IMAO electric, s.r.o.
Mládežnícka 108
017 01 Považská Bystrica
Slovakia
tel: +421 42 44 318 79
fax: +421 42 44 318 80
imao@imao.sk
www.imaogroup.com
&
&
&
&
*
2
&
6
!
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3.4
Current harmonic distortion
Typical harmonic current components of PV inverter for insulated grid. Single harmonic
component can be differ in praxis depending on grid parameters...
THDi: 2,91
10/42
4
Mechanical construction and manipulation
4.1
Mechanical construction
Mechanical construction is based of standard Rittal or our own metal cabinet. Back of the
inverter is covered by metal plates with ventilation inlet and outlet. We recommend to use
standard air sealing (plastic, rubber). Proper sealing is obligatory to fulfil proper ambient
condition inside the kiosk.
Cabinet of RS-I20-0460-3 is divided onto two parts.
Left hand part:
- LCL filter (left)
- VACON power
module(right)
- Vacon control unit
- Main contactor
- Fans terminal and FA1
circuit breaker
- Thermostat ST2
Right hand part:
- DC fuses
- DC power switch
- DC earth fault protection
- Master/follower switch
- DC surge arrester
- Auxiliary power 24V
- AC fuse disconnector
- AC surge arrester
- Terminals
- Circuit breakers
Also all terminals are installed here (DC and AC power, control cables, communication
cables).
12/42
5
Installation into kiosk
5.1
Fastening of the cabinet to the floor or/and wall
Cabinet must be fastened to the floor or/and to the wall. Depending on installation conditions,
the cabinet sections can be fixed in different ways. There are holes in the front corners which
can be used for fixing. Additionally, the rails on the top of the cabinet have fixing lugs for
fixing the cabinet to the wall. Welding of the cabinet might risk sensitive components in the
PV inverter. Ensure that no grounding currents can flow through any part of the PV inverter.
This fixing is in no event dimensioned to fix PV inverter in kiosk during transportation!
Fixing of PV inverters inside of the kiosk must be in responsibility of transport company. PW
Motors shall in no event and under no circumstances be held responsible for damages
and failures resulting from wrong transportation.
5.2
Ventilation of inverter/kiosk
PV inverter is normally installed into the kiosk in such a way, that ventilation holes meet with
kiosk's holes. A dilatation space between the inverter and kiosk have to be sealed with a
proper sealing. If sealing is not properly installed a leaked hot air can dangerously heat inner
space of the kiosk and overheat components of the PV inverter. However, a PV inverter's
cabinet dissipate heat also to the space around. This naturally increase temperature inside the
kiosk and should be lead out of the kiosk through a small fan(s) installed below ceiling of the
kiosk.
Power module is equipped with own power fan (1500 m3/h). LCL filter also needs to be
cooled by air (1500 m3/h). Kiosk have to be equipped by fan with air flow above 3000m3/h.
Its pressure have to be able to open gravitational lamellae (if used). We recommend to use
two smaller (1500 m3/h) fans side by side, one for LCL filter half and second for power
module half of cabinet upper exhausting outlet. In a special case when kiosk is installed in
heavy dusted environment or if peel can occur in environment (near agriculture fields) we
recommend to equip sucking ventilation hole with external filter with own fan. All external
fans should be 1 phase and could be electrically connected to the terminal XV1. They are
protected with 2A circuit breaker. 3 phase fans have to be connected outside of cabinet.
13/42
View from the back:
5.3
Heating
Preventing PV inverters from low temperature at winter time, 400-600W heating elements are
installed inside. Inner thermostat is set to run heating at 5-10°C.
5.4
Auxiliary power supply
PV inverter is necessary supply by auxiliary power supply 230VAC/TN-C to terminals XN1.
This power supply is needed for supplying of main contactor, 24V power source, external
fans, heating elements DC earth fault monitor, etc. Main circuit breaker should be
dimensioned for maximal consumption 10A. In case that this auxiliary power is
transformed from the power grid of the PV inverter it is obligatory to install the RFI
filter class C immediately behind the auxiliary transformer to fulfil EMC compatibility.
Otherwise possible HF peaks could emit radio distortion or damage connected devices.
14/42
6
Electrical installation
6.1
Simplified single line diagram of the power part
15/42
6.2
Simplified single line diagram of the control part
16/42
17/42
18/42
1. Mains connection:
To terminals L1, L2, L3 of fuse switch: max.
conductor cross-section 2x240 mm2 (L1, L2, L3).
Fuses 630A gG.
Real connection provided at the customer's request.
2. DC disconnector SQ1.
3. Master/Follower switch (circuit breaker) SW1
(option). In Master/(Follower system in normal
opperation MUST be switched on! Switch off only for
service purpous. Two terminals for max. 150mm2
cable lugs to each pole.
4. DC side connection (from the photovoltaic panels):
Upper terminal – red: - (plus) pole ;
Lower terminal – blue: - (minus) pole;
This terminal is prolonged by copper bar with at least
7 drilled holes. This allows to connect two 240 mm2
cables for Master/follower connection and two 240
mm2 for strings (on each pole from both side of the
bar). Protection by fuses is carried out by 2 fuse in
plus pole. Minus pole is connected to DC bus directly.
Actual construction of DC terminals can be
customised.
