R&S®RTO
Digital Oscilloscope
User Manual
(=@8K2)
User Manual
Test & Measurement
1316.0827.02 ─ 06
This manual describes the following R&S®RTO models:
●
R&S®RTO1002 (1316.1000K02)
●
R&S®RTO1004 (1316.1000K04)
●
R&S®RTO1012 (1316.1000K12)
●
R&S®RTO1014 (1316.1000K14)
●
R&S®RTO1022 (1316.1000K22)
●
R&S®RTO1024 (1316.1000K24)
●
R&S®RTO1044 (1316.1000K44)
In addition to the base unit, the following options are described:
●
R&S®RTO-K1, I²C and SPI (1304.8511.02)
●
R&S®RTO-K2, UART (1304.8528.02)
●
R&S®RTO-K3, CAN and LIN (1304.8534.02)
●
R&S®RTO-K4, FlexRay (1304.8540.02)
●
R&S®RTO-K301 Tek DPO7000 Emulation mode (3127.2981.02)
●
R&S®RTO-B1, MSO (1304.9901.03)
●
R&S®RTO-B4, OCXO (1304.8305.02)
The firmware of the instrument makes use of several valuable open source software packages. For information, see the "Open Source
Acknowledgement" on the user documentation CD-ROM (included in delivery).
Rohde & Schwarz would like to thank the open source community for their valuable contribution to embedded computing.
© 2012 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Muehldorfstr. 15, 81671 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: info@rohde-schwarz.com
Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®RTO is abbreviated as R&S RTO.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the attached EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a
condition fully complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation,
you must observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions
regarding these safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer
them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any intention other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore essential that only
skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be allowed to use the
product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this will be indicated at
the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions and the product
documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories.
Symbols and safety labels
Notice, general
danger location
Observe product
documentation
ON/OFF supply
voltage
Caution
when
handling
heavy
equipment
Standby
indication
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Danger of
electric
shock
Direct current
(DC)
Warning!
Hot surface
PE terminal
Alternating current
(AC)
Ground
Direct/alternating
current (DC/AC)
Ground
terminal
Be careful when
handling
electrostatic
sensitive
devices
Device fully protected by
double (reinforced) insulation
Page 1
Basic Safety Instructions
Tags and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
indicates the possibility of incorrect operation which can result in damage to
the product.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These tags are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European Economic
Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic areas or
military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the tags described here are always used
only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The use of tags in
connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation and in personal injury
or material damage.
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, pollution
severity 2, overvoltage category 2, use only indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level,
max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal
voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
death.
1171.0000.42-05.00
Page 2
Basic Safety Instructions
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with an earthing contact and protective earth connection.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective earth connection either in the feed line or in the product itself is
not permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension
cords or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that
they are safe to use.
4. If the product does not have a power switch for disconnection from the AC supply network, the plug of
the connecting cable is regarded as the disconnecting device. In such cases, always ensure that the
power plug is easily reachable and accessible at all times (corresponding to the length of connecting
cable, approx. 2 m). Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing disconnection from
the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into racks or systems, a
disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cable on a regular basis to
ensure that it is in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and carefully
laying the power cable, you can ensure that the cable will not be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fused with max. 16 A (higher fuse
only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fusing, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be taken to
avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the PE terminal on site and the
product's PE conductor must be made first before any other connection is made. The product may be
installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fused in such a way that anyone who has access to the product, as
well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
1171.0000.42-05.00
Page 3
Basic Safety Instructions
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1. Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal", item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no
other settings or functions may be used as described in the product documentation. The objective is to
prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
1171.0000.42-05.00
Page 4
Basic Safety Instructions
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation
resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure the
continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If a cell or a battery has been swallowed, seek
medical aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
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Page 5
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
Waste disposal
1. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
2. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
Es imprescindible leer y observar las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
adjunto de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de
seguridad. Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario
deberá atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a
estas informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
1171.0000.42-05.00
Page 6
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios.
Símbolos y definiciones de seguridad
Aviso: punto de
peligro general
Observar la
documentación
del producto
Tensión de
alimentación de
PUESTA EN
MARCHA /
PARADA
Atención en
el manejo de
dispositivos
de peso
elevado
Indicación de
estado de
espera
(Standby)
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Peligro de
choque
eléctrico
Advertencia:
superficie
caliente
Corriente
continua (DC)
Conexión a
conductor de
protección
Corriente alterna
(AC)
Conexión
a tierra
Conexión
a masa
Corriente
continua /
Corriente alterna
(DC/AC)
Aviso: Cuidado
en el manejo de
dispositivos
sensibles a la
electrostática
(ESD)
El aparato está protegido
en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble
(reforzado)
Page 7
Informaciones elementales de seguridad
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
PELIGRO identifica un peligro inminente con riesgo elevado que
provocará muerte o lesiones graves si no se evita.
ADVERTENCIA identifica un posible peligro con riesgo medio de
provocar muerte o lesiones (graves) si no se evita.
ATENCIÓN identifica un peligro con riesgo reducido de provocar
lesiones leves o moderadas si no se evita.
AVISO indica la posibilidad de utilizar mal el producto y, como
consecuencia, dañarlo.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, grado de suciedad 2, categoría de sobrecarga eléctrica 2, uso
solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta
4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de ±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de
±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, pueden
causarse lesiones o incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
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Informaciones elementales de seguridad
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, se deberá considerar
el enchufe del cable de conexión como interruptor. En estos casos se deberá asegurar que el enchufe
siempre sea de fácil acceso (de acuerdo con la longitud del cable de conexión, aproximadamente
2 m). Los interruptores de función o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si los
productos sin interruptor están integrados en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el
interruptor en el nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
1171.0000.42-05.00
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Informaciones elementales de seguridad
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados, los llamados alérgenos
(p. ej. el níquel). Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen reacciones
alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la conjuntiva o
dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las causas y
evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación", punto 1.
1171.0000.42-05.00
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Informaciones elementales de seguridad
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Mantener baterías y celdas fuera del alcance de los niños. En caso de ingestión de una celda o
batería, avisar inmediatamente a un médico.
5. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
1171.0000.42-05.00
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Informaciones elementales de seguridad
6. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
7. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
8. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación
1. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
2. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
1171.0000.42-05.00
Page 12
Customer Information Regarding Product Disposal
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) Act is an implementation of
the following EC directives:
•
•
2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and
2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in
electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS).
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
Once the lifetime of a product has ended, this product must not be disposed of
in the standard domestic refuse. Even disposal via the municipal collection
points for waste electrical and electronic equipment is not permitted.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept for the
environmental-friendly disposal or recycling of waste material and fully assumes its
obligation as a producer to take back and dispose of electrical and electronic waste
in accordance with the ElektroG Act.
Please contact your local service representative to dispose of the product.
1171.0200.52-01.01
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
customersupport@rohde-schwarz.com
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
customer.support@rsa.rohde-schwarz.com
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
customersupport.la@rohde-schwarz.com
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
customersupport.asia@rohde-schwarz.com
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
customersupport.china@rohde-schwarz.com
1171.0200.22-06.00
Qualitätszertifikat
Certificate of quality
Certificat de qualité
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
JJ Energie-effiziente,
RoHS-konforme Produkte
JJ Kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung
nachhaltiger Umweltkonzepte
JJ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
Dear Customer,
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. You are
thus assured of receiving a product
that is manufactured using the most
modern methods available. This
product was developed, manufactured
and tested in compliance with our
quality management system standards. The Rohde & Schwarz quality
management system is certified
according to standards such as
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Cher client,
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous disposez
donc d’un produit fabriqué d’après les
méthodes les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les tests
respectent nos normes de gestion
qualité. Le système de gestion qualité
de Rohde & Schwarz a été homologué,
entre autres, conformément aux normes ISO 9001 et ISO 14001.
Engagement écologique
à efficience énergétique
JJ Amélioration continue de la durabilité
environnementale
JJ Système de gestion de l’environnement certifié selon ISO 14001
JJ Produits
Environmental commitment
JJ Energy-efficient products
JJ Continuous improvement in
environmental sustainability
JJ ISO 14001-certified environmental
management system
1171.0200.11 V 04.01
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf eines
Rohde & Schwarz-Produktes entschieden. Hiermit erhalten Sie ein
nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden
hergestelltes Produkt. Es wurde nach
den Regeln unseres Qualitätsmanagementsystems entwickelt, gefertigt
und geprüft. Das Rohde & SchwarzQualitätsmanagementsystem ist u.a.
nach ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
Certified Quality System
R&S®RTO
Contents
Contents
1 Preface..................................................................................................11
1.1
Documentation Overview...........................................................................................11
1.2
Conventions Used in the Documentation.................................................................12
1.2.1
Typographical Conventions...........................................................................................12
1.2.2
Conventions for Procedure Descriptions.......................................................................12
2 Acquisition and Setup.........................................................................13
2.1
Basics...........................................................................................................................13
2.1.1
Vertical System.............................................................................................................13
2.1.2
Sampling and Acquisition..............................................................................................15
2.1.3
Horizontal System.........................................................................................................19
2.1.4
Probes...........................................................................................................................20
2.2
Setting Up the Waveform...........................................................................................24
2.2.1
Setting Up the Signal Input with Autoset.......................................................................24
2.2.2
Adjusting the Signal Input Manually..............................................................................24
2.2.3
Setting the Acquisition...................................................................................................24
2.2.4
Starting and Stopping Acquisition.................................................................................25
2.2.5
Using the Roll Mode......................................................................................................26
2.2.6
Using Ultra Segmentation.............................................................................................26
2.2.7
Using Digital Filters.......................................................................................................26
2.3
Reference for Acquisition and Setup........................................................................27
2.3.1
Horizontal Settings........................................................................................................27
2.3.2
Vertical Settings............................................................................................................38
2.3.3
Probes...........................................................................................................................41
2.3.4
Digital Filter Setup.........................................................................................................49
2.3.5
Horizontal Accuracy......................................................................................................51
3 Triggers.................................................................................................53
3.1
Basics of Triggering...................................................................................................53
3.2
Setting Up the Trigger................................................................................................55
3.2.1
Configuring the Trigger Event.......................................................................................55
3.2.2
Positioning the Trigger..................................................................................................55
3.2.3
Using Holdoff.................................................................................................................56
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3.2.4
Setting Up a Trigger Sequence.....................................................................................56
3.2.5
Qualifying the Trigger....................................................................................................57
3.3
Reference for Triggers................................................................................................57
3.3.1
Events...........................................................................................................................58
3.3.2
Trigger Qualification......................................................................................................77
3.3.3
Noise Reject..................................................................................................................79
3.3.4
Sequence......................................................................................................................80
3.3.5
Trigger Position.............................................................................................................83
3.3.6
Control...........................................................................................................................85
4 Display..................................................................................................88
4.1
Display Customization................................................................................................88
4.1.1
Display Settings............................................................................................................88
4.1.2
Adjusting the Display.....................................................................................................89
4.1.3
Reference for Display Settings......................................................................................93
4.2
Zoom..........................................................................................................................101
4.2.1
Methods of Zooming...................................................................................................101
4.2.2
Zooming for Details.....................................................................................................103
4.2.3
Reference for Zoom....................................................................................................108
4.3
XY-diagram................................................................................................................111
4.3.1
Displaying an XY-diagram...........................................................................................112
4.3.2
Reference for XY-diagram..........................................................................................113
4.4
History........................................................................................................................114
4.4.1
About History...............................................................................................................115
4.4.2
Using History...............................................................................................................115
4.4.3
Reference for History..................................................................................................117
5 Measurements....................................................................................121
5.1
Cursor measurements..............................................................................................121
5.1.1
Manual Measurements with Cursors...........................................................................121
5.1.2
Performing Cursor Measurements..............................................................................122
5.1.3
Reference for Cursor Measurements..........................................................................125
5.2
Automatic Measurements........................................................................................129
5.2.1
Measurement Types and Results...............................................................................129
5.2.2
Performing Automatic Measurements.........................................................................141
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5.2.3
Reference for Automatic Measurements.....................................................................152
6 Mathematics.......................................................................................181
6.1
+Mathematical Waveforms.......................................................................................181
6.1.1
Displaying Math Waveforms.......................................................................................181
6.1.2
Math Setup..................................................................................................................182
6.2
Mathematical Functions and Formulas...................................................................185
6.2.1
Optimized Graphical Editor.........................................................................................185
6.2.2
Advanced Expressions................................................................................................187
6.3
FFT Analysis..............................................................................................................192
6.3.1
Fundamentals of FFT Analysis...................................................................................192
6.3.2
Configuring FFT Waveforms.......................................................................................196
6.3.3
FFT Configuration Settings.........................................................................................198
7 Reference Waveforms.......................................................................208
7.1
Working with Reference Waveforms.......................................................................208
7.2
Reference Waveforms..............................................................................................209
7.2.1
Reference tab..............................................................................................................209
7.2.2
Scaling........................................................................................................................211
7.2.3
Original Attributes........................................................................................................213
8 Mask Testing......................................................................................215
8.1
About Mask Testing..................................................................................................215
8.1.1
Results of a Mask Test................................................................................................215
8.2
Working with Masks..................................................................................................217
8.2.1
Setting Up User Masks...............................................................................................217
8.2.2
Setting Up a Mask Test...............................................................................................221
8.2.3
Configuring the Mask and Hit Display.........................................................................221
8.2.4
Running a Mask Test..................................................................................................222
8.2.5
Saving and Loading Masks.........................................................................................223
8.2.6
Mask Testing on History Acquisitions.........................................................................224
8.3
Reference for Masks.................................................................................................224
8.3.1
Test Definition.............................................................................................................224
8.3.2
Mask Definition............................................................................................................227
8.3.3
Event Actions /Reset ..................................................................................................233
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8.3.4
Mask Display...............................................................................................................235
9 Search Functions...............................................................................236
9.1
Search Conditions and Results...............................................................................236
9.1.1
Search Conditions.......................................................................................................236
9.1.2
Search Results............................................................................................................236
9.2
Configuring and Performing Searches...................................................................237
9.2.1
Configuring a Trigger Search......................................................................................237
9.2.2
Configuring a Frequency Marker Search....................................................................238
9.2.3
Configuring the Search Results Presentation.............................................................239
9.2.4
Clearing Search Results.............................................................................................241
9.2.5
Defining Noise Rejection for Searches.......................................................................241
9.3
Reference for Search Settings.................................................................................241
9.3.1
Setup Tab....................................................................................................................242
9.3.2
Scope Tab...................................................................................................................244
9.3.3
Result Presentation.....................................................................................................246
9.3.4
Noise Reject................................................................................................................248
10 Protocol Analysis...............................................................................250
10.1
Basics of Protocol Analysis.....................................................................................250
10.1.1
Configuration - General Settings.................................................................................251
10.1.2
Display........................................................................................................................251
10.1.3
Protocol Translation Tables........................................................................................253
10.1.4
Bit Pattern Editor.........................................................................................................255
10.2
I²C ..............................................................................................................................256
10.2.1
The I²C Protocol..........................................................................................................257
10.2.2
Analyzing I²C Signals..................................................................................................258
10.2.3
Reference for I²C.........................................................................................................260
10.3
SPI Bus.......................................................................................................................269
10.3.1
The SPI Protocol.........................................................................................................269
10.3.2
Analyzing SPI Signals.................................................................................................270
10.3.3
Reference for SPI........................................................................................................271
10.4
UART / RS232............................................................................................................278
10.4.1
The UART / RS232 Interface......................................................................................278
10.4.2
Reference for UART/RS-232 Interface.......................................................................279
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10.5
CAN (Option R&S RTO-K3)......................................................................................286
10.5.1
Reference for CAN......................................................................................................286
10.6
LIN (Option R&S RTO-K3)........................................................................................296
10.6.1
The LIN Protocol.........................................................................................................296
10.6.2
Reference for LIN........................................................................................................297
10.7
FlexRay (Option R&S RTO-K4)................................................................................307
10.7.1
Reference for FlexRay................................................................................................307
11 Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTO-B1).......................................320
11.1
About MSO.................................................................................................................321
11.2
Analyzing Digital Signals.........................................................................................324
11.2.1
Using Digital Probes....................................................................................................324
11.2.2
Configuring Digital Channels and Parallel Buses........................................................325
11.2.3
Adjusting the Display of Digital Channels and Parallel Buses....................................325
11.2.4
Setting the Logical Thresholds....................................................................................326
11.2.5
Triggering on Digital Signals and Parallel Buses........................................................326
11.2.6
Performing Measurements on Digital Signals.............................................................327
11.3
Reference for MSO....................................................................................................328
11.3.1
MSO Configuration......................................................................................................328
11.3.2
MSO Display...............................................................................................................332
11.3.3
MSO Digital Probes.....................................................................................................332
11.3.4
Trigger Settings for Digital Signals and Parallel Buses...............................................332
11.3.5
MSO Resolution..........................................................................................................342
12 Data and Results Management.........................................................344
12.1
Saving, Loading and Printing Data..........................................................................344
12.1.1
Configuring Printer Output and Printing......................................................................344
12.1.2
Saving and Loading Waveform Data..........................................................................345
12.1.3
Saving and Loading Settings......................................................................................346
12.1.4
Restoring Settings.......................................................................................................348
12.1.5
Defining Default File Paths and Names......................................................................349
12.2
Reference for FILE Settings.....................................................................................349
12.2.1
Save/Recall.................................................................................................................350
12.2.2
Autonaming.................................................................................................................354
12.2.3
User-defined Preset....................................................................................................355
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12.2.4
File Selection Dialog...................................................................................................355
12.3
Reference for PRINT Settings..................................................................................357
13 General Instrument Setup.................................................................360
13.1
Setting Up the Instrument........................................................................................360
13.2
Reference for General Instrument Settings............................................................360
13.2.1
Setup...........................................................................................................................360
13.2.2
Front Panel Setup.......................................................................................................368
13.2.3
Self-alignment.............................................................................................................369
14 Software and Network Operation.....................................................371
14.1
Operating System.....................................................................................................371
14.1.1
Virus Protection...........................................................................................................371
14.1.2
Service Packs and Updates........................................................................................371
14.1.3
Logon..........................................................................................................................372
14.1.4
Accessing Windows XP functionality..........................................................................372
14.2
Firmware Update.......................................................................................................373
14.3
Software Options......................................................................................................374
14.3.1
Mode...........................................................................................................................375
14.4
Operation in a Network.............................................................................................376
14.4.1
Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection.....................................................................376
14.4.2
LXI Configuration........................................................................................................379
15 Maintenance.......................................................................................385
15.1
Cleaning.....................................................................................................................385
15.2
Troubleshooting with RTOServiceReporter...........................................................386
15.3
Data Security.............................................................................................................386
15.4
Storing and Packing.................................................................................................386
15.5
Performing a Selftest................................................................................................386
15.6
Reference for Maintenance Settings.......................................................................387
15.6.1
Board Detection/Maintenance.....................................................................................387
15.6.2
Selftest........................................................................................................................387
16 Remote Control..................................................................................389
16.1
Basics.........................................................................................................................389
16.1.1
Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols...................................................................389
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Contents
16.1.2
Starting and Stopping Remote Control.......................................................................391
16.1.3
Messages ...................................................................................................................392
16.1.4
SCPI Command Structure...........................................................................................395
16.1.5
Command Sequence and Synchronization.................................................................403
16.1.6
Status Reporting System............................................................................................405
16.1.7
General Programming Recommendations..................................................................417
16.2
Command Reference................................................................................................418
16.2.1
Finding the Appropriate Command.............................................................................418
16.2.2
Frequently Used Parameters and Suffixes.................................................................418
16.2.3
Common Commands..................................................................................................422
16.2.4
General Remote Settings............................................................................................426
16.2.5
Acquisition and Setup.................................................................................................427
16.2.6
Trigger.........................................................................................................................453
16.2.7
Display........................................................................................................................492
16.2.8
Cursor Measurements.................................................................................................515
16.2.9
Automatic Measurements...........................................................................................522
16.2.10
Mathematics................................................................................................................575
16.2.11
Reference Waveforms................................................................................................590
16.2.12
Mask Testing...............................................................................................................597
16.2.13
Search Commands.....................................................................................................611
16.2.14
Protocols.....................................................................................................................643
16.2.15
Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTO-B1).................................................................738
16.2.16
Data Management.......................................................................................................753
16.2.17
General Instrument Setup...........................................................................................767
16.2.18
Maintenance................................................................................................................771
16.2.19
Status Reporting.........................................................................................................771
A Menu Overview...................................................................................776
A.1
File Menu....................................................................................................................776
A.2
Horizontal Menu........................................................................................................777
A.3
Trigger Menu.............................................................................................................777
A.4
Vertical Menu.............................................................................................................778
A.5
Math Menu.................................................................................................................778
A.6
Cursor Menu..............................................................................................................778
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Contents
A.7
Meas Menu.................................................................................................................779
A.8
Masks Menu...............................................................................................................779
A.9
Search Menu..............................................................................................................779
A.10
Protocol Menu...........................................................................................................780
A.11
Display Menu.............................................................................................................780
List of Commands..............................................................................782
Index....................................................................................................804
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R&S®RTO
Preface
Documentation Overview
1 Preface
1.1 Documentation Overview
The user documentation delivered with the R&S RTO consists of the following parts:
●
Online Help system on the instrument
●
"Getting Started" printed manual in English
●
Documentation CD-ROM with:
– Getting Started
–
User Manual
–
Service Manual
–
Data sheet and product brochure
–
Links to useful sites on the R&S internet
Online Help
The Online Help is embedded in the instrument's firmware. It offers quick, context-sensitive access to the complete information needed for operation and programming.
Getting Started
The English edition of this manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form. The
manual is also available in other languages in PDF format on the Documentation CDROM. It provides the information needed to set up and start working with the instrument.
Basic operations and typical measurement examples are described. The manual includes
also general information, e.g., Safety Instructions.
User Manual
The User Manual is available in PDF format - in printable form - on the Documentation
CD-ROM. In this manual, all instrument functions are described in detail. Furthermore, it
provides an introduction to remote control and a complete description of the remote control commands with programming examples. Information on maintenance, instrument
interfaces and error messages is also given.
Service Manual
The Service Manual is available in PDF format - in printable form - on the Documentation
CD-ROM. It informs on how to check compliance with rated specifications, on instrument
function, repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination. It contains all information required
for repairing the instrument by the replacement of modules.
Documentation updates
You can download the newest version of the "Getting Started" and "User Manual" from
the "Downloads > Manuals" section on the Rohde & Schwarz "Scope of the Art" Web
page: http://www.scope-of-the-art.com/product/rto.html.
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Preface
Conventions Used in the Documentation
The current online help is part of the instrument firmware, and it is installed together with
the firmware. Updates are also available in the "Downloads > Firmware" section on the
Rohde & Schwarz "Scope of the Art" Web page.
1.2 Conventions Used in the Documentation
1.2.1 Typographical Conventions
The following text markers are used throughout this documentation:
Convention
Description
"Graphical user interface elements"
All names of graphical user interface elements on the
screen, such as dialog boxes, menus, options, buttons, and softkeys are enclosed by quotation marks.
KEYS
Key names are written in capital letters.
File names, commands, program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen
output are distinguished by their font.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
​Links
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are
enclosed by quotation marks.
1.2.2 Conventions for Procedure Descriptions
When describing how to operate the instrument, several alternative methods may be
available to perform the same task. In this case, the procedure using the touch screen is
described. Any elements that can be activated by touching can also be clicked using an
additionally connected mouse. The alternative procedure using the keys on the instrument or the on-screen keyboard is only described if it deviates from the standard operating procedures.
The term "select" may refer to any of the described methods, i.e. using a finger on the
touchscreen, a mouse pointer in the display, or a key on the instrument or on a keyboard.
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Acquisition and Setup
Basics
2 Acquisition and Setup
This chapter describes the horizontal and vertical settings as well as the acquisition and
probe setup.
2.1 Basics
This chapter provides background information on the essential settings in the vertical and
horizontal systems, on acquisition setup and probing.
2.1.1 Vertical System
The controls and parameters of the vertical system are used to scale and position the
waveform vertically.
2.1.1.1
Input coupling
The input coupling influences the signal path between input connector and the following
internal signal stage. The coupling can be set to DC, AC, or ground.
2.1.1.2
●
DC coupling shows all of an input signal. DC coupling is available with 1 MΩ input
impedance to connect standard passive probes. DC coupling is the default for 50 Ω
input impedance.
●
AC coupling is useful if the DC component of a signal is of no interest. AC coupling
blocks the DC component of the signal so that the waveform is centered around zero
volts.
●
Ground coupling disconnects the input signal from the vertical system to see the
ground level (zero volts) on the screen. Ground coupling is useful for reference purposes.
Vertical scale and position
Vertical scale and vertical position directly affect the resolution of the waveform amplitude. The vertical scale corresponds to the ADC input range. To get the full resolution of
the ADC, waveforms should cover most of the height of the diagram.
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Fig. 2-1: Input range and resolution of the ADC
With R&S RTO, you can work with multiple diagrams, and each diagram obtains the full
vertical resolution, no matter where the diagram is placed. Therefore, use a separate
diagram for each waveform instead of the traditional setup that arranges the waveforms
side by side in one diagram.
Fig. 2-2: Traditional setup of multiple waveforms in one diagram: reduced resolution
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Acquisition and Setup
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Fig. 2-3: R&S RTO setup of multiple waveforms in separate diagrams: best resolution
2.1.1.3
Bandwidth
For analog applications the highest signal frequency determines the required oscilloscope bandwidth. The oscilloscope bandwidth should be slightly higher than the maximum frequency included in the analog test signal to measure the amplitude with very little
measurement error.
Most test signals are more complex than a simple sine wave and include several spectral
components. A digital signal, for example, is built up of several odd harmonics. As a rule
of thumb, for digital signals the oscilloscope bandwidth should be 5 times higher than the
clock frequency to be measured.
The oscilloscope is not a stand-alone system. You need a probe to measure the signal
of interest, and the probe has a limited bandwidth, too. The combination of oscilloscope
and probe creates a system bandwidth. To maintain the oscilloscope bandwidth, that is,
to reduce the effect of the probe on the system bandwidth, the probe bandwidth should
exceed the bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the recommended factor is 1.5 x oscilloscope
bandwidth.
See also: ​chapter 2.1.4.1, "Voltage Probes", on page 21
2.1.2 Sampling and Acquisition
The vertical system of a digital oscilloscope conditions the test signal in a way that the
following A/D Converter (ADC) can transform the measured voltage into digital data.
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2.1.2.1
Sampling and Processing
The A/D converter samples the continuous signal under test at specific points in time and
delivers digital values called ADC samples. The rate at which the converter is working
is the ADC sample rate, a constant value usually specified in GHz: fADC = 1 / TI
The digital ADC samples are processed according to the acquisition settings. The result
is a waveform record that contains waveform samples and is stored in the waveform
memory. The waveform samples are displayed on the screen and build up the waveform.
The number of waveform samples in one waveform record is called record length, and
the rate of recording waveform samples - the number of waveform samples per second
- is the sample rate. The higher the sample rate, the better is the resolution and the more
details of the waveform are visible.
Maximum sample rate on R&S RTO1044
R&S RTO1044 can work with double maximum realtime sample rate compared to other
R&S RTO instruments. This high sample rate is achieved by interleaving two channels:
channel 1 and 2 are interleaved, and also channel 3 and 4. Interleaving assumes that
only one of the paired channels can be used - either channel 1 or channel 2, and either
channel 3 or 4.
Using a channel on R&S RTO oscilloscopes is more than displaying it. In the background,
without displaying the channel, it can serve as trigger source, as source of a math waveform, cursor or automatic measurement. As soon as the second channel of a pair is used
in one way or another, the interleaving mode is disabled and the realtime sample rate is
limited to the usual value of 10 GSa/s.
Minimum sample rate and aliasing
A sufficient resolution is essential for correct reconstruction of the waveform. If the signal
is undersampled, aliasing occurs - a false waveform is displayed. To avoid aliasing and
accurately reconstruct a signal, Nyquist theorem postulates that the sample rate must be
at least twice as fast as the highest frequency component of the signal. However, the
theorem assumes ideal conditions, so the Nyquist sample rate is usually not sufficient.
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Fig. 2-4: Waveforms acquired with different sample rates
This means that the sample rate must be set to a value 3 to 5 times the fastest frequency
component of the signal. A higher sample rate increases signal fidelity, increases the
chance to capture glitches and other signal anomalies, and improves the zoom-in capabilities.
2.1.2.2
Acquisition Settings
The sample rate can be the same as the constant ADC sample rate, or higher, or lower.
To get a higher sample rate, methods of resolution enhancement are used: interpolation
and equivalent time sampling. To reduce the sample rate, decimation methods help:
sample, peak detect, high resolution and RMS.
As digital waveform data is stored in the memory, and the memory can save many waveform records, further waveform arithmetic processing is possible: average and envelope waveforms are resulting waveforms, created from a composite of sample points
taken from multiple acquisitions.
The R&S RTO provides the following acquisition features:
●
You can combine resolution enhancement and waveform decimation modes with
waveform arithmetic.
●
You can display up to three waveforms from one input signal and apply different
decimation and arithmetic to each waveform.
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2.1.2.3
Acquisition Control
You can run the R&S RTO in two ways:
●
Continuous: the instrument acquires data until you stop it manually.
●
NxSingle: the instrument samples and processes a specified number of acquisitions.
The determining point of an acquisition is the trigger. It defines the time-zero point in the
waveform record. The instrument acquires continuously and keeps the sample points to
fill the pre-trigger part of the waveform record. When the trigger occurs, the instrument
continues acquisition until the post-trigger part of the waveform record is filled. Then it
stops acquiring and waits for the next trigger. When a trigger is recognized, the instrument
will not accept another trigger until the acquisition is complete.
The trigger modes define how the instrument triggers:
●
Normal: The instrument acquires a waveform only if a real trigger occurs, that is, if
all trigger conditions are fulfilled.
●
Auto: The instrument triggers repeatedly after a fixed time interval if the trigger conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes precedence. If the real trigger
is faster than the auto trigger, both modes are virtually the same.
In practice, both trigger modes are useful: The auto mode lets you see the signal with
very little adjustment, while the normal mode selects the interesting part of the waveform.
If you want to acquire a specified number of waveforms with NxSingle, make sure to
select the normal trigger mode. Thus you get only the required number of interesting
acquisitions.
See also: ​chapter 3, "Triggers", on page 53
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2.1.3 Horizontal System
2.1.3.1
Parameters of the Horizontal System
The control parameters of the horizontal system are tightly connected. Thus, changing
one parameter affects the other parameters as well.
The mathematical dependencies can be summarized as follows:
The time scale can be changed, all other parameters are adjusted automatically.
The number of divisions is 10, this is the only constant parameter.
When you set up horizontal parameters, you can choose whether the record length or
the resolution should remain constant.
●
With constant resolution, increasing the time scale also increases the record length,
and vice versa. You can limit the record length to a maximum value.
●
With constant record length, increasing the time scale coarsens the resolution, that
is, the time between two waveform samples gets longer.
For both settings, the "Auto adjustment" ensures a sufficient resolution to prevent undersampling.
2.1.3.2
Horizontal Position
As described before in ​chapter 2.1.2.3, "Acquisition Control", on page 18, the trigger
defines the time-zero point in the waveform record.
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Two parameters set the position of the horizontal acquisition window in relation to the
trigger point: reference point (time reference) and trigger offset. With these parameters
you choose the part of the waveform you want to see: around the trigger, before, or after
the trigger.
2.1.4 Probes
A probe connects the signal source (DUT) to the oscilloscope, and delivers the signal to
be measured. It is the essential first link in the measurement chain.
An ideal probe fulfills the following requirements:
●
Safe and reliable contacts
●
Infinite bandwidth
●
The probe should not load the signal source and thus impact the circuit operation.
●
The connection should not introduce or suppress signal components (hum, noise,
filter) and thus degrade or distort the transferred signal.
In reality, the probe can never be an ideal one, it always affects the signal transmission
and the signal source, and thus the measured signal. It depends on the frequency to be
measured and on the signal source to determine the acceptable loading, and to determine
which kind of probe delivers good results.
The solution depends on the quantity to be measured with respect to:
●
Signal type: voltage, current, power, pressure, optical, etc.
●
Signal amplitude: The oscilloscope itself can only display voltages in a limited range.
Most probes can adjust the dynamic range to amplitudes from a few mV to 10 V.
Smaller or much larger signals require specialized equipment.
●
Signal frequency: High frequencies require advanced equipment in order to get correct results.
●
Source characteristic: The source impedance is the decisive factor when choosing
the suitable connection.
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2.1.4.1
Voltage Probes
The following table provides an overview on common voltage probes and their usage.
Table 2-1: Voltage probes overview
Probe type
Attenuation
Typical bandwidth
range
Oscilloscope
input
Usage
Passive, high impedance
1:1
10 MHz
1 MΩ
Low speed, low level
signals
Passive, high impedance
10:1
500 MHz
1 MΩ
General purpose
Passive, low impedance
10:1
up to 10 GHz
50 Ω
High frequency
Active, single-ended
10:1
up to 10 GHz
50 Ω
High speed
Active, differential
10:1
50 Ω
Floating
For a list of recommended probes refer to the R&S RTO product brochure.
Besides the possible input voltage range, two factors are very important when selecting
a voltage probe: Bandwidth and impedance over frequency.
●
Bandwidth:
The combination of probe and oscilloscope builds up a system. The resulting system
bandwidth is approximately determined with:
1
BWsystem

1
 
 BW probe

2


1
 

 BWscope






2
To measure the signal with low measurement error, the system bandwidth should be
higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. The probe bandwidth
must be even higher than the system bandwidth.
●
Impedance:
A minimum impedance is required to keep the circuit loading low. Over frequency,
the impedance decreases, in particular with passive probes. The probe impedance
should be approximately 10 times the impedance of the circuit test point at the highest
signal frequency.
Passive voltage probes
Passive probes have the following qualities:
●
No active components inside
●
BNC connector for universal use
●
Compensation needs to be executed when the probe is connected to a scope input:
LF compensation matches the probe (mainly cable) capacitance to the oscilloscope
input capacitance.
●
With high impedance probes, the impedance varies significantly over frequency.
●
With low impedance probes, the impedance variation over frequency is low, but the
load on the source is high.
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If you use passive probes, remember some recommendations:
●
Use a probe recommended for your oscilloscope model.
●
Use a ground lead as short as possible to minimize the effect of ground lead inductance. The resonance frequency can be much lower than the system bandwidth and
thus can affect the measurement results, in particular, if you measure steep edge rise
times.
●
Select a probe that has a bandwidth of 5 to 10 times the highest frequency being
measured. This will preserve the harmonics and thus the waveform integrity.
Active voltage probes - general
Active probes require operating power from the instrument and have a proprietary interface to the instrument. Their main qualities are:
●
Low loading on signal source
●
The probe is automatically recognized by the instrument, no adjustment is required.
●
Adjustable DC offset at probe tip allows for high resolution on small AC signals which
are superimposed on DC levels.
●
Connections should be as short as possible to keep the usable bandwidth high.
●
The operating voltage range has to be observed.
●
The probe impedance depends on the signal frequency.
