SEBU8327-01
June 2011
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
C4.4 (Mech) Industrial Engine
4461-Up (Engine)
SAFETY.CAT.COM
i03991620
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also
have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
A non-exhaustive list of operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels
on the product and in this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. You must
not use this product in any manner different from that considered by this manual without first
satisfying yourself that you have considered all safety rules and precautions applicable to the
operation of the product in the location of use, including site-specific rules and precautions
applicable to the worksite. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not
specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you
and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or become unsafe by
the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you intend to use.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Cat dealers have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Cat replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
In the United States, the maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and
systems may be performed by any repair establishment or individual of the owner's choosing.
SEBU8327-01
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings ..................................................... 74
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 6
General Hazard Information ................................... 7
Burn Prevention .................................................... 10
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 10
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 12
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 13
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 13
Engine Starting ..................................................... 13
Engine Stopping ................................................... 14
Electrical System .................................................. 14
Product Information Section
Model Views ......................................................... 15
Product Identification Information ........................ 19
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 23
Features and Controls .......................................... 24
Engine Starting ..................................................... 25
Engine Operation .................................................. 28
Engine Stopping ................................................... 30
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 31
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 33
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 40
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 73
Customer Service ................................................. 76
Reference Materials .............................................. 78
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 82
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Caterpillar
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency in electronic media delivery.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Caterpillar dealer for the latest
available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar
time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that
follow.
SEBU8327-01
Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine
intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,
etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals
if they provide more convenient schedules and
approximate the indicated service meter reading.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. Each level and/or individual
items in each level should be shifted ahead or back
depending upon your specific maintenance practices,
operation and application. We recommend that
the maintenance schedules be reproduced and
displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.
We also recommend that a maintenance record be
maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information
regarding documents that are generally accepted
as proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized
Caterpillar dealer can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or
an authorized Caterpillar dealer. Your Caterpillar
dealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaul
programs. If you experience a major engine failure,
there are also numerous after failure overhaul options
available from your Caterpillar dealer. Consult with
your dealer for information regarding these options.
SEBU8327-01
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands
after handling.
5
Foreword
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
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Safety Section
The Universal Warning label (2) is located on the
rear end of the valve mechanism cover. Refer to
illustration 2.
i02710643
Safety Messages
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Caterpillar dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
Typical example
g01154807
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7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
g01353108
Illustration 2
(1) Ether Warning Label
(2) Universal warning
(2) Ether
i02705981
General Hazard Information
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Illustration 4
Illustration 3
g01154809
Typical example
The ether warning label (1) is located on the inlet
manifold cover. Refer to illustration 2.
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction,
SEHS7332) are available from your Caterpillar
dealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When it is appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
8
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
SEBU8327-01
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
• Filler caps
• Report all necessary repairs.
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
• Grease fittings
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
• Pressure taps
Pressurized Air and Water
• Breathers
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Illustration 5
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
SEBU8327-01
9
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Asbestos Information
Illustration 6
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Prepare to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component that contains fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Dealer
Service Tool Catalog” for the following items:
• Tools that are suitable for collecting fluids and
equipment that is suitable for collecting fluids
Illustration 7
g00702022
Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free. Caterpillar
recommends the use of only genuine Caterpillar
replacement parts. Use the following guidelines
when you handle any replacement parts that contain
asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Tools that are suitable for containing fluids and
equipment that is suitable for containing fluids
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
10
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
SEBU8327-01
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations
for the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal
of asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Illustration 8
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
i04090689
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
i01480768
Burn Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Illustration 9
g00704000
Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) may be
needed.
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
SEBU8327-01
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Always perform a Walk-Around Inspection, which
may help you identify a fire hazard. Do not operate a
product when a fire hazard exists. Contact your Cat
dealer for service.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and properly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within 15 minutes after an
emergency shutdown.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. Properly route all hoses. The lines
and hoses must have adequate support and secure
clamps. Tighten all connections to the recommended
torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
Properly install all oil filters and fuel filters. The filter
housings must be tightened to the proper torque.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Cat dealer for
additional information about suitable protection
devices.
Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, and
debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable
materials to accumulate on the engine.
All fluids that are captured in the fluid spill
containment basin should be cleaned up immediately.
Failure to clean up spilled fluids can cause a fire. Fire
may cause personal injury and property damage.
Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube,
or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Properly route
and attach all electrical wires. Check all electrical
wires daily. Repair any wires that are loose or frayed
before you operate the engine. Clean all electrical
connections and tighten all electrical connections.
Illustration 10
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
12
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
SEBU8327-01
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders
in direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49 °C
(120 °F). Keep ether cylinders away from open
flames or sparks.
Dispose of used ether cylinders properly. Do not
puncture an ether cylinder. Keep ether cylinders
away from unauthorized personnel.
Do not spray ether into an engine if the engine is
equipped with a thermal starting aid for cold weather
starting.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike
high-pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
bent or damaged.
Illustration 11
g02298225
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Cat dealer for repair
or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes, and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
Improper jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
Do not charge a frozen battery. Charging a frozen
battery may result in an explosion.
• Wires are exposed.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Fire Extinguisher
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous.
Use ether in well ventilated areas. Do not smoke
while you are replacing an ether cylinder or while you
are using an ether spray.
i01359666
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Support the component properly when work beneath
the component is performed.
SEBU8327-01
13
Safety Section
Mounting and Dismounting
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i01372247
Mounting and Dismounting
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
i02704618
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically.
If automatic shutdown does not occur, press the
emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or
air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02707603
Engine Starting
SMCS Code: 1000
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
14
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8327-01
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge
and/or the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake
air in order to improve starting.
i02707233
Engine Stopping
i02176668
Electrical System
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
SMCS Code: 1000
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
“-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.
SEBU8327-01
15
Product Information Section
Model Views
Product Information
Section
Model Views
i02707217
Model View Illustrations
SMCS Code: 1000
16
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8327-01
Engine Model Views
g01351713
Illustration 12
Typical example
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Pulley
Alternator
Front Lifting Eye
Water Outlet
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Valve Mechanism Cover
Rear Lifting Eye
Air Intake
Secondary Fuel Filter
(9) Fuel Injection Pump
(10) Oil Filter
(11) Crankshaft Pulley
(12) Water Pump
SEBU8327-01
17
Product Information Section
Model Views
g01352705
Illustration 13
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Flywheel
Flywheel Housing
Oil Filler Cap
Exhaust Manifold
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21) Oil Drain Plug
(22) Primary Fuel Filter
Turbocharger
Oil Gauge
Oil Pan
Starting motor
i04429314
• Naturally aspirated
Engine Description
• Turbocharged
SMCS Code: 1000
• Turbocharged aftercooled
The Caterpillar C4.4 (Mech) engines are available in
the following types of aspiration:
18
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8327-01
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear
type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and
the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves
can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil
to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become
plugged or if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
Engine Service Life
g00984281
Illustration 14
A typical example of the layout of the valves
(A) Inlet valves
(B) Exhaust valves
Table 1
C4.4 (Mech) Industrial Engine Specifications
Number of Cylinders
4 In-Line
Bore
105 mm (4.134 inch)
127 mm (5.0 inch)
Stroke
Aspiration
Naturally aspirated
Turbocharged
Turbocharged aftercooled
Compression Ratio
Displacement
NA 19.3:1
T, TA 18.2:1
4.4 L (268 in 3)
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
1 3 4 2
Counterclockwise
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
(Exhaust)
0.45 mm (0.018 inch)
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
• Oil cooler
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of
the engine over a time period. Reduced hours of
operation at full throttle and/or operating at reduced
throttle settings result in a lower average power
demand. Reduced hours of operation will increase
the length of operating time before an engine
overhaul is required.
SEBU8327-01
19
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
i02711140
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
SMCS Code: 1000
Illustration 16
g01258789
Serial number plate
i02708605
Reference Numbers
SMCS Code: 1000
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Illustration 15
g01360892
Location of the serial number plate
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block to the rear of the engine.
Caterpiller dealers need all of these numbers in order
to determine the components that were included with
the engine. This permits accurate identification of
replacement part numbers.
Engine Model _______________________________________________
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
Water Separator Element ________________________________
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________
Alternator Belt ______________________________________________
20
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8327-01
i02711190
Emissions Certification Film
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Illustration 17
Typical example
g01360989
SEBU8327-01
Illustration 18
Typical locations of the Emission Certification Film
21
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
g01361347
22
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8327-01
Operation Section
i04342749
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
SMCS Code: 1000; 1404; 7002
i02708018
Product Lifting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1404; 7002
If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
liner surface. Rust on the cylinder liner surface will
cause increased engine wear and a reduction in
engine service life.
To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the
following guidelines:
• Complete all of the lubrication recommendations
that are listed in this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”
(Maintenance Section).
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
cooling system for adequate protection against
freezing. See this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
(Maintenance Section).
Illustration 19
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the specific
engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for information regarding fixtures
for proper engine lifting.
If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine
is not planned, special precautions should be made.
If the engine will be stored for more than one month,
a complete protection procedure is recommended.
For more detailed information on engine storage, see
Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage Procedure
For Caterpillar Products”.
Your Cat dealer can assist in preparing the engine for
extended storage periods.
SEBU8327-01
23
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
Gauges and Indicators
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02704606
Gauges and Indicators
SMCS Code: 1900; 7450
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W30 is 207 to 413 kPa (30 to 60 psi) at rated
rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load
is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 71 to 96°C
(160 to 205°F). The maximum allowable
temperature with the pressurized cooling system at
48 kPa (7 psi) is 103°C (217°F). Higher temperatures
may occur under certain conditions. The water
temperature reading may vary according to load. The
reading should never exceed the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
3. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates engine
speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated
at high idle without damage, but should never be
allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Note: The high idle rpm and the full load rpm are
stamped on the Information Plate.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the right side of “0”(zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The electrically
operated fuel level gauge only operates
when the “START/STOP” switch is “ON”.
Service Hour Meter – This gauge
indicates operating time of the engine.