19/42
5.VACON power module – main power part and
control unit of the PWM inverter with MPPT
algorithm included. Connected via optical cables.
Display is conducted away to the cabinet door.
If the main contactor is turned on, the signal lamp on the front side of cabinet lights.
6.3
Grounding and protection
The earth fault protection inside the PV inverter protects only the inverter itself from the earth
faults in the AC and DC part of the photovoltaic system. It is not designed as the protection
for humans. PV standard inverter is intended for insulated network (IT). In case of
requirement for TN-C contact PW motors.
In case of the insulating resistor fault at the DC side during operation (inverter is connected
and synchronized to the mains grid – the main contactor KMH is turned on and the signal
lamp lights) the inverter reacts as follows (according to the electrical system):
 AC and DC side (IT) protected by the insulation monitoring device. In case of
insulation fault this state is indicated on the terminals X-SV and the kiosk producer
should ensure the proper fault indication. The inverter can further operate or it can be
disconnected from the grid.
The fault state at the photovoltaic panels remains! After disconnecting the inverter
from the grid (the signal lamp is off) the insulating state is further monitored at the DC
side, but it is not monitored at the AC side!
 System with the grounded PV panels' pole (IT at the grid side). In this case there is
no protection against the contact voltage inside the inverter and it needs to be
realized externally.
Insulating state faults are fed into the Vacon power module and can be read through the
communication. The kiosk control system can further process this signal (dispatching alarm,
SMS, ...).
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6.4
The inverter fuses dimensions:
Voltage Type
DC
DC
AC
AC
aR
aR
gG
gG
IN
[A]
500
460
Fuse UF
[V]
1000
1000
500
500
Fuse IF
[A]
315 or 400
125
630
125
Quantity
2 (plus pole)
2 (surge arrester)
3 (line fuses)
3 (surge arrester)
Fuses specifications:
aR / gR – designed for the surge current and short-circuit current protection
gG – usually used for the cables surge and short-circuit currents protection
21/42
7
Inverter control
7.1
The photovoltaic Software Structure and Possibilities
7.1.1
The Basics features






7.1.2
MPPT – (Max. Power Point Tracking) maximizing the power through PV panels
operating point optimization
Standby and sleep mode functions
Power control 0-100%
Power factor control (from 0,85 to - 0,85)
Automatic power limitation
Master/Follower function
MPPT
The basic function of the photovoltaic inverter. The inverter controls the DC circuit voltage to
acquire the maximal effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels.
During this process the DC link voltage fluctuation occurs as the inverter finds the optimal
point.
7.1.3
Standby a sleeping
The inverter automatically manages not using any energy from the grid during insufficient
light exposure. In the case the inverter does not supply power to the grid more than 20
seconds, it electrically disconnects itself (main contactor switch off). After 10 minutes it tries
to supply again until the voltage from panels drops under 333 V, when the inverter goes to the
sleep mode. Another attempt to supply the power occurs again when the DC line voltage
(from the panels) rises to 460 V.
7.1.4
Power limitation
Power of the PV inverter (supplied energy) is possible to limit by three ways:
1. By setting parameter P2.1.3 maximum power of PV inverter will be limited (it is using for
permanent power limit). 0 kW means no limit from this parameter setting.
2. Setting parameters P3.2 in case, that parameter P2.2.2.9 is set as panel source (P2.2.2.9=0).
Otherwise, limiting source is analogue input AI1 (P2.2.2.9=1) or fieldbus (P2.2.2.9=2) in
range 0-100,0%. 100,0% nominal power of PV inverter (not total power of PV panels).
3. Power limiting with power feedback is used if there is exact power limit providing to public
network. For instance if power distributor company limits the power to 0kW, PV inverter still
generates power for internal consumption or other connected technologies.
All this limits acts in parallel. That means the lower value from all is active.
7.1.5
Automatic power limitation
Power of PV inverter is automatically limited if heatsink temperature exceeds certain
dangerous level, when inverter trips with Fault code 41. How much the power is limited
depends on inverter heating. This normally occur if ambient temperature has roooose above
40°C inside the cabinet at high power or some cooling fan fails or heatsink is
blocked cooling channels.
Parameter
ID
1879
Description
Power limiting from
temperature
R
Note
Power limiting (30-100%)
100% nominal PV inverter power
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P2.4.16
1839
P2.9.9.18
1838
7.1.6
Temperature from
which automatic
power limit acts
Enabling automatic
power limiting
R/W
40-85°C
Default value= 85°C
R/W
Default setting is YES
Power factor regulation
Reactive current
R I
Power factor regulation can be done in two ways:
1. Using external controller, output of which is reactive current reference. Reactive
current component is set in tenth of % of nominal current. This way is recommended in
decentralised inverters where more inverters is connected to communication bus.
Reference of reactive current should be as fast as possible (broadcast message via
fieldbus). So, one central regulator controls all the inverters (each of them gets the same
reference).
it IMA
lim
t
n
rre
Cu
X
Active current IA
 - phase angle (cos  is Power Factor)
Imax – current limit of PV inverter (P2.1.3)
IR – reactive current in tenth % of Imax.
IA – active current in tenth % of Imax.