RT-ZS single-ended active probes and RT-ZD differential active probes provide special
features for easier use and precise measurements. These special featuers are not available on RT-ZSxxE probes.
●
The micro button on the probe head remotely controls important functions on the
instrument, like running and stopping the acquisition, autoset, auto zero and setting
the offset to mean value.
●
The R&S ProbeMeter measures DC voltages between the probe tip and the ground
connection with very high precision. The result is displayed on the instrument's
screen. So you can check DC voltages with different levels without having to adjust
the measurement range of the oscilloscope. The R&S ProbeMeter also measures
the zero error of the probe to optimize measurement results at small signal levels.
When you connect an R&S RT-ZSxx active probe to a channel input of the R&S RTO,
the oscilloscope recognizes the probe, reads the identification and calibration data from
the probe box and shows the result in the "Setup" and "Probe Attributes" tabs. This data
together with the deskew time for a given channel is stored and processed by the
R&S RTO. If you connect the probe the next time to the same channel, the information
is fetched and used.
Differential active probes
Differential active probes are designed to measure signals that are referenced against
each other, and voltages that are not references to ground, for example twisted pair signal
lines. The R&S RT-ZD probes are differential probes with high input impedance, they can
be used to measure voltages between any two test points.
Compared with two-channel measurement setup with single-ended probes, the measurement with differential probes is symmetric due to the same amplification and cable
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length on both paths. It is also immune to interference and noise and occupies only one
input channel.
A differential probe has three sockets: the positive signal socket (+), the negative signal
socket (-), and the ground socket.
Differential probes provide multiple input voltages:
●
Differential mode input voltage (Vin)
Voltage between the positive and negative signal sockets
●
Positive single-ended input voltage (Vp)
Voltage between the positive signal socket and the ground socket
●
Negative single-ended input voltage (Vn)
Voltage between the negative signal socket and the ground socket
●
Common mode input voltage (Vcm)
Mean voltage between the signal sockets and the ground socket
Two of these voltages are independent values, the other two are dependent values:
Vin  Vp  Vn
Vcm 
Vp  Vn
2
R&S RT-ZD probes detect only differential input voltages and provide it to the oscilloscope. Common mode signals are suppressed by the probe. This characteristic is described by the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):
CMRR 
Differenti alGain
CommonMode Gain
In addition, the R&S ProbeMeter of R&S RT-ZD differential probes can measure differential and common mode DC voltages. The measurement result is displayed on the
oscilloscope's screen. The common mode mesurement of the R&S ProbeMeter allows
to check the input voltage relative to ground and is a convenient way to detect breaches
of the operating voltage window, and the reason of unwanted clippings.
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R&S®RTO
Acquisition and Setup
Setting Up the Waveform
2.2 Setting Up the Waveform
This chapter contains the fundamental procedures for setting up the acquisition and
adjusting the channel waveforms.
2.2.1 Setting Up the Signal Input with Autoset
Autoset is the solution for the major part of routine test-setup. It is also a good start if you
need to use more complex trigger settings. Autoset finds appropriate horizontal and vertical scales, vertical offset, and trigger conditions to present a stable waveform.
1. Connect the probe to the input connector CH N.
The instrument recognizes the probe and turns the channel on.
2. Press the AUTOSET button on the left of the display.
2.2.2 Adjusting the Signal Input Manually
1. Connect the probe to the input connector CH N.
The instrument recognizes the probe and turns the channel on.
2. On the "Horizontal" menu, tap "​Time Base".
3. Set the "Time scale" and the "Reference point".
4. Tap the "​Resolution" tab.
5. Select to set either the resolution or the record length and enter the required value.
6. Press the channel button corresponding to the input channel. It is illuminated with the
color of the channel waveform.
7. In the "​Channels" tab, select the "Coupling".
8. Adjust the vertical "Scale", and the vertical "Position".
9. Tap "Acquisition" to proceed with the acquisition setup.
2.2.3 Setting the Acquisition
Prerequisites:
●
Probes are connected.
●
Vertical and horizontal settings are adjusted.
The settings are described in ​chapter 2.3.1.3, "Acquisition", on page 31.
1. On the "Horizontal" menu, tap "Acquisition".
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Acquisition and Setup
Setting Up the Waveform
2. Select the "Enhancement".
If "Interpolated time" is set, select also the "Interpolation mode".
Enhancement affects all waveforms of all channels. The instrument uses enhancement settings if the "ADC sample rate" is less than the "Sample rate"; otherwise these
settings are ignored.
3. To configure the waveform-specific acquisition settings, select the "Channel" tab and
activate the waveform.
You can set up and display up to three waveforms per channel.
4. Select the "Decimation" - for example, Peak detect or High res.
5. Select the "Wfm Arithmetic" - for example, Average or Envelope.
The instrument precludes incompatible combinations, like "Peak detect" with "Average".
6. If "Average" is selected for a waveform, enter the "Average count", that is the number
of waveforms used for average calculation.
7. Set the reset condition for the average and envelope calculation:
a) If "Time" is selected, enter the "Reset time".
b) If "Waveforms" is selected, enter the "Reset count".
2.2.4 Starting and Stopping Acquisition
You can control the acquisition in two ways:
●
Running continuous acquisition until you stop it.
●
Running one acquisition or a given number of acquisitions.
If "Envelope" or "Average" is selected in the "Acquisition" tab, one acquisition means
a cycle containing as many acquired waveforms as required to satisfy the reset conditions.
Prerequisites:
●
Probes are connected.
●
Vertical and horizontal settings are adjusted.
●
Triggering is set.
●
Channels to be acquired are turned on.
To start and stop continuous acquisition
1. Check if the trigger mode is set to "Normal". The trigger mode is shown in the trigger
label in the upper right edge of the screen.
If not, press the AUTO/NORMAL key on the front panel to toggle the setting.
2. Press the RUN CONT key to start acquisition.
The acquisition starts if a trigger occurs.
3. To stop , press the RUN CONT key again.
The acquisition stops immediately.
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Acquisition and Setup
Setting Up the Waveform
To acquire a limited number of acquisitions
1. On the "Trigger" menu, tap "Trigger Events Setup".
2. In the "Control" area, select the "Normal" trigger mode.
3. Enter the number of acquisitions in the "Average count" field.
4. Press the RUN N×SINGLE key on the front panel.
You can stop the running acquisition before it is finished by pressing the key again.
2.2.5 Using the Roll Mode
The roll mode can be used if the acquisition process is slow - that is if the time scale is
large. In roll mode, the instrument shows the waveform immediately and saves waiting
for the waveform display. The roll mode can be activated by the instrument if several
conditions are fulfilled.
To set the roll mode manually
1. Make sure that all requirements for the roll mode are fullfilled: see ​
"Mode" on page 29.
2. Press the HORIZONTAL key.
3. In the "Roll mode" section of the "Time Base" tab, set "Mode" to "Auto".
4. In the "Min roll mode gain" field, enter the acquisition time at which the instrument
starts the roll mode.
2.2.6 Using Ultra Segmentation
Ultra Segmentation reduces the dead time between two waveform acquisition cycles.
The settings are described in ​chapter 2.3.1.4, "Ultra Segmentation", on page 35.
1. On the "Horizontal" menu, tap "Ultra Segmentation".
2. Tap "Enable" to activate the Ultra Segmentation mode.
3. If you want to sample the maximum number of acquisitions in a series, select "Acquire
maximum".
If you want to capture a defined number of acquisitions, disable "Acquire maximum" and enter the "Required" number of acquisitions.
4. Set the "Replay time", the display time of each acquisition.
2.2.7 Using Digital Filters
Before using digital filters, you determine if you want to filter input channels only or if the
trigger signal will be filtered too. The filter settings depend on this decision.
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
For details on filter settings and dependencies, see ​chapter 2.3.4, "Digital Filter
Setup", on page 49.
To filter the input channels only
1. On the "Vertical" menu, tap "Digital Filter Setup".
2. Set the "Trigger coupling" to "Off".
3. Select the "Characteristics" - the filter type - for channel 1/2 and for channel 3/4:
Highpass or Lowpass.
4. Enter the "Cut-off" frequency for each filter.
5. Enable "Use filter" for each channel to be filtered.
To filter the trigger signal
1. On the "Vertical" menu, tap "Digital Filter Setup".
2. Select the type of the "Trigger coupling".
3. Set the frequency limit for the filter: "RF reject BW".
4. To filter the input channels too, enable "Use filter" for each channel to be filtered.
The trigger filter settings are applied also to these input channels.
2.3 Reference for Acquisition and Setup
●
●
●
●
●
Horizontal Settings..................................................................................................27
Vertical Settings......................................................................................................38
Probes.....................................................................................................................41
Digital Filter Setup...................................................................................................49
Horizontal Accuracy................................................................................................51
2.3.1 Horizontal Settings
The "Horizontal" menu provides the time base and acquisition configuration for channel
and FFT waveforms:
●
●
●
●
2.3.1.1
Time Base...............................................................................................................27
Resolution...............................................................................................................29
Acquisition...............................................................................................................31
Ultra Segmentation.................................................................................................35
Time Base
The "Time Base" tab in the "Horizontal" dialog box provides the basic settings for the time
axis and the roll mode settings.
For background information, see ​chapter 2.1.3, "Horizontal System", on page 19.
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Time scale
Sets the horizontal scale for all channel and math waveforms in seconds per division.
Increase the scale to see a longer time interval of the waveform. Decrease the scale to
see it in more detail.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​SCALe​ on page 429
Acquisition time
Shows the time of one acquisition, that is the time across the 10 divisions of the diagram:
Acquisition time = Time scale * 10 divisions
Changing the acquisition time changes the time scale too.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​RANGe​ on page 429
Trigger offset
Adds a time offset to the reference point to choose the part of the waveform to be captured
and shown in the diagram. Thus, you can set the trigger outside the diagram and analyze
the signal some time before or after the trigger. Positive values move the trigger to the
right of the reference point to show the pre-trigger part of the signal.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​POSition​ on page 429
Reference point
Sets the zero point of the time scale in % of the display between 10% and 90%. The
reference point defines which part of the waveform is shown. If the "Trigger offset" is zero,
the trigger point matches the reference point.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​REFerence​ on page 430
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Restrict offset to acquisition range
Ensures that the trigger occurs within one acquisition cycle. If enabled, the trigger cannot
be set outside the waveform diagram.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​OFFSet:​LIMited​ on page 489
Roll mode
Configures the roll mode for slow time bases:
Mode ← Roll mode
Activates the automatic roll mode. If set to "Auto", the instrument activates the roll mode
under specific conditions. In roll mode, the instrument shows the waveforms immediately,
without waiting for the complete acquisition of the waveform record. If the time base is
slow - at long time scale values - the roll mode saves waiting for the waveform display.
The instrument displays newly acquired waveform points at the right edge of the display
and moves the waveform to the left.
The roll mode is activated automatically if the following conditions are fulfilled:
● Acquisition time exceeds the "Min roll mode gain" value
● Record length is ≤1 MSa
● Waveform arithmetic is disabled ("Off")
● All channel waveforms are set to the same decimation mode, and to one of these
values: "Sample", "Peak detect", or "High res"
● All measurements are disabled
● All mask tests are disabled
● Ultra Segmentation is disabled
● FFT is disabled
● All serial buses are disabled
The roll mode has following restrictions:
● Persistence is disabled
● History is not available
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​ROLL:​ENABle​ on page 430
Minimum acquisition time for roll mode activation ← Roll mode
The instrument can activate the roll mode automatically if the ​Acquisition time exceeds
the threshold given here.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​ROLL:​MTIMe​ on page 430
2.3.1.2
Resolution
The settings in the "Resolution" tab mainly define the precision of the waveform record.
The resolution settings interact, changing one parameter affects one or more of the other
parameters as well. For background information, see ​chapter 2.1.3, "Horizontal System", on page 19.
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Sample rate
Sets the number of recorded waveform points per second. The sample rate is the reciprocal value of the resolution and thus also depends on the acquisition time and the record
length. It considers the samples of the ADC, the additional waveforms points resulting
from resolution enhancement (interpolation and equivalent-time sampling), and the
reduction of waveform points by decimation.
See also:
● ​chapter 2.1.2, "Sampling and Acquisition", on page 15
● ​chapter 2.1.3, "Horizontal System", on page 19
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​SRATe​ on page 432
ADC sample rate
Shows the number of points that are sampled by the ADC in one second. The ADC
sample rate is a constant of the instrument.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​POINts:​ARATe​ on page 432
Resolution
Sets the time between two waveform samples. A fine resolution with low values produces
a more precise waveform record.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​RESolution​ on page 432
Record length
Indicates the number of waveform samples that build the waveform across the acquisition
time.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​POINts[:​VALue]​ on page 432
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Acquisition time
Shows the time of one acquisition, that is the time across the 10 divisions of the diagram:
Acquisition time = Time scale * 10 divisions
Changing the acquisition time changes the time scale too.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​RANGe​ on page 429
Resolution / Record length (Time scale dependency)
You can choose to keep constant either the resolution or the record length when you
adjust the time scale or acquisition time.
● With constant resolution, increasing the time scale also increases the record length,
and vice versa. You can limit the record length to a maximum value.
● With constant record length, increasing the time scale coarsens the resolution, that
is, the time between two waveform samples gets longer.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​POINts:​AUTO​ on page 431
Auto adjustment (Time scale dependency)
Prevents undersampling and ensures a sufficient resolution to acquire the correct waveform if the time scale is changed. The setting takes effect if the changed parameter resolution or record length - reaches a limit. The instrument automatically keeps this
parameter constant at its limit, and changes the other parameter regardless of the "Resolution / Record length" setting.
See also: ​Resolution / Record length (Time scale dependency)
Record length limit (Time scale dependency)
Sets a limit for the record length to prevent very large records. This value is only available
if "Auto adjustment" is on and a constant resolution is selected. If you increase the time
scale, the resolution remains constant and the record length increases until the limit is
reached. Further increase of the time scale changes the resolution and keeps the record
length limit.
See also:
● ​Resolution / Record length (Time scale dependency)
● ​Auto adjustment (Time scale dependency)
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​POINts:​MAXimum​ on page 431
2.3.1.3
Acquisition
Acquisition settings control how the waveform is built from the acquired samples. You
can display up to three waveforms from one input signal and apply different decimation
and arithmetic to each waveform.
For background information, see ​chapter 2.1.2, "Sampling and Acquisition", on page 15.
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Channel-dependent settings
The "Decimation" and "Wfm arithmetic" are specific for each waveform. Make sure to
select the channel tab first, then set up the waveforms.
Resolution enhancement
If the ADC sample rate is too slow to capture sufficient samples to achieve the required
resolution, the sample rate can be increased by adding calculated points to the waveform
record. The enhancement method is the same for all channels and waveform. As long
as the waveform sample rate is not higher than the ADC sample rate, the instrument
works automatically in real time mode, enhancement settings are ignored. Otherwise for resolutions faster than 100ps - the instrument changes to interpolated time mode. If
enhancement is done, the instrument ignores the decimation settings.
The methods are:
"Real time"
The sampled points of the input signal are used directly to build the
waveform. Actually, the real time mode is not an enhancement mode.
The maximum "Sample rate" is the "ADC sample rate". In this mode,
decimation can be set to reduce the amount of data. The real time mode
is used to acquire non-repetitive and transient signals.
"Interpolated
time"
If the "Sample rate" is higher than the "ADC sample rate", interpolation
adds points between the ADC samples of the waveform by various
mathematic methods, see ​Interpolation mode. This is the default
enhancement method.
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"Equivalent
time"
This method requires repetitive, stable signals and is not suitable for
random and non-repetitive signals. It is used to capture fast signals
whose frequency components are higher than the "ADC sample rate".
Equivalent-time sampling constructs a picture of a repetitive signal by
capturing a little bit of information from each repetition. Each sample is
taken with some time difference after the trigger, and the time difference
varies with each repetition of the signal. After a number of acquisitions,
the oscilloscope builds the waveform from the sampled points.
The R&S RTO uses the sequential equivalent-time sampling method.
When a trigger occurs, a sample is taken after a very short delay time.
At the next trigger, this delay time is incremented by a precisely defined
Δt, and the next sample is taken. This process is repeated until the
waveform is complete. Sequential equivalent-time sampling provides
very good time resolution and accuracy.
Equivalent-time sampling is not available, if digital channels are active
(requires option RTO-B1, MSO).
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​MODE​ on page 433
Interpolation mode
Selects the interpolation method if "Interpolated time" is set for enhancement.
"Linear"
Two adjacent ADC sample points are connected by a straight line, the
interpolated points are located on the line. You see a polygonal waveform similar to the real signal, and also the ADC sample points as vertexes.
"sin (x)/x"
Two adjacent ADC sample points are connected by a sin(x)/x curve,
and also the adjoining sample points are considered by this curve. The
interpolated points are located on the resulting curve. This interpolation
method is very precise and shows the best signal curve.
"Sample/Hold"
The ADC sample points are displayed like a histogram. For each sample interval, the voltage is taken from the sample point and considered
as constant, and the intervals are connected with vertical lines. Thus,
you see the discrete values of the ADC - the actually measured samples.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​INTerpolate​ on page 433
Enable Wfm
Activates or deactivates the individual waveforms of the selected channel.
For each channel, up to three waveforms can be shown and analyzed. The decimation
mode and the trace arithmetic are specific for each waveform. So you can analyze several
aspects of the signal: For example, waveform1 shows the peaks, and waveform2 shows
the average of the signal.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>][:​STATe]​ on page 433
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Decimation
Decimation reduces the data stream of the ADC to a stream of waveform points with
lower sample rate and a less precise time resolution. The R&S RTO uses decimation, if
the waveform "Sample rate" is less than the "ADC sample rate". In this case, enhancement settings are ignored. The decimation mode ist waveform-specific, you can select
another mode for each waveform.
2
There are different methods to define the recorded waveform point out of a number of n
sample points:
"Sample"
One of n samples in a sample interval of the ADC is recorded as waveform point, the other samples are discarded. The time between the two
adjacent waveform points is exactly the resolution. Very short glitches
might remain undiscovered by this method.
"Peak detect"
The minimum and the maximum of n samples in a sample interval are
recorded as waveform points, the other samples are discarded.
"High res"
The average of n sample points is recorded as one waveform sample.
Averaging reduces the noise, the result is a more precise waveform with
higher vertical resolution.
"RMS"
The waveform point is the root mean square of n sample values. Thus,
the RMS value reflects the instantaneous power.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​TYPE​ on page 434
Wfm Arithmetic
Waveform arithmetic builds the resulting waveform from several consecutive acquisitions
of the signal. This setting is waveform-specific. The arithmetic works with enhanced and
decimated waveforms.
The methods are:
"Off"
The data of only one acquisition is recorded according to the decimation
settings. In effect, no waveform arithmetic are processed.
"Envelope"
Detects the minimum and maximum values in an sample interval over
a number of acquisitions. Each acquisition is done in the "Peak
detect" decimation mode, and the most extreme values for all acquisitions build the envelope. The resulting diagram shows two envelope
waveforms: the minimums (floor) and maximums (roof).
The envelope is built until the restart criterion is reached, see ​"Reset
mode" on page 35.
"Average"
The average is calculated from the data of the current acquisition and
a number of acquisitions before. The method reduces random noise
and other heterodyne signals. It requires a stable, triggered and periodic signal for correct function.
The number of acquisitions for average calculation is defined with
"Average count", and the "Reset mode" defines the restart condition.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​ARIThmetics​ on page 434
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Reset Now
Forces the immediate restart of the envelope and average calculation for all waveforms,
ignoring the reset settings.
Acquisition/average count
Access:
● TRIGGER > "Control" tab > "Average count (N-single count)"
● ACQUISITION > "Average count"
● HORIZONTAL > "Ultra Segmentation" tab > disable "Acquire maximum" > "Required"
● MATH > "Setup" tab > "Average count"
The acquisition and average count has several effects:
● It sets the number of waveforms acquired with RUN N×SINGLE.
● It defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform.
Thus, the instrument acquires sufficient waveforms to calculate the correct average
if "Average" is enabled for waveform arithmetic. The higher the value is, the better
the noise is reduced.
● It sets the number of acquisitions to be acquired in an Ultra Segmentation acquisition
series. Thus, you can acquire exactly one Ultra Segmentation acquisition series with
RUN N×SINGLE.
If Ultra Segmentation is enabled and configured to acquire the maximum number of
acquisitions, the acquisition count is set to that maximum number and cannot be
changed. See also: ​"Number of acquisitions" on page 37.
● It is the "Finished" criteria for the state of a mask test.
8
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​COUNt​ on page 435
*n
2.3.1.4
Reset mode
Defines when the envelope and average evaluation restarts.
"None"
No restart, the number of acquisitions considered by the waveform
arithmetics is not limited.
"Time"
Restarts the envelope and average calculation after the time defined in
"Reset time".
"Waveforms"
Restarts the envelope and average calculation after a number of
acquired waveforms defined in "Reset count".
Ultra Segmentation
In normal acquisition mode, only a short time is used for sampling; processing and display
takes most of the time. The processing and display time is blind time causing a gap in
the recorded signal. The normal acquisition mode may miss very short time and infrequent events occurring during the dead time.
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Fig. 2-5: Normal acquisition with blind time
With Ultra Segmentation, a number of triggered acquisitions is captured very fast, with
hardly any dead time between the acquisitions. The data is processed and the waveforms
are displayed when the acquisition of the series has been completed.
Acquisition of 1st wfm
Acquisition of n-th wfm
Acquisition of 2nd wfm
Display 1st wfm
Display 2nd wfm
........
....
Replay time
Minimized blind time
Acquisition
Deferred visualization of all acquisitions
Fig. 2-6: Ultra Segmentation with deferred processing and display
Ultra Segmentation and History
The acquisition series is written in the sample memory, thus the memory size limits the
number of acquisitions in a series. This memory is the memory that is accessed by the
history, thus the history function is used to read out the contents of the sample memory.
For processing and display, the history replay is activated automatically in the background. Depending on the number of acquisitions and the current "Replay time", it may
take some time until the acquisition series is displayed.
To view the complete series, enable "Show history" to display the history functionality in
the "Ultra Segmentation" tab.
See also: ​chapter 4.4, "History", on page 114.
Restrictions
Ultra Segmentation and equivalent time sampling are mutually exclusive. The instrument
considers this fact and disables Ultra Segmentation when equivalent time sampling is
selected, and vice versa.
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Enable ultra segmentation
Switches the Ultra Segmentation mode on and off.
If "Equivalent time" sampling is selected in the "Acquisition" tab, enabling Ultra Segmentation switches the resolution enhancement to "Interpolated time".
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​SEGMented:​STATe​ on page 435
Number of acquisitions
You can define the number of acquisitions to stored in an Ultra Segmentation acquisition
series:
● Acquire the maximum possible number of acquisitions that can be stored in the sample memory.
To acquire the maximum number, enable "Acquire maximum". The maximum number
of acquisitions is shown in the "Required" field.
● Acquire a given number of acquisitions.
Enter the number in the "Required" field.
The acquisition count (​Acquisition/average count) is always set to the required number
of acquisitions. Thus you can acquire exactly one Ultra Segmentation acquisition series
with RUN N×SINGLE. The RUN key works in the same way as RUN N×SINGLE, it stops
acquisition when the series is completed.
You can stop the running acquisition before the series is completed.
The number of actually acquired waveforms is shown in "Available" and can be displayed
with "Show history".
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​SEGMented:​MAX​ on page 435
Replay time
Defines the display speed of the Ultra Segmentation acquisition series. Display starts
after the series has been captured completely. See also ​"Time per acquisition" on page 119.
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Show history
Enables the history mode and displays the history viewing functions in the "Ultra Segmentation" tab. For details, see ​chapter 4.4.3.1, "Viewer", on page 118.
2.3.2 Vertical Settings
The "Vertical" menu contains all channel-dependent settings and information.
●
●
●
2.3.2.1
Channels.................................................................................................................38
Power Calculation...................................................................................................40
Coupled Channels...................................................................................................41
Channels
The "Channels" tab provides all basic vertical settings. The channels are listed in vertical
tabs at the left side of the dialog box.
Make sure that the correct channel tab is selected. The vertical rotary knobs are illuminated in the color of the selected channel.
Show channel
Switches the channel signal on or off. The signal icon appears on the signal bar. The
waveform of the last acquisition is displayed in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​STATe​ on page 436
GND
Ground
Connects the input to the ground.
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50 Ω
DC
1 MΩ
DC
AC
Coupling
Selects the connection of the channel signal determining what part of the signal is used
for waveform analysis and triggering.
In addition to coupling, the signal can be filtered for high frequency rejection, see ​chapter 2.3.4, "Digital Filter Setup", on page 49.
"DC 50 Ω"
Connection with 50 Ω termination, passes both DC and AC components
of the signal.
"DC 1 MΩ"
Connection with 1 MΩ termination, passes both DC and AC components of the signal.
"AC"
Connection through DC capacitor, removes DC and very low-frequency
components.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​COUPling​ on page 436
Offset
The offset voltage is subtracted to correct an offset-affected signal. The vertical center
of the selected channel is shifted by the offset value and the signal is re-positioned within
the diagram area. Negative offset values move the waveform up, positive values move
it down.
The offset of a signal is determined and set by the autoset procedure. The current value
is shown in the waveform label.
By default, the horizontal grid axis remains in the center when the offset is changed. To
shift the axis together with the waveform, disable ​Keep Y-grid fixed in "Display > Diagram
Layout".
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​OFFSet​ on page 438
Vertical scale
Defines the vertical scale in Volts per division. Increasing the scale compresses the display of the signal.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​SCALe​ on page 437
Bandwith
Selects the bandwidth limit. The specified full bandwidth indicates the range of frequencies that the instrument can acquire and display accurately with less than 3dB attenuation. The probe has also a limited bandwidth and thus affects the resulting system bandwidth.
See also: ​chapter 2.1.1.3, "Bandwidth", on page 15
"Full"
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At full bandwidth, all frequencies in the specified range are acquired
and displayed. Full bandwidth is used for most applications.
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"800 MHz,
200MHz,
20MHz"
Frequencies above the selected limit are removed to reduce noise at
different levels.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​BANDwidth​ on page 439
Position
Moves the selected signal up or down in the diagram. The visual effect is the same as
for ​Offset but the waveform is adjusted at a later time in the signal flow. While the offset
sets a voltage, position is a graphical setting given in divisions.
By default, the horizontal grid axis remains in the center when the offset is changed. To
shift the axis together with the waveform, disable ​Keep Y-grid fixed in "Display > Diagram
Layout".
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​POSition​ on page 438
2.3.2.2
Power Calculation
Make sure that the correct channel tab is selected.
Show channel
Switches the channel signal on or off. The signal icon appears on the signal bar. The
waveform of the last acquisition is displayed in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​STATe​ on page 436
Measurement impedance
Sets the impedance of the channel for power calculations and measurements.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​IMPedance​ on page 439
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2.3.2.3
Coupled Channels
Channel coupling sets the vertical settings of the coupled channels to the values of the
active channel. If two or more channels should have the same vertical settings, you can
set them at once by coupling the settings of these channels.
Channel coupling affects all vertical settings that are adjusted in the "Channels" tab: vertical scale, position, offset, bandwidth, coupling, and ground.
2.3.3 Probes
With R&S RTO, you can use various probe types, most of all these are passive and active
voltage probes. The "Probes" dialog box provides all probe-relevant information.
For background information, see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Probes", on page 20.
For passive probes, the probe attenuation is read out and shown in the "Setup" tab.
Passive probes require compensation.
2.3.3.1
Setup
The "Setup" tab provides settings and information on probe configuration.
The functionality on the tab changes according to the type of the attached probe. Voltage
probes provided by R&S, and also many other passive voltage probes, are recognized
by the instrument. It reads out the main characteristics of the probe and displays them.
For other probes, which are not recognized automatically, the manual entry of measurement unit and attenuation is required.
Most active single-ended and differential probes from Rohde & Schwarz (R&S RTZS10/20/30 and R&S RT-ZD20/30) provide special features for easier use and precise
measurements. These features also appear on the tab if one of these probes is attached:
●
Configuration of the micro button action
●
DC measurement with R&S ProbeMeter
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Fig. 2-7: Probe setup for passive probes
Fig. 2-8: Probe setup for active single-ende probes
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Fig. 2-9: Probe setup for differential single-ende probes
Fig. 2-10: Probe setup for R&S RT-ZS10E active single-ende probe
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Fig. 2-11: Probe setup for current probes
Make sure that the correct channel tab is selected.
Show channel
Switches the channel signal on or off. The signal icon appears on the signal bar. The
waveform of the last acquisition is displayed in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​STATe​ on page 436
Type, Name, Input impedance, Bandwidth
Voltage probes provided by R&S, and also many other passive voltage probes, are recognized by the instrument. The fields show the characteristics of a recognized probe for
information.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​TYPE​ on page 446
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​NAME​ on page 446
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​IMPedance​ on page 447
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​BANDwidth​ on page 447
Probe detection
If the probe was recognized by the instrument, the "Auto" mini-tab shows the detected
"Probe unit" and "Auto Attenuation".
For passive probes, it is possible to correct the detected values by entries on the "Manual" mini-tab.
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For detected active voltage probes, manual settings are not possible.
Current probes are not recognized automatically but the parameters of R&S current
probes (R&S RT-ZCxx) are known to the instrument. On the "Manual" mini-tab, select
the probe type with "Predefined probe". The correspondent "Vertical unit" and the "Manual gain" are set.
For any other unrecognized probe, set "Predefined probe" to "Free" and enter the "Vertical unit" and the "Manual attenuation" or "Manual gain" on the "Manual" mini-tab.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​MODE​ on page 442
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation[:​AUTO]​ on page 442
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​DEFProbe​ on page 442
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​UNIT​ on page 443
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​MANual​ on page 443
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​GAIN:​MANual​ on page 443
External attenuation: Scale, Attenuation
Considers a voltage divider that is part of the DUT before the measuring point. The
external attenuation is included in the measurement, and the instrument shows the results
that would be measured before the divider. External attenuation can be used with active
and passive probes.
"Scale"
Select linear or logarithmic attenuation scale.
"Attenuation"
Enter the attenuation of the voltage divider according to the selected
scale. The conversion from linear to logarithmic values depends on the
"Vertical unit" of the probe:
For power-based unit (W):
attenuation (dB) = 10 * log10(attenuation factor)
For voltage-based unit (V and A):
attenuation (dB) = 20 * log10(attenuation factor)
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​EATScale​ on page 444
​CHANnel<m>:​EATTenuation​ on page 444
Offset
See ​"Offset" on page 39.
Set offset to mean
Performs an automatic compensation for a DC component of the input signal using the
result of a background mean measurement. The result is shown in "Offset". The function
supports quick and convenient measurements of input signals with different DC offsets.
It detects offset values even when the signal is out of the current measurement range.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​OFFSet:​TOMean​ on page 445
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Auto Zero, AutoZero DC offset, Use AutoZero
Differences in DUT and oscilloscope ground levels may cause larger zero errors affecting
the waveform. If the DUT is ground-referenced, the Auto Zero function corrects the zero
error of the probe to optimize measurement results at small signal levels.The validation
limit depends on the probe attenuation because probes with high attenation often have
to compensate high offsets. Auto zero detects offset values even when the signal is out
of the current measurement range.
To correct the zero error, short the signal pin and the ground pin together and connect
them to the ground of the DUT. Then tap "Auto Zero".
The instrument performs a mean measurement and displays the result in the "AutoZero
DC offset" field. To include this additional offset in measurement results, enable "Use
AutoZero".
Auto Zero is available for all probes.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​OFFSet:​AZERo​ on page 445
∞
1
Micro button action
Active R&S probes (except for RT-ZS10E) have a configurable Micro Button on the probe
head. Pressing this button, you can perform an action on the instrument directly from the
probe. During internal automatic processes the button is disabled, for example, during
self alignment, autoset, and find level.
Select the action that you want to start from the probe:
"Run Continuous"
is the default assignment. The acquisition is running as long as you
press the micro button again.
"Run single"
Starts one acquisition.
"Auto set"
Starts the autoset procedure.
"Auto Zero"
See: ​"Auto Zero, AutoZero DC offset, Use AutoZero" on page 46.
"Set offset to mean"
See: ​"Set offset to mean" on page 45.
"Print"
Prints the current display according to the "Printer control" settings in
the "Print" dialog box, see ​chapter 12.3, "Reference for PRINT Settings", on page 357. Depending on the selected printer. you can print
to a local or network driver, or save to a file.
"Save image to file"
Saves the current display as image according to the image settings in
the "Print" dialog box, see ​chapter 12.3, "Reference for PRINT Settings", on page 357.
"No action"
Select this option to prevent unwanted actions due to unintended usage
of the micro button.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 445
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
ProbeMeter: Enable
Enbles the integrated R&S Probe Meter of active R&S probes. This voltmeter measures
DC voltages between the probe tip and ground connection with very high precision and
enables ground-referenced measurements of voltages. The DC measurement is performed continuously and in parallel to the measurements of the oscilloscope. The measured DC value is displayed in a result box on the screen.
ProbeMeter: AutoZero
Displays the zero error of an active probe, the result of a mean measurement of the R&S
Probe Meter.
To start the auto zero measurement, tap the "Auto Zero" button. To include this additional
zero offset in the Probe Meter DC offset result, enable "Use AutoZero". The Probe Meter
DC offset is shown in the "Probe Meter result box".
ProbeMeter: Measurement type
Selects the input voltage that is measured by the differential active probe.
"Differential"
Measures the voltage between the positive and negative signal sockets.
"Common
mode"
Measures the mean voltage between the signal sockets and the ground
socket. Use this mode to measure the voltage level relative to ground,
for example, to check the operating voltage window.
See also: ​"Differential active probes" on page 22.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​MEASurement​ on page 444
2.3.3.2
Probe Attributes
The "Probe Attributes" tab provides an overview of all R&S probes connected to an input
channel.
For a specification of the probe parameters refer to the data sheet.
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
SCPI commands:
2.3.3.3
●
​PROBe<m>:​ID:​SWVersion​ on page 448
●
​PROBe<m>:​ID:​PRDate​ on page 448
●
​PROBe<m>:​ID:​PARTnumber​ on page 448
●
​PROBe<m>:​ID:​SRNumber​ on page 448
Calibration Results
The "Calibration Results" tab provides the calibration data stored in the probe for all R&S
probes connected to an input channel.
Attenuation
Shows the attenuation of the probe. This value is also shown in the "Setup" tab.
2.3.3.4
Service
The "Service" tab supports the update of the probe's firmware, provides a selftest and
other functions that are useful in case of service.
Probe FW update
A new firmware for R&S probes is delivered together with the R&S RTO firmware. To
install the new probe firmware, you download it from the instrument to the probe.
Note: The installation of a new firmware resets all settings.
●
●
Select the firmware package with "Select FW update package".
Tap "Flash it!".
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
The current installation progress is shown on the progress bar.
The "State" field below the progress bar shows the following update states:
"Measuring"
"Updating"
The update is running.
"Failed"
The update has failed.
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​FW:​PATH​ on page 449
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​FW:​FLASh​ on page 450
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STATe​ on page 450
Selftest
The selftest is a functional test of the probe's hardware and software.
