump
5 = 15 SEER
6 = 16 SEER
7 = 17 SEER
8 = 18 SEER
NOMINAL EFFICIENCY
9 = 19 SEER
24 = 24,000 BTUH = 2 tons
36 = 36,000 BTUH = 3 tons
48 = 48,000 BTUH = 4 tons
NOMINAL CAPACITY
60 = 60,000 BTUH = 5 tons
G = Coil Guard Grille
FEATURES
K = 208- 230- 1- 60
VOLTAGE
Sales Code
Engineering Revision
Extra Digit
Extra Digit
4
OUTDOOR UNIT MODEL NUMBER IDENTIFICATION GUIDE (single phase)
Digit Position:
1,2
3
4
5,6
7
8
9
10
11
Example Part Number:
WC
A
5
24
4
G
K
A
1
WC = Condensing Unit
A = Air Conditioner
H = Heat Pump
3 = 13 SEER
4 = 14 SEER
5 = 15 SEER
18 = 18,000 BTUH = 1½ tons
24 = 24,000 BTUH = 2 tons
30 = 30,000 BTUH = 2½ tons
36 = 36,000 BTUH = 3 tons
42 = 42,000 BTUH = 3½ tons
48 = 48,000 BTUH = 4 tons
60 = 60,000 BTUH = 5 tons
TYPE
SEER
NOMINAL CAPACITY
4 = R- 410A
A = Standard Grille
G = Coil Guard Grille
REFRIGERANT
FEATURE
K = 208/230- 1- 60
Sales Code
Extra Digit
VOLTAGE
5
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
Installation, service, and repair of these units should be
attempted only by trained service technicians familiar with
standard service instruction and training material.
All equipment should be installed in accordance with
accepted practices and unit Installation Instructions, and in
compliance with all national and local codes. Power should
be turned off when servicing or repairing electrical
components. Extreme caution should be observed when
troubleshooting electrical components with power on.
Observe all warning notices posted on equipment and in
instructions or manuals.
!
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Remove the suction line filter drier as soon as
possible, with a maximum of 72 hr.
Drain oil from low points or traps in suction- line and
evaporator if they were not replaced.
Change out indoor coil or verify existing coil is listed in
the specifications or AHRIdirectory.org.
Unless indoor unit is equipped with a R- 410A
approved metering device, change out metering
device to factory supplied or field- accessory device
specifically designed for R- 410A.
Replace outdoor unit with R- 410A outdoor unit.
Install factory- supplied liquid- line filter drier.
WARNING
UNIT OPERATION AND SAFETY HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
R- 410A systems operate at higher pressures than
standard R- 22 systems. Do not use R- 22 service
equipment or components on R- 410A equipment.
Ensure service equipment is rated for R- 410A.
!
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Never install suction- line filter drier in the liquid- line
of an R- 410A system.
7. If suction- line filter drier was installed for system
clean up, operate system for 10 hr. Monitor pressure
drop across drier. If pressure drop exceeds 3 psig,
replace suction- line and liquid- line filter driers. Be
sure to purge system with dry nitrogen and evacuate
when replacing filter driers. Continue to monitor
pressure drop across suction- line filter drier. After 10
hr of runtime, remove suction- line filter drier and
replace liquid- line filter drier. Never leave suction- line
filter drier in system longer than 72 hr (actual time).
8. Charge system. (See unit information plate.)
Refrigeration systems contain refrigerant under pressure.
Extreme caution should be observed when handling
refrigerants. Wear safety glasses and gloves to prevent
personal injury. During normal system operations, some
components are hot and can cause burns. Rotating fan
blades can cause personal injury. Appropriate safety
considerations are posted throughout this manual where
potentially dangerous techniques are addressed.
INTRODUCTION
This document provides required system information
necessary to install, service, repair or maintain the family air
conditioners and heat pumps using R- 22 or R- 410A
refrigerant.
Refer to the unit specifications and technical support
manuals for rating information, electrical data, required
clearances, additional component part numbers and related
pre- sale data. Installation Instructions are also available per
specific models.
INSTALLATION GUIDELINE
Residential New Construction
Specifications for these units in the residential new
construction market require the outdoor unit, indoor unit,
refrigerant tubing sets, metering device, and filter drier listed
in specification sheets and technical support manuals. DO
NOT DEVIATE. Consult unit Installation Instructions for
detailed information.
Add- On Replacement (Retrofit) - R- 22 to
R- 410A
Specifications
for
these
units
in
the
add- on
replacement/retrofit market require change- out of outdoor
unit, metering device, and all capillary tube coils.
Change- out of indoor coil is recommended. There can be
no deviation.
1. If system is being replaced due to compressor
electrical failure, assume acid is in system. If system
is being replaced for any other reason, use approved
acid test kit to determine acid level. If even low levels
of acid are detected install factory approved, 100
percent activated alumina suction- line filter drier in
addition to the factory supplied liquid- line filter drier.
CAUTION
Seacoast
Coastal units are available in selected models and sizes of
Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. These units have
protection to help resist the corrosive coastal environment.
Features include:
S
S
Epoxy coated coils
Complete baked- on paint coverage
(both sides of external sheet metal and grilles)
Paint coated screws
Coastal environments are considered to be within 2 miles of
the ocean. Salt water can be carried as far away as 2 miles
from the coast by means of sea spray, mist or fog.
Line- of- sight distance from the ocean, prevailing wind
direction, relative humidity, wet/dry time, and coil
temperatures will determine the severity of corrosion
potential in the coastal environment.
S
LOW- AMBIENT COOLING
GUIDELINE
The minimum operating temperature for these units in
cooling mode is 55_F/12.7_C outdoor ambient without
additional accessories. Low ambient cannot be used with
Communicating control. If Low ambient requirements are
needed, use as non- communicating, and refer to
specification sheets for proper accessories required. Wind
baffles are required when operating in cooling mode at
ambients below 55_F/12.7_C. Plans are shown in Low
Ambient Pressure Kit instructions.
6
LONG LINE GUIDELINE
Refer to Split System Long Line Applications Guidelines for
air conditioner and heat pump systems.
ACCESSORY DESCRIPTIONS
See the appropriate specification sheets and installation
manuals for accessory information.
CABINET ASSEMBLY
Access Compressor Or Other Internal Cabinet
Components
NOTE: It is not necessary to remove the top cover to gain
access. Removing the top cover may cause grill panels,
corner posts or coils to be damaged. It is recommended to
protect the top cover from damage of tools, belt buckles,
etc. while servicing from the top.
1. Should the unit height allow components to be
accessed from the top of the unit, follow procedures
for removing fan motor assembly. Access
components through the top cap.
2. Large components may not be removed easily
without having access from the top and side. Side
access may allow procedures such as brazing,
cutting, and removal easier. Follow procedures below:
a. Follow procedures to remove the fan motor assembly.
b. Air conditioning units only, remove the screws from the
top of the electrical control panel. (Heat pumps will not
have screws holding the electrical control panel in
place at the top once the control box cover has been
removed.)
c. Remove the base pan screws holding the control panel
and lift off the unit.
Certain maintenance routines and repairs require removal of
cabinet panels.
Fig. 1 – Typical AC Control Box
7
Fig. 2 – Typical HP Control Box
Labeling
Fig. 3 – Typical Labeling
A150066
8
ELECTRICAL
!
2. With power off, use ohmmeter to check for continuity
of coil. Disconnect leads before checking. A low
resistance reading is normal. Do not look for a
specific value, as different part numbers will have
different resistance values.
3. Reconnect leads and apply low- voltage power to
contactor coil. This may be done by leaving
high- voltage power to outdoor unit off and turning
thermostat to cooling. Check voltage at coil with
voltmeter. Reading should be between 20v and 30v.
Contactor should pull in if voltage is correct and coil is
good. If contactor does not pull in, replace contactor.
4. With high- voltage power off and contacts pulled in,
check for continuity across contacts with ohmmeter. A
very low or 0 resistance should be read. Higher
readings could indicate burned or pitted contacts
which may cause future failures.
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Exercise extreme caution when working on any
electrical components. Shut off all power to system prior
to troubleshooting. Some troubleshooting techniques
require power to remain on. In these instances, exercise
extreme caution to avoid danger of electrical shock.
ONLY TRAINED SERVICE PERSONNEL SHOULD
PERFORM ELECTRICAL TROUBLESHOOTING.
Aluminum Wire
!
CAUTION
Capacitor
!
UNIT OPERATION AND SAFETY HAZARD
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Aluminum wire may be used in the branch circuit (such
as the circuit between the main and unit disconnect),
but only copper wire may be used between the unit
disconnect and the unit.
Whenever aluminum wire is used in branch circuit wiring
with this unit, adhere to the following recommendations.
Connections must be made in accordance with the National
Electrical Code (NEC), using connectors approved for
aluminum wire. The connectors must be UL approved
(marked Al/Cu with the UL symbol) for the application and
wire size. The wire size selected must have a current
capacity not less than that of the copper wire specified, and
must not create a voltage drop between service panel and
unit in excess of 2 of unit rated voltage. To prepare wire
before installing connector, all aluminum wire must be
“brush- scratched” and coated with a corrosion inhibitor
such as Pentrox A. When it is suspected that connection will
be exposed to moisture, it is very important to cover entire
connection completely to prevent an electrochemical action
that will cause connection to fail very quickly. Do not reduce
effective size of wire, such as cutting off strands so that wire
will fit a connector. Proper size connectors should be used.
Check all factory and field electrical connections for
tightness. This should also be done after unit has reached
operating temperatures, especially if aluminum conductors
are used.
Contactor
The contactor provides a means of applying power to unit
using low voltage (24v) from transformer in order to power
contactor coil. Depending on unit model, you may encounter
single- or double- pole contactors. Exercise extreme
caution when troubleshooting as 1 side of line may be
electrically energized. The contactor coil is powered by
24vac. If contactor does not operate:
1. With power off, check whether contacts are free to
move. Check for severe burning or arcing on contact
points.
WARNING
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
Capacitors can store electrical energy when power is
off. Electrical shock can result if you touch the capacitor
terminals and discharge the stored energy. Exercise
extreme caution when working near capacitors. With
power off, discharge stored energy by shorting across
the capacitor terminals with a 15,000- ohm, 2- watt
resistor.
NOTE: If bleed resistor is wired across start capacitor, it
must be disconnected to avoid erroneous readings when
ohmmeter is applied across capacitor.
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
Always check capacitors with power off. Attempting to
troubleshoot a capacitor with power on can be
dangerous. Defective capacitors may explode when
power is applied. Insulating fluid inside is combustible
and may ignite, causing burns.
Capacitors are used as a phase- shifting device to aid in
starting certain single- phase motors. Check capacitors as
follows:
NOTE: ECM motors do NOT use capacitors.
1. With power off, discharge capacitors as outlined
above. Disconnect capacitor from circuit. Put
ohmmeter on R X 10k scale. Using an analog
ohmmeter, check each terminal to ground (use
capacitor case). Discard any capacitor which
measures 1/2 scale deflection or less. Place
ohmmeter leads across capacitor and place on R X
10k scale. Meter should jump to a low resistance
value and slowly climb to higher value. Failure of
meter to do this indicates an open capacitor. If
resistance stays at 0 or a low value, capacitor is
internally shorted.
9
2. Capacitance testers are available which will read
value of capacitor. If value is not within 10 percent
value stated on capacitor, it should be replaced. If
capacitor is not open or shorted, the capacitance
value is calculated by measuring voltage across
capacitor and current it draws.
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Exercise extreme caution when taking readings while
power is on.
Use following formula to calculate capacitance:
Capacitance (mfd)= (2650 X amps)/volts
3. Remove any capacitor that shows signs of bulging,
dents, or leaking. Do not apply power to a defective
capacitor as it may explode.
Sometimes under adverse conditions, a standard run
capacitor in a system is inadequate to start compressor. In
these instances, a start assist device is used to provide an
extra starting boost to compressor motor. This device is
called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) or start
thermistor. It is a resistor wired in parallel with the run
capacitor. As current flows through the PTC at start- up, it
heats up. As PTC heats up, its resistance increases greatly
until it effectively lowers the current through itself to an
extremely low value. This, in effect, removes the PTC from
the circuit.
After system shutdown, resistor cools and resistance value
returns to normal until next time system starts. Thermistor
device is adequate for most conditions, however, in systems
where off cycle is short, device cannot fully cool and
becomes less effective as a start device. It is an easy
device to troubleshoot. Shut off all power to system.
Check thermistor with ohmmeter as described below. Shut
off all power to unit. Remove PTC from unit. Wait at least 10
minutes for PTC to cool to ambient temperature.
Measure resistance of PTC with ohmmeter.
The cold resistance (RT) of any PTC device should be
approximately 100- 180 percent of device ohm rating.
12.5- ohm PTC = 12.5- 22.5 ohm resistance (beige color)
If PTC resistance is appreciably less than rating or more
than 200 percent higher than rating, device is defective.
Cycle Protector
ICP thermostats have anti- cycle protection built in to protect
the compressor. Should a non- ICP stat be utilized, it is
recommended to add a cycle protector to the system.
Solid- state cycle protector protects unit compressor by
preventing short cycling. After a system shutdown, cycle
protector provides for a 5  2- minute delay before
compressor restarts. On normal start- up, a 5- minute delay
occurs before thermostat closes. After thermostat closes,
cycle protector device provides a 3- sec delay.
Cycle protector is simple to troubleshoot. Only a voltmeter
capable of reading 24v is needed. Device is in control
circuit, therefore, troubleshooting is safe with control power
(24v) on and high- voltage power off.
With high- voltage power off, attach voltmeter leads across
T1 and T3, and set thermostat so that Y terminal is
energized. Make sure all protective devices in series with Y
terminal are closed. Voltmeter should read 24v across T1
and T3. With 24v still applied, move voltmeter leads to T2
and T3. After 5  2 minutes, voltmeter should read 24v,
indicating control is functioning normally. If no time delay is
encountered or device never times out, change control.
Crankcase Heater
Crankcase heater is a device for keeping compressor oil
warm. By keeping oil warm, refrigerant does not migrate to
and condense in compressor shell when the compressor is
off. This prevents flooded starts which can damage
compressor.
On units that have a single- pole contactor, the crankcase
heater is wired in parallel with contactor contacts and in
series with compressor. (See Fig. 5.) When contacts open, a
circuit is completed from line side of contactor, through
crankcase heater, through run windings of compressor, and
to other side of line. When contacts are closed, there is no
circuit through crankcase heater because both leads are
connected to same side of line. This allows heater to
operate when system is not calling for cooling. The heater
does not operate when system is calling for cooling.
TEMP SWITCH
CRANKCASE HTR
BLK
BLK
BLK
BLK
11
21
A97586
Fig. 5 – Wiring for Single- Pole Contactor
For 3- phase 460V units, the CCH is controlled by a
temperature switch and relay. The relay is controlled by the
temperature switch that is wired in series with the low
voltage indoor transformer connections, R & C, from the low
voltage harness assembly. If the OD ambient is above 85 F,
the CCH switch is open and the relay will be de- energized.
In this state, the CCH will not be energized. If the OD
ambient goes below 65 F and doesn’t rise above 85 F, the
CCH switch is closed and the relay will be energized. In this
state, the CCH will be energized when the compressor
contactor is open.
A94006
Fig. 4 – Capacitors
10
NOTE: Because these switches are attached to refrigeration
system under pressure, it is not advisable to remove this
device for troubleshooting unless you are reasonably
certain that a problem exists. If switch must be removed,
remove and recover all system charge so that pressure
gauges read 0 psi. Never open system without breaking
vacuum with dry nitrogen.
CCH
SWITCH
C terminal of
ID low voltage
harness
RED
RED
RED
RED
RED
R
RED
Relay
Relay
BLK
RED
R terminal of
ID low voltage
harness
BLK
BLK
21
!
11
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
A170102
Fig. 6 – Wiring for 3- Phase 460 Volt
The crankcase heater is powered by high- voltage power of
unit. Use extreme caution troubleshooting this device with
power on. The easiest method of troubleshooting is to apply
voltmeter across crankcase heater leads to see if heater
has power. Do not touch heater. Carefully feel area around
crankcase heater. If warm, crankcase heater is probably
functioning. Do not rely on this method as absolute
evidence heater is functioning. If compressor has been
running, the area will still be warm.
With power off and heater leads disconnected, check across
leads with ohmmeter. Do not look for a specific resistance
reading. Check for resistance or an open circuit. Change
heater if an open circuit is detected.
Time- Delay Relay (TDR)
The TDR is a solid- state control, recycle delay timer which
keeps indoor blower operating for 90 sec after thermostat is
satisfied. This delay enables blower to remove residual
cooling in coil after compression shutdown, thereby
improving efficiency of system. The sequence of operation
is that on closure of wall thermostat and at end of a fixed on
delay of 1 sec, fan relay is energized. When thermostat is
satisfied, an off delay is initiated. When fixed delay of 90 
20 sec is completed, fan relay is de- energized and fan
motor stops. If wall thermostat closes during this delay, TDR
is reset and fan relay remains energized. TDR is a 24v
device that operates within a range of 15v to 30v and draws
about 0.5 amps. If the blower runs continuously instead of
cycling off when the fan switch is set to AUTO, the TDR is
probably defective and must be replaced.
Pressure Switches
Pressure switches are protective devices wired into control
circuit (low voltage). They shut off compressor if abnormally
high or low pressures are present in the refrigeration circuit.
R- 410A pressure switches are specifically designed to
operate with R- 410A systems. R- 22 pressure switches
must not be used as replacements for the R- 410A air
conditioner or heat pump. R- 410A pressure switches are
identified by a pink stripe down each wire.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant.
To replace switch:
1. Apply heat with torch to solder joint and remove
switch.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses when using torch. Have quenching
cloth available. Oil vapor in line may ignite when switch
is removed.
2. Braze in 1/4- in. flare fitting and screw on replacement
pressure switch.
High- Pressure Switch (AC & HP)
The high- pressure switch is located in liquid line and
protects against excessive condenser coil pressure. It
opens around 610 to 670 psig for R- 410A and 400 psig for
R- 22 (+/- 10 for both). Switches close at 298 (+/- 20) psig
for R- 22 and 420 or 470 (+/- 25) psig for R- 410A. High
pressure may be caused by a dirty condenser coil, failed fan
motor, or condenser air re- circulation.
To check switch:
1. Turn off all power to unit.
2. Disconnect leads on switch.
3. Apply ohmmeter leads across switch. You should
have continuity on a good switch.
NOTE: Because these switches are attached to refrigeration
system under pressure, it is not advisable to remove this
device for troubleshooting unless you are reasonably
certain that a problem exists. If switch must be removed,
remove and recover all system charge so that pressure
gauges read 0 psi. Never open system without breaking
vacuum with dry nitrogen.
Low- Pressure Switch (AC Only)
The low- pressure switch is located on suction line and
protects against low suction pressures caused by such
events as loss of charge, low airflow across indoor coil, dirty
filters, etc. It opens on a pressure drop at about 50 psig for
R- 410A and about 27 for R- 22. If system pressure is above
this, switch should be closed. To check switch:
1. Turn off all power to unit.
2. Disconnect leads on switch.
3. Apply ohmmeter leads across switch. You should
have continuity on a good switch.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant.
11
To replace switch:
1. Apply heat with torch to solder joint and remove
switch.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses when using torch. Have
quenching cloth available. Oil vapor in line may ignite
when switch is removed.
2. Braze in 1/4- in. flare fitting and replace pressure
switch.
Loss of Charge Switch (HP Only)
Located on liquid line of heat pump only, the liquid line
pressure switch functions similar to conventional
low- pressure switch.
Because heat pumps experience very low suction
pressures during normal system operation, a conventional
low- pressure switch cannot be installed on suction line.
This switch is installed in liquid line instead and acts as
loss- of- charge protector. The liquid- line is the low side of
the system in heating mode. It operates identically to
low- pressure switch except it opens at 23 (+/- 5) psig for
R- 410A and 7 (+/- 5) psig for R- 22 and closes at 55 (+/- 5)
psig for R- 410A and 22 (+/- 5) psig for R- 22. Two- stage
heat pumps have the low- pressure switch located on the
suction line. The two- stage control board has the capability
to ignore low- pressure switch trips during transitional
(defrost) operation to avoid nuisance trips. Troubleshooting
and removing this switch is identical to procedures used on
other switches. Observe same safety precautions.
Defrost Thermostat
Defrost thermostat signals heat pump that conditions are
right for defrost or that conditions have changed to terminate
defrost. It is a thermally actuated switch clamped to outdoor
coil to sense its temperature. Normal temperature range is
closed at 32_ + 3_F and open at 65_ + 5_F. Defrost
thermostats are used in non- communicating models, a coil
temperature thermistor is used in Communicating units.
FEEDER TUBE
STUB TUBE
DEFROST
THERMOSTAT
A97517
Fig. 7 – Defrost Thermostat Location
Check Defrost Thermostat
There is a liquid header with a distributor and feeder tube
going into outdoor coil. At the end of 1 of the feeder tubes,
there is a 3/8- in. OD stub tube approximately 2 in. (50.8
mm) long. (See Fig. 7.) The defrost thermostat should be
located on stub tube. Note that there is only 1 stub tube
used with a liquid header, and on most units it is the bottom
circuit.
NOTE: The defrost thermostat must be located on the liquid
side of the outdoor coil on the bottom circuit and as close to
the coil as possible. For a copper stub tube, the DFT will
have a copper cup. For an aluminum stub tube, the DFT will
have an aluminum cup. Don’t interchange material types.
Defrost Control Boards
Troubleshooting defrost control involves a series of simple
steps that indicate whether or not board is defective.
NOTE: This procedure allows the service technician to
check control board and defrost thermostat for defects. First,
troubleshoot to make sure unit operates properly in heating
and cooling modes. This ensures operational problems are
not attributed to the defrost control board.
FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281
DEFROST CONTROL
The FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281 defrost control is
used in all Performance heat pump models. Its features
include selectable defrost intervals of 30, 60, 90 minutes,
and standard defrost speed up capability. This section
describes the sequence of operation and troubleshooting
methods for this control.
Cooling Sequence of Operation (FAST # 1173636 /
1177927 / 1190281)
On a call for cooling, thermostat makes R- O, R- Y, and
R- G. Circuit R- O energizes reversing valve switching it to
cooling position. Circuit R- Y sends low voltage through the
safeties and energizes the contactor, which starts the
compressor and energizes the T1 terminal on the circuit
board. This will energize the OF2 fan relay which starts the
outdoor fan motor (ODF relay for 1190281).
When the cycle completes, R- Y is turned off. Compressor
and outdoor fan should stop. With ICP thermostats, the O
terminal remains energized in the cooling mode. If the mode
is switched to heat or Off, the valve is de- energized. There
is no compressor delay built into this control.
Heating Sequence of Operation
(FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281)
On a call for heating, thermostat makes R- Y, and R- G.
Circuit R- Y sends low voltage through the safeties and
energizes the contactor, which starts the compressor and
energizes the T1 terminal on the circuit board. The T1
terminal energizes the defrost logic. This will energize the
OF2 fan relay start the outdoor motor (ODF relay for
1190281). The T1 terminal must be energized for defrost to
function.
When the cycle is complete, R- Y is turned off and the
compressor and outdoor fan should stop. There is no
compressor delay built into this control.
Defrost Sequence (FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281)
The defrost control is a time/temperature control that has
field selectable settings of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. These
represent the amount of time that must pass after closure of
the defrost thermostat before the defrost sequence begins.
The defrost thermostat senses coil temperature throughout
the heating cycle. When the coil temperature reaches the
defrost thermostat setting of approximately 32_F it will close,
which energizes the DFT terminal and begins the defrost
timing sequence. When the DTF has been energized for the
selected time, the defrost cycle begins, and the control shifts
the reversing valve into cooling position, and turns the
outdoor fan off. This shifts hot gas flow into the outdoor coil
which melts the frost from the coil. The defrost cycle is
terminated when defrost thermostat opens at approximately
65_F, or automatically after 10 minutes.
12
1190281 board for ECM motors
A150020
Fig. 8 – FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281 Defrost Control
Troubleshooting (FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281)
If outdoor unit will not run:
1. Does the Y input has 24 volts from thermostat? If not,
check thermostat or wire. If yes proceed to #2
2. The Y spade terminal on the circuit board should
have 24 volts if Y input is energized. This output goes
through the pressure switches and to the contactor. If
24 volts is present on the Y spade terminal, and the
contactor is not closed, check voltage on contactor
coil. If no voltage is present, check for opened
pressure switch.
3. If voltage is present and contactor is open, contactor
may be defective. Replace contactor if necessary.
4. If contactor is closed and unit will still not run, check
wiring, capacitor and compressor
Defrost Speedup (FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281)
To test the defrost function on these units, speed up pins
are provided on the circuit board. To force a defrost cycle,
the defrost thermostat must be closed, or the defrost
thermostat pins must be jumpered. Follow the steps below
to force a defrost cycle:
1. Jumper the DFT input
2. Short the speed up pins. This speeds up the defrost
timer by a factor of 256. The longer the defrost
interval setting, the longer the pins must be shorted to
speed through the timing. For example, if interval is
90 min, the speed up will take (90/256)min x
(60seconds /minute)= 21 seconds max. This could be
shorter depending on how much time has elapsed
since the defrost thermostat closed.
3. Remove the short immediately when the unit shifts
into defrost. Failure to remove the short immediately
will result in a very short forced defrost cycle (the 10
minute timer will be sped through in 2 seconds)
4. When defrost begins, it will continue until the defrost
thermostat opens or 10 minutes has elapsed.
NOTE: The T1 terminal on the defrost board powers the
defrost timing function. This terminal must be energized
before any defrost function will occur.
If defrost thermostat is stuck closed:
Whether the unit is in heating or cooling mode, it will run a
defrost cycle for 10 minutes each time the compressor has
been energized for the selected time interval. The board will
terminate automatically after 10 minutes of defrost time
regardless of defrost thermostat position.
If defrost thermostat is stuck open:
The unit will not defrost
NOTE: Unit will remain in defrost until defrost thermostat
reopens at approximately 65_F coil temperature at liquid line
or remainder of defrost cycle time.
5. Turn off power to outdoor unit and reconnect
fan- motor lead to OF2 on control board after above
forced- defrost cycle.
If unit will not defrost:
1. Perform the speedup function as described above to
test the defrost function of the circuit board.
2. If the unit does not go into defrost after performing the
speed up, check for 24 volts on the T1 terminal. This
terminal powers the defrost circuit, and must be
energized before any defrost function can occur. The
T1 should be energized once the Y terminal is
energized and the pressure switches are closed.
Ensure the T1 wire is connected at the contactor, and
that 24 volts is present on the T1 spade terminal.
3. If all voltages are present and unit will still not run
defrost, remove thermostat pigtail harness from board
and perform checks directly on input pins with jumper
wires. The pigtail may have a bad connection or be
mis- wired.