2. Using inverter's own PI controller. In this case inverter must be provided with actual
phase angle measurement. (via AI2 or fieldbus ID=1995) and regulation is enabled by
setting of P2.9.9.1=1 (ID=1990). This way recommended with central inverters where
small number of inverters are connected to communication bus. Actual value of phase
angle is provided via analogue input or fieldbus. If fieldbus is selected both reference
and actual values must be send from override system as broadcast message.
Experimentally, refresh time should be shorter than 1s. More PI controllers are active in
the system at the same time so it is better to slow down the dynamical behaviour of the
control process to avoid of an oscillation.
System of PV inverter provides also automatic setting of reactive current according a curve
(as a function of generated power). It is double linear curve with turning point. It is possible
to enable it by P2.9.9.1=2 (ID=1990).
Parameter
P2.9.9.11
ID
1856
P2.9.9.12
1857
Description
Power of turning
point the curve
Reactive current at
R/W
R/W
Note
100,0% is nominal power of PV
inverter
100,0% is nominal power of PV
23/42
1858
P2.9.9.14
1859
Reactive current %
P2.9.9.13
0% power
Reactive current at
turning point power
Reactive current at
100% power
R/W
R/W
P2.9.9.11
P2.9.9.12
inverter
100,0% is nominal power of PV
inverter
100,0% is nominal power of PV
inverter
P100%
Power %
P2.9.9.13
P2.9.9.14
Important:
In case the Power Factor regulation is active and setting of reference and actual values of
phase angle is via fieldbus, communication checking should be done from safety reason. This
checking is performed by setting/resetting of bit B11 (indexed from 0) of control word
ID=1160. Cycle time is settable by parameter P2.7.6. If P2.7.6=0 communication checking is
not performed and if actual value of power angle is not refreshed power factor controller can
cause unwanted reactive power consumption/generation!
Note: Power factor regulation capabilities are limited at small generated power (low
irradiation)!
7.1.7
Master/Follower functionality
PV inverter software is providing Master/follower functionality. This feature is used when
more inverters AC power output are connected to only one transformer winding. Moreover,
one dedicated master inverter control all others (max. 4). All inverters must have
interconnected DC buses, so complete system looks like one big inverter. Useful feature of
this concept is that during lower irradiation not all inverters are running. Master disconnects
inverters if available power from DC bus smaller amount of inverters are able to convert to
AC grid. This concept, thus, increases efficiency of overall system and decreases wearing of
inverters components. Installed DC disconnector (Disconnects DC bus) are using only for
service purposes. Followers are controlled from master over optical communication. In case
of Master failure, all inverters stop. Overriding system could to exchange Master functionality
over communication bus setting parameter P2.9.10.1.=4 to master. All followers must have
P2.9.10.1.=3.
Parameter
P2.9.10.1
ID
1930
Description
Choice of M/F
R/W
Note
0 – follower
1 – master (separate trafo winding for
each inverter – depreciated feature)
2 – master selected by digital input
(e.g. DIN4, P2.2.1.13=4,separate trafo
P2.9.11.2
1931
MF_PowerLimit_H
R/W
P2.9.11.3
1993
MF_PowerLimit_L
R/W
P2.9.11.4
1932
MF_TimeHist
R/W
P2.9.11.5
1933
MF_SwitchOveralp
R/W
7.1.8
24/42
winding for each inverter –
depreciated feature)
3 – master on Systembus
(synchronisation of inverters with
inter-connected DC buses, common
trafo winding for all inverters)
4 – follower on Systembus
(synchronisation of inverters with
inter-connected DC buses, common
trafo winding for all inverters)
5 – multimaster na Systembus
(synchronisation of inverters with
inter-connected DC buses, common
trafo winding for all inverters). Do
not use!!!
6 – master on Systembus
(synchronisation of inverters with
inter-connected DC buses, common
trafo winding for all inverters).
master selected by digital input (e.g..
DIN4, P2.2.1.13=4)
Percent of nominal power (tenth)
when Master switch next follower
ON.
Percent of nominal power (tenth)
when Master switch next follower
OFF.
Minimal time when Master switch
some follower OFF after previous
action (ON or OFF)
Overlapping time (tenths of second)
of parallel running of to inverters
before DC bus switch is switched off
depreciated feature.
Real time
Inverter is equipped with real time functionality but in case that both DC voltage and 24V is
down, real time clock is reset and needs to be set again.
Parameter
ID
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
Description
Seconds
Minutes
Hours
Day
Month
Year
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
Note
0..59
0..59
0..23
0..xx (according days in month)
0..12
2000..2099
25/42
7.2
Parameters of photovoltaic software
Parameter – the number of the parameter displayed on the panel
ID – address of parameter/value (remote access - integer)
Specific ID's of photovoltaic software (v1.41).