You start the probe selftest by tapping the "Selftest" button. The state of the selftest
procedure ist shown in "Self test state". When the selftest is finished, the result appears
in "Selftest result".
SCPI command:
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt:​RUN​ on page 449
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt:​STATus​ on page 449
​PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt[:​RESult]​ on page 449
Write EEPROM
Probe API info
Shows the "Version" and the "Build Date" of the probe API for service information.
2.3.4 Digital Filter Setup
After processing by the A/D converter, the channel and trigger signals are digitized signals. These digitized signals can be filtered to reject high frequency - also known as Digital
Signal Processing (DSP). You can filter the acquisition channels as well as the trigger
channel signal.
If you filter only the input channels, you can apply different filters - one filter for channels
1 and 2 and - for 4-channel models - another filter for channels 3 and 4.
If you filter the trigger channel, the same filter must be used for the input channels to
ensure that all signals suit for analysis. The instrument offers only permitted combinations
and triggers on the filtered signal.
Example:
RF reject for the trigger signal ensures that triggering will not be caused by unexpected
glitches.
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
Use filter
Enables the DSP filter.
The number of filters depends on the instrument model:
● R&S RTO1022 and R&S RTO1024 have a filter for each input channel.
● R&S RTO1012 and R&S RTO1014 have filters affecting two channels: One filter for
Ch1 and Ch2, and the second filter for Ch3 and Ch4 (R&S RTO1014 only).
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​DIGFilter:​STATe​ on page 450
Cut-off
Sets the limit frequency of the Lowpass filter for input channels.
The filter value is applied to two channels in R&S RTO1022 and R&S RTO1024, or
applied to all available channels in R&S RTO1012 and R&S RTO1014.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​DIGFilter:​CUToff​ on page 450
Trigger coupling
Selects the filter for the trigger channel(s). Other channels must use the same filter, or
proceed unfiltered.
"Off"
The trigger signal is not filtered, and the acquisition channels can be
filtered independently.
"RF reject"
frequencies higher the "RF reject BW" are rejected, lower frequencies
pass the filter.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​COUPling​ on page 451
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
RF reject BW
Sets the limit frequency for "RF reject" trigger coupling. This limit is applied to the trigger
channel and to the acquisition channels enabled for filtering.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​RFReject<n>​ on page 451
2.3.5 Horizontal Accuracy
The Horizontal Accuracy contains standard and optional settings to improve measurement and analysis accuracy and to reduce jitter effects.
2.3.5.1
Reference (OCXO, Option RTO-B4)
The option RTO-B4 provides an Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO) that produces a 10 MHz internal reference signal with very precise and stable frequency. With this
option, you can also use an external reference signal. The input and output connectors
for the external reference signal are located on the rear panel alongside the external
trigger input.
Detected
Indicates if the OCXO option is installed and detected by the instrument.
Oven hot
Indicates when the oven has reached its nominal temperature and is operating with the
specified accuracy.
External reference
Sets the frequency of an external reference input signal that is connected to the external
reference input on the rear panel of R&S RTO. A frequency range from 1 MHz to 20 MHz
is supported.
SCPI command:
​SENSe[:​ROSCillator]:​EXTernal:​FREQuency​ on page 452
Use external reference
Enables the use of the external reference signal instead of the internal OCXO reference.
If an external reference is used, the frequency of the reference output signal is the same
as of the reference input signal. Otherwise, the frequency of the reference output signal
is 10 MHz, that is the frequency of the OCXO.
SCPI command:
​SENSe[:​ROSCillator]:​SOURce​ on page 452
2.3.5.2
Skew
Skew compensates signal propagation differences between channels caused by the different length of cables, probes, and other sources. Correct skew values are important for
accurate triggering and timing relations between channels.
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Reference for Acquisition and Setup
Make sure that the correct channel tab is selected.
Show channel
Switches the channel signal on or off. The signal icon appears on the signal bar. The
waveform of the last acquisition is displayed in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​STATe​ on page 436
Use skew offset
If enabled, the "Skew offset" value is used for compensation. This improves horizontal
and trigger accuracy.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​SKEW:​MANual​ on page 452
Skew offset
Sets an delay value, that is known from the circuit specifics but cannot be compensated
by the instrument automatically. It affects only the selected input channel.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>:​SKEW:​TIME​ on page 452
2.3.5.3
AUX OUT
1 GHz Reference ON
Enables the 1 GHz reference signal and sends it to the AUX OUT connector at the front
panel. The signal is required for performance test to measure the frequency internal calibration signal.
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Triggers
Basics of Triggering
3 Triggers
3.1 Basics of Triggering
Triggering means to capture the interesting part of the relevant waveforms. Choosing the
right trigger type and configuring all trigger settings correctly allows you to detect various
incidents in analog, digital, and logic signals.
Trigger
A trigger occurs if the complete set of trigger conditions is satisfied. It establishes the
time-zero point in the waveform record. The instrument acquires continuously and keeps
the sample points to fill the pre-trigger part of the waveform record. When the trigger
occurs, the instrument continues acquisition until the post-trigger part of the waveform
record is filled. Then it stops acquiring and waits for the next trigger. When a trigger is
recognized, the instrument will not accept another trigger until the acquisition is complete
and the holdoff time has expired.
Trigger conditions
A simple set of trigger conditions includes:
●
Source of the trigger signal, its coupling and filtering
●
Trigger type and its setup
●
Horizontal position of the trigger: trigger offset and reference point
●
Trigger mode
The R&S RTO provides various trigger types for troubleshooting and signal analysis, for
example, edge trigger, glitch trigger, interval trigger, slew rate trigger, and pattern trigger.
For complex tasks like verifying and debugging designs, advanced trigger settings are
available:
●
Hysteresis, that is the rejection of noise to avoid unwanted trigger events caused by
noise
●
Holdoff to define exactly which trigger event will cause the trigger
●
Qualification to consider the states of digital signals on other input channels and their
logical combination
●
Trigger sequences to combine two events
Trigger event
In particular for advanced trigger settings, it is important to distinguish between the trigger
and the event. An event is the fulfillment of the event conditions, but an event may not
be the trigger. Only if the additional criteria are met - hysteresis, holdoff, and/or additional
events in a trigger sequence - the trigger occurs.
Event-specific conditions are:
●
Trigger source
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Basics of Triggering
●
Trigger type and its setup
●
Qualification
Trigger sequence
A complex trigger sequence joins two separate events with a delay time and a reset time
or reset event. This combination is called "A → B → R" trigger sequence. Similar setups
are also known as multi-step trigger or A/B trigger.
The combination of one event with holdoff conditions defines a simple "A only" sequence.
Trigger information
Information on the most important trigger settings are shown in the trigger label on top of
the signal bar. If you double-tap the trigger label, the "Trigger" dialog box opens. The
label shows:
●
Trigger mode and trigger sequence
●
Trigger type, edge/polarity and trigger source for A- and B-event
●
Trigger offset
When no trigger has been found for longer than one second, a message box appears
that shows the current state of the trigger. For long time bases, the state indicates the
remaining pretrigger time (time to the reference point), the waiting time if no trigger
occurs, and after the trigger the time until the acquisition is completed. While waiting for
the trigger, the "Force trigger" button is available to get a waveform quickly. You can also
drag the message box to the signal bar.
External trigger input, analog and digital trigger system
In R&S RTO, the trigger types use either an analog or a digitized signal as the trigger
signal.
If the trigger source is a channel input, the trigger types use a digitized signal. The trigger
system of the instrument is a separate system, thus the signal processing by enhancement, decimation and arithmetic has no impact on the trigger signal. Most of the
R&S RTO trigger types use the digitized trigger signal.
If the trigger source is the EXT TRIGGER INPUT on the rear panel, only the analog edge
trigger is available that use directly the analog input signal. For this analog trigger signal,
qualification and the "A → B → R" sequence are not available.
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Triggers
Setting Up the Trigger
3.2 Setting Up the Trigger
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for the important stages of trigger setup.
The dialog boxes and settings are described in detail in ​chapter 3.3, "Reference for Triggers", on page 57.
3.2.1 Configuring the Trigger Event
Prerequisites:
●
Horizontal and vertical settings are set appropriately to the signals.
●
The acquisition is running, the RUN CONT key lights green.
For details on event settings, see ​chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58.
Proceed as follows:
1. Press the TRIGGER key on the front panel.
The "Trigger" dialog box opens with the "Events" tab.
2. At the left hand-side, select the vertical tab of the event you want to set up: "A Trigger", "B Trigger", or "R Trigger".
3. Tap the "Source" button and select the trigger source.
4. Check the trigger coupling and filter settings. To change the settings, tap the "Channel
Setup" button and "Digital Filter" button.
If the trigger source is "Extern", you can adjust the coupling and filters directly in the
"Events" tab.
5. Tap the "Type" button and select the trigger type.
6. Under "Trigger type dependent settings", configure the settings for the selected trigger type.
To let the instrument find the trigger level, tap "Find level".
See: ​chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58
7. If you want to set the "Normal" trigger mode, do either of the following:
●
●
Press the AUTO/NORMAL key on the front panel until NORMAL lights up.
Tap the "Normal" button in the "Control" tab.
3.2.2 Positioning the Trigger
By positioning the trigger on the time axis, you define which part of the waveform is
displayed: mainly the pre-trigger part, or the post-trigger part, or the part around the trigger point.
For details on position settings, see ​chapter 3.3.5, "Trigger Position", on page 83.
1. Press the TRIGGER key and select the "Trigger Position" tab.
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Setting Up the Trigger
Alternatively, tap the "Trigger" menu and then "Trigger Position".
2. Set the "Reference point" and the "Trigger offset".
If you want to set the trigger position outside the waveform display, disable "Restrict
offset to acquisition range".
3.2.3 Using Holdoff
Holdoff conditions define a waiting time after the current trigger until the next trigger can
be recognized. Holdoff is an optional setting to the A-event. You find the holdoff settings
in the "Sequence" tab with "A only" trigger sequence selected.
For details on holdoff settings, see ​"Holdoff mode" on page 81.
1. Press the TRIGGER key and select the "Sequence" tab.
Alternatively, tap the "Trigger" menu and then "Trigger Sequence".
2. Select the "Trigger sequence": "A only".
3. Select the "Holdoff mode".
4. Enter the "Holdoff settings" belonging to the selected mode.
3.2.4 Setting Up a Trigger Sequence
The complete configuration of a complex "A → B → R" trigger sequence consists of:
●
A-event setup
●
B-event setup in the same way as for the A-event
●
Optional delay time to connect the A- and B-event
●
Optional reset by timeout and/or R-trigger
For details on sequence settings, see ​chapter 3.3.4, "Sequence", on page 80.
1. Press the TRIGGER key and select the "Sequence" tab.
Alternatively, tap the "Trigger" menu and then "Trigger Sequence".
2. Select the type of the "Trigger sequence": "A → B → R".
3. Tap the "A Event Setup" button and set up the first event.
See: ​chapter 3.2.1, "Configuring the Trigger Event", on page 55.
4. In the "Events" tab, select the "B Trigger" tab and set up the edge trigger. Other trigger
types are not available for the B-event.
5. Select the "Sequence" tab.
6. Optionally, set the "Delay" the instrument waits after an A event until it recognizes B
events.
7. Set the "B event count". The last B event causes the trigger.
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Reference for Triggers
8. Additionally, you can define a reset condition: "Enable reset by timeout" and/or
"Enable reset event". The sequence restarts with the A-event if no B-event occurs
and the reset condition is fulfilled.
a) If "Enable reset by timeout" is selected, enter the time in "Reset timeout".
b) If "Enable reset event" is selected, tap the "R Event Setup" button and set up the
reset event.
The trigger types and settings are restricted dependent on the A and B event
settings. The instrument provides only possible, reasonable combinations.
3.2.5 Qualifying the Trigger
Qualification considers the states of digital signals on other input channels and their logical combination as an additional trigger event condition. For example, an edge trigger is
configured for channel 1, and the instrument triggers only if the signal on channel 2 is
high.
If the trigger source is "Extern", qualification is not available.
For details on qualification settings, see ​chapter 3.3.2, "Trigger Qualification", on page 77.
1. Press the TRIGGER key and select the ​Trigger Qualification tab.
Alternatively, tap the "Trigger" menu and then "Trigger Qualification.".
2. At the left hand-side, select the vertical tab of the event you want to qualify: "A Trigger", or "B Trigger". For the R-event, qualification is not available.
3. Select the channel(s) with the digital input signal to be used as qualifying signal(s).
Channels used as trigger source for the current event cannot be used for qualification
and appear dimmed.
4. Check and set the trigger levels for all used channels, that is, the thresholds for digitization of analog signals.
You can set all levels to the currently selected value if you select "Couple levels".
5. Set the boolean operation for each channel.
6. If more than one channel is selected, set the logical combination of the channel states.
7. Tap "Qualify" to enable the qualification.
3.3 Reference for Triggers
The setup of a trigger contains mandatory and optional settings. The usage of optional
settings depends on the signal characteristics and the test setup.
Mandatory settings are:
●
Trigger source: ​"Source" on page 59
●
Trigger type and its setup: ​"Type" on page 59
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Reference for Triggers
This is the critical part of the oscilloscope setup to capture the relevant part of the
waveform.
●
Trigger mode: ​"Trigger mode" on page 85
●
Trigger position: ​chapter 3.3.5, "Trigger Position", on page 83
Optional settings are:
●
Noise rejection settings: ​chapter 3.3.3, "Noise Reject", on page 79
●
Trigger sequence, a combination of two trigger events: ​chapter 3.3.4,
"Sequence", on page 80
●
Qualification: combination of the trigger signal with the state of other channel signals:
​chapter 3.3.2, "Trigger Qualification", on page 77
●
Digital Filter Setup: additional filtering of the trigger signal: ​chapter 2.3.4, "Digital Filter
Setup", on page 49
3.3.1 Events
The setup of the trigger type is the most important part of the trigger definition. It determines the method to identify specific signal phenomena. In principle, all trigger types are
available for all events in a trigger sequence, that is, you can combine different types with
A-, B-, and R-event. The instrument checks the trigger settings for compatibility and feasibility and disables settings that do not fit the previous settings in the sequence.
Make sure that the correct trigger tab is selected on the left before you enter the settings.
The settings in the "Event" tab are:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
3.3.1.1
Basic Trigger Settings.............................................................................................58
Edge........................................................................................................................62
Glitch.......................................................................................................................63
Width.......................................................................................................................64
Runt.........................................................................................................................66
Window...................................................................................................................67
Timeout...................................................................................................................69
Interval....................................................................................................................70
Slew Rate................................................................................................................71
Data2Clock..............................................................................................................72
Pattern.....................................................................................................................74
Serial Pattern..........................................................................................................75
Triggering on Serial Buses......................................................................................76
Basic Trigger Settings
The basic trigger settings are the trigger source and the trigger type, including the trigger
level. These settings are specific for each event in a trigger sequence, that is, specific for
A-, B- and R-events. For the trigger source, the current ground/coupling settings are
displayed, filtering is also possible.
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Reference for Triggers
Additionally, you can let the R&S RTO find the trigger level, set the trigger levels to the
same value for all channels and enable trigger qualification. These settings are located
under "Trigger type dependent settings".
Ch1
Source
Selects the source of the trigger signal for the current trigger event. The source can be
one of the input channels, a serial bus, or an external analog signal connected to the
External Trigger Input on the rear panel. The trigger source works even if it is not displayed in a diagram. It should be synchronized to the signal to be displayed and analyzed.
The external trigger source is supported for the A-event. It is not available if the trigger
sequence "A → B → R" is selected, or if qualification is enabled.
If options with trigger functionality are installed, the variety of trigger sources of the Aevent setup is enhanced with specific trigger sources - Serial bus for protocol analysis,
and digital channels as well as parallel buses for mixed signal option (see ​
"Source" on page 333).
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SOURce​ on page 453
Type
Selects the trigger type specific for each event in a trigger sequence. The current trigger
type is shown on the button.
The following trigger types are available:
● ​Edge, see page 62
● ​Glitch, see page 63
● ​Width, see page 64
● ​Runt, see page 66
● ​Window, see page 67
● ​Timeout, see page 69
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Reference for Triggers
●
●
●
●
●
​Interval, see page 70
​Slew Rate, see page 71
​Data2Clock, see page 72
​Pattern, see page 74
​Serial Pattern, see page 75
Restrictions:
● If the external trigger input is used, only edge trigger is available.
● For the B-event, only edge trigger is available.
● For the R-event (reset), the trigger types and settings are restricted dependent on
the A and B event settings. The instrument provides only possible, reasonable combinations.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​TYPE​ on page 454
GND
Ground
If the selected trigger source is the external trigger input, you can connect the trigger input
to the ground.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​GND​ on page 459
50 Ω
DC
1 MΩ
DC
AC
Coupling
If the selected trigger source is the external trigger input, the analog trigger signal is used,
and you can set the coupling for this input.
"DC 50 Ω"
Direct connection with 50 Ω termination, passes both DC and AC components of the trigger signal.
"DC 1 MΩ"
Direct connection with 1 MΩ termination, passes both DC and AC components of the trigger signal.
"AC"
Connection through capacitor, removes unwanted DC and very lowfrequency components.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​COUPling​ on page 457
Filter
If the selected trigger source is the external trigger input, the analog trigger signal is used
for triggering, and you can directly select an additional filter to reject high or low frequencies.
For all trigger types using the digitized signal, you can add a digital filter using the Digital
Filter Setup. See: ​chapter 2.3.4, "Digital Filter Setup", on page 49.
"Off"
The trigger signal is not filtered.
"Highpass"
Frequencies below the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected, higher frequencies pass the filter.
You can adjust the "Cut-off" frequency, the default is 50 kHz.
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Reference for Triggers
"Lowpass"
Frequencies higher than the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected, lower frequencies pass the filter.
You can adjust the "Cut-off" frequency, the default is 50 kHz.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​FILTer​ on page 458
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​CUToff:​HIGHpass​ on page 457
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​CUToff:​LOWPass​ on page 458
Find level
Sets the trigger level automatically to 0.5 * (MaxPeak – MinPeak). The function is not
available for an external trigger source.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FINDlevel​ on page 455
Qualify
Enables the settings for trigger qualification that are defined in the "Qualification" tab.
Qualification adds additional trigger conditions considering the logic states of other digital
channel signals.
The checkmark is only active if at least one qualification channel is selected.
Qualification is available for many trigger types: Edge, Glitch, Width, Runt, Window,
Timeout, and Interval.
Qualification is not possible for the R-event.
See also: ​chapter 3.3.2, "Trigger Qualification", on page 77.
Robust trigger
The "Robust trigger" setting is relevant for all trigger types with an event condition that is
based on the time difference between a rising and a falling edge. These trigger types are:
glitch, width, runt, timeout, window, data2clock, pattern, and serial pattern. It avoids an
undefined state of the trigger system that might occur due to hysteresis, for example,
when triggering on the envelope of a modulated signal.
Fig. 3-1: Width trigger on modulated signal - no triggering
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Reference for Triggers
Fig. 3-2: Standard width trigger
ThrRising = ThrFalling = Trigger thresholds for rising and falling edge are the same. The instrument misses
the falling edge at T=0,27 because the signal stays below the hysteresis threshold.
No trigger occurs.
The robust trigger inserts a shift by the hysteresis value between the trigger threshold for
the falling edge and the trigger threshold for the rising edge. Thus, the trigger cannot
"hang" inside the hysteresis, triggering is always ensured.
Fig. 3-3: Robust width trigger
ThrRising = HystFalling, ThrFalling = HystRising = Rising and falling edge are detected by turns, noise is
rejected, less accuracy in trigger measurement
The disadvantage of the robust trigger is a slight inaccuracy in the trigger measurements,
because different trigger levels are used. For steep edges, the inaccuracy can be ignored.
See also: ​chapter 3.3.3, "Noise Reject", on page 79
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​ROBust​ on page 456
3.3.1.2
Edge
The edge trigger is the most common trigger type. It is well-known from analog oscilloscopes; and you can use it for analog and digital signals.
The trigger event occurs when the signal from the trigger source passes the specified
threshold voltage in the specified direction (slope).
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Reference for Triggers
If the trigger source is a channel signal, the edge trigger uses the digitized trigger signal.
This signal can be qualified and filtered with the DSP filter. If the trigger source is the
EXT TRIGGER INPUT, the analog trigger signal is used, and the coupling and filter for
this signal is set directly in the trigger setup.
Slope
Sets the edge type for the trigger event.
"Positive"
Selects the rising edge, that is a positive voltage change.
"Negative"
Selects the falling edge, that is a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Selects the rising as well as the falling edge. This option is not available
if the trigger source is the external trigger input.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​EDGE:​SLOPe​ on page 457
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​SLOPe​ on page 459
​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​SLOPe​ on page 470
Trigger level
Sets the voltage level for the trigger event. You can also drag the trigger level marker on
the display (TA or TB on the right edge of the display).
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
3.3.1.3
Glitch
The glitch trigger event detects pulses shorter or longer than a specified time. It identifies
deviation from the nominal data rate and helps to analyze causes of even rare glitches
and their effects on other signals.
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Polarity
Indicates the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
"Positive"
Selects positive going pulses.
"Negative"
Selects negative going pulses.
"Either"
Selects both positive and negative going pulses.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​RANGe​ on page 460
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​POLarity​ on page 462
Range
Selects which glitches are identified: shorter or longer than the specified "Width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​RANGe​ on page 460
Width
Sets the length of a glitch. The instrument triggers on pulses shorter or longer than this
value. The minimum width is 100 ps.
You need to know the expected pulse widths of the circuit to set the glitch width correctly.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​WIDTh​ on page 460
Trigger level
Sets the voltage level for the trigger event. You can also drag the trigger level marker on
the display (TA or TB on the right edge of the display). The range of the trigger level is
limited in a way so that always a hysteresis for stable trigger conditions is available.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
3.3.1.4
Width
The width trigger detects pulses with a pulse width (duration) inside or outside the allowed
time limits. The instrument triggers if the pulse is too long to cross the specified voltage
threshold twice, if it is too short, or if it is outside or inside the time range. The pulse width
is measured at the trigger level.
Using the width trigger, you can define the pulse width more precisely than with the glitch
trigger. However, with range settings "Shorter" and "Longer" you can also trigger on
glitches.
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While the width trigger can only analyze either positive or negative polarity, searching
for a width is also possible for both polarities at the same time ("Either").
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
"Positive"
Triggers on positive going pulses.
"Negative"
Triggers on negative going pulses.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​POLarity​ on page 461
​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​POLarity​ on page 469
Range
Selects how the range of a pulse width is defined:
"Within"
Triggers on pulses inside a given range. The range of the pulse width
is defined by "±Delta" related to "Width".
"Outside"
Triggers on pulses outside a given range. The range definition is the
same as for "Within" range.
"Shorter"
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given "Width".
"Longer"
Triggers on pulses longer than the given "Width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​RANGe​ on page 461
Width
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the width defines the center of a range which is
defined by the limits ​±Delta.
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​WIDTh​ on page 462
±Delta
Defines a range around the given width value.
The combination "Range" = Within and "±Delta" = 0 triggers on pulses with a pulse width
that equals "Width".
The combination "Range" = Outside and "±Delta" = 0 means to trigger on pulse widths
≠ "Width".
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Trigger level
Sets the voltage level for the trigger event. You can also drag the trigger level marker on
the display (TA or TB on the right edge of the display). The range of the trigger level is
limited in a way so that always a hysteresis for stable trigger conditions is available.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
3.3.1.5
Runt
A runt is a pulse lower than normal in amplitude. The amplitude crosses the first threshold
twice in succession without crossing the second one. In addition to the threshold amplitudes, you can define a time limit for the runt in the same way as for width triggers. For
example, this trigger can detect logic, digital, and analog signals remaining below a
specified threshold amplitude because I/O ports are in undefined state.
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
"Positive"
Selects positive going pulses.
"Negative"
Selects negative going pulses.
"Either"
Selects both positive and negative going pulses.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​RANGe​ on page 460
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​POLarity​ on page 462
Upper level
Sets the upper voltage threshold.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​RUNT:​UPPer​ on page 463
Lower level
Sets the lower voltage threshold.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​RUNT:​LOWer​ on page 463
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Range
Selects how the time limit of the runt pulse is defined:
"Any runt"
Triggers on all runts fulfilling the level condition, without time limitation.
"Longer"
Triggers on runts longer than the given "Runt width".
"Shorter"
Triggers on runts shorter than the given "Runt width".
"Within"
Triggers if the runt length is inside a given time range. The range is
defined by "Runt width" and "±Delta".
"Outside"
Triggers if the runt length is outside a given time range. The range definition is the same as for "Within" range.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​RANGe​ on page 463
Runt width
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the runt width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the runt width defines the center of a range which
is defined by "±Delta".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​WIDTh​ on page 464
±Delta
Defines a range around the given runt width.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​DELTa​ on page 464
3.3.1.6
Window
The window trigger checks the signal run in relation to a "window". The window is formed
by the upper and lower voltage levels. The event condition is fulfilled, if the waveform
enters or leaves the window, or if the waveform stays inside or outside for a time longer
or shorter than specified.
With the window trigger, you can display longer transient effects.
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Vertical condition
Selects how the signal run is compared with the window:
"Enter"
Triggers when the signal crosses the upper or lower level and thus
enters the window made up of these two levels.
"Exit"
Triggers when the signal leaves the window.
"Stay within"
Triggers if the signal stays between the upper and lower level for a
specified time. The time is defined in various ways by the ​Time condition.
"Stay outside"
Triggers if the signal stays above the upper level or below the lower
level for a specified time. The time is also defined by the "Time condition".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​RANGe​ on page 466
Upper level
Sets the upper voltage limit for the window.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​WINDow:​UPPer​ on page 465
Lower level
Sets the lower voltage limit for the window.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​WINDow:​LOWer​ on page 465
Time condition
Selects how the time limit of the window is defined. Time conditioning is available for the
vertical conditions "Stay within" and "Stay outside".
"Within"
Triggers if the signal stays inside or outside the vertical window limits
at least for the time Width - Delta and for Width + Delta at the most.
"Outside"
"Outside" is the opposite definition of "Within". The instrument triggers
if the signal stays inside or outside the vertical window limits for a time
shorter than Width - Delta or longer than Width + Delta.
"Shorter"
Triggers if the signal crosses vertical limits before the specified
"Width" time is reached.
"Longer"
Triggers if the signal crosses vertical limits before the specified
"Width" time is reached.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​TIME​ on page 466
Width
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the width defines the center of a time range which
is defined by the limits "±Delta".
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For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", it defines the maximum and minimum time lapse,
respectively.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​WIDTh​ on page 467
±Delta
Defines a range around the "Width" value.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​DELTa​ on page 467
3.3.1.7
Timeout
The timeout trigger event checks if the signal stays above or below the threshold voltage
for a specified time lapse. In other words, the event occurs if the trigger source does not
have the expected transition within the specified time.
Trigger level
Sets the voltage level for the trigger event. You can also drag the trigger level marker on
the display (TA or TB on the right edge of the display). The range of the trigger level is
limited in a way so that always a hysteresis for stable trigger conditions is available.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
Range
Selects the relation of the signal level to the trigger level:
"Stays high"
The signal level stays above the trigger level.
"Stays low"
The signal level stays below the trigger level.
"High or low"
The signal level stays above or below the trigger level.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​TIMeout:​RANGe​ on page 468
Time
Defines the time limit for the timeout at which the instrument triggers.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​TIMeout:​TIME​ on page 468
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3.3.1.8
Interval
The interval trigger analyzes the time between two pulses.
While the interval trigger can only analyze either positive or negative polarity, searching
for an interval is also possible for both polarities at the same time ("Either").
Polarity
Indicates the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
"Positive"
Triggers on positive going pulses.
"Negative"
Triggers on negative going pulses.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​POLarity​ on page 461
​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​POLarity​ on page 469
Trigger level
Sets the voltage level for the trigger event. You can also drag the trigger level marker on
the display (TA or TB on the right edge of the display). The range of the trigger level is
limited in a way so that always a hysteresis for stable trigger conditions is available.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
Range
Selects how the range of an interval is defined:
"Within"
Triggers on pulse intervals inside a given range. The range is defined
by "Interv. width" and "±Delta".
"Outside"
Triggers on intervals outside a given range. The range definition is the
same as for "Within" range.
"Shorter"
Triggers on intervals shorter than the given "Interv. width".
"Longer"
Triggers on intervals longer than the given "Interv. width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​RANGe​ on page 469
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Interv. width
Defines the time between two pulses.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​WIDTh​ on page 469
±Delta
Defines a range around the "Interval width" value.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​DELTa​ on page 470
3.3.1.9
Slew Rate
The slew rate trigger, also known as transition trigger, can detect fast or slow edges
selectively. It triggers on edges, if the transition time from the lower to higher voltage level
(or vice versa) is shorter or longer as defined, or outside a specified time range.
The trigger event finds slew rates faster than expected or permissible to avoid overshooting and other interfering effects. It also detects very slow edges violating the timing
in pulse series.
Slope
Sets the edge type for the trigger event.
"Positive"
Selects the rising edge, that is a positive voltage change.
"Negative"
Selects the falling edge, that is a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Selects the rising as well as the falling edge. This option is not available
if the trigger source is the external trigger input.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​EDGE:​SLOPe​ on page 457
​TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​SLOPe​ on page 459
​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​SLOPe​ on page 470
Upper level
Sets the upper voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​SLEW:​UPPer​ on page 471
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Lower level
Sets the lower voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​SLEW:​LOWer​ on page 471
Range
Selects how the time limit for the slew rate is defined. The time measurement starts when
the signal crosses the first trigger level - the upper or lower level depending on the
selected slope - and stops when the signal crosses the second level.
"Within"
Triggers on slew rates inside a given time range. The range is defined
by "Slew rate" and "±Delta".
"Outside"
Triggers on slew rates outside a given time range. The range definition
is the same as for "Within" range.
"Shorter"
Triggers on slew rates shorter than the given "Slew rate" limit.
"Longer"
Triggers on slew rates longer than the given "Slew rate" limit.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RANGe​ on page 471
Slew rate
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the slew rate defines the center of a range which
is defined by the limits "±Delta".
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the slew rate defines the maximum and minimum
slew rate limits, respectively.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RATE​ on page 472
±Delta
Defines a time range around the given slew rate.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​DELTa​ on page 472
3.3.1.10
Data2Clock
With the Data2Clock event - also known as setup/hold - you can analyze the relative
timing between two signals: a data signal and the synchronous clock signal. Many systems require, that the data signal must be steady for some time before and after the clock
edge, for example, the data transmission on parallel interfaces. With this trigger type, you
can also test the time correlation of sideband and inband signals.
The event occurs if the data signal crosses the data level during the setup and hold time.
The reference point for the time measurement is defined by clock level and clock edge.
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Clock source
Selects the input channel of the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 473
​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 477
Clock edge
Sets the edge of the clock signal to define the time reference point for the setup and hold
time:
"Positive"
Rising edge, a positive voltage change.
"Negative"
Falling edge, a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Both the rising and the falling edge.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ on page 473
Clock level
Sets the voltage level for the clock signal. Both "Clock level" and "Clock edge" define the
starting point for calculation of the setup and hold time.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​LEVel​ on page 473
Data level
Sets the voltage level for the data signal. At this level, the setup and hold time is measured.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
Couple levels (Trigger level and hysteresis coupling)
Sets the trigger levels and hysteresis values for all channels to the values of the currently
selected trigger source. The function affects only the levels defined for the selected event
(A-, B-, or R-event). The hysteresis of the external trigger input is an independent value,
and it is not affected by level coupling.
In trigger sequences, event coupling of trigger levels is possible: ​"Couple levels of all
events" on page 82
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SCOupling​ on page 456
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Setup time
Sets the minimum time before the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady
above or below the data level.
The setup time can be negative. In this case, the hold time is always positive. If you set
a negative setup time, the hold time is adjusted by the instrument.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​STIMe​ on page 474
Hold time
Sets the minimum time after the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady above
or below the data level.
The hold time can be negative. In this case, the setup time is always positive. If you set
a negative hold time, the setup time is adjusted by the instrument.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​HTIMe​ on page 474
3.3.1.11
Pattern
The pattern trigger is a logic trigger. It provides logical combinations of the input channels
and supports you in verifying the operation of digital logic.
The setup of the pattern trigger is very similar to trigger qualification. In addition to the
pattern and the trigger levels, you can define a timing condition. The complete settings
for the pattern trigger are provided in the "Qualification" tab.
For details on pattern definition, see ​"Pattern" on page 77.
Trigger Levels
Defines the trigger levels for all input channels. For qualification and pattern trigger, the
trigger level is a decision threshold: If the signal value is higher than the trigger level, the
signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise, the signal state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the trigger level.
You can set the trigger levels for all channels to the same value, see ​"Couple levels
(Trigger level and hysteresis coupling)" on page 73.
State timing
"State timing" adds additional time limitation to the state pattern. You find this setting in
the "Qualification" tab.
"Off"
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"Timeout"
Defines how long the result of the state pattern condition must be true
or false.
"Width"
Defines a time range for keeping up the true result of the state pattern
condition. The range is defined in the same way as for width and interval
triggers, see ​"Range" on page 65.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​MODE​ on page 475
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​TIMeout:​MODE​ on page 475
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​TIMeout[:​TIME]​ on page 476
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​DELTa​ on page 477
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​RANGe​ on page 476
​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh[:​WIDTh]​ on page 476
3.3.1.12
Serial Pattern
The serial pattern event is used to trigger on signals with serial data patterns in relation
to a clock signal - for example, on bus signals like the I²C bus.
For convenient and comprehensive triggering on specific serial data, options for serial
protocol analysis are provided, see ​chapter 10, "Protocol Analysis", on page 250.
Clock source
Selects the input channel of the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 473
​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 477
Clock edge
Together with the clock level, the clock edge sets the point in time when the state of the
data signal is checked:
"Positive"
Rising edge, a positive voltage change.
"Negative"
Falling edge, a negative voltage change.
"Both"
Both the rising and the falling edge.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ on page 477
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Clock level
Sets the voltage level for the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​LEVel​ on page 478
Data level
Sets the voltage level for the data signal.
If the signal value is higher than the data level, the state is 1. Below the level, the signal
state is 0.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 455
Couple levels (Trigger level and hysteresis coupling)
Sets the trigger levels and hysteresis values for all channels to the values of the currently
selected trigger source. The function affects only the levels defined for the selected event
(A-, B-, or R-event). The hysteresis of the external trigger input is an independent value,
and it is not affected by level coupling.
In trigger sequences, event coupling of trigger levels is possible: ​"Couple levels of all
events" on page 82
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SCOupling​ on page 456
Pattern
The pattern contains the bits of the serial data to be found in the data stream. The maximum length of the pattern is 128 bit. Touch and hold the "Pattern" field to open the "Bit
Pattern Editor" where you can enter the pattern in various formats.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
In binary format, an X indicates that the logical level for the bit is not relevant (don't care).
