the project study on value-add fresh water aquaculture by the third

THE PROJECT STUDY ON
VALUE-ADD FRESH WATER
AQUACULTURE BY THE THIRD WATER
IN THE KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
FINAL REPORT
JANUARY 2015
JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)
KAKE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION,
OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE
INTEM CONSULTING, INC.
Preface
In order to confirm the applicability of the third water which has been developed by the
Okayama University of Science, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) carried out
basic information collection and verification survey in March 2013 targeting three countries of
Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos where JICA has been implementing the aquaculture project.
As a result, in order to examine the possibility of high-value-added of fresh water aquaculture
utilizing the third water, the experiment of seed production during zoea to post larvae of giant
fresh water prawn is migration between fresh water and blackish water implemented under the
support of the Okayama University of Science, in Marine Aquaculture Research and
Development Center (MARDeC) in Cambodia in 2013. In particular, under same condition of
facility and breeding method, within zoea to post larvae (PL) of giant fresh water prawn is
migration between fresh water and blackish water, the effectiveness of the third water in seed
production was examined by some types of the third water. As a result, the third water Type C
showed as higher and/or equivalent PL survival rate as control. It was confirmed the high
efficacy as breeding water for seed production of giant fresh water.
Based on the results of the last year, JICA implemented the seed prodution experiment at farmer
level in Cambodia to finalize as technique and had accomplished this report after analysis.
We hope that this report will be utilized to parties involved in international cooperation in
the fisheries and aquaculture sector.
At the end, we sincerely would like to give our gratitude to whom it may concern had
cooperated and supported
January 2015
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Rural Development Department
Director General
Makoto KITANAKA
Table of contents
Preface
Table of contents
Figure list
Table list
Abstract
List of abbreviations
Activity photo
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Background and purpose of the project study ............................................................. 1
1.1
Background of the project study............................................................................ 1
1.2
Purpose of the project study .................................................................................. 2
The third water and water recycling filter system ..................................................... 3
2.1
The third water....................................................................................................... 3
2.2
Water recirculating filter system .......................................................................... 3
2.3
Research performance by Okayama University of science.................................. 4
Biology and situation of aquaculture for giant fresh water prawn............................ 5
3.1
Biology of giant fresh water prawn ....................................................................... 5
3.2
Utilization of giant fresh water prawn ................................................................. 5
3.3
Situation of aquaculture for giant fresh water prawn in Cambodia .................. 6
Summary of this project study and result in 2013 ...................................................... 7
4.1
Summary of this project study .............................................................................. 7
4.2
Experiment contents in 2013 and 2014 ................................................................ 8
4.3
Experiment result in 2013 ..................................................................................... 8
Schedule of the project study .......................................................................................11
5.1
Experiment schedule .............................................................................................11
5.2
Schedule in each farmer .......................................................................................11
Target farmer selection and experimental group ...................................................... 13
6.1
Target farmer selection ........................................................................................ 13
6.2
Selection policy and methods............................................................................... 14
6.3
Selection result ..................................................................................................... 14
6.4
Experimental group.............................................................................................. 15
Hatchery preparation .................................................................................................. 17
7.1
Hatchery................................................................................................................ 17
7.2
Local and Japan procurement equipments ........................................................ 17
7.3
Solar panel system ............................................................................................... 19
7.4
8
Experimental tanks .............................................................................................. 19
Breeding water analysis and bio filter preparation .................................................. 21
8.1
Breeding water ..................................................................................................... 21
8.2
Bio filter ................................................................................................................ 21
9
Broodstock management ............................................................................................. 23
9.1
Broodstock procurement ...................................................................................... 23
9.2
Hatching ................................................................................................................ 23
10
10.1
11
Experiment contents ................................................................................................ 25
Experiment method .............................................................................................. 25
Experiment result .................................................................................................... 27
11.1
Farmer A site Mr. Prum Vat ................................................................................ 27
11.2
Farmer B site Mr. Hang Heang ........................................................................... 28
11.3
Farmer C site Mr. Van Po .................................................................................... 30
11.4
Comparison of growth rate among 3 sites .......................................................... 32
12
Consequence analysis .............................................................................................. 33
12.1
Seed production cost and profitability ................................................................ 33
12.2
Sun dry salt ........................................................................................................... 39
12.3
City water ............................................................................................................. 39
12.4
Ground water ........................................................................................................ 40
12.5
Disease .................................................................................................................. 40
12.6
Other potential mortality factors ........................................................................ 42
13
13.1
Consideration and discussion.................................................................................. 45
Practicality of the third water and water recirculating filter system at the
farmer level ...................................................................................................................... 45
13.2
Extension of giant fresh water prawn seed production technology .................. 45
Annex1 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Annex2 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Annex3 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Annex4 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Annex5 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Annex6 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Annex7 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Annex8 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Annex9 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Figure list
Figure 6.1 Location of experiment farmer .......................................................................... 16
Figure 7.1 Design drawing of filter tank ............................................................................ 18
Figure 7.2 Design drawing of wool box ............................................................................. 18
Figure 7.3 Structural drawing of protein skimmer ............................................................... 19
Figure 7.4 Original tank layout plan .................................................................................. 20
Figure 7.5 Actual tank layout ............................................................................................ 20
Figure 11.1 Transition of larval stage in each tank of Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site ............... 27
Figure 11.2 Transition of larval stage in each tank of farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site........... 29
Figure 11.3 Transition of larval stage in each tank of farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site................... 31
Figure 11.4 Transition of majority of larval stage in each farmer.......................................... 32
Figure 12.1 Result of nested RT-PCR for MrNV in zoea and PL .......................................... 42
Figure 12.2 Result of nested RT-PCR for MrNV in broodstock ............................................ 42
Table list
Table 2.1 Main aspect in the water flowing system and the water recycling system aquaculture 4
Table 2.2 Result of tiger puffer production in water recycling system using the third water ...... 4
Table 3.1 Price of Giant fresh water prawn in Takeo province ............................................... 6
Table 3.2 Aquaculture production volume for fresh water fish and giant fresh water prawn in
Cambodia .................................................................................................................. 6
Table 4.1 Contents of Experimental study in 2013 and 2014 .................................................. 8
Table 4.2 Experiment group in 2013 .................................................................................... 9
Table 5.1 Time schedule in this project study ......................................................................11
Table 5.2 Time schedule in each farmer ..............................................................................11
Table 6.1 List of seed production farmer in Takeo province ................................................. 13
Table 6.2 Conditions to confirm for selection ..................................................................... 14
Table 6.3 Selection result.................................................................................................. 15
Table 6.4 Target farmer and experiment plot ...................................................................... 16
Table 7.1 Equipment of local procurement ......................................................................... 17
Table 7.2 Equipment of Japan procurement ........................................................................ 17
Table 7.3 Main equipments of solar panel system ............................................................... 19
Table 8.1 Checking water in each farmer ........................................................................... 21
Table 8.2 Breeding water in each farmer ......................................................................... 21
Table 8.3 Situation of filter tank preparation ...................................................................... 22
Table 9.1 procurement schedule of broodstock with egg...................................................... 23
Table 9.2 procurement result of broodstock with egg .......................................................... 24
Table10.1 Experiment method .......................................................................................... 25
Table 10.2 Feeding table in case of 30 days breeding .......................................................... 25
Table 11.1 Result of harvest in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site ............................................... 27
Table 11.2 Result of water quality in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site ....................................... 28
Table 11.3 Larval stage distribution table at the time of harvest in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
............................................................................................................................... 28
Table 11.4 Result of harvest in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site .......................................... 29
Table 11.5 Result of water quality in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site .................................. 30
Table 11.6 Larval stage distribution table at the time of harvest in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
............................................................................................................................... 30
Table 11.7 Result of harvest in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site .................................................. 31
Table 11.8 Result of water quality in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site .......................................... 31
Table 12.1 The third water and brine water cost and PL survival rate ................................... 33
Table 12.2 Necessary equipment and operation cost for giant fresh water prawn seed production
............................................................................................................................... 34
Table 12.3 Case that is assumed for each conditions of seed production farmer ..................... 35
Table 12.4 Expenses necessary to seed production (Unit: USD) ........................................... 36
Table 12.5 Seed production cost of each production (Unit: USD)......................................... 36
Table 12.6 Production number for sale and sale revenue of each production number ............. 37
Table 12.7 Annual balance of each production number (Unit: USD)..................................... 37
Table 12.8 Total income of each model case (Unit: USD).................................................... 38
Table 12.9 Revenue compared with the conventional method .............................................. 38
Table 12.10 Result of analysis for sun dry salt in Kampot province ...................................... 39
Table 12.11 Result of analysis for city water used in this experiment ................................... 40
Table 12.12 Result of analysis for ground water ................................................................. 40
Table 12.13 Primer sequence for detecting the white tail disease.......................................... 41
Table 12.14 Target samples and result for white tail disease ................................................ 41
Abstract
1.
Purpose
On the basis of result in last year, this project study was planned to verify practical utility
of the recirculating filter system using the third water type C in giant freshwater prawn seed
production in inland area of Cambodia (around Takeo Province). The experiment aims to finalize
the technique to be available on farm level as well as to verify the possibility of extension of
seed production.
2.
Schedule
This project study originally had been planned from July to November 2014. However, due to
delay of arrival of some equipment from Japan, the experimental seed production trial was
implemented from August to December 2014, 1 month behind schedule.
3.
Experiment group
This project study has introduced the sun dry salt to reduce the third water cost and the solar
panel system to adapt the status of the power supply in Cambodia. Because these had been first trial
in Cambodia, in order to diminish risk, the experiment group was planned as the following.
Table Target farmer and experiment plot
Target
farmer
A
Prum
Vat※1
Village
Prey
Sambo
Commune
Ankorborey
District
Experiment plot
Remark
Ankorborey
The Third water
type C prepared
in Japan
Public
electricity +
generator
Confirmation the
seed produce at
farmer level
Public
electricity +
generator
Confirmation the
seed produce by
local sun-dried
salt
Solar system
+ generator
Confirmation the
seed produce with
solar system
Hang
B
Heang
Chork
Rokakhnong
Donkeo
The Third water
type C prepared
by local
sun-dried salt
C Van Po
Ou Phot
Angtasom
Tramkak
The Third water
type C prepared
in Japan
4.
Electricity
Result
The average of the survival rate in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site was 46.56%, it was exceeding
39.28% which was the results of experiment carried out last year in 220L tank using the third water
type C. On the other hand, post larvae (PL) was not harvested in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site and
farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site because of mass mortality before metamorphosis in PL. The
survival rates of zoea stage were around 1% respectively.
Table Seed production survival rate in each site
Farmer A Prum Vat
Farmer B Hang Heang
Farmer C Van Po
5.
TankNo,1
TankNo,2
TankNo,3
Total
TankNo,1
TankNo,2
TankNo,3
Total
TankNo,1
TankNo,2
TankNo,3
Total
Start
(head)
50,000
50,000
60,000
160,000
60,000
60,000
60,000
180,000
60,000
60,000
60,000
180,000
Harvest
(head)
1,598
846
696
3,140
756
935
456
2,147
33,084
29,310
21,411
83,805
Survival
Rate(%)
3.20
1.69
1.16
1.96
1.26
1.56
0.76
1.19
55.14
48.85
35.69
46.56
Consideration
Among three experimental farmers only farmer C (Mr. Van Po) harvested PL successfully. The
result showed a possibility of seed production of giant fresh water prawn under well-controlled
condition although other two sites failed harvesting PL. It is considered that the water recycling filter
system with the third water type C and solar power has potential of seed production of giant fresh
water prawn even in undeveloped inland area without seawater or public electricity.
List of abbreviations
AIM
Aquaculture of Indigenous Mekong Fish Species
AIT
Asian Institute of Technology
EMS
Early Mortality Syndrome
FAIEX
Freshwater Aquaculture Improvement and Extension Project in Cambodia
GM
Greater Mekong
JICA
Japan International Cooperation Agency
MARDeC
Marine Aquaculture Research and Development Center
PL
Post larvae
ppm
parts per million
psu
practical salinity unit
Activity photo-1
Giant fresh water prawn
(Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
Zoea of giant fresh water prawn
(stage IV)
Post larvae (PL)of giant fresh water
prawn
Description of the experimental
design for the candidate farmer
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Measurement for hatchery
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Constriction of hatchery
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Hatchery
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Installation of tanks
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Filter (coral sand)
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Plumbing the filter tank
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Installation of solar panel
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Confirmation of electricity by solar
panel
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Activity photo-2
Sediment occurred were mixed the
third water material to groundwater
Transportation of city water Farmer
A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Generators (24 hours a day)
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Concentrated nitrifying bacteria
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Introdution of Ammonia and nitrite
measurement
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Ammonium chloride addition to the
filter tank
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Giant fresh water prawn markets in
Takeo city
Broodstock selection
Broodstock with eyed egg
Broodstock with non-eyed egg
Broodstock breeding
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Counting of hatching zoea
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Activity photo-3
Warmth of broodstock tank
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Introdution of making egg castard
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Introduction of feeding method
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Confirmatin of zoea stage
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Bacillariophyta in breeding tank
Farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Input of shelter
farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Lecture on intermediate breeding
Harvest by scope net
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
PL weight measurement
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Release of PL to the intermediate
breeding pond
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
Confirmation of zoea after mass
mortlity
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat)
Lecture of seedling production and
aquaculture situation of Giant fresh
water prawn in Thailand
1
Background and purpose of the project study
1.1
Background of the project study
In recent years, aquaculture system with the third water developed by Okayama University of
Science has been gathering attention. The third water can be prepared by adding minimum electrolyte
in freshwater. Based on the research implemented by Okayama University of Science, the third water
improves growth of fish in aquaculture moreover it is also available for several species of marine fish.
Fishes grown up by third water in Okayama University of Science nowadays were acceptable to
market and obtained certain reputation.
At the beginning in order to verify the applicability of the third water, Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA) dispatched survey mission for the basic information collection March
2013 in three target countries such Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos where JICA has been implementing
the aquaculture project. As a result, JICA mission team suggested that the third water has a possibility
of advantage in aquaculture as follows.