Parameter
P2.1.1
P2.1.3
P2.9.1
P2.9.2
P2.9.3
P2.9.4
P2.2.2.1
P2.2.2.9
P2.2.2.10
P2.2.2.11
P2.9.6.8
P2.9.6.9
ID
1201
1894
Description
Note
Supply voltage AC
R/W In volts
Generated Power
R/W Power limitation of the inverter in
Limit
kW
1960
MPP PV panel
R/W V hundredths of volts
voltage
1961
MPP PV panel
R/W In hundredths of amperes
current
1962
Number of panels in
R/W
string
1963
Number of parallel
R/W
strings
DC power of connected panels is calculated by multiplication of
ID1960*...*ID1963. Correct setting of these four parameters is important only
for right evaluation of the value V1.35 (ID1949, see below)
1384
Reactive current
R/W 0 – Panel
reference input
1 – AI3 (bipolar, 0 is in the middle
of the range)
2 – FieldBus
1920
Power limit input
0 – Panel
1 – AI1
2 – FieldBus
1921
Reference phase
0 – Panel
angle input
1 – AI3 (bipolar, 0 is in the middle
of the range)
2 – FieldBus
1922
Actual phase angle
0 – AI2 (bipolar, 0 is in the middle
input
of the range)
1 – FieldBus
2 – Calculated (do not use!)
1938
Reactive current of
R/W Corrective value of reactive power
LCL filter (offset
(ofset). This value slouží to
value)
pribliznému calculation of actual
phase angle in case that no real
measurement is provided from
external source (from analogue
input or FB
1934
Reactive current of
R/W Corrective value of reactive power
LCL filter
(proportional to output current).
This value slouží to pribliznému
calculation of actual phase angle in
case that no real measurement is
P2.9.7.1
1980
Time to sleeping
R/W
P2.9.7.2
1981
Time to waking up
R/W
P2.9.9.1
1990
Power factor
controller
R/W
P2.9.9.2
1991
R/W
P2.9.9.3
1992
P2.9.9.4
P2.9.9.5
P2.9.9.6
1993
1994
1936
Max. capacitive phase
angle
Max. inductance
phase angle
Kp of controller
Ti of controller
Limit of reactive
current
P2.9.9.15
1873
1995
1996
1997
1999
V1.1
1200
Sing of actual phase
angle feedback
Actual value of phase
angle FB (the best
sets via broadcast
message with period
below 1s)
Reference value of
phase angle FB (the
best sets via broadcast
message with period
below 1s)
Reference value of
power FB (the best
sets via broadcast
message with period
below 1s)
Reference value of
reactive current FB
the best sets via
broadcast message
with period below 1s)
DC-link voltage
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
26/42
provided from external source
(from analogue input or FB
In case, that inverter does not
deliver energy to the network it
start to sleep (it switches off from
grid) after this time.
IF DC bus voltage is >333V, after
this time inverter tries to connect to
the grid.
0 – OFF
1 – ON
2 – Curve
3 – ON (does not sleep)
-32,00°.. 0° (in hundredths
(cos φ=-0,848..1)
0°..32,00° (in hundredths
(cos φ=0,848..1)
In hundredths
V tenths of second
In % of nominal inverter power. If
actual power below this value
power factor regulator is switched
of idiomatically.
0 – normal
1 – inverted
Actual phase angle from FB if this
is selected by P2.2.2.11=1 (-100,0
to 100,0%) – tenths of %
0% ... phase angle = 0° (cos φ=1)
-100% ... phase angle = P2.9.9.2.
100% ... phase angle = P2.9.9.3.
Reference of phase angle from FB
if this is selected by P2.2.2.10=2 (100,0 to 100,0%) – tenths of %.
Minus values: in range ID=1991
Plus values: in range ID=1992
Reference of power limit from FB
if this is selected by P2.2.2.9=2 (0100,0%) – tenths of %.
100% is nominal inverter power.
R/W
Reference of reactive current from
FB if this is selected by
P2.2.2.10=2 (-100,0 to 100,0%) –
tenths of %.
R
In hundredths of %.
27/42
V1.2
V1.3
V1.9
V1.10
1108
1104
1107
1101
DC-link voltage
Total inverter current
Supply voltage
Supply frequency
R
R
R
R
V1.14
V1.15
1109
1935
Heatsink temperature
Power factor
R
R
V1.25
1950
R
V1.28
1890(L)
1891(H)
Actual power (with
correction regarding
power loses of LCL
filter). Accuracy ≤5%
Total energy
delivered to the grid
Instant power
Actual daily
production
Actual power %
100,00% is P2.1.1*1,35
In volts
V amperes
In volts
In hundredths of Hz. Sign
according of phase sequence.
In °C
-0,8500 to 0,8500 in ten
thousandths
In kW
R
V kWh
R
R
Utilised power of PV
panels (regarding to
nominal power of
inverter)
Actual reactive power
(only informative)
Actual phase angle
(only informative)
Max. daily production
Min. daily production
Production history
Production history
Production history
Production history
Production history
Production history
Production history
R
In kW
kWh, resets morning (if DC voltage
rises from 0 to 400VDC)
In tenths of % of nominal inverter
power.
In tenth of %. Ratio of connected
DC power to nominal inverter
power.
V1.32
V1.33
1951
V1.34
1952
V1.35
1949
V1.36
1939
V1.37
1937
V1.39.2
V1.39.1
V1.39.3
V1.39.4
V1.39.5
V1.39.6
V1.39.7
V1.39.8
V1.39.9
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
7.3
R
R
In kVAr
R
In hundredths of %
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
kWh
kWh
kWh, in previous day (-1 day)
kWh, -2 days
kWh, -3 days
kWh, -4 days
kWh, -5 days
kWh, -6 days
kWh, -7 days
Control panel
The Vacon alphanumeric control keypad has 9 push-buttons that are used for controlling
Vacon power module, setting parameters, and monitoring values.