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​PATTern​ on page 478
3.3.1.13
Triggering on Serial Buses
Protocol analysis including configuration, triggering, and decoding is described in ​chapter 10, "Protocol Analysis", on page 250
For information on triggering on serial buses, see:
●
​chapter 10.2.3.2, "I²C Trigger", on page 261
●
​chapter 10.3.3.2, "SPI Trigger", on page 273
●
​chapter 10.4.2.2, "UART Trigger", on page 282
●
​chapter 10.6.2.2, "LIN Trigger", on page 299
●
​chapter 10.5.1.2, "CAN Trigger", on page 288
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3.3.2 Trigger Qualification
By qualifying a trigger event, you can logically combine the trigger signal with the state
of other digital channel signals.
The instrument triggers if both of the following apply:
●
The basic conditions of the trigger event definition are fulfilled.
●
The logical conditions of the trigger qualification are true.
The A-event and B-event in a trigger sequence can have their own trigger qualification.
Qualification is not supported with slew rate, Data2Clock, and serial pattern trigger types.
► To enable the qualification settings, select ​Qualify.
Example: Trigger on write access of a specific device of a bus system
In circuits using SPI, several slave devices use the same lines for reading and writing
data, and each slave has its own select line. To trigger on write access of specific slave,
the write line is the trigger source and the select line of the slave is set as qualifiying
condition.
Pattern
The pattern contains the channel selection, and the logical operations structure of hardware based boolean logic.
"Channel"
Select the channels to be considered. For qualification, you can select
all channel signals except for the trigger source. In Pattern trigger setup,
the trigger source channel is selected by default, and you can select all
other channel signals.
"Coupling"
The current coupling or ground connection is shown for each channel
and can be changed directly in the pattern, if necessary.
"Boolean
operator"
Defines the logical operation on the digital signal resulting from the
comparison with the trigger level.
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"Direct": leaves the input value unchanged
●
"NOT": inverts the input value
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"Logical
operator"
defines the logic combination of two sources. The sources are channel
1/2 and channel 3/4 on the first step, and in the second step the logical
combination resulting from the first step.
●
"AND": logical AND, conjunctive combination
●
"NAND": logical NOT AND
●
"OR": logical OR, disjunctive combination
●
"NOR": logical NOT OR
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​A:​LOGic​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​A[:​ENABle]​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​AB:​LOGic​ on page 481
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​ABCD:​LOGic​ on page 481
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​B:​LOGic​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​B[:​ENABle]​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​C:​LOGic​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​C[:​ENABle]​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​CD:​LOGic​ on page 481
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​D:​LOGic​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​D[:​ENABle]​ on page 480
​TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​STATe​ on page 479
​TRIGger<m>:​ECOupling​ on page 456
Trigger Levels
Provides an overview of the current trigger levels of all input channels. For qualification
and the pattern trigger, the trigger level is a decision treshold: If the signal value is higher
than the trigger level, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise,
the signal state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the trigger level.
Couple levels (Trigger level and hysteresis coupling)
Sets the trigger levels and hysteresis values for all channels to the values of the currently
selected trigger source. The function affects only the levels defined for the selected event
(A-, B-, or R-event). The hysteresis of the external trigger input is an independent value,
and it is not affected by level coupling.
In trigger sequences, event coupling of trigger levels is possible: ​"Couple levels of all
events" on page 82
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SCOupling​ on page 456
Robust trigger qualification
Activates the robust trigger for the qualification channels. Thus you can set the robust
trigger separately for the trigger source and the qualification channels.
For details, see ​"Robust trigger" on page 61.
Qualify
Enables the settings for trigger qualification. As soon as a qualification pattern is defined,
the option is selected by default.
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3.3.3 Noise Reject
The rejection of noise by settting a hysteresis avoids unwanted trigger events caused by
noise oscillation around the trigger level.
You can select the hysteresis mode and value for each channel separately, or couple the
trigger levels and set the same hysteresis for channels. The hysteresis of the external
trigger input is an independent value, and it is not affected by level coupling.
See also: ​"Robust trigger" on page 61
Hysteresis mode
Selects how the hysteresis is set.
"Auto"
This is the recommended mode. The hysteresis is set by the instrument
to reject the internal noise of the instrument.
"Manual"
The hysteresis is defined directly in absolute or relative values.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe[:​STATe]​ on page 482
Scale mode
Selects whether the hysteresis is defined in absolute or relative values. The setting is
available only in manual hysteresis mode.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​MODE​ on page 482
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Absolute hysteresis
Defines a range in absolute values around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this
range and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​ABSolute​ on page 483
Relative hysteresis
Defines a range in divisions around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this range
and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​RELative​ on page 483
Couple levels (Trigger level and hysteresis coupling)
Sets the trigger levels and hysteresis values for all channels to the values of the currently
selected trigger source. The function affects only the levels defined for the selected event
(A-, B-, or R-event). The hysteresis of the external trigger input is an independent value,
and it is not affected by level coupling.
In trigger sequences, event coupling of trigger levels is possible: ​"Couple levels of all
events" on page 82
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SCOupling​ on page 456
3.3.4 Sequence
A trigger sequence consists of at least one trigger event and additional conditions defining
when the trigger occurs.
T
T
A
A
B
R
The simple sequence "A only" contains an A-event and the holdoff setting as optional
condition.
The complex trigger sequence "A → B → R" consists of two events - A and B - and an
optional reset condition. After the A-event conditions have been met, the B-event with
independent conditions is enabled. A- and B-events are configured in the same way.
Without any reset, the instrument waits until one or a specified number of B-events occurs
that causes the trigger, and then the sequence starts again. If you expect, for example,
an irregular B-trigger event, you can configure a reset condition to restart the sequence
with the A-event. The reset condition can be a simple timeout, or a trigger event that is
defined in the same way as the A- and B-trigger events.
The instrument checks the trigger settings for compatibility and disables settings that do
not fit the previous settings in the sequence.
See also: ​chapter 3.2.4, "Setting Up a Trigger Sequence", on page 56.
3.3.4.1
A Only
The "A only" sequence contains an A-event and the holdoff setting as optional condition.
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Holdoff mode
Selects the method to define the holdoff condition.
T
*n
The trigger holdoff defines when the next trigger after the current will be recognized. Thus,
it affects the next trigger to occur after the current one. Holdoff helps to obtain stable
triggering when the oscilloscope is triggering on undesired events.
Example:
You want to analyze the first pulse in a burst of several pulses. At first, you select a
sufficiently slow time base to display the entire burst. Then, you set the holdoff time a
little longer than the length of the burst. Now, each trigger corresponds to the first pulse
in successive bursts, and you can change the time base to display the waveform in more
detail.
The following methods are available:
"Time"
Defines the holdoff directly as a time period. The next trigger occurs
only after the "Holdoff time" has passed.
"Events"
Defines the holdoff as a number of trigger events. The next trigger only
occurs when this number of events is reached. The number of triggers
to be skipped is defined in "Holdoff events".
"Random"
Defines the holdoff as a random time limited by "Random minimum
time" and "Random maximum time". For each acquisition cycle, the
instrument selects a new random holdoff time from the specified range.
Random holdoff prevents synchronization to discover effects invisible
with synchronized triggering, for example, the features of a pulse train.
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"Auto"
The holdoff time is calculated automatically based on the current horizontal scale.
"Auto time scaling" defines the factor the horizontal scale is multipied
with.
"Auto time" shows the resulting holdoff time: Auto time = Auto time
scaling * Horizontal scale.
"Off"
No holdoff
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​ on page 485
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​TIME​ on page 486
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​EVENts​ on page 487
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MAX​ on page 487
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MIN​ on page 487
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​AUTotime​ on page 488
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​SCALing​ on page 488
3.3.4.2
A-B-R
The complex trigger sequence "A → B → R" consists of two trigger events - A and B - and
an optional reset condition.
See also: ​chapter 3.2.4, "Setting Up a Trigger Sequence", on page 56.
Couple levels of all events
Sets the channel trigger levels of the A-, B-, and R-event to the values of the current event
(per channel).
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Example:
If the "A Trigger" tab is selected in the "Events" tab, and the trigger level for Ch1 is 70
mV, the event coupling sets the trigger levels for Ch1 in the B- and R-events also to
70 mV.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​ECOupling​ on page 456
Delay
Sets the time the instrument waits after an A-event until it recognizes B-events.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​DELay​ on page 484
Wait for one or more B-events
Sets the number of B-events to be fulfilled after an A-event. The last B-event causes the
trigger. The waiting time for B-events can be restricted with a reset condition: timeout or
reset event.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​COUNt​ on page 484
Enable reset by timeout, Reset timeout
If enabled, the instrument waits for the specified time for the specified number of Bevents. If no trigger occurs during that time, the sequence is restarted with the A-event.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​TIMeout[:​ENABle]​ on page 485
​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​TIMeout:​TIME​ on page 485
Enable reset event
If enabled, the trigger sequence is restarted by the R-event if the specified number of Bevent does not occur before the R-event conditions are fulfilled.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​EVENt​ on page 485
3.3.5 Trigger Position
The horizontal position is the location of the trigger in the waveform record. It is defined
by two parameters: the "Reference point" and the "Trigger offset". They determine how
much the instrument acquires before and after the trigger, and which data is shown in
the diagram.
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The pretrigger part of the waveform can help troubleshooting, for example, to find the
cause of a glitch. The posttrigger part shows what follows the trigger.
Trigger offset
Adds a time offset to the reference point to choose the part of the waveform to be captured
and shown in the diagram. Thus, you can set the trigger outside the diagram and analyze
the signal some time before or after the trigger. Positive values move the trigger to the
right of the reference point to show the pre-trigger part of the signal.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​POSition​ on page 429
Reference point
Sets the zero point of the time scale in % of the display between 10% and 90%. The
reference point defines which part of the waveform is shown. If the "Trigger offset" is zero,
the trigger point matches the reference point.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​REFerence​ on page 430
Restrict offset to acquisition range
Ensures that the trigger occurs within one acquisition cycle. If enabled, the trigger cannot
be set outside the waveform diagram.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​OFFSet:​LIMited​ on page 489
Show trigger lines permanently
Displays the trigger levels and the hysteresis in the diagrams until you disable this option.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​TRIGger:​LINes​ on page 453
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Hysteresis transparency
Defines the transparency of the hysteresis area above or below the trigger level. The
hysteresis is only visible if "Show trigger lines permanently" is enabled.
3.3.6 Control
The settings and functions of trigger control define when the instrument triggers. They
affect all kinds of trigger events and all triggers in a trigger sequence.
In addition to the settings in the dialog box, you need the RUN keys on the front panel to
start and stop the triggering and thus the acquisition.
The R&S RTO can provide an external trigger signal to synchronize the measurements
of other instruments. The trigger out signal is also adjusted and enabled in the "Control" tab.
Trigger mode
Sets the trigger mode which determines the behavior of the instrument if no trigger occurs.
The current setting is shown on the trigger label on top of the signal bar.
To toggle quickly between "Auto" and "Normal" mode, use the MODE key on the front
panel (in "Trigger" section).
"Auto"
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The instrument triggers repeatedly after a time interval if the trigger
conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes precedence.
This mode helps to see the waveform even before the trigger conditions
are set correctly. The waveform on the screen is not synchronized, and
successive waveforms are not triggered at the same point of the waveform. The time interval depends on the time base settings.
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"Normal"
The instrument acquires a waveform only if a trigger occurs, that is, if
all trigger conditions are fulfilled. If no trigger occurs, no waveform is
acquired and the last acquired waveform is displayed. If no waveform
was captured before, none is displayed.
When no trigger has been found for longer than one second, a message
box appears that shows the time elapsed since the last trigger.
"Free Run"
The instrument starts acquisition immediately and triggers after a very
short time interval independet of the time base settings and faster than
in "Auto" mode. Real triggers are ignored. Use this mode if the "Auto"
mode is too slow.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​MODE​ on page 490
Acquisition/average count
Access:
● TRIGGER > "Control" tab > "Average count (N-single count)"
● ACQUISITION > "Average count"
● HORIZONTAL > "Ultra Segmentation" tab > disable "Acquire maximum" > "Required"
● MATH > "Setup" tab > "Average count"
The acquisition and average count has several effects:
● It sets the number of waveforms acquired with RUN N×SINGLE.
● It defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform.
Thus, the instrument acquires sufficient waveforms to calculate the correct average
if "Average" is enabled for waveform arithmetic. The higher the value is, the better
the noise is reduced.
● It sets the number of acquisitions to be acquired in an Ultra Segmentation acquisition
series. Thus, you can acquire exactly one Ultra Segmentation acquisition series with
RUN N×SINGLE.
If Ultra Segmentation is enabled and configured to acquire the maximum number of
acquisitions, the acquisition count is set to that maximum number and cannot be
changed. See also: ​"Number of acquisitions" on page 37.
● It is the "Finished" criteria for the state of a mask test.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​COUNt​ on page 435
Force Trigger
If the acquisition is running in normal mode and no valid trigger occurs, forcing the trigger
provokes an immediate single acquisition. Thus you can confirm that a signal is available
and use the waveform display to determine how to trigger on it.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FORCe​ on page 490
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RUN CONT. / RUN N×SINGLE
Front panel keys to start and stop a continuous acquisition or a defined number of acquisition cycles, respectively. The number of acquisitions is set with "Average count".
SCPI command:
​RUN​ on page 428
​SINGle​ on page 428
​STOP​ on page 428
Trigger out signal setup
Defines the pulse that is provided to the EXT TRIGGER OUT connector on the rear panel
when a trigger occurs.
To generate the trigger out signal, select "Enable trigger out".
"Polarity"
Sets the polarity of the trigger out pulse, that is the direction of the first
pulse edge.
"Pulse length"
Sets the length of the trigger out pulse.
"Delay"
Displays the delay of the first pulse edge to the trigger point. The delay
is always 250 ns.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​STATe​ on page 491
​TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​POLarity​ on page 491
​TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​PLENgth​ on page 491
​TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​DELay​ on page 491
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4 Display
●
●
●
●
Display Customization.............................................................................................88
Zoom.....................................................................................................................101
XY-diagram...........................................................................................................111
History...................................................................................................................114
4.1 Display Customization
4.1.1 Display Settings
You can customize the various elements on the screen according to your needs:
Signal bar
The signal bar contains signal icons (mini windows) that display either real-time views of
minimized waveforms, or labels with setting information for displayed waveforms. In
addition, the timebase label and trigger label provide general information for all displayed
channels.
The signal bar can be manually switched on and off or automatically hided.
Toolbar
The toolbar contains icons for frequently used functions. You can define which tools are
displayed on the toolbar.
Diagrams
The basic diagram elements can be shown or hidden: grid, crosshair, label, and tab titles.
you can configure user-defined diagram names.
Waveforms
For waveforms, you can adjust the persistence, the waveform style and color. To set the
color, you can select it from a color palette or assign color tables defining the color of
waveform pixels depending on the cumulative occurance of the associated values. For
each waveform you can assign a different color table.
The following default color tables are provided:
●
"Temperature": shade of color changes gradually from blue (low temperature) to red
(high temperature) with increasing cumulative occurance.
●
"False colors": color changes gradually in a wide color spectrum with increasing
cumulative occurance.
●
Spectrum: colors used to display the wave lengths of the light are assigned to the
cumulative occurance. High cumulative occurance is displayed blue like high wave
lenght.
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●
Single event: single events and very seldom events appear yellow, a higher cumulative occurance is shown with blue color. This view helps to indentify specific events.
Dialog boxes and result boxes
You can configure the font size, contrast and transparency in dialog and result boxes.
Thus, you can optimize readability or keep track of the waveforms while changing settings
in dialog boxes.
4.1.2 Adjusting the Display
To change the diagram name
► Double-tap the diagram tab name. The on-screen keyboard opens to enter the new
name.
4.1.2.1
Editing Waveform Colors
For each waveform, you can set a waveform color, or you define a color table that specifies which waveform points are displayed in which color. You can use one of the default
color tables, or define your own table according to your needs. You can also edit the
default color tables.
After you define a color table, you must assign it to the waveform it is to be used for, and
enable its use.
The exact mapping of the cumulative value occurences according to the assigned color
table is guaranteed only if the intensity is set to 50%. All other intensity values falsify the
mapping but may improve the visibility of the signal.
See also: ​"Intensity" on page 94.
For details on signal color settings, see ​chapter 4.1.3.2, "Color Tables", on page 96.
To change a waveform color
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Signal Colors / Persistence".
2. Under "Color table assigment", select the tab of the waveform for which the color is
to be changed.
3. Tap the "Color" button.
4. In the "Adjust Colors" dialog box, select a predefined color, or define any other RGB
color with "Userdefined Colors".
To edit a color table
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Color Tables".
2. Under "Edit Color Tables", select the color table you want to edit.
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3. For each range of cumulative occurance of the values, insert an entry in the color
table:
●
●
●
To insert an entry at the end of the color table, tap "Append".
To insert an entry before an existing entry, tap the existing row and tap "Insert".
To remove an entry, tap the entry, then tap "Remove".
4. Assign a color to each entry: Tap the "Color" cell and select a predefined color, or
define your own color.
Example:
In this example, values with a cumulative occurance under 25% (very short or rare display) are displayed green, whereas values with an occurance of 40% are yellow-green,
and values with an occurance of 90% (displayed almost for the entire duration of the
signal) are a deep shade of orange.
To create a new color table
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Signal Colors".
2. To create an empty color table: tap the "Add" button and enter a name for the new
color table using the on-screen keyboard.
To copy an existing color table: select the color table you want to copy, and tap
the "Copy" button. Enter a name for the new color table using the on-screen keyboard.
To assign the color table and enable its use
1. Open the "Signal Colors/ Persistence" tab of the "Display" dialog box.
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2. Under "Color Table Assignment", select the tab for the waveform.
3. Enable "Use Color table".
4. Under "Assign color table", select the color table you want to assign to the waveform.
The waveform colors are displayed according to the definition in the color table.
4.1.2.2
Using the Signal bar
The signal bar can hold a large number of signal and result icons. Signal icons represent
the waveforms, serial buses and parallel buses, while result icons are minimized result
boxes showing measurement and search results.
To scroll the signal bar
If the signal bar contains more than five icons, not all icons are visible on the display.
► Touch the signal bar between the icons and move it up or down until the required
icon appears.
To switch the signal bar on and off
If you need the complete screen to see the diagrams, you can switch off the signal bar
completely.
► Tap the "Show Signal Bar" icon on the toolbar.
Alternatively, tap "Signal Bar" on the "Display" menu.
To change the position of the signal bar
► Touch the horizontal and trigger label on the top and drag the signal bar to the opposite side of the screen.
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To configure auto-hide
The signal bar can be hidden if the displayed information has not changed for a defined
time, and is displayed again automatically when a setting in the signal bar changes. The
signal bar is not hidden entirely, it simply fades and becomes less visible in the display.
1. Press the DISPLAY key on the front panel.
2. In the "Display" dialog box, select the "Diagram Layout" tab.
3. Select "Auto-hide".
4. Define the hiding properties:
●
●
●
"Hide bar after": the time after which the bar is hidden if no changes occur
"Hiding opacity": Opacity of the hidden signal bar on a scale from 30% (high
transparency) to 80% (lower transparency and better visibility)
Hide head also: the horizontal and trigger labels are also faded
To change the colors
If you want to highlight the signal bar, you can change the "Fill color" and "Border
color" of the bar.
1. Press the DISPLAY key on the front panel.
2. In the "Display" dialog box, select the "Diagram Layout" tab.
3. Tap "Border color" to change the color of the signal bar frame, or "Fill color" to change
the fill color of the bar.
4. In the "Adjust Colors" dialog box, select the color to be used.
5. To use a color that is not yet defined, tap "Userdefined Colors" and define the new
color's settings. To see the effect of a setting change in the Preview area, enter the
value and press the ENTER key.
6. Tap "OK."
The signal bar is displayed in the new colors.
4.1.2.3
Configuring Dialog and Result Boxes
You can optimize the display of dialog and result boxes so they do not interfere with the
waveform display and you can still analyze the results and settings.
To change the font size in dialogs
1. Press SETUP.
2. In the "Screen" tab, enter the desired font size in points for all dialog box texts. Most
dialog boxes are optimized for a font size of 19 pt.
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To change the transparency of dialog boxes and result boxes
The transparency of the dialog box background lets you see the waveforms behind the
box. You can configure the transparency separately for dialog boxes and result boxes.
1. Press SETUP.
2. In the "Screen" tab, in the "Dialog box transparency" field, enter the transparency
value for dialog boxes.
For high transparency values, you can see the waveform display in the background,
and possibly check the effect of the changed setting. For lower transparency values,
readability in the dialog box improves.
3. In the "Result box transparency" field, enter the transparency value for result boxes.
Alternatively, you can press the INTENSITY knob until the required parameter is shown
in the data input box, and then turn the knob to set the transparency.
To change the color theme and contrast for dialog boxes
When you print a screenshot of the display, it is helpful to use dark-colored text on a lightcolored background. For improved readability, different settings are required, depending
on the transparency value.
1. Press SETUP.
2. In the "Screen" tab, select the color theme suitable for the current operating situation.
4.1.2.4
Configuring the Toolbar
You can configure which icons are visible on the toolbar and which are hidden, so that
only the ones you use are displayed. Furthermore, you can define whether or not the
current date and time are displayed on the toolbar.
1. From the "Display" menu, select "Toolbar".
2. For each available icon, select the "Visible" option for those to be displayed.
To display all available icons, tap "Show All".
To hide all available icons, tap "Hide All".
3. Enable the "Show date and time" option to display the current date and time on the
toolbar.
4.1.3 Reference for Display Settings
Display settings are configured in the "Display" dialog box, which is opened when you
press the DISPLAY key or select an item from the "Display" menu.
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4.1.3.1
Signal Colors / Persistence
The "Signal Colors / Persistence" tab contains settings for the general display of waveform data.
Enable persistence
If enabled, each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen for the duration
defined under ​Persistence time, or as long as ​Infinite persistence is selected.
If disabled, the signal value is only displayed as long as it actually occurs.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​PERSistence[:​STATe]​ on page 492
Infinite persistence
If persistence is enabled, each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen
infinitely until this option is disabled.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​PERSistence:​INFinite​ on page 492
Persistence time
If persistence is enabled, each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen
for the duration defined here.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​PERSistence:​TIME​ on page 493
Reset
Resets the display, removing persistent values.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​PERSistence:​RESet​ on page 493
Intensity
This value determines the strength of the waveform line in the diagram. Enter a percentage between 0 (not visible) and 100% (very strong). The default value is 50%.
You can also use the INTENSITY knob on the left side of the screen to adjust the waveform intensity directly.
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Note: Use of color tables. The exact mapping of the cumulative value occurences
according to the assigned color table is guaranteed only if the intensity is set to 50%. All
other intensity values falsify the mapping but may improve the visibility of the signal. See
also: ​chapter 4.1.2.1, "Editing Waveform Colors", on page 89.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​INTensity​ on page 493
Style
Select the style in which the waveform is displayed:
"Vectors"
The individual waveform points are connected by a line.
Define the strength of the line using the INTENSITY knob on the left
side of the screen.
"Dots"
Only the individual waveform points are displayed. Waveform sample
points are the ADC sample points and additional interpolated points if
"Interpolated time" is used for resolution enhancement. To see the dots
of one waveform, perform one acquision with RUN N× SINGLE and N=1
("Average count" = 1). During continuous acquisition, or a RUN N×
SINGLE acquisition with N > 1, the dots of multiple subsequent waveforms are displayed on the screen, and the waveform on the screen
might look like a line.
Consider also the ​"Interpolation mode" on page 33.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​STYLe​ on page 493
Color
Shows the current color of the selected waveform. To change the color, tap the button
and select a color. The color of the waveform, of its signal icon and of the illuminated
keys is adjusted to the new color.
Use color table
If enabled, the selected waveform is displayed according to its assigned color table.
If this option is disabled, the default color is displayed, and the intensity of the specific
signal color varies according to the cumulative occurance of the values.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​COLor:​SIGNal<m>:​USE​ on page 494
Assigned color table
Adjust the waveform colors to suit your preferences. For each of the following waveform
types you can assign a suitable color table:
● each waveform of any channel
● a reference waveform
● the results of a mathematical function
● a stored measurement
● an xy-diagram
The following default color tables are provided:
● "Temperature": shade of color changes gradually from blue (low temperature) to red
(high temperature) with increasing cumulative occurance.
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●
●
●
"False colors": color changes gradually in a wide color spectrum with increasing
cumulative occurance.
Spectrum: colors used to display the wave lengths of the light are assigned to the
cumulative occurance. High cumulative occurance is displayed blue like high wave
lenght.
Single event: single events and very seldom events appear yellow, a higher cumulative occurance is shown with blue color. This view helps to indentify specific events.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​COLor:​SIGNal<m>:​ASSign​ on page 494
4.1.3.2
Color Tables
Color tables define the color of the waveform pixels depending on the cumulative occurance of the associated values. By default, the intensity of the specific waveform color
varies according to the cumulative occurance of the values, i.e. the more often a value
occurs, the darker the color of the data point is displayed.
The following default color tables are provided:
●
Temperature
●
False colors
●
Spectrum
●
Single event
●
M-Hot
●
M-Hsv
●
M-Jet
The editing table allows you to edit existing color tables or add new ones that can then
be assigned to the waveforms. To assign a color table to a waveform, use the "Signal
colors / Persistence" tab.
See also:
●
​chapter 4.1.2.1, "Editing Waveform Colors", on page 89
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●
​Assigned color table
Remote commands
The following remote commands are used to configure color tables:
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​COUNt​ on page 495
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​ADD​ on page 494
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​REMove​ on page 494
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​INSert​ on page 495
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​ADD​ on page 495
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt[:​VALue]​ on page 495
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​COUNt​ on page 496
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​REMove​ on page 495
​DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​COUNt​ on page 495
4.1.3.3
Diagram Layout
On the "Diagram Layout" tab, you define the basic diagram layout and the appearence
and behavior of the signal bar.
Show grid
If selected, a grid is displayed in the diagram area. A grid helps you associate a specific
data point to its exact value on the x- or y-axis.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​GRID​ on page 497
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Show crosshair
If selected, a crosshair is displayed in the diagram area. A crosshair allows you to select
a specific data point by its co-ordinates.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​CROSshair​ on page 497
Show labels
If selected, labels mark values on the x- and y-axes in specified intervals in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​LABels​ on page 497
Show tabs always
If selected, the tab titles of all diagrams are displayed: "Diagram1", "Diagram2" ...
If cleared, the tab titles are not shown except for those in a tabbed diagram. In tabbed
diagrams, the tab titles are required to change the tabs.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​TITLe​ on page 497
Keep Y-grid fixed
If enabled, the horizontal grid lines remain in their position when the position of the curve
is changed. Only the values at the grid lines are adapted. This reflects the behavior of
traditional oscilloscopes.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​DIAGram:​YFIXed​ on page 497
Show evaluation gate(s) in zoom
If enabled, the available histogram areas, masks, and measurement gates are shown in
the zoom diagrams. If the evaluation gate is within the zoom area, the display helps to
move or modify the evaluation gates in the zoom window.
Make sure that the option is disabled if the zoom area and the evaluation gate are of
nearly the same size to avoid conflicts in mouse operation.
Gate symbol transparency
Sets the transparency of the area that is defined as measurement or search gate. The
setting only takes effect if "Show gate" is enabled.
Search result gate symbol color
Sets the color of the search zoom area. The search zoom area is displayed if "Show
search zoom windows" is enabled. See also: ​"Search zoom window" on page 247.
Enable
If enabled, the signal bar is displayed in the diagram area.
The signal bar contains signal icons (mini windows) that display either real-time views of
minimized waveforms, or labels with setting information for displayed waveforms. In
addition, the timebase label and trigger label provide general information for all displayed
channels.
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SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar[:​STATe]​ on page 497
Position
The signal bar can be placed vertically at the right (default position), or at the left to ensure
best visibility of the waveforms.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​POSition​ on page 498
Auto-hide
If selected, the signal bar disappears automatically after some time, similar to the Windows task bar. With the settings below "Auto hide", you can define when and how the
signal bar hides.
The signal bar reappears if you tap it, or if an action changes the content of the bar.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE[:​AUTO]​ on page 498
Hide bar after
Sets the time when the signal bar is faded out with "Auto-hide".
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​TIME​ on page 498
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Hide head also
If selected, the "Auto hide" function hides also the horizontal and trigger label at the top
of the signal bar.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​HEAD​ on page 498
Hiding transparency
Sets the transparency of the signal bar when the signal bar is faded out with "Autohide". The maximum value is 70%, the minimum value is 20% for the least visibility of the
signal bar. This
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​TRANsparency​ on page 499
Border color
Opens a color selection dialog box to define the color of the signal bar border.
For details, see ​"To change the colors" on page 92.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​COLor:​BORDer​ on page 499
Fill color
Opens a color selection dialog box to define the fill color of the signal bar.
For details see ​"To change the colors" on page 92.
SCPI command:
​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​COLor:​FILL​ on page 499
4.1.3.4
Toolbar
The "Toolbar" dialog box is displayed when you select "Toolbar" in the "Display" menu.
Here you can configure the contents of the toolbar.
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Tool Settings
Defines the visibility of selected toolbar icons.
Show All
Displays all available toolbar icons.
Hide All
Hides all toolbar icons.
Show date/time
Displays the current date and time on the toolbar.
4.1.3.5
Performance
Information on the current acquisition performance values of the R&S RTO is available
by selecting the "Display > Performance" menu entry.
The instrument groups acquired waveforms together in a frame, and displays the frame
content. The maximum number of frames displayed per second is about 30. The current
number of frames per second is indicated as recoprocal "Time per frame". If the time
scale decreases, and thus the number of Acquisitions per second also decreases, the
number od acquisisions per frame can drop to 1.
4.1.3.6
Clear Screen Results
The function "Clear screen results" in the "Display" menu resets all results in all measurement result boxes including long term measurement and statistic results and deletes
the current measurement waveforms.
4.2 Zoom
The zoom functions allow you to magnify a specific section of the diagram in order to view
more details. You can define several zoom areas for the same diagram and even couple
them, or you use the hardware zoom.
4.2.1 Methods of Zooming
The R&S RTO provides the usual way of zooming: You define the section of a diagram
that you want to magnify, and the zoomed view is shown in a separate zoom diagram.
Additionally, you can magnify the diagram directly: The hardware zoom changes the
horizontal and vertical scales of the diagram so that you see the selected section.
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There are different ways to initiate and configure the zoom function:
●
Graphically by drawing and moving the zoom area on the touch screen – a very
quick and simple method for hardware zoom and zoom diagrams
●
Numerically by entering x- and y-values in a dialog box – a more precise method
which can be used to optimize a graphically defined zoom
With the numeric method there are two ways of defining the zoom area:
– Specifying start and stop values for the x- and y-axes; the acquired data within
those values is zoomed.
Fig. 4-1: Numeric zoom using start and stop values
–
Specifying the x- and y-position of the centerpoint of the area plus a range for
the x- and y-axes; the area defined by that centerpoint and the ranges is zoomed.
Fig. 4-2: Numeric zoom using position and range
Evaluation gates - available histogram areas, masks, and measurement gates - can be
displayed in zoom diagrams to simplify the graphical gate adjustment on the touch
screen. See: ​"Show evaluation gate(s) in zoom" on page 98.
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4.2.2 Zooming for Details
Use one of the following zooming methods:
●
​To define the zoom area graphically
●
​To define the zoom area numerically using start-stop values
●
​To define the zoom area numerically using position and range values
●
​To define multiple zoom areas
●
​To define coupled zoom areas
●
​To close the zoom diagram
●
​To use the hardware zoom
To define the zoom area graphically
For graphical zooming, you use your finger on the screen, or the navigation knob.
1. On the toolbar, tap the "Zoom" icon.
2. In the active signal you want to zoom into, touch the position in the diagram that you
want to define as one corner of the zoom area, then drag your finger to the opposite
corner of the zoom area.
While you drag your finger on the touch screen, a dotted rectangle is displayed to
indicate the current zoom area. When the rectangle covers the required zoom area,
remove your finger.
The indicated area is magnified in a new zoom diagram. The original diagram is displayed with the zoom area indicated as a rectangle.
Fig. 4-3: Zoom diagram and overview diagram
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3. If the zoom area is not yet placed ideally, adjust the position by dragging the area or
with the navigation knob.
●
●
Drag the rectangle in the overview to the correct position.
Turn the navigation knob to shift the zoom area. Press the knob twice to toggle
between vertical and horizontal move.
4. If the size of the zoom area is not yet ideal, tap the rectangle in the overview diagram.
The rectangle is replaced by 4 lines that indicate the edges of the zoom area.
Fig. 4-4: Zoom area indicated by edges
Tip: Tapping the zoom area toggles between area and edge adjustment. You can
also press the ENTER key to activate the edge adjustment, and the ESC key to activate the area adjustment.
5. Shift the individual edges to change the size of the zoom area.
a) Tap the edge you want to move, or press the navigation knob until the required
edge is selected.
b) Move the edge by dragging it, or turn the navigation knob.
Tip: In area adjustment mode, you can also adjust the size of the zoom area. Press
the navigation knob to toggle between: horizontal position > horizontal span > vertical
position > vertical span.
To optimize the zoom definition of an active zoom diagram, double-tap the zoom diagram.
The "Zoom" dialog box for numeric definition is opened.
To define the zoom area numerically using start-stop values
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Zoom".
2. Select the ​Start/Stop tab.
The fields in this dialog box only become editable after you have created a zoom area
using the "Zoom" tool in the tool bar, or after you have created a new zoom definition.
To create a new zoom definition:
a) Tap the "Add" icon.
b) Enter a name for the new zoom diagram using the displayed on-screen keyboard.
3. Under "Vertical mode", select whether you want to define absolute or relative y-axis
values. Relative values cause the zoom area to adapt to the input values dynamically.
4. Define the "Start" and "Stop" values that define the lower and upper borders (respectively) of the zoom area on the y-axis (see ​figure 4-1).
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5. Under "Horizontal mode", select whether you want to define absolute or relative xaxis values.
6. Define the "Start" and "Stop" values that define the lower and upper borders (respectively) of the zoom area on the x-axis.
When you close the dialog box, the specified area is magnified in a new zoom diagram. The original diagram is displayed with the zoom area indicated as a rectangle
(see ​figure 4-3).
Displaying the center point or start/stop positions
Depending on the definition mode of the zoom area, the position of the center point or
the start or stop position is temporarily displayed in the data entry field in the upper left
corner of the screen if you do one of the following:
●
Change the "Vertical mode" or "Horizontal mode" setting.
●
Press the "Navigation" rotary knob while the "Zoom" dialog box is open.
●
Tap the zoom area in the diagram overview.
The data entry field disappears again after a few seconds. To toggle the display between
the x- and y-values of the position, press the "Navigation" rotary knob.
To define the zoom area numerically using position and range values
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Zoom".
2. Select the ​Position/Range tab.
The fields in this dialog box only become editable after you have created a zoom area
using the "Zoom" tool in the tool bar, or after you have created a new zoom definition.
To create a new zoom definition:
a) Tap the "Add" icon.
b) Enter a name for the new zoom diagram using the displayed on-screen keyboard.
3. Under "Vertical mode", select whether you want to define absolute or relative y-axis
values. Relative values cause the zoom area to adapt to the input values dynamically.