24
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8327-01
Features and Controls
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order
to alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
i02704608
Engine Shutoffs and Engine
Alarms
SMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7418
Shutoffs
Shutoffs and alarms are electrically operated or
mechanically operated. The operation of all electric
shutoffs and alarms utilize components which actuate
switches in a sensing unit.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items: operating temperature, operating pressure,
operating level, and operating rpm. The particular
shutoff may need to be reset before the engine will
start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures must
be taken before the situation becomes an emergency
in order to avoid possible engine damage.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
A switch may be installed in the alarm while the
engine is stopped for repairs. Before the engine is
started, ensure that the switch is moved to the ON
position and that the warning lights are flashing. The
engine will not be protected if the switch is left in the
OFF position.
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm
System
Most control panels are equipped with a lamp test
switch. Turn the switch to the ON position in order
to check the indicator lights for proper operation.
Replace worn bulbs immediately.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated. Perform the tests correctly in order to help
prevent possible engine damage.
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
Alarms consist of a switch and a contactor. The
switches are wired to the contactors. The contactors
activate alarm circuits in an annunciator panel. Your
engine may be equipped with the following switches:
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
switch indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure.
Coolant level – The low coolant level switch
indicates when the coolant level is low.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
switch indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant
in order to operate.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information on
testing procedures or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
i02704607
Fuel Shutoff
SMCS Code: 1259; 1704
The fuel shutoff solenoid is located on the fuel
injection pump.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is activated, the
solenoid moves to the “Open” position.
When the fuel shutoff solenoid is deactivated, the
solenoid moves to the “Closed” position.
SEBU8327-01
25
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Engine Starting
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
i02704617
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make
a thorough inspection before the engine is started.
Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant
leaks, loose bolts, and trash buildup. Remove trash
buildup and arrange for repairs, as needed.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve
(if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair
any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that
is created when the electric starting motor (if
equipped) is engaged. Check electrical cables
and check the battery for poor connections and
for corrosion.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if
equipped).
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX”
mark on the oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level
in the coolant recovery tank (if equipped). Maintain
the coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the coolant
recovery tank.
• If the engine is not equipped with a coolant
recovery tank maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If
the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain
the coolant level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
26
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8327-01
i02710653
Starting the Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1450
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems
and fuel problems in cold weather: engine oil pan
heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuel
line insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Refer to the OMM for your type of controls. Use the
following procedure to start the engine.
1. If equipped, move the throttle lever to the full
throttle position before you start the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds.
Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
2. Turn the engine start switch to the START position.
Hold the engine start switch in the START position
and crank the engine.
3. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch.
4. If equipped, slowly move the throttle lever to the
low idle position and allow the engine to idle. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “After
Starting Engine” topic.
1. If equipped, move the throttle lever to the full
throttle position before you start the engine.
2. If equipped, turn the engine start switch to the
HEAT position. Hold the engine start switch in the
HEAT position for 6 seconds until the glow plug
indicator light illuminates. This will activate the
glow plugs and aid in the starting of the engine.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine for more than 30 seconds.
Allow the electric starting motor to cool for two minutes
before cranking the engine again.
3. While the glow plug indicator light is illuminated,
turn the engine start switch to the START position
and crank the engine.
Note: If the glow plug indicator light illuminates
rapidly for 2 to 3 seconds, or if the glow plug indicator
light fails to illuminate, a malfunction exists in the cold
start system. Do not use ether or other starting fluids
to start the engine.
4. When the engine starts, release the engine start
switch key.
5. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the electric starting motor to
cool. Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.
5. If the engine does not start, release the engine
start switch and allow the starting motor to cool.
Then, repeat steps 2 through step 4.
6. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in
order to stop the engine.
6. If the engine is equipped with a throttle allow the
engine to idle for three to five minutes, or allow the
engine to idle until the water temperature indicator
begins to rise. The engine should run at low idle
smoothly until speed is gradually increased to high
idle. Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
i02710719
Cold Weather Starting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater
or extra battery capacity.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
8. Turn the engine start switch to the OFF position in
order to stop the engine.
SEBU8327-01
27
Operation Section
Engine Starting
i02344933
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
SMCS Code: 1000; 1401; 1402; 1900
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
If the installation is not equipped with a backup
battery system, it may be necessary to start the
engine from an external electrical source.
For information on troubleshooting the charging
system, refer to Special Instruction, REHS0354,
“Charging System Troubleshooting”.
Many batteries which are considered unusable are
still rechargeable. After jump starting, the alternator
may not be able to fully recharge batteries that
are severely discharged. The batteries must be
charged to the proper voltage with a battery charger.
For information on testing and charging, refer to
the Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
When using an external electrical source to start the
engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
Refer to the Electrical Schematic for your engine.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information.
i02710753
After Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
28
Operation Section
Engine Operation
SEBU8327-01
Engine Operation
i01646335
i02708025
Engine Operation
Engaging the Driven
Equipment
SMCS Code: 1000
SMCS Code: 1000
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after
the engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine
at no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
i02707215
Engine Warm-up
SMCS Code: 1000
1. Run the engine at low idle for three to five minutes,
or run the engine at low idle until the jacket water
coolant temperature starts to rise.
More time may be necessary when the
temperature is below −18°C (0°F).
2. Check all of the gauges during the warm-up
period.
3. Perform a walk-around inspection. Check the
engine for fluid leaks and air leaks.
4. Increase the rpm to the rated rpm. Check for
fluid leaks and air leaks. The engine may be
operated at full rated rpm and at full load when
the temperature of the water jacket reaches 60°C
(140°F).
1. Operate the engine at one-half of the rated rpm,
when possible.
2. Engage the driven equipment without a load on
the equipment, when possible.
Interrupted starts put excessive stress on the drive
train. Interrupted starts also waste fuel. To get the
driven equipment in motion, engage the clutch
smoothly with no load on the equipment. This
method should produce a start that is smooth and
easy. The engine rpm should not increase and the
clutch should not slip.
3. Ensure that the ranges of the gauges are normal
when the engine is operating at one-half of
the rated rpm. Ensure that all gauges operate
properly.
4. Increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm. Always
increase the engine rpm to the rated rpm before
the load is applied.
5. Apply the load. Begin operating the engine at low
load. Check the gauges and equipment for proper
operation. After normal oil pressure is reached
and the temperature gauge begins to move,
the engine may be operated at full load. Check
the gauges and equipment frequently when the
engine is operated under load.
Extended operation at low idle or at reduced load
may cause increased oil consumption and carbon
buildup in the cylinders. This carbon buildup
results in a loss of power and/or poor performance.
SEBU8327-01
29
Operation Section
Engine Operation
i02707216
Fuel Conservation Practices
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Caterpillar's design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly
so that the proper air/fuel ratio is maintained. Clean
exhaust indicates proper functioning.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition. Refer to the
Specifications manual for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
30
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8327-01
Engine Stopping
i02704619
After Stopping Engine
i02710650
Stopping the Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
SMCS Code: 1000; 7000
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
If the engine has been operating at high rpm and/or
high loads, run at low idle for at least three minutes
to reduce and stabilize internal engine temperature
before stopping the engine.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Prior to stopping an engine that is being operated
at low loads, operate the engine at low idle for 30
seconds before stopping. If the engine has been
operating at highway speeds and/or at high loads,
operate the engine at low idle for at least three
minutes. This procedure will cause the internal
engine temperature to be reduced and stabilized.
Ensure that the engine stopping procedure is
understood. Stop the engine according to the shutoff
system on the engine or refer to the instructions that
are provided by the OEM.
• To stop the engine, turn the keyswitch to the OFF
position.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the oil level dipstick.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
• Note the required service interval. Perform
the maintenance that is in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic that
is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for the correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
SEBU8327-01
31
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i02708046
Radiator Restrictions
SMCS Code: 1353; 1396
Caterpillar discourages the use of air flow restriction
devices that are mounted in front of radiators. Air flow
restriction can cause the following conditions:
• Special Fuels
Caterpillar prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
use in this series of engines.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Caterpillar. Group 1 fuels maximize
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
climates during the winter.
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
• High exhaust temperatures
• Power loss
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
of the engine, the engine's maximum power, and the
engine's fuel efficiency.
• Excessive fan usage
• Reduction in fuel economy
If an air flow restriction device must be used, the
device should have a permanent opening directly
in line with the fan hub. The device must have a
minimum opening dimension of at least 770 cm2
(120 in2).
A centered opening that is directly in line with the fan
hub is specified in order to prevent an interrupted air
flow on the fan blades. Interrupted air flow on the fan
blades could cause a fan failure.
Caterpillar recommends a warning device for the
inlet manifold temperature and/or the installation of
an inlet air temperature gauge. The warning device
for the inlet manifold temperature should be set at
75 °C (167 °F). The inlet manifold air temperature
should not exceed 75 °C (167 °F). Temperatures that
exceed this limit can cause power loss and potential
engine damage.
i02704604
When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
There are three major differences between Group
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
• A lower cloud point
• A lower pour point
• A higher energy per unit volume of fuel
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Caterpillar
warranty.
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Caterpillar. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
engine.
• Group 1
• Group 2
• Group 3
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
32
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
SEBU8327-01
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
i02705983
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, oil changes,
and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help prevent
water and/or sediment from being pumped from the
fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel tank.
Fuel Filters
It is possible that a primary fuel filter is installed
between the fuel tank and the engine fuel inlet. After
you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel
system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual in the Maintenance Section for more
information on priming the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold weather operation. The
primary fuel filter and the fuel supply line are the most
common components that are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging
in cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater should
be installed in the fuel system before the primary
fuel filter.
The following fuel heaters are recommended for
Caterpillar engines:
• 7C-3557 Fuel Heater Group
• 7C-3558 Heater Kit
For further information on fuel heaters, consult your
Caterpillar dealer.
Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.
Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the water
temperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heaters
should be used with this engine. Fuel heaters that
are not controlled by the water temperature regulator
can heat the fuel in excess of 65°C (149°F). A loss of
engine power can occur if the fuel supply temperature
exceeds 37°C (100°F).
Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have
a bypass provision in order to prevent overheating of
the fuel in warm weather operation.