28/42
Fig. 7.3-1.Keypad push-buttons
7.3.1
Buttons descriptions
reset
start
This button is used to switch between the two latest displays. This
may be useful when you want to see how the changed new value
influences some other value.
The enter button is used for:
1) confirmation of selections
2) fault history reset (2…3 seconds)
Browser button up
Browse the main menu and the pages of different submenus.
Edit values.
Browser button down
Browse the main menu and the pages of different submenus.
Edit values
Menu button left
Move backward in menu.
Move cursor left (in parameter menu).
Exit edit mode.
Press for 2 to 3 seconds to return to main menu.
Menu button right
Move forward in menu.
Move cursor right (in parameter menu).
Enter edit mode.
Start button
Pressing this button starts Vacon NX ActiveFront End (modulation)
if the keypad is the active control place.
stop
Stop button
Pressing this button stops Vacon NX ActiveFront End (unless
disabled by parameter R3.4/R3.6).
select
enter
+
-


7.3.2
This button is used to reset active faults
Navigation on the control keypad
The data on the control keypad is arranged in menus and submenus. The menus are used for
the display and editing of measurement and control signals, parameter settings and reference
value and fault displays.
29/42
The first menu level consists of menus M1 to M7 and is called the Main menu. The user can
navigate in the main menu with the Browser buttons up and down. The desired submenu can
be entered from the main menu with the Menu buttons. When there still are pages to enter
under the currently displayed menu or page, you can see an arrow ( ) in the lower right
corner of the display and can reach the next menu level by pressing Menu button right.
The control keypad navigation chart is shown on the next page. Please note that menu M1 is
located in the lower left corner. From there you will be able to navigate your way up to the
desired menu using the menu and browser buttons.
30/42
7.3.3
Monitoring menu (M1)
You can enter the Monitoring menu from the Main menu by pressing Menu button rightwhen
the location indication M1 is visible on the first line of the display.
The monitored signals carry the indication V#.# and they are listed in chapter 7.2. The values
are updated once every 0.3 seconds. This menu is meant only for signal checking. The values
cannot be altered here.
31/42
7.4
Commissioning
7.4.1
Hardware checking
Before commissioning you must go through following procedures:
1. Switch off DC power switch SQ1,
2. Check functionality of all external fans. Switch on FA1 and bypass of relay KA1
3. Check functionality of heating. Switch on FA2 and set thermostat ST2 to a value when
thermostat switches on. Then set thermostat to 5-10°C.
4. Check 24V power source GS2. Switch on FA4. Green LED must lights on power
source GS2 and display of inverter lives on.
5. Switch FA3 on.
6. Check functionality of insulation monitor device according of manual of equipped
type
7. Switch off din-rail switch SA1
8. Insert fuses of surge arresters FUV1.1, FUV1.2, FUV2
9. Insert AC fuses of disconnector FUH
10. Set parameters according following paragraph
11. Set proper values on voltage relay NR (if setable). Switch on FA6. Relay should
indicate failure (via LED or just its contact)
12. Check AC power line. Should be powered before continuing.
13. Switch on fuse disconnector FUH. After short time, voltage relay NR should indicte
correct voltage.
14. Check all strings connected to DC power input before switching SQ1 on. Mainly if
voltage is according to the project and if polarity is correct. Reversing of polarity can
seriously damages the inverter!!!
15. Switch on DC power switch SQ1. Check if voltagre displayed on the door panel is
correct.
16. PV inverter is switching on after closing SA1 din-rail switch. This switch stay
permanently closed and it is used only for service purpose. (Connection and
synchronisation to the grid starts by switching main contactor on. This will be
followed with loud sound a characteristic noise of LCL filter.
17. Light on the cabinet door lights always when inverter is connected to the grid.
Synchronisation to the grid is fast (lasts only ca 100ms).
7.4.2
Manipulation (switching on) DC power switches at Master/Follower system
Manipulation with switches SQ1 and SW1 in photovoltaic systems with more inverters
connected to one transformer winding is more sophisticated and could be performed only with
trained persons!
Basic rule:
Do not switch on SQ1 if SW1 and SW1 of left neighbourhood is switched on too (see picture
below)!
Capacitors of the inverter and also DC switches could be destroyed with high current. This
current consists from sum of short-circuit PV panels currents and current short-circuit current
of other inverters (if they are running).
The safest procedure of switch manipulation is as follows:
1. check al SQ1 and SW1. They have to be switched off.
2. Switch off all SA1 din-rails switches
3. Switch on all SQ1
32/42
4. Switch on all SW1
5. Start inverters by switching SA1 on. System will start after SA1 of master is switched
on.
In case, that no AC and DC voltage is present (e.g. in night time) switching on of all switches
is randomly.
7.4.3
Master/Follower connection of inverters
On the picture below recommended connection of inverter is drawn. Left points 1 and 2 will
be connected to right points 1' and 2'.
If system consist only from two inverters only one of them is equipped with SW1 switch.