4. Under "Position", define the y-value of the center point of the zoom area (see ​figure 4-2).
5. Under "Range", define the height of the zoom area.
6. Under "Horizontal mode", select whether you want to define absolute or relative xaxis values.
7. Under "Position", define the x-value of the center point of the zoom area.
8. Under "Range", define the width of the zoom area.
When you close the dialog box, the specified area is magnified in a new zoom diagram. The original diagram is displayed with the zoom area indicated as a rectangle.
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To define multiple zoom areas
You can define more than one zoom area for the same diagram, for example to compare
several peaks in a measurement. Graphically, simply repeat the steps described in ​To
define the zoom area graphically - for each area. Numerically, proceed as follows:
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Zoom".
2. Select the required tab according to the method you want to use to define the zoom
area.
3. Tap the "Copy" icon to copy the current zoom area definition or tap the "Add" icon to
add a new zoom area.
4. Enter a name for the new zoom diagram using the displayed on-screen keyboard.
5. Define the zoom area as described for the first zoom.
An additional zoom diagram is displayed for the new zoom area, and another rectangle in the original diagram indicates the new zoom area. Each rectangle in the
overview has the same color as the corresponding zoom diagram frame.
Fig. 4-5: Multiple zoom diagrams
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To define coupled zoom areas
You can define multiple zoom areas for one diagram that are coupled, i.e. if you change
the size of one zoom area, the size of all coupled zoom areas is changed as well. This
is useful, for example, if you want to compare recurring peaks in a signal.
1. On the toolbar, tap the "Coupled Zoom" icon.
2. In the diagram overview, select an existing zoom area.
The selected zoom area is duplicated.
3. Drag the duplicate zoom area to the required position.
4. To create further coupled zooms, repeat the steps above.
Now if you edit the zoom area size for any of the coupled zoom areas in the
"Zoom" dialog box (for example the range) or by dragging the edges on the touch
screen, the settings are changed for all of them.
To close the zoom diagram
► Tap the "Delete" icon on the toolbar, then tap the zoom diagram.
The diagram in the overview diagram returns to the original display size.
To use the hardware zoom
In contrast to the normal zoom, the hardware zoom changes the instrument settings horizontal and vertical scales, and also the trigger level and offset - to display the selected
area in the diagram instaed of the original waveform. No additional zoom diagram is
opened.
1. On the toolbar, tap the "Hardware Zoom" icon.
+
-
+
2. Drag your finger on the touch screen to mark the zoom area.
A dotted rectangle is displayed to indicate the current zoom area. When the rectangle
covers the required zoom area, remove your finger. The diagram changes and shows
the magnified area.
Tip: To return to the previous display, use the "Undo" icon.
Note: You can combine hardware zoom and normal zoom - first use the hardware
zoom, then the zoom into the display. The reverse approach is also possible: Create
a zoom diagram, and then apply the hardware zoom to the waveform diagram. Both
the waveform and the zoom diagrams are changed.
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4.2.3 Reference for Zoom
The zoom area, i.e. the section to be enlarged, can be defined using two different methods:
●
Specifying start and stop values for the x- and y-axes; the acquired data within those
values is zoomed.
●
Specifying the x- and y-position of one point in the diagram plus a range for the xand y-axes; the area defined by that center point and the ranges is zoomed.
Note that the fields in this tab only become editable after you have created a zoom area
using the "Zoom" tool in the tool bar, or after you have created a new zoom definition via
the "Add" icon in the dialog box.
4.2.3.1
+
-
+
Zoom Functions on the Toolbar
Hardware zoom
Changes the instrument settings - horizontal and vertical scales as well as trigger level
and offset - to display a part of the diagram in greater detail.
Zoom
Displays a magnified section of the diagram in an additional zoom diagram. It is a display
zoom, instrument settings are not changed.
Touch and hold the zoom area to open the "Zoom" dialog box.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​ADD​ on page 502
Coupled zoom
Creates a coupled zoom area and its related zoom diagram. If you change the size of
one zoom area, the size of all coupled zoom areas is changed as well.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​ADDCoupled​ on page 503
4.2.3.2
Start/Stop
The "Start/Stop" tab allows you to specify start and stop values for the x- and y-axes. The
acquired data within those values is zoomed.
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Selected diagram
Indicates which of the diagrams (waveframes) is selected for zooming.
Vertical mode
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the y-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​MODE​ on page 506
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​MODE​ on page 638
Stop / Relative stop
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 508
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 507
Start / Relative start
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 508
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 507
Full height
Uses the full diagram height for the zoom area. Only horizontal zoom settings can be
changed.
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Horizontal mode
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the x-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 503
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 637
Start / Relative start
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 504
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 505
Stop / Relative stop
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 504
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 506
4.2.3.3
Position/Range
In the "Position/Range" tab, you specify the x- and y-position of center point of the zoom
area plus a range for the x- and y-axes; the area defined by that point and the ranges is
zoomed.
Vertical mode
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the y-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​MODE​ on page 506
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​MODE​ on page 638
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Position / Relative position
Defines the y-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 506
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 507
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 638
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 639
Range / Relative Range
Defines the height of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 508
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 507
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 638
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 639
Full height
Uses the full diagram height for the zoom area. Only horizontal zoom settings can be
changed.
Horizontal mode
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the x-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 503
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 637
Position / Relative position
Defines the x-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 503
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 505
Range / Relative Range
Defines the width of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 504
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 505
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 636
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 637
4.3 XY-diagram
XY-diagrams combine the voltage levels of two waveforms in one diagram. They use the
voltage level of a second waveform as the x-axis, rather then a time base. This allows
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you to perform phase shift measurements, for example. You can display up to four different XY-diagrams.
XY-diagrams can be used to display the IQ representation of a signal.
4.3.1 Displaying an XY-diagram
You can create the diagram from active waveforms with drag&drop, or use the dialog box
for setup.
To display an XY-diagram with drag&drop
Prerequisites: The source waveform for the y-axis is active in a diagram, the source
waveform for the x-axis is either active or minimized.
1. Drag the x-axis waveform to the lower left corner of the diagram with the y-axis
waveform.
2. Drop the icon when it overlaps the left and lower diagram borders.
The diagram is converted into an XY-diagram.
To set up an XY-diagram
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "XY-diagram".
2. Activate the "State" option.
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3. In the "X-source" field, define the signal source that supplies the x-values of the XYdiagram. Select one of the following:
●
●
●
One of the waveforms of any channel
A reference waveform
The results of a mathematical function
4. In the "Y-source" field, define the signal source that supplies the y values of the XYdiagram.
5. To switch the x- and y-values quickly, tap the "Swap XY" button.
6. In order to maintain a constant ratio while the x- and y-axes are adapted to the
acquired data dynamically, activate the "Constant XY-ratio" option.
If the XY-diagram is active or minimized, touch and hold the signal icon to open the "XYdiagram" tab.
4.3.2 Reference for XY-diagram
You can display up to four different XY-diagrams that use the voltage level of a waveform
as the x-axis, rather then a time base.
Make sure to select the tab of the required XY-diagram.
Enable
If activated, the XY-waveform is active and shown in a diagram, or it is minimized in a
signal icon.
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SCPI command:
​WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​STATe​ on page 509
X-source
Defines the signal source that supplies the x-values of the XY-diagram. Select one of the
following:
●
●
●
One of the waveforms of any channel
A reference waveform
The results of a mathematical function
SCPI command:
​WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​XSOurce​ on page 510
Y-source
Defines the source to be used as the y-axis of the XY-diagram. Select one of the following:
●
●
●
One of the waveforms of any channel
A reference waveform
The results of a mathematical function
SCPI command:
​WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​YSOurce​ on page 510
Constant XY-ratio
If enabled, the x- and y-axes maintain a constant ratio in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​RATio​ on page 509
Swap XY
Replaces the source of the x-axis with the source of the y-axis and vice versa.
SCPI command:
​WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​SWAP​ on page 510
4.4 History
The history accesses the data of previous acquisitions and provides them for further
analysis.
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4.4.1 About History
If a continuous acquisition runs, the captured data is stored in the sample memory and
the current acquisition is processed and shown on the display. The history accesses the
samples that were stored before the current acquisition, displays these samples as history waveforms, and makes them available for further analysis. It considers all channels
that were enabled during the running acquisition. When the acquisition was stopped and
a new acquisition is started with RUN CONT or RUN×SINGLE, the memory is cleared
and written anew.
You can work with history waveforms in the same way as with the waveform of the latest
acquisition: use zoom, cursor measurements, and automatic measurements, create math
waveforms, perform mask testing and so on. Saving the history data is also possible,
either completely or a part of the data.
The number of stored history waveforms depends on the memory size, the number of
enabled channels, and the record length. The shorter the record length, the less the
number of channels, and the larger the memory, the more history waveforms are saved.
The memory can be enhanced with optional memory extension: 50 MSa with RTO-B101
100 MSa with RTO-B102.
History and equivalent time sampling are mutually exclusive, waveforms acquired with
equivalent time sampling have no history.
Quick-access History dialog box
When you press the HISTORY key on the front panel or tap "Display" menu > "Show
history", the history mode is enabled and the quick-access "History" dialog box is displayed. This small dialog box can remain visible on the screen during history replay, so
that the history can be replayed at any time by a simple tap on the "Play" button. Closing
the quick-access "History" dialog box also disables the history mode.
4.4.2 Using History
You can access the history waveforms in two ways:
●
Display a particular acquisition.
●
Replay all or a part of the saved waveforms to track the signal run.
Furthermore, you can export history data to a file.
●
​"To open the history and get information" on page 116
●
​"To display a particular acquisition" on page 116
●
​"To replay history waveforms" on page 116
●
​"To exit the history" on page 117
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●
​"To save the history" on page 117
To open the history and get information
1. Press the HISTORY key on the front panel. The history mode is enabled and the
quick-access "History" dialog box is displayed.
The HISTORY key is illuminated as long as the history mode is active.
2. Open the full configuration dialog box:
●
●
●
Tap the
icon.
Press the HISTORY key again.
On the "Display" menu, tap "History setup".
3. In the "History" configuration dialog box, select the "Information" tab to see how many
history waveforms are saved, and how many can be saved as maximum.
To display a particular acquisition
1. In the quick-access "History" dialog box, enter the number of the required acquisition
in the "Current index" field. The newest acquisition always has the index "0", older
acquisitions have a negative index
2. Tap "Play" to start.
Alternatively, you can configure and start the history display from the "History" configuration dialog box:
1. Open the "History" configuration dialog box and select the "Viewer" tab.
2. If the history mode is off (the HISTORY key is not illuminated), select "Show history".
The quick-access dialog box is displayed.
3. Drag the slider to the required acquisition. The current number is shown in the "Current index" field.
Alternatively, enter the number of the required acquisition in the "Current index" field.
4. Tap "Play" to start.
To replay history waveforms
1. In the "History" configuration dialog box, select the "Viewer" tab.
2. If the history mode is off (the HISTORY key is not illuminated), select "Show history".
The quick-access dialog box is displayed.
3. Define the part of the history you want to see by doing one of the following:
●
●
Tap "Select all" to see the complete history.
Enter the "Start Index" of the oldest acquisition to display and the "Stop Index" of
the newest acquisition to display. All waveforms between the two indexes will be
displayed.
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History
To enter the oldest or newest acquisition for either index, tap the appropriate
button. The newest acquisition always has the index "0". The "Start index" is
always negative.
4. Tap "Play" to start.
To exit the history
► Choose one of the following ways:
●
●
●
Close the quick-access "History" dialog box.
On the "Display" menu, tap "Show history".
In the "Viewer" tab, disable "Show history".
To save the history
You can save the complete history, or some subsequent waveforms from the history, or
a single history waveform. You can also decide to save the complete waveforms, or a
part of each waveform.
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Waveform" tab.
4. Tap the source icon to select the waveform you want to save.
5. If you want to save only a part of each waveform, set the "Scope".
For settings, see ​"Scope" on page 352.
6. Enable "Export history".
7. To save one waveform out of the history:
a) Make sure that "Multiple Wfms" is disabled.
b) Enter the number of the required acquisition in "Acq index". The newest acquisition in the memory always has the index "0". Older acquisition have a negative
index.
c) Tap "Save" or "Save As" to save the waveform data to the specified file.
8. To save several subsequent history waveforms:
a) Enable "Multiple Wfms".
b) Define the range of the waveforms to be saved with "Start acq" and "Stop acq".
c) Tap "Start Export" to play the history and to save the history data to the specified
file.
4.4.3 Reference for History
The "History" dialog box contains the complete functionality on history viewing and information. Out of these, the most important information and functions are also provided in
the quick-access history dialog box.
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Display
History
4.4.3.1
Viewer
The settings in the "Viewer" tab control the display of history waveforms.
The numbering of the waveforms refers to the current memory content. With every RUN
CONT or RUN×SINGLE action, the memory content changes.
Show history
Enables the history mode and allows to save history waveforms to file.
The history display is enabled automatically when you press the HISTORY button. It is
disabled when you close the quick-access "History" dialog box.
See also: ​"Export history" on page 353
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory[:​STATe]​ on page 511
Current acq
Accesses a particular acquisition in the memory to display it, or to save it. The newest
acquisition always has the index "0". Older acquisition have a negative index.
If a history replay is running, the field shows the number of the currently shown acquisition.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​CURRent​ on page 511
Start acq
Sets the index of the first (oldest) acquisition to be displayed or exported. The index is
always negative. The number of stored history acquisitions is shown in ​Available acquisitions on the "Information" tab.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​STARt​ on page 512
Stop acq
Sets the index of the last (newest) acquisition to be displayed or exported. The newest
acquisition of the complete acquisition series always has the index "0".
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​STOP​ on page 512
Select all
All acquisitions saved in the memory will be shown in the viewer.
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Current
Sets the newest acquisition in the sample memory as "Stop acq" and "Current acq". This
acquisition always has the index "0".
Oldest
Sets the oldest acquisition in the sample memory as "Start acq" and "Current acq".
Auto repeat
If selected, the replay of the history waveform sequence repeats automatically. Otherwise, the replay stops at the "Stop index".
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​REPLay​ on page 513
Play
Starts and stops the replay of the history waveforms from "Start acq" to "Stop acq".
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​PLAY​ on page 513
Time per acquisition
Sets the display time for one acquisition. The shorter the time, the faster is the replay.
The setting takes effect for history replay and the display of an Ultra Segmentation series,
see ​chapter 2.3.1.4, "Ultra Segmentation", on page 35.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TPACq​ on page 513
Time stamp
The time stamp shows the time of the currently displayed history acquisition. Thus, the
time relation between acquisitions is always available.
The time stamp "Mode" can be absolute or relative:
● In "Absolute" mode, the instrument shows the date and the daytime of the current
acquisition.
● In "Relative" mode, the time difference to the newest acquisition (index = 0) is shown.
During history replay, the time value is displayedand updated if the replay speed ("Time
per acquisition") is slow enough, that is 40 ms or slower.
The quick-access history dialog box always shows the relative time. In the "History
Viewer" tab, you can select the time mode.
SCPI command:
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSDate​ on page 514
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSABsolute​ on page 514
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSRelative​ on page 515
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4.4.3.2
Information
Max. acquisition count
Displays the maximum number of acquisitions that can be saved in the sample memory
and displayed with the history viewer. With Ultra Segmentation, it is also the maximum
number of acquisitions in an Ultra Segmentation acquisition series.
Available acquisitions
Displays the number of acquisitions currently saved in the sample memory. This memory
is also used to save an Ultra Segmentation acquisition series, so the number of acquisitions available for history viewing is the same as the number of acquisitions in an Ultra
Segmentation acquisition series.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​AVAilable​ on page 511
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5 Measurements
Using the R&S RTO you can perform and display different measurements simultaneously, based on the active signal or math waveforms. The color of the results in the result
table corresponds with the source waveform color.
The following measurement methods are available:
●
Cursor measurements (CURSOR key): measurements can be configured for up to
four cursor sets to determine specific results at the manually defined cursor positions
of an active waveform; the results are displayed in a result box.
See ​chapter 5.1, "Cursor measurements", on page 121.
●
Automatic measurements: up to eight measurements can be configured and performed simultaneously; the results are displayed in a result box. The MEAS key starts
the default measurement for the active waveform. If a measurement is still running,
the key opens the configuration dialog box.
See ​chapter 5.2, "Automatic Measurements", on page 129.
5.1 Cursor measurements
●
●
●
Manual Measurements with Cursors.....................................................................121
Performing Cursor Measurements........................................................................122
Reference for Cursor Measurements....................................................................125
5.1.1 Manual Measurements with Cursors
Cursor measurements determine the results at the current cursor positions. The cursors
can be positioned manually or can be configured to follow the peaks of the waveform. Up
to four sets of cursors can be configured and displayed. Each set of cursors consists of
a pair of horizontal or vertical cursors, or both. Cursors can be coupled so that the initially
defined distance is always maintained.
How to set up cursor measurements is decribed in ​chapter 5.1.2, "Performing Cursor
Measurements", on page 122. The ​chapter 5.1.3, "Reference for Cursor Measurements", on page 125 provides a detailed description of all settings.
Cursors also can define a gate to limit the measurement to the section of the waveform
between the cursor lines. See ​chapter 5.2.3.7, "Measurements - Gate/Display
Tab", on page 170.
Cursor Measurements Results
The results of cursor measurements are displayed in a result box on the screen. For each
measurement, a separate result box is displayed. The result box is displayed automatically when a cursor measurement is enabled. Similar to waveform diagrams, you can
minimize the result box to a result icon on the signal bar, and display results in a separate
diagram on the screen.
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For details on using the result box, see "Displaying results" in the "Getting Started" manual.
The following information may be provided in the result box, depending on the selected
source.
Label
Description
t1, t2
The time at the position of the vertical cursors.
V1, V2
The value of the waveform at the position of the horizontal cursors.
f1, f2
The frequency at the position of the vertical cursors.
Δt
Difference between the vertical cursor (time) values
BW
Difference between the vertical cursor (frequency) values
ΔV
Difference between the horizontal cursor values
1/Δt
Inverse time difference
ΔV/Δt
Slope of the waveform between the cursors
Type
Cursor type - horizontal, vertical, or both
Track waveform
If enabled, the horizontal cursors track the peaks of the waveform
Peak
Peak search function (for spectrum results only, see ​chapter 5.1.3.3, "Peak
Search Tab", on page 127)
The cursors can be displayed in the source waveform diagram(s). For each measurement, labels can be defined for the cursors. By default, the cursors are labeled as C1.1,
C1.2, C2.1, C2.2, C3.1, C3.2, C4.1, C4.2.
5.1.2 Performing Cursor Measurements
Cursor measurements determine the results at the current cursor positions. The cursors
can be positioned manually or can be configured to follow the waveform. Up to four sets
of cursors can be configured and displayed. Each set of cursors consists of a pair of
horizontal or vertical cursors, or both. The cursor display can also be configured.
Cursor measurements can be performed and displayed simply by tapping the "Cursor"
icon on the toolbar and then the waveform to be measured.
●
●
●
5.1.2.1
Performing a Simple Cursor Measurement...........................................................122
Configuring a Cursor Measurement......................................................................123
Configuring the Cursor Display.............................................................................124
Performing a Simple Cursor Measurement
To display cursors
1. Select the waveform to be measured.
2. Choose one of the following methods:
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●
●
Press the CURSOR key.
Tap the "Cursor"icon, and then tap the diagram where you want to set the cursors,
or draw a rectangle in the diagram to position the cursor lines.
The cursor lines appear and the "Cursor Results" box for the selected waveform
opens.
You can move the cursor lines in the diagram manually, or adjust the cursor type,
source and position in the result box.
For details on cursor measurement results, see ​chapter 5.1.1, "Manual Measurements with Cursors", on page 121.
To disable all cursor measurements
1. Press the CURSOR key.
2. Select the "Cursor Setup" tab.
3. Tap the "All Off" button.
All cursor measurements are disabled, the cursors and cursor result boxes are
removed from the display.
5.1.2.2
Configuring a Cursor Measurement
1. If a cursor measurement was already enabled via the toolbar icon or CURSOR key,
icon in the result box, or press the CURSOR key to display the "Cursor
tap the
Setup" dialog box.
Otherwise, from the "Cursor" menu, select "Setup".
2. Select the "Cursor Setup" tab.
3. Select the tab for the cursor set you want to perform a measurement on.
4. Tap the "Source" icon and select a waveform for which the measurement is to be
performed. Any input channel, math, reference or XY-waveform can be selected.
If you enabled the cursor measurement via the toolbar icon or CURSOR key, the
source is automatically defined as the selected or active waveform.
5. Select the icon for the type of cursors to be used - horizontal, vertical, or both.
6. Define the position of the cursors.
a) To define the position of the cursors manually, enter the X-position for each vertical cursor and the Y-position for each horizontal cursor. Horizontal cursors can
only be positioned manually if the "Track waveform" setting is disabled.
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b) To position the horizontal cursors automatically, select "Track waveform". In this
case, cursor 1 indicates the current maximum, cursor 2 indicates the current
minimum. If both horizontal and vertical cursors are displayed, the horizontal cursors are placed at the crossing points of the vertical cursors with the waveform.
The vertical cursors must be positioned manually.
If the waveform arithmetics are set to "Envelope" and the "Trace Curve" setting
is enabled, select which horizontal cursor is positioned to the maximum and which
to the the minimum envelope values. Under "Envelope wfm selection 1", select
the crossing point for cursor 1. Under "Envelope wfm selection 2", select the
crossing point for cursor 2.
c) To maintain the distance between the vertical cursors when one cursor is moved,
select the "Coupling" option.
d) To set the cursors for a spectrum measurement to peak values automatically,
select the "Peak Search" tab.
Optionally, define a peak excursion, i.e. the minimum level value by which the
waveform must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum
by the search functions.
Tap one of the search function buttons to place the cursor(s) on the selected peak
value. For details see ​chapter 5.1.3.3, "Peak Search Tab", on page 127.
When you close the dialog box you can move the cursors on the touchscreen manually; the results are adapted accordingly.
7. Optionally, select "Show in all diagrams" in the "Setup" tab to enable the cursor display for all waveform diagrams based on the same domain (time or spectrum) as the
selected source, for example a zoom or XY-diagram.
8. Tap the "Enable" icon in the "Setup" tab to activate the cursor measurement.
The cursors are displayed in the waveform diagram(s) of the measurement source
and the "Cursor" result box is displayed. For details on cursor measurement results,
see ​chapter 5.1.1, "Manual Measurements with Cursors", on page 121.
5.1.2.3
Configuring the Cursor Display
By default, the cursors are displayed as lines in the diagrams and labeled according to
the syntax:
C<cursor set number>.<1|2>
The cursors for the cursor set 3, for example, are labeled 3.1 and 3.2. Both the horizontal
and the vertical cursors have the same labels.
You can change the default cursor display.
1. Press the CURSOR key.
2. Select the "Cursor Style And Label" tab.
3. Select the tab for the cursor set you want to configure.
4. For each vertical and horizontal cursor enter a label to be displayed in the diagrams.
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5. Select "Show labels".
6. To display only the crossing points of the cursors with the waveform, select the cursor
style "Rhombus".
To display both the crossing points and the cursor lines, select the cursor style "Line
& Rhombus".
5.1.3 Reference for Cursor Measurements
Cursor measurements are configured in the "Cursors" dialog box which is opened via the
"Cursor > Setup" menu or the "Cursor Results" box, or by pressing the CURSOR key.
5.1.3.1
Cursor Setup Tab
This tab contains general settings for cursor measurements.
C1/C2/C3/C4
The settings for each of the four available cursor measurements are configured on separate tabs. For each measurement, a horizontal pair of cursors, a vertical pair of cursors,
or both can be displayed.
Enable
Enables the selected cursor measurement.
Source
Defines the source of the cursor measurement. Any of the input signal, math, reference
or XY waveforms can be selected.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​SOURce​ on page 517
Type
Defines the cursor type to be used for the measurement.
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"Horizontal cursors"
The horizontal cursors are positioned along the waveform or can
be positioned manually.
"Vertical cursors"
The vertical cursors are positioned manually.
"Both horizontal and vertical cursors"
The horizontal cursors are positioned along the waveform or can
be positioned manually.
The vertical cursors are positioned manually.
Y user position 1/2
Defines the position of the horizontal cursors in the time domain.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​Y1Position​ on page 518
​CURSor<m>:​Y2Position​ on page 518
Track waveform
The horizontal cursors track the waveform, i.e. cursor 1 indicates the current maximum,
cursor 2 indicates the current minimum. If the waveform changes, e.g. during a running
measurement, the cursors move along with it. If both horizontal and vertical cursors are
displayed, the horizontal cursors are positioned to the crossing points of the vertical cursors with the waveform.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​TRACking[:​STATe]​ on page 516
Coupling
Couples the cursors of a set so that the distance between the two remains the same if
one cursor is moved.
X position 1/2
Defines the position of the vertical cursors.
Envelope wfm selection 1/2
If the waveform arithmetics are set to envelope waveform (see ​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34) and "Track waveform" is enabled, this setting defines which horizontal
cursor is positioned to the maximum and which to the the minimum envelope values.
These settings are only available if both horizontal and vertical cursors are enabled.
"Minimum"
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical cursor
with the minimum waveform envelope.
"Maximum"
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical cursor
with the maximum waveform envelope.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​X1ENvelope​ on page 519
​CURSor<m>:​X2ENvelope​ on page 519
All Off
Disables all cursor measurements at once.
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Show in all diagrams
Shows the enabled cursor measurements in all active diagrams of the same (time/spectrum) domain.
5.1.3.2
Cursor Style and Label Tab
The settings in this tab configure the display of the cursors.
C1/C2/C3/C4
The settings for each of the four available cursor measurements are configured on separate tabs. For each measurement, labels can be defined for the cursors. By default, the
cursors are labeled as C1.1, C1.2, C2.1, C2.2, C3.1, C3.2, C4.1, C4.2.
Vertical cursor 1/2
Defines a label to be displayed with the vertical cursors.
Horizontal cursor 1/2
Defines a label to be displayed with the horizontal cursors.
Show label
Shows the cursor labels in the diagram.
Cursor style
Defines how the cursor is displayed in the diagram.
5.1.3.3
"Lines"
The cursors are displayed as lines.
"Line & Rhombus"
The cursors are displayed as lines. The intersections of the cursors with
the waveforms are displayed by rhombus-shaped points.
"Rhombus"
The intersections of the cursors with the waveforms are displayed by
rhombus-shaped points.
Peak Search Tab
The settings on this tab are only available in spectrum mode, i.e. if FFT analysis is
selected for a math waveform which is used as the source of the cursor measurement.
In this case, the cursors can indicate the results of a peak search on the waveform.
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c1, c2 absolute
Both cursors are set to the absolute peak value.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 521
c2 next left
Cursor 2 is set to the next peak to the left of the current position.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 521
c2 next abs
Cursor 2 is set to the next smaller absolute peak (from the current position).
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 522
c2 next right
Cursor 2 is set to the next peak to the right of the current position.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 521
Peak excursion
Defines the minimum level value by which the waveform must rise or fall so that it will be
identified as a maximum or a minimum by the search functions.
This setting is only available for sources in the frequency domain.
Note that the peak excursion is a global setting and is valid for both cursor measurements
and search functions.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 522
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5.2 Automatic Measurements
●
●
●
Measurement Types and Results.........................................................................129
Performing Automatic Measurements...................................................................141
Reference for Automatic Measurements...............................................................152
5.2.1 Measurement Types and Results
Various measurement types are available, depending on the selected source.
Time domain
●
Amplitude and time measurements
●
Eye/Jitter measurements
●
Histograms
Frequency domain
●
Spectrum measurements
●
Histograms
Default measurements
The default measurement is started when you tap the "Measurement" icon on the toolbar
or press the MEAS key.
The default measurement depends on the type of the source waveform:
●
amplitude measurement for analog time domain waveforms
●
extinction ratio (%) for eye/jitter measurements
●
channel power measurement for frequency domain waveforms
●
waveform count for histograms
●
positive pulse measurement for digital channels (MSO option R&S RTO-B1)
Note that the "Measurement" icon and the MEAS key always configure and start a new
default measurement for the selected waveform. Any previous configurations for that
measurement are overwritten. If no measurement is currently running, pressing the
MEAS key has the same effect. To recall a previously configured and disabled measurement, select the "Meas > Setup" menu item.
See also: ​chapter 5.2.2.2, "Taking a Default Measurement", on page 143
Multiple measurements
By default, only one measurement is performed for each active type for best performance.
However, you can enable multiple measurement, for example to measure the rise time
for several cycles in one waveform. This is particularly useful when statistics are evaluated.
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Environment sensors
Environment sensors can provide additional information during a measurement, e.g. the
temperature. The collected data can be displayed as a background color in the waveform
diagram. Thus you can analyze, for example, temperature-dependant behavior during a
measurement.
The various measurement types and results are described in detail in the following sections.
●
●
●
●
●
5.2.1.1
Measurement Results...........................................................................................130
Amplitude/Time Measurements............................................................................132
Eye/Jitter Measurements......................................................................................136
Histograms............................................................................................................138
Spectrum Measurements......................................................................................140
Measurement Results
The results of automatic measurements are displayed in a result box on the screen. For
each measurement, a separate result box is displayed. The result box is displayed automatically when an automatic measurement is enabled.
Similar to waveform diagrams, you can minimize the result box to a result icon on the
signal bar, and display results in a separate diagram on the screen. For details, see
"Displaying results" in the "Getting Started" manual.
To save space in the display, minimize the result boxes. The most important results are
displayed and updated in the signal icon, as well.
You can extend the result box with a small control panel which provides source settings
and statistics enabling for quick access: "Measurements" dialog box > "Gate/Display" tab
> "Show result control panel".
The function "Clear screen results" in the "Display" menu resets all results in all measurement result boxes including long term measurement and statistic results and deletes
the current measurement waveforms.
Which results are displayed depends on the measurement type and is described in detail
in the following chapters.
Status icons
Status information on the measurement is indicated by the following icons in the result
box:
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Icon
Description
Measurement and limit checks: The measurement result might not be correct due to
insufficient amplitude level. Check your amplitude and reference level settings.
Limit check only: ok
Limit check only: margin failed
Limit check only: limit failed
Intermediate results
You can display auxiliary result lines and reference levels required to perform some
measurement types (e.g. signal thresholds) in the source diagram.
Statistics
If statistics are enabled for the measurement, the following information is provided in the
result box for each measurement type.
Label
Description
Actual
Currently measured value
+Peak
Positive peak value (maximum)
-Peak
Negative peak value (minimum)
μ (Avg)
Average
RMS
Root mean square
σ (S-dev)
Standard deviation
Event count
Number of measured events (e.g. rising edges, pulses etc.)
Wave count
Number of waveforms (acquisitions) the measurement is based on
Additionally, the statistical results of the mein measurement can be displayed as histogram which shows the cumulative occurence of measured values in a graphic.
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Fig. 5-1: Statistical results and histogram of an amplitude measurement
5.2.1.2
Amplitude/Time Measurements
The R&S RTO provides a variety of voltage, time, area and counting measurements in
the "Measurements" dialog box, "Setup > Amp/Time" tab. All measurements can be used
as main or additional measurement. Some measurements require reference levels to be
set according to the measurement purpose.
The default measurement in the time domain is "Amplitude" for analog waveforms, or
positive pulse measurement for digital channels (MSO option R&S RTO-B1).
●
●
●
●
Voltage Measurements.........................................................................................132
Time Measurements.............................................................................................134
Area Measurements..............................................................................................136
Counting................................................................................................................136
Voltage Measurements
Voltage measurements are provided in the "Measurements" dialog box, "Setup > Amp/
Time" tab.
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Table 5-1: Voltage measurements
Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
High
XHigh
High signal level
Low
XLow
Low signal level
Amplitude
XAmpl
Amplitude of the signal: the difference of high and low signal levels.
XAmpl = XHigh - XLow
Max
XMax
Absolute maximum value of the waveform
Min
XMin
Absolute minimum value of the waveform
Peak to peak
XPkPk
Peak-to-peak value of the waveform: the difference of maximum
and minimum values.
XAmpl = XMax - XMin
Mean
XMean
Arithmetic average of the waveform voltage values
X Mean 
RMS
XRMS
σX
σ
RPos
RNeg
1
NEval
N Eval
x
2
(i )
i 1
1
NEval
N Eval  1
 x(i )  X
Mean
2
i 1
X Max  X High
X Ampl
 100%
Negative overshoot of a square wave, calculated from measurement values Min, Low, and Amplitude
R Neg 
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Positive overshoot of a square wave, calculated from measurement values High, Max, and Amplitude
RPos 
Neg. overshoot
 x(i )
Standard deviation of the waveform samples
X 
Pos. overshoot
N Eval
NEval
RMS (Root Mean Square, quadratic mean) of the waveform voltage values
X RMS 
σ (S-dev)
1
X Low  X Min
 100 %
X Ampl
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Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Cycle mean
The mean value of one cycle
Cycle RMS
The RMS (Root Mean Square) value of one cycle
Cycle σ (S-dev)
The standard deviation of one cycle
ProbeMeter
The DC voltage from the connected probe
σ
Time Measurements
Time measurements are provided in the "Measurements" dialog box, "Setup > Amp/
Time" tab.
Table 5-2: Time measurement types
Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Rise time
TRise
Rise time of the left-most rising edge of the waveform. This is the
time it takes the signal to rise from the low reference level to the
high reference level. Multiple measurement is possible.
Fall time
TFall
Falling time of the left-most falling edge of the waveform. This is
the time it takes the signal to fall from the high reference to the low
reference. Multiple measurement is possible.
Pos. pulse
TPosPulse
Width of a positive pulse: time between a rising edge and the following falling edge measured on the middle reference level. The
measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered
signal. Multiple measurement is possible.
Neg. pulse
TNegPulse
Width of a negative pulse: time between a falling edge and the
following rising edge measured on the middle reference level. The
measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered
signal. Multiple measurement is possible.
Period
TPeriod
Time of the left-most signal period of the waveform measured on
the middle reference level. The measurement requires at least one
complete period of a triggered signal. Multiple measurement is
possible.
Frequency
fPeriod
Frequency of the signal, reciprocal value of the period.
fPeriod = 1 / TPeriod
f
Pos. duty cycle
RPosCyc
Positive duty cycle: Width of a positive pulse in relation to the
period in %. The measurement requires at least one complete
period of a triggered signal. Multiple measurement is possible.
R PosCyc 
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TPeriod
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Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Neg. duty cycle
RNegCyc
Negative duty cycle: Width of a negative pulse in relation to the
period in %. The measurement requires at least one complete
period of a triggered signal. Multiple measurement is possible.
R NegCyc 
Delay
TNegPulse
TPeriod
 100%
Time difference between the any two edges of two measurement
sources at any reference level. The measurement result is negative if the edge of the second source comes before the edge of the
first source. Slope and reference level have to be defined for each
source.
See: ​"Advanced Delay Setup" on page 163
+
Phase
The phase difference between two waveforms (delay/period *
360)
Burst width
The duration of one burst, measured from the first edge to the last
Pos. switching
TPosSw
-
+
Settling time at rising edges: Time between crossing the lower
reference level and the last return of the signal into the top tolerance tube.