(1) The third water has potentials to contribute significantly to improve growth and survival rate
which are the most important for aquaculture fish and crustacean and also disease prevention.
(2) Production cost is able to be reduced in nursing larvae of Giant fresh water prawn
(Macrobachium rosenbergii) in inland area because it doesn’t need to use salt water transported
from a long distance.
(3) The third water could promote growth rate of juvenile stage for Marble Goby, which generally
show slow growth rate.
(4) The third water could be effective against disease such EMS that causes serious problem in
farming of black tiger shrimp (P. monodon) and white shrimp (P. vannamei) species.
In light of this situation, JICA made a plan to conduct “Project Study on Value-add Freshwater
Aquaculture” in Cambodia to verify effectiveness of the third water targeting on Giant fresh water
prawn (Macrobachium rosenbergii) in 2013.
Within zoea to post larvae (PL) of giant fresh water prawn is migration between fresh water and
blackish water, the effectiveness of the third water in seed production was examined. The experiment
was implemented with 9 types of the third water throughout 2 times experiment in Marine Aquaculture
Research and Development Center (MARDeC) constructed by Japan’s grant aid. As a result, the third
water type C showed as higher and/or equivalent PL survival rate as control. It was confirmed the high
efficacy as breeding water for seed production of giant fresh water and has been suggested the
possibility of seed production of giant fresh water prawn that does not depend on the area.
1
1.2
Purpose of the project study
In Southeast Asia and Africa area, JICA has been conducting a technical cooperation relating to
freshwater and sea water aquaculture, but fish production is greatly affected by natural conditions such
as flooding, drought and other unpredicted weather exchange that are currently caused by global
warming.
Responding to these issues, in order to beforehand with the food crisis due to environmental
exchange and population growth humanity and to encourage a sustainable aquaculture production in
the above areas, JICA aimed at the development and the extension the aquaculture technology of less
susceptible to natural conditions and location. Under such situation, with the technical assistance
related to the recirculating filter system using the third water from Okayama University of Science,
JICA has decided to implement the project study on value-add fresh water aquaculture by the third
water in the kingdom of Cambodia in 2013 and 2014.
On the basis of result in last year, this project study established the recirculating filter system
using the third water type C in giant freshwater prawn seed production in inland area of Cambodia
(around Takeo province) to verify its effectiveness on farm. Throughout the seed production trails, the
experiment aimed to prepare basic protocol of giant freshwater prawn seed production to be utilized for
further extension of seed production in inland area.
2
2
The third water and water recycling filter system
2.1
The third water
It is said that the body salt concentration substantially equal in marine and freshwater fish, but
the method of osmoregulation in freshwater and marine fish are different. The body of marine fish
adjusts the salt concentration in the cell. Because the body fluid is 1/3 of the salinity of seawater, the
dehydrating action functions. Therefore, marine fish drinks a large amount of sea water and actively
excrete excess salts. Small monovalent ions, such as sodium and chlorine are excreted by gills. Larger
multivalent ions, especially calcium and magnesium which are abundant in seawater, are excreted by
the urine. Freshwater fish has the opposite function, freshwater fish is keeping the salt concentration in
the cell by uptake large quantities monovalent ions from gills and excrete large amount of urine with
low concentration. Energy of this osmoregulation accounts for approximately 30% of the total energy
metabolism.
Seawater contains about 60 types of ions such as sodium chlorine ions and carbonate etc. The
third water developed by Okayama University of Science is functional water to adjust the ions balance
involved in the metabolism of the fish such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. And it has been
identified and adjusted the minimum ions for breeding fish and is able to suppress the energy
consumption in the osmotic pressure of the fish due to adjust the same concentration of fluid of the
fish body for marine and freshwater fish. That is the energy from feed and can be used for growth.
Other thing, pathogens in the seawater and freshwater have the osmotic pressure corresponding to
survive in each environment. But, in the third water, it is supposed that pathogens is harmful to fish
may be non-active because specific gravity is different in seawater and freshwater.
2.2
Water recirculating filter system
In aquaculture using sea water, there are two methods such as the sea culture and the inland
culture roughly. In the sea culture, there are a limitation of suitable area, an influence of season,
weather and red tide, and a management issue such as net cleaning and replace of dead fish.
On the other hand, inland culture is a technique that is beginning to be introduced in some private
farm and seed production centers in recent years. In inland culture, there are two methods such as the
water flowing system and the water recycling filter system. Main aspect in the water flowing system
and the water recycling system aquaculture are shown in Table 2.1.
Inland culture system has remained issues of the cost aspect such as initial cost and electricity
cost. But the water recycling filter system aquaculture specially be attracted attention as the possibility
of anthropogenic management, no risk of the entry of the disease organism, few limitation of place and
few influence to exterior environment.
3
Table 2.1 Main aspect in the water flowing system and the water recycling system aquaculture
Article
Water flowing system
Water recycling system
Circulation pump, water tank,
Facility
Water pumps, water tank etc.
filtration tank, etc.
Locational conditions
Coastal area
Unlimited (can be inland)
Environmental load by residual
Environmental load
No environmental load
feed
Disease Control and
Pathogen invasion from the sea
No risk
Prevention
Temperature control
Adjustable in a measure
Adjustable
Slow except in proper water
Growth rate
Fast (possible temperature control)
temperature
Production cost
Cheapness
High (running cost)
Japanese Fisheries Agency (2013)
2.3
Research performance by Okayama University of science
Okayama University of Science has conducted experiments with 10 species including flounder,
grouper, tiger puffer and striped jack so far, consequently it was verified that third water can be
applicable to fish culture by combination with water recirculating system under no medication.
Trials targeted the tiger puffer operated in 2012-2013 were shipped 2,181 fish after 18 months
using 20kL tank for 2 groups. This operation was carried out without medicine and water exchange
(evaporation is excluded).
Table 2.2 Result of tiger puffer production in water recycling system using the third water
Initial number of fish
Shipping volume
3,426
Initial fish weight (kg)
2,181
Shipping fish weight (kg)
11.484
Feed amount (kg)
Survival rate (%)
1,890.409
Feed efficiency (%)
2,986.668
63.66
Weight gain (kg)
1,878.925
Conversion coefficient
62.91
1.59
Okayama University of Science (2013)
It has definite advantages such as "Occurrence of fish disease is suppressed", "Breeding water is
cheap", "growth rate is improved", “Fish culture activity does not depend on the weather condition",
“Environmental load is reduced” and "Breeding can be done anywhere". Okayama University of
Science is currently also researching is underway to target the improvement of productivity and new
fish species.
4
3
Biology and situation of aquaculture for giant fresh water prawn
3.1
Biology of giant fresh water prawn
Giant fresh water prawn is habiting in tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. It
usually inhabits freshwater but also it rarely is observed in brackish water. It inhabits river, especially
near to coastal zone (it is observed even in inland away 200 km from the coast), lake, canal and rice
field (Claudio Chávez Justo, 1990 1).
Seeing life-cycle, giant fresh water prawn is mostly living in freshwater except for the larval stage
that lives in brackish water. Typically, the maturity, mating and spawning are performed in freshwater.
The fertilized egg is not released into water, is adhered with uropod (swimming appendages) unlike
the case of kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicas).
It needs about 18 days for hatching and it is mainly influenced by water temperature. In this
ovulation period, female starts to immigrate toward downstream of the river, the egg hatches in estuary
area. Larval stage starts from the stage of Zoea. Newly hatched larvae require necessarily brackish
water. Larva becomes a post larva (PL) after 11 distinct larval stages. PL begins moving to upstream
the river and grows to adult.
3.2
Utilization of giant fresh water prawn
Giant freshwater prawn is an important fishery resource in Southeast Asia and other countries. It
is sold not only for home consumption but also for food service industry. The major production
countries in South-east Asia such Vietnam, Thailand and Bangladesh etc. export it to other country
since it is highly commercial value. It is sold mainly for local consumption in Cambodia but also the
frozen or the alive prawn are transacted by retail dealer to urban areas such Phnom Penh and Siem
Reap. Alive giant fresh water prawn is often seen in water tank of restaurant to be served with fresh. It
is not eaten in raw fresh due to parasite. Most people prefer cooked prawn such as boil, roast, and fry.
It is common especially in local and Chinese restaurant. Giant fresh water prawn is also sold in
aquarium shop as an ornamental fish beyond that.
Market price of giant fresh water prawn in Takeo province is shown Table 3.1. It is divided into
three grades that grade I is average weight 220g grade II is about 120g, grade III is about 40g.
Although grade I is generally 28 USD / kg, it is increased 32-35 USD / kg in Khmer New Year and
water festival. Other fish, for example Regular price of grade I is 14 times higher than silver barb and
common carp (2-2.5 USD/kg).
1
Claudio Chávez Justo, 1990. The aquaculture of shrimp, prawn and crayfish in the world : basic and
technologies.. Midori Shobo.
5
Table 3.1 Price of Giant fresh water prawn in Takeo province
Grade
Average Wight
Usual price
Special price
I
220g
28USD/kg
32-35USD/kg
II
120g
22USD/kg
-
III
40g
17USD/kg
-
Hearing investigation (2014)
3.3
Situation of aquaculture for giant fresh water prawn in Cambodia
Seed production of giant fresh water prawn was succeeded for the first time by Shao-Wen Ling and
other researchers in Penang, Malaysia in 1961. After the series of research, aquaculture of this species in
industry level attracted people’s attention. Subsequently basic technology to produce this species has been
expanded and developed in Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam and Thailand and Hawaii, China and
Japan.
History of seed production of giant fresh water prawn in Cambodia has started by Dr. Shiro HARA,
who is in charge of team leader for consultant in this project, during the Freshwater Aquaculture
Improvement and Extension Project in Cambodia Phase1 in 2006. He succeeded the mass seed production
for the first time in Cambodia at national aquaculture center in Prey Veng province by using technology
referred to method of Can Tho University. Afterward seed production has been carried out in private farm
in Takeo province. This species is drawing people’s attention as aquaculture target species in recent years.
But the amount of aquaculture production of giant fresh water prawn is still lower than other fishes
in Cambodia (Table 3.2). As this factor, (1) "it is not profitable because commercial feed has to be used
from post larvae to market size", and (2) "the difficulty of management in seed production". In factor (2), it
has been indicated as specific problem due to water transportation cost to the inland, the occurrence of
disease, the survival rate of larvae is unstable. It is expected to improve to (2) by using the third water.
Table 3.2 Aquaculture production volume for fresh water fish and giant fresh water prawn
in Cambodia
(unit:ton)
Freshwater prawn
Common carp
Silver barb
Tilapia
Silver carp
2008
30
100
900
7,000
1,150
2009
110
120
1,230
8,750
1,450
2010
120
140
1,400
10,500
1,700
2011
140
170
1,650
12,600
2,000
2012
140
190
1,700
13,000
2,100
FISHSTATJ (2014)
6
4
Summary of this project study and result in 2013
4.1
Summary of this project study
In this project study, the following overall goal project goal, output, and activity has been set.
(1) Overall goal
Seed production of giant fresh water prawn using the third water is carried out by seed production
farmer in inland of Cambodia.
(2) Project goal
Water recycling filter system using third water for seed production of giant fresh water prawn is
established.
(3) Output
In order to achieve the above goal, outputs are as follows.
Output1: Larvae of giant fresh water prawn are produced by the third water.
Output2: Proper the third water for seed production of giant fresh water prawn is selected
Output3 Water recycling filter system using third water for seed production of giant fresh water
prawn is established with local resources.
(4) Activity
The project research in 2013 had been carried out activities to aim at the achievement of
outcomes 1, 2. This year, activities towards the achievement of output 3 had been carried out.
Output1: Larvae of giant fresh water prawn are produced by the third water.
1)
Experiment tanks and equipment is set up and adjusted.
2)
Seed production using the third water is carried out.
3)
Broodstock is managed and hatched out.
4)
Larvae are cultured by the third water until post larvae
Output2: Proper the third water for seed production of giant fresh water prawn is selected
1)
Under same condition of facility and breeding method, the performance such as survival
rate, total length and cost etc. are examined in each type of the third water.
2)
Base on the seed production of giant fresh water prawn using the third water, it is compared
with standard method.
3)
Cost of the seed production of giant fresh water prawn using the third water is calculated,
and is compared with standard method.
7
Output3: Water recycling filter system using third water for seed production of giant fresh water
prawn is established with local resources.
1)
Seed production system with saving energy and efficient is established.
2)
Experiment tanks and equipments is set up and operated in target farmers. One part of
farmer site is set up solar panel system and operated.
3)
The third water using sun dry salt is produced.
4)
Broodstock is managed and hatched out.
5)
Farmer mainly culture until develop to post larvae.
6)
Cost of the seed production of giant fresh water prawn using the third water is calculated,
and is compared with standard method.
7)
4.2
In consideration of the above, extension method is planned.
Experiment contents in 2013 and 2014
The objective of the project in 2013 was to find the suitable third water type for culturing and
inspect the effectiveness of seed production by using the third water for giant fresh water prawn from
zoea to post larvae. The objective of the project in 2014 is to inspect the seed production of giant fresh
water prawn with the third water at the farmer level. Table 4.1 shows the comparison of the
experimental study in 2013 and 2014.
Table 4.1 Contents of Experimental study in 2013 and 2014
Main Objective
Experimental site
Role-sharing
Kinds of the breeding
water
Capacity of tank
(Scale of breeding)
Facility for breeding
4.3
2013
To select the third water for
cultivating Giant fresh water prawn
and verify larval rearing
Marine cultured development center
in Sihanouk Ville(MARDeC)
(1)Conductor: Consultant
(2)Advisor: Okayama University of
Science
(3)Counterpart (C/P): The MARDeC
staff
Diluted seawater and 9 types of the
third water
220L/tank
Indoor
breeding
facilities
in
MARDeC where seawater, fresh
water and electricity are available
2014
To verify the seed production of Giant fresh
water prawn with the Third water at the
farmer level
Fish farmer’s facilities in Takeo Province
(1)Conductor: Seed farmers and Consultant
(2)Advisor: Okayama University of Science
(3)Counterpart (C/P): Extension officer, The
MARDeC staff
The third water(Type C) prepared in Japan
and prepared by local sun-dried salt
1kL/tank×3 tanks
The farmer house site (electricity and water
is depend on farmer). In 1 of 3 sites solar
system shall be installed.