13
To fully troubleshoot defrost thermostat and control function
(FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 / 1190281):
1. Turn thermostat to OFF. Shut off all power to outdoor
unit.
2. Remove control box cover for access to electrical
components and defrost control board.
3. Disconnect defrost thermostat leads from control
board, and connect to ohmmeter. Thermostat leads
are black, insulated wires connected to DFT and R
terminals on control board. Resistance reading may
be zero (indicating closed defrost thermostat), or
Communicating ( for open thermostat) depending on
outdoor temperature.
4. Jumper between DFT and R terminals on control
board as shown in Fig. 8.
5. Disconnect outdoor fan motor lead from OF2. Tape
lead to prevent grounding.
6. Turn on power to outdoor unit.
7. Restart unit in heating mode, allowing frost to
accumulate on outdoor coil.
8. After a few minutes in heating mode, liquid line
temperature at defrost thermostat should drop below
closing set point of defrost thermostat of
approximately 32_F. Check resistance across defrost
thermostat leads using ohmmeter. Resistance of zero
indicates defrost thermostat is closed and operating
properly.
9. Short between the speed- up terminals using a
thermostat screwdriver. This reduces the timing
sequence to 1/256 of original time. (See Table 2.)
Table 2—Defrost Control Speed- Up Timing Sequence
MINIMUM
(MINUTES)
27
56
81
9
4.5
PARAMETER
30- minute cycle
60- minute cycle
90- minute cycle
10- minute cycle
5- minutes
!
MAXIMUM
(MINUTES)
33
66
99
11
5.5
SPEED - UP
(NOMINAL)
7 sec
14 sec
21 sec
2 sec
1 sec
CAUTION
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Exercise extreme caution when shorting speed- up
pins. If pins are accidentally shorted to other terminals,
damage to the control board will occur.
10. Unit is now operating in defrost mode. Check
between C and W2 using voltmeter. Reading on
voltmeter should indicate 24v. This step ensures
defrost relay contacts have closed, energizing
supplemental heat (W2) and reversing valve solenoid
(O).
11. Unit should remain in defrost no longer than 10
minutes. Actual time in defrost depends on how
quickly speed- up jumper is removed. If it takes 2 sec
to remove speed- up jumper after unit has switched to
defrost, the unit will switch back to heat mode.
12. After a few minutes, in defrost (cooling) operation,
liquid line should be warm enough to have caused
defrost thermostat contacts to open. Check
resistance across defrost thermostat. Ohmmeter
should read infinite resistance, indicating defrost
thermostat has opened at approximately 65_F.
13. Shut off unit power and reconnect fan lead.
14. Remove jumper between DFT and R terminals.
Reconnect defrost thermostat leads. Failure to
remove jumper causes unit to switch to defrost every
30, 60, or 90 minutes and remain in defrost for full 10
minutes.
15. Replace control box cover. Restore power to unit.
If defrost thermostat does not check out following
above items or incorrect calibration is suspected, check
for defective thermostat as follows:
1. Follow items 1- 5 above.
2. Route sensor or probe underneath coil (or other
convenient location) using thermocouple temperature
measuring device. Attach to liquid line near defrost
thermostat. Insulate for more accurate reading.
3. Turn on power to outdoor unit.
4. Restart unit in heating.
5. Within a few minutes, liquid line temperature drops
within a range causing defrost thermostat contacts to
close. Temperature range is from 33_F to 27_F.
Notice temperature at which ohmmeter reading goes
from  to zero ohms. Thermostat contacts close at
this point.
6. Short between the speed- up terminals using a small
slotted screwdriver.
7. Unit changes over to defrost within 21 sec (depending
on timing cycle setting). Liquid line temperature rises
to range where defrost thermostat contacts open.
Temperature range is from 60_F to 70_F. Resistance
goes from zero to  when contacts are open.
8. If either opening or closing temperature does not fall
within above ranges or thermostat sticks in 1 position,
replace thermostat to ensure proper defrost
operation.
NOTE: With timing cycle set at 90 minutes, unit initiates
defrost within approximately 21 sec. When you hear the
reversing valve changing position, remove screwdriver
immediately. Otherwise, control will terminate normal
10- minute defrost cycle in approximately 2 sec.
DEFROST CONTROL (Fast # 1174185)
This defrost control is used in most Performance Series
heat pumps with R- 410A refrigerant. Its features include
selectable defrost intervals of 30, 60, 90, & 120 minutes,
Quiet Shift, compressor time delay, deluxe defrost speed up
capability. This section describes the sequence of operation
and trouble shooting methods for this control.
14
OF1
DFT
OF2
T2 C C O
T1
Y
O R W2 Y C
P1
120
60
30
P3
ON
DFT
QUIET
SHIFT
90
INTERVAL TIMER OFF
30
60
J1
SPEEDUP
Speedup
Pins
HK32EA003
Quiet
Shift
Defrost interval
DIP switches
A05378
Fig. 9 – 1174185 Defrost Control
Quiet Shift (Fast
# 1174185)
This control has the option of shutting down the compressor
for 30 seconds going in and coming out of defrost. This is
accomplished by turning DIP switch 3 to the ON position.
Factory default is in the OFF position. Enabling this feature
eliminates occasional noise complaints associated with
switching into and out of defrost.
Five- Minute Compressor Delay (Fast
# 1174185)
This control features a 5- minute time delay to protect the
compressor from short cycling. The delay begins counting
when the low voltage is interrupted, and at the end of
heating or cooling cycle.
System function and Sequence of operation
(Fast # 1174185)
On power- up (24 volts between R- C) the 5 minute cycle
timer begins counting down. The compressor will not be
energized until this timer is elapsed.
Cooling
On a call for cooling, thermostat makes R- O, R- Y, and
R- G. Circuit R- O energizes reversing valve switching it to
cooling position. Circuit R- Y sends low voltage through the
safeties and energizes the T1 terminal on the circuit board.
If the compressor has been off for 5 minutes, or power has
not been cycled for 5 minutes, the OF2 relay and T2
terminal will energize. This will close the contactor, start the
outdoor fan motor and compressor.
When the cycle is complete, R- Y is turned off and
compressor and outdoor fan should stop. When using ICP
thermostats, the reversing valve remains energized in the
cooling mode until the thermostat is switched to heat, or the
mode it turned off. The 5- minute time guard begins
counting. Compressor will not come on again until this time
delay expires. In the event of a power interruption, the time
guard will not allow another cycle for 5 minutes.
Heating
On a call for heating, thermostat makes R- Y, and R- G.
Circuit R- Y sends low voltage through the safeties and
energizes the T1 terminal on the circuit board. T1 energizes
the defrost logic circuit. If the compressor has been off for 5
minutes, or power has not been cycled for 5 minutes, the
OF2 relay and T2 terminal will energize. This will close the
contactor, start the outdoor fan motor and compressor.
When the cycle is complete, R- Y is turned off and the
compressor and outdoor fan should stop. The 5 minute time
guard begins counting. Compressor will not come on again
until this time delay expires. In the event of a power
interruption, the time guard will not allow another cycle for 5
minutes.
Defrost Sequence
The defrost control is a time/temperature control that has
field selectable settings of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes.
These represent the amount of time that must pass after
closure of the defrost thermostat before the defrost
sequence begins.
The defrost thermostat senses coil temperature throughout
the heating cycle. When the coil temperature reaches the
defrost thermostat setting of approximately 32 degrees F, it
will close, which energizes the DFT terminal and begins the
defrost timing sequence. When the DTF has been
energized for the selected time, the defrost cycle begins. If
the defrost thermostat opens before the timer expires, the
timing sequence is reset.
Defrost cycle is terminated when defrost thermostat opens
(~65 degrees) or automatically after 10 minutes.
Deluxe Defrost Speedup
To initiate a force defrost, speedup pins (J1) must be
shorted with a flat head screwdriver for 5 seconds and
RELEASED. If the defrost thermostat is open, a short
defrost cycle will be observed (actual length depends on
Quiet Shift switch position). When Quiet Shift is off, only a
short 30 second defrost cycle is observed. With Quiet Shift
ON, the speed up sequence is one minute; 30 second
compressor off period followed by 30 seconds of defrost
with compressor operation. When returning to heating
mode, the compressor will turn off for an additional 30
seconds and the fan for 40 seconds.
If the defrost thermostat is closed, a complete defrost cycle
is initiated. If the Quiet Shift switch is turned on, the
compressor will be turned off for two 30 second intervals as
explained previously.
Troubleshooting (Fast # 1174185)
If outdoor unit will not run:
1. Does the Y input have 24 volts from thermostat? If
not, check thermostat or wire. If yes proceed to #2
2. The Y spade terminal should have 24 volts if Y input
is energized. This output goes through the pressure
switches and back to the T1 input to energize the time
delay and defrost timing circuit. If the contactor is not
closed, the time delay may still be active. Defeat time
delay by shorting speed up pins for 1 second. Be sure
not to short more than 1 second.
3. Once time delay has elapsed voltage on T2 should
energize contactor with 24v. Check voltage on
contactor coil. If no voltage is present, check for
opened pressure switch.
4. If voltage is present and contactor is open, contactor
may be defective. Replace contactor
5. If contactor is closed and unit will still not run, check
capacitor and compressor.
If unit will not go into defrost:
1. Perform speedup function as described above to test
the defrost function of the circuit board.
2. If the unit will go into defrost with the speed up, but
will not on its own, the defrost thermostat may not be
functioning properly. Perform the full defrost
thermostat and board troubleshooting the same as
described for the FAST # 1173636 / 1177927 control.
Other than the Quiet shift (if selected), and the
speedup timing, the troubleshooting process is
identical.
15
3. If unit still will not run defrost, remove thermostat
pigtail harness from board and perform checks
directly on input pins with jumper wires. The pigtail
may have a bad connection or be mis- wired.
FAST# 1185790 DEFROST CONTROL
This defrost control is used in most non- communicating
Performance Series heat pumps with R- 410A refrigerant
and has all the same functionality, speedups,
troubleshooting as the FAST# 1174185 except for the forced
defrost timing when Quiet Shift- 2 is enabled.
Quiet Shift- 2 (non- communicating)
Quiet shift- 2 is a field selectable defrost mode (factory set to
OFF), which will reduce the occasional noise that could be
heard at the start of defrost cycle and restarting of heating
cycle. It is selected by placing DIP switch 3 on defrost board
in the ON position.
When Quiet Shift- 2 switch is placed in ON position, and
defrost is initiated, the following sequence of operation will
occur: The compressor will be de- energized for
approximately 1 minute, then the reversing valve will be
energized. A few seconds later, the compressor will be
re- energized and the normal defrost cycle starts. Once
defrost termination conditions have been met, the following
sequence will occur: The compressor will be de- energized
for approximately 1 minute, then the reversing valve will be
de- energized. A few seconds later, the compressor will be
re- energized and the normal heating cycle starts.
Table 3—ECM Fan Motor Wires
TERMINAL
1/4” Non insulated Q.C.
1/4” Insulated Q.C.
DESCRIPTION
Speed, Common (low Voltage)
AC line (high voltage)
COLOR
BRN/YEL
YEL
1/4” Non insulated Q.C.
Speed (low voltage)
BLU/YEL
#8 Non insulated ring
Ground
GRN/YEL
1/4” Insulated Q.C.
AC line (high voltage)
BLK
The low voltage wires should see 24VAC when the
contactor is engaged. The high voltage wires should see
230VAC as long as 230VAC is being supplied to the field
side of the contactor. The ECM motor will not operate
unless both 24VAC and 230VAC are being supplied. Refer
to the wiring diagram to determine where each wire should
be connected to the contactor. If connections are secure,
the motor is wired properly, proper voltages are present, and
the ECM motor is still not operational, replace the ECM
motor.
If utilizing a low ambient cooling kit, the ECM motor will not
function properly. The ECM motor will need to be replaced
with a PSC fan motor and fan blade specified in the
accessory lists for the unit and wired per the wiring diagram.
If the outdoor ECM fan motor fails to start and run:
S
Check the high- voltage supply. The unit need not
be running to check high voltage, but the power
must be on.
S
If the 230vac is present, disconnect the blu/yel wire
from ODF on the control board, and the brn/yel
wire from the contactor coil. Set a voltmeter on an
AC voltage scale and check across the ODF
terminal on the control board and the coil terminal
on the contactor. There should be a control signal
reading of 24vac.
S
First check voltage with the motor disconnected. If
no control voltage is present, check control- board
connections. If connections are good, replace the
control board.
S
If voltage is present, reconnect the motor and
check again. Shut down the unit to reconnect the
motor and restart the unit to complete this
troubleshooting procedure. If control voltage is no
longer present or motor fails to respond, check
motor connections.
OF1
OF2
S If connections are good, replace the motor.
PSC Fan Motor
The fan motor rotates the fan blade that draws air through
the outdoor coil to exchange heat between the refrigerant
and the air. Motors are totally enclosed to increase reliability.
This eliminates the need for a rain shield. For the correct
position of fan blade assembly, the fan hub should be flush
with the motor shaft. Replacement motors and blades may
vary slightly.
ON
120
30
60
60
30
QUIET
SHIFT
90
INTERVAL TIMER OFF
P3
DFT
T2 C C O
T1
Y
P1
J1
DFT
!
O R W2 Y C
Fig. 10 –
SPEEDUP
FAST# 1185790 Defrost Control
A05378
ECM Fan Motor (single stage equipment)
Some single stage outdoor units will be equipped with ECM
fan motors. For suspected ECM motor electrical failures,
first check for loose or faulty electrical connections. ECM
motors are not wired to the capacitor. A reference for the
wires is listed in the table below:
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal injury
or death.
Turn off all power before servicing or replacing fan motor. Be
sure unit main power switch is turned off.
16
The bearings are permanently lubricated; therefore, no oil
ports are provided.
For suspected electrical failures, check for loose or faulty
electrical connections, or defective fan motor capacitor. The
fan motor is equipped with a thermal overload device in the
motor windings which may open under adverse operating
conditions. Allow time for the motor to cool so the device
can reset. Further checking of the motor can be done with
an ohmmeter. Set the scale on R X 1 position, and check for
continuity between 3 leads. Replace motors that show an
open circuit in any of the windings. Place 1 lead of the
ohmmeter on each motor lead. At the same time, place the
other ohmmeter lead on the motor case (ground). Replace
any motor that shows resistance to ground, arcing, burning,
or overheating.
COPELAND SCROLL COMPRESSOR
Scroll Gas Flow
Compression in the scroll is
created by the interaction of
an orbiting spiral and a
stationary spiral. Gas enters
an outer opening as one of the
spirals orbits.
Compressor Plug
The compressor electrical plug provides a quick- tight
connection to compressor terminals. The plug completely
covers the compressor terminals and the mating female
terminals are completely encapsulated in plug. Therefore,
terminals are isolated from any moisture so corrosion and
resultant pitted or discolored terminals are reduced. The
plug is oriented to relief slot in terminal box so cover cannot
be secured if wires are not positioned in slot, assuring
correct electrical connection at the compressor. The plug
can be removed by simultaneously pulling while “rocking“
plug. However, these plugs can be used only on specific
compressors. The configuration around the fusite terminals
is outlined on the terminal covers. The slot through which
wires of plug are routed is oriented on the bottom and
slightly to the left. The correct plug can be connected easily
to compressor terminals and plug wires can easily be routed
through slot terminal cover.
It is strongly recommended to replace the compressor plug
should a compressor fail due to a suspected electrical
failure. At a minimum, inspect plug for proper connection
and good condition on any compressor replacement.
Low- Voltage Terminals
The low- voltage terminal designations, and their description
and function, are used on all split- system condensers.
W—Energizes first- stage supplemental heat through
defrost relay (wht).
R—Energizes 24- v power from transformer (red).
Y—Energizes contactor for first- stage cooling or first- stage
heating for heat pumps (yel).
O—Energizes reversing valve on heat pumps (orn).
C—Common side of transformer (blk).
2
1
3
The open passage is sealed off
as gas is drawn into the spiral.
4
As the spiral continues to orbit,
the gas is compressed into an
increasingly smaller pocket.
5
By the time the gas arrives at
the center port, discharge
pressure has been reached.
Actually, during operation, all
six gas passages are in various
stages of compression at all
times, resulting in nearly continuous suction and discharge.
A90198
Fig. 11 – Scroll Compressor Refrigerant Flow
The compressors used in these products are specifically
designed to operate with designated refrigerant and cannot
be interchanged. The compressor is an electrical (as well as
mechanical) device. Exercise extreme caution when
working near compressors. Power should be shut off, if
possible, for most troubleshooting techniques. Refrigerants
present additional safety hazards.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant.
The scroll compressor pumps refrigerant through the
system by the interaction of a stationary and an orbiting
scroll. (See Fig. 11.) The scroll compressor has no dynamic
suction or discharge valves, and it is more tolerant of
stresses caused by debris, liquid slugging, and flooded
starts. The compressor is equipped with an internal
pressure relief port. The pressure relief port is a safety
device, designed to protect against extreme high pressure.
The relief port has an operating range between 550 to 625
psi differential pressure for R- 410A and 350 to 450 psi
differential pressure for R- 22. Scrolls have a variety of shut
down solutions, depending on model, to prevent backward
rotation and eliminate the need for cycle protection.
17
LG SCROLL COMPRESSOR
The compressors used in these products are specifically
designed to operate with designated refrigerants and cannot
be interchanged.
LG produced scroll compressors are designed to operate
and function as the typical orbiting scroll on a fixed scroll
design. Refrigerant flow and compression is basically the
same.
Characteristics of the LG Scroll Compressor:
Internal Motor Overload Protection (OLP): This is an
inherent protection system sensing both motor winding
temperature and motor current. This is designed to open the
common wire on single phase units and stop the motor
operation if motor high temperature or over current
conditions exist. Trip of the OLP opens the common line.
Vacuum protection device: If the suction side of the
compressor is blocked or limited, an extremely low vacuum
situation is formed by the optimum efficiency of the scrolls.
The high vacuum pressure causes the arc at the internal
power terminal and cause tripping of the internal overload or
breaker or damage to the compressor. This compressor is
equipped with internal protection that opens if this high
vacuum condition exists and bypasses high pressure gas to
the low pressure and the internal overload may trip. In the
case of refrigerant pump down, the unit can operate with
pump down but this protection may not allow the refrigerant
to be pumped down completely.
Internal Pressure Relief (IPR): The internal pressure relief
is located between the high and low pressure of the
compressor and is designed to open when the difference of
the suction and discharge pressure is 500- 550 psid. When
the IPR valve opens, the high temperature gas bypasses
into the motor area and will trip the motor OLP.
Quiet Shut Down Device: The LG scroll has a shut down
device to efficiently minimize the shut down sound. The
reversing sound is minimized by a check valve located in
the discharge port of the scroll sets. This slows the
equalization of the high side to low side upon shut down to
prevent the scrolls from operating backwards.
Discharge Temperature Protection: The
compressor
discharge temperature may be monitored by a temperature
sensor mounted on the top cap of the compressor. Wire
diagrams may refer to this as a discharge temperature
switch (DTS). This is to protect against excessively high
scroll temperatures due to loss of charge or operating
outside the compressor envelope. This temperature sensor
opens to stop the compressor if temperatures exceed
239- 257_F (115- 125_C) and resets at 151- 187_F
(66- 86_C). The DTS will break the Y signal in the 24 volt
circuit if it trips open.
NOTE: The LG generation 2 compressor models will not
have this temperature switch.
Test sensor wires for continuity, open above 239- 257_F
(115- 125_C) and resets at 151- 187_F (66- 86_C).
If replacement is deemed necessary, perform the following
to replace sensor:
1. Locate top cap and discharge temperature sensor
A12342
2. Carefully remove sensor cover
A12343
3. Expose the sensor holder
18
A12344
4. Slide out the sensor, slide in replacement and reinstall
the cover
A12345
COMPRESSOR TROUBLESHOOTING
Compressor Failures
Compressor failures are classified in 2 broad failure
categories; mechanical and electrical. Both types are
discussed below.
Mechanical Failures
A compressor is a mechanical pump driven by an electric
motor contained in a welded or hermetic shell. In a
mechanical failure, motor or electrical circuit appears
normal, but compressor does not function normally.
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Do not supply power to unit with compressor terminal
box cover removed.
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Exercise extreme caution when reading compressor
currents when high- voltage power is on. Correct any of
the problems described below before installing and
running a replacement compressor.
Locked Rotor
In this type of failure, compressor motor and all starting
components are normal. When compressor attempts to
start, it draws locked rotor current and cycles off on internal
protection. Locked rotor current is measured by applying a
clamp- on ammeter around common (blk) lead of
compressor. Current drawn when it attempts to start is then
measured. Locked rotor amp (LRA) value is stamped on
compressor nameplate.
If compressor draws locked rotor amps and all other
external sources of problems have been eliminated,
compressor must be replaced. Because compressor is a
sealed unit, it is impossible to determine exact mechanical
failure. However, complete system should be checked for
abnormalities such as incorrect refrigerant charge,
restrictions, insufficient airflow across indoor or outdoor coil,
etc., which could be contributing to the failure.
Runs, Does Not Pump
In this type of failure, compressor motor runs and turns
compressor, but compressor does not pump refrigerant. A
clamp- on amp meter on common leg shows a very low
current draw, much lower than rated load amp (RLA) value
stamped on compressor nameplate. Because no refrigerant
is being pumped, there is no return gas to cool compressor
motor. It eventually overheats and shuts off on its internal
protection.
Noisy Compressor
Noise may be caused by a variety of internal and external
factors. Careful attention to the “type” of noise may help
identify the source. The following are some examples of
abnormal conditions that may create objectionable noise:
1. A gurgling sound may indicate a liquid refrigerant
floodback during operation. This could be confirmed if
there is no compressor superheat. A compressor
superheat of “0” degrees would indicate liquid
refrigerant returning to the compressor. Most common
reasons for floodback are: loss of evaporator blower,
dirty coils, and improper airflow.
2. A rattling noise may indicate loose hardware. Inspect
all unit hardware including the compressor grommets.
3. A straining (hard start) or vibration occurring at start
up but clears quickly after could indicate an off cycle
refrigerant migration issue. Refrigerant migration can
occur when a compressor is off and refrigerant vapor
transfers from other areas of the system, settles into
the compressor as it is attracted to the oil, and then
condenses into the oil. Upon start up, the compressor
draws suction from within itself first and lowers the
boiling point of the refrigerant that is entrained in the
oil. This can cause the liquid refrigerant and oil to boil
into the compression area or liquid refrigerant to wipe
off oil films that are critical for proper lubrication.
Migration is worsened by greater temperature
differentials and/or extra refrigerant in the system.
Prevention of migration can be reduced by various
options but some of the more common remedies is to
verify proper charge and add a crankcase heater
where this situation is suspected.
4. Operational vibration could indicate a charge issue.
Verify charge and ensure proper piping and structural
penetration insulation. Tubing that is too rigid to
building rafters without proper insulation could
transfer noise throughout the structure. On some
occasions a sound dampener or mass weight (FAST
part no. 1185726) placed on the vibrating tubing has
been known to reduce this noise. Utilizing
compressor split post grommets (see Fig. 13) may
also reduce this vibration if piping cannot be
remedied.
5. An operational high pitch frequency or “waa waa”
sound that appears to resonate through the suction
line could indicate a need to add more flex or muffling
in the lines. This has been occasional in scroll
compressor applications and is usually remedied by
adding a field- fabricated suction line loop (see Fig.
14). Reciprocating compressors may have a
noticeable discharge pulsation that could be
19
6.
7.
8.
9.
remedied with a field installed discharge muffler.
Recommend loop by continuous tubing with no more
than 12 inches vertical and 6 inch horizontal loop.
An internal “thunking”, “thumping”, “grinding” or
“rattling” noise could indicate compressor internal
failures and may be verified by comparing the
compressor amperage to what the compressor
should be drawing according to a manufacturer’s
performance data.
A whistling or squealing noise during operation may
indicate a partial blockage of the refrigerant charge.
A whistle on shut down could indicate a partial leak
path as refrigerant is equalizing from high to low side.
On occasion, an in- line discharge check valve has
prevented this sound.
If a compressor hums but won’t start it could indicate
either a voltage or amperage issue. Verify adequate
voltage and operational start components if installed.
If it is drawing excessive amperage and voltage
doesn’t appear to be the problem it may be assumed
a locked condition. Ensure refrigerant has had ample
time to equalize and boil out of the compressor before
condemning.
10. When a heat pump switches into and out of defrost, a
”swooshing” noise is expected due to the rapid
pressure change within the system. However
customers sometimes complain that the noise is
excessive, or it is sometimes accompanied by a
”groaning, or howling” noise. When receiving these
complaints, Quiet Shift- 2 (if available) may improve
the noise, but will probably not eliminate it totally.
Check that the defrost thermostat or thermistor is
operating properly. Insulating the defrost sensing
device may also help. If the howling or groaning noise
is intermittent, replacing the reversing valve may or
may not help.
(EXAMPLE)
TO DETERMINE INTERNAL CONNECTIONS OF SINGLEPHASE MOTORS (C,S,R) EXCEPT SHADED-POLE
?
?
DEDUCTION:
POWER OFF!
?
1
3
(GREATEST RESISTANCE)
5.8Ω (OHM)
RUN WINDING (R)
START WINDING (S)
OHMMETER
0-10Ω SCALE
2
3
(SMALLEST RESISTANCE)
0.6Ω
2 IS COMMON (C)
BY ELIMINATION
1
2
(REMAINING RESISTANCE)
5.2Ω
2 IS COMMON,
THEREFORE, 1 IS
1
5.2Ω
1
2
0.6Ω
5.8Ω
START WINDING (S)
2
3
3
3 IS RUN WINDING (R)
A88344
Fig. 12 – Identifying Compressor Terminals
11. Rattling that occurs during a shift into or out of defrost
on a heat pump could indicate a pressure differential
issue. This is usually a brief occurrence (under 60
seconds) and can be remedied by incorporating Quiet
Shift- 2, if available. This is a feature available in
communicating heat pumps that shuts down the
compressor during the defrost shift for approximately
1 minute allowing the pressures to equalize. It is
enabled by either a dip switch setting on the defrost
board, or in the wall control on Communicating
systems. Verify proper system charge as well.
Note: Long radius elbows recommended
A07123
Fig. 14 – Suction Line Loop
Electrical Failures
A07124
Fig. 13 – Split Post Grommet part number: 1172271
The compressor mechanical pump is driven by an electric
motor within its hermetic shell. In electrical failures,
compressor does not run although external electrical and
mechanical systems appear normal. Compressor must be
checked electrically for abnormalities.
Before troubleshooting compressor motor, review this
description of compressor motor terminal identification.