See also: ​"Tube Tab" on page 157
Neg. switching
Pulse train
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TNegSw
Settling time at falling edges: Time between crossing the upper
reference level and the last return of the signal into the bottom
tolerance tube. See also "Pos. switching" above.
Duration of N positive pulses, measured from the rising edge of
the first pulse to the falling edge of the N-th pulse. N has to be
configured.
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Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Setup/Hold time
TSetup and THold
Setup and Hold time measurement with positive and/or negative
clock edge.
t
See: ​"Setup/Hold measurement settings" on page 164
Setup/Hold ratio
TSetup / (TSetup + THold) Setup/Hold ratio measurement with positive and/or negative clock
edge.
t
See: ​"Setup/Hold measurement settings" on page 164
Area Measurements
Area mesurements are voltage over time measurements. They are provided in the
"Measurements" dialog box, "Setup > Amp/Time" tab.
Table 5-3: Area measurement types
Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Area
ARef
Area between the waveform and a reference level ("Area level",
XRef).
ARef 
TEval

N Eval
NEval
 x(i )  X
Ref

i 1
TEval: Evaluation time, time of a full waveform or limited by a gate
Cycle area
ARefCyc
Area between the waveform and a reference level ("Area level")
measured for one period, see also "Area" measurement. The
measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered
signal. Multiple measurement is possible.
Counting
Counting measurements are provided in the "Measurements" dialog box, "Setup > Amp/
Time" tab.
Table 5-4: Counting measurement types
Meas. type
Symbol
Description/Result
Pulse count
The number of positive or negatve pulses of the waveform, or
both. The mean value of the signal is determined. If the signal
passes the mean value, an edge is counted. A positive pulse is
counted if a rising edge and a following falling edge are detected.
A negative pulse is counted if a falling edge and a following rising
edge are detected.
Edge count
The number of positive or negative edges, or of both. The mean
value of the signal is determined. If the signal passes the mean
value, an edge is counted.
n
n
This measurement type is only available for digital channels
(requires MSO option R&S RTO-B1).
5.2.1.3
Eye/Jitter Measurements
The eye diagram is a significant means of visualizing jitter and allows you to analyze the
reasons for it. Characteristic values can be identified in the eye diagram, and by creating
histograms of the eye diagram, important jitter parameters can be determined.
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In the R&S RTO, the eye diagram is automatically set up for jitter measurements. The
following characteristic values and jitter parameters can be determined:
Fig. 5-2: Basic eye diagram characteristics
The default eye/jitter measurement is extinction ratio (%).
To obtain optimized settings for an eye measurement, use the "Autoset" function that is
provided on the right side of the "Eye/Jitter" tab.
Table 5-5: Eye/jitter measurement types
2
Meas. type
Description/Result
Extinction ratio (%)
Top level / Base level in percent
(Vtop/Vbase*100)
3
Extinction ratio (dB)
Top level / Base level in dB
10*log (Vtop/Vbase)
4
Eye height
Vertical eye size
(Vtop – 3 * σ_top) – (Vbase + 3 * σ_base)
5
Eye width
Horizontal eye size
(Tcrossing2 – 3 * Sigma_crossing2) – (Tcrossing 1 – 3 * Sigma_crossing1)
6
Eye top
High signal level (Vtop)
7
Eye base
Low signal level (Vbase)
10
Q factor
(Vtop – Vbase)/(σ_top + σ_base)
14
Noise (RMS)
Average of top and base deviation
15
S/N ratio
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
20 * log (Eye height / NoiseRMS)
16
Duty cycle distortion
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17
Meas. type
Description/Result
Eye rise time
Duration for signal to rise from lower reference level to upper reference level
See also: ​chapter 5.2.3.1, "Reference Level Settings", on page 153
18
Eye fall time
Duration for signal to fall from upper reference level to lower reference level
See also: ​chapter 5.2.3.1, "Reference Level Settings", on page 153
19
Eye bit rate
Frequency between two crossings
20
Eye amplitude
Vtop-Vbase
28
Jitter (peak to peak)
Average of the jitter for both crossing points.
29
Jitter (6*σ)
Jitter *6
30
Jitter (RMS)
Average deviation of the time from the virtual crossing point.
The sequential numbers in the above table refer to the suffix required for remote control
commands for eye jitter measurements (see ​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​
LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​ on page 551 and following).
5.2.1.4
Histograms
Histograms are used to plot density of data, i.e. to display graphically how often which
signal values occur. In the R&S RTO, the histogram can be based on the input signal
levels (amplitudes) or the time base in a time domain measurement, or on frequencies
or frequency levels in a spectrum measurement.
Depending on which data the histogram is based on, a vertical or horizontal histogram
can be selected. A vertical, or amplitude, histogram displays horizontal bars across
amplitude values. A horizontal or time/frequency histogram displays vertical bars over
time/frequencies.
You can define up to 8 histograms in a diagram, one of them is displayed. They can be
created quickly with toolbar icons, or in the "Meas" menu >"Histogram" dialog box. To
switch the histogram display, tap the required histogram area, or select it in the "Histogram" dialog box. For histogram measurements, the measured histogram is selected
independently in the measurement setup.
The following characteristic values can be determined for histograms (illustrated for a
vertical histogram):
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Table 5-6: Histogram measurement types
Meas. type
Description/Result
1
Waveform count
The number of acquisitions (waveforms) the histogram is based on
2
Waveform samples
The number of samples from the most recent acquisition included in the current histogram
3
Histogram samples
The number of samples from all acquisitions included in the current histogram
4
Histogram peak
The maximum sample value in the histogram
5
Peak value
The signal value at the histogram peak
6
Upper peak value
The signal value at the maximum sample value in the upper half of the histogram
7
Lower peak value
The signal value at the maximum sample value in the lower half of the histogram
8
Maximum
The highest signal value with a probability > 0
9
Minimum
The lowest signal value with a probability > 0
10
Median
The signal value for which half the samples lie above, the other half below in
the histogram
The sample numbers of one signal value after the other are accumulated until
half the total number of samples in the histogram is reached. The signal value
for which 50% of the samples are accumulated is the median.
11
Max - Min
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Meas. type
Description/Result
12
Mean
The weighted arithmetic average of the histogram
13
σ (S-dev)
Standard deviation of the sample numbers
14
Mean ±σ
The range between (mean value + standard deviation) and (mean value standard deviation)
15
Mean ±2*σ
The range between (mean value + 3 * standard deviation) and (mean value 2 * standard deviation)
16
Mean ±3*σ
The range between (mean value + 3 * standard deviation) and (mean value 2 * standard deviation)
17
Marker + Probability %
The marker value (according to the selected probability domain marker type)
plus the defined limit.
Note that the value is restricted to the histogram range.
18
Marker - Probability %
The marker value (according to the selected probability domain marker type)
minus the defined limit.
Note that the value is restricted to the histogram range.
See also: ​chapter 5.2.2.4, "Creating a Histogram ", on page 145.
Rough jitter evaluation using a histogram
You can use a horizontal histogram to perform a rough jitter measurement. Define a
histogram for a narrow amplitude range close to the trigger time. The "Max-Min" value
indicates the peak jitter, while the "StdDev" value indicates the RMS jitter.
5.2.1.5
Spectrum Measurements
Spectrum analysis determines the frequencies of a given input signal over time. Various
measurements can then be performed based on the signal spectrum.
The default measurement on a spectrum is a "Channel Power" measurement, which
provides the integrated power over the sample values as a result.
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Table 5-7: Spectrum measurement types
Meas. type
Description/Result
1
Channel power
Power integrated over the sample values defined by a center frequency and
a bandwidth; based on a defined impedance; the result is given in mW
2
Occupied bandwidth
From the defined center frequency, symmetric sample value pairs to the left
and right are integrated until a user-defined percentage of the total power is
reached; the occupied bandwidth is the difference between the frequencies
at which the requested power was reached
3
Bandwidth
n dB down Bandwidth; the samples to the left and right of the peak value are
analyzed until the n dB threshold is exceeded; the frequencies at which the
threshold is exceeded define the limits of the requested bandwidth
4
Total harmonic distortion
Power sum of the harmonic waves divided by the power of the fundamental
wave:

P
THD  n  2
P1
n
5.2.2 Performing Automatic Measurements
Default measurements are performed simply by tapping the "Measurement" icon on the
toolbar or by pressing the MEAS key. In order to configure more complex or additional
measurement types, setup dialog boxes are available.
Up to eight automatic measurements can be configured and performed simultaneously
with the data acquisition; the results are displayed in a result box.
From the result box, the settings dialog box can be opened using the
icon.
The measurement results can be displayed in a result box, in a minimized result icon on
the signal bar, or as table in a separate diagram area. For details, see "Displaying results"
in the "Getting Started" manual.
The results of an optionally connected environment sensor can also be taken into consideration in the results display of the measurement.
To display measurement information in the diagram
You can display auxiliary lines in the source waveform to determine how a measurement
result was obtained. Such lines include gate areas, reference levels or intermediate result
lines, such as the signal thresholds for rise and fall time measurements.
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup", or press the MEAS key to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the "Gate/Display" tab.
3. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
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4. To display an active gate area, select "Show gate".
5. To display intermediate result lines, select "Display result lines".
6. To display reference levels, select "Display reference levels".
To clear the measurement results
1. On the "Display" menu, tap "Clear screen results".
The results of all measurements are cleared.
2. To restart mesurement statistics, select "Reset now" in the "Measurement Results"
box.
The results in the selected measurement result box are cleared.
3. Alternatively, proceed as follows:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
Select the "Gate/Display" tab.
Select the tab for the measurement you want to clear.
Tap "Clear Results".
The results in the selected measurement result box are cleared.
5.2.2.1
Starting an Automatic Measurement
There are three different methods to start an automatic measurement, each with slightly
different effects:
●
With "Measurement" icon on the toolbar:
The icon starts the default mesurement for the previously selected waveform.
See ​"To start a default measurement with the toolbar icon" on page 143.
●
If no measurement is currently running: press the MEAS key on the front panel.
The key starts the default mesurement for the previously selected waveform.
See: ​"To start a default measurement with the MEAS key" on page 143.
(If a measurement is already running, the "Measurement" dialog box for the currently
selected measurement is opened.)
●
Select the "Meas > Setup" menu item and - after configuring the measurement - tap
the "State" option in the "Measurement" dialog box.
The configured measurement is started and the result box is displayed.
See: ​chapter 5.2.2.3, "Configuring Measurements", on page 143.
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Note that the "Measurement" icon and the MEAS key always configure and start a new
default measurement for the selected waveform. Any previous configurations for that
measurement are overwritten. If no measurement is currently running, pressing the
MEAS key has the same effect. To recall a previously configured and disabled measurement, select the "Meas > Setup" menu item.
5.2.2.2
Taking a Default Measurement
When you tap the "Measurement" icon on the toolbar or press the MEAS key, the default
measurement is started:
●
amplitude measurement for time domain waveforms
●
channel power measurement for frequency domain waveforms
To start a default measurement with the toolbar icon
1. Select the waveform for which you want to perform the measurement.
2. Tap the "Measurement" icon on the toolbar.
3. Tap the diagram with waveform, or draw a rectangle on the screen to define a gate
area for which the amplitude is measured.
The default measurement is enabled for the next available measurement configuration. If a rectangle was drawn on the screen, the corresponding gate area is defined
to limit the measurement. The "Measurements" result box is displayed.
To start a default measurement with the MEAS key
1. Select the waveform on the screen.
2. Press the MEAS key.
The default measurement is enabled for the next available measurement configuration, using the selected waveform as the source. The "Measurements" result box is
displayed.
5.2.2.3
Configuring Measurements
Up to eight automatic measurements can be configured and performed simultaneously
with the data acquisition.
Spectrum measurements require an FFT math waveform as measurement source. Histogram measurements require a histogram as source.
1. If a measurement was already started with the toolbar icon or MEAS key, tap the
icon in the result box, or press the MEAS key to display the "Measurements"
dialog box.
Otherwise, from the "Meas" menu, select "Setup".
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2. Select the vertical tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Tap "Source" and select the waveform to be used as the measurement source. For
histogram measurements, select the histogram.
If you enabled the measurement with the toolbar icon or MEAS key, the source is
already defined. However, you can select any other input channel, math or reference
waveform.
4. On the "Setup" tab, select the measurement category tab: "Amp/Time", "Eye/Jitter",
"Spectrum", or "Hist".
5. Under "Main measurement", select the main measurement type. This measurement
is the one referred to if the measurement result is used as a source for math calculations.
For details on the available measurement types, see .
6. Optionally, tap "Activate" to select further measurement types.
All active measurement types are displayed in the measurement overview. Here you
can enable or disable the measurement types individually or all at once, except for
the main measurement type.
7. Depending on the selected measurement type, further settings may be required:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
For phase and delay measurements, tap "2nd Source" and select a second
waveform.
For area measurements, set the "Area level". By default, the time axis is used.
For eye measurements, tap "Autoset" to define optimized settings for the eye
measurement.
For "Bandwidth" measurements, enter the "N db down" value, i.e. the threshold
until which the samples to the left and right of the peak value are analyzed.
For "Channel Power" measurements, enter the "Channel BW" over which the
channel power is calculated, and the "Channel CF", the center frequency from
which the channel power is calculated.
For "Occupied Bandwidth" measurements, enter the percentage of the total
power used to determine the occupied bandwidth in the "Occup. BW" field.
For histogram measurement types "Marker + Probability %" or "Marker - Probability %", define the marker "Reference" for the probability domain. Then define
the "Delta" in percent which is to be added or subtracted from the marker value.
8. Depending on the selected measurement type, further optional settings may be available:
●
●
●
For all Amp/Time measuments, you can optionally define a "Signal threshold" to
exclude signal values from the measurement if they do not exceed this threshold .
For all Amp/Time measuments performed on waveforms with waveform arithmetic mode "Envelope" or with "Peak detect" decimation, you can select the
upper or lower part of the waveform for measurement, or a combination of both
with "Envelope selection".
For all spectrum measurements, you can optionally define a "Noise reject" threshold.
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9. Optionally, define a gate area to restrict the measurement to an extract of the waveform, as described in ​chapter 5.2.2.7, "Using Gate Areas", on page 150.
If you enabled the measurement with the toolbar icon and drew a rectangle on the
diagram, the gate area is automatically defined and enabled.
10. To compile and display statistics for the measurement, select "Statistics".
11. Optionally, perform a limit check as described in ​chapter 5.2.2.6, "Performing Limit
Checks", on page 149.
12. Tap "State" to enable the measurement.
The results of the measurement are displayed in the result box.
5.2.2.4
Creating a Histogram
Histograms can be used to evaluate the sample value occurances directly. They are a
prerequisite for histogram measurements.
See also: ​chapter 5.2.1.4, "Histograms", on page 138.
To create a histogram quickly with toolbar icons
1. Select the waveform for which you need a histogram.
2. Tap the either the "Vertical histogram" or the "Horizontal histogram" icon on the toolbar.
Note: The "Horizontal histogram" icon has to be activated in the toolbar configuration:
"Display" menu > "Toolbar"
3. Tap the diagram with the waveform to be measured, or draw a rectangle on the screen
to define the area on which the histogram is to be based.
The histogram range is indicated in the diagram and a histogram with the selected
waveform as a source is defined and displayed.
To create and configure a histogram in the dialog box
1. Select "Meas > Histogram", or touch and hold an existing histogram or histogram
area.
The "Histogram Setup" dialog box is displayed.
2. If no histogram was defined yet, tap the "Add" icon in the upper right corner of the
dialog box to create a new tab for histogram configuration.
To copy an existing histogram and configure a new one based on those settings, tap
the "Copy" icon.
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3. To change the name of a histogram, double-tap the tab label and enter a name for
the histogram using the on-screen keyboard.
4. Select a "Source" for the histogram. The source can be any input signal, math or
reference waveform.
5. Define the histogram "Mode": vertical for an amplitude, horizontal for a time-based
histogram.
6. Define the range of the waveform for which the histogram is to be generated. Enter
the start and stop values in x and in y direction, either as absolute or relative values.
5.2.2.5
Configuring Reference Levels
Some measurements refer to specific reference or signal levels, e.g. rise time/fall time
evaluation or counting pulses. Generally, these settings are determined automatically.
However, for irregular data it may be useful to configure them manually, or to define some
parameters for automatic determination.
In addition to reference and signal levels you can define hystereses for reference levels,
as well as tubes for signal levels. Hystereses are useful for measurements that determine
zero-crossings. Tubes define evaluation ranges for measurements that require high level
or low level detection. If the signal value remains within the defined tubes, it is considered
to be high or low.
Reference levels and intermediate results required for further measurements can be displayed in the source diagram.
Example:
For example, data signals may contain intervals where no data is transmitted, so that a
high and low state can not be determined for each acquisition. In this case, you can define
the high and low signal levels manually, in order to evaluate other measurement results.
Furthermore, if the signal levels vary strongly or have large overshoots, the rise and fall
levels may be difficult to determine.
Finally, if fixed levels are configured for the connected device, you can define the signal
levels in the R&S RTO correspondingly and analyze the resulting measurement data.
To determine reference and signal levels automatically
By default, the histogram of the measurement data is evaluated to determine the required
levels automatically. However, you can define several parameters to adapt the evaluation
to your data.
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Reference Level > Levels" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the "Levels" tab.
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3. Define the "Source" from which the reference is taken. The source can be any signal
input, math or reference waveform.
4. Select automatic "Reference level mode".
5. Define which signal level is used as a reference. For details see ​"Signal level
mode" on page 154.
6. By default, the lower reference level is defined at 10% of the selected signal level,
the middle reference level at 50% and the upper reference level at 90%. Optionally,
select other "Relative levels" to be used for evaluation.
7. To determine the reference levels using average values from several histograms,
enable the "Histogram averaging" option and define an "Average Count" to define
how many histograms are averaged.
Averaging is not available if "Absolute peaks" are selected as the "Signal level
mode".
8. To define a hysteresis for the middle reference level, select the "Hysteresis" tab and
enter a percentage of the selected signal level.
A rise or fall from the middle reference value that does not exceed the hysteresis is
rejected and not considered a zero-crossing.
9. To define a tube for the high and low signal levels:
a) Select the "Tube" tab.
b) In the "Relative outer" field, define a percentage of the signal level by which the
absolute signal level may be larger than high signal level or lower than the low
signal level to be considered high or low, respectively.
c) In the "Relative inner" field, define a percentage of the signal level by which the
absolute signal level may be higher than the low signal level or lower than the
high signal level to be considered low or high, respectively.
To determine reference and signal levels manually
You can configure the reference levels manually as fixed absolute or relative values.
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Reference Level > Levels" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the "Levels" tab.
3. Define the "Source" from which the reference is taken. The source can be any signal
input, math or reference waveform.
4. Select manual "Reference level mode".
5. Under "Level definition", select whether you want to define the levels using absolute
or relative values.
6. Under "User level selection", select whether you want to configure the high and low
signal levels ("User signal level") or the lower, middle and upper reference levels
("User reference level").
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7. To define high and low signal levels:
a) Enter the absolute high and low signal levels.
b) By default, the lower reference level is defined at 10% of the selected signal level,
the middle reference level at 50% and the upper reference level at 90%. Optionally, select other "Relative levels", or define absolute "Top distance" and "Bottom
distance" values to be used for evaluation.
8. To define lower, middle and upper reference levels:
a) Enter the absolute upper and lower reference levels.
b) By default, the lower reference level is defined at 10% of the selected signal level,
the middle reference level at 50% and the upper reference level at 90%. Optionally, select other "Relative levels", or define absolute "Top distance" and "Bottom
distance" values to be used for evaluation of the high and low signal levels.
9. To define a hysteresis for the middle reference level, select the "Hysteresis" tab and
enter a percentage of the selected signal level.
A rise or fall from the middle reference value that does not exceed the hysteresis is
rejected and not considered a zero-crossing.
10. To define a tube for the high and low signal levels:
a) Select the "Tube" tab.
b) For relative value definition:
In the "Relative outer" field, define a percentage of the signal level by which the
absolute signal level may be larger than the high signal level or lower than the
low signal level to be considered high or low, respectively.
In the "Relative inner" field, define a percentage of the signal level by which the
absolute signal level may be higher than the low signal level or lower than the
high signal level to be considered low or high, respectively.
c) For absolute value definition:
In the "Top outer" field, define an area above the high signal level which is still
considered to be high level.
In the "Top inner" field, define an area beneath the high signal level which is still
considered to be high level.
In the "Bottom inner" field, define an area above the low signal level which is still
considered to be low level.
In the "Bottom outer" field, define an area beneath the low signal level which is
still considered to be low level.
To display reference levels and intermediate results
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Select the "Gate/Display" tab.
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4. Enable the "Display result lines" or "Display reference levels" option, or both.
The reference levels and intermediate results required for further measurements are
displayed in the source diagram.
5.2.2.6
Performing Limit Checks
Limit checks allow you to analyze the measured values. If the defined limits are exceeded,
specific actions can be initiated. Margins are not as strict as limits and belong to the valid
value range, but can also initiate certain actions. Limit checks are available for all automatic measurement types.
To perform a limit check
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Under "Limit check", select "Limit only" to distinguish only between valid and nonvalid values, or "Margin&Limit" to perform a two-level value check, where the margin
is still valid, the limit is not.
4. In the measurement overview, define the upper and lower limits and, if selected,
margins for each active measurement type to be checked.
5. In the measurement overview, define the valid value range for each active measurement type to be checked. Note that the margins must always be within the valid value
range. If necessary, the limit or margin values are adapted to match the selected valid
range.
For details on the value range definitions see ​"Limit check" on page 160.
6. Define what happens when the limits and margins defined for a measurement type
are exceeded.
a) Select the "Event Actions" tab.
b) For each action, define whether it is to be initiated:
● if the limits or margins are exceeded
● if the measurement is completed without limit violations
● not at all
c) If "E-mail" is selected, define a recipient address under "E-mail setup".
If "Save Wfm" is selected, define a storage location under "Waveform destination".
If "Print" is selected, configure the print settings as described in ​chapter 12.1.1,
"Configuring Printer Output and Printing", on page 344.
As a result of the limit check, the specified actions are performed and the status is
indicated by an icon in the result box (see ​chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement Types and
Results", on page 129).
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5.2.2.7
Using Gate Areas
Gate areas limit the measurement to a user-defined range of the waveform.
For basic amplitude vs. time or channel power measurements the gate area can be
defined directly after selecting the corresponding toolbar icon. For all other measurements, or if you want to define a more precise gate area, configuration is done in the
"Measurement > Gate/Display" dialog box.
1. On the "Meas" menu, tap "Gate/Display".
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. To define the gate, use one of the following methods:
●
●
●
Define the start and stop values of the gate area by entering either absolute or
relative values.
If a zoom area has already been defined for the waveform, couple the gate area
to the zoom area by selecting the "Zoom coupling" option.
If a cursor measurement has already been defined for the waveform, couple the
gate area to the cursor lines by selecting the "Cursor coupling" option.
4. Tap the "Use gate" icon to enable the gate area usage.
5. Optionally, tap the "Show gate" icon to indicate the gate area in the diagram.
The measurement is performed on the selected value range of the waveform. If
selected, the used range is indicated in the diagram.
5.2.2.8
Performing Long-term Measurements
In order to evaluate statistics for a measurement, it is useful to perform the measurement
over a long period of time or for a large number of samples. Intermediate results can be
reset after a specified number of acquisitions or a specified period of time in order to
evaluate time-dependant behavior. Long-term measurements can be configured for all
automatic measurement types.
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Select the "Long Term/Statistics" tab.
4. Since the waveform may change in the process of time, enter the vertical scaling as
a percentage per division, rather than using an absolute value. A vertical offset is also
defined as a percentage.
Alternatively, tap the "Auto scale" button to have the scaling adapted automatically.
5. Define how many "Measurement points" are to be generated before the measurement is stopped.
6. If the "Reset statistics mode" is set to "Time" (see ​"Reset statistics
mode" on page 175), define a "Total measurement time".
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7. Optionally, define statistics settings for the long-term measurement, as described in ​
chapter 5.2.2.9, "Compiling Measurement Statistics", on page 151.
8. Tap the "State" icon to enable the long-term measurement.
The measurement is performed until the defined number of measurement points have
been generated. The display is adapted as the waveform data changes in time.
5.2.2.9
Compiling Measurement Statistics
Statistics can be compiled for all measurement types, and also for long-term measurements. If enabled, statistics for the measurement are included in the result box, see ​
chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement Types and Results", on page 129.
In order to obtain meaningful results, it may be useful to configure specific measurement
settings.
Useful measurement settings:
●
"Multiple measurement" on the "Gate/Display" tab: the measurement result is not only
determined once within one acquisition, but repeatedly, if available; this provides a
larger basis for statistical evaluation
●
Reference/signal levels: configuring user-defined levels may compensate for irregular data, see ​chapter 5.2.2.5, "Configuring Reference Levels", on page 146
●
Gate areas: restricting the waveform range for measurement can eliminate irregular
data, see ​chapter 5.2.2.7, "Using Gate Areas", on page 150
●
Defining a "Signal threshold" for amplitude vs. time measurements or a "Noise
Reject" value for spectrum measurements can eliminate noise from the evaluation
See ​"Signal threshold" on page 163 and ​"Noise reject" on page 168.
To enable statistics
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Tap the "Statistics" icon.
To configure long-term statistics compilation
1. From the "Meas" menu, select "Setup" to open the "Measurement" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to configure.
3. Select the "Long Term/Statistics" tab.
4. Define whether the statistics are to be reset after a defined period of time or number
of acquisitions (waveforms), or not at all.
Resetting the results after a defined period of time allows you to evaluate timedependent behavior during the measurement, and avoids constantly rising maximum
or constantly falling minimum values till the end of the measurement.
If you select the "Time" reset mode, define a "Total measurement time" in the longterm measurement settings.
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5. For averaging operations, define how many statistics values are used to calculate
the average.
6. Tap the "Enable Statistics" icon to include statistics in the measurement results.
As soon as the long-term measurement is performed, the statistics are compiled until
the measurement is stopped. If configured, the results are reset each time the reset
period or reset count is reached. The results are displayed in the measurement result
box.
5.2.2.10
Using Environment Sensors
Environment sensors can provide additional information during a measurement, e.g. the
temperature. The sensor results are displayed as a background color in the measurement
diagram. Thus, the influence of temperature or humidity changes on the measurement
results is visible directly.
1. On the "Meas" menu, select "Long Term/Statistics".
2. Select the tab for the measurement you want to combine with environment values.
3. Tap the "Use sensor" icon to enable the sensor measurement.
4. Below, select one of the connected environment sensors.
5. On the lower list, select temperature or humidity for evaluation.
6. Tap the "Setup sensor" button or select the "Sensors" tab to set up the sensor result
display.
7. Select the tab for the sensor you want to configure.
8. Select the color table to be used with "Color table reference".
9. Enter the "Minimum value (0%)" and "Maximum value (100%)" to set the range of
values displayed by a background color.
10. If necessary, edit the color table or create a new one as described in ​chapter 4.1.2.1,
"Editing Waveform Colors", on page 89.
The background of the measurement diagram is colored according to the assigned
color table.
5.2.3 Reference for Automatic Measurements
Automatic measurements are configured in the "Measurements" dialog box, which is
opened via the "Meas > Setup" menu or via the "Measurements" result box, or by pressing
the MEAS key. Up to 8 measurement waveforms can be defined. Each measurement
waveform is configured in its own tab.
●
●
●
●
Reference Level Settings......................................................................................153
Measurements Setup - General Settings..............................................................158
Measurements Setup - Amplitude/Time ...............................................................161
Measurements Setup - Eye/Jitter .........................................................................166
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●
●
●
●
●
●
●
5.2.3.1
Measurements Setup - Spectrum ........................................................................167
Measurements Setup - Histograms.......................................................................168
Measurements - Gate/Display Tab.......................................................................170
Measurements - Long Term/Statistics Tab...........................................................173
Measurements - Event Actions Tab......................................................................176
Measurements - Sensors Tab...............................................................................177
Histogram Setup...................................................................................................179
Reference Level Settings
Some measurements refer to specific reference or signal levels, e.g. rise time/fall time,
counting pulses. Generally, these settings are determined automatically. However, for
irregular data it may be useful to configure them manually. You can define reference and
signal levels, as well as hystereses for reference levels and tubes for signal levels.
Selection Settings
The general settings in the "Selection" area are the same for all tabs in the "Reference"
dialog box.
Source
Defines the source from which the reference is taken. The source can be any signal input,
math or reference waveform.
SCPI command:
Source is defined by suffix <m> in "REFLevel" subsystem, see ​chapter 16.2.9.2, "Reference Level", on page 527
Reference level mode
Defines whether the reference level is configured manually or automatically.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​LDETection​ on page 528
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Signal level mode
In automatic reference level mode, the setting defines the high and low signal levels from
which the reference levels are derived. The instrument analyzes the signal and its histogram to define the signal level.
"Auto select absolute probability"
The most suitable signal levels for the selected measurement are
used.
"Peak probability"
The signal levels with the highest probability values are used.
"Mean probability"
The signal levels with mean probabilities are used.
"Absolute peak"
The absolute peak signal levels are used.
"Upper absolute peak - Lower mean
probability"
The high signal level is the upper absolute peak, and the low signal
level is the level with the mean probability in the lower half of the
histogram.
"Upper mean probability - Lower absolute peak"
The high signal level is the level with mean probability in the upper
half of the histogram, and the low signal level is the lower absolute
peak.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​AUTO:​MODE​ on page 530
Level definition
In manual reference level mode, the setting defines whether the reference is configured
using absolute or relative values.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​LMODe​ on page 530
User level selection
In manual reference level mode, the setting defines whether the user-defined signal levels
or user-defined reference levels are used for the measurements.
"User signal
level"
The high and low signal levels are defined by the user.
"User reference level"
The reference levels are defined by the user.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​USRLevel​ on page 529
Levels Tab
The settings in this tab configure reference and signal levels. . In automatic reference
level mode, the reference levels are always relative values. In manual reference level
mode, relative and absolute "Level definitions" are possible.
For a description of "Selection" settings, see ​"Selection Settings" on page 153.
Relative levels
The lower, middle and upper reference levels, defined as percentages of the high signal
level.
Available relative levels:
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●
●
●
●
5/50/95
10/50/90
20/50/80
User defined: Enter "Upper ref level", "Middle ref level", and "Lower ref level".
For example, for "5/50/95":
●
●
●
lower reference level = 5% of high signal level
middle reference level = 50% of high signal level
upper reference level = 95% of high signal level
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MODE​ on page 529
Upper ref level, Middle ref level, Lower ref level
Define any reference levels in percent, if "Relative levels" is set to "User-defined".
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​UPPer​ on page 535
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MIDDle​ on page 536
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​LOWer​ on page 536
High
The signal value that represents a high level - for manual reference level mode, absolute
level definition and user signal level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​HIGH​ on page 532
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​SIGHigh​ on page 540
Low
The signal value that represents a low level - for manual reference level mode, absolute
level definition and user signal level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​LOW​ on page 533
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​SIGLow​ on page 540
Top distance
The distance between the high signal level and the upper reference level - for manual
reference level mode and absolute level definition.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TDIStance​ on page 533
Bottom distance
The distance between the lower reference level and the low signal value - for manual
reference level mode and absolute level definition.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BDIStance​ on page 533
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Upper level
The upper reference level, required e.g. to determine a rise - for manual reference level
mode, absolute level definition and user reference level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​ULEVel​ on page 534
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​UPPer​ on page 540
Lower level
The lower reference level, required e.g. to determine a fall - for manual reference level
mode, absolute level definition and user reference level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​LLEVel​ on page 535
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​LOWer​ on page 540
Histogram averaging
Enables averaging over several histograms to determine the reference levels.
This function is only available in automatic reference level mode.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​AUTO[:​STATe]​ on page 531
Average Count
Defines the number of histograms to calculate the average from.
This function is only available in automatic reference level mode.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​AUTO:​COUNt​ on page 532
Hysteresis Tab
This tab allows you to define a hysteresis for measurements that determine zero-crossings.
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For a description of "Selection" settings, see ​"Selection Settings" on page 153.
Hysteresis
Defines a hysteresis for the middle reference level. A rise or fall from the middle reference
value that does not exceed the hysteresis is rejected as noise.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​HYSTeresis​ on page 537
Tube Tab
This tab allows you to define evaluation tubes for measurements that require high level
or low level detection. If the signal value remains within the defined tubes, it is considered
to be high or low.
For a description of "Selection" settings, see ​"Selection Settings" on page 153.
Top outer
Defines an area above the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TOTube​ on page 538
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​TOUTer​ on page 541
Top inner
Defines an area beneath the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TITube​ on page 539
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​TINNer​ on page 541
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Bottom inner
Defines an area above the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BITube​ on page 539
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​BINNer​ on page 540
Bottom outer
Defines an area beneath the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BOTube​ on page 539
​MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​BOUTer​ on page 541
Relative outer
Defines a percentage of the signal level by which the absolute signal level may be larger
than the high signal level or lower than the low signal level to be considered high or low,
respectively.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​OTUBe​ on page 537
Relative inner
Defines a percentage of the signal level by which the absolute signal level may be higher
than the low signal level or lower than the high signal level to be considered low or high,
respectively.
SCPI command:
​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​ITUBe​ on page 538
5.2.3.2
Measurements Setup - General Settings
The "Setup" tab of the "Measurements" dialog box contains the settings for the measurement types. Here you select the measurement sources and can also enable statistic
evaluation and limit checks.
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General settings in the upper part of the dialog box relate to all measurement types.
Below, the measurement types are selected and configured. Depending on the selected
source, not all measurement types are available. In the time domain, amplitude/time and
eye/jitter measurements are available. In the frequency domain (i.e. for math channels
with spectrum results), spectrum measurements are available. For measurements based
on histograms, the histogram must be selected (available after the measurement type
has been selected).
Meas 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Selects one of the eight available measurements.
State
Enables the measurement waveform.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>[:​ENABle]​ on page 523
Source
Defines the source of the measurement. The source can be any input signal, math or
reference waveform. Depending on the selected source, not all measurement types are
available.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SOURce​ on page 523
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2nd Source
Defines the second source of the measurement for some amplitude vs. time measurements (e.g. delay, phase). The source can be any input signal, math or reference waveform.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SOURce​ on page 523
Statistics
Enables the calculation and display of statistics for the measurement results.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics[:​ENABle]​ on page 566
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​AVG​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​EVTCount​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​NPEak​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​PPEak​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​RMS​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​STDDev​ on page 571
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​WFMCount​ on page 571
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult[:​ACTual]​ on page 570
Limit check
Enables limit checking. If the measurement results exceed the defined limits or margins,
the actions specified under "Event Actions" are performed and an icon is displayed in the
result box (see ​chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement Types and Results", on page 129). The
limits and margins are defined for each measurement type in the measurement overview
table. There you can also specify the valid range according to the following definitions:
upper
outside
within
Upper limit
Upper margin
Lower margin
Lower limit
Upper margin
Upper limit
Lower limit
Lower margin
lower
outside
Fig. 5-3: Limit and margin definition
As indicated in ​Limit and margin definition, limits are stricter than the margins for the value
check. Thus, the margins must be within the valid range. If necessary, the limit and margin
values are adapted according to the selected valid range.