Experiment result in 2013
The project was conducted from 8 August 2013 to 29 October 2013 in the Marine Aquaculture
Research and Development Center (MARDeC). The design of experiments is shown in table 4.2. Zoe
of giant fresh water prawn were cultured in tank with water recirculating system until post larvae (PL)
and the survival rate in each group was compared to analyze after harvesting PL.
8
Table 4.2 Experiment group in 2013
Control
1st experiment
2nd experiment
dilution sea water
dilution sea water
Standard
Type A
Type A
Type A-H*
Type B
Type C
Type C
Type C-H*
Type D
Type E
The third water
Type E-H*
*H is high concentration
According to the results of 2 times of experiment, PL survival rate in control and the third water
type C were 31.6% (first experiment) and 36.4% (first experiment) respectively. The third water type
C showed higher or equivalence survival rate than control. The whole survival rate in this experiment
was not so high compared to survival rate as usual seed farmer because the larval rearing was
conducted in small-scale using 220L tank to compare variety type of third water. This experiment has
suggested that the third water type C could be applicable to seed production of giant fresh water
prawn.
In this experiment, it was confirmed that water quality especially ammonia and nitrite were
unsteadiness. In case of seed production by water recycling filter system, it was suggested that 1) to
put fresh nitrifying bacterium into the filter system, 2) to use adsorbent material to reduce the
ammonia, and 3) to select the filter tank to adapt rearing tank scale.
9
10
5
Schedule of the project study
5.1
Experiment schedule
This project study was planned from July to November 2014. Because of delay about 1 month the
some equipment arrival from Japan, this project implemented from August to December 2014 (Table
5.1). Based on the lessons of the last year, preparation period of Bio filter system was thoroughly taken
as particular attention.
Table 5.1 Time schedule in this project study
2014
August
September
October
November
December
Sites selection
Hatchery preparation
Tank preparation
Bio filter preparation
Broodstock management
Experiment
Harvest and analysis
5.2
Schedule in each farmer
The experiment site is targeted 3 farmers. Experiment period for each farmer were displaced due
to avoid the overlap for installation of equipment and introduce of method to farmer. That is, period of
one farmer from installation to harvest is about 10 weeks and beginning period for each site is
displaced 1-2 weeks (Table 5.2).
Table 5.2 Time schedule in each farmer
2014
August
September
October
Hatchery
November
Tank
December
Bio filter
Farmer A
Brood
stook
Tank
Hatchery
Bio filter
Farmer B
Brood stook
Hatchery
Tank
Experiment
Bio filter
Farmer C
Brood
stook
11
Experiment
Experiment
12
6
Target farmer selection and experimental group
Target farmer selection
6.1
Target province Takeo is located in south of Phnom Penh city. Takeo province is known as high
potential area of natural giant fresh water prawn production to provide to Phnom Penh and other area.
Takeo province is one of the target provinces by Fresh Water Aquaculture Improvement and Extension
(FAIEX) project supported by JICA. Several seed production farmers supported by FAIEX has
succeed the seed production of giant fresh water prawn since 2008.
In this project study, seed production farmers in this province were listed up as target farmers,
and selected based on criteria. Seed production farmers list from FAIEX final report was reviewed and
then some new farmer candidates were added for this project study (Table6.1).
Table 6.1 List of seed production farmer in Takeo province
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Name
Van Po
Prum Vat
Duch Thol
Long Yus
Ouch Heoun
Men Hon
Oung Phol
But Sreymom
Nhorm Noy
Ngov Lihour
Pen Phea
Dong Sareoun
Kheav Sam
Som Hak
Chhiv Nheng
Vin Chheoun
Soun Sothea
Min Sao
Kong Sarean
Sean Phan
Sem Phon
Hang Heang
Khol Bol
Tes Salath
Oum Thy
Sem Sorn
Sot Sarorn
Trok Nhav
Nget Samoen
Commune
Angtasom
Ankorborey
Tropaingkronhong
Tropaingthomkhangcheoung
Tropaingthomkhangtb0ng
Ang Prasath
Nhengnhorng
Tangdong
Tramkak
Chomraspen
Angkhnol
Pechsa
Laybo
Taphem
Krangleav
Kus
Outdomsorya
Tropaingtrokeath
Beungtranhkhangcheoung
Angtasom
Ausaray
Rokakhnong
Sophy
Cheangtong
Popel
Samrong
Srieronong
Rokakhnong
Ou Saray
13
District
Supported
by FAIEX
Tramkak
Ankorborey
Tramkak
Tramkak
Tramkak
Kirivong
Tramkak
Baty
Tramkak
Samrong
Trang
Kohandet
Tramkak
Tramkak
Baty
Tramkak
Tramkak
Tramkak
Samrong
Tramkak
Tramkak
Donkeo
Baty
Tramkak
Tramkak
Tramkak
Tramkak
Donkeo
Tramkok
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
○
AIT
AIT
AIT
AIT
Volunteer
Volunteer
AIT+Seila
AIM
CT
Volunteer
Volunteer
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Volunteer
2006
2005
2006
2005
2005
2005
2006
2006
2007
2007
2007
2007
6.2
Selection policy and methods
Target farmer selection put the priority of farmers who are carrying out a giant fresh water prawn
seed production or have experience in the past. Because there is prior information that some farmer
could not carry out the experiment in individual situations, Selection is aimed to target 3 farmer in
addition of survey target to seed production farmer without experience.
(1)
(1)’
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Table 6.2 Conditions to confirm for selection
Condition
Farmer is operating the seed production of giant fresh water prawn or has experiment
of production.
Farmer carries on seed production in multiple fish species (including catfish) more
than 5 year.*1
Farmer has animus to continue the seed production of giant fresh water prawn.
There is space for hatchery (green house)
Farmer can provide the labor (himself or worker) for experiment.
Vehicle for delivery of equipment can access during rainy season.
Ground water can be used.*2
Public electricity is present or not.*3
*1 Although initial plan was (1) is essential condition, from the fact that farmers who meet the conditions (1) and (2) was less than 3
farmers, condition was modified to add (1)’ .
*2 Aquaculture famer in rural area normally use reserve water in pond or river water for seed production. So that farmer has ground
water is few. This survey was considered to transport the ground water from neighborhood.
*3 Solar panel installation site was priority selected no public power farmers.
6.3
Selection result
According to interviews in fisheries office of Takeo province, 4 farmers have the experience
giant fresh water prawn seed production in the past and 1 farmer is carrying out now. However other 3
farmers have stopped it because there is no seed demand and it was not benefit-able. Querying further
information about the seed production farmers who can meet the condition, department of aquaculture
development and fisheries office in Takeo Province, recommended 3 more farmers aside from these,
total 7 farmers were listed up.
Among these 7 farmers, 3 farmers don’t have intension of seed production or were not
cooperative for project study, thus filed survey was implemented in remained 4 farmers. In
consequence, Mr. Prum Vat (Farmer A), Mr. Hang Heang (Farmer B) and Mr. Van Po (Farmer C)
have been selected as target farmers in this.
14
Table 6.3 Selection result
Farmer
name
A
B
C
Prum
Vat
Hang
Heang
Van Po
Nget
Samoen
6.4
(1)
◯
(1)’
◯
(2)
◯
(3)
◯
(4)
◯
(5)
◯
(6)
◯
(7)
Remark
◯
There is public electricity, but
break down is occurring 5-10 time
per month.
Deputy chief of seed production
network in Takeo province.
Selected
Selected
Selected
☓
◯
◯
◯
◯
◯
△
◯
There is public electricity, but
break down is occurring 3-5 time
per month.
There are ground water and city
water.
☓
◯
◯
◯
◯
◯
☓
☓
There is not public electricity.
Chief of seed production network
in Takeo province.
☓
He has started the seed production
from 2011.
It is far between farmer house and
aquaculture site
☓
☓
◯
◯
☓
◯
☓
Result
Experimental group
This project study has introduced the sun dry salt to reduce the third water cost and the solar
panel system to adapt the status of the power supply in Cambodia. Because these had been first trial in
Cambodia, in order to diminish risk, the experiment group was planned as Table 6.4. Implementation
ranking was decided relatively access is a good place from the town of Takeo (Dounkeo) and relatively
high degree of difficulty such as solar panels installed farmers and solar salt use farmers. That is, it
was stared from farmer C → farmer B → farmer in order.
Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site in Angkor Borey district originally had been planning the operation
with public electricity. But blackout was informed after installation of facility in this entire district
during 20 October 2014 to 20 January 2015. By this information, experiment should been tried with
two generators for 24 hour during 60-70 days in rotation.
15
Table 6.4 Target farmer and experiment plot
Target
farmer
A
Prum
Vat※1
Village
Prey
Sambo
Commune
Ankorborey
District
Experiment plot
Electricity
Remark
Ankorborey
The third water
type C prepared
in Japan
Public
electricity +
generator
Confirmation the
seed produce by
farmer level
Public
electricity +
generator
Confirmation the
seed produce by
local sun-dried
salt
Solar system +
generator
Confirmation the
seed produce by
Solar system
Hang
B
Heang
Chork
Rokakhnong
Donkeo
The third water
type C prepared
by local
sun-dried salt
C Van Po
Ou Phot
Angtasom
Tramkak
The third water
type C prepared
in Japan
Figure 6.1 Location of experiment farmer
16
Hatchery preparation
7
7.1
Hatchery
A temperature inside hatchery has to be kept high during larvae rearing especially at night time,
thus greenhouse hatcheries were constructed in all experiment places. In original plan, it should be
constricted as simple hatchery with bamboo and wood frame and size was only experiment space
about 6m x 7m. But, farmers have expected that they would use not only giant fresh water prawn seed
production but also multi-purpose in future, the hatchery as 7m×8m-7m×12m has constructed bigger
than original plan on the condition that the cost of additional materials and additional part was covered
by farmers side.
7.2
Local and Japan procurement equipments
Large equipments such as 1.2kL FRP tank and coral sand, etc. of local procurement were
transported to each farmer site. The main local procurement equipments are shown in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1 Equipment of local procurement
No.
1
2
3
4
Item
FRP tank(size:1.2kL)
FRP tank(size:0.6kL)
Coral sand
industrial tool, reagents, stationery,
glassware, net, bucket, pump, simple
measurement kit, generators, etc.
Quantity
15 tanks (5 tanks ×3 farmers)
6 tanks (2 tanks×3 farmers)
About 1,700kg(550kg in each farmer)
Remark
Viet Nam
Viet Nam
Viet Nam
1 set
Japan procurement equipments delayed about 1 month and was arrived in 25 September 2014.
These equipments were transported to each farmer site. The main japan procurement equipments are
shown in Table 7.2.
Table 7.2 Equipment of Japan procurement
No.
Item
1
2
3
Electronic balance
Compression balance
Biological microscope
4
Circulation pump
5
6
Protein skimmer
Air pomp
Seawater concentration
refractometer
Nitrifying bacterium for
third water
The third water
Filter tank
Plankton net
7
8
9
10
11
Quantity
Remark
1 unit
1 unit
3 units (1unit × 3 farmers)
4 units (1 unit × 3 farmers
+ spare)
3 units (1unit × 3 farmers)
3 units (1unit × 3 farmers)
Battery, Weighing capacity610g, Min.:0.01g
Battery,-Weighing capacity60kg,Min.:5g
Battery, 10-400 zooms
3 units (1unit × 3 farmers)
ATAGO Co., Ltd.
60L (20L×3 farmers)
8kL
3 units (1unit × 3 farmers)
1 roll (51m)
17
Total pump head is more than 3.3m
Immersion type
Discharge rate is more than 40L/min
Cultured by the third water
Mainly raw materials
PVC
Mess size:229μm
Based on the lessons of the last year, filter tank was designed the 700 L volume for 3kL breeding
tank. Design drawing of filter tank and wool box is shown in Figure 7.1 and 7.2. In addition, protein
skimmer which has been verified the advantage by Okayama University of science was installed. This
equipment can be made the bubble release by water pump and release organic in breeding tank (Figure
7.3).
Figure 7.1 Design drawing of filter tank
Figure 7.2 Design drawing of wool box
18
Figure 7.3 Structural drawing of protein skimmer
Reference: http://www.e-lss.jp/reefoctopus/products/p01_d_int.html
7.3
Solar panel system
Solar panel system has been installed in Farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site. Necessary electric power in
this experiment is total 110W/hour of circulation pump (55W), air pump (25W) and protein skimmer
(30W). And the safety factor in consideration of the inrush current as 1.8 safety factor. Solar panel
system has been designed as 110W×24hr×1.8=4800W/day. Main equipments of solar panel system
are shown in Table 7.3.
Table 7.3 Main equipments of solar panel system
No.
Item
Specification
Quantity
Country of
origin
1
Solar module
210Wp, 24V
8 units
Japan/EU
2
Battery
12V 100Ah
8 units
China
3
Inverter
1,200W-24V
1 set
Taiwan
4
Breaker
For battery and inverter
1 set
France
7.4
Experimental tanks
As the size of the hatchery changed from original plan, there is enough space. Thus layout of
experimental tank and filter system was modified as follows.
19
1m
1m
2m
Reservoir
Tank
3m
4m
5m
6m
7m
1m
Reservoir
Tank
1.5m
1.5m
2m
3m
4m
5m
6m
7m
1m
1.5m
1.5m
1.5m
1.5m
2m
2m
3m
1.5m
1.5m
3m
4m
Drain
4m
Spawnin
g tank
0.8 m
Spawnin
g tank
0.8 m
5m
6m
Spawnin
g tank
0.8 m
Door
5m
Reservoir
Tank
1.5m
Free space for working
Minimum Area size for experiment : 6m X 7m
6m
Spawnin
g tank
0.8 m
Reservoir
Tank
1.5m
7m
Figure 7.4 Original tank layout plan
Actual hatchery size for experiment : 7m X 8m
Figure 7.5 Actual tank layout
20
8m
8
Breeding water analysis and bio filter preparation
Breeding water
8.1
To check the locally available water whether it is applicable for breeding or not, the
characteristics of the water such pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium and water hardness
(bicarbonate ions) were measured in the groundwater and city water of each target farmer respectively.