20
Single- Phase Motors
To identify terminals C, S, and R:
1. Turn off all unit power.
2. Discharge run and start capacitors to prevent shock.
3. Remove all wires from motor terminals.
4. Read resistance between all pairs of terminals using
an ohmmeter on 0- 10 ohm scale.
5. Determine 2 terminals that provide greatest
resistance reading.
Through elimination, remaining terminal must be common
(C). Greatest resistance between common (C) and another
terminal indicates the start winding because it has more
turns. This terminal is the start (S). The remaining terminal
will be run winding (R).
NOTE: If compressor is hot, allow time to cool and internal
line break to reset. There is an internal line break protector
which must be closed.
All compressors are equipped with internal motor protection.
If motor becomes hot for any reason, protector opens.
Compressor should always be allowed to cool and protector
to close before troubleshooting. Always turn off all power to
unit and disconnect leads at compressor terminals before
taking readings.
Most common motor failures are due to either an open,
grounded, or short circuit. When a compressor fails to start
or run, 3 tests can help determine the problem. First, all
possible external causes should be eliminated, such as
overloads, improper voltage, pressure equalization,
defective capacitor(s), relays, wiring, etc. Compressor has
internal line break overload, so be certain it is closed.
Open Circuit
!
WARNING
UNIT PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in
personal injury.
Use caution when working near compressor
terminals. Damaged terminals have the potential
to cause personal injury.
Never put face or body directly in line with
terminals.
To determine if any winding has a break in the internal wires
and current is unable to pass through, follow these steps:
1. Be sure all power is off.
2. Discharge all capacitors.
3. Remove wires from terminals C, S, and R.
4. Check resistance from C- R, C- S, and R- S using an
ohmmeter on 0- 1000 ohm scale.
Because winding resistances are usually less than 10
ohms, each reading appears to be approximately 0 ohm. If
resistance remains at 1000 ohms, an open or break exists
and compressor should be replaced.
!
CAUTION
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Be sure internal line break overload is not temporarily
open.
Ground Circuit
To determine if a wire has broken or come in direct contact
with shell, causing a direct short to ground, follow these
steps:
1. Allow crankcase heaters to remain on for several
hours before checking motor to ensure windings are
not saturated with refrigerant.
2. Using an ohmmeter on R X 10,000 ohm scale or
megohmmeter (follow manufacturer’s instructions).
3. Be sure all power is off.
4. Discharge all capacitors.
5. Remove wires from terminals C, S, and R.
6. Place one meter probe on ground or on compressor
shell. Make a good metal- to- metal contact. Place
other probe on terminals C, S, and R in sequence.
7. Note meter scale.
8. If reading of 0 or low resistance is obtained, motor is
grounded. Replace compressor.
Compressor resistance to ground should not be less than
1000 ohms per volt of operating voltage.
Example:
230 volts X 1000 ohms/volt = 230,000 ohms minimum.
Short Circuit
To determine if any wires within windings have broken
through their insulation and made contact with other wires,
thereby shorting all or part of the winding(s), be sure the
following conditions are met.
1. Correct motor winding resistances must be known
before testing, either from previous readings or from
manufacturer’s specifications.
2. Temperature of windings must be as specified,
usually about 70_F.
3. Resistance measuring instrument must have an
accuracy within  5- 10 percent. This requires an
accurate ohmmeter such as a Wheatstone bridge or
null balance- type instrument.
4. Motor must be dry or free from direct contact with
liquid refrigerant.
Make This Critical Test
(Not advisable unless above conditions are met)
1. Be sure all power is off.
2. Discharge all capacitors.
3. Remove wires from terminals C, S, and R.
4. Place instrument probes together and determine
probe and lead wire resistance.
5. Check resistance readings from C- R, C- S, and R- S.
6. Subtract instrument probe and lead resistance from
each reading.
If any reading is within 20 percent of known resistance,
motor is probably normal. Usually a considerable difference
in reading is noted if a turn- to- turn short is present.
21
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
3. Place terry cloth shop towel inside unit immediately
under component(s) to be serviced and prevent
lubricant run- offs through the louvered openings in
the base pan.
4. Perform required service.
5. Remove and dispose of any oil contaminated material
per local codes.
Refrigerant
!
WARNING
UNIT OPERATION AND SAFETY HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
R- 410A refrigerant which has higher pressures than
R- 22 and other refrigerants. No other refrigerant may be
used in this system. Gauge set, hoses, and recovery
system must be designed to handle R- 410A. If you are
unsure consult the equipment manufacturer.
!
CAUTION
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
The compressor in a R- 410A system uses a polyol
ester (POE) oil. This oil is extremely hygroscopic,
meaning it absorbs water readily. POE oils can absorb
15 times as much water as other oils designed for
HCFC and CFC refrigerants. Take all necessary
precautions to avoid exposure of the oil to the
atmosphere.
In an air conditioning and heat pump system, refrigerant
transfers heat from one place to another. The condenser is
the outdoor coil in the cooling mode and the evaporator is
the indoor coil.
In a heat pump, the condenser is the indoor coil in the
heating mode and the evaporator is the outdoor coil.
In the typical air conditioning mode, compressed hot gas
leaves the compressor and enters the condensing coil. As
gas passes through the condenser coil, it rejects heat and
condenses into liquid. The liquid leaves condensing unit
through liquid line and enters metering device at evaporator
coil. As it passes through metering device, it becomes a
gas- liquid mixture. As it passes through indoor coil, it
absorbs heat and the refrigerant moves to the compressor
and is again compressed to hot gas, and cycle repeats.
Brazing
This section on brazing is not intended to teach a technician
how to braze. There are books and classes which teach and
refine brazing techniques. The basic points below are listed
only as a reminder.
Definition: The joining and sealing of metals using a
nonferrous metal having a melting point over
800_F/426.6_C.
Flux: A cleaning solution applied to tubing or wire before it
is brazed. Flux improves the strength of the brazed
connection.
When brazing is required in the refrigeration system, certain
basics should be remembered. The following are a few of
the basic rules.
1. Clean joints make the best joints. To clean:
 Remove all oxidation from surfaces to a shiny
finish before brazing.
 Remove all flux residue with brush and water
while material is still hot.
2. Silver brazing alloy is used on copper- to- brass,
copper- to- steel, or copper- to- copper. Flux is
required when using silver brazing alloy. Do not use
low temperature solder.
3. Fluxes should be used carefully. Avoid excessive
application and do not allow fluxes to enter into the
system.
4. Brazing temperature of copper is proper when it is
heated to a minimum temperature of 800_F and it is a
dull red color in appearance.
Service Valves and Pumpdown
!
WARNING
PERSONAL INJURY AND UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Servicing Systems on Roofs With Synthetic
Materials
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
POE (polyol ester) compressor lubricants are known to
cause long term damage to some synthetic roofing
materials. Exposure, even if immediately cleaned up, may
cause embrittlement (leading to cracking) to occur in one
year or more. When performing any service which may risk
exposure of compressor oil to the roof, take appropriate
precautions to protect roofing. Procedures which risk oil
leakage include but are not limited to compressor
replacement, repairing refrigerants leaks, replacing
refrigerant components such as filter drier, pressure switch,
metering device, coil, accumulator, or reversing valve.
Synthetic Roof Precautionary Procedure
1. Cover extended roof working area with an
impermeable polyethylene (plastic) drop cloth or tarp.
Cover an approximate 10 x 10 ft area.
2. Cover area in front of the unit service panel with a
terry cloth shop towel to absorb lubricant spills and
prevent run- offs, and protect drop cloth from tears
caused by tools or components.
Never attempt to make repairs to existing service
valves. Unit operates under high pressure. Damaged
seats and o- rings should not be replaced. Replacement
of entire service valve is required. Service valve must be
replaced by properly trained service technician.
Service valves provide a means for holding original factory
charge in outdoor unit prior to hookup to indoor coil. They
also contain gauge ports for measuring system pressures
and provide shutoff convenience for certain types of repairs.
(See Fig. 15.)
Front- seating service valves are used in outdoor residential
equipment. This valve has a service port that contains a
Schrader fitting. The service port is always pressurized after
the valve is moved off the front- seat position.
The service valves used in the outdoor units come from the
factory front- seated. This means that the refrigerant charge
is isolated from the line- set connection ports. All heat
pumps that are equipped with and AccuRater piston
heating metering device are shipped with an adapter stub
22
tube. This tube must be installed on the liquid service valve.
After connecting the stub tube to the liquid service valve of a
heat pump, the valves are ready for brazing. The
interconnecting tubing (line set) can be brazed to the
service valves using industry accepted methods and
materials. Consult local codes.
Before brazing the line set to the valves, the belled ends of
the sweat connections on the service valves must be
cleaned so that no brass plating remains on either the inside
or outside of the bell joint. To prevent damage to the valve
and/or cap “O” ring, use a wet cloth or other acceptable
heat- sinking material on the valve before brazing. To
prevent damage to the unit, use a metal barrier between
brazing area and unit.
After the brazing operation and the refrigerant tubing and
evaporator coil have been evacuated, the valve stem can
be turned counterclockwise until back- seats, which
releases refrigerant into tubing and evaporator coil. The
system can now be operated.
Back- seating service valves must be back- seated (turned
counterclockwise until seated) before the service- port caps
can be removed and hoses of gauge manifold connected. In
this position, refrigerant has access from and through
outdoor and indoor unit.
The service valve- stem cap is tightened to 20  2 ft/lb
torque and the service- port caps to 9  2 ft/lb torque. The
seating surface of the valve stem has a knife- set edge
against which the caps are tightened to attain a
metal- to- metal seal. If accessory pressure switches are
used, the service valve must be cracked. Then, the
knife- set stem cap becomes the primary seal.
The service valve cannot be field repaired; therefore, only a
complete valve or valve stem and service- port caps are
available for replacement.
If the service valve is to be replaced, a metal barrier must be
inserted between the valve and the unit to prevent
damaging the unit exterior from the heat of the brazing
operations.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant.
Pumpdown Procedure
Service valves provide a convenient shutoff valve useful for
certain refrigeration- system repairs. System may be
pumped down to make repairs on low side without losing
complete refrigerant charge.
1. Attach pressure gauge to suction service- valve
gauge port.
2. Front seat liquid- line valve.
3. Start unit in cooling mode. Run until suction pressure
reaches 5 psig (35kPa). Do not allow compressor to
pump to a vacuum.
4. Shut unit off. Front seat suction valve.
FIELD
SIDE
STEM
SERVICE PORT
W/SCHRADER CORE
SEAT
BAR STOCK FRONT SEATING VALVE
A91447
Fig. 15 – Suction Service Valve (Front Seating)
Used in Base and Comfort ACs and HPs
NOTE: All outdoor unit coils will hold only factory- supplied
amount of refrigerant. Excess refrigerant, such as in
long- line applications, may cause unit to relieve pressure
through internal pressure- relief valve (indicated by sudden
rise of suction pressure) before suction pressure reaches 5
psig (35kPa). If this occurs, shut unit off immediately, front
seat suction valve, and recover remaining pressure.
Heating Piston (AccuRaterr) - Heat Pumps Only
In most heat pumps, AccuRater pistons are used to meter
refrigerant for heat pump heating mode only. All indoor coils
are supplied with a bi- flow TXV for metering in the cooling
mode. AccuRaterr piston has a refrigerant metering hole
through it. The piston seats against the piston body in
heating mode and meters the refrigerant in heating mode
and allows refrigerant to flow around it in cooling mode.
There are 2 types of liquid line connections used. Flare
connections are used in R- 22 systems.
1. Shut off power to unit.
2. Pump unit down using pumpdown procedure
described in this service manual.
3. Loosen nut and remove liquid line flare connection
from AccuRaterr.
4. Pull retainer out of body, being careful not to scratch
flare sealing surface. If retainer does not pull out
easily, carefully use locking pliers to remove it.
5. Slide piston and piston ring out by inserting a small
soft wire with small kinks through metering hole. Do
not damage metering hole, sealing surface around
piston cones, or fluted portion of piston.
6. Clean piston refrigerant metering hole.
7. Install a new retainer O- ring, retainer assembly, or
Teflon washer before reassembling AccuRaterr.
23
future use. Because defective valve is not
overheated, it can be analyzed for cause of failure
when it is returned.
3. Braze new valve onto used stubs. Keep stubs
oriented correctly. Scratch corresponding matching
marks on old valve and stubs and on new valve body
to aid in lining up new valve properly. When brazing
stubs into valve, protect valve body with wet rag to
prevent overheating.
4. Use slip couplings to install new valve with stubs back
into system. Even if stubs are long, wrap valve with a
wet rag to prevent overheating.
5. After valve is brazed in, check for leaks. Evacuate
and charge system. Operate system in both modes
several times to be sure valve functions
properly.
Fig. 16 – Front Seating Service Valve with Chatleff
Connection Used in R- 410A Heat Pumps.
PISTON BODY
PISTON
PISTON
RETAINER
FROM INDOOR COIL VIA
SERVICE VALVE ON
OUTDOOR COIL
TO OUTDOOR
COIL
TO
ACCUMULATOR
SWEAT/FLARE ADAPTER
TP- 4
Fig. 17 – AccuRaterr Components
(used in R- 22 Heat Pumps)
NOTE: 18, 24, 30, and 48 units have an OD TXV installed
for heating expansion and do not require a piston. These
units have a standard AC liquid service valve.
Reversing Valve
In heat pumps, changeover between heating and cooling
modes is accomplished with a valve that reverses flow of
refrigerant in between the two coils. This reversing valve
device is easy to troubleshoot and replace. The reversing
valve solenoid can be checked with power off with an
ohmmeter. Check for continuity and shorting to ground. With
control circuit (24v) power on, check for correct voltage at
solenoid coil. Check for overheated solenoid.
With unit operating, other items can be checked, such as
frost or condensate water on refrigerant lines.
The sound made by a reversing valve as it begins or ends
defrost is a “whooshing” sound, as the valve reverses and
pressures in system equalize. An experienced service
technician detects this sound and uses it as a valuable
troubleshooting tool.
Using a remote measuring device, check inlet and outlet line
temperatures. DO NOT touch lines. If reversing valve is
operating normally, inlet and outlet temperatures on
appropriate lines should be close to each other. Any
difference would be due to heat loss or gain across valve
body. Temperatures are best checked with a remote reading
electronic- type thermometer with multiple probes. Route
thermocouple leads to inside of coil area through service
valve mounting plate area underneath coil. Fig. 18 and Fig.
19 show test points (TP) on reversing valve for recording
temperatures. Insulate points for more accurate reading.
If valve is defective:
1. Shut off all power to unit and remove charge from
system.
2. Remove solenoid coil from valve body. Remove valve
by cutting it from system with tubing cutter. Repair
person should cut in such a way that stubs can be
easily re- brazed back into system. Do not use
hacksaw. This introduces chips into system that
cause failure. After defective valve is removed, wrap it
in wet rag and carefully unbraze stubs. Save stubs for
TP- 3
TP- 2
TP- 1
FROM COMPRESSOR
DISCHARGE LINE
A88342
Fig. 18 – Reversing Valve
(Cooling Mode or Defrost Mode, Solenoid Energized)
FROM
OUTDOOR
COIL
TP- 4
TO
ACCUMULATOR
TO INDOOR COIL
VIA SERVICE VALVE
ON OUTDOOR COIL
INSULATE
FOR
ACCURATE
READING
TP- 3
INSULATE FOR
ACCURATE
READING
TP- 2
TP- 1
FROM COMPRESSOR
DISCHARGE LINE
ELECTRONIC
THERMOMETER
A88341
Fig. 19 – Reversing Valve
(Heating Mode, Solenoid De- Energized)
Liquid Line Filter Drier
Filter driers are specifically designed for R- 22 or R- 410A
refrigerant. Only operate with the appropriate drier using
factory authorized components.
It is recommended that the liquid line drier be installed at the
indoor unit. Placing the drier near the TXV allows additional
protection to the TXV as the liquid line drier also acts as a
strainer.
24
Install Liquid- line Filter Drier Indoor - AC
CAUTION
!
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
To avoid performance loss and compressor failure,
installation of filter drier in liquid line is required.
!
CAUTION
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
To avoid filter drier damage while brazing, filter drier
must be wrapped in a heat- sinking material such as a
wet cloth.
Refer to Fig. 20 and install filter drier as follows:
1. Braze 5- in. liquid tube to the indoor coil.
2. Wrap filter drier with damp cloth.
3. Braze filter drier to above 5” liquid tube. Flow arrow
must point towards indoor coil.
4. Connect and braze liquid refrigerant tube to the filter
drier.
Install Liquid- line Filter Drier Indoor - HP
Refer to Fig. 21 and install filter drier as follows:
1. Braze 5 in. liquid tube to the indoor coil.
2. Wrap filter drier with damp cloth.
3. Braze filter drier to 5 in. long liquid tube from step 1.
4. Connect and braze liquid refrigerant tube to the filter
drier.
Suction Line Filter Drier
The suction line drier is specifically designed to operate with
R- 410A, use only factory authorized components. Suction
line filter drier is used in cases where acid might occur, such
as burnout. Heat pump units must have the drier installed
between the compressor and accumulator only. Remove
after 10 hours of operation. Never leave suction line filter
drier in a system longer than 72 hours (actual time).
A05227
Fig. 21 – Liquid Line Filter Drier - HP
Accumulator
The accumulator is specifically designed to operate with
R- 410A or R- 22 respectfully; use only factory- authorized
components. Under some light load conditions on indoor
coils, liquid refrigerant is present in suction gas returning to
compressor. The accumulator stores liquid and allows it to
boil off into a vapor so it can be safely returned to
compressor. Since a compressor is designed to pump
refrigerant in its gaseous state, introduction of liquid into it
could cause severe damage or total failure of compressor.
The accumulator is a passive device which seldom needs
replacing. Occasionally its internal oil return orifice or bleed
hole may become plugged. Some oil is contained in
refrigerant returning to compressor. It cannot boil off in
accumulator with liquid refrigerant. The bleed hole allows a
small amount of oil and refrigerant to enter the return line
where velocity of refrigerant returns it to compressor. If
bleed hole plugs, oil is trapped in accumulator, and
compressor will eventually fail from lack of lubrication. If
bleed hole is plugged, accumulator must be changed. The
accumulator has a fusible element located in the bottom end
bell. (See Fig. 22.) This fusible element will melt at
430_F//221_C and vent the refrigerant if this temperature is
reached either internal or external to the system. If fuse
melts, the accumulator must be replaced.
To change accumulator:
1. Shut off all power to unit.
2. Recover all refrigerant from system.
3. Break vacuum with dry nitrogen. Do not exceed 5
psig.
NOTE: Coil may be removed for access to accumulator.
Refer to appropriate sections of Service Manual for
instructions.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant.
4. Remove accumulator from system with tubing cutter.
5. Tape ends of open tubing.
A05178
Fig. 20 – Liquid Line Filter Drier - AC
25
6. Scratch matching marks on tubing studs and old
accumulator. Scratch matching marks on new
accumulator. Unbraze stubs from old accumulator
and braze into new accumulator.
7. Thoroughly rinse any flux residue from joints and
paint with corrosion- resistant coating such as
zinc- rich paint.
8. Install factory authorized accumulator into system
with copper slip couplings.
9. Evacuate and charge system.
Pour and measure oil quantity (if any) from old accumulator.
If more than 20 percent of oil charge is trapped in
accumulator, add new POE oil to compressor to make up for
this loss.
pressure works against the spring pressure and
evaporator suction pressure to open the valve.
If the load increases, the temperature increases at the
bulb, which increases the pressure on the top side of
the diaphragm. This opens the valve and increases
the flow of refrigerant. The increased refrigerant flow
causes the leaving evaporator temperature to
decrease. This lowers the pressure on the diaphragm
and closes the pin. The refrigerant flow is effectively
stabilized to the load demand with negligible change
in superheat.
Install TXV
The thermostatic expansion valve is specifically designed to
operate with a refrigerant type. Do not use an R- 22 TXV on
a R- 410A system, and do not use a R- 410A valve on an
R- 22 system. Refer to specification sheets for the
appropriate TXV kit number.
!
CAUTION
UNIT OPERATION HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in
equipment damage or improper operation.
Al indoor coil units must be installed with a hard
shut off R- 410A TXV metering device.
430° FUSE
ELEMENT
A88410
Fig. 22 – Accumulator
Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV)
All (post- 2006) furnace coils, most fan coils, and a few heat
pumps have a factory installed thermostatic expansion
valve (TXV). The TXV will be a bi- flow, hard- shutoff with an
external equalizer and a balance port pin. A hard shut- off
TXV does not have a bleed port. Therefore, minimal
equalization takes place after shutdown. TXVs are
specifically designed to operate with R- 410A or R- 22
refrigerant, use only factory authorized TXV’s. Do not
interchange R- 410A and R- 22 TXVs.
TXV Operation
The TXV is a metering device that is used in air conditioning
and heat pump systems to adjust to changing load
conditions by maintaining a preset superheat temperature at
the outlet of the evaporator coil. The volume of refrigerant
metered through the valve seat is dependent upon the
following:
1. Superheat temperature is sensed by cap tube
sensing bulb on suction tube at outlet of evaporator
coil. This temperature is converted into pressure by
refrigerant in the bulb pushing downward on the
diaphragm which opens the valve via the pushrod(s).
2. The suction pressure at the outlet of the evaporator
coil is transferred via the external equalizer tube to
the underside of the diaphragm. This is needed to
account for the indoor coil pressure drop. Residential
coils typically have a high pressure drop, which
requires this valve feature.
3. The pin is spring loaded, which exerts pressure on
the underside of the diaphragm. Therefore, the bulb
IMPORTANT: The TXV should be mounted as close to
the indoor coil as possible and in a vertical, upright
position. Avoid mounting the inlet tube vertically down.
The valve is more susceptible to malfunction due to
debris if inlet tube is facing down. A factory- approved
filter drier must be installed in the liquid line at the
indoor unit.
Installing TXV in Place of Piston in a Rated Indoor Coil
(pre- 2006)
1. Pump system down to 2 psig, if possible, and recover
refrigerant.
2. Remove hex nut from piston body. Use backup
wrench on fan coils.
3. Remove and discard factory- installed piston. Be sure
Teflon seal is in place.
4. Reinstall hex nut. Finger tighten nut plus 1/2 turn.
NOTE: If the piston is not removed from the body, TXV will
not function properly.
!
CAUTION
EQUIPMENT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in
equipment damage or improper operation.
Use a brazing shield and wrap TXV with wet
cloth or use heat sink material
5. Install TXV on indoor coil liquid line. Sweat swivel
adapter to inlet of indoor coil and attach to TXV outlet.
Use backup wrench to avoid damage to tubing or
valve. Sweat inlet of TXV, marked “IN” to liquid line.
Avoid excessive heat which could damage valve.
6. Install vapor elbow with equalizer adapter to suction
tube of line set and suction connection to indoor coil.
Adapter has a 1/4- in. male connector for attaching
equalizer tube.
26
3. Remove TXV support clamp using a 5/16- in. nut
driver. Save the clamp (N coils only).
7. Connect equalizer tube of TXV to 1/4- in. equalizer
fitting on vapor line adapter.
8. Attach TXV bulb to horizontal section of suction line
using clamps provided. Insulate bulb with
field- supplied insulation tape. See Fig. 23 for correct
positioning of sensing bulb.
9. Proceed with remainder of unit installation.
4. Remove TXV using a backup wrench on connections
to prevent damage to tubing.
5. Remove equalizer tube from suction line of coil.
Note: Some coils may have a mechanical connection.
If coil has a braze connection, use file or tubing cutter
to cut brazed equalizer line approximately 2 inches
above suction tube.
10 O’CLOCK
2 O’CLOCK
6. Remove bulb from vapor tube inside cabinet.
SENSING BULB
7. Install the new TXV using a wrench and backup
wrench to avoid damage to tubing or valve to attach
TXV to distributor.
STRAP
Replacing TXV on an Indoor Coil (pre- 2006)
SUCTION TUBE
8. Reinstall TXV support clamp (removed in item 3). (N
coils only.)
A08083
Fig. 23 – Position of Sensing Bulb
1. Pump system down to 2 psig, if possible, and recover
refrigerant.
2. Remove coil access panel and fitting panel from front
of cabinet.
3. Remove TXV support clamp using a 5/16- in. nut
driver. Save the clamp.
4. Remove R- 22 TXV using a backup wrench on flare
connections to prevent damage to tubing.
5. Using wire cutters, cut equalizer tube off flush with
vapor tube inside cabinet.
6. Remove bulb from vapor tube inside cabinet.
7. Braze equalizer stub- tube closed. Use protective
barrier as necessary to prevent damage to drain pan.
IMPORTANT: Route the equalizer tube of TXV through
suction line connection opening in fitting panel prior to
replacing fitting panel around tubing.
8. Install TXV with 3/8- in. copper tubing through small
hole in service panel. Use wrench and backup
wrench, to avoid damage to tubing or valve, to attach
TXV to distributor.
9. Reinstall TXV support clamp (removed in item 3).
10. Attach TXV bulb to vapor tube inside cabinet, in same
location as original was when removed, using
supplied bulb clamps (nylon or copper). See Fig. 23
for correct positioning of sensing bulb.
11. Route equalizer tube through suction connection
opening (large hole) in fitting panel and install fitting
panel in place.
12. Sweat inlet of TXV, marked “IN” to liquid line. Avoid
excessive heat which could damage valve.
13. Install vapor elbow with equalizer adapter to vapor
line of line set and vapor connection to indoor coil.
Adapter has a 1/4- in. male connector for attaching
equalizer tube.
14. Connect equalizer tube of TXV to 1/4- in. equalizer
fitting on vapor line adapter. Use backup wrench to
prevent damage to equalizer fitting.
15. Proceed with remainder of unit installation.
9. Attach equalizer tube to suction line. If coil has
mechanical connection, then use wrench and back up
wrench to attach. If coil has brazed connection, use
file or tubing cutters to remove mechanical flare nut
from equalizer line. Then use coupling to braze the
equalizer line to stub (previous equalizer line) in
suction line.
10. Attach TXV bulb to vapor tube inside cabinet, in same
location as original was when removed, using
supplied bulb clamps (nylon or copper). See Fig. 23
for correct positioning of sensing bulb.
11. Route equalizer tube through suction connection
opening (large hole) in fitting panel and install fitting
panel in place.
12. Sweat inlet of TXV, marked “IN” to liquid line. Avoid
excessive heat which could damage valve.
13. Proceed with remainder of unit installation.
MAKE PIPING CONNECTIONS
WARNING
!
PERSONAL INJURY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Relieve pressure and recover all refrigerant before
system repair or final unit disposal.
Use all service ports and open all flow- control
devices, including solenoid valves.
!
CAUTION
ELECTRICAL OPERATION HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Do not leave system open to atmosphere any longer
than minimum required for installation. POE oil in
compressor is extremely susceptible to moisture
absorption. Always keep ends of tubing sealed
during installation.