SEBU8327-01
33
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
Table 2
API Classifications
Refill Capacities
Obsolete
CH-4(1)
CI-4
CE, CC, CD
-
i02501519
Refill Capacities and
Recommendations
Current
CD-2
(2)
(1)
API CH-4 and CI-4 oils are acceptable if the requirements
of Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid
specification-1) are met. CH-4 and CI-4 oils that have not
met the requirements of Caterpillar's ECF-1 Specification
may cause reduced engine life.
(2) The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Caterpillar does
not sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.
SMCS Code: 1348; 1395; 7560
Engine Oil
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for the
most up to date recommendations.
API Oils
Note: When oil meets more than one API
classification, the applicable footnote is determined
by the highest API classification that is met.
Example – An oil meets both the API CH-4 and the
API CF oil classifications. In this case, the API CH-4
applies.
Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil)
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Caterpillar. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
Caterpillar Oils have been developed and tested in
order to provide the full performance and service
life that has been designed and built into Caterpillar
Engines. Caterpillar Oils are currently used to fill
diesel engines at the factory. These oils are offered
by Caterpillar dealers for continued use when the
engine oil is changed. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
for more information on these oils.
Due to significant variations in the quality and in
the performance of commercially available oils,
Caterpillar makes the following recommendations:
• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (10W-30)
• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (15W-40)
Illustration 20
g00546535
Typical API symbol
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have not
been API authorized classifications since 1 January
1996.
Caterpillar multigrade DEO is formulated with the
correct amounts of detergents, dispersants, and
alkalinity in order to provide superior performance in
Caterpillar Diesel Engines.
Caterpillar multigrade DEO is available in various
viscosity grades that include SAE 10W-30 and SAE
15W-40. To choose the correct viscosity grade for
the ambient temperature, see Table 3. Multigrade
oils provide the correct viscosity for a broad range of
operating temperatures.
Multigrade oils are effective in maintaining low oil
consumption and low levels of piston deposits.
34
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Caterpillar multigrade DEO can be used in other
diesel engines and in gasoline engines. See the
engine manufacturer's guide for the recommended
specifications. Compare the specifications to the
specifications of Caterpillar multigrade DEO. The
current industry standards for Caterpillar DEO are
listed on the product label and on the data sheets
for the product.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for part numbers and
for available sizes of containers.
Note: Caterpillar SAE 15W-40 multigrade DEO
exceeds the performance requirements for the
following API classifications: CI-4, CH-4, CG-4, CF-4,
and CF. The Caterpillar multigrade DEO exceeds the
requirements of the Caterpillar specification that is
ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid-1). The Caterpillar
SAE 15W-40 multigrade DEO passes the following
proprietary tests: sticking of the piston ring, oil control
tests, wear tests, and soot tests. Proprietary tests
help ensure that Caterpillar multigrade oil provides
superior performance in Caterpillar Diesel Engines.
In addition, Caterpillar multigrade oil exceeds
many of the performance requirements of other
manufacturers of diesel engines. Therefore, this oil is
an excellent choice for many mixed fleets. True high
performance oil is produced with a combination
of the following factors: industry standard tests,
proprietary tests, field tests, and prior experience
with similar formulations. The design and the
development of Caterpillar lubricants that are
both high performance and high quality are
based on these factors.
Note: Non-Caterpillar commercial oils are second
choice oils.
Commercial Oils
Note: If Caterpillar Multigrade DEO is not used,
use only commercial oils that meet the following
classifications.
• API CH-4 multigrade oils and API CI-4 multigrade
oils are acceptable if the requirements of
Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid
specification-1) are met. CH-4 oils and CI-4 oils
that have not met the requirements of Caterpillar's
ECF-1 Specification may cause reduced engine
life.
• API CF-4 multigrade oils are not recommended for
this series of diesel engines. For all other smaller
commercial diesel engines, the oil drain interval
should not exceed 50 percent of the standard oil
drain interval for your engine.
SEBU8327-01
NOTICE
In selecting oil for any engine application, both the oil
viscosity and oil performance classification/specification as specified by the engine manufacturer must be
defined and satisfied. Using only one of these parameters will not sufficiently define oil for an engine application.
In order to make the proper choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
API CI-4 – API CI-4 oils were developed in order
to meet the requirements of high performance
diesel engines that use cooled Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR). API CI-4 oils are acceptable
if the requirements of Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine
Crankcase Fluid specification-1) are met.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order
to protect low emissions diesel engines that use a
0.05 percent level of fuel sulfur. However, API CH-4
oils may be used with higher sulfur fuels. API CH-4
oils are acceptable if the requirements of Caterpillar's
ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid specification-1) are
met.
Note: CH-4 oils and CI-4 oils that have not met the
requirements of Caterpillar's ECF-1 Specification
may cause reduced engine life.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations” for additional information that
relates to lubrication for your engine.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 3 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.
Refer to Table 3 (maximum temperature) in order to
select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Note: Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
SEBU8327-01
35
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
If ambient temperature conditions at engine start-up
require the use of multigrade SAE 0W oil, SAE
0W-40 viscosity grade is preferred over SAE 0W-20
or SAE 0W-30.
Table 3
Engine Oil Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures
Ambient Temperature
Viscosity Grade
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W-20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
SAE 0W-30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W-40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 5W-30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W-40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
SAE 10W-30
−18 °C (0 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W-40
−18 °C (0 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
SAE 15W-40
−9.5 °C (15 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
Note: Supplemental heat is recommended below the
minimum recommended ambient temperature.
S·O·S Oil Analysis
Caterpillar has developed a tool for maintenance
management that evaluates oil degradation and the
tool also detects the early signs of wear on internal
components. The Caterpillar tool for oil analysis is
called S·O·S Oil Analysis and the tool is part of the
S·O·S Services program. S·O·S Oil Analysis divides
oil analysis into three categories:
• Wear Analysis
• Oil condition
• Additional tests
The wear analysis monitors metal particles, some oil
additives, and some contaminants.
Oil condition uses infrared (IR) analysis to evaluate
the chemistry of the oil. Infrared analysis is also used
to detect certain types of contamination.
Additional tests are used to measure contamination
levels from water, fuel, or coolant. Oil viscosity and
corrosion protection can be evaluated, as needed.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
or contact your local Caterpillar dealer for additional
information concerning the S·O·S Oil Analysis
program.
Refill Capacities for the Lubrication
System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Table 4
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
Minimum
Maximum
5 L
(5.2834 qt)
7 L
(7.3968
qt)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory
installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require
additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity
of the auxiliary oil filter.
Lubricating Grease
Caterpillar provides a range of moderate greases
to extremely high performance greases in order to
service the entire line of Caterpillar products that
operate throughout the wide variety of climates.
From this variety of Caterpillar grease products, you
will find at least one of the Caterpillar greases that
will satisfy the performance requirements for any
machine or equipment application.
Before selecting a grease for any application, the
performance requirements must be determined.
Consult the grease recommendations that are made
by the OEM for the equipment when the equipment is
operated in the expected conditions. Then, consult
with your Caterpillar dealer for a list of greases and
the following related characteristics.
• Performance specifications
• Available sizes of containers
• Part numbers
Always choose a grease that satisfies the
recommendations that are specified by the
equipment manufacturer for the application.
Note: If it is necessary to choose a single grease
to use for all of the equipment at one site, always
choose a grease that satisfies the requirements
of the most demanding application.
Do not use the cost per pound as the only factor
when you choose a grease. Use the grease that
yields the lowest total cost of operation. The cost
analysis should include the following factors:
36
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8327-01
• Parts
General Coolant Information
• Labor
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Caterpillar dealer for the
most up to date fluids recommendations.
• Downtime
• Cost of the grease
Greases that barely meet the minimum performance
requirements can be expected to barely produce the
minimum life of the parts.
Note: Take care when you change the type of grease.
Take care when you change to a different supplier of
grease. Some greases are not chemically compatible.
Some brands of grease can not be interchanged. If
you are in doubt about the compatibility of the
old grease and the new grease, purge all of the
old grease from the joint. Consult your supplier in
order to determine if the greases are compatible.
Note: All Caterpillar brand of greases are
compatible with each other.
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations” for additional information that
relates to lubrication for your engine.
General Fuel Information
Diesel fuels that meet the Caterpillar Specification
for Distillate Diesel Fuel are recommended. These
fuels will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that
is identified as No. 1-D or No. 2-D in “ASTM D975”
generally meet the specifications. Diesel fuels from
other sources could exhibit detrimental properties
that are not defined or controlled by this specification.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet Caterpillar's recommendations can cause the following effects: starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
Note: Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations” for the Caterpillar Specification
for distillate fuel and for additional information that
relates to fuel for your engine.
Refill Capacities for the Fuel System
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual that
is provided by the OEM for capacities of the fuel
system.
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
Note: Air pockets can form in the cooling system if
the cooling system is filled at a rate that is greater
than 5 L (1.3 US gal) per minute.
After you drain the cooling system and after you refill
the cooling system, operate the engine. Operate the
engine without the filler cap until the coolant reaches
normal operating temperature and the coolant level
stabilizes. Ensure that the coolant is maintained to
the proper level.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Refer to Special Instruction, SEBD0518, “Know
Your Cooling System” and Special Instruction,
SEBD0970, “Coolant and Your Engine” for more
detailed information.
SEBU8327-01
37
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: overheating, leakage of the water
pump, plugged radiators or heat exchangers, and
pitting of the cylinder liners.
• Agricultural agent
These failures can be avoided with proper cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
water, additives, and glycol.
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Independent laboratory
Additives
• Corrosion
• Rust
Water
• Scale
NOTICE
Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant
Additives (SCA) or without inhibited coolant. Water
alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures.
Water alone does not provide adequate protection
against boiling or freezing.
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
• Pitting and erosion from cavitation of the cylinder
liner
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
This can be done by adding Supplemental Coolant
Additives (SCA) to Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant
(DEAC) or by adding ELC Extender to Extended Life
Coolant (ELC).
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
Additives must be added at the proper concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 5.