Dissolution of the third water ingredients were also tested whether it dissolves into each local water.
As a result, third water ingredient does not dissolve completely into all the ground water, small amount
of reminded sediment was observed in all cases. Later analysis has revealed that calcium ion in the
third water combine with free bicarbonate ions and sediment was observed. On the other hand, third
water ingredient dissolves into city water completely there was no remained any sediment in city
water.
Table 8.1 Checking water in each farmer
pH
Electric
conductivity
(mS/m)
Ca
(mg/L)
Mg
(mg/L)
water
hardness
(dH)
Sediment by
the 3rd
water
Ground
water
Operating
experience for
Freshwater
prawn
6.35
178.4
70
40
9.8
◯
◯
City water
7.30
14.9
15
24
1
☓
☓
7.16
85.6
20
<1
22.4
☓
◯
7.12
81.0
-
-
-
◯
◯
Farmer
Water
source
A
Prum Vat
B
Hang
Heang
C
Van Po
Kiv Sam
Ground
water
Ground
water
Consequently city water was only one option to use in all experiment sites as breeding water.
Breeding water of farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site was transported from water station in Angkorborey
and farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site was transported from farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site.
Table 8.2 Breeding water in each farmer
A
B
C
8.2
Farmer
Prum Vat
Hang Heang
Van Po
Water source
City water
City water
City water
Water supply
Transport from water station in Ankorborey
on site
Transport from Hang Heang site
Bio filter
After setting filter tank with coral sand, 700 L of breeding water filtered through (10μm) mesh
bag was poured in filter tank. The breeding water was disinfected by free chlorine (50ppm) and it was
neutralized by aeration for 24 hours. After then 7 L of nitrifying bacterium and 2 mg /L of ammonium
chloride (NH4Cl) was added in filter tank. The total ammonia (NH3+ NH4 +) and nitrite (NO2-)
concentrations were measured almost every day. When each concentration becomes 0mg/L,
21
Ammonium chloride was added again to the order of 3, 4, 5, 10, 15 and 20mg/L. Preparation period of
the filter tank has been about 30 days, but were slightly back and forth at each site in relation to the
larvae hatching date.
Breeding water circulation between filter tank and breeding tanks (1kL × 3 tanks) was initiated
6-7 days after the larvae breeding when umbrella artemia feeding is switched to the egg custard +
artemia feeding. After starting circulation of breeding water, the filter tanks were maintained for total
ammonia concentration to be 0mg / L and for the nitrite concentration to be 0-0.5mg / L as an indicator
of appropriate water quality.
Table 8.3 Situation of filter tank preparation
Prum Vat
Hang Heang
Con.of
Number of Additive amount of
Day
ammonium chloride NH3 +NH4 +
2014/10/8
2014/10/9
2014/10/10
2014/10/11
2014/10/12
2014/10/13
2014/10/14
2014/10/15
2014/10/16
2014/10/17
2014/10/18
2014/10/19
2014/10/20
2014/10/21
2014/10/22
2014/10/23
2014/10/24
2014/10/25
2014/10/26
2014/10/27
2014/10/28
2014/10/29
2014/10/30
2014/10/31
2014/11/1
Day-1
Day-2
Day-3
Day-4
Day-5
Day-6
Day-7
Day-8
Day-9
Day-10
Day-11
Day-12
2014/11/2
Day-13
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-26
2014/11/3
Day-14
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-27
2014/11/4
Day-15
0mg/L
1mg/L
Day-28
2014/11/5
Day-16
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-29
2014/11/6
Day-17
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-30
2014/11/7
Day-18
0mg/L
2mg/L
Day-31
2014/11/8
Day-19
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-32
2014/11/9
Day-20
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-33
2014/11/10
Day-21
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
Day-34
2014/11/11
Day-22
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-35
2014/11/12
Day-23
0.5mg/L
1mg/L
2014/11/13
Day-24
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
2mg/L
3mg/L
4mg/L
5mg/L
10mg/L
15mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-26
20mg/L
0.5mg/L
5mg/L
5mg/L
Day-27
20mg/L
0.5mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-28
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
Water cycele start
5mg/L
1mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
1mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
20mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Water cycele start
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
20mg/L
2014/11/14
Day-25
2014/11/15
Day-26
2014/11/16
Day-27
2014/11/17
Day-28
2014/11/18
Day-29
2014/11/19
Day-30
2014/11/20
Day-31
2014/11/21
Day-32
2014/11/22
Day-33
2014/11/23
Day-34
20mg/L
2014/11/24
Day-35
20mg/L
5mg/L
2014/11/25
Day-36
20mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Water cycele start
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
2014/11/26
20mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Van Po
Con. of Number of Additive amount of
Con.of
Con. of Number of Additive amount of
Con.of
Con. of
Day
ammonium chloride NH3 +NH4 +
Day
ammonium chloride NH3 +NH4 +
NO2 NO2 NO2 Day-1
2mg/L
0mg/L
Day-1
2mg/L
0mg/L
Day-2
Day-2
Day-3
Day-3
Day-4
Day-4
Day-5
3mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-5
3mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-6
Day-6
Day-7
Day-7
Day-8
4mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-8
4mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-9
Day-9
Day-10
Day-10
Day-11
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-11
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-12
0mg/L
0.5mg/L Day-12
0mg/L
Day-13
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-13
5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-14
0mg/L
5mg/L
2mg/L
Day-14
0mg/L
2mg/L
Day-15
10mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-15
10mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-16
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-16
0mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
Day-17
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-17
0mg/L
0mg/L
15mg/L
5mg/L
5mg/L
Day-18
15mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-18
0.2mg/L Day-19
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-19
2mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
Day-20
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-20
0mg/L
2mg/L
5mg/L
Day-21
20mg/L
5mg/L
5mg/L
Day-21
20mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-22
0mg/L
0.5mg/L Day-22
2mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
Day-23
5mg/L
5mg/L
Day-23
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-24
20mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
Day-24
20mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-25
0mg/L
0mg/L
Day-25
2mg/L
5mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
20mg/L
1mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
2mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
1mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
1mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
1mg/L
5mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
5mg/L
2014/11/27
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
2014/11/28
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
2014/11/29
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
2014/11/30
0mg/L
0.5mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
0mg/L
*Measurement of the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations using the test kit of Sera (measuring range is each
0.0-5.0mg/L).
*Fill part is period of circulation between filter tank and breeding tanks.
22
9
Broodstock management
9.1
Broodstock procurement
Broodstock with egg procurement carried out in giant fresh water prawn markets located north of
Takeo city. However, there are minor of amount of broodstock with dark color egg (eyed egg) because
this procurement time is from October to November near the end is the rainy season of reproduction
period of giant fresh water prawn. In view of the time to carry to the second and third farmer, there is a
risk that a shortage of the necessary amount of broodstock with egg. Therefore, it was decided to also
the simultaneous purchase of broodstock with orange color eggs (non-eyed egg) to hatch after 1 week
and these broodstocks were transported and stocked in fresh water in the second and third farmer
(Table 9.1). And after hatching in each farmer, in case of broodstock with egg remaining, it was
transported to next farmer.
Table 9.1 procurement schedule of broodstock with egg
Farmer
Experiment
order
4th week on Oct.
Van Po
1
Broodstock with dark
egg (eyed egg)
transport
Hang Heang
2
Broodstock with orange
egg
keep
Prum Vat
3
1th week on Nov.
2th week on Nov.
Broodstock with dark egg
(eyed egg)
transport
Broodstock with orange
egg
keep
Broodstock with dark egg
(eyed egg)
Broodstocks with dark egg (eyed egg) are stocked in the 3rd water
Broodstocks with orange egg are stocked in fresh water
9.2
Hatching
Three breeding tanks of 1kL volume were prepared each site and then 60,000 larvae were stocked
in each tank (180,000 larvae / 3 tanks / site). For the larval stage and for the day of switching the feed
to be same schedule in terms of feed preparation and easy growth observation, larvae hatching-out in a
same day have to be stocked at once in 3 breeding tanks each site.
When the water recirculation system with bio-filter tank was prepared, each site started stocking
larvae respectively. Consequently hatching larvae was stocked in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site on 29 and
on 30 October, in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site on 6 November, and in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
on 20 and on 21 November.
As it is informed previously, number of berried female had been decreasing in November,
moreover water temperature of broodstock tanks in a hatchery dropped to 26 degree, therefore quite
less hatching were observed and it was difficult to obtain necessary number of larvae in farmer A (Mr.
Prum Vat) site. As a countermeasure for less hatching, broodstock tanks covered by vinyl sheet were
submerged into large concrete pond which could keep warm water temperature. As a result, enough
number of larvae for the experiment was obtained.
23
Table 9.2 procurement result of broodstock with egg
Prum Vat
Date
Broodstock with
Dark eggs in thak
(head)
Hang Heang
Larvae
(head)
Broodstock with
Dark eggs in thak
(head)
Van Po
Larvae
(head)
Broodstock with
Dark eggs in thak
(head)
Larvae
(head)
10/29
42
60,000
10/30
54
120,000
10/31
11/1
11/2
30
118,000
11/3
30
49,000
11/4
26
77,700
11/5
25
11,000
11/6
20
178,000
11/7
9
125,400
11/8-11/10
11/11
11/12
18
32,600
11/13
28
11,460
11/14
28
17,500
11/15
31
67,000
11/16
33
4,000
11/17
34
40,000
11/18
20,000
11/19
37,000
11/20
34
11/21
25
100,000
60,000
Average
29
38,956
23
93,183
48
90,000
M aximum
34
100,000
30
178,000
54
120,000
M inimum
18
4,000
9
11,000
42
60,000
*Orange frame is larvae stocked in breeding tanks
*Red frame is day kept broodstock rearing tanks warm
24
10 Experiment contents
10.1 Experiment method
Stocking density, feeding method for seed production and monitoring items, etc. were the same as
last year. Experiment method is shown in Table 10.1.
Based on the results of the last year, feeding table for 30 days breeding was introduced to farmers
(Table 10.1). This table should be modified when breeding date is changed by the growth rate.
Table10.1 Experiment method
Method / Contents
The third water type C from Japan and The third water type C from Cambodia
1kL tank ×3 tanks (breeding tank)+700L water tank (Filter tank)
Item
Water
Tank volume
Power source
Accessories
Target site
Stocking density
Feeding
A public electricity or solar panel (spare generator for each site)
Air pump, circulation pump, protein skimmer (with a pump), greenhouse
3 seed producing farm in Takeo province
60 larvae /liter (60,000 larvae / 1 tank)
Artemia umbrella, Artemia and egg custard are fed.
Amount of feeding is controlled by the growth and the water quality.
The water quality (water temperature, DO, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrous acid)
and growth stage (observation by microscope)
-Person to conduct monitoring : Farmer
-A consultant and an advisory mission instruct the method
-MARDeC staff and extension officer in Takeo take part in monitoring
regularly
Water conversion by a half of the breeding quantity of water is performed three
days before the crop and calculate the number of Post larva (PL) by the wet
weight method (calculate it from multiplication of PL numbers per gram and PL
gross weight)
Calculate a survival rate of PL and compare it with the last seed and sapling
production results and previous ones which are past similar scale
Monitoring item
Monitoring method
Harvesting method
Result analysis
method
Table 10.2 Feeding table in case of 30 days breeding
Day
Day0 Day1-5 Day6 Day7-8 Day9-10 Day11-13 Day14-15 Day16 Day17-19 Day20-23 Day24-26 Day27-29 Day30
Stage
I
Artemia (g cyst/1000L)
0
Egg custard (g/1000L)
I-V
V
VI
VII
5 (Umbrella)
4
VII-VIII
VIII
5
6
7
VIII-IX
IX
X-XI (PL)
6
8
9
0
Artificial food (g/1000L)
25
10
≧PL
≧PL
Harvest
8
0
7
12
14
3
26
11 Experiment result
11.1 Farmer A site Mr. Prum Vat
The third hatching zoea was stocked in this site. It was difficult to secure enough number of
berried prawn in November. Therefore, experiment in this site started on 20 November about 1 week
behind schedule.
On 20 November, 50,000 zoea / kL were stocked in two tanks respectively
although 10,000 zoea smaller than planned.
On 21 November, 60,000 zoea / kL were stocked in
another one tank.
Larvae had grown steadily at initial stage (Fig 11.1).
Afterward some amount of mortality
started also inactive feeding has been observed 16 to 17 days after hatching.
Accidentally an
incubation of artemia failed due to lack of aeration 17 days (on 7 December) consequently it caused
lack of feeding from afternoon to next morning (on 8 December). This accident possibly influenced
larvae rearing condition. Growth of larvae stagnated from 19 days (Table 11.1) also consecutive
mortality of larvae recorded from 100 to 3,000 in a day. As the number of larvae could be estimated
around 1000 by visual observation, larval rearing was stopped on 19 December (after hatch out 30 and
31 days). As a result, survival rates were 3.20%, 1.69%, and 1.16% respectively in each tank (Table
11.1).
Figure 11.1 Transition of larval stage in each tank of Farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Growth rate was calculated that larval stage of I is 1, II is 2, III is 3….XI is 11, Pre-PL is 12 and PL is
13 in majority of larval stage.
Table 11.1 Result of harvest in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Day old
Start (zoea)
Harvest (zoea)
Survival rate (%)
TankNo,1
31
50,000
1,598
3.20
TankNo,2
31
50,000
846
1.69
TankNo,3
30
60,000
696
1.16
160,000
3,140
1.96
Total
27
Overview of water quality of each tank is shown in Table 11.2. And detail results are described in
Annex 1-3. Water quality was kept normal in all measurement items including the total ammonia and
nitrite. Floating and adhesion of algae was heavily raised in the rearing tank therefore water should be
exchanged frequently as it was difficult to observe larvae in a tank.