Replacing TXV on Indoor Coil (post- 2006)
1. Pump system down to 2 psig, if possible, and recover
refrigerant.
2. Remove coil access panel and fitting panel from front
of cabinet.
27
CAUTION
!
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
If ANY refrigerant tubing is buried, provide a 6 in.
vertical rise at service valve. Refrigerant tubing lengths
up to 36 in. may be buried without further special
consideration. Do not bury lines longer than 36 in.
COIL
SENSING
BULB
EQUALIZER
TUBE
Assuming that a system is pressurized with either all
refrigerant or a mixture of nitrogen and refrigerant, leaks in
the system can be found with an electronic leak detector
that is capable of detecting specific refrigerants.
If system has been operating for some time, first check for a
leak visually. Since refrigerant carries a small quantity of oil,
traces of oil at any joint or connection is an indication that
refrigerant is leaking at that point.
A simple and inexpensive method of testing for leaks is to
use soap bubbles. (See Fig. 26.) Any solution of water and
soap may be used. Soap solution is applied to all joints and
connections in system. A small pinhole leak is located by
tracing bubbles in soap solution around leak. If the leak is
very small, several minutes may pass before a bubble will
form. Popular commercial leak detection solutions give
better, longer- lasting bubbles and more accurate results
than plain soapy water. The bubble solution must be
removed from the tubing and fittings after checking for leaks
as some solutions may corrode the metal.
THERMOSTATIC
EXPANSION
VALVE
A91277
LEAK
DETECTOR
SOLUTION
Fig. 24 – Typical TXV Installation
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM REPAIR
Leak Detection
New installations should be checked for leaks prior to
complete charging. If a system has lost all or most of its
charge, system must be pressurized again to approximately
150 psi minimum and 375 psi maximum. This can be done
by adding refrigerant using normal charging procedures or
by pressurizing system with nitrogen (less expensive than
refrigerant). Nitrogen also leaks faster than refrigerants.
Nitrogen cannot, however, be detected by an electronic leak
detector. (See Fig. 25.)
BEEP
BEEP
A95423
Fig. 26 – Bubble Leak Detection
You may use an electronic leak detector designed for
specific refrigerant to check for leaks. (See Fig. 25.) This
unquestionably is the most efficient and easiest method for
checking leaks. There are various types of electronic leak
detectors. Check with manufacturer of equipment for
suitability. Generally speaking, they are portable, lightweight,
and consist of a box with several switches and a probe or
sniffer. Detector is turned on and probe is passed around all
fittings and connections in system. Leak is detected by
either the movement of a pointer on detector dial, a buzzing
sound, or a light.
In all instances when a leak is found, system charge must
be recovered and leak repaired before final charging and
operation. After leak testing or leak is repaired, replace
liquid line filter drier, evacuate system, and recharge with
correct refrigerant quantity.
Coil Removal
Fig. 25 – Electronic Leak Detection
!
A95422
WARNING
PERSONAL INJURY AND UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Due to the high pressure of nitrogen, it should never
be used without a pressure regulator on the tank.
Coils are easy to remove if required for compressor
removal, or to replace coil.
1. Shut off all power to unit.
2. Recover refrigerant from system through service
valves.
3. Break vacuum with nitrogen.
4. Remove top cover. (See Remove Top Cover in
Cabinet section of the manual.)
5. Remove screws in base pan to coil grille.
6. Remove coil grille from unit.
7. Remove screws on corner post holding coil tube
sheet.
28
!
WARNING
!
CAUTION
FIRE HAZARD
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or equipment damage.
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Cut tubing to reduce possibility of personal injury and
fire.
Do not leave system open to atmosphere. Compressor
oil is highly susceptible to moisture absorption.
8. Use a small tubing cutter to cut the liquid and vapor
lines at both sides of coil. Cut in convenient location
for easy reassembly with copper slip couplings.
9. Lift coil vertically from basepan and carefully place
aside.
10. Reverse procedure to reinstall coil.
11. Replace filter drier, evacuate system, recharge, and
check for normal systems operation.
Compressor Removal and Replacement
Once it is determined that compressor has failed and the
reason established, compressor must be replaced.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Turn off all power to unit before proceeding. Wear
safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves when
handling refrigerant. Acids formed as a result of motor
burnout can cause burns.
!
CAUTION
PERSONAL INJURY HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in personal
injury.
Wear safety glasses, protective clothing, and gloves
when handling refrigerant and when using brazing
torch.
1. Shut off all power to unit.
2. Remove and recover all refrigerant from system until
pressure gauges read 0 psi. Use all service ports.
Never open a system under a vacuum to atmosphere.
Break vacuum with dry nitrogen holding charge first.
Do not exceed 5 psig.
3. Disconnect electrical leads from compressor.
Disconnect or remove crankcase heater and remove
compressor hold- down bolts.
4. Cut compressor from system with tubing cutter. Do
not use brazing torch for compressor removal. Oil
vapor may ignite when compressor is disconnected.
5. Scratch matching marks on stubs in old compressor.
Make corresponding marks on replacement
compressor.
6. Use torch to remove stubs from old compressor and
to reinstall them in replacement compressor.
7. Use copper couplings to tie compressor back into
system.
8. Replace filter drier, evacuate system, recharge, and
check for normal system operation.
System Clean- Up After Burnout
Some compressor electrical failures can cause motor to
burn. When this occurs, by- products of burn, which include
sludge, carbon, and acids, contaminate system. Test the oil
for acidity using POE oil acid test to determine burnout
severity. If burnout is severe enough, system must be
cleaned before replacement compressor is installed. The 2
types of motor burnout are classified as mild or severe.
In mild burnout, there is little or no detectable odor.
Compressor oil is clear or slightly discolored. An acid test of
compressor oil will be negative. This type of failure is treated
the same as mechanical failure. Liquid- line strainer should
be removed and liquid- line filter drier replaced.
In a severe burnout, there is a strong, pungent, rotten egg
odor. Compressor oil is very dark. Evidence of burning may
be present in tubing connected to compressor. An acid test
of compressor oil will be positive. Follow these additional
steps:
1. TXV must be cleaned or replaced.
2. Drain any trapped oil from accumulator if used.
3. Remove and discard liquid- line strainer and filter
drier.
4. After system is reassembled, install liquid and
suction- line R- 410A filter driers.
NOTE: On heat pumps, install suction line drier between
compressor and accumulator.
5. Operate system for 10 hr. Monitor pressure drop
across drier. If pressure drop exceeds 3 psig replace
suction- line and liquid- line filter driers. Be sure to
purge system with dry nitrogen when replacing filter
driers. If suction line driers must be replaced, retest
pressure drop after additional 10 hours (run time).
Continue to monitor pressure drop across suction line
filter drier. After 10 hr of run time, remove suction- line
filter drier and replace liquid- line filter drier. Never
leave suction- line filter drier in system longer than 72
hr (run time).
6. Charge system. (See unit information plate.)
!
CAUTION
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Only suction line filter driers should be used for
refrigerant and oil clean up. Use of non- approved
products could limit system life and void unit warranty.
29
Evacuation
MICRONS
Proper evacuation of the system will remove
non- condensibles and assure a tight, dry system before
charging. The two methods used to evacuate a system are
the deep vacuum method and the triple evacuation method.
Deep Vacuum Method
The deep vacuum method requires a vacuum pump
capable of pulling a vacuum of 500 microns and a vacuum
gauge capable of accurately measuring this vacuum depth.
The deep vacuum method is the most positive way of
assuring a system is free of air and moisture. (See Fig. 27.)
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
LEAK IN
SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING WITH
SUPERHEAT
This troubleshooting routine was developed to diagnose
cooling problems using superheat in TXV systems. It is
effective on heat pumps in cooling mode as well as air
conditioners. The system must utilize a TXV as the
expansion device in cooling mode.
Basic Diagnostics
NOTE:
When
checking
refrigerant
charge
and
troubleshooting operating systems, the indoor airflow has
significant effect on the determination. If you are at this
stage, it is assumed you have already checked the
subcooling once and believe the charge is correct. From this
point, the airflow must be verified prior to proceeding, hence
step 1 below.
1. Check or verify proper indoor airflow
VACUUM TIGHT
TOO WET
1
2
3
4
MINUTES
5
6
Indoor air filter
S
S
Outdoor airflow (debris on coil, etc.)
7
Set the subcooling at value listed on rating plate if
standard lineset
Set the subcooling at the maximum of 10F or
value listed on rating plate if a long line application
3. Check superheat at OD unit vapor service valve.
S
A95424
Fig. 27 – Deep Vacuum Graph
Triple Evacuation Method
The triple evacuation method should be used when vacuum
pump is only capable of pumping down to 28 in. of mercury
vacuum and system does not contain any liquid water. Refer
to Fig. 28 and proceed as follows:
S
S
If low (< 2F), proceed to Low SuperHeat section.
S
If greater than 20F/11_C, perform Pseudo
Evaporator SuperHeat Instructions check as
follows:
1. Pump system down to 28 in. of mercury and allow
pump to continue operating for an additional 15
minutes.
2. Close service valves and shut off vacuum pump.
3. Connect a nitrogen cylinder and regulator to system
and open until system pressure is 2 psig.
4. Close service valve and allow system to stand for 1
hr. During this time, dry nitrogen will be able to diffuse
throughout the system absorbing moisture.
5. Repeat this procedure as indicated in Fig. 28. System
will then be free of any contaminants and water vapor.
If between 2 and 20F/11_C valve is probably
operating properly.
 Check refrigerant pressure at vapor service
valve and
refrigerant temperature at outlet of evaporator.
 Use suction line geometry (diameter and equivalent length), unit capacity and Tables 4 and 5 to
determine suction pressure drop.
S For standard lineset diameters (vapor service
valve diameters and larger) and lengths (less
than 80 ft), generally no pressure adjustment
(per Table 5 or 6) is required.
EVACUATE
S For longer (greater than 80 ft) and small
diameter linesets (less than service valve
size), correct pressure (add to gauge
pressure reading) per Tables 5 and 6.
BREAK VACUUM WITH DRY NITROGEN
WAIT
S
If Pseudo Superheat is greater than 15, proceed to
High SuperHeat section.
S
If Pseudo Evaporator Superheat is between 2 and
15, TXV appears to be functioning properly.
EVACUATE
BREAK VACUUM WITH DRY NITROGEN
If operation erratic (hunting), proceed to Hunting
Superheat F Superheat in repetition section.
NOTE: Hunting is when the valve superheat swings more
than 10_.
Low Superheat with Normal or Low Suction Pressure
NOTE: Normal or low suction pressure is considered for
R- 22: < 80 psig, R- 410A: < 135 psig
1. Re- check airflow and then check sensing bulb
tightness, orientation on vapor tube and is properly
wrapped.
S
WAIT
EVACUATE
CHECK FOR TIGHT, DRY SYSTEM
(IF IT HOLDS DEEP VACUUM)
CHARGE SYSTEM
A95425
Fig. 28 – Triple Evacuation Method
Duct dampers and supply registers are open
Indoor coil for debris
2. Check subcooling at OD unit liquid service valve
TIGHT
DRY SYSTEM
0
S
S
S
30
16. R- 410A Systems: Make sure proper valve is used
(Not R- 22)
If OK proceed to Step 2
2. Check superheat at vapor service valve
and Pseudo Evaporator Superheat.
S
S
S If OK proceed to Step 17
17. Check for even temperature distribution at outlet of
each circuit of evaporator
If both are less than 2F, TXV likely not controlling
properly, i.e. stuck open - > REPLACE VALVE
S If OK proceed to Step 18
18. Check for high evaporator load: Return Air Leaks,
high indoor wet bulb and/or dry bulb temp, undersized
system, etc.
If superheat is higher than 15F, proceed to Step 3
3. Perform TXV function check.
S
S
With system running, place sensing bulb in ice
bath for 1 minute - > superheat should increase.
S If OK proceed to Step 19
19. Check that compressor is pumping properly
 If no response, Replace Valve
 If OK proceed to Step 4
4. Check for even temperature distribution at outlet of
each circuit of evaporator
S
If greater than 15F between circuits, distributor or
coil has a restriction.
S If OK proceed to Step 5
Low Superheat with High Suction Pressure
NOTE: High suction pressure is considered for R- 22: > 80
psig, R- 410A: > 135 psig. An application issue or other
system component failure typically causes this condition.
5. R- 22 Systems: Check that proper valve used (not an
R- 410A valve)
Loose Rule of Thumb: Is discharge saturated
20F higher than ambient temperature? Is
discharge superheat between 15_F and 50_F?
Hunting Superheat
NOTE: Hunting is when the valve superheat swings more
than 10F Superheat in repetition. This is typically an
application issue.
20. Check for obvious kinked or pinched distributor
(capillary) tubes causing imbalance to the circuiting.
S
S If OK proceed to Step 21
21. Check that proper size valve is used per Product
Literature.
S If OK proceed to Step 6
6. Check airflow, sensing bulb tightness, orientation on
vapor tube and ensure bulb is properly wrapped.
S If OK proceed to Step 22
22. Check airflow, sensing bulb tightness, orientation on
vapor tube and ensure bulb is properly wrapped.
If OK proceed to Step 7
7. Check that compressor is pumping properly
NOTE: Loose Rules of Thumb: Is discharge saturated
20F higher than ambient temperature? Is discharge
superheat between 15 and 50?
S
If OK proceed to Step 23
23. Check for even temperature distribution (5
difference) at outlet of each circuit of evaporator and
for even air distribution over all evaporator slabs
S
S If OK proceed to Step 24.
24. Move sensing bulb further down suction line.
S If OK proceed to Step 8
8. Recheck Airflow and Subcooling.
If OK proceed to Replace Valve
High Superheat with Normal or Low Pressure
NOTE: Normal or low suction pressure is considered:
R- 22 < 80 psig, R- 410A < 135 psig.
9. Check for restriction in liquid line (kinked line, filter
drier restricted, etc.)
S
S If OK proceed to Step 10
10. Check for restriction in suction line (kink, restricted
suction filter drier etc.))
If problem not corrected, replace valve
Pseudo Evaporator Superheat Instructions
The Pseudo Evaporator Superheat calculates the superheat
at the outlet of the evaporator with known and available
information. Because there generally is not a pressure port
on the vapor line at the indoor coil, this procedure allows the
service personnel to evaluate the evaporator superheat with
the vapor pressure port at the outdoor unit.
The method requires the following information:
S
If OK proceed to Step 11
11. Check power element cap tube is not broken
S
If OK proceed to Step 12
12. Check that equalizer tube is not kinked or plugged
S
If OK proceed to Step 13
13. Check that inlet screen (R- 22 systems) is not
restricted
S
If OK proceed to Step 14
14. Replace Valve
High Superheat with Normal or High Suction Pressure
NOTE: Normal to High suction pressure is considered
for R- 22: > 65 psig, R- 410A: > 110 psig. An application
issue or other system component failure typically causes
this condition.
15. Check airflow, sensing bulb tightness, orientation on
vapor tube and ensure bulb is properly wrapped.
S
S
If OK proceed to Step 16
S
Suction line temperature at the outlet of the
evaporator (F).
S
S
S
S
Suction line pressure at the outdoor unit (psig).
Outdoor nominal unit size (btuh).
Suction line equivalent line length (ft).
Suction line pressure drop from tables (Table 5 and
Table 6).
Pressure- Temperature relationship for refrigerant
used (P- T Chart).
If system uses a vapor line the same size as vapor service
valve fitting or larger AND the line set equivalent length is 80
feet or less, the pressure drop in vapor line of line set can
be ignored.
1. Take suction line temperature at outlet of evaporator
at indoor unit.
2. Take suction service valve pressure at OD unit.
3. Determine lineset vapor line equivalent length and
tube diameter.
S
31
valve pressure and evaporator outlet temperature to
calculate superheat
4. Determine suction line pressure drop from Table 5
(R- 410A) or Table 6 (R- 22).
5. Calculate Pseudo Evaporator Superheat.
Add the suction line pressure drop to the pressure
reading obtained at suction service valve.
NOTE: For nominal and larger diameter vapor lines with
standard length linesets (vapor line same size as service
valve fitting size and larger with equivalent length less than
80 ft) the pressure drop can be ignored – use vapor service
S
Determine saturated evaporator temperature from
a refrigerant pressure temperature relationship
chart (PT chart).
S
Subtract saturated evaporator from evaporator
suction line temperature to obtain evaporator
superheat.
S
90 STD
90 LONG RAD
45 STD
A01058
Fig. 29 – Tube Fitting Geometry
Table 4—Fitting Losses in Equivalent Feet
TUBE SIZE OD
(IN.)
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1- 1/8
90 STD (A)
90 LONG RAD (B)
45 STD (C)
1.2
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.7
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.3
Table 5—R- 410A System Suction Pressure Drop
Nominal
Size
(Btuh)
18000
18000
18000
24000
24000
24000
30000
30000
30000
36000
36000
36000
42000
42000
42000
42000
48000
48000
48000
60000
60000
60000
Suction Line
OD
(in.)
Pressure
Drop
(psi/100 ft)
Suction
Velocity
fpm
1/2
9.9
1649
5/8
3.1
1018
3/4
1.2
678
1/2
16.7
2199
5/8
5.2
1357
3/4
2.0
904
7/8
1.0
678
5/8
7.8
1696
3/4
2.9
1130
7/8
1.5
848
5/8
10.9
2036
3/4
4.1
1356
7/8
2.0
1017
5/8
14.1
2375
3/4
5.4
1582
7/8
2.7
1187
1 1/8
0.8
696
3/4
6.9
1808
7/8
3.5
1357
1 1/8
1.0
796
3/4
10.4
2260
7/8
5.2
1696
1 1/8
1.4
995
Line set application not recommended
20
2
1
0
3
1
0
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
3
1
1
0
1
1
0
2
1
0
50
5
2
1
8
3
1
0
4
1
1
5
2
1
7
3
1
0
3
2
0
5
3
1
80
8
2
1
13
4
2
1
6
2
1
9
3
2
11
4
2
1
6
3
1
8
4
1
32
R - 410A Suction Line Pressure Drop (psig)
Total Equivalent Line Length (ft)
100
125
150
175
200
10
12
15
17
20
3
4
5
5
6
1
1
2
2
2
17
21
25
29
33
5
7
8
9
10
2
2
3
3
4
1
1
1
2
2
8
10
12
14
16
3
4
4
5
6
1
2
2
3
3
11
14
16
19
22
4
5
6
7
8
2
3
3
4
4
14
18
21
25
28
5
7
8
9
11
3
3
4
5
5
1
1
1
1
2
7
9
10
12
14
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
1
2
2
10
13
16
18
21
5
6
8
9
10
1
2
2
3
3
225
22
7
3
38
12
4
2
18
7
3
24
9
5
32
12
6
2
16
8
2
23
12
3
250
25
8
3
42
13
5
2
20
7
4
27
10
5
35
14
7
2
17
9
2
26
13
4
line. Based on Table 5, the system has approximately
3- psig pressure drop in the vapor line. Per the instructions,
he takes the suction line temperature at the outlet of the
evaporator and finds it to be 53F. Tom adds 3 psig to the
125- psig suction pressure at the outdoor unit to get 128
psig evaporator pressure. The saturated pressure of 128
equates to 44F. Tom calculates the evaporator superheat
to be (53F - 44F =) 9F. The TXV appears to be
operating properly.
NOTE: The additional superheat at the compressor is due
principally to heat gain in the 75 feet of suction line with a
minor contribution by the pressure drop. Because the
suction line of the lineset was the same size as the vapor
service valve fitting and less than 80 feet, Tom could have
ignored the pressure drop in the suction line and obtained
the evaporator superheat by using the vapor service valve
pressure of 125 psig (saturated temperature = 43F) and the
evaporator outlet temperature of 53F. The evaporator
superheat is calculated to be (53F – 43F =) 10 F.
Example 1
While on a service call, after checking for proper indoor and
outdoor airflow, Tom finds the following pressures and
temperatures at the service valves of a R- 410A air
conditioner:
S
S
S
S
Liquid line pressure = 340 psig
Liquid line temperature = 97F
Suction line pressure = 125 psig
Suction line temperature = 70F
Using a R- 410A PT chart, the subcooling is determined to
be 8F, which is within 3 of the 10F listed on the rating
plate. Tom believes the charge is correct. He calculates the
superheat to be approximately 27F superheat. The
apparently high superheat has Tom concerned.
Tom uses the Pseudo Evaporator Superheat method to
check the TXV performance. The system is a 3- ton R- 410A
air conditioner with 75 feet equivalent length of 3/4” suction
Table 6—R- 22 System Suction Pressure Drop
Nominal
Size
(Btuh)
18000
18000
18000
18000
24000
24000
24000
30000
30000
30000
36000
36000
36000
42000
42000
42000
48000
48000
48000
60000
60000
60000
Line
OD
(in.)
Pressure
Drop
(psi/100 ft)
Suction
Velocity
Fpm
5/8
13.6
5/8
4.0
3/4
1.5
7/8
0.8
5/8
6.7
3/4
2.5
7/8
1.3
5/8
10.1
3/4
3.8
7/8
1.9
3/4
5.3
7/8
2.6
1 1/8
0.7
3/4
7.0
7/8
3.5
1 1/8
1.0
3/4
8.9
7/8
4.4
1 1/8
1.2
7/8
6.7
1 1/8
1.8
1 3/8
0.7
Line set application not recommended
2563
1539
1025
769
2052
1367
1026
2565
1708
1282
2050
1538
902
2392
1795
1053
2733
2051
1203
2564
1504
987
20
3
1
0
0
1
1
0
2
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
Example 2
Jason is servicing a 5- ton R- 22 air conditioner with 7/8”
suction line. As part of his basic inspection he believes he
has normal airflow because the air filters are clean,
ductwork appears to be properly sized and in good shape
and the evaporator coil is clean. He then checks the
superheat and subcooling at the outdoor unit service valves.
Taking pressures and temperatures he finds the following:
S
S
S
S
Liquid line pressure = 260 psig
Liquid line temperature = 110F
Suction line pressure = 60 psig
Suction line temperature = 65F
Using an R- 22 PT relationship, Jason calculates the
subcooling to be approximately 10F with 30F superheat.
Because the subcooling is correct but the superheat
appears to be high, he is concerned and decides to perform
the Pseudo Evaporator Superheat check.
50
7
2
1
0
3
1
1
5
2
1
3
1
0
3
2
0
4
2
1
3
1
0
80
11
3
1
1
5
2
1
8
3
2
4
2
1
6
3
1
7
4
1
5
1
1
R - 22 Suction Line Pressure Drop (psig)
Total Equivalent Line Length (ft)
100
125
150
175
200
14
17
20
24
27
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
2
7
8
10
12
13
3
3
4
4
5
1
2
2
2
3
10
13
15
18
20
4
5
6
7
8
2
2
3
3
4
5
7
8
9
11
3
3
4
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
7
9
10
12
14
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
1
2
2
9
11
13
16
18
4
6
7
8
9
1
2
2
2
2
7
8
10
12
13
2
2
3
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
225
31
9
3
2
15
6
3
23
9
4
12
6
2
16
8
2
20
10
3
15
4
2
250
34
10
4
2
17
6
3
25
9
5
13
7
2
17
9
2
22
11
3
17
5
2
Examining the lineset, Jason finds approximately 145 ft of
suction line with 4 long radius elbows. Per Fig. 30 and Table
6, each fitting has an equivalent length of 1.4 ft. The total
equivalent length of the suction line is (145’ + (4 * 1.4’) )
150 ft. Based on Table 5, Jason determines there should be
10- psig pressure- drop in the suction line.
Jason now takes the suction line temperature at the outlet of
the evaporator and obtains 51F. Per the instructions, Jason
adds the 10- psig pressure- drop to the 60- psig pressure at
the outdoor unit to get 70- psig at the evaporator. Saturated
pressure of 70- psig equates to approximately 41F. Jason
determines the Evaporator superheat to be (51F - 41F =)
10F. Jason concludes the TXV is functioning properly.
NOTE: In this situation, both the pressure drop and the heat
gain in the suction line are significant contributions to the
superheat at the service valve. The pressure drop
contributes approximately 7F superheat and the heat gain
in the suction line contributes 13F.