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
Table 5
Caterpillar Minimum Acceptable Water Requirements
• Leakage of the water pump seal
Property
Maximum Limit
ASTM Test
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
(2.4 grains/US gal)
“D512”,
“D4327”
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
(5.9 grains/US gal)
“D516”
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
(10 grains/US gal)
“D1126”
Total Solids
340 mg/L
(20 grain/US gal)
“D1888”
• Freezing
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
“D1293”
• Cavitation of the water pump and the cylinder liner
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
• Boiling
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
For optimum performance, Caterpillar recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
• Caterpillar dealer
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
• Local water utility company
38
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8327-01
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −23 °C (−9 °F).
Most conventional heavy-duty antifreezes use
ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used.
In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and propylene
glycol provide similar protection against freezing and
boiling. See Tables 6 and 7.
Table 6
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
111 °C (232 °F)
Caterpillar recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
Note: Caterpillar DEAC does not require a treatment
with an SCA at the initial fill. A commercial heavy-duty
antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” or “ASTM
D6210” specifications MAY require a treatment with
an SCA at the initial fill. These coolants WILL require
a treatment with an SCA on a maintenance basis.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for additional information that relates to coolant.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis
Table 8
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycol's
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Recommended Interval
Type of Coolant
Level 1
Level 2
DEAC
Every 250 Hours
Yearly(1)
ELC
Not Required
Yearly
(1)
Table 7
Propylene Glycol
The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a
problem is identified by a Level 1 Coolant Analysis.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Anti-Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
A coolant analysis (Level 1) is a test of the properties
of the coolant.
The following properties of the coolant are tested:
To check the concentration of glycol, use the
1U-7298 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degrees Celsius)
or use the 1U-7297 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degrees
Fahrenheit). The testers give readings that are
immediate and accurate. The testers can be used
with ethylene or propylene glycol.
Coolant Recommendations
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light duty automotive
applications.
The following two coolants are used in Caterpillar
diesel engines:
Preferred – Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
or a commercial extended life coolant that meets the
Caterpillar EC-1 specification
Acceptable – Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze
(DEAC) or a commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D4985”, or “ASTM D6210”
specifications
• Glycol concentration for freeze protection and boil
protection
• Ability to protect from erosion and corrosion
• pH
• Conductivity
• Visual analysis
• Odor analysis
The results are reported, and appropriate
recommendations are made.
Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain” for a
sampling location and the maintenance interval for
collecting the coolant samples.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
SEBU8327-01
A coolant analysis (Level 2) is a comprehensive
chemical evaluation of the coolant. This analysis is
also a check of the overall condition of the inside of
the cooling system.
The S·O·S Coolant Analysis has the following
features:
• Full coolant analysis (Level 1)
• Identification of the source of metal corrosion and
of contaminants
• Water hardness
• Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
corrosion
• Identification of buildup of the impurities that cause
scaling
The results are reported, and appropriate
recommendations are made.
Refer to the Maintenance Interval Schedule in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cooling
System Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain” for a
sampling location and the maintenance interval for
collecting the coolant samples.
Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure that
the engine is protected from internal cavitation and
from corrosion. The analysis also tests the ability of
the coolant to protect the engine from boiling and
from freezing. The S·O·S Coolant Analysis can be
done at your Caterpillar dealer. Caterpillar S·O·S
Coolant Analysis is the best way to monitor the
condition of your coolant and your cooling system.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a program that is based
on periodic samples.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for additional information.
Refill Capacity of the Cooling
System
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity for the “Engine Only” cooling system is
listed. External System capacities will vary among
applications. Refer to the OEM specifications for the
External System capacity. This capacity information
will be needed in order to determine the amount
of antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling
System.
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 9
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
External System Per
(1)
Liters
7 L (7.3968 qt)
OEM(1)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion
tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
40
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SEBU8327-01
i04430850
Every 1000 Service Hours
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 59
SMCS Code: 1000; 7500
Every 2000 Service Hours
When Required
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................
Turbocharger - Inspect ..........................................
Water Pump - Inspect ...........................................
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ..................................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
41
42
51
51
54
60
68
Daily
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ...............
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ...................
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ..........................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
41
46
50
54
55
55
61
70
71
Every 2000 Service Hours or 1 Year
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 55
Every Year
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ................................................................. 48
Every 3000 Service Hours
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 41
Fuel Injection Nozzles - Test/Exchange ................ 59
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 43
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ............................................................... 50
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 63
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 45
Overhaul
Every 250 Service Hours
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) Obtain ................................................................. 47
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain .................................. 56
Every 500 Service Hours
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .......................... 70
Every 500 Service Hours or 6 Months
Engine Protective Devices - Check ...................... 58
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add .................................................
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace .............
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ....................................................
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ..............
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
41
69
69
72
42
48
50
51
56
61
64
68
Overhaul Considerations ...................................... 65
SEBU8327-01
41
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect
i02704667
Alternator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1405-040
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection
of the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and proper battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure proper battery performance and/or
proper performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
proper operation. If the batteries are properly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. The battery will
not crank the engine, even if the engine is warm.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time
or if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will
freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02491869
Alternator Belt Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Poly V-Belt)
Illustration 21
g01251375
Typical example
Adjustment
This type of belt has an automatic belt tensioner.
Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
SMCS Code: 1357-036; 1357-510
i02322315
Inspection
Battery - Replace
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
SMCS Code: 1401-510
• If the belt (1) has more than four cracks per
25.4000 mm (1 inch) the belt must be replaced.
• Check the belt of cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
and splitting.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
42
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
SEBU8327-01
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal.
i02710765
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
SMCS Code: 1401-535
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are properly charged, ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.
3. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of baking soda and
1 L (1 qt) of clean water
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
(1 qt) of clean water
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
SMCS Code: 1402-029
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
SEBU8327-01
43
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
i02710742
Cooling System Coolant
(DEAC) - Change
SMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
NOTICE
Use of commercially available cooling system cleaners may cause damage to cooling system components. Use only cooling system cleaners that are approved for Caterpillar engines.
Illustration 22
g01003928
2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove the drain plug (1).
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar
dealer or consult Dealer Service Tools Group:
Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL
44
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the drain
plug (1). Install the drain plug. Refer to Torque
Specifications, SENR3130 for more information
on the correct torques.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
SEBU8327-01
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the drain
plug (1). Install the drain plug. Refer to Torque
Specifications, SENR3130 for more information
on the correct torques.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System
Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per
3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling system
capacity. Install the cooling system filler cap.
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System
Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L
(4 US gal) of the cooling system capacity. Install
the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 90 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plug (1). Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve (if
equipped). Clean the drain plug. Install the drain
plug. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130
for more information on the correct torques.
Cooling Systems with Heavy
Deposits or Plugging
Note: For the following procedure to be effective,
there must be some active flow through the cooling
system components.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plug (1). Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve (if
equipped). Clean the drain plug. Install the drain
plug. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130
for more information on the correct torques.
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with coolant or antifreeze.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
SEBU8327-01
45
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to 1500 rpm. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap.
If the gasket that is on the cooling system filler
cap is not damaged, perform a pressure test. A
9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to perform
the pressure test. The correct pressure for the
cooling system filler cap is stamped on the face of
the cooling system filler cap. If the cooling system
filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
obtain a new cooling system filler cap. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for the correct operating temperature.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove the cooling system drain plugs.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
i02822203
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar
dealer or consult Dealer Service Tools.
SMCS Code: 1350-070; 1395-044
Flush
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to Torque
Specifications, SENR3130 for more information
on the correct torques.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
46
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve (if
equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the drain
plugs. Refer to Torque Specifications, SENR3130
for more information on the correct torques.
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
not damaged, use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
SEBU8327-01
i02480380
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
SMCS Code: 1395-082
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Caterpillar. The procedure that follows
is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL” mark.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
Illustration 23
g00103639
SEBU8327-01
47
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain
4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the
filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
i04035949
Cooling System Coolant
Sample (Level 1) - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542
Note: Obtaining a Coolant Sample (Level 1) is
optional if the cooling system is filled with Cat
ELC (Extended Life Coolant). Cooling systems filled
with Cat ELC should have a Coolant Sample (Level
2) that is obtained at the recommended interval as
stated in the maintenance interval schedule.
Note: Obtain a Coolant Sample (Level 1) if the
cooling system is filled with any other coolant
instead of Cat ELC including the following
coolants:
• Commercial long life coolants that meet the
Caterpillar Engine Coolant Specification -1
(Caterpillar EC-1)
• Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)
• Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze
Table 10
Recommended Interval
Illustration 24
g00285520
Type of Coolant
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Level 2
Every 250
service hours
Every year(1)
Optional
Every year(1)
Cat DEAC
Conventional
heavy dutycoolant
Commercial
coolant that
meets the
requirements
of the Caterpillar
EC-1 standard
Cat ELC or
conventional
EC-1 coolant
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
Level 1
(1)
The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a
problem is suspected or identified.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
Note: Level 1 results may indicate a need for
Level 2 Analysis.
48
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain
Obtain the sample of the coolant as close as possible
to the recommended sampling interval. In order to
receive the full effect of S·O·S analysis, establish
a consistent trend of data. In order to establish
a pertinent history of data, perform consistent
samplings that are evenly spaced. Supplies for
collecting samples can be obtained from your
Caterpillar dealer.
Use the following guidelines for proper sampling of
the coolant:
• Complete the information on the label for the
sampling bottle before you begin to take the
samples.
• Keep the unused sampling bottles stored in plastic
bags.
SEBU8327-01
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication, PECJ0003, “Caterpillar Shop Supplies and
Tools Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
• Obtain coolant samples directly from the coolant
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”
for the guidelines for proper sampling of the coolant.
• Keep the lids on empty sampling bottles until you
Submit the sample for Level 2 analysis.
sample port. You should not obtain the samples
from any other location.
are ready to collect the sample.
• Place the sample in the mailing tube immediately
after obtaining the sample in order to avoid
contamination.
For additional information about coolant
analysis, see Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
Recommendations” or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
• Never collect samples from expansion bottles.
• Never collect samples from the drain for a system.
Submit the sample for Level 1 analysis.
For additional information about coolant analysis,
see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” or consult your
Caterpillar dealer.
i04051750
Cooling System Coolant
Sample (Level 2) - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
i02456600
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
Note: Test the concentration of the Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) or test the SCA concentration
as part of an S·O·S Coolant Analysis.