Table 11.2 Result of water quality in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Temperature
(℃)
Time
Tank1
Tank2
Tank3
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2(mg/L)
9:00
16:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
Minimum
26.0
30.0
6.64
12.0
7.12
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
7.92
14.0
8.19
0.50
0.50
Average
29.6
31.1
7.15
12.8
7.43
0.02
0.15
Minimum
26.0
30.0
6.71
12.0
7.18
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
9.38
14.0
8.39
0.00
0.50
Average
29.6
31.2
7.37
12.9
7.49
0.00
0.16
Minimum
25.5
30.0
6.59
12.0
7.25
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
9.11
14.0
8.49
0.00
0.50
Average
29.4
31.4
7.31
12.9
7.56
0.00
0.10
After harvest, PL was not confirmed and larvae preferentially observed by stage IX in each tank
(Table 13).
Table 11.3 Larval stage distribution table at the time of harvest in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Stage
Tank1(n=108)
Tank2(n=108)
Tank3(n=103)
VII
0
0%
2
2%
0
0%
VIII
5
5%
5
5%
6
6%
IX
41
38%
53
49%
55
53%
X
23
21%
28
26%
26
25%
XI
35
32%
18
17%
14
14%
Pre-PL
4
4%
2
2%
2
2%
Majority
IX
IX
IX
11.2 Farmer B site Mr. Hang Heang
The second hatching zoea was stocked in this site. The experiment in this site started on 6
November with 60,000 zoea / kL in each of 3 tanks. Stagnation of growth in larvae was observed 10
days after stocking although remarkable mortality had not occurred yet. Afterward mass mortality was
observed 17 to 19 days after stocking in each tank (Fig.11.2). Number of larvae was estimated
700-1,500 zoea by visual observation, larval rearing stopped on 3 December (26 and 27 days after
28
hatching). As a result, survival rates were as 1.26% 1.56% and 0.76% respectively (Table 11.4).
Figure 11.2 Transition of larval stage in each tank of farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Growth rate was calculated that larval stage of I is 1, II is 2, III is 3….XI is 11, Pre-PL is 12 and PL is
13 in majority of larval stage.
Table 11.4 Result of harvest in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Day old
Start (zoea)
Harvest (zoea)
Survival rate (%)
TankNo,1
26
60,000
756
1.26
TankNo,2
27
60,000
935
1.56
TankNo,3
27
60,000
456
0.76
180,000
2,147
1.19
Total
Only this site local sun dried salt produced in Kampot was used to prepare the third water. Local
sun dried salt possibly contains a certain amount of impurities so that a lot of algae raised in rearing
tank. Although water was exchanged frequently and clean the tank, outbreak of algae could not be
prevented nevertheless. Overview of water quality of each tank is shown in Table 11.5. And detail
results are described in Annex 4-6. For one time of after hatch out 7 and 8 days, nitrate became 2.0 mg
/ L. Otherwise, water quality was kept normal in all measurement items including the total ammonia
and nitrite.
29
Table 11.5 Result of water quality in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Temperature
(℃)
Time
Tank1
Tank2
Tank3
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+/NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2(mg/L)
9:00
16:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
Minimum
28.0
30.0
6.37
12.0
7.01
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
7.68
14.0
7.46
0.50
2.00
Average
30.1
31.8
7.06
13.5
7.19
0.13
0.37
Minimum
28.0
30.0
6.61
12.0
7.02
0.00
0.00
Maximum
32.0
33.0
7.26
14.0
7.64
0.50
2.00
Average
30.0
31.5
7.00
13.6
7.27
0.11
0.34
Minimum
28.0
30.0
6.39
12.0
6.59
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
7.37
14.0
7.69
0.50
2.00
Average
30.0
31.6
6.96
13.6
7.21
0.11
0.38
After harvest, PL was not confirmed and nearly half of larvae in each tank was larval stage IX as
well as farm A site (Table 11.6).
Table 11.6 Larval stage distribution table at the time of harvest in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang)
Stage
Tank1(n=116)
VIII
3
3%
1
1%
5
5%
IX
39
34%
48
44%
45
44%
X
18
16%
23
21%
13
13%
XI
33
28%
19
18%
25
24%
Pre-PL
23
20%
17
16%
15
15%
Majority
IX
Tank2(n=108)
IX
Tank3(n=103)
IX
11.3 Farmer C site Mr. Van Po
The first hatching zoea was stocked in this site. 60,000 zoea / kL were stocked in one tank on 29
October and another 60,000 zoea / kL were stocked in two tanks respectively on 30 October. A
preparation of artemia failed accidentally due to human error 7 days after hatching (on 5 November),
consequently it caused lack of feeding from the evening to morning. But mortality and stagnation of
growth were not observed like other 2 sites.(Figure 11.3) Harvest was carried out on 12 December (36
days and 37 days after hatching). As a result of harvest, survival rates were 55.14% 48.85% and
35.69% respectively (Table 11.7).
30
Figure 11.3 Transition of larval stage in each tank of farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Growth rate was calculated that larval stage of I is 1, II is 2, III is 3….XI is 11, Pre-PL is 12 and
PL is 13 in majority of larval stage
Table 11.7 Result of harvest in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Day old
Start(zoea) Harvest(PL) Survival rate (%)
Transfer
TankNo,1
37
60,000
33,084
55.14 Intermediate rearing in tank
TankNo,2
36
60,000
29,310
48.85 Farmer B site
TankNo,3
36
60,000
21,411
35.69 Intermediate rearing in pond
180,000
83,805
Total
46.56%
Overview of water quality of each tank is shown in Table 11.8. And detailed results are described
in Annex 7-9. In this site, rearing water was not exchanged up to the harvest during 36 days as a
deterioration of water quality was not observed.
Table 11.8 Result of water quality in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Temperature
(℃)
Time
Tank1
Tank2
Tank3
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2(mg/L)
9:00
16:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
9:00
Minimum
29.0
30.0
6.40
12.0
6.83
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
33.0
6.81
13.0
7.55
0.50
0.50
Average
29.9
31.6
6.63
12.7
7.32
0.04
0.01
Minimum
29.0
30.0
6.36
12.0
7.14
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
32.0
6.85
13.0
7.53
0.50
0.50
Average
29.9
31.6
6.67
12.2
7.37
0.04
0.01
Minimum
29.0
30.0
6.44
12.0
7.10
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
32.0
6.87
13.0
7.71
0.50
0.50
Average
29.9
31.6
6.69
12.2
7.35
0.04
0.01
31
11.4 Comparison of growth rate among 3 sites
Average of growth rate in each site was compared in Fig11.4. The farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site was
temporarily slow down about 5 days in stage VII, after then larvae had been smoothly growth until PL.
On the other hand, in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) and farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site, survival rate are
about 1 %. Growth stage started varying from 7days and larvae finally stopped the growth in stage IX.
Figure 11.4 Transition of majority of larval stage in each farmer
32
12 Consequence analysis
12.1 Seed production cost and profitability
Price of raw material for the third water has been provisionally set 30 USD / kL as experimental
sale price in Japan. When introducing in Cambodia, if 0.5USD/kL of city water is available, additional
cost is not so large. However, cost of rearing water using the third water should be becomes 57.50
USD/kL (Table 12.1) in case city water should be transported from other place. The brine water (60
psu) can be transported in 50USD/kL from Kampot province to Takeo province consequently cost of
rearing water (12 psu) diluted by ground water is 10USD/kL and it is cheaper than the third water.
On the other hand, it has been indicated the result that PL survival rate of the third water type C
was 4.8 % higher than control (diluted seawater). Assuming production in average 46.6% of survival
rate which the results of farmer C (Mr. Van Po) indicated, advantage of the third water was analyzed
by comparing with the case of using the brine water.
Table 12.1 The third water and brine water cost and PL survival rate
Rearing water cost
Type of water and cost
The third water
(type C)
Brine water (60 psu)
30
50
USD/kL
USD/kL
Cost per kL of
12 psu (USD)
Diluted sea water
PL survivl
rate(%)
City water
0.5
USD/kL
30.5
46.6
City water
transported
27.5
USD/kL
57.5
46.6
USD/kL
10.0
38.9
Ground water
NCW
Ground water
0
NCW: not complied with
(1) Seed production cost
In order to evaluate from the view of sustainability for giant fresh water seed production, initial
cost of hatchery facility and equipment and operation cost such as consumables were investigated on
the basis of expense record of this experiment and hearing from farmer and local distributer. Some
materials imported were calculated by using foreign currency exchange rate, 1USD=107.24 JPY and
1USD=4,000 Riel (September 2014). Necessary equipment and operation cost for giant fresh water
prawn seed production are shown (A)-(D) in Table 12.2.
33
Table 12.2 Necessary equipment and operation cost for giant fresh water prawn seed production
(A)Initial facility cost (only 1st year)
Item
Cost
Facility
2,400.0 USD/place
Tank
1,000.0 USD/set
Filter tank
2,114.9 USD/pcs
Filter material (coral sand)
800.0 USD/1kL
Solar panel system*
8,095.0 USD / set
(B)Hatchery facility operation cost (every year)
Item
Cost
Material for the third water type
30.0 USD/kL
C
Remark
Simple Green House construction costs
(calculated from this project study)
3 rearing tanks and 2 water exchange tanks
(calculated from this project study)
Order made in Japan
Made in Vietnam (calculated from this project
study)
4,800wh / day、Battery with guarantee for 12
year
*In case of no public electricity only
Remark
Nominal price (Experimental price )
City water
0.5 USD/kL
Transportation of city water
including water cost
Water station (calculated from this project
study)
27.5 USD/kL
In case of transport within 10km area
Transportation of brine water
(60psu)
50.0 USD/kL
Equipment maintenance
240.0 USD
(C)Operating costs and consumables (every cycle)
Item
Cost
Electric bill
1.20 USD / day
Feed
90.6USD / 3kL rearing /
cycle
Broodstock
Consumables
labor
20.0 USD / kg
40.0 USD / cycle
5.0 USD / day /person
(D)Intermediate rearing cost (every cycle)
Item
Cost
Fertilization
10.0 USD / pond/time
Drainage and irrigation fee
20.0 USD / pond/time
Consumables
labor
20.0 USD / cycle
5.0 USD / day /person
Kampot Province → Takeo Province (by
interview)
Diluted to 12 psu for rearing water
Every year spending about 10% of the
construction costs, such as repair of damaged
part
Remark
0.25US$/kw/hr×
0.2kw× 24hr
Artemia:124.9USD/kg
Egg custard:13.4USD/kg
crumble (Powder feed):1USD/kg
Natural broodstock with egg
Simple water quality test kit, beaker, etc.
Calculated from this project study
Remark
0.25US$/kw/hr×
0.2kw× 24hr
Pump amortization or leased necessary to
drainage and irrigation, and fuel cost
Netting, wood, rope, etc.
Calculated from this project study
(2) Assumption of famer model
Each farmer has different facility’s condition such as availability of city water, ground water and
public electricity etc. If considering the case of using the third water and the case of not using the third
34
water, 10 models can be assumed in total as shown in Table 12.3. Revenue in each case is compared in
case farmer will be continuing seed production in the first year and from the second year on.
Table 12.3 Case that is assumed for each conditions of seed production farmer
Transportation
Public
of city water electricity
Solar
panel
This
experiment
PL Survival rate
(up to 40 days)
◯
-
Farmer B
(Hang Heang)
46.6%
☓
☓
need
☓
◯
◯
-
Use
☓
◯
☓
need
5
Non use → use of
brine water
◯
☓
◯
-
41.8%
6
Non use → use of
brine water
◯
☓
☓
need
41.8%
7
Non use → use of
brine water
☓
◯
◯
-
41.8%
8
Non use → use of
brine water
☓
◯
☓
need
41.8%
9
Non use → use of
brine water
Present of ground water
☓
◯
-
41.8%
10
Non use → use of
brine water
Present of ground water
☓
☓
need
41.8%
Case
The third water
City water
1
Use
◯
☓
2
Use
◯
3
Use
4
46.6%
Farmer
A(Prum Vat)
46.6%
Farmer C
(Van Po)
46.6%
◯:present、☓:absent
(3) Seed production cost in each model case
To estimate the total production cost from case 1 to 10 of farmer model, the necessary expenses
of each items for seed production are summarized in Table 12.4 in each of the model.
35
Table 12.4 Expenses necessary to seed production (Unit: USD)
(A)Initial facility cost (only 1st year)
Item
Facility
Tank
Filter tank
Filter material (coral sand)
Solar panel system*
Qty
Cost (USD)
2,400.00 USD/place
1,000.00 USD/set
2,114.90 USD/pcs
800.00 USD/1kL
8,095.00 USD / set
×1
×1
×1
×1
×1
Total (A)
(B)Hatchery facility operation cost (every year)
Item
Material for the third water
type C
City water
Transportation of city water
including water cost
Transportation of brine water
(60psu)
Equipment maintenance
2
6,315
3
4
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
8,095
14,410
4
Case
5
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
0
6,315
5
Case
6
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
8,095
14,410
6
7
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
0
6,315
8
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
8,095
14,410
7
8
9
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
0
6,315
9
10
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
8,095
14,410
10
30.00 USD/kL
×3 kL
90
90
90
90
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.50 USD/kL
×3 kL
1.5
1.5
0
0
1.5
1.5
0
0
0
0
27.50 USD/kL
×3 kL
0
0
82.5
82.5
0
0
82.5
82.5
0
0
50.00 USD/kL
×0.6 kL
240 USD
×1
Cost (USD)
1.20 USD / day
90.60USD / 3kL
breeding / cycle
20.00 USD / kg
40.00 USD / cycle
5.0 USD / day /person
Broodstock(*3)
Consumables
labor(*1)
1
14,410
3
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
0
Qty
Total (B)
Feed(*2)
6,315
2
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
8,095
Cost (USD)
(C)Operating costs and consumables (every cycle)
Item
Electric bill(*1)
1
2,400
1,000
2,115
800
0
Qty
×60days
Total (C)+(D)
0
0
0
240
332
240
413
240
413
72
2
0
3
72
4
0
30
5
240
272
Case
72
6
30
30
30
30
30
240
272
240
353
240
353
240
270
240
270
0
7
72
8
0
9
72
10
0
×1 cycle
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6
×1.5
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
Case
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
30
40
225
×1 cycle
×45days
(D)Intermediate breeding cost (every cycle)
Item
Cost (USD)
Fertilization
10 USD / pond/time
Drainage and irrigation fee(*4) 20 USD / pond/time
Consumables
20.00 USD / cycle
labor
5.0 USD / day /person
1
0
240
332
Qty
×1
×1
×1
×40days
1
10
20
20
200
707.6
2
10
20
20
200
635.6
3
10
20
20
200
707.6
4
10
20
20
200
635.6
5
10
20
20
200
707.6
6
10
20
20
200
635.6
7
10
20
20
200
707.6
8
10
20
20
200
635.6
9
10
20
20
200
707.6
10
10
20
20
200
635.6
(*1) 60 days including preparation
(*2) Including crumble at the intermediate rearing
(*3) Considering the extraction rate is assumed to 1.5 times
(*4) Pump amortization or leased necessary to drainage and irrigation, and fuel cost
Production costs based on the above are shown in Table 12.5. In Cambodia, giant fresh water seed
production may be practiced 3 times per year at maximum because natural berried prawn is available
in limited period only from July to November. Cost of 3 time production in first year with public
electricity like the case 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 is about 9,000USD and with solar panel system is about
17,000USD.