33
Fig. 30 – Pseudo Evaporator Superheat Pressure and Temperature Measurement Locations
Table 7—R- 410A Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart
PSIG
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
F
- 38.2
- 35.3
- 32.5
- 29.9
- 27.3
- 24.9
- 22.6
- 20.4
- 18.3
- 16.2
- 14.2
- 12.3
- 10.4
- 8.6
- 6.9
- 5.1
- 3.5
- 1.9
- 0.3
1.3
2.8
4.2
5.7
7.1
8.5
9.8
11.1
12.4
13.7
15.0
16.2
17.4
18.6
19.8
20.9
22.0
23.2
24.3
25.3
26.4
27.4
28.5
29.5
30.5
31.5
32.5
33.4
34.4
35.3
36.3
37.2
38.1
39.0
PSIG
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
F
39.9
40.8
41.6
42.5
43.3
44.2
45.0
45.8
46.6
47.5
48.2
49.0
49.8
50.6
51.4
52.1
52.9
53.6
54.4
55.1
55.8
56.5
57.3
58.0
58.7
59.4
60.1
60.7
61.4
62.1
62.8
63.4
64.1
64.7
65.4
66.0
66.7
67.3
67.9
68.6
69.2
69.8
70.4
71.0
71.6
72.2
72.8
73.4
74.0
74.6
75.1
75.7
76.3
PSIG
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
F
76.9
77.4
78.0
78.5
79.1
79.7
80.2
80.7
81.3
81.8
82.4
82.9
83.4
83.9
84.5
85.0
85.5
86.0
86.5
87.0
87.5
88.0
88.5
89.0
89.5
90.0
90.5
91.0
91.5
92.0
92.4
92.9
93.4
93.9
94.3
94.8
95.3
95.7
96.2
96.7
97.1
97.6
98.0
98.5
98.9
99.4
99.8
100.2
100.7
101.1
101.6
102.0
102.4
PSIG
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360
362
364
366
368
370
372
374
376
378
380
382
384
386
388
390
392
394
396
398
400
402
404
406
408
410
412
414
416
418
420
422
424
426
428
430
432
434
Source: Allied Signal - Genetron for Windows version R1.0  1999
34
F
102.9
103.3
103.7
104.1
104.6
105.0
105.4
105.8
106.2
106.6
107.0
107.5
107.9
108.3
108.7
109.1
109.5
109.9
110.3
110.7
111.1
111.5
111.9
112.2
112.6
113.0
113.4
113.8
114.2
114.6
114.9
115.3
115.7
116.1
116.4
116.8
117.2
117.5
117.9
118.3
118.6
119.0
119.4
119.7
120.1
120.5
120.8
121.2
121.5
121.9
122.2
122.6
122.9
PSIG
436
438
440
442
444
446
448
450
452
454
456
458
460
462
464
466
468
470
472
474
476
478
480
482
484
486
488
490
492
494
496
498
500
502
504
506
508
510
512
514
516
518
520
522
524
526
528
530
532
534
536
538
540
F
123.3
123.6
124.0
124.3
124.7
125.0
125.3
125.7
126.0
126.4
126.7
127.0
127.4
127.7
128.0
128.4
128.7
129.0
129.4
129.7
130.0
130.3
130.7
131.0
131.3
131.6
131.9
132.3
132.6
132.9
133.2
133.5
133.8
134.1
134.5
134.8
135.1
135.4
135.7
136.0
136.3
136.6
136.9
137.2
137.5
137.8
138.1
138.4
138.7
139.0
139.3
139.6
139.9
F
PSIG
542 140.2
544 140.5
546 140.8
548 141.1
550 141.4
554 141.9
558 142.5
560 142.8
564 143.4
568 143.9
570 144.2
574 144.8
578 145.3
580 145.6
584 146.2
588 146.7
590 147.0
594 147.5
598 148.1
600 148.4
604 148.9
606 149.2
608 149.4
610 151.3
612 150.0
614 150.2
616 150.5
618 150.7
620 151.0
624 151.5
626 151.8
628 152.1
630 152.3
634 152.8
636 153.1
638 153.3
640 153.6
644 154.1
646 154.3
648 154.6
650 154.8
654 161.8
656 155.6
658 155.8
660 158.3
664 156.6
666 156.8
668 157.1
670 157.3
674 157.7
676 158.0
Critical Point
705 163.0
Table 8—R- 22 Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Relationship
psig
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
F
- 25.9
- 24.0
- 22.1
- 20.4
- 18.7
- 17.0
- 15.4
- 13.8
- 12.3
- 10.8
- 9.3
- 7.9
- 6.5
- 5.2
- 3.9
- 2.6
- 1.3
0.0
1.2
2.4
3.6
4.7
5.8
6.9
8.0
9.1
10.2
11.2
12.2
13.2
14.2
15.2
16.2
17.1
18.1
19.0
19.9
20.8
21.7
22.6
23.5
24.3
25.2
26.0
26.8
27.6
28.4
29.2
30.0
30.8
31.6
32.4
33.1
33.9
34.6
35.4
36.1
36.8
37.5
38.2
38.9
39.6
40.3
41.0
psig
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
F
41.7
42.3
43.0
43.7
44.3
45.0
45.6
46.2
46.9
47.5
48.1
48.7
49.4
50.0
50.6
51.2
51.8
52.4
52.9
53.5
54.1
54.7
55.2
55.8
56.4
56.9
57.5
58.0
58.6
59.1
59.7
60.2
60.7
61.3
61.8
62.3
62.8
63.3
63.9
64.4
64.9
65.4
65.9
66.4
66.9
67.4
67.9
68.4
68.8
69.3
69.8
70.3
70.7
71.2
71.7
72.2
72.6
73.1
73.5
74.0
74.5
74.9
75.4
75.8
psig
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
F
76.2
76.7
77.1
77.6
78.0
78.4
78.9
79.3
79.7
80.2
80.6
81.0
81.4
81.8
82.3
82.7
83.1
83.5
83.9
84.3
84.7
85.1
85.5
85.9
86.3
86.7
87.1
87.5
87.9
88.3
88.7
89.1
89.5
89.9
90.2
90.6
91.0
91.4
91.8
92.1
92.5
92.9
93.2
93.6
94.0
94.3
94.7
95.1
95.4
95.8
96.2
96.5
96.9
97.2
97.6
97.9
98.3
98.6
99.0
99.3
99.7
100.0
100.4
100.7
psig
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
F
101.1
101.4
101.7
102.1
102.4
102.8
103.1
103.4
103.8
104.1
104.4
104.8
105.1
105.4
105.7
106.1
106.4
106.7
107.0
107.4
107.7
108.0
108.3
108.6
108.9
109.3
109.6
109.9
110.2
110.5
110.8
111.1
111.4
111.8
112.1
112.4
112.7
113.0
113.3
113.6
113.9
114.2
114.5
114.8
115.1
115.4
115.7
116.0
116.3
116.6
116.8
117.1
117.4
117.7
118.0
118.3
118.6
118.9
119.2
119.4
119.7
120.0
120.3
120.6
35
psig
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
F
120.9
121.1
121.4
121.7
122.0
122.3
122.5
122.8
123.1
123.4
123.6
123.9
124.2
124.5
124.7
125.0
125.3
125.5
125.8
126.1
126.4
126.6
126.9
127.2
127.4
127.7
127.9
128.2
128.5
128.7
129.0
129.3
129.5
129.8
130.0
130.3
130.6
130.8
131.1
131.3
131.6
131.8
132.1
132.3
132.6
132.8
133.1
133.3
133.6
133.8
134.1
134.3
134.6
134.8
135.1
135.3
135.6
135.8
136.1
136.3
136.6
136.8
137.0
137.3
psig
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
F
137.5
137.8
138.0
138.2
138.5
138.7
139.0
139.2
139.4
139.7
139.9
140.2
140.4
140.6
140.9
141.1
141.3
141.6
141.8
142.0
142.3
142.5
142.7
142.9
143.2
143.4
143.6
143.9
144.1
144.3
144.5
144.8
145.0
145.2
145.4
145.7
145.9
146.1
146.3
146.6
146.8
147.0
147.2
147.5
147.7
147.9
148.1
148.3
148.6
148.8
149.0
149.2
149.4
149.6
149.9
150.1
150.3
150.5
150.7
150.9
151.1
151.4
151.6
151.8
psig
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
F
152.0
152.2
152.4
152.6
152.8
153.1
153.3
153.5
153.7
153.9
154.1
154.3
154.5
154.7
154.9
155.1
155.3
155.6
155.8
156.0
156.2
156.4
156.6
156.8
157.0
157.2
157.4
157.6
157.8
158.0
158.2
158.4
158.6
158.8
159.0
159.2
159.4
159.6
159.8
160.0
160.2
160.4
160.6
160.8
161.0
161.2
161.4
161.6
161.8
162.0
162.2
162.3
162.5
162.7
162.9
163.1
163.3
163.5
163.7
163.9
Critical
709
205.1
Table 9—R- 410A Subcooling Chart
Liquid Line Temperature (_F)
Liq Press
(psig)
P- T
(_F)
200
70
2
68
4
66
6
64
8
62
10
60
12
58
14
56
16
54
18
52
20
50
210
73
71
69
67
65
63
61
59
57
55
53
220
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60
58
56
230
79
77
75
73
71
69
67
65
63
61
59
240
82
80
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
250
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
260
87
85
83
81
79
77
75
73
71
69
67
270
89
87
85
83
81
79
77
75
73
71
69
280
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
290
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
300
96
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
310
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
83
81
79
320
101
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
83
81
330
103
101
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
83
340
105
103
101
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
85
350
107
105
103
101
99
97
95
93
91
89
87
360
109
107
105
103
101
99
97
95
93
91
89
370
111
109
107
105
103
101
99
97
95
93
91
380
113
111
109
107
105
103
101
99
97
95
93
390
115
113
111
109
107
105
103
101
99
97
95
400
117
115
113
111
109
107
105
103
101
99
97
410
119
117
115
113
111
109
107
105
103
101
99
420
121
119
117
115
113
111
109
107
105
103
101
430
122
120
118
116
114
112
110
108
106
104
102
440
124
122
120
118
116
114
112
110
108
106
104
450
126
124
122
120
118
116
114
112
110
108
106
460
127
125
123
121
119
117
115
113
111
109
107
470
129
127
125
123
121
119
117
115
113
111
109
480
131
129
127
125
123
121
119
117
115
113
111
490
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116
114
112
500
134
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116
114
510
135
133
131
129
127
125
123
121
119
117
115
520
137
135
133
131
129
127
125
123
121
119
117
530
139
137
135
133
131
129
127
125
123
121
119
540
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
550
141
139
137
135
133
131
129
127
125
123
121
560
143
141
139
137
135
133
131
129
127
125
123
570
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
580
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
590
147
145
143
141
139
137
135
133
131
129
127
600
149
147
145
143
141
139
137
135
133
131
129
610
150
148
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
Subcooling (_F)
36
Table 10—R- 410A Superheat Chart
Vapor Line Temperature (F)
Vap Press
(psig)
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
P- T
(F)
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
47
48
48
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
55
56
57
58
2
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
57
58
59
60
4
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
48
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
59
60
61
62
6
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
61
61
62
63
64
8
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
63
63
64
65
66
10
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
61
62
62
63
64
65
65
66
67
68
12
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
63
64
64
65
66
67
67
68
69
70
Superheat (F)
14 16 18
35 37 39
36 38 40
37 39 41
38 40 42
39 41 43
40 42 44
41 43 45
43 45 47
44 46 48
45 47 49
46 48 50
47 49 51
48 50 52
49 51 53
49 51 53
50 52 54
51 53 55
52 54 56
53 55 57
54 56 58
55 57 59
56 58 60
57 59 61
58 60 62
58 60 62
59 61 63
60 62 64
61 63 65
62 64 66
62 64 66
63 65 67
64 66 68
65 67 69
66 68 70
66 68 70
67 69 71
68 70 72
69 71 73
69 71 73
70 72 74
71 73 75
72 74 76
37
20
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
64
65
66
67
68
68
69
70
71
72
72
73
74
75
75
76
77
78
22
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
66
67
68
69
70
70
71
72
73
74
74
75
76
77
77
78
79
80
24
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
68
69
70
71
72
72
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
79
79
80
81
82
26
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
70
71
72
73
74
74
75
76
77
78
78
79
80
81
81
82
83
84
28
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
72
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
86
30
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
74
75
76
77
78
78
79
80
81
82
82
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
Table 11—R- 22 Subcooling Chart
R- 22 Liquid Line Temperature (_F)
Liquid
Pres
(psig)
PT (F)
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
330
70
72
74
76
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
96
98
100
102
103
105
107
108
110
111
113
114
116
117
119
120
121
123
124
126
127
128
129
131
132
133
135
136
137
138
Subcooling (_F)
2
68
70
72
74
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
94
96
98
100
101
103
105
106
108
109
111
112
114
115
117
118
119
121
122
124
125
126
127
129
130
131
133
134
135
136
4
66
68
70
72
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
92
94
96
98
99
101
103
104
106
107
109
110
112
113
115
116
117
119
120
122
123
124
125
127
128
129
131
132
133
134
6
64
66
68
70
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
90
92
94
96
97
99
101
102
104
105
107
108
110
111
113
114
115
117
118
120
121
122
123
125
126
127
129
130
131
132
8
62
64
66
68
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
88
90
92
94
95
97
99
100
102
103
105
106
108
109
111
112
113
115
116
118
119
120
121
123
124
125
127
128
129
130
10
60
62
64
66
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
86
88
90
92
93
95
97
98
100
101
103
104
106
107
109
110
111
113
114
116
117
118
119
121
122
123
125
126
127
128
12
58
60
62
64
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
84
86
88
90
91
93
95
96
98
99
101
102
104
105
107
108
109
111
112
114
115
116
117
119
120
121
123
124
125
126
38
14
56
58
60
62
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
82
84
86
88
89
91
93
94
96
97
99
100
102
103
105
106
107
109
110
112
113
114
115
117
118
119
121
122
123
124
16
54
56
58
60
63
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
80
82
84
86
87
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
100
101
103
104
105
107
108
110
111
112
113
115
116
117
119
120
121
122
18
52
54
56
58
61
63
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
78
80
82
84
85
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
98
99
101
102
103
105
106
108
109
110
111
113
114
115
117
118
119
120
20
50
52
54
56
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
73
75
76
78
80
82
83
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
96
97
99
100
101
103
104
106
107
108
109
111
112
113
115
116
117
118
22
48
50
52
54
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
73
74
76
78
80
81
83
85
86
88
89
91
92
94
95
97
98
99
101
102
104
105
106
107
109
110
111
113
114
115
116
24
46
48
50
52
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
72
74
76
78
79
81
83
84
86
87
89
90
92
93
95
96
97
99
100
102
103
104
105
107
108
109
111
112
113
114
26
44
46
48
50
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
70
72
74
76
77
79
81
82
84
85
87
88
90
91
93
94
95
97
98
100
101
102
103
105
106
107
109
110
111
112
Table 12—R- 22 Superheat Chart
R- 22 Vapor Line Temperature (_F)
Vapor
Press
(psig)
PT (F)
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
26
27
28
28
29
30
31
32
32
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
38
39
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
51
52
53
53
54
54
55
Superheat (_F)
2
28
29
30
30
31
32
33
34
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
40
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
53
54
55
55
56
56
57
4
30
31
32
32
33
34
35
36
36
37
38
39
39
40
41
42
42
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
57
58
58
59
6
32
33
34
34
35
36
37
38
38
39
40
41
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
57
58
59
59
60
60
61
8
34
35
36
36
37
38
39
40
40
41
42
43
43
44
45
46
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
59
60
61
61
62
62
63
10
36
37
38
38
39
40
41
42
42
43
44
45
45
46
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
61
62
63
63
64
64
65
12
38
39
40
40
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
47
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
63
64
65
65
66
66
67
14
40
41
42
42
43
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
65
66
67
67
68
68
69
39
16
42
43
44
44
45
46
47
48
48
49
50
51
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
67
68
69
69
70
70
71
18
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
53
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
69
70
71
71
72
72
73
20
46
47
48
48
49
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
71
72
73
73
74
74
75
22
48
49
50
50
51
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
73
74
75
75
76
76
77
24
50
51
52
52
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
59
60
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
74
75
75
76
77
77
78
78
79
26
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
58
58
59
60
61
61
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
74
75
76
76
77
77
78
79
79
80
80
81
28
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
60
60
61
62
63
63
64
65
66
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
74
75
76
76
77
78
78
79
79
80
81
81
82
82
83
30
56
57
58
58
59
60
61
62
62
63
64
65
65
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
72
73
74
74
75
76
76
77
78
78
79
80
80
81
81
82
83
83
84
84
85
TWO STAGE
NON- COMMUNICATING N4A7/N4H6
most closely matches the required airflow shown in
the air conditioning Product Data for HIGH speed.
3. The CF DIP switch setting determines airflow during
low stage cooling operation. Select the CF DIP switch
setting corresponding to the available airflow shown
in the furnace installation instructions that most
closely matches the required airflow shown in the air
conditioning Product Data for LOW speed. If a higher
or lower continuous fan speed is desired, the
continuous fan speed can be changed using the fan
switch on the thermostat. Refer to the furnace
Installation Instructions for details of how to use this
feature.
These units are non- communicating and utilize 2- stage
scroll technology. These units require variable speed
furnaces that are compatible with two- stage operation (such
as F/G8MVL) or newer model variable speed fan coils
(FVM4X). Variable speed fan coils prior to the FVM4X will
NOT be rated with the new Performance series two- stage
units as they are not capable of meeting the air flow
requirements necessary for rating. These are designed to
operate with basic 24 volt thermostat inputs.
Operating Ambient
The minimum outdoor operating ambient in cooling mode is
55_F / 12.78_C, and the maximum outdoor operating
ambient in cooling mode is 125_F / 51.67_C when operating
voltage is 230v. For 208v applications, the maximum
outdoor ambient is 120_F/ 48.9_C.
NOTE: Units operating at high stage operation, 208v (or
below) line voltage and at an outdoor ambient of 120_F (or
greater), may experience compressor trip.
NOTE: This product is not approved for low ambient cooling
at this time, and no low ambient kit is available.
Airflow Selections (ECM Furnaces)
The ECM Furnaces provide blower operation to match the
capacities of the compressor during high and low stage
cooling operation. Tap selections on the furnace control
board enable the installing technician to select the proper
airflows for each stage of cooling. Below is a brief summary
of the furnace airflow configurations
1. The Y2 call for high stage cooling energizes the
“Cool” tap on the control board. The grey wire from
cool tap is connected to tap 5 on the motor. Refer to
the furnace Product Data to find the corresponding
airflow. If the airflow setting for high cooling needs to
be switched from tap 5 to a different tap, jumper a
connection from the cool tap to the desired tap so that
the Y2 signal is communicated via the cool tap to the
desired speed tap.
2. The Y1 call for low stage cooling energizes the “Fan”
tap on the control board. The red wire from the fan tap
is connected to tap 1 on the motor. Refer to the
furnace Product Data to find the corresponding
airflow. If the airflow setting for low cooling needs to
be switched from tap 1 to a different tap, jumper a
connection from the Fan tap to the desired tap so
that the Y1 signal is communicated via the Fan tap to
the desired speed tap. The Y1 setting will also govern
the continuous fan airflow for the furnace.
Refer to the literature for the furnace for further details.
Airflow Selection for Variable Speed
Furnaces (non- communicating)
The variable speed furnaces provide blower operation to
match the capacities of the compressor during high and low
stage cooling operation. The furnace control board allows
the installing technician to select the proper airflows for each
stage of cooling. Below is a summary of required
adjustments. See furnace installation instructions for more
details:
1. Turn SW1- 5 ON for 400 CFM/ton airflow or OFF for
350 CFM/ton airflow. Factory default is OFF.
2. The A/C DIP switch setting determines airflow during
high stage cooling operation. Select the A/C DIP
switch setting corresponding to the available airflow
shown in the furnace Installation Instructions that
Airflow Selection for FVM4X Fan Coils
(non- communicating)
The FVM4X provides high and low- stage blower operation
to match the capacities of the compressor at high and
low- stage.
To select recommended airflow, refer to the FVM4X
Installation Instructions. The FVM4X utilizes an Easy Select
control board that allows the installing technician to select
proper airflows. This fan coil has an adjustable blower- off
delay factory set at 90 sec. for high- and low- stage blower
operation.
SYSTEM FUNCTION AND SEQUENCE
OF OPERATION (N4A7/N4H6)
NOTE: Defrost control board is equipped with 5 minute
lockout timer that is initiated upon any interruption of power.
Turn on power to indoor and outdoor units. Transformer is
energized.
These models utilize a 2- stage indoor thermostat. With a
call for first (low) stage cooling or heating, the outdoor fan
and low- stage compressor are energized. If low- stage
cannot satisfy cooling or heating demand, high- stage is
energized by the second (high) stage of the indoor
thermostat. After the second stage is satisfied, the unit
returns to low- stage operation until second stage is
required again. When both, first and second stage cooling
or heating are satisfied, the compressor will shut off.
Cooling
With first stage cooling, Y and O are powered on; and with
second stage cooling, Y2, Y and O are powered on. The O
energizes the reversing valve, switching it to cooling
position. The Y signal sends low voltage through the
safeties and energizes the T1 terminal on the circuit board.
If the compressor has been off for 5 minutes, or power has
not been cycled for 5 minutes, the OF2 relay and T2
terminal will energize. This will close the contactor and start
the outdoor fan motor and compressor. When the cycle is
complete, Y is turned off, stopping the compressor and
outdoor fan. The 5 minute time guard begins counting.
Compressor will not come on until this delay expires. In the
event of a power interruption, the time guard will not allow
another cycle for 5 minutes.
Heating
With first stage heating, Y is powered on; with second stage
heating, Y2 and Y are powered on. The Y signal sends low
voltage through the safeties and energizes the T1 terminal
on the circuit board. If the compressor has been off for 5
minutes or power has not been cycled for 5 minutes, the
OF2 relay and T2 terminal will energize. This will close the
contactor and start the outdoor fan motor and compressor.
When the cycle is complete, Y is turned off, stopping the
compressor nd outdoor fan. The 5 minute time guard
40
begins counting. Compressor will not come on until this
delay expires. In the event of a power interruption, the time
guard will not allow another cycle for 5 minutes.
Compressor Operation
The basic scroll design has been modified with the addition
of an internal unloading mechanism that opens a by- pass
port in the first compression pocket, effectively reducing the
displacement of the scroll. The opening and closing of the
by- pass port is controlled by an internal electrically
operated solenoid. The modulated scroll uses a single step
of unloading to go from full capacity to approximately 67%
capacity.
A single speed, high efficiency motor continues to run while
the scroll modulates between the two capacity steps.
Modulation is achieved by venting a portion of the gas in the
first suction pocket back to the low side of the compressor,
thereby reducing the effective displacement of the
compressor.
Full capacity is achieved by blocking these ports, thus
increasing the displacement to 100%. A DC solenoid in the
compressor controlled by a rectified 24 volt AC signal in the
external solenoid plug moves the slider ring that covers and
uncovers these ports.
The port covers are arranged in such a manner that the
compressor operates at approximately 67% capacity when
the solenoid is not energized and 100% capacity when the
solenoid is energized. The loading and unloading of the two
step scroll is done ”on the fly” without shutting off the motor
between steps.
NOTE:
67%
compressor
capacity
translates
to
approximately 75% cooling or heating capacity at the indoor
coil.
The compressor will always start unloaded and stay
unloaded for five seconds even when the thermostat is
calling for high stage capacity.
Quiet Shift
Defrost Speedup
To initiate a forced defrost, speedup pins (J1) must be
shorted with a flat head screwdriver for 5 seconds and
RELEASED. If the defrost thermostat is open, a short
defrost cycle will be observed (actual length depends on
Quiet Shift switch position). When Quiet Shift is off, only a
short 30 second defrost cycle is observed. With Quiet Shift
ON, the speedup sequence is one minute; 30 second
compressor off period followed by 30 seconds of defrost
with compressor operation. When returning to heating
mode, the compressor will turn off for an additional 30
seconds and the fan for 40 seconds.
If the defrost thermostat is closed, a complete defrost cycle
is initiated. If the Quiet Shift switch is turned on, the
compressor will be turned off for two 30 second intervals as
explained previously.
OF1
DFT
OF2
T2 C C O
T1
Y
P1
30
60
120
30
ON
DFT
QUIET
SHIFT
90
INTERVAL TIMER OFF
P3
Speedup
Pins
60
J1
Quiet shift- 2 is a field selectable defrost mode (factory set to
OFF), which will reduce the occasional noise that could be
heard at the start of defrost cycle and restarting of heating
cycle. It is selected by placing DIP switch 3 on defrost board
in the ON position.
When Quiet Shift- 2 switch is placed in ON position, and
defrost is initiated, the following sequence of operation will
occur: The compressor will be de- energized for
approximately 1 minute, then the reversing valve will be
energized. A few seconds later, the compressor will be
re- energized and the normal defrost cycle starts. Once
The defrost control is a time/temperature control which has
field selectable settings of 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes,
factory set to 90 minutes. These settings represent the
amount of time that must pass after closure of the defrost
thermostat before the defrost sequence begins.
The defrost thermostat senses coil temperature throughout
the heating cycle. When the coil temperature reaches the
defrost thermostat setting of approximately 32_F/0_C, it will
close, which energizes the DFT terminal and begins the
defrost timing sequence. When the DFT has been
energized for the selected time, the defrost cycle begins.
Defrost cycle is terminated when defrost thermostat opens
at approximately 65_F/18.3_C, or, or automatically after 10
minutes.
SPEEDUP
Quiet Shift- 2 (non- communicating)
Defrost
O R W2 Y C
Quiet shift is a field selectable defrost mode (factory set to
OFF), which will eliminate occasional noise that could be
heard at the start of defrost cycle and restarting of heating
cycle. It is selected by placing DIP switch 3 on defrost board
(see Fig. 31) in the ON position.
When Quiet Shift switch is placed in ON position, and a
defrost is initiated, the following sequence of operation will
occur. Reversing valve will energize, compressor will turn off
for 30 seconds, and then turn back on to complete defrost.
At the start of heating after conclusion of defrost, reversing
valve will de- energize, compressor will turn off for another
30 seconds, and the fan will turn off for 40 seconds, before
starting in the heating mode.
FAST# 1185790 Defrost Control
This defrost control is used in some non- communicating
heat pumps and has all the same functionality, speedups,
and troubleshooting as the FAST# 1174185 except for the
forced defrost timing when Quiet Shift- 2 is enabled.
defrost termination conditions have been met, the following
sequence will occur: The compressor will be de- energized
for approximately 1 minute, then the reversing valve will be
de- energized. A few seconds later, the compressor will be
re- energized and the normal heating cycle starts.
Quiet
Shift
Defrost interval
DIP switches
A05378
Fig. 31 – Defrost Control
CHECK CHARGE
(See Charging Tables 10 & 12)
Factory charge amount and desired subcooling are shown
on unit rating plate. Charging method is shown on
information plate inside unit. To properly check or adjust
charge, conditions must be favorable for subcooling
charging. Favorable conditions exist when the outdoor
temperature is between 70_F/21.11_C and 100_F/37.78_C,
and the indoor temperature is between 70_F/21.11_C and
80_F/26.67_C. Follow the procedure below:
Unit is factory charged for 15ft (4.57 m) of lineset. Adjust
charge by adding or removing 0.6 oz/ft of 3/8 liquid line
above or below 15ft (4.57 m) respectively.
41
For standard refrigerant line lengths (80 ft/24.38 m or less),
allow system to operate in cooling mode at least 15 minutes.
If conditions are favorable, check system charge by
subcooling method. If any adjustment is necessary, adjust
charge slowly and allow system to operate for 15 minutes to
stabilize before declaring a properly charged system.
If the indoor temperature is above 80_F /26.67_C, and the
outdoor temperature is in the favorable range, adjust system
charge by weight based on line length and allow the indoor
temperature to drop to 80_F/26.67_C before attempting to
check system charge by subcooling method as described
above.
If the indoor temperature is below 70_F / 21.11_C, or the
outdoor temperature is not in the favorable range, adjust
charge for line set length above or below 15ft (4.57 m) only.
Charge level should then be appropriate for the system to
achieve rated capacity. The charge level could then be
checked at another time when the both indoor and outdoor
temperatures are in a more favorable range.
NOTE: If line length is beyond 80 ft (24.38 m) or greater
than 20 ft (6.10 m) vertical separation, See Long Line
Guideline for special charging requirements.
SINGLE- STAGE AC (*SA5, *SA6)
GENERAL SEQUENCE OF OPERATION STANDARD THERMOSTAT
Turn on power to indoor and outdoor units. Transformer is
energized.
On a call for cooling, thermostat makes circuits R- Y and
R- G. Circuit R- Y energizes contactor, starting outdoor fan
motor and compressor circuit. R- G energizes indoor unit
blower relay, starting indoor blower motor on high speed.
NOTE: To achieve the rated system performance, the indoor
unit or the thermostat must be equipped with a time delay
relay circuit.
When thermostat is satisfied, its contacts open,
de- energizing contactor and blower relay. Compressor and
motors stop. If indoor unit is equipped with a time- delay
relay circuit, the indoor blower will run an additional 90 sec
to increase system efficiency.