Test for SCA Concentration
Coolant and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
SEBU8327-01
49
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
Use the 8T-5296 Coolant Conditioner Test Kit
or use the 4C-9301 Coolant Conditioner Test Kit
in order to check the concentration of the SCA.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information.
Water and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Refer to the Special
Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar Commercial
Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations” for more
information.
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
S·O·S Coolant Analysis
S·O·S coolant samples can be analyzed at your
Caterpillar dealer. S·O·S Coolant Analysis is a
program that is based on periodic samples.
Level 1
Level 1 is a basic analysis of the coolant. The
following items are tested:
• Glycol Concentration
• Concentration of SCA
• pH
• Conductivity
The results are reported, and recommendations
are made according to the results. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for information on the benefits of
managing your equipment with an S·O·S Coolant
Analysis.
Level 2
This level coolant analysis is recommended when the
engine is overhauled. Refer to this Operations and
Maintenance Manual, “Overhaul Considerations” for
further information.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in
order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to
local regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. Refer
to the Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
Recommendations” for more information on SCA
requirements.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the
gaskets are damaged, replace the old cooling
system filler cap with a new cooling system filler
cap. Install the cooling system filler cap.
50
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace
i03645060
Cooling System Water
Temperature Regulator Replace
SMCS Code: 1355-510
Replace the water temperature regulator before
the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for the proper maintenance
interval.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
SEBU8327-01
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
i02711635
Crankcase Breather (Canister)
- Replace
SMCS Code: 1317-510
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Note: This breather assembly is not installed on all
engines.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
Illustration 25
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulators
- Remove and Water Temperature Regulators Install” for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Caterpillar
dealer.
g01350307
Typical example
1. Place a container under the canister (1).
2. Clean the outside of the canister. Remove the
canister with a 1U-8760 Chain Wrench.
3. Lubricate the O ring seal (2) on the new canister
(3) with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the new
canister. Tighten the canister to 12 N·m (8 lb ft).
Do not overtighten the canister.
4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
and any split oil in a safe place.
i00174798
Driven Equipment - Check
SMCS Code: 3279-535
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
SEBU8327-01
51
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i02708606
Engine - Clean
SMCS Code: 1000-070
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
NOTICE
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid.
Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned. When a
pressure washer or steam cleaner is used to clean
the engine, a minimum distance of 300 mm (12 inch)
must be maintained between the components of the
engine and the jet nozzle of the pressure washer
or steam cleaner. Pressure washers and steam
cleaners should not be directed at any electrical
connectors or the junction of cables into the rear of
the connectors. Avoid electrical components such as
the alternator and the starter. Protect the fuel injection
pump from fluids in order to wash the engine.
i02708051
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
SMCS Code: 1054-037; 1054-510
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Catapillar. The procedure that follows
is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedure.
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
correct air cleaner elements for your application.
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.
• Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
52
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
SEBU8327-01
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tape for the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
replacement should be performed regardless of the
number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require
more frequent replacement.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
NOTICE
Caterpillar recommends certified air filter cleaning services that are available at Caterpillar dealers. The
Caterpillar cleaning process uses proven procedures
to assure consistent quality and sufficient filter life.
Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
clean the filter element:
Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to remove dust.
Do not wash the filter element.
Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove
the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.
Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to
engine components.
Illustration 26
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt
out.
The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six
times if the element is properly cleaned and properly
inspected. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirty
elements are being cleaned.
NOTICE
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Damaged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine
damage could result.
SEBU8327-01
53
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elements
before cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for
damage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.
There are two common methods that are used to
clean primary air cleaner elements:
• Pressurized air
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner
elements which require daily cleaning because of a
dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.
Illustration 28
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.
Illustration 27
g00281692
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside)
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
air cleaner elements.
Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements
If a primary air cleaner element that passes inspection
will not be used, the primary air cleaner element can
be stored for future use.
54
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8327-01
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.
i02708041
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 7452-040
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Illustration 29
g00281694
Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a
protective covering for storage. An air flow restriction
may result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrap
the primary air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion
Inhibited (VCI) paper.
Place the primary air cleaner element into a box
for storage. For identification, mark the outside of
the box and mark the primary air cleaner element.
Include the following information:
• Date of cleaning
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
• Number of cleanings
Store the box in a dry location.
i02708042
Engine Air Cleaner
Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 1054-040; 1054-510
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
Illustration 30
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
SEBU8327-01
55
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
• Check the movement of the yellow core when
the engine is accelerated to the engine rated
speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
i02708039
Engine Air Precleaner Check/Clean
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to Special Publication, SENR3130,
“Torque Specifications” for the recommended
torques. Refer to the OEM recommendations for
more information.
i02708019
Engine Oil Level - Check
SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
SMCS Code: 1055-070; 1055-535
Illustration 31
• Improper mounting of the engine
g00287039
Typical precleaner
Illustration 32
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i02456872
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1152-040
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
proper bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
g01165836
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
to obtain a true level indication.
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” mark (Y)
and the “MAX” mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.
Do not fill the crankcase above the “MAX” mark
(X).
56
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SEBU8327-01
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve
in order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the
consistency of the samples are better when the
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be
obtained during normal engine operation.
The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is
recommended for use with the sampling valve. The
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are
also provided.
i04237495
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1000-008; 1348-554-SM;
7542-554-OC, SM
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
program, Caterpillar recommends using S·O·S oil
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals. S·O·S oil
analysis provides infrared analysis, which is required
for determining nitration and oxidation levels.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order
to help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide
the following information:
• Engine model
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,
use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is
designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion
into the sump.
For instructions, see Special Publication, PEGJ0047,
“How To Take A Good S·O·S Oil Sample”. Consult
your Cat dealer for complete information and
assistance in establishing an S·O·S program for your
engine.
i02712378
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SMCS Code: 1318-510; 1348-044
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, mixed oil sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
SEBU8327-01
57
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Drain the Engine Oil
1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain
Wrench.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as
part of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter
Cutter Gp. Break apart the pleats and inspect the
oil filter for metal debris. An excessive amount
of metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early
wear or a pending failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Illustration 33
g01356033
Oil drain plug
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the
oil to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
sump, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should
be cleaned and installed. If necessary, renew the O
ring seal on the drain plug.
Some types of oil pans have oil drain plugs that are
on both sides of the oil pan, because of the shape of
the pan. This type of oil pan requires the engine oil to
be drained from both plugs.
Replace the Spin-on Oil Filter
NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar specifications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by
Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to
the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters
recommended by Caterpillar.
Illustration 34
g01356034
(2) Filter head
(3) O ring seal
(4) Union
3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head
(2). Ensure that the union (4) in the filter head is
secure.
4. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head
(2). Ensure that the union (4) in the filter head is
secure.
58
Maintenance Section
Engine Protective Devices - Check
SEBU8327-01
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter by hand
according to the instructions that are shown on
the oil filter. Do not overtighten the oil filter.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
Note: Some oil filters may be installed vertically.
Refer to illustration 35. Start at step (1) in order to
remove the oil filter and install the oil filter.
Illustration 36
g01165836
(Y) “MIN” mark. (X) “MAX” mark.
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “MIN”
and “MAX” marks on the oil level gauge.
i00626013
Engine Protective Devices Check
Illustration 35
g01356074
Typical example
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
proper amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
SMCS Code: 7400-535
Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
to determine if the engine protective devices are
in good working order during normal operation.
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the
engine protective devices.
A calibration check of the engine protective devices
will ensure that the alarms and shutoffs activate
at the setpoints. Ensure that the engine protective
devices are functioning properly.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated.
The tests must be performed correctly in order to prevent possible damage to the engine.
SEBU8327-01
59
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust
To prevent damage to the engine, only authorized
service personnel or your Caterpillar dealer should
perform the tests.
Visual Inspection
i02707243
Fuel Injection Nozzles Test/Exchange
SMCS Code: 1254-013; 1254-081
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately.
i02707257
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
SMCS Code: 1102-025
This maintenance is recommended by Caterpillar
as part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Systems Operation/Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Valve Lash and Valve Bridge
Adjustment”article or consult your Caterpillar dealer
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valve
adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This reduced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage
and/or shortened engine component life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
performed.
Refer to the Service Manual for more information.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Fuel injection nozzles are subject to tip wear. Tip
wear is a result of fuel contamination. Tip wear can
cause the following problems:
• Increased fuel consumption
• Black smoke
• Misfire
• Rough running
Fuel Injection nozzles should be cleaned, inspected,
tested, and replaced, if necessary. Refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS7292 for using the 8S-2245
Injector Cleaning Tool Gp. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer about cleaning the fuel injection nozzle and
testing the fuel injection nozzle.
NOTICE
Never wire brush or scrape a fuel injection nozzle.
Wire brushing or scraping a fuel injection nozzle will
damage the finely machine orifice. Proper tools for
cleaning and testing the fuel injection nozzles can be
obtained from Caterpillar dealers.
The following items are symptoms of a malfunction of
the fuel injection nozzle:
• Abnormal engine operation
• Smoke emission
• Engine knock
Each fuel injection nozzle must be isolated one at
a time in order to determine the malfunctioning fuel
injection nozzle.
1. Start the engine.
60
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8327-01
2. Loosen each fuel line nut one at a time at the fuel
injection pump. A cloth or similar material must be
used in order to prevent fuel from spraying on the
hot exhaust components. Tighten each nut before
loosening the next nut.
3. Worn fuel injection nozzles or faulty fuel injection
nozzles may be identified when a fuel line nut is
loosened and the following conditions are present:
• The exhaust smoke is partially eliminated or the
exhaust smoke is completely eliminated.
• Engine performance is not affected.
A fuel injection nozzle that is suspected of being
worn and/or faulty should be removed. A new fuel
injection nozzle should be installed in the cylinder
in order to determine if the removed fuel injection
nozzle is worn and/or faulty.
Removal and Installation of the
Fuel Injection Nozzles
For the removal and the installation of fuel injection
nozzles, special tooling is required. Refer to the
Service Manual for more information. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
i04429191
Fuel System - Prime
Illustration 37
g01003929
Injector nuts
2. Crank the engine with the throttle lever in the
CLOSED position until the engine starts.