Subsequently 3 time production is continued in second year, cost is about 2,200 per
year.
Table 12.5 Seed production cost of each production (Unit: USD)
Seed production cost
1st year
(A)+(B)+
(C)+(D)
After 2nd year
(B)+(C)+
(D)
Annual production times: 1 time
Annual production times: 2 times
Annual production times: 3 times
Annual production times: 1 time
Annual production times: 2 times
Annual production times: 3 times
Case
1
2
3
4
5
6
7,354 15,377 7,435 15,458 7,414 15,437
8,062 16,085 8,143 16,166 8,122 16,145
8,769 16,792 8,850 16,873 8,829 16,852
1,039
967 1,120 1,048 1,099 1,027
1,747 1,603 1,828 1,684 1,807 1,663
2,454 2,238 2,535 2,319 2,514 2,298
7
8
9
10
7,495 15,518 7,413 15,436
8,203 16,226 8,120 16,143
8,910 16,933 8,828 16,851
1,180 1,108 1,098 1,026
1,888 1,744 1,805 1,661
2,595 2,379 2,513 2,297
(4) Production number and sale revenue
Only farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) has an experience of prawn seed sales in Takeo province.
According to him, prawn seed (PL 30) can be sold at 300 Riel / head. Thus sales income of each
farmer model is estimated based on this price.
36
Survival rate up to PL using the third water was 46.6 % that is average in farmer C (Mr. Van Po)
in project study. And using the brine water was 41.8 that lower 4.8 points base on result in last year.
Survival rate after intermediate breeding of 30 days assumed 60 % according to information from
farmer who has experience and national aquaculture center in Cambodia.
Production number and sale revenue are shown in Table 12.6.
Table 12.6 Production number for sale and sale revenue of each production number
Production number for sale and sale revenue
1
Production Annual production times: 1 times
number for sale Annual production times: 2 times
Annual production times: 3 times
(head)
Annual production times: 1 times
Sale revenue
Annual production times: 2 times
(USD)
Annual production times: 3 times
2
3
4
The third water
50,760
101,520
152,280
3,807
7,614
11,421
5
Case
6
7
8
Brine water
45,576
91,152
136,728
3,418
6,836
10,255
9
10
(5) Revenue presumption
Annual balances of each production case depend on the time of production. Sales revenue are
shown in Table 12.7.
Table 12.7 Annual balance of each production number (Unit: USD)
Year
Nmber of production
Annual production times: 1 time
Balance
in 1st Annual production times: 2 times
year
Annual production times: 3 times
Annual production times: 1 time
Balance
after 2nd Annual production times: 2 times
year
Annual production times: 3 times
the average of the production three times a
year after 2nd year
1
The third water
2
3
Case
4
5
-3,547 -11,570 -3,628 -11,651 -3,876
-448
-8,471
-529
2,652
-5,371
2,768
6
Brine water
7
8
9
10
-11,899 -3,957 -11,980 -3,874 -11,897
-8,552 -1,165
-9,188 -1,246
-9,269 -1,164
-9,187
2,571
-5,452
1,545
-6,478
1,464
-6,559
1,547
-6,476
2,840
2,687
2,759
2,439
2,511
2,358
2,430
2,441
2,513
5,867
6,011
5,786
5,930
5,150
5,294
5,069
5,213
5,151
5,295
8,967
9,183
8,886
9,102
7,860
8,076
7,779
7,995
7,862
8,078
Case 1-4
9,034
Case 5-10
7,942
Case of 3 times production per year with public electricity in case of 1,3,5,7 and 9 was becomes
positive earnings in the first year, about 2,600 USD of profit in using the third water and about 1,500
USD of profit in using the brine water. However, Case of 3 times production per year with solar panel
system was becomes negative earnings of 5,000 to 6,500 USD in first year. After then, form the
second year on, case of 3 times production per year using the third water in case of 1 to 4 is 9,034
USD on average and using brine water in case of 5 to 10 is 7,942 USD on average. Case of using the
third water improved 14 % of profit. Total incomes of each model case form first year are shown in
Table 12.8. In case of 2 times production per year with solar panel system, all of the case should be
37
becomes negative earnings, but all of the case with solar panel system with 3 times production per
year can be becomes positive earnings at the end of second year.
Table 12.8 Total income of each model case (Unit: USD)
Total income (1st year - 4th year)
At the end of
Annual production times: 1 time
1st year
1
The third water
2
3
4
5
Brine water
7
8
6
9
10
-3,547 -11,570 -3,628 -11,651 -3,876 -11,899 -3,957 -11,980 -3,874 -11,897
Annual production times: 2 times
-448
-8,471
-529
Annual production times: 3 times
2,652
-5,371
2,571
-779
-8,730
-941
Annual production times: 2 times
5,420
-2,459
Annual production times: 3 times
11,619
At the end of
Annual production times: 1 time
2nd year
Case
-8,552 -1,165
-9,188 -1,246
-9,269 -1,164
-9,187
-5,452
-6,478
-6,559
1,547
-6,476
1,545
1,464
-8,892 -1,437
-9,388 -1,599
-9,550 -1,434
-9,385
5,258
-2,621
3,985
-3,895
3,823
-4,057
3,988
-3,892
3,812 11,457
3,650
9,406
1,599
9,244
1,437
9,409
1,602
(6) Revenue compared with the conventional method
It is suggested a possibility that the giant fresh water prawn seed production could be profitable
business model in case farmer has acquired technique to produce PL over average survival rate and
continues 3 times production per year. Case of setting solar panel system also can be returned of
investment and considerably improved revenue form third year on. In particular, case of having public
electricity and using the third water is expected higher profit. The third water has been indicated
superiority to compare with brine water as conventional method. Revenue single year balances from
second year on without initial investment in A of Table 12.2 are shown in Table 12.9. It is expected
increasing the revenue about 14 % by the third water. Furthermore, although this study could not be
confirmed, it is expected additional savings by using the sun dry salt and groundwater.
Table 12.9 Revenue compared with the conventional method
(Single year balance from second year on)
Number of production
Assumed case
Public electricity (solar panel not required)
Revenue (USD) of using the third water (Case 1
and 3)
Revenue (USD) of using the Brine water (Case 5,
7 and 9)
Increase rate of revenue rate
1 time/year
2 time/year
3 time/year
2,727
5,827
8,926
2,413
5,123
7,834
113%
114%
114%
2,799
5,971
9,142
2,485
5,267
8,050
113%
113%
114%
No public electricity (solar panel required)
Revenue (USD) of using the third water (Case 2
and 4)
Revenue (USD) of using the Brine water (Case 6,
8 and 10)
Increase rate of revenue rate
38
12.2 Sun dry salt
The third water prepared by sun dry salt from Kampot province was used in farmer B (Mr. Hang
Heang) site. In this site, mass mortality was observed 17 to 19 days after hatching and PL could not be
harvested. The sun dry salt was analyzed and checked component like growth inhibitor (Table 12.10).
Iron (Fe), I measured cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), potassium (K), calcium
(Ca), magnesium (Mg) and water content in sun dry salt were analyzed and iron and lead like metal
detected except the main component of salt is potassium, calcium and magnesium. If these metals are
detected high concentration, it is possible can be influenced as toxic to giant fresh water prawn larvae.
But, in this experiment, final concentration of these metals for the third water which diluted the sun
dry salt were that iron was less than 0.01 mg /L and lead was less than 0.06 mg / L. Especially lead has
been known to be toxic to aquatic organisms, Acutely Toxic Effect test for PL of giant fresh water
prawn was shown half lethal dose was 10mg / L when exposed for 96 hours 2. However knowledge of
chronic toxicity by lead in the larval stage of giant fresh water is absence. The results of the analysis
for rearing water of farmer B using sun dry salt and farmer C using pure salt from Japan was 0.3 mg /
L and 0.4 mg / L, rearing water of farmer C harvested PL was higher than another one. These results, it
is considered a mass mortality occurred in farmer B is not derived from sun dry salt.
Table 12.10 Result of analysis for sun dry salt in Kampot province
Fe
Cd
Zn
Cu
Pb
K
Ca
Mg
water
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
%
0.6
<0.25
<0.25
<0.5
5
2423
1660
6338
8.61
12.3 City water
In farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site also, mass mortality was confirmed from hatch out 16 days and
PL could not be harvest. One of the different between farmer A and farmer C (Mr. Van Po) is city
water for rearing water.
To examine the quality of city water, iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb),
were analyzed (Table 12.11)
As a result, there was no difference except the lead. As mentioned above, lead is known to be
toxic to aquatic organisms. However, in the concentration of city water that farmers A was used
(0.2mg / L), it is unlikely that showed toxicity against giant fresh water prawn larvea.
2
Fafioye, O.O. and 2Ogunsanwo, B.M (2007):The comparative toxicities of cadmium, copper and lead to
Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeusmonodon postlarvae, African Journal of Agricultural Research
39
Table 12.11 Result of analysis for city water used in this experiment
Fe
Cd
Zn
Cu
sample
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
City water in farmer B Mr.
<0.1
<0.05
<0.05
<0.1
Han g Heang
City water in farmer A
<0.1
<0.05
<0.05
<0.1
Mr. Prum Vat
Pb
mg/L
<0.1
0.2
12.4 Ground water
In this project study, it has revealed that calcium ion in the third water combine with free
bicarbonate ions and sediment was observed. Analysis of the heavy metals of the ground water, a high
concentration of values in all the items were not detected (Table 12.12). Therefore,
If free bicarbonate ions can be removed in advance, there is a possibility that ground water can be
used as water for mixing the raw materials of the third water. As removal method that can be used in
Cambodia, (1) a powerful aeration (more than 80L / min) put in ground water about 1 week and (2)
ground water is adjusted by hydrochloric acid to pH 7 and aeration (80L / min) about 1 day. And then
although requires equipment, it can be used as (3) reverse osmosis membrane type water purifier. In
this project study, method of (2) by acetic acid was tried and confirmed ground water can be used for
the third water. It is possible to save the transportation cost of city water in the region there is no city
water.
Table 12.12 Result of analysis for ground water
Fe
Cd
Zn
Sample
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
Ground water in farmer C Mr.
0.07
<0.1
<0.05
Van Po
Cu
mg/L
Pb
mg/L
<0.1
<0.1
Ground water in farmer B Mr.
Hang Heang
<0.1
<0.05
<0.05
<0.1
0.6
Ground water in farmer A Mr.
Prum Vat
<0.1
<0.05
<0.05
<0.1
<0.1
12.5 Disease
In late stage of larvae in giant fresh water prawn, white tail disease has been reported in Thailand
and Viet Nam etc. but has not been reported in Cambodia. This disease is caused by M.rosenbergii
Nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). When it is occurred, mortality reaches about 90 %. In
order to confirm, the virus inspection or RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) test
is required. Primers for RT-PCR and primers to increase rising detection sensitivity for nested PCR
have been published by the OIE (Office International des Epizooties) (Table 12.13).
40
Table 12.13 Primer sequence for detecting the white tail disease
Primer
For MrNV
MrNV Forward
MrNV Reverse
MrNV Forward
MrNV Reverse
For XSV
XSV Forward
XSV Reverse
XSV Forward
XSV Reverse
Reaction
Size
PCR
425bp
Nested PCR
205bp
PCR
546bp
Nested PCR
236bp
Sequence
5’-GCGTTATAGATGGCACAAGG-3’
5’-AGCTGTGAAACTTCCACTGG-3’
5’-GATGACCCCAACGTTATCCT-3’
5’-GTGTAGTCACTTGCAAGAGG-3’
5’-CGCGGATCCGATGAATAAGCGCATTAATAA-3’
5’-CCGGAATTCCGTTACTGTTCGGAGTCCCAA-3’
5’-ACATTGGCGGTTGGGTCATA-3’
5’-GTGCCTGTTGCTGAAATACC-3’
OIE (2012)
In order to confirm the reason of the mass mortality of larvae in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat),
samplings were carried out on 13 December and 19 December (harvest) in each tank and analyzed by
RT-PCR. Primers were procured from Japan and analysis was carried out in MARDeC. And samplings
were carried out the PL in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) and the PL were put in tank of farmer A in 6 days for
infection experiment and the egg, swimming leg and muscle of broodstock to confirm the vertical
infection. Target samples and result are shown in Table 12.14 and Fig. 12.1 and 12.2.
Table 12.14 Target samples and result for white tail disease
M.rosenbergii
Nodavirus(MrNV)
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Zoea&PL
Prum Vat1 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec.
Prum Vat2 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec.
Prum Vat3 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec.
Prum Vat1 (Zoea) sampling in 19 Dec.
Prum Vat2 (Zoea) sampling in 19 Dec.
Prum Vat3 (Zoea) sampling in 19 Dec.
Van Po(PL before transportation) sampling in 14 Dec.
Van Po(PL after transportation) sampling in 19 Dec.