AC CONTROL FUNCTIONS
AND SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
The outdoor unit control system has special functions. The
following is an overview of the control functions.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Cooling Operation
This product utilizes either a standard indoor thermostat or
Observer Communicating Wall Control. With a call for
cooling, the outdoor fan and compressor are energized.
When the cooling demand is satisfied, the compressor and
fan will shut off.
NOTE: The outdoor fan motor will continue to operate for
one minute after compressor shuts off, when the outdoor
ambient is greater than or equal to 100_F (37.78_C).
Communication and Status Function Lights
Green Communications (COMM) Light (Communicating
Control only):
A green LED (COMM light) on the outdoor board indicates
successful communication with the other system products.
The green LED will remain OFF until communications is
established. Once a valid command is received, the green
LED will turn ON continuously. If no communication is
received within 2 minutes, the LED will be turned OFF until
the next valid communication.
Amber Status Light
An amber colored STATUS light is used to display the
operation mode and fault codes as specified in the
troubleshooting section. See Table 3 for codes and
definitions.
NOTE: Only one fault code will be displayed on the outdoor
unit control board (the most recent, with the highest priority).
Crankcase Heater Operation
The crankcase heater (when applicable) is energized during
the off cycle below 65_F (37.78_C)
Outdoor Fan motor Operation
The outdoor unit control energizes outdoor fan any time the
compressor is operating. The outdoor fan remains
energized for 15 minutes if a pressure switch or compressor
thermal protector should open. Outdoor fan motor will
continue to operate for one minute after the compressor
shuts off when the outdoor ambient is greater than or equal
to 100_F (37.78_C).
Time Delays
The unit time delays include:
S Five minute time delay to start cooling operation when
there is a call from the thermostat or communicating wall
control.
S When operating the unit with 2 wires, this delay is
shortened to 10 seconds.
S Five minute compressor recycle delay on return from a
brown out condition
S Two minute time delay to return to standby operation from
last valid communications (with communicating only)
S One minute time delay of outdoor fan at termination of
cooling mode when outdoor ambient is greater than or
equal to 100_F (37.78_C).
Utility Interface
With Non- Communicating Thermostats
Utility curtailment will only work when the unit is operating
with a non- communicating thermostat.
When the utility curtailment interface is applied with a
non- communicating thermostat, the utility relay should be
wired in series with the Y input.
Low Ambient Cooling
When this unit is required to operate below 55_F (12.78_C)
to a minimum of 0 _F (- 17.78 _C) outdoor temperature,
provisions must be made for low ambient operation.
Low ambient applications require the installation of
accessory kits:
S Low Ambient Pressure Switch Kit
S Evaporator Freeze Thermostat
S Hard Start kit
S Crankcase Heater
Support feet are recommended for low ambient cooling. See
Product Specification sheet for kit part numbers on
appropriate unit size and series unit.
42
F o r lo w a m b ie n t c o o lin g w ith th e O b s e rv e r
Communicating Wall Control the cooling lockout must
be set to “Off” in the Wall Control setup.
Liquid Line Solenoid
When operating in communicating mode the standard
thermostat terminals will not function. A terminal on the
non- communicating thermostat bus labeled “LS” on the AC
control board is provided for wiring liquid line solenoids
when in communicating mode. For operation in
communicating mode wire solenoid valve kit NASA401LS
across LS and C terminals . For operation in
n o n - c o m m u n i c a t i n g m o d e w i re s o l e n o i d v a l v e k i t
NASA401LS across C and Y terminals.
SINGLE- STAGE HEAT PUMP
(*SH4, *SH5, *SH6)
GENERAL SEQUENCE OF OPERATION STANDARD THERMOSTAT
Turn on power to indoor and outdoor units. Transformer is
energized with power supplied.
Cooling
On a call for cooling, a standard thermostat
(non- communicating) makes circuits R- O and R- Y and
R- G. Circuit R- O energizes reversing valve, switching it to
cooling position. Circuit R- Y energizes contactor, starting
outdoor fan motor and compressor circuit. R- G energizes
indoor unit blower relay, starting indoor blower motor on high
speed.
When a standard thermostat (non- communicating) is
satisfied, its contacts open, de- energizing contactor and
blower relay. Compressor and motors should stop.
NOTE: If indoor unit is equipped with a time- delay relay
circuit, the indoor blower will run an additional 90 seconds to
increase system efficiency.
Heating
HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
AND SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
The outdoor unit control system has special functions. The
following is an overview of the control functions.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Cooling & Heating Operation
This product utilizes either a standard indoor thermostat or
Observer Communicating Wall Control. With a call for
cooling, the outdoor fan, reversing valve, and compressor
are energized. When the cooling demand is satisfied, the
compressor and fan will shut off. The reversing valve will
remain energized until the control board power is removed
or a call for heating is initiated.
NOTE: The outdoor fan motor will continue to operate for
one minute after compressor shuts off, when the outdoor
ambient is greater than or equal to 100_F (37.78_C).
With a call for heating, the outdoor fan and compressor are
energized. The reversing valve is de- energized in the
heating mode.
Communication and Status Function Lights
Green Communications (COMM) Light (Communicating
Control only):
A green LED (COMM light) on the outdoor board (see Fig.
32) indicates successful communication with the other
system products. The green LED will remain OFF until
communications is established. Once a valid command is
received, the green LED will turn ON continuously. If no
communication is received within 2 minutes, the LED will be
turned OFF until the next valid communication.
Amber Status Light
An amber colored STATUS light is used to display the
operation mode and fault codes as specified in the
troubleshooting section. See Table 13 for codes and
definitions.
NOTE: Only one fault code will be displayed on the outdoor
unit control board (the most recent, with the highest priority).
On a call for heating a standard thermostat
(non- communicating) makes circuits R- Y and R- G. Circuit
R- Y energizes contactor, starting outdoor fan motor and
compressor. Circuit R- G energizes indoor blower relay,
starting blower motor on high speed.
Crankcase Heater Operation
Should temperature continue to fall, R- W2 is made through
second- stage room thermostat. Circuit R- W2 energizes a
relay, bringing on first bank of supplemental electric heat
and providing electrical potential to second heater relay (if
used). If outdoor temperature falls below setting of outdoor
thermostat (factory installed), contacts close to complete
circuit and bring on second bank of supplemental electric
heat.
The outdoor unit control energizes outdoor fan any time the
compressor is operating (except defrost and intermittently
during low ambient cooling). The outdoor fan remains
energized for 15 minutes if a pressure switch or compressor
thermal protector should open. Outdoor fan motor will
continue to operate for one minute after the compressor
shuts off when the outdoor ambient is greater than or equal
to 100_F (37.78_C).
When thermostat is satisfied, its contacts open,
de- energizing contactor and relay. All heaters and motors
should stop after all fan off delays.
Time Delays
The crankcase heater (when applicable) is energized during
the off cycle below 65_F (37.78_C)
Outdoor Fan motor Operation
The unit time delays include:
S Five minute time delay to start cooling or heating
operation when there is a call from the thermostat. (To
bypass this feature in a non- communicating system,
momentarily short and release forced defrost pins.
S Five minute compressor recycle delay on return from a
brown out condition
S Two minute time delay to return to standby operation from
last valid communications (with Observer
communicating wall control only)
43
S One minute time delay of outdoor fan at termination of
cooling mode when outdoor ambient is greater than or
equal to 100_F (37.78_C).
S Fifteen second delay at termination of defrost before the
auxiliary heat (W2) is de- energized.
S Twenty second delay at termination of defrost before the
outdoor fan is energized.
S Seventy and sixty second compressor delays when Quiet
Shift- 2 enabled.
Utility Interface
With Non- Communicating Thermostats
Utility curtailment will only work when the unit is operating
with a non- communicating thermostat.
When the utility curtailment interface is applied with a
non- communicating thermostat, the utility relay should be
wired between R & Y.
Low Ambient Cooling
When this unit is required to operate below 55_F (12.78_C)
to a minimum of 0 _F (- 17.78 _C) outdoor temperature,
provisions must be made for low ambient operation.
Low ambient applications require the installation of
accessory kits:
S Non- communicating thermostat
S Low Ambient Pressure Switch Kit
S Evaporator Freeze Thermostat
S Hard Start kit
S Crankcase Heater
S Field Supplied Isolation Relay
Support feet are recommended for low ambient cooling. See
Product Specification sheet for kit part numbers on
appropriate unit size and series unit.
DEFROST
This control offers 4 possible defrost interval times: 30, 60,
90 or 120 minutes. They are selected by dip switches on the
control board, or in the Observer Communicating Wall
Control (if used). The Observer Communicating Wall Control
selection overrides the control board dip switch settings.
Auto defrost is available with Observer Communicating Wall
Control only and it must be enabled in the Wall Control. Auto
defrost adjusts the defrost interval time based on the last
defrost time as follows:
S When defrost time is < 3 minutes, the next defrost interval
= 120 minutes
S When defrost time is 3- 5 minutes, the next defrost interval
= 90 minutes
S When defrost time is 5- 7 minutes, the next defrost interval
= 60 minutes
S When defrost time is > 7 minutes, the next defrost interval
= 30 minutes
Fig. 32 – Heat Pump Single Stage Control Board
44
Fig. 33 – Control Board 1190261 (for units with ECM Fan Motor)
The control board accumulates compressor run time. As the
accumulated run time approaches the selected defrost
interval time, the control board monitors the coil temperature
sensor for a defrost demand. If a defrost demand exists, a
defrost cycle will be initiated at the end of the selected time
interval. A defrost demand exists when the coil temperature
is at or below 32_F/0_C for 4 minutes during the interval.
The defrost cycle is terminated when the coil temperature
reaches 65_F/18.33_C or 10 minutes has passed.
If the coil temperature does not reach 32_F/0_C within the
interval, the interval timer will be reset and start over.
NOTE:
S Upon initial power up the first defrost interval is defaulted
to 30 minutes. Remaining intervals are at selected times.
S Defrost is only allowed to occur below 50_F/10_C outdoor
ambient temperature.
S The Quiet Shift- 2 compressor on/off delays, as described
below, will be included in a forced defrost if Quiet Shift- 2
is enabled.
DEFROST HOLD
In a non- communicating system, if the thermostat becomes
satisfied before the defrost cycle is terminated, the control
will ”hold” in defrost mode and finish the defrost cycle on the
n e x t c a l l f o r h e a t . D e f ro s t h o l d i s n o t n e e d e d i n a
communicating system because the Wall Control will
complete the defrost cycle before shutting down the system.
FORCED DEFROST
Forced defrost can be initiated manually in a
non- communicating system, or by communicated command
from a Wall Control. The board contains a 2- pin header
labeled FORCED DEFROST (See Figure 13). To initiate a
forced defrost:
S Manually, short FORCED DEFROST pins for 5 seconds
then release
S If coil temp is at defrost temp of 32_F/0_C, and outdoor air
temperature is below 50_F/10_C, a full defrost sequence
will occur
S If the coil temp or outdoor air temperature do not meet the
above requirements, an abbreviated 30 second defrost
will occur
QUIET SHIFT- 2
Quiet Shift- 2 is a field- selectable defrost mode which may
eliminate occasional noise that could be heard at the start
and finish of the defrost cycle. For installations using a
standard 2- stage thermostat, this feature must be enabled
by selecting the 3rd position dip switch on the outdoor
control board. For installations using an Observer Wall
Control, this feature must be enabled at the Wall Control.
When activated, the following sequence of operation occurs:
Defrost Initiation - the compressor is de- energized for 70
seconds. During this 70 second compressor off time, the
reversing valve will be energized. Once the 70 second
compressor off time has been reached, the compressor will
be energized then the outdoor fan will be de- energized at
which time the normal defrost cycle begins. Defrost
Termination - the outdoor fan will be energized shortly
before the compressor is de- energized for 60 seconds.
During the compressor 60 second off time, the reversing
v a l v e w i l l b e d e e n e r g i z e d . O n c e t h e 6 0 s e c o n d
compressor off time has been completed, the compressor
will be energized at which time the system will be in normal
heat mode.
45
LIQUID LINE SOLENOID ACCESSORY
In heat pump long line applications, a liquid line solenoid is
required to control refrigerant migration in the heating mode.
The solenoid should be installed near the outdoor unit with
the arrow facing the outdoor unit. This is the direction of flow
control. See Long Line Application Guideline for details.
Accessory Liquid Solenoid with Observer Communicating
Wall Control:When using the Observer Communicating Wall
Control, a liquid line solenoid output labeled LS is provided.
Connect the solenoid as shown in the wiring label diagram.
This is a 24vac output that is energized whenever the
compressor is energized. It closes in the compressor- off
mode to prevent refrigerant migration into the unit through
the liquid line.
Accessory Liquid Solenoid with Non- Communicating
Thermostat: The liquid solenoid is connected to the Y and C
terminal connections. The liquid solenoid closes in the
compressor- off mode to prevent refrigerant migration into
the unit through the liquid line.
MAJOR COMPONENTS
Control Board
The Heat Pump control board controls the following
functions:
S Compressor contactor operation
S Outdoor fan motor operation
S Reversing valve operation
S Defrost operation
S Compressor external protection
S Pressure switch monitoring
S Time delays
Field Connections
When using the Observer Communicating Wall Control, 4
field wires are required. On single- stage units they are
connected to the factory wires already wired to the
DX+DX- CR terminal (see Fig. 32). Unit as provided by
manufacturer is set up for the Observer Communicating
Wall Control.
When used with a standard non- communicating thermostat,
5 field wires are required to be connected to R, Y, W2, O
and C. Disconnect factory provided wires from DX+, DX- , C,
and R terminals. Using factory provided wires, connect to R,
Y, W2, O and C terminals on the control board. Connect field
24V wires to factory provided wires now connected to R, Y,
W2, O and C and unused factory provided wires.
When using Observer communication wall control only, the
24vac LS (liquid solenoid) output terminal is energized for
the liquid solenoid accessory. The connection is located at
the side of the control board just below the DX+DX- CR
connector.
Compressor Internal Relief
The compressor is protected by an internal pressure relief
(IPR) which relieves discharge gas into the compressor
shell when differential between suction and discharge
pressure exceeds 550- 625 psi. The compressor is also
protected by an internal overload attached to motor
windings.
TROUBLESHOOTING (SINGLE- STAGE)
SYSTEMS COMMUNICATION FAILURE
If communication between Wall Control, and condensing
unit is lost, the outdoor control will flash the appropriate fault
code. (See Table 13) Check the wiring to the Wall Control,
indoor and outdoor units.
PRESSURE SWITCH PROTECTION
The outdoor unit is equipped with high- and low- pressure
switches. If the control senses the opening of a high or
low- pressure switch, it will de- energize the compressor
contactor, keep the outdoor fan operating for 15 minutes
and display the appropriate fault code. (See table 13)
After a 15 minute delay, if there is still a call for cooling, and
the LPS or HPS is reset, the compressor contactor is
energized. If the LPS or HPS has not closed after a 15
minute delay, the outdoor fan is turned off. If the open
switch closes anytime after the 15- minute delay, then the
unit will resume operation with a call for cooling.
If the LPS or HPS trips for five consecutive cycles, then unit
operation is locked out for 4 hours and the appropriate fault
code (See table 13) is displayed.
In the event of a high- pressure switch trip or high- pressure
lockout, check the refrigerant charge, outdoor fan operation
and outdoor coil (in cooling) for airflow restrictions, or indoor
airflow in heating.
In the event of a low- pressure switch trip or low- pressure
lockout, check the refrigerant charge and indoor airflow
(cooling) and for HP, outdoor fan operation and outdoor coil
in heating.
CONTROL FAULT
If the outdoor unit control board has failed, the control will
flash the appropriate fault code. (See table 13) The control
board should be replaced.
24V BROWN OUT PROTECTION
If the control voltage is less than 15.5 volts for at least 4
seconds, the compressor contactor and fan relay are
de- energized. Compressor and fan operation are not
allowed until control voltage is a minimum of 17.5 volts. The
control will flash the appropriate fault code. (See table 13)
Verify the control voltage is in the allowable range of 18- 30
volts.
COMPRESSOR VOLTAGE SENSING
The input terminals labeled VR and VS on the control board
(see Fig. 32) are used to detect compressor voltage status,
and alert the user of potential problems. The control
continuously monitors the high voltage on the run capacitor
of the compressor motor. Voltage should be present any
time the compressor contactor is energized, and voltage
should not be present when the contactor is de- energized.
COMPRESSOR THERMAL CUTOUT OR LOSS OF
230V POWER
If the control senses the compressor voltage after start- up,
and is then absent for 10 consecutive seconds while cooling
demand exists, it will de - energize the compressor
contactor, keep the outdoor fan operating for 15 minutes (if
230v power present) and display the appropriate fault code.
(See table 13) Possible causes are compressor internal
overload trip or loss of high voltage (230V) to compressor
without loss of control voltage.
46
After a 15 minute delay, if there is still a call for cooling, the
compressor contactor is energized. If the thermal protector
has not re- set, the outdoor fan is turned off. If the call for
cooling continues, the control will energize the compressor
contactor every 15 minutes. If the thermal protector closes,
(at the next 15 minute interval check), the unit will resume
operation.
If the thermal cutout trips for three consecutive cycles, then
unit operation is locked out for 4 hours and the appropriate
fault code (See Table 13) is displayed.
CONTACTOR SHORTED DETECTION
If there is compressor voltage sensed when there is no
demand for compressor operation, the contactor may be
stuck closed. The control will flash the appropriate fault
code. Check the contactor and control box wiring.
NO 230V AT COMPRESSOR
I f t h e c o m p re s s o r v o l t a g e i s n o t s e n s e d w h e n t h e
compressor should be starting, the contactor may be stuck
open or the unit disconnect or circuit breaker may be open.
The control will flash the appropriate fault code. Check the
contactor, unit disconnect or circuit breaker and control box
wiring.
TEMPERATURE THERMISTORS
Thermistors are electronic devices which sense
temperature. As the temperature increases, the resistance
decreases. Thermistors are used to sense outdoor air
(OAT) and coil temperature (OCT). Refer to Fig. 34 for
resistance values versus temperature.
If the outdoor air or coil thermistor should fail, the control will
flash the appropriate fault code. (See table 13).
IMPORTANT: The outdoor air thermistor and coil thermistor
are factory mounted in the correct locations. Do not
re- locate thermistor sensors.
THERMISTOR SENSOR COMPARISON
The control continuously monitors and compares the
outdoor air temperature sensor and outdoor coil
temperature sensor to ensure proper operating conditions.
The comparison is:
S In cooling if the outdoor air sensor indicates 
10_F/- 12.22_C warmer than the coil sensor (or) the
outdoor air sensor indicates 20_F/- 6.67_C cooler than
the coil sensor, the sensors are out of range.
S In heating if the outdoor air sensor indicates 
35_F/1.67_C warmer than the coil sensor (or) the outdoor
air sensor indicates 10_F/- 12.22_C cooler than the coil
sensor, the sensors are out of range.
If the sensors are out of range, the control will flash the
appropriate fault code. (See Table 13).
The thermistor comparison is not performed during low
ambient cooling or defrost operation.
FAILED THERMISTOR DEFAULT OPERATION
Factory defaults have been provided in the event of failure
of outdoor air thermistor and/or coil thermistor.
If the OAT sensor should fail, low ambient cooling will not be
allowed and the one- minute outdoor fan off delay will not
occur. Defrost will be initiated based on coil temperature and
time.
If the OCT sensor should fail, low ambient cooling will not be
allowed. Defrost will occur at each time interval during
heating operation, but will terminate after 5 minutes.
If there is a thermistor out of range error, defrost will occur at
each time interval during heating operation, but will
terminate after 5 minutes.
Thermistor Curve: The resistance vs. temperature chart
shown in Figure 34 enables the technician to check the
o u t d o o r a i r a n d o u t d o o r c o i l t h e rm i s t o rs f o r p ro p e r
resistance. Unplug the thermistor assembly from the circuit
board and measure resistance across each thermistor. For
example, if the outdoor temperature is 60_F (15.56_C), the
resistance reading across the outdoor air thermistor should
be around 16,000 Ohms.
STATUS CODES
Table 12 shows the status codes flashed by the amber
status light. Most system problems can be diagnosed by
reading the status code as flashed by the amber status light
on the control board.
The codes are flashed by a series of short and long flashes
of the status light. The short flashes indicate the first digit in
the status code, followed by long flashes indicating the
second digit of the error code. The short flash is 0.25
second ON and the long flash is 1.0 second ON. Time
between flashes is 0.25 second. Time between short flash
and first long flash is 1.0 second. Time between code
repeating is 2.5 seconds with LED OFF.
Count the number of short and long flashes to determine the
appropriate flash code. Table 13 gives possible causes and
actions related to each error.
Example: 3 short flashes followed by 2 long flashes
indicates a 32 code. Table 13 shows this to be low pressure
switch open.
47
Table 13— Status Codes
Standby – no call
for unit operation
Standby – no call
for unit operation
Cooling Operation
FAULT
None
On solid, no flash
None
Off
None
System Communications
Failure
High Pressure
Switch Open
Low Pressure
Switch Open
1, pause
Control Fault
45
Brown Out
(24 v)
46
The control voltage is less than 15.5v for at least 4 seconds. Compressor and fan
operation not allowed until control voltage is a minimum of 17.5v. Verify control voltage.
53
Outdoor air sensor not reading or out of range. Ohm out sensor and check wiring
55
Coil sensor not reading or out of range. Ohm out sensor and check wiring
16
31
32
Outdoor Air Temp Sensor
Fault
Outdoor Coil Sensor
Fault
Thermistors out
of range
Thermal Cutout
72
Contactor Shorted
73
No 230V at
Compressor
74
Thermal Lockout
82
Low Pressure Lockout
83
High Pressure
Lockout
84
Possible Cause and Action
Normal operation - with communicating Control
Normal operation - No call for cooling with 2- wire connection or indoor unit not
powered.
Normal operation
Communication with wall control lost. Check wiring to wall control, indoor and outdoor units
High pressure switch trip. Check refrigerant charge, outdoor fan operation and coils
for airflow restrictions.
Low pressure switch trip. Check refrigerant charge and indoor air flow
Outdoor unit control board has failed. Control board needs to be replaced.
Improper relationship between coil sensor and outdoor air sensor. Ohm out sensors
and check wiring.
Compressor voltage sensed after start- up, then absent for 10 consecutive seconds
while cooling demand exists. Possible causes are internal compressor overload trip
or loss of high voltage to compressor without loss of control voltage. The control will
continue fan operation and wait 15 minutes to attempt a restart. Fault will clear when
restart is successful, or low voltage power is cycled.
56
Compressor voltage sensed when no demand for compressor operation exists.
Contactor may be stuck closed or there is a wiring error.
Compressor voltage not sensed when compressor should be starting. Disconnect
may be open or contactor may be stuck open or there is a wiring error.
Thermal cutout occurs in three consecutive cycles. Unit operation locked out for 4
hours or until 24v power recycled.
Low pressure switch trip has occurred during 3 consecutive cycles. Unit operation
locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
High pressure switch trip has occurred during 3 consecutive cycles. Unit operation
locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
Fig. 34 – Resistance vs Temperature Chart
THERMISTOR CURVE
90
80
RESISTANCE (KOHMS)
OPERATION
AMBER LED
FLASH CODE
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
(-17.77)
20
(-6.67)
40
(4.44)
60
(15.56)
80
(26.67)
TEMPERATURE °F (°C)
48
100
(37.78)
120
(48.89)
Fig. 35 – AC Single Stage Control Board
49
Fig. 36 – Observer Communicating Wall Control Four- Wire Connection Wiring Diagrams
(See Thermostat Installation Instructions for specific unit combinations)
Variable Speed
Furnace/Fan Coil
Wall Control
Green
DX+
DX-
S1
S2
Optional Remote
Room Sensor
White
C
Red
R
Yellow
DX-
White
C
Green
DX+
Yellow
Red
R
Humidifier
Connection
Outdoor
DX+
DX-
C
R
HUM
LEGEND
COM
24V FACTORY WIRING
24V FIELD WIRING
FIELD SPLICE CONNECTION
Fig. 37 – Non- Communicating Standard Thermostat 3- Wire 24V Circuit Connections
(See Thermostat Installation Instructions for
Specific Unit combinations)
LEGEND
24- V FACTORY WIRING
24- V FIELD WIRING
FIELD SPLICE CONNECTION
!
CAUTION
ELECTRICAL OPERATION HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in
equipment damage or improper operation.
A minimum of three wire thermostat wiring is
required for the system to operate.
50
Fig. 38 – Non- Communicating Standard Thermostat
2- Wire 24V Circuit Connections
A/C THERMOSTAT
TPPICAL FURNACE
OR
FAN COIL
AIR CONDITIONER
24VAC HOT
R
R
R
24VAC COM
C
C
C
HEAT STAGE 1
W/W1
W
HEAT STAGE 2
Y/Y2
Y
INDOOR FAN
G
G
Y
FIEL INSTALLED JUMPER WIRE
LEGEND
24V FACTORY WIRING
24V FIELD WIRING
FIELD SPLICE CONNECTION
NOTE: Wiring must conform to NEC or local codes.
Fig. 39 – Non- Communicating Indoor with Observer Communicating Wall Control
Wall
Control
DX+
NAXA00101DB
Green
DX+
R
Red
R
C
White
C
DX-
Yellow
DX-
Communicating
Outdoor
C
C
R
R
R
W2
W2
C
Y/Y2
Y
G
G
Y
O
Non-Communicating
Indoor
NOTE: This installation requires the daughter board
accessory, NAXA00101DB.
NOTE: This installation does not allow for communicating
feature functionality.
OAT
51
OAT
Sensor
TWO- STAGE *CA7, *CA9, *CH6,
*CH9
Table 14—Model Plug Information
Application Guidelines
ICP designed and tested the two- stage air conditioner and
heat pump products with R- 410A refrigerant to operate at a
minimum outdoor operating ambient in cooling mode at
55_F (12.8_C) and the maximum outdoor operating ambient
in cooling is 125_F (51.6_C). The maximum outdoor
operating ambient in heating mode is 66_F (18.8_C).
Continuous operation in heating mode is approved to - 30_F
(- 34.4_C). Thermostat options for the two stage units are as
follows:
S
C, Dx- , Dx+, R four- wire
Communicating wall control.
connections
for
W,Y1,Y2, and O wire connections for standard,
non- communicating thermostat.
*CA7, *CA9, *CH6, and *CH9 units can run, and are
matched with, both Observer® communicating wall control
and non- communicating 2- stage indoor fan coils and
furnaces. Only unit combinations listed in the two- stage
specifications,
technical
support
manuals,
or
AHRIdirectory.org are recommended.
Line sets for two stage units are similar to the single stage
units. However, some restrictions may apply to specific
combinations in long line applications. Refer to the Split
System Long Line Applications Guidelines for further
information.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) requires that electric
strip heat have a lockout feature. This is achieved through
Observer® communicating wall control must be used on all
TVA approved units.