Note: If necessary, loosen the union nuts (1) on the
fuel injection lines at the connection with the fuel
injector until fuel is evident. Stop cranking the engine.
Tighten the union nuts (1) to a torque of 30 N·m
(22 lb ft).
3. Start the engine and run the engine at idle for 1
minute.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
SMCS Code: 1258-548
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
4. Cycle the throttle lever from the low idle position to
the high idle position three times. The cycle time
for the throttle lever is one second to six seconds
for one complete cycle.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
Note: In order to purge air from the fuel injection
pump on engines with a fixed throttle, the engine
should be run at full load for 30 seconds. The load
should then be decreased until the engine is at high
idle. The process should be repeated three times.
Repeating the process three times will assist in
removing trapped air from the fuel injection pump.
• The fuel filter is replaced.
5. Check for leaks in the fuel system.
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A new injection pump is installed.
Use the following procedure in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position for 3 minutes. If
a manual purging screw is installed, the purging
screw should be slackened during priming the fuel
system.
SEBU8327-01
61
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
i02699081
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SMCS Code: 1260-543; 1263-543
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator more
than half full. Engine damage may result.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
Illustration 38
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
g01353878
Screw
Element
Bowl
Bottom cover
Drain
Sensor connection
1. Place a suitable container below the water
separator.
2. Open the drain (5). Allow the fluid to drain into
the container.
3. When clean fuel drains from the water separator
close the drain (5). Tighten the drain by hand
pressure only. Dispose of the drained fluid
correctly.
i02699073
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
SMCS Code: 1261-510-SE
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
62
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
SEBU8327-01
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
Element filter
Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
OFF position before performing this maintenance.
Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch
any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel
immediately.
Illustration 40
g01353857
(3) Filter head
(4) Element
(5) O ring seal
3. Remove the filter bowl (1) from the filter head
(3). Press on the element (4). Rotate the element
counterclockwise in order to release the element
for the filter bowl and remove the element from the
bowl. Discard the used element.
4. Remove the O ring (5) from the filter bowl and
clean the filter bowl. Check that the threads of the
filter bowl are not damaged.
Illustration 39
g01353856
(1) Filter bowl
(2) Drain
1. Close the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped).
2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open
the fuel drain (2) and drain the fuel into a suitable
container.
5. Install a new O ring seal (5) to the filter bowl (1).
6. Locate a new filter element (4) into the filter bowl
(1). Press on the element and rotate the element
clockwise in order to lock the element into the
filter bowl.
7. Install the filter bowl (1) into the top of the filter
head (3).
8. Tighten the filter bowl by hand until the filter bowl
contacts the filter head. Rotate the filter bowl
through 90 degrees.
Note: Do not use a tool to tighten the filter bowl.
9. Open the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped).
Spin-on filter
Turn the valves for the fuel lines (if equipped) to the
OFF position before performing this maintenance.
Place a tray under the fuel filter in order to catch
any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled fuel
immediately.
SEBU8327-01
63
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
Illustration 42
g01353860
(4) O ring seal
4. Lubricate the sealing ring (4) with clean fuel oil.
Illustration 41
g01353858
(1) Filter Head
(2) Spin-on filter
(3) Drain
1. Clean the outside of the fuel filter assembly. Open
the fuel drain (3) and drain the fuel into a suitable
container.
2. Use a suitable tool in order to remove the spin-on
filter (2) from the filter head (1).
3. Ensure that the fuel drain (3) on the new spin-on
filter is closed.
5. Install the spin-on filter (2) into the top of the filter
head (1).
6. Tighten the spin-on filter by hand until the sealing
ring contacts the filter head. Rotate the spin-on
filter through 90 degrees.
7. Prime the fuel system. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime”.
i02702048
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
SMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
64
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
SEBU8327-01
i02705980
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
SEBU8327-01
65
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
The need for an overhaul is generally indicated by
increased fuel consumption and by reduced power.
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
The following factors are important when a decision
is being made on the proper time for an engine
overhaul:
fittings
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130,
“Torque Specifications” in order to locate the proper
torques.
8. Refill the cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's gaskets. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i02708037
Overhaul Considerations
SMCS Code: 7595-043
Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in a
lower average power demand. A decreased average
power demand should increase both the engine
service life and the overhaul interval.
• The need for preventive maintenance
• The quality of the fuel that is being used
• The operating conditions
• The results of the S·O·S analysis
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul
Indicator
Oil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance
information can be used to estimate the total
operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil
consumption can also be used to estimate the
required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable
for the maintenance intervals.
Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage
of the rated engine load. As the percentage of the
engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is
consumed per hour also increases.
The oil consumption rate (brake specific oil
consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per
bhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC)
depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil
consumption rate for your engine.
When an engine's oil consumption has risen to three
times the original oil consumption rate due to normal
wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled.
There may be a corresponding increase in blowby
and a slight increase in fuel consumption.
Overhaul Options
Before Failure Overhaul
A planned overhaul before failure may be the best
value for the following reasons:
• Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided.
• Many original parts can be reused according to the
standards for reusable parts.
• The engine's service life can be extended without
the risk of a major catastrophe due to engine
failure.
66
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
• The best cost/value relationship per hour of
extended life can be attained.
After Failure Overhaul
If a major engine failure occurs and the engine
must be removed, many options are available. An
overhaul should be performed if the engine block or
the crankshaft needs to be repaired.
If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaft
is repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40
percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new engine
with a similar exchange core.
SEBU8327-01
• Salvaging
• Repairing
• Replacing
Using out-of-spec parts can result in the following
problems:
• Unscheduled downtime
• Costly repairs
• Damage to other engine parts
This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects:
• Reduced engine efficiency
• Specially designed Caterpillar engine features
• Increased fuel consumption
• Caterpillar dealer exchange components
Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuel
consumption translates into higher operating costs.
Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairing
out-of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts.
• Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchange
components
Overhaul Recommendation
Inspection and/or Replacement
To minimize downtime, Caterpillar Inc. recommends
a scheduled engine overhaul by your Caterpillar
dealer before the engine fails. This will provide you
with the best cost/value relationship.
Crankshaft Bearings and Crankshaft Seals
Note: Overhaul programs vary according to the
engine application and according to the dealer that
performs the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for specific information about the available
overhaul programs and about overhaul services for
extending the engine life.
• Thrust bearings
The following components may not last until the
second overhaul.
• Main bearings
• Rod bearings
• Crankshaft seals
If an overhaul is performed without overhaul service
from your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the following
maintenance recommendations.
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of new
parts at each overhaul period.
Rebuild or Exchange
Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembled
for an overhaul.
Cylinder Head Assembly, Oil Pump, and Fuel
Transfer Pump
These components should be inspected according to
the instructions that are found in various Caterpillar
reusability publications. The Special Publication,
SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that are
needed for inspecting the engine parts.
If the parts comply with the established inspection
specifications that are expressed in the reusable
parts guideline, the parts should be reused.
Parts that are not within the established inspection
specifications should be dealt with in one of the
following manners:
Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following
conditions:
• Deflection
• Damage to the journals
• Bearing material that has seized to the journals
Check the journal taper and the profile of the
crankshaft journals. Check these components by
interpreting the wear patterns on the following
components:
• Rod bearing
SEBU8327-01
67
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
• Main bearings
Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and
to the lobes.
4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core. This
removes any remaining residue from the cleaner.
Flush the fins of the oil cooler core. Remove any
other trapped debris.
Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, use
the magnetic particle inspection process to check for
cracks in the camshaft.
5. Wash the oil cooler core with hot, soapy water.
Rinse the oil cooler core thoroughly with clean
water.
Inspect the following components for signs of wear or
for signs of scuffing:
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Camshaft bearings
• Lifters
Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaft
vibration damper.
Oil Cooler Core
During an overhaul, Caterpillar Inc. recommends the
removal of the oil cooler core. Clean the oil cooler
core. Then, pressure test the oil cooler core.
NOTICE
Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.
Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of the
core and cause leakage.
Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oil
cooler core.
1. Remove the oil cooler core.
2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core. To
remove debris from the oil cooler core, turn the oil
cooler core onto one end.
3. Flush the oil cooler core internally with cleaner in
order to loosen foreign substances. This will also
help to remove oil from the oil cooler core.
Note: Caterpillar Inc. recommends the use of
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners. Table 11 lists the
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners that are available from
your Caterpillar dealer.
Table 11
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners
Part
Number
Description
Size
1U-5490
Hydrosolv4165
19 L (5 US gal)
1U-5492
Hydrosolv100
19 L (5 US gallon)
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
6. Dry the oil cooler core with compressed air. Direct
the air in the reverse direction of the normal flow.
7. Inspect the components in order to ensure
cleanliness. The oil cooler core should be
pressure tested. Repair the oil cooler core, if
necessary. Install the oil cooler core.
For more information about cleaning the cores,
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Obtain Coolant Analysis
The concentration of supplemental coolant additive
(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kits
or with S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Further
coolant analysis is recommended when the engine
is overhauled.
For example, considerable deposits are found in the
water jacket areas on the external cooling system, but
the concentrations of coolant additives were carefully
maintained. The coolant water probably contained
minerals that were deposited on the engine over time.
A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify
the condition of the water that is being used in the
cooling system. A full water analysis can be obtained
by consulting your local water utility company or
an agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also
available for water analysis.
Caterpillar Inc. recommends an S·O·S Coolant
Analysis (Level 2).
68
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
SEBU8327-01
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is a
comprehensive coolant analysis which completely
analyzes the coolant and the effects on the cooling
system. An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides
the following information:
• Complete S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1)
• Visual inspection of properties
• Identification of metal corrosion
• Identification of contaminants
• Identification of built up impurities (corrosion and
scale)
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides a report of
the results of both the analysis and the maintenance
recommendations.
For more information about coolant analysis, see
your Caterpillar dealer.
i02708040
Radiator - Clean
SMCS Code: 1353-070
The radiator is not usually supplied by Caterpillar. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to OEM information for further
information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
of the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the
air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
For more detailed information on cleaning and
inspection, refer to Special Publication, SEBD0518,
“Know Your Cooling System”.
i00151038
Severe Service Application Check
SMCS Code: 1000-535
Severe service is an application of an engine that
exceeds current published standards for that engine.