Broodstock
Broodstock1 (Egg)
Broodstock1 (Leg)
Broodstock1 (Muscle)
Broodstock2 (Egg)
Broodstock2 (Leg)
Broodstock2 (Muscle)
Broodstock3 (Egg)
Broodstock3 (Leg)
Broodstock3 (Muscle)
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
● is positive
41
Extra small Virus(XSV)
Figure 12.1 Result of nested RT-PCR for MrNV in zoea and PL
M:100bp marker、1: Prum Vat1 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec., 2: Prum Vat2 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec.,
3: Prum Vat3 (Zoea) sampling in 13 Dec., 4: Prum Vat1 (Zoea) sampling in 19 Dec., 5: Prum Vat2 (Zoea)
sampling in 19 Dec.、6: Prum Vat3 (Zoea) sampling in 19 Dec., 7: Van Po(PL before transportation) sampling
in 14 Dec., 8: Van Po(PL after transportation) sampling in 19 Dec., P:Positive control, N:Negative control
Figure 12.2 Result of nested RT-PCR for MrNV in broodstock
M : 100bp marker, 9:Broodstock1 (Egg), 10:Broodstock1 (Leg), 11:Broodstock1 (Muscle),
12:Broodstock2 (Egg), 13:Broodstock2 (Leg), 14:Broodstock2 (Muscle), 15:Broodstock3 (Egg),
16:Broodstock3 (Leg), 17:Broodstock3 (Muscle), P:Positive control, N:Negative control
The results of this analyzed, Positive reaction were confirmed in larvae of farmers A site
sampling on 19 December, PL of farmers C after transport to farmer A tank, and egg and swimming
leg of broodstock.
It has the possibility of vertical infection in this experiment because positive reaction was
detected 2 of 3 broodstocks though this sample is not same individual for this experiment. However,
sample on 13 December was negative reaction. This result is considered possible was below the
detection limit at the 13 December, but this disease is not first cause for the mass mortality, virus
carrier larvae below the detection limit by RT-PCR has an onset of disease around 19 December by
some sort of stress.
Since the disease is still in the research stage, the main cause has not been identified, and
medicine and measures has not been established also. In addition, disinfection method for egg and
larvae is not present. Possible defense method is to diagnose the broodstock by RT-PCR and
broodstock has negative reaction is used to seed production. But farmer level is impossible.
In Thailand, although this disease has been frequently reported up to 10 years ago, reported cases
of the disease has decreased because seed production farmer has been stopped to use the natural
broodstock and carried out the broodstock management. In order to reduce the risk of this disease, the
brood stock management of giant fresh water prawn would be require in Cambodia also.
12.6 Other potential mortality factors
As mass mortality occurrence factor, possibility of the sun dry salt, city water and disease were
analyzed. However, direct factor cannot be detected. The other factors is possible of mortality in this
experiment are indicated the below. It is considered one of the mortality factors by direct or
consequential for trigger of disease and/or growth inhibiter.
42
(1) Electricity
Farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site could be harvest PL has been installed the solar panel system and
water recycling filter system and aeration are consistently working. On the other hand, Farmer A
(Mr.Prum Vat) and farmer B(Mr. Hang Heang) was occurred mass mortality were used generator and
public electricity. It has confirmed generator and public electricity are not stabilized. Although the
handling is easy to the output changes and blackout in daytime, it is difficult when these occur in
nighttime. It is considered that lack of oxygen by shutoff the aeration is occurred in nighttime.
(2) Temporary food shortage
In farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) and farmer C (Mr. Van Po), artemia culture was not operated by lack
of aeration and lack of feed was occurred form afternoon to morn. In particular, farmer A site,
mortality was began at next day of lack of feed. Although it is temporary, it t is considered the
possibility that lack of feed given the stress to larvae.
(3) Egg quality
In generally, natural broodstock of giant fresh water prawn is caught in spawning period from
July to October in Cambodia and it has known that good quality larvae should be obtained in this time.
However, broodstock obtained from end of October and November was used in this experiment.
Degradation of egg quality is known from latter period of spawning in some fish species3. Egg quality
using this experiment was not better than it in spawning period. Especially egg quality of farmer A (Mr.
Prum Vat) and farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) were occurred mass mortality might be influenced to
larvae rearing. According to farmer A who is carrying out giant fresh water prawn seed production, the
survival rate is sometime low in case of use egg after spawning period.
3
Shingo Watanabe (2004) : Relationship between spawning period of brood scorpion fish, Sebastiscus
marmoratus in their breeding season and survival at early stage of their larvae in seed production
43
44
13 Consideration and discussion
13.1 Practicality of the third water and water recirculating filter system at the farmer level
Although only farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site which is using the solar panel system and the third
water type C could harvest PL, in terms of technic and scale, it is confirmed in one instance that seed
production of giant fresh water prawn is possible by introducing the water recycling filter system and
the third water without transportation of seawater and water exchange.
By using seed production system designed as saving energy and efficient in this experiment, it
has been confirmed that seed production by seawater could be possible in a country without sea,
inland and certain area without electricity.
It is suggested a possibility to establish the giant fresh water prawn seed production business
model in case experienced farmer can produce PL stably over average survival rate and continues 3
times production per year. Case of setting up solar panel system also can be returned of investment and
considerably improved revenue form third year on. Furthermore, although this study could not be
confirmed, it is expected additional savings by using the sun dry salt and groundwater. This is
fundamental to save the cost for aquaculture.
By using seed production system designed as saving energy and efficient in this experiment, it
has been confirmed that seed production by seawater could be possible in a country without sea,
inland and certain area without electricity.
Although this project study was targeting giant fresh water prawn seed production, white shrimp
(P. vannamei) culture carried out in south Asia had been implemented with the third water by
Okayama University of science. As a result, it has been obtained higher performance that a harvest
amount was 1.53kg / m2 and a survival rate was 61 % and, it is also expected to verify in developing
countries.
13.2 Extension of giant fresh water prawn seed production technology
Mr. Hang Heang and Mr. Van Po are currently making plan of seed production for next year by
using same production facility as this experiment. On the other hand, in Takeo province there exist
even experienced farmers who have stopped prawn seed production with reason of no needs and
benefits according to the information at target farmer selection. Moreover from past experience of
aquaculture extension in Cambodia, it is necessary to take care not only for seed production but also
for downstream such as intermediate breeding, aquaculture technology and feed supply system so that
each production segment can be connected in order to promote entire production cycle of giant fresh
water prawn. Although there still remain several challenges that need to be addressed for the extension
for giant fresh water prawn seed production technology, it is also considered there is some amount of
needs for seed because 2 farmers already ordered PL that is harvested in farmer C site.
3 farmers who were targeted in this project study are seed production farmers that have been
brought up by FAIEX, JICA technical cooperation project. They have enough experience and high
45
implementation capacity of training to extend aquaculture technology and it is also place to buy
fingerling for aquaculture. It is expected that farmers who participated in this project study would
continue the seed production as well as would promote prawn production technology because they
recognize that customer to come to buy fingering will increase if more farmer knows prawn
production technique. During larval rearing in this project study there was chance for seed producing
farmers of FAIEX phase 2 to visit farmer C (Mr. Van Po). And then some farmers from Battambang
and Siem Rea province are interested in the water recirculating system as these 2 provinces are located
far from the sea. The target farmers of this project study could show another new option of aquaculture
to existing seed farmers.
46
Annex1 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Water quality
Larvae
Date
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
0.00
0.00
7.08
13
7.36
0.00
0.00
7.05
13
7.36
Day
stage/number
11/20
0
I/10
11/21
1
11/22
2
II/10
11/23
3
II/1III/9
31.0
11/24
4
III/10
31.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/25
5
III/10
31.0
34.0
13
0.00
0.00
11/26
6
V/10
31.0
32.0
13
0.50
0.00
11/27
7
V/8VI/2
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
11/28
8
V/1VI/9
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
11/29
9
VI/7VII/3
31.0
31.0
11/30
10
V/6VII/2VIII/2
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/1
11
V/8VI/1VIII/1
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/2
12
VI/3VII/1VIII/6
29.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/3
13
30.0
31.0
0.0
0.5
12/4
14
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/5
15
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
12/6
16
29.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/7
17
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
12/8
18
IX/6X/3Pre-PL/1
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
VI/1VII/1IX/1X/2XI/5
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
09:00
33.0
VI/1VIII/2VIII/7
250
VII/2VIII/6IX/2
500
12/9
19
12/10
20
12/11
21
12/12
22
12/13
23
12/14
24
X/3XI/5Pre-PL/2
12/15
25
IX/3X/6XI/1
12/16
26
12/17
27
12/18
28
12/19
29
16:00
7.00
6.64
30.0
IX/2X/2XI/5Pre-PL/1
29.0
31.0
IX/2X/2XI/4Pre-PL/2
30.0
14
7.12
13
29.0
28.0
7.20
7.21
7.34
12
350
650
28.0
30.0
0.00
0.00
27.0
30.0
0.00
0.00
27.0
30.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.92
8.19
26.0
Minmum
26.00
30.00
6.64
12.00
7.12
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
34.00
7.92
14.00
8.19
0.50
0.50
Average
29.63
31.14
7.15
12.78
7.43
0.02
0.15
Substrate
Annex2 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Larvae
Date
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
Day
stage/number
11/20
0
I/10
11/21
1
11/22
2
II/10
11/23
3
II/2III/8
31.0
11/24
4
III/10
31.0
32.0
11/25
5
IV/10
31.0
34.0
13
11/26
6
V/10
31.0
32.0
13
11/27
7
VI/4VI/4
31.0
11/28
8
V/6VI/3VII/1
11/29
9
11/30
10
V/5VI/5
30.0
12/1
11
VI/3VII/5VIII/2
30.0
31.0
12/2
12
VI/2VII/2VIII6
29.0
31.0
12/3
13
30.0
31.0
12/4
14
12/5
15
12/6
16
12/7
17
12/8
18
09:00
VI/2VIII/5IX/3
0.00
0.00
0.00
31.0
0.00
0.50
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
31.0
IX/1X/1X/6Pre-PL/2
29.0
12/12
22
12/13
23
12/14
24
IX/4X/5XI/1
12/15
25
VII/1IX/6X/1XI/1Pre-PL/1
12/16
26
500
7.03
13
7.04
VI/2IX/3X/4XI/1
21
29
0.00
0.00
31.0
12/11
12/19
0.00
29.0
20
27
0.00
31.0
19
28
0.00
0.00
31.0
VII/2VIII/4IX/4
250
0.00
30.0
12/9
12/17
33.0
30.0
12/10
12/18
16:00
7.31
6.80
7.18
0.50
0.50
31.0
0.00
0.50
31.0
0.00
0.00
31.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
31.0
VII/1IX/1X/2XI/4Pre-PL/2
30.0
13
12
7.23
7.45
12
0.0
0.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
28.0
30.0
0.00
0.00
27.0
30.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
27.0
650
0.00
0.00
0.50
29.0
350
0.50
0.00
VII/1IX/2XI/5Pre-Pl/2
7.28
0.50
0.00
0.00
30.0
14
0.00
0.00
29.0
6.71
7.35
9.38
8.39
26.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Minmum
26.00
30.00
6.71
0.67
7.18
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
34.00
9.38
14.00
8.39
0.00
0.50
Average
29.58
31.21
7.37
11.33
7.49
0.00
0.16
Substrate
Annex3 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer A (Mr. Prum Vat) site
Water quality
Larvae
Date
Day
stage/number
11/21
0
I/10
11/22
1
I/2II/8
11/23
2
I/2II/8
11/24
3
II/3III/7
11/25
4
11/26
5
11/27
11/28
11/29
8
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
09:00
16:00
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
33.0
13
31.0
32.0
7.05
13
7.39
31.0
34.0
13
0.00
0.00
IV/10
31.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
6
V/10
31.0
0.00
0.00
7
IV/1V/7VI/2
30.0
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
11/30
9
V/5VII/5
12/1
10
V/2VI/6VII/2
30.0
31.0
12/2
11
V/6VI/2VII/2
29.0
31.0
12/3
12
30.0
31.0
12/4
13
30.0
31.0
12/5
14
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
12/6
15
29.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
12/7
16
0.00
0.00
12/8
17
VI/4VII/5IX/1