"Off"
No limit check is performed.
"Limit only"
Limits are checked for violation.
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"Margin and
Limit"
Margins and limits are checked for violation.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​ on page 549
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​MARGin​ on page 549
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​LIMit​ on page 549
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​MARGin​ on page 549
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​VALid​ on page 548
​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​ on page 551
​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​MARGin​ on page 551
​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​LIMit​ on page 551
​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​MARGin​ on page 551
​MEASurement<m>:​EYEJitter:​LCHeck<n>:​VALid​ on page 551
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​ on page 563
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​MARGin​ on page 564
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​LIMit​ on page 563
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​MARGin​ on page 564
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​LCHeck<n>:​VALid​ on page 563
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​ on page 554
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​MARGin​ on page 555
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​LIMit​ on page 554
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​MARGin​ on page 555
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​LCHeck<n>:​VALid​ on page 554
Measurement category
For each measurement category, further settings can be configured on a separate tab.
The following categories are available:
●
●
●
●
5.2.3.3
​chapter 5.2.3.3, "Measurements Setup - Amplitude/Time ", on page 161
​chapter 5.2.3.4, "Measurements Setup - Eye/Jitter ", on page 166
​chapter 5.2.3.5, "Measurements Setup - Spectrum ", on page 167
​chapter 5.2.3.6, "Measurements Setup - Histograms", on page 168
Measurements Setup - Amplitude/Time
Amplitude and time measurements are only available for sources in the time domain.
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Main measurement
Defines the main amplitude/time measurement type. This measurement is the one referred to if the measurement waveform is used as a source for math calculations. The main
measurement cannot be disabled in the measurement overview.
The default measurement in the time domain is "Amplitude". For details on the available
measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.1.2, "Amplitude/Time Measurements", on page 132.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524
Additional amplitude/time measurements
In addition to the main measurement, further amplitude/time measurement types can be
performed simultaneously. The selected measurement types are displayed in an overview table. The main measurement is also listed in the overview table, but cannot be
disabled here.
The overview table also contains the limit and margin definitions if a limit check is enabled,
see ​"Limit check" on page 160.
Beside the table, specific settings for the selected measurement type are shown. When
you select a measurement types, check and adjust its specific setting(s). Make sure that
the limit check is disabled to see the specific settings.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.1.2, "Amplitude/Time
Measurements", on page 132.
"Activate"
opens the measuement table to select individual measurements
"All on"
enables all available additional measurements.
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"All off"
Deactivates all selected measurements in the table.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
Envelope selection
This setting is only relevant for measurements on envelope waveforms, see ​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34. You can measure on:
"Maximum"
the upper envelope
"Minimum"
the lower envelope
"Both"
The envelope is ignored and the waveform measured as usual. This
value is also used by default if no envelope is defined.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ENVSelect​ on page 544
Signal threshold
Defines a signal value that must be exceeded for the signal value to be included in the
measurement. The setting is relevant for most amplitude/time measurement types.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​DETThreshold​ on page 545
Area level
The reference level used to integrate the waveform. The setting is only relevant for area
measurements.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​ALEVel​ on page 545
Pulses slope
Sets the first slope of the pulses to be counted. The setting is available only for the "Pulse
count" measurement. For example, with setting "Positive", the instrument counts positive
pulses. Thus you can count either positive or negative pulses, or both.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​PSLope​ on page 545
Advanced Delay Setup
The specific settings for delay measurement allow you to measure the time between any
two slopes at any reference level. Therefore, the reference level and the slope have to
be defined for each source individually. The measurement result is negative if the edge
of the second source comes before the edge of the first source.
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Example:
With the settings shown in the picture, the time between the second rising edge and the
third from last falling edge is measured.
"Level selection"
Selects the reference level on which the time is measured.
"Slope"
Sets the edge of each source, between which the delay is measured:
positive, negative, or either of them.
"Direction"
Selects the direction for counting slopes for each source: from the
beginning of the waveform, or from the end.
"Number"
Sets the number of the edge that is relevant for delay measurement.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​LSELect​ on page 546
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​SLOPe​ on page 546
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​DIRection​ on page 545
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​ECOunt​ on page 546
Setup/Hold measurement settings
Setup/Hold measurements analyze the relative timing between two signals: a data signal
and the synchronous clock signal. Setup time is the time that the data signal is steady
before clock edge - the time between a data transition and the next specified clock edge.
Hold time is the time that the data signal is steady after clock edge - the time between a
data transition and the previous specified clock edge.
Setup/Hold Time measures and displays the setup and hold durations. Setup/Hold Ratio
measurements return the ratio of the setup time to the sum of hold and setup time:
TSetup / (TSetup + THold).
The clock edge can be defined, the polarity of the data signal does not matter.
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Hold
Setup
Hold
Setup
Data
Clock
Clock slope = Positive
Clock slope = Either
If at least one of the setup/hold measurements is selected, additional settings appear to
specify the measurement.
"Clock slope"
Sets the edge of the clock from which the setup and hold times are
measured: positive, negative, or either of them. If "Either" is selected,
the clock edges next to the data edge are considered regardless of the
clock slope.
"Clock source"
The "Clock source" is identical to the measurement "Source". It defines
the waveform used as clock in the setup/hold measurement.
"Data source"
The "Data source" is identical to the "2nd Source" of the measurement.
It sets the data signal.
"Clock ref level" Selects the reference level of the clock on which the time is measured.
"Clock ref level" and "Clock slope" define the time point for setup and
hold measurements.
"Data ref level"
Selects the reference level of the data on which the setup and hold time
are measured.
"Threshold"
see ​"Signal threshold" on page 163
SCPI command:
Clock slope: ​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​CSLope​ on page 547
Clock reference level: ​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​CLCK<n>:​LSELect​
on page 548
Data reference level: ​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DATA<n>:​LSELect​ on page 548
Pulse train count
Sets the number N of positive pulses for the "Pulse train" measurement. This measurement measures the duration of N positive pulses from the rising edge of the first pulse to
the falling edge of the N-th pulse.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​PTCount​ on page 547
Edges slope
Sets the edge direction to be counted: rising edges, falling edges, or both. The setting is
only relevant for edge count measurement on digital channels.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​ESLope​ on page 547
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5.2.3.4
Measurements Setup - Eye/Jitter
Eye/jitter measurements are only available for sources in the time domain.
To obtain optimized settings for an eye measurement, use the "Autoset" function that is
provided on the right side of the "Eye/Jitter" tab.
Main measurement
Defines the main Eye/Jitter measurement type. This measurement is the one referred to
if the measurement waveform is used as a source for math calculations. The main measurement cannot be disabled in the measurement overview.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.1.3, "Eye/Jitter Measurements", on page 136.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524
Additional eye/jitter measurements
In addition to the main measurement, further eye/jitter measurements can be performed
simultaneously. The selected measurements are displayed in an overview table. The
main measurement is also listed in the overview table, but cannot be disabled here.
The overview table also contains the limit and margin definitions if a limit check is enabled,
see ​"Limit check" on page 160.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.1.3, "Eye/Jitter Measurements", on page 136.
"Activate"
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"All on"
enables all available additional measurements.
"All off"
Deactivates all selected measurements in the table.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
Autoset
Defines optimized settings to perform an eye measurement for the selected source.
5.2.3.5
Measurements Setup - Spectrum
Spectrum measurements are only available if a source in the frequency domain is
selected, i.e. a math waveform with an FFT operation.
Main measurement
Defines the main spectrum measurement type. This measurement is the one referred to
if the measurement waveform is used as a source for math calculations. The main measurement cannot be disabled in the measurement overview.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.3.5, "Measurements
Setup - Spectrum ", on page 167.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524
Additional spectrum measurements
In addition to the main measurement, further spectrum measurements can be performed
simultaneously. The selected measurements are displayed in an overview table. The
main measurement is also listed in the overview table, but cannot be disabled here.
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The overview table also contains the limit and margin definitions if a limit check is enabled,
see ​"Limit check" on page 160.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​"Main measurement" on page 167.
"Activate"
opens the measuement table to select individual measurements
"All on"
enables all available additional measurements.
"All off"
Deactivates all selected measurements in the table.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
N db down
The threshold until which the samples to the left and right of the peak value are analyzed
in order to determine the "(N dB down) Bandwidth".
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​NDBDown​ on page 553
Channel BW
Bandwidth over which the channel power is calculated.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​CPOWer:​BANDwidth​ on page 553
Channel CF
Center frequency from which the channel power is calculated over the specified bandwidth.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​CPOWer:​CFRequency​ on page 553
Occup. BW
Percentage of the total power used to determine the occupied bandwidth.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​OBANdwidth​ on page 553
Noise reject
Threshold beneath which values are rejected as noise.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​SPECtrum:​NREJect​ on page 554
5.2.3.6
Measurements Setup - Histograms
You can perform measurements on an existing histogram. Histograms are defined in the
"Histogram" dialog box (accessible via the MEAS menu).
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Histogram
Selects the histogram on which the measurement is based. Histograms are defined via
the "MEAS > Histogram" menu item.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​SELect​ on page 561
Main measurement
Defines the main histogram measurement type. This measurement is the one referred to
if the measurement waveform is used as a source for math calculations. The main measurement cannot be disabled in the measurement overview.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​chapter 5.2.1.4, "Histograms", on page 138.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524
Additional histogram measurements
In addition to the main measurement, further histogram measurements can be performed
simultaneously. The selected measurements are displayed in an overview table. The
main measurement is also listed in the overview table, but cannot be disabled here.
The overview table also contains the limit and margin definitions if a limit check is enabled,
see ​"Limit check" on page 160.
For a description of available measurement types, see ​"Main measurement" on page 169.
"Activate"
opens the measuement table to select individual measurements
"All on"
enables all available additional measurements.
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"All off"
Deactivates all selected measurements in the table.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
Probability domain marker reference
Defines the marker reference in the probability domain.
"Peak"
The y-value with the maximum sample value in the histogram
"Upper Peak"
The y-value at the maximum sample value in the upper half of the histogram
"Lower Peak"
The y-value at the maximum sample value in the lower half of the histogram
"Maximum"
The highest y-value with a probability > 0
"Minimum"
The lowest y-value with a probability > 0
"Median"
The y-value for which half the samples lie above, the other half below
in the histogram
"Mean"
The weighted arithmetic average of the histogram
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​PROBability:​TYPE​ on page 562
Delta
Defines a range around the marker.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​HISTogram:​PROBability:​LIMit​ on page 562
5.2.3.7
Measurements - Gate/Display Tab
The settings on this tab define the measurement gate and the display of results.
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Meas 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Selects one of the eight available measurements.
Use gate
Considers the gating settings of the source waveform for the measurement.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE[:​STATe]​ on page 572
Show gate
Displays the gate area in the source diagram.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 633
Gate definition
Defines the gate settings for measurement gating.
Zoom coupling ← Gate definition
If enabled, the gate area is defined identically to the zoom area. If several zoom diagrams
are defined, select the zoom diagram to be used for gating. The "Start" and "Stop" values
of the gate are adjusted accordingly.
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Zoom coupling can be set for measurement gates, FFT gates, and search gates.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 586
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 634
Cursor coupling ← Gate definition
If enabled, the gate area is defined by the cursor lines of an active cursor measurement.
If several cursor measurements are enabled, select the cursor set to be used for gating.
The "Start" and "Stop" values of the gate are adjusted to the values of the cursor line
positions limiting the measurement to the part of the waveform between the cursor lines.
Gate Mode ← Gate definition
Defines whether the gate settings are configured using absolute or relative values.
"Absolute"
Gating is performed between the defined absolute start and stop values.
"Relative"
Gating is performed for a percentage of the value range, defined by
start and stop values.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 584
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 572
​SEARch:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 633
(Relative) Start ← Gate definition
Defines the starting value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 634
(Relative) Stop ← Gate definition
Defines the end value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 634
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Multiple measurement
Performs multiple measurements on the same source waveform, e.g. measures the rise
time for all pulses in the waveform, not only the first. This is useful when calculating
statistics; however, it reduces the performance of the instrument.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MULTiple​ on page 527
Limit
Sets the maximum number of measurements per acquisition if "Multiple measurement"
is enabled.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​MNOMeas​ on page 527
Display result lines
Displays intermediate result lines in the measurement waveform (e.g. signal thresholds)
required to obtain the measurement result.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​DISPlay:​RESults​ on page 564
Display reference levels
Displays the reference levels used for the measurement in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​DISPlay:​LEVels​ on page 564
Show result control panel
Extends the result box of the current measurement with the source settings and the statistics enabling. Thus you can check and change the measurement sources directly in
the results box, and also enable statistics there.
Clear Results
Clears the measurement results to begin a new measurement.
5.2.3.8
Measurements - Long Term/Statistics Tab
The settings in this tab allow you to configure long term measurements, including statistics over a longer period of time.
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Meas 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Selects one of the eight available measurements.
State
Enables long term measurement for a defined number of measurement points or a specified time.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​LTMeas[:​STATe]​ on page 569
Continuous auto scale
Performs an automatical vertical scaling whenever the waveform does not fit in the diagram. Use this setting altenatively to the single "Auto scale" and the manual settings
"Vertical scale" and "Vertical offset".
Auto scale
Enables automatic vertical scaling so that the scaling is adapted to the current measurement results automatically during the long term measurement period.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​VERTical:​AUTO​ on page 568
Vertical scale
Defines the vertical scaling per division for long term measurement period and the statistics histogram.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​VERTical:​SCALe​ on page 568
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Vertical offset
Defines a vertical offset for the long term measurement and the statistics histogram.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​VERTical:​OFFSet​ on page 568
Enable histogram
Displays a histogram of the statistical results. Enabling the histogram enables also the
calculation and display of statistics for the measurement results if statistics were disabled.
the histogram shows the cumulative occurence distribution of mean measurement results
in a graphic.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​HISTogram​ on page 566
Statistics
Enables the calculation and display of statistics for the measurement results.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics[:​ENABle]​ on page 566
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​AVG​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​EVTCount​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​NPEak​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​PPEak​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​RMS​ on page 570
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​STDDev​ on page 571
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult:​WFMCount​ on page 571
​MEASurement<m>:​RESult[:​ACTual]​ on page 570
Reset statistics mode
Defines when the statistics for long term measurements are reset.
"None"
No reset, the number of measurements considered by the statistics is
not limited.
"Time"
Resets the statistics after the time defined in "Reset time/period".
"Waveforms"
Resets the statistics after a number of measurements defined in "Reset
count".
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​MODE​ on page 566
Reset now
Resets the statistics.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​RESet​ on page 567
Reset time/period
Defines the time or period after which the statistics are reset.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​RTIMe​ on page 567
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Reset count
Defines the number of measurements after which the statistics are reset.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​RCOunt​ on page 567
Statistics average count
Defines the number of measurements for which the statistical average is calculated.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​STATistics:​WEIGht​ on page 569
Total measurement time
Defines the total duration of the long term measurement.
This setting is only available if "Reset statistics mode" is set to "Time".
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​LTMeas:​TIME​ on page 569
Measurement points
Defines the total number of points to be measured during the long term measurement.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​LTMeas:​COUNt​ on page 569
5.2.3.9
Measurements - Event Actions Tab
The settings in this tab define what happens when the limits and margins defined in the
"Setup" tab are exceeded if limit checking is enabled. Independant of these settings, an
icon is displayed in the result box, see ​chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement Types and
Results", on page 129.
Note that the violation actions do not distinguish between a margin violation and a limit
violation. However, different icons are displayed in the result box.
For each action, you can define the event on which the action is initiated: on violation of
margin or limits, or on successful completion without any violation.
Meas 1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8
Selects one of the eight available measurements.
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Beep
Generates a beep sound.
"No function"
The action is not initiated.
"On violation"
The action is initiated if the limits or margins are exceeded during the
measurement.
"On successful
completion"
The action is initiated if the limits or margins were not exceeded during
the entire measurement.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ONViolation:​BEEP​ on page 574
Stop acq
Stops data acquisition on violation.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ONViolation:​ACQStop​ on page 574
Print
Prints a screenshot including the measurement results to the printer defined in the
"Print" dialog box (see ​chapter 12.1.1, "Configuring Printer Output and Printing", on page 344).
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ONViolation:​PRINt​ on page 574
Save Wfm
Saves the waveform data to the file specified in FILE > "Save/Recall" > "Waveform".
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​ONViolation:​WFMSave​ on page 575
Visible histogram
Shows the number of currently shown histograms.
5.2.3.10
Measurements - Sensors Tab
Environment sensors can provide additional information during a measurement, e.g. the
temperature. The sensor results are displayed as a background color according to the
selected color table in the measurement diagram. Thus, the influence of temperature or
humidity changes on the measurement results is visible directly.
The "Sensors" tab contains the settings for the display of sensor measurement results
and the currently measured value. Each connected sensor has its own settings tab. For
each sensor, two tabs are available to set up the display of temperature and humidity
results.
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To select the sensor and enable it for a measurement, select the ​chapter 5.2.3.8, "Measurements - Long Term/Statistics Tab", on page 173.
See also: ​chapter 5.2.2.10, "Using Environment Sensors", on page 152
Environment sensor
Environment sensors measure temperature and humidity around the instrument. They
can be connected to the USB ports on the front or rear panel. The display of the sensor
measurement results is configured in the ​chapter 5.2.3.10, "Measurements - Sensors
Tab", on page 177.
See also: ​chapter 5.2.2.10, "Using Environment Sensors", on page 152
●
●
"Use sensor": Enables the environment measurement.
"Environment sensor": Selects one of the connected sensors in the upper list and the
environment measurement type in the lower list.
SCPI command:
​MEASurement<m>:​LTMeas:​ENVSensor:​STATe​ on page 570
Actual value
Indicates the currently measured sensor value.
Minimum value (0%), Maximum value (100%)
Minimum and maximum values define the range of values that is displayed as background color.
"Minimum value (0%)" defines the temparature or humidity value that is assigned to the
0%-color of the color table. "Maximum value (100%)" defines the value assigned to the
100%-color, respectively.
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Color table reference
Assigns one of the available color tables to the sensor results. The background of the
measurement diagrams using the selected sensor is colored according to the assigned
color table.
For details on color tables, see ​chapter 4.1.2.1, "Editing Waveform Colors", on page 89.
5.2.3.11
Histogram Setup
In this dialog box you configure histograms on which you can perform further measurements (see ​chapter 5.2.1.4, "Histograms", on page 138).
Source
Defines the source of the histogram. Any input signal, math or reference waveform can
be selected.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​SOURce​ on page 556
Diagram size
Defines the size of the histogram in percent of the diagram.
Mode
Defines the type of histogram.
"Vertical"
Amplitude histogram (horizontal bars across amplitude)
"Horizontal"
Time histogram (vertical bars over time). For FFT waveforms, horizontal
histograms over spectrum are not available.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​MODE​ on page 557
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Reset now
Resets the values to begin a new histogram.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​RESet​ on page 560
Range definition mode (Absolute/Relative)
Defines whether the value range limits are entered as absolute or relative values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 557
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​VERTical:​MODE​ on page 558
Horizontal start/stop value
Defines the horizontal value range of the histogram.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 557
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 558
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​HORZ:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 558
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​HORZ:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 558
Vertical start/stop value
Defines the vertical value range of the histogram.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 559
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 559
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​VERTical:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 559
​LAYout:​HISTogram:​VERTical:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 560
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6 Mathematics
The R&S RTO provides different methods of creating mathematical waveforms:
●
Applying mathematical functions to source data
●
Performing FFT analysis on source data
6.1 +Mathematical Waveforms
Math waveforms are the results of various calculations or FFT analysis. You can define
up to four math waveforms and display them on the screen, and/or use it as source for
further analysis.
You can also store a math waveform as a reference waveform and restore it any time
later, see ​"To save a reference waveform" on page 208.
The vertical scale of a math waveform is adapted automatically to the measurement
results to ensure optimal display. Furthermore, you can scale each math waveform manually in vertical direction like a channel waveform.
As for channel waveforms, you can also change the arithmetic mode for the waveform
to display the envelope or an average over several calculations.
6.1.1 Displaying Math Waveforms
Math waveforms can be displayed in addition to the channel and other waveforms. They
also can be used for analysis, e.g. measurements, even if the math waveform is not
active.
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Math Setup", or press the MATH key.
2. Define the math expression to be calculated in one of the following ways:
●
●
●
​chapter 6.2.1.1, "Defining a Formula in the Optimized Graphical Editor", on page 185
​chapter 6.2.2.1, "Defining a Formula in the Advanced Formula Editor", on page 187
​chapter 6.3.2, "Configuring FFT Waveforms", on page 196
3. In the "Math Setup" dialog box, in the "Setup" tab, tap the "Enable math signal" icon
so it is highlighted.
The math waveform is displayed on the screen.
4. To change the vertical scaling of the math waveform, tap the "Manual" icon, then
enter the "Vertical scale" factor (per division) and add, if necessary, a "Vertical offset". By default, automatic scaling is performed.
Tip: You can also use the vertical SCALE rotary knob for scaling. In this case, the
scale mode is set to "Manual" temporarily.
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5. If you need the envelope or average of the math waveform over several calculations,
change the arithmetic mode for the waveform as for channel waveforms.
See also: ​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34.
6. Close the "Math Setup" dialog box.
6.1.2 Math Setup
You can define up to 4 different math waveforms. Each waveform is defined in a separate
tab in the "Math" dialog box ("Math 1"-"Math 4").
The settings for input of mathematical formulas in optimized and advanced editors are
described in separate chapters:
●
​chapter 6.2.1.2, "Settings in the Optimized Graphical Editor", on page 185
●
​chapter 6.2.2.2, "Advanced Formula Editor", on page 188
The general settings for enabling, scaling and waveform arithmetic are:
Enable Math Signal.....................................................................................................183
Vertical Scale..............................................................................................................183
└ Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto)...............................................................183
└ Vertical Scale................................................................................................183
└ Vertical Offset...............................................................................................183
Arithmetic....................................................................................................................183
└ Reset Now....................................................................................................183
└ Acquisition/average count.............................................................................184
└ Mode.............................................................................................................184
└ Reset mode...................................................................................................184
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Enable Math Signal
If activated, a diagram for the defined math waveform is displayed on the touch screen.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​STATe​ on page 576
Vertical Scale
Functions to set the vertical parameters of the math waveform.
Note: If an FFT expression is defined, the vertical scaling for spectrum displays is available: "Vertical maximum" and "Vertical range" instead of "Vertical Scale" and "Vertical
Offset". See ​chapter 6.3.3.2, "FFT Magnitude/Phase", on page 202.
Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto) ← Vertical Scale
By default, the vertical scale is adapted to the current measurement results automatically
to provide an optimal display. However, if necessary, you can define scaling values manually to suit your requirements.
Note: When you change the scaling values manually using the "Scale" rotary knob, the
scale mode is set to "Manual" temporarily. When you edit the math function, scaling is
automatically set back to "Auto" mode. "Manual" mode is only maintained during math
function changes if you select it yourself.
"Manual"
Enter the required values for "Vertical scale" and "Vertical offset". For
FFT, set "Vertical range" and "Vertical maximum".
"Auto"
"Vertical scale" and "Vertical offset" are read-only. For FFT, only the
"Vertical maximum" is read-only.
Vertical Scale ← Vertical Scale
Defines the scale of the y-axis in the math function diagram. The value is defined as
"<unit> per division", e.g. 50mV/div. In this case, the horizontal grid lines are displayed
in intervals of 50mV.
If the ​Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto) is set to "Auto", this setting is read-only.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​VERTical:​SCALe​ on page 577
Vertical Offset ← Vertical Scale
Sets a voltage offset to adjust the vertical position of the math function on the screen.
Negative values move the waveform au, positive values move it down.
If the ​Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto) is set to "Auto", this setting is read-only.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​VERTical:​OFFSet​ on page 576
Arithmetic
Functions to specify the waveform arithmetic for the math waveforms.
Reset Now ← Arithmetic
Forces the immediate restart of the envelope and average calculation for all waveforms,
ignoring the reset settings.
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Acquisition/average count ← Arithmetic
Access:
● TRIGGER > "Control" tab > "Average count (N-single count)"
● ACQUISITION > "Average count"
● HORIZONTAL > "Ultra Segmentation" tab > disable "Acquire maximum" > "Required"
● MATH > "Setup" tab > "Average count"
The acquisition and average count has several effects:
● It sets the number of waveforms acquired with RUN N×SINGLE.
● It defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform.
Thus, the instrument acquires sufficient waveforms to calculate the correct average
if "Average" is enabled for waveform arithmetic. The higher the value is, the better
the noise is reduced.
● It sets the number of acquisitions to be acquired in an Ultra Segmentation acquisition
series. Thus, you can acquire exactly one Ultra Segmentation acquisition series with
RUN N×SINGLE.
If Ultra Segmentation is enabled and configured to acquire the maximum number of
acquisitions, the acquisition count is set to that maximum number and cannot be
changed. See also: ​"Number of acquisitions" on page 37.
● It is the "Finished" criteria for the state of a mask test.
SCPI command:
​ACQuire:​COUNt​ on page 435
Mode ← Arithmetic
Waveform arithmetics build the resulting waveform from several consecutive acquisitions
and subsequent math calculations of the signal. For details see ​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34.
"Original"
The original results are displayed
"Envelope"
The envelope curve of all acquired and calculated results is displayed
"Average"
The average of all acquired and calculated results is displayed
8
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​ARIThmetics​ on page 576
*n
Reset mode ← Arithmetic
Defines when the envelope and average evaluation restarts.
"None"
No restart, the number of acquisitions considered by the waveform
arithmetics is not limited.
"Time"
Restarts the envelope and average calculation after the time defined in
"Reset time".
"Waveforms"
Restarts the envelope and average calculation after a number of
acquired waveforms defined in "Reset count".
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Mathematical Functions and Formulas
6.2 Mathematical Functions and Formulas
You can enter mathematical expressions using two different modes:
●
"Optimized": a graphical editor allows you to define a simple math function quickly by
selecting the source waveform(s) and the operator: ​chapter 6.2.1, "Optimized Graphical Editor", on page 185.
●
"Advanced": a formula editor allows you to define sophisticated math functions freely,
as required to your needs: ​chapter 6.2.2, "Advanced Expressions", on page 187.
SCPI command:
●
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>[:​EXPRession][:​DEFine]​ on page 575
6.2.1 Optimized Graphical Editor
In the optimized editor, you can define the most common mathematical formulas without
knowing their correct syntax.
6.2.1.1
Defining a Formula in the Optimized Graphical Editor
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Math Setup", or press the MATH key.
2. In the "Setup" tab, select the "Optimized" tab.
3. Tap the "Source 1" and "Source 2" icons and select the signal source(s) to which the
math function will be applied. For details on available signal sources, see ​"Source 1 /
2" on page 186.
4. Tap the "Operator" icon and select the mathematical function.
For details on available operators, see ​"Operator" on page 186.
5. If the operator requires additional parameters, enter them in the input fields.
6.2.1.2
Settings in the Optimized Graphical Editor
Source 1 / 2.................................................................................................................186
Operator......................................................................................................................186
Noise reject.................................................................................................................186
a / b.............................................................................................................................186
FIR: Type, Cut-Off.......................................................................................................186
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Source 1 / 2
Defines the signal source to be evaluated by the math function. Waveform 1 of each
channel waveform can be selected.
Note: If you require other signal sources not listed here, use the formula editor provided
in the "Advanced" tab. In Advanced mode, any waveform of any input channel can be
used as a source. See: ​chapter 6.2.2, "Advanced Expressions", on page 187.
Operator
Defines the type of operation to be performed on the selected signal sources. The following functions are available:
Note: If you require other operators not listed here, use the formula editor provided in the
"Advanced" tab. See: ​chapter 6.2.2, "Advanced Expressions", on page 187.
"+"
Adds up the sources
"-"
Subtracts source 2 from source 1.
"x"
Multiplies source 1 by source 2.
"|x|"
Determines the absolute value of the source.
"dx/dt"
Differentiates the source value with respect to the time value.
"log(x)"
Calculates the logarithm of the source value based on 10.
"ln(x)"
Calculates the natural logarithm of the source value (based on e).
"ld(x)"
Calculates the binary logarithm of the source value (logarithmus dualis,
based on 2).
"Rescale"
Rescales the source values by a factor a and an offset b: ax+b. See
also: ​"a / b" on page 186.
"FIR filter"
Finite impulse response filter - highpass or lowpass filter for a specified
cut-off frequency. See also: ​"FIR: Type, Cut-Off" on page 186.
"Mag(FFT(x))"
Determines the magnitude of the FFT for the source values.
Noise reject
In order to suppress noise effects during differentiation it can be useful not to consider
two directly neighboring points to calculate dx (xn-xn-1), but rather to skip a number of
samples inbetween and use a point a few samples further (e.g. xn-xn-3).
The number of samples shown here defines the number of neighboring samples that are
skipped for differentiation.
Only available for the "dx/dt" operator.
a/b
Defines the values for the "Rescale" function (ax+b).
"a"
is the factor the signal source is multiplied with
"b"
is the offset of the signal source on the y-axis
FIR: Type, Cut-Off
The Finite Impulse Response filter ("Operator" = FIR) is a Gauss filter that requires two
additional settings:
●
"Type": defines whether the FIR filter is a highpass or lowpass filter.
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●
"Cut-Off": sets the limit frequency for the FIR filter.
The cut-off frequency depends on the horizontal resolution. The frequency for the lowpass filter can be set only in this range:
f_g_3dB = (0.0025 ... 0.1)* f_a_in
Where: f_g_3dB = cut-off frequency to be set for the lowpass filter, and f_a_in = reciprocal
of the resolution, or sample rate.
To check limit frequency for the highpass filter, convert it to an equivalent lowpass frequency:
f_TP = f_a_in/2 - f_HP
Where f_HP is the requested highpass limit frequency and f_TP the equivalent lowpass
frequency that has to comply with the limits given above.
For advanced expression, see ​table 6-10.
6.2.2 Advanced Expressions
In the Advanced tab, you can enter complex formulas to define a math waveform. The
formula editor helps to enter formulas easily with correct syntax, using a large selection
of operators and signal sources. Double-tap the "Advanced" tab to display the formula
editor.
6.2.2.1
Defining a Formula in the Advanced Formula Editor
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Math Setup".
2. In the "Setup" tab, select the "Advanced" tab.
3. Double-tap the editing area.
The "Formula Editor" is displayed.
4. Enter the math formula including all required signal sources and operators by selecting the corresponding keys in the editor. For details on the available keys, see ​chapter 6.2.2.2, "Advanced Formula Editor", on page 188.
5. To insert a physical unit in the formula, proceed as follows:
a) If necessary, insert a decimal prefix using the "M/k/µ" key.
b) Insert an opening square bracket using the "[" key.
c) Insert the physical unit using the "V/A/Ω" key.
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d) Insert a closing square bracket using the "]" key.
The resulting expression could be, for example: m[V]
6. To perform a rescaling function, proceed as follows:
a) Select the rescaling function using the "ax+b" key.
b) Behind the left bracket, insert the signal source that is to be rescaled using one
of the following keys:
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
● "Ch" for a channel
● "Math" for a math function
● "Ref" for a reference waveform
● "Meas" for a measurement
Insert a comma using the "," key.
Insert the "a" value, i.e. the scaling factor, using the number keys.
Insert a comma using the "," key.
Insert the "b" value, i.e. the scaling offset, using the number keys.
Insert the closing bracket using the ")" key.
The resulting expression could be, for example: rescale(Ch1Wfm1,3,4)
6.2.2.2
Advanced Formula Editor
Using the formula editor you can define math functions freely, using a large selection of
operators and signal sources. For a procedure on using the editor, see ​chapter 6.2.2.1,
"Defining a Formula in the Advanced Formula Editor", on page 187.
The following tables describe the buttons of the formula editor and their usage.
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Table 6-1: Basics
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
(
left bracket
enclose operands
,
comma
separates operands
)
right bracket
enclose operands
e/π
math. constants
e: Euler number: 2.7182...
Pi: 3.1415...
[
left square bracket
enclose unit
V/A/Ω
units
[<unit>]
]
right square bracket
enclose unit
xa
exponentiation with base x
x: base, a: exponent
x^a
/
division
*
multiplication
-
subtraction
+
addition
0...9
numeric characters
.
decimal point
Exp
exponentiation with base 10
e
Enter
expression complete
insert expression in Setup dialog and close the formula editor
Clear
clear expression in editor
restart editing
Del
Delete
remove selected part of expression
Back
Backspace
remove last symbol, operator or operand to the left
of the cursor
M/k/μ
SI-prefix for unit
<SI-prefix>[<unit>]
Table 6-2: Signal sources
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
Ch
signal waveform
Ch<1...4>Wfm<1...3>
Math
math waveform
Math<1...4>
Ref
reference waveform
Ref<1...4>
Meas
measurement waveform
Meas<1...8>
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Table 6-3: Cursor keys
Icon
Description
|←
move cursor to beginning
←
move cursor 1 step to the left
→
move cursor 1 step to the right
→|
move cursor to end
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
Table 6-4: Algebra
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
|x|
absolute x value
abs(x)
√x
square root of x
sqrt(x)
x2
x*x
pow(x)
log10
common logarithm (base 10)
log(x)
loge
natural logarithm (base e)
ln(x)
log2
binary logarithm (base 2)
ld(x)
ex
exponentiation with base e
exp(x)
∫xdx
integral of x
integral(x)
d/dx
derivation of x
derivation(x)
ax+b
scaling of x
rescale(x,a,b)
Table 6-5: Bit operations
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
digitize
convert to 0 or 1
digitize(x)
not
negation
not(x)
and
nand
and
negation of and
or
nand
or
nor
negation of or
nor
xor
exclusive or
xor
nxor
negation of exclusive or
nxor
Table 6-6: Comparison
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
=
equal
=
≠≠
not equal
<>
<
smaller
<
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Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
>
greater
>
≤
smaller or equal
<=
≥
greater or equal
>=
More
display additional keys
Table 6-7: FFT ("More" keys)
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
|FFT|
magnitude of FFT value
fftmag(x)
FFT (φ)
FFT phase value
fftphi(x)
FFT -dφ*df
FFT group delay
fftgroupdelay(x)
FFT (re)
real part of FFT value
fftre(x)
FFT (im)
imag part of FFT value
fftim(x)
Table 6-8: Trigonometry ("More" keys)
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
sinh
hyperbolic sinus
sinh(x)
cosh
hyperbolic cosinus
cosh(x)
tanh
hyperbolic tangens
tanh(x)
Table 6-9: Correlation ("More" keys)
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
correlation
correlation(x)
autocorrelation
autocorrelation(x)
biased / unbiased correlation
biased(x) / unbiased(x)
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Table 6-10: Filter and power ("More" keys)
Icon
Description
Usage/Comment, FormulaEditor expression
Electric power
Electric power is calculated from voltage, based on
measurement impedance (see ​"Measurement impedance" on page 40)
elecpower(x) = U2/R
FIR
Finite impulse response filter
FIR(highpass,x,y) or FIR(lowpass,x,y)
with: x = source, y = cut-off frequency
Example: FIR(lowpass,Ch1Wfm1,2.5e+007)
See also: ​"FIR: Type, Cut-Off" on page 186.
parameter for FIR filter
highpass / lowpass
6.3 FFT Analysis
6.3.1 Fundamentals of FFT Analysis
During FFT analysis, a signal in the time domain is converted to a spectrum of frequencies. As a result, either the magnitude or the phase of the determined frequencies can
be displayed. FFT analysis can be restricted to an extract of the original time base, and
the results display can be restricted to a specified frequency range.
t[s]
FFT
f[Hz]
Frames
In order to convert the time domain signal to a frequency spectrum, an FFT (Fast Fourier
Transformation) unit is used which converts a vector of input values into a discrete spectrum of frequencies.