Caterpillar maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Performance (power range, speed range, and fuel
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
• Fuel quality
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
consumption)
• Altitude range
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant selection and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
SEBU8327-01
69
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
• Installation
Improper Maintenance Procedures
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult with
your Caterpillar dealer in order to determine if the
engine is operating within the defined parameters.
• Extending the maintenance intervals
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for the unique maintenance that is necessary
for the engine.
The operating environment, improper operating
procedures and improper maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to severe service
conditions.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot inlet air reduces
engine performance.
Air Quality – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty
or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Improper Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
i02348493
Starting Motor - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection of
the starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the
engine may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance.
i02710646
Turbocharger - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1052-040; 1052
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. Any fumes from the crankcase are
filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore,
by-products from oil and from combustion can collect
in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time,
this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
70
Maintenance Section
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems as
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occured.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
SEBU8327-01
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
the turbocharger to slobber.
3. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
outlet for corrosion.
4. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing.
i02873707
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/
Replace
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510
Inspection
Removal and Installation
Note: The turbochargers that are supplied are
nonserviceable.
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Carerpillar dealer or your
Carerpillar distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Turbocharger - Remove and
Turbocharger - Install” for further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for cleaning.
The actuator linkage is connected to the compressor
housing. If the actuator linkage is moved or disturbed
the engine may not comply with emmissions legislation.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
2. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
Illustration 43
g01476657
Arrangement for the V-belts
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belts for wear and for cracking. Replace belts that are
worn or damaged.
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only
one belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to
carry more load because the older belt is stretched.
The additional load on the new belt could cause the
new belt to break.
If the belts are too loose, vibration causes
unnecessary wear on the belts and pulleys. Loose
belts may slip enough to cause overheating.
SEBU8327-01
71
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
Adjustment
To accurately check the belt tension, install
144-0235 Belt Tension Gauge.
Illustration 44
g01003936
Typical example
(1) Gauge
Fit the gauge (1) at the center of the longest free
length and check the tension. The correct tension for
a used belt is 355 N (79.8 lb). If the tension of the
belt is below 250 N (56 lb) adjust the belt to 355 N
(79.8 lb).
Note: The correct tension for a new belt or new belts
is 535 N (120 lb). A higher tension is required in
order to compensate for the stretch that is in a new
belt. Only use the higher tension on a belt that has
not been used. A used belt is a belt that has been in
operation for 30 minutes or a longer period of time.
If twin belts are installed, check and adjust the
tension on both belts.
Illustration 45
g01430645
Typical example
1. Loosen The alternator pivot bolt (2) and the bolt
(3).
2. Move the alternator in order to increase or
decrease the belt tension. Tighten the alternator
pivot bolt and the link bolt to 22 N·m (16 lb ft).(1).
Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly manual for more
information.
i02457734
Walk-Around Inspection
SMCS Code: 1000-040
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
72
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8327-01
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
the water pump and the installation of water pump
and/or seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i02457735
Water Pump - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1361-040; 1361
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew
the water pump seal or the water pump if there
is an excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Pump - Remove”
for the disassembly procedure and then refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Pump - Install”
for the assembly procedure.
SEBU8327-01
73
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01087950
Emissions Warranty
Information
SMCS Code: 1000
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by law at the time of manufacture,
and this engine may be covered by an Emissions
Warranty. A detailed explanation of the Emissions
Warranty that is applicable to emissions certified
engines is found in Supplement, SEBU6981, “Federal
Emissions Control Warranty Information”. Consult
your authorized Caterpillar dealer to determine if your
engine is emissions certified and if your engine is
subject to an Emissions Warranty.
74
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
SEBU8327-01
Reference Information
Section
i00819749
Engine Rating Definitions
SMCS Code: 1000
Engine Ratings
i00727327
Engine Rating Conditions
SMCS Code: 1000
All engine ratings are in compliance with the following
standard ambient air conditions of “SAE J1349”:
• 99 kPa (29.3 inches of Hg)
• 30 percent relative humidity
• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)
Ratings relate to the standard conditions of
“ISO8665”, of “ISO3046/1”, of “DIN6271”, and of
“BS5514”.
The engine ratings are based on the following fuel
specifications:
• Low heat value (LHV) of the fuel of 42 780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/lb) at 29 °C (84 °F)
• Gravity (API) of 35 degrees at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Specific gravity of .849 at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Density of 850 kg/m3 (7.085 lb/US gal)
The engine ratings are gross output ratings.
Gross Output Ratings – The total output capability
of the engine that is equipped with standard
accessories.
Standard accessories include the following
components:
• Oil pumps
• Fuel pumps
• Water pumps
Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliary
components from the gross output. This will produce
the net power that is available for the external load
(flywheel).
It is important to know the use of the engine so
that the rating will match the operating profile. The
proper rating selection is also important so that the
customer's perception of price and value is realized.
In selecting a rating for a specific application, the
most important consideration is the time that is spent
at full throttle. These rating definitions identify the
percent of time at full throttle. The definitions also
identify the corresponding times below rated rpm.
Note: The examples of the applications are only
for reference. For an exact determination of the
appropriate rating, follow the OEM specifications or
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
A Rating – This rating is used for heavy-duty
applications that are operated at rated load and at
rated rpm up to 100 percent. This rating is used for
engines that operate without interruption of load
cycling. Typical applications include the following
examples: pipeline pumping and ventilation.
B Rating – This rating is used when power and/or
rpm are cyclic. The engine should be run at full load.
The engine should not exceed 80 percent of the
duty cycle. Typical applications include the following
examples: irrigation, operation where normal pump
demand is 85 percent of the engine rating, oil
pumping/drilling, field mechanical pumping/drilling,
and stationary/plant air compressors.
C Rating – This rating is used when power and/or
rpm are cyclic. The horsepower and the rpm of the
engine can be utilized continuously for one hour. This
is followed by one hour of operation at the A rating
or below the A rating. The engine should be run at
full load. The engine should not exceed 50 percent
of the duty cycle. Typical applications include the
following examples: agricultural tractors, harvesters
and combines, off-highway trucks, fire pumps, blast
hole drills, rock curshers, wood chippers with high
torque rise, and oil field hoisting.
D Rating – This rating is used when rated power
is required for periodic overloads. The maximum
horsepower and the rpm of the engine can be utilized
continuously for a maximum of 30 minutes. This is
followed by one hour of operation at the C rating. The
engine should be run at full load. The engine should
not exceed 10 percent of the duty cycle. Typical
applications include the following examples: offshore
cranes, runway snow blowers, water well drills,
portable air compressors, and fire pump certification
power.
SEBU8327-01
E Rating – This rating is used when rated power
is required for a short time for initial starting or
for sudden overload. The rating is also used for
emergency service when standard power is not
available. The horsepower and the rpm of the engine
can be utilized continuously for a maximum of 15
minutes. This is followed by one hour of operation
at the C rating or by the duration of the emergency.
The engine should be run at full load. The engine
should not exceed 5 percent of the duty cycle. Typical
applications include the following examples: standby
centrifugal water pumps, oil field well servicing, crash
trucks, portable air compressors, and gas turbine
starting motors.
NOTICE
Operating engines above the rating definitions can result in shorter service life before overhaul.
75
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
76
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
SEBU8327-01
Customer Service
i03910306
Customer Assistance
SMCS Code: 1000
USA and Canada
When a problem arises concerning the operation or
the service of an engine, the problem will normally be
managed by the dealer in your area.
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar
and to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem that
has not been handled to your complete satisfaction,
follow these steps:
1. Discuss your problem with a manager from the
dealership.
2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealer
level, use the phone number that is listed below to
talk with a Field Service Coordinator:
1-800-447-4986
The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Monday
through Friday Central Standard Time.
3. If your needs have not been met still, submit the
matter in writing to the following address:
Caterpillar Inc.
Manager, Customer Service, Engine Division
Mossville Bldg AC
P.O. Box 610
Mossville, Illinois 61552-0610
Please keep in mind: probably, your problem will
ultimately be solved at the dealership, using the
dealership facilities, equipment, and personnel.
Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when a
problem is experienced.
Outside of the USA and of Canada
If a problem arises outside the USA and outside
Canada, and if the problem cannot be resolved at the
dealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar office.
Latin America, Mexico, Carribean
Caterpillar Americas Co.
701 Waterford Way, Suite 200
Miami, FL 33126-4670
USA
Phone: 305-476-6800
Fax: 305-476-6801
Europe, Africa, and Middle East
Caterpillar Overseas S.A.
76 Route de Frontenex
P.O. Box 6000
CH-1211 Geneva 6
Switzerland
Phone: 22-849-4444
Fax: 22-849-4544
Far East
Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.
7 Tractor Road
Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Phone: 65-662-8333
Fax: 65-662-8302
China
Caterpillar China Ltd.
37/F., The Lee Gardens
33 Hysan Avenue
Causeway Bay
G.P.O. Box 3069
Hong Kong
Phone: 852-2848-0333
Fax: 852-2848-0440
Japan
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.
SBS Tower
10-1, Yoga 4-Chome
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530
Japan
Phone: 81-3-5717-1150
Fax: 81-3-5717-1177
Japan
Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
SBS Tower (14th floor)
4-10-1, Yoga
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0097
Phone: 81-3-5797-4300
Fax: 81-3-5797-4359
Australia and New Zealand
Caterpillar of Australia Ltd.
1 Caterpillar Drive
Private Mail Bag 4
Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
Australia
Phone: 03-9953-9333
Fax: 03-9335-3366
SEBU8327-01
77
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
i01028392
Ordering Replacement Parts
SMCS Code: 7567
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar
replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available
from Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.
Caterpillar dealers' parts inventories are up-to-date.
The parts stocks include all of the parts that are
normally needed to protect your Caterpillar engine
investment.
When you order parts, please specify the following
information:
• Part number
• Part name
• Quantity
If there is a question concerning the part number,
please provide your dealer with a complete
description of the needed item.