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
12/9
18
VI/2VII/3IX/4X/1
29.0
0.00
0.00
12/10
19
VI/2VII/3VIII/4IX/1
250
VI/2VII/2VIII/4IX/2
500
6.95
7.35
6.78
7.25
6.59
14
7.35
13
30.0
12/11
20
VII/4VIII/1IX/5
29.0
12/12
21
VII/2VIII/2IX/2X/3Pre-PL/1
30.0
12/13
22
12/14
23
VIII/1IX/4X/4XI/1
30.0
IX/5X/3XI/2
12
31.0
7.40
7.54
12
12/15
24
12/16
25
350
27.0
30.0
12/17
26
27.0
30.0
12/18
27
12/19
28
650
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
26.0
0.00
0.00
25.5
0.00
0.00
9.11
8.49
Minmum
25.50
30.00
6.59
0.67
7.25
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
34.00
9.11
14.00
8.49
0.00
0.50
Average
29.36
31.43
7.31
11.52
7.56
0.00
0.10
Substrate
Annex4 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Larvae
Date
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
Day
stage/number
11/7
0
I/10
11/8
1
I/8II/2
30.0
31.5
11/9
2
II/10
30.0
32.0
11/10
3
III/1IV/9
31.0
32.0
11/11
4
IV/10
31.0
33.0
14
11/12
5
VI/10
30.0
31.0
14
11/13
6
VI/10
30.0
30.0
6.55
11/14
7
VI/10
30.0
11/15
8
VII/10
30.0
32.0
6.76
11/16
9
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/17
10
VI/10
29.0
30.0
11/18
11
VI/10
28.0
11/19
12
VII/2IX/5VIII/3
29.0
11/20
13
VI/2VII/5VIII/2IX/1
28.0
30.0
11/21
14
VII/2IX/8
29.0
32.0
11/22
15
VII/3VIII/6IX/1
31.0
32.0
11/23
16
VII/2VIII/6IX/2
31.0
33.0
11/24
17
VIII/5IX/5
31.0
34.0
11/25
18
VIII/3IX/6
31.0
34.0
11/26
19
X/4XI/6
31.0
32.0
7.18
12
11/27
20
VII/2IX/7Pre-PL/1
31.0
31.0
7.14
11/28
21
31.0
32.0
6.96
11/29
22
X/2XI/8
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
11/30
23
X/1XI/8Pre-PL/1
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
12/1
24
30.0
31.0
12/2
25
29.0
32.0
12/3
26
IX/1X/3XI/4Pre-PL2
60
300
09:00
16:00
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
30.0
31.0
7.14
14
7.09
0.00
0.00
14
0.00
0.00
14
0.50
0.00
6.37
14
14
7.13
7.01
14
7.68
14
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.50
14
0.00
0.50
14
0.00
0.50
14
0.00
0.50
14
0.00
0.50
14
7.46
0.50
7.28
13
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
12
0.00
0.50
12
0.00
0.50
7.06
0.00
0.50
12
7.23
0.50
0.50
12
7.22
0.00
0.50
7.44
7.36
7.37
7.09
30.0
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.50
0.00
0.00
Minmum
28.0
30.0
6.37
12.00
7.01
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
7.68
14.00
7.46
0.50
2.00
Average
30.1
31.8
7.06
13.45
7.19
0.13
0.37
Substrate
Annex5 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Larvae
Date
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
Day
stage/number
11/6
0
I/10
11/7
1
I/10
30.0
31.0
11/8
2
I/8II/2
29.0
31.0
09:00
16:00
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
0.00
0.00
14
7.17
14
7.47
14
14
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
11/9
3
II/10
30.0
32.0
11/10
4
III/1,IV/9
30.0
32.0
11/11
5
IV/10
30.0
32.0
14
0.50
0.00
11/12
6
VI/10
30.0
31.0
14
0.50
0.00
11/13
7
VI/10
30.0
30.0
11/14
8
VII/10
30.0
30.0
6.73
6.61
14
14
7.02
7.09
14
6.83
14
7.44
0.50
0.00
0.00
2.00
11/15
9
VI/10
32.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
11/16
10
VI/10
30.0
32.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/17
11
VI/10
29.0
30.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/18
12
VI/10
28.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/19
13
VI/2VII/5IX/3
29.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/20
14
VII/3IX/7
28.0
30.0
11/21
15
IX/9X/1
29.0
32.0
11/22
16
VI/3VII/3IX/4
31.0
32.0
11/23
17
VI/2VII/2VIII/3IX/3
31.0
11/24
18
VII/1VIII/4IX/5
31.0
11/25
19
VIII/5IX/5
31.0
11/26
20
X/6XI/4
11/27
21
VI/1VIII/4IX/2Pre-PL/3
11/28
22
11/29
23
11/30
12/1
12/2
26
12/3
27
60
7.12
14
7.64
13
7.26
33.0
7.29
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
13
0.00
0.50
12
0.00
0.50
0.50
31.0
32.0
7.00
12
7.16
0.00
31.0
31.0
7.11
12
7.28
0.50
0.50
31.0
32.0
6.88
7.18
0.00
0.50
IX/9XI/1
31.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
24
VIII/1IX/3XI/2
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
25
IX/8X/2
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
IX/5X/1XI/2Pre-PL/1
29.0
32.0
300
7.26
7.11
30.0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Minmum
28.0
30.0
6.61
0.67
7.02
0.00
0.00
Maximum
32.0
33.0
7.26
14.00
7.64
0.50
2.00
Average
30.0
31.5
7.00
12.98
7.27
0.11
0.34
Substrate
Annex6 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer B (Mr. Hang Heang) site
Larvae
Date
Day
stage/number
0
I/10
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
09:00
11/6
16:00
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
0.00
0.00
14
11/7
1
I/10
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
11/8
2
I/8,II/2
29.0
31.0
14
0.00
0.00
11/9
3
II/10
31.0
32.0
14
0.50
0.00
11/10
4
III/2,IV/8
30.0
32.0
0.50
0.00
11/11
5
IV/10
30.0
32.0
14
0.50
0.00
11/12
6
VI/10
30.0
31.0
14
0.50
0.00
11/13
7
VI/10
30.0
32.0
11/14
8
VII/10
30.0
30.0
11/15
9
VI/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
11/16
10
VI/10
30.0
32.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/17
11
VI/10
29.0
30.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/18
12
VI/10
28.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/19
13
VII/3IX/7
29.0
14
0.00
0.50
11/20
14
VII/5VIII/4IX/1
28.0
30.0
11/21
15
VII/1IX/9
29.0
32.0
11/22
16
VI/2VII/5VIII/2IX/1
31.0
32.0
11/23
17
VII/3VIII/5IX/2
31.0
11/24
18
VII/4IX/6
31.0
33.0
11/25
19
VII/2VIII/5IX/3
31.0
34.0
11/26
20
X/6XI/4
31.0
32.0
6.90
12
11/27
21
IX/4X/5/Pre-PL/1
31.0
31.0
6.97
12
11/28
22
31.0
32.0
6.92
11/29
23
IX/4X/3XI/3
31.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
11/30
24
IX/5XI4Pre-PL/1
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
12/1
25
IX/7XI/2Pre-PL/1
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
12/2
26
IX/7X/1XI/1Pre-PL/1
29.0
32.0
0.00
0.50
12/3
27
0.00
0.00
0.00
60
300
7.08
6.65
6.39
14
14
14
7.27
7.01
6.59
14
6.79
7.37
14
14
7.42
7.69
0.50
0.00
0.00
2.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.50
13
0.00
0.50
12
0.00
0.50
7.18
0.00
0.50
7.23
0.50
1.00
7.22
0.00
0.50
13
13
7.25
7.30
7.27
7.22
30.0
Minmum
28.0
30.0
6.39
0.67
6.59
0.00
Maximum
31.0
34.0
7.37
14.00
7.69
0.50
2.00
Average
30.0
31.6
6.96
12.98
7.21
0.11
0.38
Substrate
Annex7 Monitoring result in tank 1 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Larvae
Date
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
Day
stage/number
10/29
0
I/10
10/30
1
I/10
31.0
32.0
0.0
0.0
10/31
2
II/10
30.0
32.0
0.0
0.0
11/1
3
III/10
30.0
30.0
0.0
0.0
11/2
4
IV/10
30.0
31.0
12
0.0
0.0
11/3
5
V/10
30.0
30.0
12
0.5
0.0
11/4
6
V/10
29.0
31.0
12
0.5
0.0
11/5
7
VI/10
29.0
31.0
12
0.5
0.0
11/6
8
VI/10
31.0
33.0
12
0.0
0.0
11/7
9
VII/10
30.0
31.0
11/8
10
VII/10
30.0
32.0
09:00
16:00
11/9
11
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/10
12
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/11
13
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/12
14
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/13
15
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/14
16
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/15
17
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/16
18
IX/10
30.0
32.0
11/17
19
XI/10
30.0
11/18
20
XI/10
29.0
11/19
21
XI/10
11/20
22
11/21
6.57
6.69
12
12
7.30
7.52
12
12
6.78
12
7.55
12
12
6.73
12
7.53
12
6.67
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12
0.0
0.0
32.0
12
0.0
0.0
32.0
12
0.0
0.0
29.0
31.0
12
0.0
0.0
XI/10
29.0
31.0
23
XI/10
30.0
32.0
11/22
24
X/3XI/5Pre-PL/2
31.0
32.0
11/23
25
XI/7Pre-PL/3
30.0
32.0
11/24
26
XI/8Pre-PL/2
30.0
32.0
11/25
27
XI/7Pre-PL/3
31.0
32.0
11/26
28
XI/3Pre-PL/7
30.0
32.0
11/27
29
XI/2PL/8
30.0
31.0
11/28
30
XI/1PL/9
30.0
32.0
0.0
0.0
○
11/29
31
PL/10
30.0
32.0
13
0.0
0.0
○
11/30
32
PL/10
30.0
32.0
13
0.0
0.0
○
12/1
33
PL/10
30.0
31.0
13
0.0
0.0
○
12/2
34
PL10
320
30.0
31.0
0.0
0.0
○
12/3
35
PL10
500
29.0
31.0
6
0.0
0.0
○
12/4
36
PL10
600
29.0
31.0
3
0.0
0.0
○
12/5
37
PL10
29.0
31.0
3
0.0
0.0
○
Minmum
29.00
30.00
6.40
12.00
6.83
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
33.00
6.81
13.00
7.55
0.50
0.50
Average
29.89
31.59
6.60
12.23
7.30
0.04
0.01
12
7.52
0.5
0.0
0.0
6.48
12
0.0
Substrate
7.42
12
12
6.50
12
7.14
12
13
6.40
13
7.09
13
6.40
6.81
13
10
6.83
7.12
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
○
0.0
0.0
○
○
Annex8 Monitoring result in tank 2 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Larvae
Date
10/30
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
Day
stage/number
09:00
16:00
0
I/10
31.0
32
10/31
1
I/10
30.0
32.0
11/1
2
II/10
30.0
32.0
11/2
3
III/10
30.0
31.0
11/3
4
IV/10
30.0
30.0
11/4
5
V/10
30.0
11/5
6
V/10
11/6
7
VI/10
11/7
8
11/8
11/9
11/10
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
09:00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
30.0
12
0.50
0.00
29.0
31.0
12
0.50
0.00
30.0
32.0
12
0.50
0.00
VI/10
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
9
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
10
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11
VII/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/11
12
VII/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/12
13
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/13
14
VII/10
30.0
32.0
11/14
15
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/15
16
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
11/16
17
IX/10
30.0
32.0
11/17
18
X/10
30.0
32.0
11/18
19
X/10
29.0
32.0
11/19
20
XI/10
29.0
31.0
11/20
21
XI/10
30.0
32.0
11/21
22
XI/10
31.0
32.0
11/22
23
X/4XI/4Pre-PL/2
31.0
32.0
11/23
24
X/3XI/5Pre-PL/2
30.0
32.0
11/24
25
X/3XI/6Pre-PL/1
30.0
32.0
11/25
26
X/1XI/5Pre-PL/4
31.0
32.0
11/26
27
XI/8Pre-PL/2
30.0
11/27
28
X/2XI/2Pre-PL/6
11/28
29
11/29
11/30
12/1
32
12/2
33
PL/10
12/3
34
12/4
35
12/5
36
6.85
6.80
6.75
12
12
12
7.32
7.53
7.51
12
12
Substrate
0.00
0.00
7.53
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.50
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12
0.00
0.00
13
0.00
0.00
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
30.0
31.0
13
0.00
0.00
X/1XI/3Pre-PL/6
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
30
X/1XI/2Pre-PL/7
30.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
〇
31
X/1XI/3Pre-PL/6
30.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
〇
30.0
31.0
13
0.00
0.00
〇
320
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
〇
PL/10
500
29.0
31.0
6
0.00
0.00
〇
PL/10
600
29.0
31.0
3
0.00
0.00
〇
PL/10
0
29.0
31.0
3
0.00
0.00
〇
Minmum
29.00
30.00
6.36
0.67
7.14
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
32.00
6.85
13.00
7.53
0.50
0.50
Average
29.95
31.62
6.67
11.86
7.37
0.04
0.01
6.70
12
12
6.71
6.66
6.50
6.36
6.73
12
12
12
13
10
7.42
7.2
7.18
7.14
Annex9 Monitoring result in tank 3 in farmer C (Mr. Van Po) site
Larvae
Date
Water quality
Water
exchange (L)
Temperature
(℃)
DO
(mg/L)
Salinity
(psu)
pH
NH3+NH4+
(mg/L)
NO2 (mg/L)
09:00
16:00
09:00
Day
stage/number
09:00
16:00
09:00
09:00
10/30
0
I/10
31.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
10/31
1
I/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/1
2
II/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/2
3
III/10
31.0
31.0
6.78
12
0.00
0.00
11/3
4
IV/10
30.0
30.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/4
5
V/10
29.0
31.0
12
0.50
0.00
11/5
6
V/10
29.0
31.0
12
0.50
0.00
11/6
7
VI/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.50
0.00
11/7
8
VI/10
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.50
11/8
9
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/9
10
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/10
11
VII/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/11
12
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/12
13
VII/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/13
14
VII/10
30.0
32.0
7.55
0.00
0.00
11/14
15
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/15
16
VIII/10
30.0
32.0
7.35
0.00
0.00
11/16
17
IX/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/17
18
X/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/18
19
X/10
29.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/19
20
X/10
29.0
31.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/20
21
XI/10
29.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
11/21
22
XI/10
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/22
23
IX/2X/4XI/4
31.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/23
24
X/6XI/3Pre-PL/1
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
6.87
6.77
6.62
12
12
12
12
7.10
7.33
7.71
12
6.66
6.71
6.6
12
12
12
7.29
7.3
11/24
25
X/4XI/4Pre-PL/2
30.0
32.0
12
0.00
0.00
11/25
26
X/5XI/3Pre-PL/2
31.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
11/26
27
XI/3Pre-PL/7
30.0
31.0
13
0.00
0.00
11/27
28
X/3XI/2Pre-PL/5
30.0
31.0
13
0.00
0.00
6.44
13
7.27
Substrate
11/28
29
X/2XI/3Pre-PL/5
30.0
32.0
0.00
0.00
11/29
30
X/1XI/3Pre-PL/6
30.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
○
11/30
31
X/1XI/2Pre-PL/7
30.0
32.0
13
0.00
0.00
○
12/1
32
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
○
12/2
33
PL/10
320
30.0
31.0
0.00
0.00
○
12/3
34
PL/10
500
29.0
31.0
6
0.00
0.00
○
12/4
35
PL/10
600
29.0
31.0
3
0.00
0.00
○
12/5
36
PL/10
0
29.0
31.0
3
0.00
0.00
○
Minmum
29.00
30.00
6.44
0.67
7.10
0.00
0.00
Maximum
31.00
32.00
6.87
13.00
7.71
0.50
0.50
Average
29.89
31.59
6.69
11.86
7.35
0.04
0.01
13
6.80
10
7.23
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