FUD
FUD
FUD
FUD
SQ1
SQ1
SQ1
SQ1
SW1
SW1
7.4.4
SW1
SW1
1'
2'
1
2
Parameter setting and inverter starting
Commissioning is very simple task from parameters setting point of view. Only parameter to
be set is P2.1.1. (Nom.supply voltage). This parameter is linked to a grid monitoring
system, reactive current control (without feedback), etc.
Setting of other parameter is not obligatory. However, from adjusting evaluating some
informative values is necessary to set also few others parameters:
- P2.9.1, P2.9.2, P2.9.3, P2.9.4, because of correct evaluation of utilised PV panels
regarding to nominal inverter power.
- P2.1.3 (Generated power limit). This parameter is set to 0 if no power limit is
required. PV inverter is, thus, able to deliver nominal inverter power to the grid. Each
nonzero value limits generated power to this value.
Requested monitoring values (maximum 3) is possible to display on the panel. As a standard
Multimonitoring is chosen with following values:
- V1.25 Actual power
- V1.2 DC link voltage
- V1.33 Actual daily energy
33/42
In case of external power and power factor control it is necessary to enable this functionality
in service menu (available after entering the password). For this manipulation contact to
authorised person, because of each distributor company has own rules. Authorised person
must be provided with requested information in advance with a written application form.
7.5
Active fault menu (M4)
You can enter the Active faults menu from the Main menu by pressing Menu button right
when the location indication M4 is visible on the first line of the keypad display.
When a fault brings inverter to a stop, the location indication F1, the fault code, a short
description of the fault, and the fault type symbol will appear on the display. In addition, the
indication FAULT or ALARM is displayed and, in case of a FAULT, the red LED on the
keypad starts to blink. If several faults occur simultaneously, the list of active faults can be
browsed with the Browser buttons. When a fault occurs, you can enter the Fault time data
record menu indicated by T.1ÆT.#, by pressing Menu button right. In this menu, some
selected important data valid at the time of the fault are recorded. This feature will help the
user or the service per-son in determining the cause of the fault.
The memory of active faults can store a maximum of 10 faults in the order of appearance. The
display can be cleared with the reset button and the read-out will return to the same state it
was in before the fault trip. The faults are trying to autoreset after defined time periodically
with defined period P2.8.11. It also can be cleared with the reset button or with a reset signal
from the I/O terminal.
7.6
Fault history menu (M5)
You can enter the Fault history menu from the Main menu by pressing Menu button right
when the location indication M5 is visible on the first line of the keypad display.
All faults are stored in the Fault history menu where you can browse them with the Browser
buttons. Additionally, the Fault time data record pages are accessible for each fault. You can
return to the previous menu any time by pressing Menu button left. The memory can store a
maximum of 30 faults in order of appearance. The number of faults currently in the fault
history is shown on the value line of the main page (H1ÆH#). The order of the faults is
indicated by the location indication in the upper left corner of the display. The latest fault is
indicated by F5.1, the one before that by F5.2 and so on. If there are 30 uncleared faults in the
memory, the next fault will erase the oldest fault from the memory. Pressing the enter button
for about 2 to 3 seconds resets the whole fault history. The symbol H# will change to 0.
34/42
7.7
Fault codes
Fault codes, their reasons and possible reseting are listed in table below.
Note: When contacting the partner or producer because of a fault condition, always write
down all texts and codes visible on the keypad display.
Code Fault
1
Overcurrent
2
3
Overvoltage
Earth fault
7
Saturation
trip
8
System fault
9
10
11
13
Possible cause
Inverter has detected too high
a current (>1540A) in AC
cables:
- short circuit
DC voltage exceeded 911V.
Current measurement has
detected that the sum of
phase currents is not zero.
- Insulation failure in cables
Various causes:
- defective component
- component failure
- faulty operation
Note exceptional fault data
record Subcode in T.14:
S1 = Reserved
S2 = Reserved
S3 = Reserved
S4 = Reserved
S5 = Reserved
S6 = Reserved
S7 = Charging switch
S8=No power to driver card
S9 = Power unit
communication (TX)
S10 = Power unit
communication(Trip)
S11 = Power unit comm.
(Measurement)
Undervoltage DC-link voltage is under the
drive fault voltage limit.
- most probable cause: too
low a supply voltage
- internal fault
Input line
supervision
LineSyncFail
Input phase
supervision
Undertemper
ature
35/42
Correcting measures
Check connection to transformer.
Check cables.
Check all AC fuses.
Check AC surge arrester.
Check PV panels voltage level.
Check AC cables
- Cannot be reset from the keypad.
- Switch off power.
- DO NOT RE-CONNECT POWER!
- Contact your local distributor.
- If this fault occurs with fault 1
check AC cables.
Reset the fault and restart.
Should the fault re-occur, contact
your local distributor.
Input line phase is missing.
- In case of temporary supply voltage
break,reset the fault and restart the
frequency PV inverter.
- Check the supply voltage.
- If it is adequate, an internal failure
has occurred.
- Check input fuses
Check AC output (cables, voltage),
fuses, auxiliary voltage of main
contactor
Check supply voltage,fuses and cable.
Heatsink temperature is
under–10°C
Check function of heater (setting of
thermostat and air circuit breaker)
Input line phase is missing.