When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenance
and/or repair, provide the dealer with all the
information that is stamped on the Information Plate.
This information is described in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual (Product Information Section).
Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform the
dealer about the conditions of the problem and the
nature of the problem. Inform the dealer about when
the problem occurs. This will help the dealer in
troubleshooting the problem and solving the problem
faster.
78
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
SEBU8327-01
Reference Materials
• Special Publication, SEBD0970, “Coolant and Your
Engine”
i02708607
Reference Material
SMCS Code: 1000
• Label, PEEP5027, “Extended Life Coolant/
Antifreeze”
Miscellaneous
The following literature can be obtained through any
Caterpillar dealer.
• Service Manual, REG1139F, “Service Manual
Lubricants
• Service Manual, KENR6217, “C4.4 Industrial
• Special Publication, PEHP8038, “Data Sheet -
• Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oils (DEO) (CH-4) (North
America)”
• Special Publication, PEHP9536, “Data Sheet
- Caterpillar Diesel Engine Oil (DEO) (CF-4)
(International only)”
• Special Publication, NEDG6022, “Cat Lubricating
Grease”
• Special Publication, PEHP0002, “Data Sheet Molybdenum (MPGM) Grease”
• Special Publication, NEHP6015, “Data Sheet Caterpillar Special Purpose Grease (SPG)”
• Special Publication, SEBD0640, “Oil and Your
Engine”
• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU5898,
“Cold Weather Recommendations”
• Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU6251,
Contents Microfiche”
Engines”
RENR9965, “C4.4 Industrial Engines”
• Specifications, RENR9961, “C4.4 Industrial
Engines.”
• Disassembly and Assembly, KENR6216, “C4.4
Industrial Engines”
• Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”
• Special Publication, PECP9067, “One Safe
Source” English language for use in NACD
• Special Publication, LEDM5615, “Caterpillar
Marine Parts and Service Locations Directory”
• Special Publication, SEBF8029, “Index to
Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations”
• Special Publication, SEBF8062, “Procedure to
Inspect and Clean Air Filters”
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recomendations”
• Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage
• Special Publication, PEHP6001, “How To Take A
• Special Publication, NEHS0526, “Service
Good Oil Sample”
Fuels
• Special Publication, SEBD0717, “Diesel Fuels and
Your Engine”
Coolants
• Special Publication, PEHP4036, “Data Sheet Extended Life Coolant”
• Special Publication, PEHP7057, “Data Sheet S·O·S Coolant Analysis”
• Special Publication, SEBD0518, “Know Your
Cooling System”
Procedure for Caterpillar Products”
Technician Application Guide”
• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recomendations”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”
• Label, SEHS7332, “Danger Do Not Operate”
SEBU8327-01
79
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Emissions Warranty
This engine may be Certified and this engine
may be covered by an Emissions Warranty. A
detailed explanation of the Emissions Warranty
that is applicable to Certified engines is found
in Supplement, SMBU6981, “Emissions Control
Warranty Information”. The engine is Certified if
the engine has a special label that verifies the
certification. A Caterpillar dealer can also inform you
if the engine is certified.
European classifications are established by the
Counseil International Des Machines a Combustion
(CIMAC) (International Council on Combustion
Engines).
CIMAC Central Secretariat
Lyoner Strasse 18
60528 Frankfurt
Germany
Telephone: +49 69 6603 1567
Facsimile: +49 69 6603 1566
i02707212
i02780825
Additional Reference Material
Maintenance Records
SMCS Code: 1000
SMCS Code: 1000
The “Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Specifications” can be found in your SAE handbook.
This publication can also be obtained from the
following locations: local technological society, local
library, and local college. If necessary, consult SAE
at the following address:
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:
SAE International
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA, USA 15096-0001
Telephone: (724) 776-4841
The “American Petroleum Institute Publication No.
1509” can be obtained from the following locations:
local technological society, local library, and local
college. If necessary, consult API at the following
address:
American Petroleum Institute
1220 L St. N.W.
Washington, DC, USA 20005
Telephone: (202) 682-8000
The International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) offers information and customer service
regarding international standards and standardizing
activities. ISO can also supply information on the
following subjects that are not controlled by ISO:
national standards, regional standards, regulations,
certification, and related activities. Consult the
member of ISO in your country.
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
1, rue de Varembé
Case postale 56
CH-1211 Genève 20
Switzerland
Telephone: +41 22 749 01 11
Facsimile: +41 22 733 34 30
E-mail: central@iso.ch
Web site: http://www.iso.ch
• Determine operating costs.
• Establish maintenance schedules for other engines
that are operated in the same environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for a variety of
other business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is well managed. Accurate
maintenance records can help your Caterpillar dealer
to fine tune the recommended maintenance intervals
in order to meet the specific operating situation. This
should result in a lower engine operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption
is essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – A record of all documents should
be obtained, and all documents should be kept in
the engine history file. All of the documents should
show this information: date, service hours, fuel
consumption, unit number, and engine serial number.
The following types of documents should be kept as
proof of maintenance or repair for warranty:
80
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Keep the following types of documents as proof of
maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills
• Owner's repair costs
• Owner's receipts
• Maintenance log
SEBU8327-01
SEBU8327-01
81
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
i02705982
Maintenance Log
SMCS Code: 1000
Table 12
Engine Model
Customer Identifier
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Service
Hours
Quantity
Of Fuel
Service Item
Date
Authorization
82
Index Section
SEBU8327-01
Index
Customer Service .................................................. 76
A
Additional Reference Material ...............................
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Poly
V-Belt)..................................................................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replace..............................................................
79
27
30
41
41
41
41
41
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 41
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 42
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 42
Before Starting Engine .................................... 13, 25
Burn Prevention..................................................... 10
Batteries............................................................. 10
Coolant............................................................... 10
Oils..................................................................... 10
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................
Cold Weather Starting ...........................................
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change...........
Cooling Systems with Heavy Deposits or
Plugging ...........................................................
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change..............
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check .................
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank.............
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) Obtain ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ..................................................................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add..................................................
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................
S·O·S Coolant Analysis......................................
Test for SCA Concentration ...............................
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace................................................................
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace .............
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........
Customer Assistance.............................................
Outside of the USA and of Canada....................
USA and Canada ...............................................
31
26
43
44
43
44
44
45
45
46
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
48
50
50
12
76
76
76
D
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 50
E
Electrical System ................................................... 14
Grounding Practices .......................................... 14
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 30
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 20
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 73
Engaging the Driven Equipment............................ 28
Engine - Clean....................................................... 51
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace ..................................................... 51
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 52
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 51
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace ................................................... 54
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 54
Test the Service Indicator................................... 54
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 55
Engine Description ................................................ 17
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 18
Engine Service Life ............................................ 18
Engine Specifications......................................... 18
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 55
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 56
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 57
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 58
Replace the Spin-on Oil Filter ............................ 57
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 55
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 56
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 56
Engine Operation................................................... 28
Engine Protective Devices - Check ....................... 58
Visual Inspection................................................ 59
Engine Rating Conditions ...................................... 74
Engine Rating Definitions ...................................... 74
Engine Ratings ...................................................... 74
Engine Shutoffs and Engine Alarms...................... 24
Alarms................................................................ 24
Shutoffs.............................................................. 24
Testing the Shutoff and Alarm System............... 24
Engine Starting ................................................ 13, 25
Engine Stopping .............................................. 14, 30
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 59
Engine Warm-up.................................................... 28
F
Features and Controls ........................................... 24
SEBU8327-01
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 10
Ether .................................................................. 12
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ................................... 12
Foreword ................................................................. 5
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 5
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 31
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 29
Fuel Injection Nozzles - Test/Exchange................. 59
Removal and Installation of the Fuel Injection
Nozzles ............................................................ 60
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 32
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 32
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 32
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 32
Fuel Shutoff ........................................................... 24
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 60
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 61
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............... 61
Element filter ...................................................... 62
Spin-on filter....................................................... 62
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 63
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 64
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 64
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 63
83
Index Section
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule .............................
Maintenance Log ...................................................
Maintenance Records............................................
Maintenance Section .............................................
Model View Illustrations.........................................
Engine Model Views ..........................................
Model Views ..........................................................
Mounting and Dismounting....................................
40
81
79
33
16
16
15
13
O
Operation Section..................................................
Ordering Replacement Parts .................................
Overhaul Considerations .......................................
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Indicator ........
Overhaul Recommendation ...............................
22
77
65
65
66
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Serial Number Plate (1) .....................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
Product Lifting........................................................
Product Storage.....................................................
19
19
19
15
22
22
R
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Radiator Restrictions .............................................
Reference Information Section ..............................
Reference Material ................................................
Coolants.............................................................
Emissions Warranty ...........................................
Fuels ..................................................................
Lubricants ..........................................................
Miscellaneous ....................................................
Reference Materials ..............................................
Reference Numbers ..............................................
Record for Reference.........................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Refill Capacities and Recommendations...............
Coolant Recommendations................................
Engine Oil ..........................................................
General Coolant Information..............................
General Fuel Information ...................................
Lubricating Grease.............................................
Refill Capacity of the Cooling System................
S·O·S Coolant Analysis......................................
L
S
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 22
Safety Messages ..................................................... 6
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 6
(2) Ether ............................................................... 7
G
Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 23
General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Asbestos Information ........................................... 9
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 9
Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 10
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 8
Pressurized Air and Water ................................... 8
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 64
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 65
I
68
31
74
78
78
79
78
78
78
78
19
19
33
33
38
33
36
36
35
39
38
84
Index Section
SEBU8327-01
Safety Section ......................................................... 6
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 68
Environmental Factors ....................................... 69
Improper Maintenance Procedures.................... 69
Improper Operating Procedures ........................ 69
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 69
Starting the Engine ................................................ 26
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 27
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 30
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 69
Inspecting........................................................... 70
Removal and Installation.................................... 70
V
V-Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ...........................
Adjustment .........................................................
Inspection...........................................................
Replace..............................................................
70
71
70
71
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections .....................................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect............................................
71
71
73
73
72
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2011 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved
Cat, Caterpillar, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the Power edge
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks
of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.