S
Model Plug
Each control board contains a model plug. The correct
model plug must be installed in order for the system to
operate properly. (See Table 14.)
The model plug is used to identify the type and size of unit
to the control. On *CH6 models, the model plug is also used
to determine the start sequence timing for each individual
model.
On new units, the model and serial numbers are inputted
into the board’s memory at the factory. If a model plug is lost
or missing at initial installation, the unit will operate
according to the information input at the factory and the
appropriate error code will flash temporarily. A FAST Parts
replacement board contains no model and serial
information. If the factory control board fails, the model plug
must be transferred from the original board to the
replacement board for the unit to operate.
NOTE: The model plug takes priority over factory model
information input at the factory. If the model plug is removed
after initial power up, the unit will operate according to the
last valid model plug installed, and flash the appropriate
fault code temporarily.
MODEL
NUMBER
MODEL PLUG
NUMBER
*CH624
*CH636
*CH648
*CH660
*CH924
*CH936
*CH948
*CH960
PIN RESISTANCE
(K- ohms)
Pins 1- 4
Pins 2- 3
HK70EZ041
HK70EZ043
HK70EZ045
HK70EZ047
18
18
18
18
91
150
220
360
HK70EZ010
HK70EZ012
HK70EZ014
HK70EZ016
5.1
5.1
5.1
11
120
180
270
5.1
*CA924
*CA936
*CA948
*CA960
HK70EZ009
HK70EZ011
HK70EZ013
HK70EZ015
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
91
150
220
360
*CA624
*CA636
*CA648
*CA660
HK70EZ040
HK70EZ042
HK70EZ044
HK70EZ046
18
18
18
18
75
120
180
270
Airflow Selections for *CA7, *CA9, *CH6,
*CH9 Using Non- Communicating
Thermostats
Airflow Selection for FVM4 Fan Coils for *CA7, *CA9,
*CH6, *CH9 Using Non- Communicating Thermostats
The FVM4 provides high- and low- stage blower operation
to match the capacities of compressor at high- and
low- stage. To select recommended airflow, refer to FVM4
Installation Instructions. The FVM4 utilizes an Easy Select
control board that allows the installing technician to select
proper airflows. For adjustments to control board, select
appropriate HP SIZE and CFM ADJUST setting. This fan
coil has an adjustable blower off delay factory set at 90 sec
for high- and low- stage blower operation.
For other combinations of equipment consult specifications,
technical support manuals, or AHRIdirectory.org.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Defrost
This control offers 5 possible defrost interval times: 30, 60,
90, 120 minutes, or AUTO.
With non- communicating thermostats, these are selected
by dip switches on the unit control board. With
Communicating thermostats, the Communicating control
wall control. The Communicating control selection overrides
the control board dip switch settings.
AUTO defrost adjusts the defrost interval time based on the
last defrost time as follows:
S When defrost time <3 minutes, the next defrost
interval=120 minutes.
S When defrost time 3- 5 minutes, the next defrost
interval=90 minutes.
S When defrost time 5- 7 minutes, the next defrost
interval=60 minutes.
S When defrost time >7 minutes, the next defrost
interval=30 minutes.
52
The control board accumulates compressor run time. As the
accumulated run time approaches the selected defrost
interval time, the control board monitors the coil temperature
sensor for a defrost demand. If a defrost demand exists, a
defrost cycle will be initiated at the end of the selected time
interval. A defrost demand exists when the coil temperature
is at or below 32_F for 4 minutes during the interval.
The defrost cycle is terminated when the coil temperature
reaches 65_F or 10 minutes has passed.
On *CH6 models, defrost will occur in low- or high- stage as
demanded by the thermostat or wall control regardless of
OAT.
On *CH9 models, when OAT is >25_F (- 3.9_C), defrost will
occur in low- or high- stage as demanded by the thermostat
or wall control.
On *CH9 models, if OAT is ≤25_F (- 3.9_C), defrost will
occur in high- stage only, regardless of thermostat or wall
control demand, and will terminate at 50_F (10_C) coil
temperature with a minimum of 2.5 minutes in defrost.
If the coil temperature does not reach 32_F (0_C) within the
interval, the interval timer will be reset and start over.
S
Upon initial power up the first defrost interval is
defaulted to 30 minutes. Remaining intervals are at
selected times.
Defrost is only allowed to occur below 50_F (10_C)
outdoor ambient temperature.
The outdoor fan output (ODF) will remain off for 20 seconds
after termination. This delay will allow time for the system to
capture the heat from the outdoor coil and reduce the
“steam cloud” effect that may occur on transition from
defrost to the heating cycle. The outdoor fan output OFF
delay of 20 seconds may be defeated to enable the fan to
energize immediately at the time of termination and 12
seconds prior to the reversing valve de- energizing, through
forced defrost pins as follows:
S
S
The ODF fan delay defeat can be toggled by
shorting the forced defrost pins for >15 seconds
while in the standby mode (status LED on solid).
The LED will start to flash when the toggle has
taken place.
S
Status code 4 shows the fan delay defeat is active
(no delay)
Status code 3 shows that it is not active (20
second delay)
The code will continue to be displayed until after the short is
removed. Once the short is removed, there is a 5 second
wait before the code is cancelled. The code that is flashing
will finish before going back to solid LED. The control is
shipped with the ODF fan delay defeat NOT active. The
change in status is remembered until toggled to a new
status. A power down / power up sequence will not reset the
status. It may be necessary to do the toggle twice to cycle to
the desired state of defeat.
Defrost Hold
In a non- communicating system, if the thermostat becomes
satisfied (Y1 or Y1 and Y2) before the defrost cycle is
terminated, the control will “hold” in defrost mode and finish
the defrost cycle on the next call for heat.
With Communicating control, defrost hold is not needed in a
Communicating system because the wall control will
complete the defrost cycle before shutting down the system.
S
Forced Defrost
With non- communicating control, forced defrost can be
initiated by manually shorting the 2- pin header labeled
FORCED DEFROST (see Fig 42) on the control board for 5
seconds then releasing.
With Communicating control, forced defrost is initiated with
the wall control.
On all models, during a Forced Defrost:
S
If coil temperature is at defrost temperature of
32_F, and outdoor air temperature is below 50_F, a
full defrost sequence will occur.
S
If coil temperature or outdoor air temperature does
not meet the above requirements, an abbreviated
30 second defrost will occur.
S
Both Quiet Shift and Quiet Shift- 2 compressor ON/
OFF delays will be included in a forced defrost if
either are enabled.
Quiet Shift- 2 (Communicating models)
(FAST # 1185237, 1186140)
Quiet Shift- 2 is a field selectable defrost mode which may
eliminate occasional noise that could be heard at the start
and finish of the defrost cycle.
On a non- communicating system, this feature must be
enabled by selecting the 3rd position of the 3- position dip
switch on the outdoor control board. For Communicating
systems, it must be enabled at the wall control. When
activated, the following sequence of operation occurs:
Defrost Initiation – The compressor is de- energized for 70
seconds. During this 70 second compressor off time, the
reversing valve will be energized. Once the 70 second
compressor off time has been reached, the compressor will
be energized then the outdoor fan will be de- energized at
which time the normal defrost cycle begins.
Defrost Termination – the outdoor fan will be energized
shortly before the compressor is de- energized for 60
seconds. During the compressor 60 second off time, the
reversing valve will be de- energized. Once the 60 second
compressor off time has been completed, the compressor
will be energized at which time the system will be in normal
heat mode.
Liquid- Line Solenoid Accessory
In heat pump long- line applications, a liquid- line solenoid is
required to control refrigerant migration in the heating mode.
The solenoid should be installed near the outdoor unit with
the arrow facing the outdoor unit. This is the direction of flow
control. See Split System Long Line Applications Guidelines
for long- line application details.
Accessory Liquid Solenoid with Communicating
Control:
When using the Communicating control, the liquid- line
solenoid output is provided at the Y1 connection. Connect
the solenoid as shown in the wiring label diagram. This is a
24vac output that is energized whenever the compressor is
energized. It closes, in the compressor off mode, to prevent
refrigerant migration into the unit through the liquid- line.
On Models with Accessory Liquid Solenoid Using a
Non- Communicating Thermostat:
The liquid solenoid is connect to the Y1 and C terminal
connections. The liquid solenoid closes, in the compressor
off mode, to prevent refrigerant migration into the unit
through the liquid- line.
53
CHECK CHARGE
All Two- Stage units must be charged in high stage only.
(See Charging Tables 8 & 10)
Factory charge amount and desired subcooling are shown
on unit rating plate. Charging method is shown on
information plate inside unit. To properly check or adjust
charge, conditions must be favorable for subcooling
charging. Favorable conditions exist when the outdoor
temperature is between 70_F and 100_F (21.11_C and
37.78_C), and the indoor temperature is between 70_F and
80_F (21.11_C and 26.67_C). Follow the procedure below:
Unit is factory charged for 15ft (4.57 m) of lineset. Adjust
charge by adding or removing 0.6 oz/ft of 3/8 liquid line
above or below 15ft (4.57 m) respectively.
For standard refrigerant line lengths (80 ft/24.38 m or less),
allow system to operate in cooling mode at least 15 minutes.
If conditions are favorable, check system charge by
subcooling method. If any adjustment is necessary, adjust
charge slowly and allow system to operate for 15 minutes to
stabilize before declaring a properly charged system.
If indoor temperature is above 80_F (26.67_C), and outdoor
temperature is in the favorable range, adjust system charge
by weight based on line length and allow indoor temperature
to drop to 80_F (26.67_C) before attempting to check
system charge using subcooling method described above.
If the indoor temperature is below 70_F (21.11_C), or the
outdoor temperature is not in the favorable range, adjust
charge for line set length above or below 15ft (4.57 m) only.
Charge level should then be appropriate for the system to
achieve rated capacity. The charge level could then be
checked at another time when the both indoor and outdoor
temperatures are in a more favorable range.
NOTE: If line length is beyond 80 ft (24.38 m) or greater
than 20 ft (6.10 m) vertical separation, see Split System
Long Line Applications Guidelines for special charging
requirements.
Heating Check Chart Procedure
To check system operation during heating cycle, refer to the
Tech Label on outdoor unit. This chart indicates whether a
correct relationship exists between system operating
pressure and air temperature entering indoor and outdoor
units. If pressure and temperature do not match on chart,
system refrigerant charge may not be correct. Do not use
chart to adjust refrigerant charge.
NOTE: When charging is necessary during heating season,
charge must be weighed in accordance with unit rating
plate, ±0.6 oz./ft. of 3/8- in. liquid- line above or below 15 ft.,
respectively.
EXAMPLE:
To calculate additional charge required for a 25- ft. line set:
25 ft. - 15 ft. = 10 ft. X 0.6 oz./ft. = 6 oz. of additional charge.
SYSTEM FUNCTIONS AND SEQUENCE
OF OPERATION
(*CA7, *CA9, *CH6, *CH9)
The outdoor unit control system has special functions. The
following is an overview of the two- stage control functions:
Cooling and Heating Operation
The *CA7, *CA9, *CH6, and *CH9 model utilizes either a
standard 2- stage indoor thermostat or Communication wall
control. With a call for first stage cooling, the outdoor fan,
reversing valve, and low stage compressor are energized. If
low- stage cannot satisfy cooling demand, high- stage
cooling is energized by the second stage of indoor
thermostat or wall control. After second stage is satisfied,
the unit returns to low- stage operation until first stage is
satisfied or until second stage is required again. When both
first stage and second stage cooling are satisfied, the
compressor will shut off. The reversing valve will remain
energized until the control board power is removed or a call
for heating is initiated. With a call for heating, the outdoor
fan and compressor are energized. The compressor will
operate in high or low stage operation, as needed to meet
the heating demand. When the heating demand is satisfied,
the compressor and fan will shut off. The reversing valve is
de- energized in the heating mode.
NOTE: When two- stage unit is operating at low- stage,
system vapor (suction) pressure will be higher than a
standard single- stage system or high- stage operation.
NOTE: Outdoor fan motor will continue to operate for one
minute after compressor shuts off, when outdoor ambient is
greater than or equal to 100°F. This reduces pressure
differential for easier starting on next cycle.
NOTE: If unit has not operated within the past 12 hours, or
following a unit power- up, upon the next thermostat highor low- stage demand, unit operates for a minimum of 5
minutes in high- stage.
On models with non- communicating systems, with first
stage of cooling, Y1 and O are powered on; and with
second stage of cooling, Y1, Y2, and O are on. For these
systems, with first stage of heating Y1 is on and for second
stage of heating, Y1 and Y2 are on. When the reversing
valve is energized, O is powered on.
Communication and Status Function Lights
For Communicating Control only, Green
communications (COMM) Light
A green LED (COMM light) on the outdoor board indicates
successful communication with the other system products.
The green LED will remain OFF until communication is
established. Once a valid command is received, the green
LED will turn ON continuously. If no communication is
received within 2 minutes, the LED will be turned OFF until
the next valid communication.
Amber Status Light
An amber colored STATUS light is used to display the
operation mode and fault codes as specified in the
troubleshooting section. See Table 17 for codes and
definitions.
NOTE: Only one code will be displayed on the outdoor unit
control board (the most recent, with the highest priority).
Compressor Operation
The basic scroll design has been modified, adding an
internal unloading mechanism that opens a bypass port in
the first compression pocket, effectively reducing the
displacement of the scroll. Opening and closing of the
bypass port is controlled by an internal electrical solenoid.
The modulated scroll uses a single step of unloading to go
from full capacity to approximately 67% capacity. A single
speed, high efficiency motor continues to run while the scroll
modulates between the two capacity steps. Modulation is
achieved by venting a portion of the gas in the first suction
pocket back to the low side of the compressor, thereby
reducing the effective displacement of the compressor. Full
capacity is achieved by blocking these ports, thus
increasing the displacement to 100%. A DC solenoid in the
compressor controlled by a rectified 24 volt AC signal in the
external solenoid plug moves the slider ring that covers and
uncovers these ports. The port covers are arranged in such
a manner that the compressor operates at approximately
54
67% capacity when the solenoid is not energized and 100%
capacity when the solenoid is energized.
The loading and unloading of the two step scroll is done “on
the fly” without shutting off the motor between steps.
NOTE:
67%
compressor
capacity
translates
to
approximately 75% cooling or heating capacity at the indoor
coil. The compressor will always start unloaded and stay
unloaded for five seconds even when the thermostat is
calling for high stage.
Fan Motor
Fan motor rotates the fan blade that either draws or blows
air through outdoor coil to exchange heat between
refrigerant and air. Motors are totally enclosed to increase
reliability. This also eliminates need for rain shield.
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
Turn off all power to unit before servicing or replacing
fan motor. Be sure unit main power switch is turned off.
The bearings are permanently lubricated; therefore, no oil
ports are provided.
For suspected electrical failures, check for loose or faulty
electrical connections, or defective fan- motor capacitor. Fan
motor is equipped with thermal overload device in motor
windings which may open under adverse operating
conditions. Allow time for motor to cool so device can reset.
Further checking of motor can be done with an ohmmeter.
Set scale on R X 1 position; check for continuity between
three leads. Replace motors that show an open circuit in
any of the windings. Place 1 lead of ohmmeter on each
motor lead. At same time, place other ohmmeter lead on
motor case (ground). Replace any motor that shows
resistance to ground, signs of arcing, burning, or
overheating.
Located above the compressor is a single- speed fan motor
and fan. The *CA9 and *CH9 air conditioner and heat pump
models use the ECM variable speed fan motor.
The outdoor Integral Control Motor (ECM), is a
variable- speed motor which operates from 450 to 850 rpm.
The motor is a dc permanent magnet- type motor with the
electronic controls integrated into its rear cover. The control
package includes a small diode bridge, capacitors, and
power switching devices. It converts ac to dc power and
switches the dc power to the motor windings on and off at
various rates to control the motor speed. The speed at
which the motor windings are thus commutated is
determined by a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal which
is received from the control board on the motor control lines.
The PWM signal is created by turning a DC signal on and
off once within a given period of time. The signal on time
relative to the signal total period defines the percent of the
PWM. For example, if the period is 5 sec and the control
power is turned on for 1 sec then off, the signal will remain
off for 4 sec before turning on again to start the next cycle.
The PWM is called a 20 percent duty cycle signal. If the on
time is increased to 4 sec of the 5 sec period, the PWM is
called an 80 percent duty cycle. The ECM reads the PWM
signal and increases the motor speed linearly from minimum
speed to maximum speed with the percent duty cycle value
of the supplied PWM signal.
Outdoor Fan Motor Operation
There are two different types of motors used in the
Communicating 2- stage outdoor units. The *CH6 models
use a PSC type fan motor, and the speed does not change
between high and low speed operation.
On *CH9 models, an ECM fan motor is used to achieve
higher efficiency ratings of the system. The outdoor unit
control energizes outdoor fan anytime compressor is
operating, except for defrost or low- ambient cooling. The
outdoor fan remains energized if a pressure switch or
compressor overload should open. The outdoor fan motor
will continue to operate for one minute after the compressor
shuts off when the outdoor ambient is greater than or equal
to 100°F/37.7°C. This reduces pressure differential for easier
starting on next cycle. On *CA7 and *CH6 models, the
outdoor fan remains energized during the 1- minute
compressor staging time delay.
On *CA7 and *CH6 models, the outdoor fan motor is a PSC
type. A fan relay on the control board turns the fan off and
on by opening and closing a high voltage circuit to the
motor. It does not change speeds between low and high
stage operation.
On *CA9 and *CH9 models, the outdoor fan is an ECM type.
The motor control is continuously powered with high
voltage. The motor speed is determined by electrical pulses
provided by the PWM outputs on the control board. The
ECM motor RPM adjusts to outdoor conditions as described
in Table 15. The PWM output can be measured with a volt
meter set to DC volts.
In low ambient cooling (below 55°F/12.7°C), the control
board cycles the fan off and on.
Table 15—Outdoor Fan Motor PWM
Outdoor Temp (DC volts, Tolerance +/- 2%)
Low & High
Stage
Low Stage
High Stage
(OAT104_F / 40_C)
(OAT104_F / 40_C)
*CH924
*CH936
*CH948
*CH960
8.72
9.06
9.91
10.83
9.35
10.23
11.04
11.70
11.90
11.90
11.90
11.90
*CA924
*CA936
*CA948
*CA960
9.57
9.06
9.91
10.83
10.88
10.23
11.04
11.70
11.90
11.90
11.90
11.90
Model
(OAT104_F / 40_C)
NOTE: For *CH9 models in low- ambient cooling, the PWM
output for both high- and low- stage equals the value for
low- stage operation below 55_F (12.8_C).
55
S
Check the high- voltage supply. The unit need not
be running to check high voltage, but the power
must be on.
S
If the 230vac is present, use Table 15 to check for
proper control voltage output to the fan motor from
the control board. The control board sends DC
voltage signals to the motor through the terminals
labeled PWM1 and PWM2 Set a voltmeter on a DC
voltage scale and check across these terminals.
S
First check voltage with the motor disconnected. If
no control voltage is present, check control- board
connections. If connections are good, replace the
control board.
S
If voltage is present, reconnect the motor and
check again. Shut down the unit to reconnect the
motor and restart the unit to complete this
troubleshooting procedure. If control voltage is no
longer present or motor fails to respond, check
motor connections.
S If connections are good, replace the motor.
Time Delays
The unit time delays include:
S
Five minute time delay to start cooling or heating
operation when there is a call from the thermostat
or wall control. To bypass this feature, momentarily
short and release Forced Defrost pins. Speed up is
also possible by pressing the Cool To or Heat To
button on the Communicating wall control.
S
Five minute compressor re- cycle delay on return
from a brown- out condition.
S
Two minute time delay to return to standby
operation from last valid communication (with
Communicating only).
S
One minute time delay of outdoor fan at termination
of cooling mode when outdoor ambient is greater
than or equal to 100_F.
S
Fifteen second delay at termination of defrost
before the auxiliary heat (W1) is de- energized.
S
Twenty second delay at termination of defrost
before the outdoor fan is energized.
S
Thirty second compressor delay when quiet shift
enabled.
S
Seventy and sixty second compressor delays
when Quiet Shift- 2 is enabled.
S
On *CH6 models there is a 1 minute time delay
between staging from low to high and from high to
low capacity. On *CH6 models there is no delay;
the compressor will change from low to high and
from high to low capacity “on the fly” to meet the
demand.
The R- 410A two- stage heat pump contains a loss of
charge switch in the suction line on the *CH6 and *CH9, and
in the liquid line on *CH6 models which opens at 23 PSI and
closes at 55 PSI. See troubleshooting section for sequence
when a pressure switch trip occurs.
Muffler, Accumulator, Reversing Valve (RVS)
The R- 410A two- stage air conditioners and heat pumps
have a compressor discharge line muffler, to dampen sound
pressure pulsations.
The R- 410A two- stage heat pumps have a specifically
designed reversing valve, for R- 410A application and an
accumulator for storing excess liquid refrigerant during the
heating mode to prevent damaging flood- back.
Thermistors
Outdoor Ambient Thermistor
The R- 410A two- speed air conditioner and heat pump units
have an outdoor ambient air thermistor. The control board
must know the outdoor air temperature so it can activate
various functions (See Fig. 43). These functions include:
Activating the compressor crankcase heater when
ever the outdoor unit is in the off cycle.
S
The fan motor speed changes for both air
conditioner and heat pump on the ECM equipped
units.
Outdoor Coil Thermistor (OCT)
The coil or defrost thermistor (See Figure 44) is the same
thermistor used to monitor outdoor air temperature, but used
in a different configuration. The control board must know the
coil temperature so it can activate various functions. These
functions include:
S
Frost sensing on heat pumps
S
S
S
Coil- vs- Ambient temperature relationship
Low ambient cooling operation
Thermistor Curve
The resistance vs. temperature chart enables the service
technicians to check thermistor resistance, regardless of the
temperature.
For example, at a 60_F (15.6_C) temperature, thermistor
resistance should be around 16,000 Ohms. (See Fig. 40.)
We will talk about the thermistor in more detail when we
review the control board fault codes.
THERMISTOR CURVE
90
80
RESISTANCE (KOHMS)
ECM Fan Motor Troubleshooting
If the outdoor fan motor fails to start and run:
Pressure Switches
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
The R- 410A two- stage air conditioner contains two
pressure switches to prevent system operation if the
pressures get excessively high or low. The air conditioner
low pressure switch in the suction line opens at 50 PSI and
closes at 95 PSI. The high pressure switch opens at 670
PSI and closes at 470 PSI. Both pressure switch settings
are considerably higher than on comparably sized R- 22
units. The high and low pressure switches can be identified
by their pink stripe on the switch’s electrical wires.
0
(-17.77)
20
(-6.67)
40
(4.44)
60
(15.56)
80
(26.67)
100
(37.78)
120
(48.89)
TEMPERATURE °F (°C)
A08054
Fig. 40 – Resistance Values Versus Temperature
56
Control Box
Contactor And Capacitor
Removal of the control box cover exposes the control
components. Both air conditioner and heat pump control
boxes will appear to be nearly identical. There are two
contactors, two capacitors, a control board and a
compressor start assist. The contactors are identical to
those used in the standard single speed units. One controls
low capacity operation and the second controls high speed.
The capacitors also are similar to those used in standard
single speed units. You have a fan capacitor for the outdoor
fan motor, and a run capacitor for the compressor motor.
The control board, start capacitor, and start relay control the
starting of the compressor. Always replace these devices
with the Factory Approved Components.
Incoming Power
!
WARNING
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
The outdoor unit must always be grounded through the
ground lug to the unit disconnect and from the
disconnect to the electrical fuse box.
A150063
NOTE: ECM motors are not connected to a capacitor.
Incoming power is attached to the two power wire stripped
leads. A ground lug is also provided.
S
First check that the model plug is correct for the
unit model and size, and that it is installed properly.
START CAPACITOR
MOUNTING HOLES
START RELAY
MOUNTING HOLE
A150064
Fig. 42 – 2- Stage Control Board
TAB ON BOTTOM OF
START RELAY TO BE
PLACED IN THIS CORNER
A10157
Fig. 41 – Start Relay and Capacitor Mounting Locations
Communicating in Cube Cabinet
57
TROUBLESHOOTING
Troubleshooting circuit board FAST #
1185237, 1186140
The Communicating Series outdoor units all use the same
control board. A model plug is used to identify the system
type, and set the operating parameters for airflow, start
circuit timing etc. (See Model Plug section.)
Replacement boards may have a different part number from
the original board. A newer board will always be backward
compatible to previous units if it is superseded at Fast Parts.
Old boards are not always forward compatible due to new
functions, or software changes made to resolve field issues.
Systems Communication Failure
If communication with the Communicating control is lost with
the wall control, the control will flash the appropriate fault
code. (See Table 17.) Check the wiring to the wall control
and the indoor and outdoor units.
Pressure Switch Protection
The outdoor unit is equipped with high- and low- pressure
switches. If the control senses the opening of a high- or
low- pressure switch, it will respond as follows:
1. De- energize the appropriate compressor contactor.
2. Keep the outdoor fan operating for 15 minutes.
3. Display the appropriate fault code (see Table 17).
4. After a 15 minute delay, if there is a call for cooling or
heating and LPS or HPS is reset, the appropriate
compressor contactor is energized.
5. If LPS or HPS has not closed after a 15 minute delay,
the outdoor fan is turned off. If the open switch closes
anytime after the 15 minute delay, then resume
operation with a call for cooling or heating.
6. If LPS or HPS trips 3 consecutive cycles, the unit
operation is locked out for 4 hours.
7. In the event of a high- pressure switch trip or highpressure lockout, check the refrigerant charge,
outdoor fan operation, and outdoor coil (in cooling) for
airflow restrictions, or indoor airflow in heating.
8. In the event of a low- pressure switch trip or lowpressure lockout, check the refrigerant charge and
indoor airflow (cooling) and outdoor fan operation and
outdoor coil in heating.
Control Fault
If the outdoor unit control board has failed, the control will
flash the appropriate fault code (see Table 17). The control
board should be replaced.
Brown- Out Protection
If the line voltage is less than 187v for at least 4 seconds,
the appropriate compressor contactor and fan relay are
de- energized. Compressor and fan operation are not
allowed until voltage is a minimum of 190v. The control will
flash the appropriate fault code (see Table 17).
230v Brown- Out Protection Defeated
The brownout feature can be defeated if needed for severe
noisy power conditions. This defeat should always be a last
resort to solving the problem. Defeat is available for
Communicating systems on the wall control or outside
board, or it can be initiated through the forced defrost pins
for non- communicating systems as follows:
The brownout toggle is accomplished by shorting the defrost
pins from power up with the OAT and OCT sensor
connector removed. After 3 seconds, the status of the force
defrost short and the OAT/OCT as open will be checked. If
correct, then the brownout will be toggled.