Code Fault
14
Power
module
overtemperat
ure
18
22
24
25
26
30
31
32
35
Possible cause
Heatsink temperature is over
90°C
Overtemperature warning is
issued when the heatsink
temperature exceeds 85°C.
Unbalance between power
modules in paralleled units.
Subcode in T.14:
S1 = Current unbalance
S2 = DC-Voltage unbalance
Parameter save fault
EEPROM
- faulty operation
checksum
- component failure
fault
Counter fault Values displayed on counters
are incorrect
Microprocess - faulty operation
or watchdog - component failure
fault
Start-up
- Start-up of the drive has
prevented
been prevented.
- Run request is ON when
new application is loaded to
drive
Safe disable
OPTAF board input have
been opened
IGBT
IGBT Inverter Bridge
temperature
overtemperature protection
(hardware)
has detected too high a short
term overload current
Fan cooling
Cooling fan of the power
module does not start, when
ON command is
given
Application
Problem in application
software
Unbalance
(Warning
only)
36
Control unit
37
Device
changed
(same type)
Control unit of inverter does
not control power unit and
vice versa.
Option board or power unit
changed.
New device of same type and
rating.
36/42
Correcting measures
- Check the correct amount and flow
of cooling air.
- Check the heatsink for dust.
- Check the ambient temperature.
- Check if back cooling outlets and
inlets are in good condition
- Check if external fans or their air
circuit breakers are OK.
Should the fault re-occur,contact your
local distributor.
Should the fault re-occur,contact your
local distributor.
Have a critical attitude towards
values shown on counters.
Reset the fault and restart.
Should the fault re-occur,contact your
local distributor.
- Cancel prevention of start-up if this
can be done safely.
- Remove Run Request.
-Cancel Safe Disable if this can be
done safely.
Contact your local distributor.
Contact your distributor. If you are
application programmer check the
application program.
Exchange the control unit. Contact
your local distributor.
Reset. Device is ready for use.
Old parameter settings will be used.
37/42
Code Fault
38
Device added
(same type)
39
Device
removed
40
Device
unknown
41
44
45
51
52
53
Keypad
communicati
on fault
Fieldbus
fault
Slot fault
59
Follower
communicati
on
Emergency
stop
MCC Open
64
70
71
Correcting measures
Reset. Device is ready for use.
Option board removed.
Reset. Device no longer available.
Unknown option board or
drive. Subcode in T.14:
S1 = Unknown device
S2 = Power1 not same type
as Power2
IGBT
IGBT Inverter Bridge
temperature
overtemperature
protection has detected too
high a short term overload
current
Device
Option board or power unit
changed
changed. New device of
(different
different type or different
type)
rating than the previous one.
Device added Option board of different
(different
type added.
type)
External fault Digital input fault.
54
63
Possible cause
Option board added.
LCL fan
monitor
LCL
Temperature
The connection between the
control keypad or NCDrive
and the inverter is broken.
The data connection between
the fieldbus Master and the
fieldbus board is broken
Defective option board or slot
SystemBus or CAN
communication broken
between Masterr – Follower.
Digital input fault.
Main contactor is open while
it is controlled to close. 3s for
fault
LCL Fan have been stopped
LCL have been overheated or
the signal is not connected to
input
Contact the distributor near to you.
Check cooling
Reset
Set the option board parameters
again.
Reset
Set the option board parameters
again.
- Remove fault situation from
external device.
Check keypad connection and
possible keypad cable.
Check installation.
If installation is correct contact the
nearest Vacon distributor.
Check board and slot. Contact your
local distributor.
Check OPT cards.
Check optical or CAN cable.
- Remove fault situation from
external device.
Check the main power switch of the
inverter and Acknowledge input.
Check fan. Check fan circuit breaker.
Check the LCL filter and signal
connection. Check external fan.
Code Fault
90
Grid
frequency
monitor
91
Grid voltage
monitor
92
Master/Follo
wer switch
fault
Earth fault
monitor
93
94
AC fuse fault
95
DC fuse fault
96
AC surge
arrester fault
97
DC surge
arrester fault
7.7.1
Fault decoding
Possible cause
Grid frequency measurement
has detected value out of
allowed limit for more then
allowed time.
Grid voltage measurement
has detected value out of
allowed limit for more then
allowed time.
No feedback to digital input
from the Master/Follower
switch (P2.2.1.14)
If selected by P2.2.1.15
potential free contact of
monitoring device indicates
earth insulation problem.
If selected by P2.2.1.16
Digital input monitors status
of AC fuses. Fuses must be
equipped with potential free
contact. All fuse contacts
have to be connected in
series.
If selected by P2.2.1.17
Digital input monitors status
of DC fuses. Fuses must be
equipped with potential free
contact. All fuse contacts
have to be connected in
series.
If selected by P2.2.1.18
Digital input monitors status
of AC surge arrester. Surge
arrester must be equipped
with potential free contacts.
All contacts have to be
connected in series.
If selected by P2.2.1.19
Digital input monitors status
of AC surge arrester. Surge
arrester must be equipped
with potential free contacts.
All contacts have to be
connected in series.
Fault codes are bits in two word:
ID1172:
B0 – overcurrent (F1)
38/42
Correcting measures
Wait 10 minutes to inverter automatic
restarting. (time could be different
according local requirement)
Wait 10 minutes to inverter automatic
restarting. (time could be different
according local requirement)
Check if device operates well.
Check insulation if DC and AC
power system.
39/42
B1 – overvoltage on DC bus (F2)
B2 – undervoltage on DC bus (F9)
B3 – line synchronization fault (F10)
B4 – earth faut (F3)
B5 – reserve (0)
B6 – high inverter temperature (F14)
B7 – LCL cooling fault (F71)
B8 – phase missing (F11)
B9 – reserve
B10 – HW card fault (F54)
B11 – AC line fuse fault (F94)
B12 – DC line fuse fault (F95)
B13 - reserve
B14 – System Bus Error (F59)
B15 – External earth insulation fault (F93)
ID1173:
B0 – reserve (0)
B1 – charging circuit fault
B2 – reserve (0)
B3 – reserve (0)
B4 – low inverter temperature (F13)
B5 – application program fault (F22)
B6 – External fault (F51)
B7 - reserve
B8 – internal communication fault (F25)
B9 – IGBT overheating (F31)
B10 – reserve (0)
B11 – inverter cooling fan fault (F32 or F41)
B12 – application fault (F35)
B13 – fault of power board, memory or control unit (F22 or F25 or F36)
B14 – main contactor fault (F64)
B15 - reserve (0)
7.7.2
Alarm decoding
Alarm codes:
ID1174:
B0 - FALSE
B1 - F29_thermistor or PT100 or LCL temperature
B2 - FALSE
B3 – line phase missing
B4 – FALSE
B5 - AC surge arrester fault
B6 - DC surge arrester fault
B7 - FALSE
B8 - overheating
B9 – SystemBus fault
B10 – LCL cooling fault
B11 – follower fault
B12 – earth insulation fault
40/42
B13 - M/F switch fault (in case of feedback from DC switch is used – depreciated
feature)
B14 - frequency limit (measurement has detected value out of allowed limit for more
then allowed time.)
B15 - supply voltage limit (measurement has detected value out of allowed limit for
more then allowed time.)
7.7.3
Auxiliary status word decoding
PV status word ID1889
B0 – validity of production history and daily production (1 – data are valid, 0 – dara
are refreshing)
B1 – Systembus Master
B2 – Systembus Follower
B3 – Inverter 1 on Systembus – Run request from Master
B4 – Inverter 2 on Systembus – Run request from Master
B5 – Inverter 3 on Systembus – Run request from Master
B6 – Inverter 4 on Systembus – Run request from Master
B7 - reserve
B8 – waiting for next autoreset after a fault
B9 – Inverter is in standby mode and it is waiting for next grid connection
B10 – Inverter has limited generated power because of high temperature
B11 – reserve
B12 – reserve
B13 - reserve
B14 – reserve
B15 - reserve
41/42
8
Appendix
8.1
Conversion tables
Conversion table: angle – Power Factor
Phase
angle
0°
0,5°
1°
1,5°
2°
2,5°
3°
3,5°
4°
4,5°
PF
1
0,9999
0,9998
0,9997
0,9994
0,9990
0,9986
0,9981
0,9976
0,9969
Phase
angle
5°
5,5°
6°
6,5°
7°
7,5°
8°
8,5°
9°
9,5°
PF
0,9962
0,9954
0,9945
0,9936
0,9925
0,9914
0,9903
0,9890
0,9976
0,9863
Phase
angle
10°
10,5°
11°
11,5°
12°
12,5°
13°
13,5°
14°
14,5°
PF
0,9848
0,9833
0,9816
0,9799
0,9781
0,9763
0,9744
0,9724
0,9703
0,9681
Phase
angle
15°
15,5°
16°
16,5°
17°
17,5°
18°
18,5°
19°
19,5°
PF
0,9659
0,9636
0,9613
0,9588
0,9563
0,9537
0,9511
0,9483
0,9455
0,9426
Phase
angle
20°
20,5°
21°
21,5°
22°
22,5°
23°
23,5°
24°
24,5
PF
0,9397
0,9367
0,9336
0,9304
0,9272
0,9239
0,9205
0,9171
0,9135
0,9100
Conversion table: Power Factor – angle
PF
1
0,995
0,990
0,985
0,980
0,975
Phase
angle
0°
5,73°
8,11°
9,94°
11,48°
12,84°
PF
0,970
0,965
0,960
0,955
0,950
0,945
Phase
angle
14,07°
15,20°
16,26°
17,25°
18,19°
19,09°
PF
0,940
0,935
0,930
0,925
0,920
0,915
Phase
angle
19,95°
20,77°
21,57°
22,33°
23,07°
23,79°
PF
0,910
0,905
0,900
0,895
0,890
0,885
Phase
angle
24,49°
25,18°
25,84°
26,49°
27,13°
27,75°
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www.imaocz.cz
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www.imao.sk
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
IMAO ELECTRICRO solutions S.R.L.
CROATIA
www.imao.ro
IMAO electric, d.o.o.
www.imao.hr
BOSNIA
AND HERCEGOVINA
IMAO electric BH, d.o.o.
www.imao.ba
IMAO electric, s.r.o.
Mládežnícka 108
017 01 Považská Bystrica
Slovakia
Phone: +421 42 44 318 79
Fax:
+421 42 44 318 80
E-mail: imao@imao.sk
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