S
S
Status code 6 shows the brownout is disabled.
Status code 5 shows the brownout is active.
After the brownout defeat is set, power down and reinstall
the OAT/OCT sensor and remove the short from the forced
defrost pins. As long as the short on the forced defrost
remains, the OAT and OCT faults will not be cleared. The
code will continue to be flashed.
The control is shipped with the brownout active. The change
in status is remembered until toggled to a new status. A
power down/power up sequence will not reset the status. It
may be necessary to do the toggle twice to cycle to the
desired state of the defeat.
230V Line (Power Disconnect) Detection
If there is no 230v at the compressor contactor(s) when the
indoor unit is powered and cooling or heating demand
exists, the appropriate fault code is displayed. Verify the
disconnect is closed and 230v wiring is connected to the
unit.
Compressor Voltage Sensing
The control board input terminals labeled VS, and L2 on
*CA7, *CA9, *CH6, and *CH9 models (see Fig. 42) are used
to detect compressor voltage status and alert the user of
potential problems. The control continuously monitors the
high voltage on the run capacitor of the compressor motor.
Voltage should be present any time the compressor
contactor is energized and voltage should not be present
when the contactor is de- energized.
Contactor Shorted Detection
If there is compressor voltage sensed when there is no
demand for compressor operation, the contactor may be
stuck closed or there may be a wiring error. The control will
flash the appropriate fault code.
Compressor Thermal Cutout - *CA7, *CA9,
*CH6, *CH9
If the control senses the compressor voltage after start- up
and is then absent for 10 consecutive seconds while cooling
or heating demand exists, the thermal protector is open. The
control de- energizes the compressor contactor for 15
minutes, but continues to operate the outdoor fan. The
control Status LED will flash the appropriate code shown in
Table 17. After 15 minutes, with a call for low or high stage
cooling or heating, the compressor contactor is energized. If
the thermal protector has not re- set, the outdoor fan is
turned off. If the call for cooling or heating continues, the
control will energize the compressor contactor every 15
minutes. If the thermal protector closes, (at the next 15
minute interval check) the unit will resume operation.
If the thermal cutout trips for three consecutive cycles, then
unit operation is locked out for 4 hours and the appropriate
fault code is displayed.
Low or High Contactor Open / No 230V at
Compressor Contactor - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6,
*CH9
If the compressor voltage is not sensed when the
compressor should be starting, the appropriate contactor
may be stuck open or there is a wiring error. The control will
flash the appropriate fault code. Check the contactor and
control box wiring.
58
Troubleshooting units for proper switching
between low & high stages - *CA7, *CA9,
*CH6, *CH9
Check the suction pressures at the service valves. Suction
pressure should be reduced by 3- 10% when switching from
low to high capacity.
NOTE: The liquid pressures are very similar between low
and high stage operation, so liquid pressure should not be
used for troubleshooting.
Compressor current should increase 20- 45% when
switching from low to high stage. The compressor solenoid
when energized in high stage, should measure 24vac.
When the compressor is operating in low stage the 24v DC
compressor solenoid coil is de- energized. When the
compressor is operating in high stage, the 24v DC solenoid
coil is energized. The solenoid plug harness that is
connected to the compressor HAS an internal rectifier that
converts the 24v AC signal to 24v DC. DO NOT INSTALL A
PLUG WITHOUT AN INTERNAL RECTIFIER.
Unloader Test Procedure - *CA7, *CA9, *CH6,
*CH9
The unloader is the compressor internal mechanism,
controlled by the DC solenoid, that modulates between high
and low stage. If it is suspected that the unloader is not
working, the following methods may be used to verify
operation.
1. Operate the system and measure compressor
amperage. Cycle the unloader on and off at 30
second plus intervals at the UI (from low to high stage
and back to low stage). Wait 5 seconds after staging
to high before taking a reading. The compressor
amperage should go up or down at least 20 percent.
2. If the expected result is not achieved, remove the
solenoid plug from the compressor and with the unit
running and the UI calling for high stage, test the
voltage output at the plug with a DC voltmeter. The
reading should be 24 volts DC.
3. If the correct DC voltage is at the control circuit molded plug, measure the compressor unloader coil resistance. The resistance should be approximately 330 or
1640 ohms depending on unloader coil supplier. If the
coil resistance is infinite or is grounded, the compressor must be replaced.
sensor indicates  20_F cooler than the coil
sensor, the sensors are out of range.
In heating if the outdoor air sensor indicates  35_F
warmer than the coil sensor (or) the outdoor air
sensor indicates  10_F cooler than the coil
sensor, the sensors are out of range.
If the sensors are out of range, the control will flash the
appropriate fault code as shown in Table 17.
The thermistor comparison is not performed during low
ambient cooling or defrost operation.
S
Failed Thermistor Default Operation
Factory defaults have been provided in the event of failure
of outdoor air thermistor (OAT) and/or outdoor coil thermistor
(OCT).
If the OAT sensor should fail, low ambient cooling will not be
allowed and the one- minute outdoor fan off delay will not
occur. Defrost will be initiated based on coil temperature and
time.
If the OCT sensor should fail, low ambient cooling will not be
allowed. Defrost will occur at each time interval during
heating operation, but will terminate after 5 minutes.
If there is a thermistor out of range error, defrost will occur at
each time interval during heating operation, but will
terminate after 5 minutes.
Count the number of short and long flashes to determine the
appropriate flash code. Table 17 gives possible causes and
actions related to each error.
Temperature Thermistors
Thermistors are electronic devices which sense
temperature. As the temperature increases, the resistance
decreases. Thermistors are used to sense outdoor air (OAT)
and coil temperature (OCT). Refer to Fig. 40 for resistance
values versus temperature.
If the outdoor air or coil thermistor should fail, the control will
flash the appropriate fault code. (See Table 17)
IMPORTANT: The outdoor air thermistor and coil
thermistor should be factory mounted in the final
locations. Check to ensure thermistors are mounted
properly per Fig. 43 and Fig. 44.
A150065
Fig. 43 – Outdoor Air Thermistor (OAT) Attachment
OCT Thermistor
must be secured
tight on stub tube.
Thermistor Sensor Comparison
The control continuously monitors and compares the
outdoor air temperature sensor and outdoor coil
temperature sensor to ensure proper operating conditions.
The comparison is:
S
In cooling if the outdoor air sensor indicates  10_F
warmer than the coil sensor (or) the outdoor air
A05408
Fig. 44 – Outdoor Coil Thermistor (OCT) Attachment
59
Table 16—Two- Stage Compressor Resistances
(Winding Resistance at 70_F±20_)
Winding
024
036
048
060
Start (S- C)
1.64
1.52
1.86
1.63
Run (R- C)
1.30
0.88
0.52
0.39
Status Codes
Table 17 shows the status codes flashed by the amber
status light. Most system problems can be diagnosed by
reading the status code as flashed by the amber status light
on the control board.
The codes are flashed by a series of short and long flashes
of the status light. The short flashes indicate the first digit in
the status code, followed by long flashes indicating the
second digit of the error code.
The short flash is 0.25 seconds ON and the long flash is 1.0
second ON. Time between flashes is 0.25 seconds. Time
between short flash and first long flash is 1.0 second. Time
between code repeating is 2.5 seconds with LED OFF.
EXAMPLE:
3 short flashes followed by 2 long flashes indicates a 32
code. Table 17 shows this to be low pressure switch open.
Table 17—TROUBLESHOOTING
Standby – no call for unit operation
None
Low Stage Cool/Heat Operation
None
AMBER LED
FLASH
CODE
On solid, no
flash
1, pause
High Stage Cool/Heat Operation
None
2, pause
Normal operation
Brown out protection is Disabled
None
5, pause
User made selection, see instructions for more detail
Brown out protection is Active
None
6, Pause
User made selection, see instructions for more detail
OPERATION
FAULT
Normal operation
Normal operation
System Communications Failure
16
Invalid Model Plug
25
Control does not detect a model plug or detects an invalid model plug. Unit
will not operate without correct model plug.
High Pressure
Switch or Discharge Temp
Switch Open
31*
High - pressure switch trip. Check refrigerant charge, outdoor fan operation
and coils for airflow restrictions.
Low Pressure
Switch Open
32*
Low- pressure switch trip. Check refrigerant charge and indoor air flow.
Control Fault
45
Outdoor unit control board has failed. Control board needs to be replaced.
Brown Out (230 v)
46
Line voltage < 187v for at least 4 seconds. Compressor and fan operation
not allowed until voltage>190v. Verify line voltage.
No 230v at Unit
47
There is no 230v at the contactor when indoor unit is powered and cooling/
heating demand exists. Verify the disconnect is closed and 230v wiring is
connected to the unit.
Outdoor Air Temp
Sensor Fault
53
Outdoor air sensor not reading or out of range. Ohm out sensor and check
wiring.
55
Coil sensor not reading or out of range. Ohm out sensor and check wiring.
Outdoor Coil
Sensor Fault
Thermistors out of
range
56
Low Stage
Thermal Cutout
71*
High Stage
Thermal Cutout
72*
Contactor Shorted
73
No 230V at
Compressor
Low Stage
Thermal Lockout
High Stage
Thermal Lockout
Low- Pressure
Lockout
High - Pressure
Lockout
*
POSSIBLE CAUSE AND ACTION
74
81
82
83
84
Communication with wall control lost. Check wiring to wall control, indoor
and outdoor units
Improper relationship between coil sensor and outdoor air sensor. Ohm out
sensors and check wiring.
Compressor operation detected then disappears while low stage demand
exists. Possible causes are internal compressor overload trip or start relay
and capacitor held in circuit too long (if installed).
Compressor operation detected then disappears while high stage demand
exists. Possible causes are internal compressor overload trip or start relay
and capacitor held in circuit too long (if installed).
Compressor voltage sensed when no demand for compressor operation
exists. Contactor may be stuck closed or there is a wiring error.
Compressor voltage not sensed when compressor should be starting. Contactor may be stuck open or there is a wiring error.
Thermal cutout occurs in three consecutive low/high stage cycles. Low
stage locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
Thermal cutout occurs in three consecutive high/low stage cycles. High
stage locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
Low pressure switch trip has occurred during 3 consecutive cycles. Unit
operation locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
High pressure switch trip has occurred during 3 consecutive cycles. Unit
operation locked out for 4 hours or until 24v power recycled.
Sequence: Compressor contactor is de- energized and outdoor fan is energized for up to 15 minutes. If demand still exists, control will energize compressor contactor after 15 minute
delay. If fault is cleared, unit will resume operation. If fault still exists, fan shuts off, and error code continues to flash. Control will attempt re- start every 15 minutes. Cycling low voltage
defeats the 15 minute delay.
60
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Cleaning Coil
To assure high performance and minimize possible
equipment malfunction, it is essential that maintenance be
performed periodically on this equipment. The frequency
with which maintenance is performed is dependent on such
factors as hours of operation, geographic location, and local
environmental conditions.
!
!
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
WARNING
Coil fin damage can result in higher operating costs or
compressor damage. Do not use flame, high- pressure
water, steam, volatile or corrosive cleaners on fins or
tubing.
ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARD
Failure to follow this warning could result in personal
injury or death.
1. Clean coil using vacuum cleaner and its crevice tool.
Move crevice tool vertically, close to area being
cleaned, making sure tool touches only dirt on fins
and not fins. to prevent fin damage, do not scrub fins
with tool or move tool horizontally against fins.
2. If oil deposits are present, spray coil with ordinary
household detergent. Wait 10 minutes, and proceed
to next step.
3. Using garden hose, spray coil vertically downward
with constant stream of water at moderate pressure.
Keep nozzle at a 15- to 20_ angle, about 3 in. from
coil face and 18 in. from tube. Spray so debris is
washed out of coil and basepan.
4. Reinstall top cover and position blade.
5. Reconnect electrical power and check for proper
operation.
Disconnect all electrical power to unit before performing
any maintenance or service on outdoor unit. Remember
to disconnect power supply to air handler as this unit
supplies low- voltage power to the outdoor unit.
The minimum maintenance that should be performed on this
equipment is as follows:
1. Check outdoor coil for cleanliness each heating and
cooling season and clean as necessary.
2. Check fan motor and blade for cleanliness each
month during cooling season and clean as necessary.
3. Check electrical connections for tightness and
controls for proper operation each cooling season
and service as necessary.
!
CAUTION
Cleaning Outdoor Fan Motor and Blade
1. Remove fan motor and blade. Be careful not to bend
or dent fan blade.
2. Clean motor and blade with soft brush or cloth. Be
careful not to disturb balance weights on fan blade.
3. Check fan blade setscrew for tightness.
4. Reinstall fan motor and blade to top cover and check
for alignment.
5. Reinstall top cover and position blade.
6. Reconnect electrical power and check for proper
operation.
UNIT DAMAGE HAZARD
Failure to follow this caution may result in equipment
damage or improper operation.
Because of possible damage to the equipment or
personal injury, maintenance should be performed by
qualified personnel only.
Desert and Seacoast Locations
Special consideration must be given to installation and
maintenance of condensing units installed in coastal or
desert locations. This is because salt and alkali content of
sand adheres to aluminum fins of coil and can cause
premature coil failure due to corrosion.
Preventive measures can be taken during installations, such
as:
1. Locate unit on side of structure opposite prevailing
winds.
2. Elevate unit to height where drifting sand cannot pile
up against coil. Mounting feet, 4 in. high, are available
as accessories and can be used to elevate unit.
3. Addition of coastal filter (See Product Specifications
accessory listing).
Maintenance in desert and seacoast locations:
1. Frequent inspection of coil and basepan especially
after storms and/or high winds.
2. Clean coil by flushing out sand from between coil fins
and out of basepan as frequently as inspection
determines necessary.
3. In off season, cover with covering that allows air to
circulate through but prevents sand from sifting in
(such as canvas material). Do not use plastic as
plastic will hold moisture possibly causing corrosion.
CAUTION
Electrical Controls and Wiring
1. Disconnect power to both outdoor and indoor units.
2. Check all electrical connections for tightness. Tighten
all screws on electrical connections. If any
connections appear to be burned or smoky,
disassemble the connection, clean all parts and
stripped wires, and reassemble. Use a new connector
if old one is burned or corroded, and crimp tightly.
3. Reconnect electrical power to indoor and outdoor
units and observe unit through 1 complete operating
cycle.
4. If there are any discrepancies in operating cycle,
troubleshoot to find cause and correct.
Refrigerant Circuit
1. Check refrigerant charge using the superheat
method, and if low on charge, check unit for leaks
using an electronic leak detector.
2. If any leaks are found, remove and reclaim or isolate
charge (pumpdown) if applicable. Make necessary
repairs.
3. Evacuate, recharge, and observe unit through 1
complete operating cycle.
61
Final Check- Out
After the unit has been operating, the following items should be checked.
1. Check that unit operational noise is not excessive due to vibration of component, tubing, panels, etc. If present, isolate
problem and correct.
2. Check to be sure caps are installed on service valves and are tight.
.
R- 410A REFRIGERANT QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE
S
S
Observe all warnings, cautions, and bold text.
S
S
S
R- 410A refrigerant cylinders are rose colored.
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
Manifold sets should be 700 psig high side and 180 psig low side with 550 psig low- side retard.
S
S
Never open system to atmosphere while it is under a vacuum.
S
S
S
Do not vent R- 410A refrigerant into the atmosphere.
R- 410A refrigerant operates at 50- 70 percent higher pressures than R- 22. Be sure that servicing equipment
and replacement components are designed to operate with R- 410A refrigerant.
Recovery cylinder service pressure rating must be 400 psig, DOT 4BA400 or DOT BW400.
R- 410A refrigerant systems should be charged with liquid refrigerant. Use a commercial type metering device
in the manifold hose when charging into suction line with compressor operating
Use hoses with 700 psig service pressure rating.
Leak detectors should be designed to detect HFC refrigerant.
R- 410A refrigerant, as with other HFCs, is only compatible with POE oils.
Vacuum pumps will not remove moisture from oil.
Do not use liquid- line filter driers with rated working pressures less than 600 psig.
Do not leave R- 410A refrigerant suction line filter driers in line longer than 72 hours.
Do not install a suction- line filter drier in liquid line.
POE oils absorb moisture rapidly. Do not expose oil to atmosphere.
POE oils may cause damage to certain plastics and roofing materials.
Wrap all filter driers and service valves with wet cloth when brazing.
A factory approved liquid- line filter drier is required on every unit.
Do NOT use an R- 22 TXV.
If indoor unit is equipped with an R- 22 TXV or piston metering device, it must be changed to a hard shutoff
R- 410A TXV.
When system must be opened for service, recover refrigerant, evacuate then break vacuum with dry nitrogen
and replace filter driers. Evacuate to 500 microns prior to recharging.
Do not use capillary tube coils.
All indoor coils must be installed with a hard shutoff R- 410A TXV metering device.
3. Check to be sure tools, loose parts, and debris are removed from unit.
4. Check to be sure all panels and screws are in place and tight.
62
AIR CONDITIONER
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
NO COOLING OR
INSUFFICIENT
COOLING
COMPRESSOR
WILL NOT RUN
COMPRESSOR
RUNS BUT
CYCLES ON
INTERNAL
OVERLOAD
COMPRESSOR
RUNS BUT
INSUFFICIENT
COOLING
CONTACTOR
OPEN
CONTACTOR
CLOSED
OUTDOOR FAN
STOPPED OR
CYCLING ON
OVERLOAD
LOOSE LEAD
AT FAN MOTOR
LOW SUCTION
PRESSURE
HIGH SUCTION
LOW HEAD
PRESSURE
HIGH SUCTION
LOW
SUPERHEAT
POWER SUPPLY
COMPRESSOR
POWER SUPPLY
OPEN
OUTDOOR AIR
RESTRICTED OR
RECIRCULATING
MOTOR
DEFECTIVE
DIRTY AIR
FILTERS
DEFECTIVE
COMPRESSOR
VALVES
UNIT
OVERCHARGED
DEFECTIVE
LOW-VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
LOOSE LEADS AT
COMPRESSOR
RESTRICTED
DISCHARGE
TUBE
INCORRECT
OFM
CAPACITOR
DUCT
RESTRICTED
INTERNAL
PRESSURE
RELIEF OPEN
INCORRECT
SIZE
PISTON
OPEN
THERMOSTAT
FAULTY START
GEAR (1-PH)
OVERCHARGE
OR NONCONDENSABLES
IN SYSTEM
DAMPERS
PARTLY CLOSED
OPEN CONTROL
CIRCUIT
OPEN SHORTED
OR GROUNDED
COMPRESSOR
MOTOR
WINDINGS
LOW
REFRIGERANT
CHARGE
INDOOR COIL
FROSTED
LOSS OF
CHARGE
COMPRESSOR
STUCK
LINE VOLTAGE
TOO HIGH OR
LOW
SLIGHTLY
LOW ON
REFRIGERANT
CONTACTOR OR
COIL DEFECTIVE
COMPRESSOR
INTERNAL
PROTECTION
OPEN
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
LIQUID LINE
SLIGHTLY
RESTRICTED
LOOSE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
COMPRESSOR
BEARINGS
PISTON
RESTRICTED
HIGH
SUPERHEAT
INCORRECT
SIZE
PISTON
INDOOR COIL
STRAINER
RESTRICTED
INDOOR
BLOWER MOTOR
DEFECTIVE OR
CYCLING ON OL
A90208
Fig. 45 – Air Conditioner Troubleshooting Chart
63
HEAT PUMP
TROUBLESHOOTING HEATING CYCLE
NO HEATING OR
INSUFFICIENT
HEATING
COMPRESSOR
WILL NOT RUN
COMPRESSOR
RUNS BUT
CYCLES ON
INTERNAL
OVERLOAD
COMPRESSOR
RUNS
INSUFFICIENT
HEATING
CONTACT
OPEN
CONTACTOR
CLOSED
DIRTY FILTERS
OR INDOOR
COIL
DEFECTIVE LOWVOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
COMPRESSOR
POWER SUPPLY
INDOOR FAN
STOPPED OR
CYCLING ON
OVERLOAD
DEFECTIVE FAN
MOTOR
CAPACITOR
OUTDOOR FAN
STOPPED
OUTDOOR FAN
RUNNING
OUTDOOR
THERMOSTAT
DEFECTIVE
REMOTE
CONTROL
CENTER
DEFECTIVE
LOOSE LEADS AT
COMPRESSOR
DAMAGED
REVERSING
VALVE
LOOSE LEADS
AT
FAN MOTOR
LOOSE LEADS
AT OUTDOOR
FAN MOTOR
REVERSING
VALVE STUCK
ODT SETTING
TOO LOW
CONTACTOR
COIL OPEN OR
SHORTED
FAULTY START
GEAR (1-PH)
RESTRICTION IN
DISCHARGE LINE
FAN MOTOR
BURNED
OUT
INTERNAL FAN
MOTOR KLIXON
OPEN
RESTRICTED
LIQUID LINE
CAP TUBE
PINCHED OR
BULB NOT
SENSING TRUE
ODT
OPEN INDOOR
THERMOSTAT
COMPRESSOR
STUCK
OVERCHARGE
OR NONCONDENSABLES
IN SYSTEM
FAN MOTOR
BURNED OUT
PISTON
RESTRICTED OR
IS CLOGGED
STRIP HEATER
RELAY OR
CONTACTOR
DEFECTIVE
LIQUID-LINE
PRESSURE
SWITCH OPEN
COMPRESSOR
INTERNAL
OVERLOAD
OPEN
LOW
REFRIGERANT
CHARGE
DEFROST RELAY
N.C. CONTACTS
OPEN ON
CIRCUIT BOARD
UNDERCHARGED
OPENING IN
POWER CIRCUIT
TO HEATER
ELEMENTS
LOSS OF
CHARGE
OPEN SHORTED
OR GROUNDED
COMPRESSOR
WINDINGS
LINE VOLTAGE
TOO HIGH OR
LOW
OUTDOOR COIL
DIRTY
BROKEN FUSE
LINK
OPEN CONTROL
CIRCUIT
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
(1-PH)
STRAINER
RESTRICTED
BROKEN
HEATER
ELEMENT
COMPRESSOR
BEARINGS
OUTDOOR COIL
HEAVILY
FROSTED
OPEN (KLIXON)
OVER
TEMPERATURE
THERMOSTAT
DEFECTIVE
ROOM
THERMOSTAT
(2ND STAGE)
LOW SUCTION
LOW HEAD
STRIP HEATERS
NOT OPERATING
HIGH-LOAD
CONDITION
FAN MOTOR
CONTACTS
WELDED CLOSED
IN DEFROST
RELAY
DEFECTIVE
DEFROST
THERMOSTAT
REVERSING
VALVE JAMMED
IN MIDPOSITION
REVERSING
VALVE DID NOT
SHIFT
DEFROST
THERMOSTAT IN
POOR PHYSICAL
CONTACT WITH
TUBE
HIGH
SUPERHEAT
UNIT NOT
PROPERLY
CHARGED
DEFECTIVE
CIRCUIT BOARD
BAD ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION
ANYWHERE IN
DEFROST
CIRCUIT
A90206
Fig. 46 – Heat Pump Troubleshooting - Heating Cycle
64
HEAT PUMP
TROUBLESHOOTING COOLING CYCLE
NO COOLING OR
INSUFFICIENT
COOLING
COMPRESSOR
WILL NOT RUN
COMPRESSOR
RUNS BUT
CYCLES ON
INTERNAL
OVERLOAD
COMPRESSOR
RUNS BUT
INSUFFICIENT
COOLING
CONTACTOR
OPEN
CONTACTOR
CLOSED
OUTDOOR FAN
STOPPED OR
CYCLING ON
OVERLOAD
LOOSE LEAD
AT FAN MOTOR
LOW SUCTION
PRESSURE
HIGH SUCTION
LOW HEAD
PRESSURE
HIGH SUCTION
LOW
SUPERHEAT
POWER SUPPLY
COMPRESSOR
POWER SUPPLY
OPEN
OUTDOOR AIR
RESTRICTED OR
RECIRCULATING
DEFROST RELAY
N.C. CONTACTS
OPEN
DIRTY AIR
FILTERS
REVERSING
VALVE HUNG UP
OR INTERNAL
LEAK
UNIT
OVERCHARGED
DEFECTIVE
LOW-VOLTAGE
TRANSFORMER
LOOSE LEADS AT
COMPRESSOR
DAMAGED OR
STUCK
REVERSING
VALVE
MOTOR
DEFECTIVE
DUCT
RESTRICTED
DEFECTIVE
COMPRESSOR
VALVES
INCORRECT
SIZE
PISTON
OPEN
THERMOSTAT
FAULTY START
GEAR (1-PH)
RESTRICTED
DISCHARGE
TUBE
INCORRECT
OFM
CAPACITOR
DAMPERS
PARTLY CLOSED
INTERNAL
PRESSURE
RELIEF OPEN
OPEN CONTROL
CIRCUIT
OPEN SHORTED
OR GROUNDED
COMPRESSOR
MOTOR
WINDINGS
OVERCHARGE
OR NONCONDENSABLES
IN SYSTEM
DEFECTIVE
DEFROST
THERMOSTAT
INDOOR COIL
FROSTED
LOSS OF
CHARGE
COMPRESSOR
STUCK
LOW
REFRIGERANT
CHARGE
SLIGHTLY
LOW ON
REFRIGERANT
CONTACTOR OR
COIL DEFECTIVE
COMPRESSOR
INTERNAL
PROTECTION
OPEN
LINE VOLTAGE
TOO HIGH OR
LOW
LIQUID LINE
SLIGHTLY
RESTRICTED
LOOSE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
DEFECTIVE RUN
CAPACITOR
PISTON
RESTRICTED
COMPRESSOR
BEARINGS
INCORRECT
SIZE
PISTON
HIGH
SUPERHEAT
INDOOR COIL
STRAINER
RESTRICTED
INDOOR
BLOWER MOTOR
DEFECTIVE OR
CYCLING ON OL
A90207
Fig. 47 – Heat Pump Troubleshooting - Cooling Cycle
65
INDEX OF TABLES
DESCRIPTION
PAGE #
Table 1—Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Model Number Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table 1—Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Model Number Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table 2—Defrost Control Speed- Up Timing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 3—ECM Fan Motor Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 4—Fitting Losses in Equivalent Feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 5—R- 410A System Suction Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 6—R- 22 System Suction Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 7—R- 410A Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 8—R- 22 Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 9—R- 410A Subcooling Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 10—R- 410A Superheat Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 11—R- 22 Subcooling Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 12—R- 22 Superheat Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Table 13— Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 14—Model Plug Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 15—Outdoor Fan Motor PWM Outdoor Temp (DC volts, Tolerance +/- 2%) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Table 16—Two- Stage Compressor Resistances (Winding Resistance at 70_F±20_) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 17—TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Copyright 2017 International Comfort Products
Lewisburg, Tennessee 37091 USA
66