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Conventional oscilloscopes calculate one FFT per capture. The R&S RTO can calculate
multiple FFTs per capture by dividing one capture into several frames. Thus, the RTO
can visualize how the frequency content of a signal changes over time which helps to
detect intermittent or sporadic signal details. Furthermore, the R&S RTO allows consecutive frames to overlap. This is especially useful in conjunction with window functions
since it enables a gap-free frequency analysis of the signal.
The overlapping factor can be set freely. The higher the overlap factor, the more frames
are used. This leads to more individual results and improves detection of transient signal
effects. However, it also extends the duration of the calculation. The size of the frame
depends on the number of input signal values (record length), the overlap factor, and the
FFT size (number of samples used for FFT calculation).
Record
length
Frame
length
Overlap area
Window functions
Each frame is multiplied with a specific window function after sampling in the time domain.
Windowing helps minimize the discontinuities at the end of the measured signal interval
and thus reduces the effect of spectral leakage, increasing the frequency resolution.
There are a number of window functions that can be used in FFT analysis. Each of the
window functions has specific characteristics, including some advantages and some
trade-offs. These characteristics need to be considered carefully to find the optimum
solution for the measurement task.
For details, see ​"Window type" on page 201.
Gating functions
You can restrict the time base of the input signal for which FFT analysis is to be performed.
There are various methods to do so:
●
Define absolute start and stop times for the time base extract
●
Define relative start and stop values that define a percentage of the original time base
●
Couple the time base extract for FFT to an active zoom area.
The gate area can be indicated in the signal diagram, if desired.
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Gate length
Gate position
Gate
t[s]
FFT
Center frequency
f[Hz]
Frequency span
Restricting the result range
You can restrict the results of the FFT analysis to a specified frequency range. The frequency range can be defined in two ways:
●
Define a center frequency and frequency span
●
Define start and stop frequencies
Magnitude vs. phase display
The result of an FFT analysis is a spectrum of frequencies. Either the magnitudes or the
phases of those frequencies are displayed, depending on the used FFT function. In
"Optimized" mode, and for the "Advanced" mode FFT functions |FFT|, FFT (re) and FFT
(im), the magnitude is displayed. For the "Advanced" mode FFT (φ) function, the phase
is displayed.
For magnitude display, you can select the scale and range of magnitudes to be displayed.
For linear scaling, the vertical value range of the input signal is used. For logarithmic
scaling, the logarithmic power of the frequency is displayed. In this case, the input signal
must be given in either Volt or Watt. The resulting value range is defined by a maximum
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value and a range size. Logarithmic scaling can also be set in relation to a given reference
value.
For phase display, you can select the unit and suppress phases beneath a threshold
value which are most likely caused by noise. The value range [-π, + π] or [-180°, +180°]
is used. Phase shifts due to a limitation of the value range can be eliminated using the
"Unwrap" function.
Dependencies between FFT parameters
FFT analysis in the R&S RTO is highly configurable. Several parameters, including the
resolution bandwidth, frequency span and center frequency, can be defined according to
the user's requirements. Note, however, that several parameters are correlated and not
all can be configured independently of the others.
The resolution bandwidth defines the minimum frequency separation at which the individual components of a spectrum can be distinguished. Small values result in a high
precision, as the distance between two distinguishable frequencies is small. Higher values decrease the precision, but increase measurement speed.
The minimum achievable RBW is dependent on the integration time which is equivalent
to the number of samples available for FFT calculation. If a higher spectral resolution is
required the number of samples must be increased by using a higher sample rate or
longer record length. To simplify operation some parameters are coupled and automatically calculated, such as record length and RBW.
The frequency span and center frequency define the start and stop frequency of the
spectral diagram. By default, a suitable frequency range according to the resolution
bandwidth is selected, in respect to performance and precision. Span and RBW settings
are coupled, so that the parameters can be adjusted automatically as necessary.
With a Span/RBW ratio of 100 and a screen resolution of 1000 pixels, each frequency
in the spectrum is displayed by 10 pixels. A span/RBW ratio of 1000 provides the highest
resolution. For full flexibility the span/RBW coupling can also be disabled. Note, however,
that a higher span/RBW ratio (i.e. low RBW values and large frequency spans) result in
large amounts of data and extend the duration of the calculation.
Advanced FFT functions
In "Advanced" math definition mode, other FFT results than the basic frequency magnitude can be displayed.
●
FFT (φ): phase display
●
FFT (im): imaginary part of FFT value (magnitude)
●
FFT (re): real part of FFT value (magnitude)
●
FFT -dφ*df (group delay): the negative derivative of the phase with respect to frequency; useful to measure phase distortion
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6.3.2 Configuring FFT Waveforms
During FFT analysis, a signal in the time domain is converted to a spectrum of frequencies. A basic FFT waveform can be displayed very quickly. By defining additional FFT
parameters, the waveform can be configured in more detail.
As a result, either the magnitude or the phase of the determined frequencies can be
displayed, or more complex FFT functions. Analysis can be restricted to an extract of the
original time base, and the results display can be restricted to a specified frequency
range.
To display a basic FFT waveform
1. Tap the "FFT" icon on the toolbar, then tap the waveform for which the FFT is to be
performed.
FFT
The first available math waveform is configured to use the selected waveform as a
source and the "Mag(FFT(x))" operator and is enabled. The FFT waveform is displayed in a new diagram.
2. Alternatively, press the MATH key to open the "Math" dialog box.
3. In the "Setup" tab, in the "Optimized" expression editor, select the input signal as
"Source 1".
4. Select "Mag(FFT(x))" as the "Operator".
5. Select the "Enable math signal" icon.
6. If required, edit the FFT waveform parameters as described in ​"To configure the FFT
setup" on page 196.
To configure the FFT setup
1. Select the "FFT Setup" tab of the "Math" dialog box.
2. By default, a suitable frequency range for the expected horizontal values according
to the resolution bandwidth is selected, in respect to performance and precision. Span
and RBW settings are coupled. If a more precise evaluation is required, for example
for postprocessing in a different application, disable the coupling and change the
frequency ranges and resolution bandwidth values as required.
a) Disable the "Span/RBW coupling".
b) Specify the frequency range to be displayed using one of the following methods:
●
●
●
Enter a "Center frequency" and a "Frequency span" that define the spectrum.
Enter a "Start frequency" and "Stop frequency" that define the spectrum.
Tap the "Full Span" button to display the complete spectrum resulting from
the FFT analysis.
c) Change the "Span/RBW ratio". The smaller the ratio, the higher the RBW
becomes to display the same frequency span.
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d) Define the resolution bandwidth for the FFT result.
The resolution bandwidth defines how precise the results are, i.e. how close
together the individual frequencies can be. Small values result in a high precision,
as the distance between two distinguishable frequencies is small. Higher values
decrease the precision, but increase performance.
3. Select the most suitable "Window type" for your source data. Window functions are
multiplied with the input values and thus can improve the FFT display. For details,
see ​"Window type" on page 201.
4. Select an arithmetic mode for the FFT frames. This mode defines how the individual
frame results are combined to a final FFT waveform.
5. Select an overlap factor for neighboring frames.
The higher the overlap factor, the more frames are used. This leads to more individual
results and improves detection of transient signal effects. However, it also extends
the duration of the calculation.
To configure magnitude results
1. Open the "FFT Magnitude/Phase" tab of the "Math" dialog box.
2. Select the scaling unit. Use logarithmic scaling only for input values in Volt or Watt.
3. Decide whether you want to configure the value range manually or use the automatic
settings by tapping the corresponding icon.
4. In manual mode, define the size of the "Vertical range" and the "Vertical maximum"
to be displayed.
5. In automatic mode, define the size of the "Range" to be displayed.
6. For logarithmic scaling in dB, also define the "Reference level" to be used.
To configure phase results
1. Open the "FFT Magnitude/Phase" tab of the "Math" dialog box.
2. Select the scaling unit.
3. To eliminate phase shifts due to a limitation of the value range, enable the
"Unwrap" function.
4. To suppress small phase values due to noise, enable the "Suppression" function and
enter a "Threshold" value.
To restrict the input values (gating)
1. In the "FFT Gating" tab of the "Math" dialog box, define the gate area, i.e. the extract
of the time base in the original diagram for which the FFT analysis is to be performed.
To do so, use one of the following methods:
●
Select the "Absolute" mode and enter the "Start" and "Stop" times that define the
gate area.
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●
●
Select the "Relative" mode and enter the percentages of the total time base that
define the "Relative Start" and "Relative Stop" times.
If a zoom area has already been defined in the original diagram and you want to
use the same time base for FFT analysis, select "Zoom coupling" and then an
active zoom diagram.
2. Tap the "Use gate" icon.
3. To indicate the defined gate area in the original diagram, tap the "Show gate" icon.
The FFT waveform displays the spectrum for the indicated area in the original time
base.
To display advanced FFT waveforms
In "Advanced" math definition mode, other FFT results than the basic frequency magnitude can be displayed.
1. In the "Setup" tab of the "Math" dialog box, select the "Advanced" expression editor.
2. Double-tap the edit area.
The "FormulaEditor" is displayed.
3. Tap the "More" key to display further functions in the editor.
4. Tap the required function key.
5. Select the source channel.
6. Close the parenthesis and tap "Enter".
6.3.3 FFT Configuration Settings
6.3.3.1
FFT Setup
In this tab you define the settings for the FFT window. The display can be restricted to
the results for a certain time base extract and to a specified frequency range.
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Enable Math Signal.....................................................................................................199
Center frequency.........................................................................................................199
Frequency span..........................................................................................................200
Full span......................................................................................................................200
Start frequency............................................................................................................200
Stop frequency............................................................................................................200
Span/RBW Coupling...................................................................................................200
Span/RBW Ratio.........................................................................................................200
Resolution BW............................................................................................................200
Window type................................................................................................................201
Frame Arithmetics.......................................................................................................201
Overlap Factor............................................................................................................201
Max frame count.........................................................................................................202
Frame coverage..........................................................................................................202
Enable Math Signal
If activated, a diagram for the defined math waveform is displayed on the touch screen.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​STATe​ on page 576
Center frequency
Defines the position of the displayed frequency range, which is (Center - Span/2) to
(Center + Span/2). The width of the range is defined using the "Frequency span" setting.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​CFRequency​ on page 579
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Frequency span
The span is specified in Hertz and defines the width of the displayed frequency range,
which is (Center - Span/2) to (Center + Span/2). The position of the span is defined using
the "Center frequency" setting.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​SPAN​ on page 580
Full span
Displays the full frequency span.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​FULLspan​ on page 580
Start frequency
Defines the start frequency of the displayed frequency span.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​STARt​ on page 578
Stop frequency
Defines the stop frequency of the displayed frequency span.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​STOP​ on page 578
Span/RBW Coupling
Couples the frequency span to the "Resolution BW" setting.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 581
Span/RBW Ratio
Defines the coupling ratio for Span/RBW. This setting is only available if ​CALCulate:​
MATH<m>:​FFT:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ is ON.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]:​RATio​ on page 581
Resolution BW
Defines the resolution bandwidth. Note that the resolution bandwidth is correlated with
the span, record length and acquisition time. If a constant record length is to be used, the
RBW may be adapted if the required number of samples cannot be acquired. If span and
RBW values are coupled, changing the span will also change the RBW.
For details see ​chapter 6.3.1, "Fundamentals of FFT Analysis", on page 192.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution][:​VALue]​ on page 581
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]:​ADJusted​ on page 580
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Window type
Windowing helps minimize the discontinuities at the end of the measured signal interval
and thus reduces the effect of spectral leakage, increasing the frequency resolution.
Various different window functions are provided in the R&S RTO to suit different input
signals. Each of the window functions has specific characteristics, including some advantages and some trade-offs. These characteristics need to be considered carefully to find
the optimum solution for the measurement task.
Window type
Frequency
resolution
Magnitude
resolution
Measurement recommendation
Rectangular
Best
Worst
Separation of two tones with almost equal amplitudes
and a small frequency distance
Hamming
Good
Poor
Frequency response measurements, sine waves, periodic signals and narrow-band noise
Worst
Best
Mainly for signals with single frequencies to detect harmonics
Hann
Blackman Harris
(default)
Accurate single-tone measurements
Gaussian
Good
Good
Weak signals and short duration
Flattop2
Poor
Best
Accurate single-tone measurements
Kaiser Bessel
Poor
Good
Separation of two tones with differing amplitudes and a
small frequency distance
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​WINDow:​TYPE​ on page 578
Frame Arithmetics
FFT analysis can only be performed on a maximum number of values at once. If more
values must be calculated, the input signal is divided into frames, each of which is calculated separately. The frames need not be disjunct, i.e. they may overlap, so that some
values have several FFT results. In this case, the arithmetic mode defines how the final
result is calculated from the individual results.
The following methods are available:
"Off"
The data of only one frame is taken into consideration. In effect, no
arithmetics are processed.
"Envelope"
Detects the minimum and maximum values for FFT calculation over all
frames. The resulting diagram shows two envelope waveforms: the
minimums (floor) and maximums (roof). These envelopes indicate the
range of all FFT values that occurred.
"Average"
The average is calculated over all frames.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​FRAMe:​ARIThmetics​ on page 582
Overlap Factor
Defines the minimum factor by which two neighboring frames overlap. If the required
number of frames to cover the input values allows for more overlap, the factor is
increased.
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The higher the overlap factor, the more frames are used. This leads to more individual
results and improves detection of transient signal effects. However, it also extends the
duration of the calculation.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​FRAMe:​OFACtor​ on page 583
Max frame count
Restricts the maximum number of frames to be calculated. Due to the other parameter
settings, the required number of frames may become very high, thus slowing performance. By restricting the number of frames, you can avoid performance loss without
changing the other parameters.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​FRAMe:​MAXCount​ on page 583
Frame coverage
Due to the ​Max frame count restriction, the waveform may only be analyzed partially. The
"Frame coverage" indicates the percentage of the trace that was analyzed, i.e. which part
of the trace was included in the frame calculation.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​FRAMe:​COVerage​ on page 583
6.3.3.2
FFT Magnitude/Phase
In this tab you define the settings for the magnitude and phase of the frequencies.
Enable Math Signal.....................................................................................................203
Magnitude unit.............................................................................................................203
Reference level...........................................................................................................203
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Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto).............................................................................203
Vertical maximum........................................................................................................204
Vertical range..............................................................................................................204
Range..........................................................................................................................204
Phase unit...................................................................................................................204
Unwrap........................................................................................................................204
Suppression................................................................................................................204
Threshold....................................................................................................................204
Enable Math Signal
If activated, a diagram for the defined math waveform is displayed on the touch screen.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​STATe​ on page 576
Magnitude unit
Defines the scaling of the y-axis. The display values are valid for 50Ω termination impendance.
"Linear"
linear scaling; displays the RMS value of the voltage
"dBm"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 mW
"dB"
logarithmic scaling; related to reference level
"dBμV"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 μV
"dBmV"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 mV
"dBV"
logarithmic scaling; related to 1 V
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​MAGNitude:​SCALe​ on page 587
Reference level
Defines the reference level for dB scaling.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​MAGNitude:​LEVel​ on page 586
Vertical scale mode (Manual/Auto)
By default, the vertical scale is adapted to the current measurement results automatically
to provide an optimal display. However, if necessary, you can define scaling values manually to suit your requirements.
Note: When you change the scaling values manually using the "Scale" rotary knob, the
scale mode is set to "Manual" temporarily. When you edit the math function, scaling is
automatically set back to "Auto" mode. "Manual" mode is only maintained during math
function changes if you select it yourself.
"Manual"
Enter the required values for "Vertical scale" and "Vertical offset". For
FFT, set "Vertical range" and "Vertical maximum".
"Auto"
"Vertical scale" and "Vertical offset" are read-only. For FFT, only the
"Vertical maximum" is read-only.
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Vertical maximum
Defines the maximum value on y-axis for spectrum displays. Only available for "Manual" scale mode.
Vertical range
Defines the range of FFT values to be displayed.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​VERTical:​RANGe​ on page 576
Range
Defines the vertical value range in spectrum mode.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​MAGNitude:​RANGe​ on page 586
Phase unit
Defines the scaling unit for phase display.
●
●
Radians
Degrees
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​PHASe:​SCALe​ on page 587
Unwrap
If enabled, phase shifts due to a limitation of the value range are eliminated.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​PHASe:​UNWRap​ on page 588
Suppression
Enables noise suppression. Phase calculation is restricted to frequencies with a minimum
magnitude, the threshold value.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​PHASe:​SUPPression​ on page 587
Threshold
Defines the minimum frequency magnitude for which phases are calculated. This setting
is only available if "Suppression" is enabled.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​PHASe:​THReshold​ on page 588
6.3.3.3
FFT Gating
FFT gating allows you to restrict FFT analysis to a certain time base of the input signal.
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If no gate is used, you can define the type of "Record Length/RBW Coupling" here.
Enable Math Signal.....................................................................................................206
Use Gate.....................................................................................................................206
Show gate...................................................................................................................206
Gate Definition............................................................................................................206
└ Zoom coupling..............................................................................................206
└ Gate Mode....................................................................................................206
└ (Relative) Start..............................................................................................207
└ (Relative) Stop..............................................................................................207
Record Length/RBW Coupling....................................................................................207
Required acquisition time............................................................................................207
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Enable Math Signal
If activated, a diagram for the defined math waveform is displayed on the touch screen.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​STATe​ on page 576
Use Gate
Enables FFT gating.
If enabled, the "Gate Definition" settings are displayed. If disabled, record length and
RBW settings are displayed.
When a gate is used, the RBW is adapted, if necessary. The smaller the gate, the higher
the RBW.
For details see ​chapter 6.3.1, "Fundamentals of FFT Analysis", on page 192.
Show gate
Displays the gate area in the source diagram.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 633
Gate Definition
Defines the gate settings for FFT gating.
Zoom coupling ← Gate Definition
If enabled, the gate area is defined identically to the zoom area. If several zoom diagrams
are defined, select the zoom diagram to be used for gating. The "Start" and "Stop" values
of the gate are adjusted accordingly.
Zoom coupling can be set for measurement gates, FFT gates, and search gates.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 586
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 634
Gate Mode ← Gate Definition
Defines whether the gate settings are configured using absolute or relative values.
"Absolute"
Gating is performed between the defined absolute start and stop values.
"Relative"
Gating is performed for a percentage of the value range, defined by
start and stop values.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 584
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 572
​SEARch:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 633
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(Relative) Start ← Gate Definition
Defines the starting value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 634
(Relative) Stop ← Gate Definition
Defines the end value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 634
Record Length/RBW Coupling
The record length and resolution bandwidth are coupled during FFT analysis. If you
change one value, the other must be adapted accordingly. You can keep either value
constant, thus preventing automatic adaptation when the other parameter is changed.
However, this may cause the FFT analysis to fail.
For details see ​chapter 6.3.1, "Fundamentals of FFT Analysis", on page 192.
"Record length
controlled"
The record length remains constant. If not enough samples are available for the selected RBW, the RBW will be decreased.
"RBW controlled"
The RBW is not adapted, i.e. remains as defined by the user. The
required acquisition time for this RBW is indicated. If necessary and
possible, the record length is extended to acquire the required number
of samples.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​COUPling​ on page 582
Required acquisition time
The required acquisition time is calculated for the defined RBW value if "RBW constant" is selected, and is displayed for information only. If the required acquisition time is
not available (e.g. because acquisition has already been stopped), an error message is
displayed in the "FFT Setup" tab indicating that not enough samples are available for the
defined RBW.
SCPI command:
​TIMebase:​RACTime​ on page 582
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Working with Reference Waveforms
7 Reference Waveforms
7.1 Working with Reference Waveforms
You can configure up to four reference waveforms to display stored waveforms. Any
active signal or mathematical waveform can be stored as a reference waveform. It can
then be loaded again later to restore the waveform on the screen.
To display a reference waveform
Reference waveforms can be displayed in addition to the signal waveforms.
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Reference Waveform > Setup", or press the REF key.
2. Select the tab for the reference waveform you want to display ("Ref1"-"Ref4").
3. Load a stored reference waveform as described in ​"To load a reference waveform" on page 209, or select a source to be displayed as a reference:
a) In the "Reference" tab, tap the "Selected source" icon and select a source from
the selection list. The source can be any active signal, math, or other reference
waveform.
b) Tap the "Update with" button to update the current reference waveform with the
source data.
4. Tap the "Show reference waveform" icon so it is highlighted.
The reference waveform is displayed on the screen.
5. A reference waveform can have its own scaling settings or it can be scaled according
to the source settings. By default, the scaling of the reference waveform is coupled
to the source settings. Additionally, it can be stretched or compressed in vertical and
horizontal direction.
If necessary, change the settings on the "Scaling" tab of the "Reference Waveform"
dialog box. The original source waveform settings are displayed in the "Original
Attributes" tab. To restore the original settings, tap the "Restore settings" button.
For a description of the scaling settings, see ​chapter 7.2.2, "Scaling", on page 211.
To save a reference waveform
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Reference Waveform > Setup", or press the REF key.
Tip: Alternatively, you can save a waveform as a reference waveform in the "File"
dialog box, see ​chapter 12.1.2, "Saving and Loading Waveform
Data", on page 345.
2. Select the tab for the reference waveform you want to store ("Ref1"-"Ref4").
3. Display and configure the reference waveform as described in ​"To display a reference
waveform" on page 208.
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4. To save the waveform to the currently selected file, select "Save". By default, the
prefix for reference waveform files is "RefCurve".
To save the waveform to a new file, select "Save As" and enter a file name, then
select the directory and file type. In order to load the reference waveform on the
instrument again later, use the file type .bin or .xml.
The source settings of the reference waveform and the current scaling settings are
stored to the specified file.
To load a reference waveform
1. In the "Math" menu, select "Reference Waveform > Setup", or press the REF key.
Tip: Alternatively, you can load a waveform as a reference waveform from the
"File" dialog box, see ​chapter 12.1.2, "Saving and Loading Waveform
Data", on page 345.
2. Select the tab for the reference waveform you want to load ("Ref1"-"Ref4").
3. To re-load the currently selected file, tap the "Load" button.
To open a new file, tap the "Open" button. In the file selection dialog box, select the
file that contains the reference waveform (file type .bin or .xml) and tap "Select".
The reference waveform with its stored settings is loaded.
4. Tap the "Show reference waveform" icon to display the reference waveform.
7.2 Reference Waveforms
To compare waveforms and analyze differences between waveforms, you can use up to
four reference waveforms R1 to R4. Each reference waveform has its own memory on
the instrument. You can also save an unlimited number of reference waveforms and load
them for further use.
The display of a reference waveform is independent from that of the source waveform;
you can move, stretch and compress the curve vertically and horizontally. Reference
waveforms are configured in the "Reference Waveform" dialog box, which is displayed
when you press the REF key or select "Math > Reference curves" from the menu.
7.2.1 Reference tab
In the "Reference" tab, you select the reference waveform and its source.The source is
an active waveform - trace of an input channel, math waveform or another reference
waveform - or a stored waveform.
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Ref 1/2/3/4...................................................................................................................210
Source.........................................................................................................................210
Update with selected source.......................................................................................210
Show reference waveform..........................................................................................210
Clear reference waveform...........................................................................................210
Save to or load from file..............................................................................................211
Ref 1/2/3/4
Each tab contains the settings for one of the four available reference waveforms.
Source
Selects the source waveform from the active waveforms of input channels, math signals
and other reference waveforms.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​SOURce​ on page 590
Update with selected source
Copies the selected source waveform with all its settings to the memory of the reference
waveform.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​UPDate​ on page 591
Show reference waveform
Displays the reference waveform in the diagram.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​STATe​ on page 590
Clear reference waveform
The selected reference waveform disappears, its memory is deleted.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​CLEar​ on page 592
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Save to or load from file
Enter the file name of the stored reference waveform and select the file format with the
format button on the right. Double-tap the file name to open the file selection dialog box,
see also ​chapter 12.2.4, "File Selection Dialog", on page 355.
By default, the file name has the prefix "RefCurves_". You can define a pattern for automatic naming in the "Autonaming" tab.
Note: Note that reference waveforms can be loaded from .bin files only. xml and csv
formats are meant for further processing in other applications.
"Load"
Loads the specified reference waveform.
"Open"
Opens a file selection dialog box and loads the selected reference
waveform file
"Save"
Saves the waveform as a reference waveform in the selected file.
"Save As..."
Opens the file selection dialog box and saves the waveform to the
selected file.
".bin/.xml/.csv"
Selects the file format.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​OPEN​ on page 591
​REFCurve<m>:​SAVE​ on page 591
​REFCurve<m>:​DELete​ on page 592
7.2.2 Scaling
A reference waveform can have its own settings, for example, vertical position und scale.
Additionally, it can be stretched or compressed in vertical and horizontal direction. The
current settings and the settings of the source waveform are stored.
Vertical Scaling
Selects the type of vertical settings:
"Coupled to
source"
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"Independent"
Scaling and position can be set specific to the reference waveform.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​VMODe​ on page 592
Vertical scale
Sets the scale factor for the reference waveform, if vertical scaling is set to "Independent".
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​SCALe​ on page 593
Vertical position
Moves the reference waveform up or down in the diagram, if vertical scaling is set to
"Independent".
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​POSition​ on page 593
Set to original
Restores the settings of the source waveform, if vertical scaling is set to "Independent".
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESTore​ on page 592
Vertical Stretching
Stretching changes the display of the waveform independent of the vertical scale and
position.
Enable ← Vertical Stretching
Enables and disables the vertical stretching.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​VERTical:​STATe​ on page 593
Factor ← Vertical Stretching
A factor greater than 1 stretches the waveform vertically, a factor lower than 1 compresses the curve.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​VERTical:​FACTor​ on page 594
Offset ← Vertical Stretching
Moves the reference waveform vertically. Enter a value with the unit of the waveform.
Like vertical offset of a channel waveform, the offset of a reference waveform is subtracted from the measured value. Negative values shift the waveform up, positive values shift
it down.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​VERTical:​OFFSet​ on page 594
Horizontal Scaling
Selects the type of horizontal settings:
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"Adjust to XAxis"
The current horizontal settings of the diagram are used.
"Original Scaling"
Horizontal scaling and reference point of the source waveform are
used.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​HMODe​ on page 594
Horizontal Stretching
Stretching changes the display of the waveform independent of the horizontal settings of
the source waveform and of the horizontal diagram settings.
Enable ← Horizontal Stretching
Enables and disables the horizontal stretching.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​HORizontal:​STATe​ on page 595
Factor ← Horizontal Stretching
A factor greater than 1 stretches the waveform horizontally, a factor lower than 1 compresses the curve.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​HORizontal:​FACTor​ on page 595
Offset ← Horizontal Stretching
Moves the waveform horizontally. Enter a value with a time unit suitable for the time scale
of the diagram. Positive values shift the waveform to the right, negative values shift it to
the left.
SCPI command:
​REFCurve<m>:​RESCale:​HORizontal:​OFFSet​ on page 595
7.2.3 Original Attributes
As a reference waveform can be scaled, stretched and positioned in the diagram, this
tab shows the settings of the original reference waveform for information.
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Reference Waveforms
●
​"Time scale" on page 28
●
​"Vertical scale" on page 39
●
​"Resolution / Record length (Time scale dependency)" on page 31
●
​"Source" on page 210
●
​"Resolution enhancement" on page 32
●
​"Trigger offset" on page 28
●
​"Offset" on page 39
●
​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34
●
​"Decimation" on page 34
●
​"Interpolation mode" on page 33
●
​"Reference point" on page 28
●
​"Position" on page 40
Restore Settings
Restores the original waveform settings from the source waveform to the reference
waveform.
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Mask Testing
About Mask Testing
8 Mask Testing
8.1 About Mask Testing
Masks are used to determine whether the signal remains within specified limits, e.g. to
uncover signal anomalies or test compliance and stability of digital signals. The limits are
specified as "mask", which is laid over the input signal in the display. Thus you can easily
detect where the signal violates the mask.
Mask testing with R&S RTO has only a minor impact on the acquisition rate, thus mask
violations are detected very fast and reliably.
With R&S RTO, you can define own masks easily. Specific actions can be executed when
mask violations occur. For error analysis, you can stop the acquisition on a failed test and
use the history view to look at the previous waveforms.
Mask test
A mask test consists of:
●
Mask definition
●
Waveform to be tested
●
Fail criteria for test
●
Actions to be taken on violation or successful completion
Mask Definition
A mask can be created in several ways:
●
The individual mask points are defined, either on the touch screen or as numerical
values. This mask type is called user mask.
For details, see ​chapter 8.3.2.1, "Mask Definition: User Mask", on page 227.
●
The mask is derived from an existing waveform. This mask type is called waveform
mask.
For details, see ​chapter 8.3.2.2, "Mask Definition: Waveform Mask", on page 230.
Fail Criteria for Testing
The fail criteria for a mask test is set by two parameters: "Fail condition" and "Violation
tolerance". Fail condition defines if sample hits or the number of acquisitions with sample
hits are considered. Violation tolerance sets the number of tolerable sample hits or acquisition hits. A test has failed if the number of sample hits or acquisition hits exceeds the
limit of violation tolerance hits.
See also: ​"Fail condition, Violation tolerance" on page 226.
8.1.1 Results of a Mask Test
The result box of a mask test shows the following test results:
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Number of tested acquisitions.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​COUNt:​WAVeforms​ on page 609
Acq. remaining
Remaining acquisitions until "Average count / Nx Single count" is reached.
The value is useful if you test a specified number of acquisitions with action "Stop acquisition" on violation, or if the acquisition has been stopped manually before the required
number of acquisitions has been acquired.
See also: ​chapter 8.2.4, "Running a Mask Test", on page 222.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​COUNt:​REMaining​ on page 609
State
Shows if the test has been completed. The state is set to "Finished" when "Nx Single
count" acquisitions are tested and the number of "Acq. remaining" is 0. as long as the
number of tested acquisitions is less the "Nx Single count" number, the state is "Running".
If you run the acquisition with RUN CONT, or the number of played history acquisitions
exceeds "Nx Single count", the mask testing is perfomed according to fail criteria settings
independently of the test state. The testing is not stopped when the state is set to "Finished".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​STATe​ on page 609
Sample hits
Number of samples that hit the mask.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​COUNt:​FAILures​ on page 610
Acquisition hits
Number of acquisitions that contained at least one sample hit.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​COUNt:​FWAVeforms​ on page 610
Fail rate
Ratio of acquisition hits to the number of tested acquisitions.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult:​FRATe​ on page 610
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Test result
A test has failed if the number of sample hits or acquisition hits exceeds the limit of
"Violation tolerance" hits.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RESult[:​RESult]​ on page 609
8.2 Working with Masks
●
●
●
●
●
●
Setting Up User Masks.........................................................................................217
Setting Up a Mask Test.........................................................................................221
Configuring the Mask and Hit Display...................................................................221
Running a Mask Test............................................................................................222
Saving and Loading Masks...................................................................................223
Mask Testing on History Acquisitions...................................................................224
8.2.1 Setting Up User Masks
8.2.1.1
Creating New User Masks
There are two ways to create a new mask:
●
Graphical way by tapping the mask points on the touch screen,
●
Numerical entry of the x- and y-values of the mask points.
You can combine both methods. For example, at first you enter the mask quickly on the
touch screen, and then modify the point coordinates with precise values.
To create a mask graphically on the touch screen
1. Tap the "Masks" icon on the toolbar.
2. Tap the corner points of the mask segment on the touch screen.
3. To finish the segment and mask definition, double-tap the last point, or tap the
"Select" icon on the toolbar.
Note: Tapping any icon on the toolbar finishes the mask definition.
4. Tap outside the mask to deselect the mask segment.
You can also enter only two points to create a line. When you finish the mask segment
by double-tapping the second point, the display region above or below the line is defined
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Working with Masks
as mask. If the line is in the upper half of the display, the region above the line becomes
the mask (upper region). If the line is in the lower half, the region below the line is taken
(lower region).
To create a mask numerically in the dialog box
The settings mentioned here are described in detail in ​chapter 8.3.2.1, "Mask Definition:
User Mask", on page 227.
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Mask Definition" tab.
3. Create a new mask test:
a) Tap the "+"-icon in the lower left corner.
b) Enter a name for the new mask test.
A new, empty tab for the mask test appears.
4. Check the horizontal and vertical units and adjust them, if necessary.
5. In the "Mask segments" area, tap "Insert" to create a new mask segment.
6. Set the corner points of the mask segment:
a) In the "Definition of segment" area, tap "Insert".
Point 1 appears.
b) Tap the X-cell and enter the X-value of the point.
c) Tap the Y-cell and enter the Y-value of the point.
d) To insert the next point:
● Tap "Insert" to add a point before the selected point.
● Tap "Append" to add a point at the end of the list.
e) Set the X- and Y-values for this point.
f) Repeat the last two steps until all points are defined.
8.2.1.2
Modifying User Masks
To change an existing mask definition, you can also use the graphical method on the
touch screen, or the numerical way, or combine both.
With the graphical method, you can:
●
Move, add, and delete segments
●
Move and delete points
Adding points to an existing segment graphically is not possible.
With the numerical method, in the "Mask Definition" tab, you have all modification possibilities. You can delete and add points and segments, change the coordinates, and also
stretch a segment, or move it by adding an offset.
To add a mask segment on the touch screen
1. Tap a mask segment of the mask test that you want to complement.
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Working with Masks
2. Tap the "Masks" icon on the toolbar.
3. Tap the corner points of the new mask segment on the touch screen.
4. To finish the segment and mask definition, double-tap the last point, or tap the
"Select" icon on the toolbar.
To delete a mask segment on the touch screen
1. On the toolbar, tap the "Delete" icon.
2. Tap the mask segment to be deleted.
To delete a point on the touch screen
1. Tap the mask segment from which you want to delete a point.
The selected segment is now in definition mode, shown with blue color.
2. On the toolbar, tap the "Delete" icon.
3. Tap the point to be deleted.
To move a segment on the touch screen
1. Drag&drop the segment to the new position.
2. Tap outside the mask to deselect the mask segment.
To move a point on the touch screen
1. Tap the mask segment to be changed.
2. Drag&drop the point to the new position.
3. Tap outside the mask to deselect the mask segment.
To change the mask definition numerically
The settings mentioned here are described in detail in ​chapter 8.3.2.1, "Mask Definition:
User Mask", on page 227.
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
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2. Select the "Mask Definition" tab.
3. On the left, select the mask test for which you want to change the mask definition.
4. To add or delete a mask segment, tap the segment's row in the "Mask segments"
table and tap the required button below:
●
●
●
"Insert": to add a new segment before the selected segment.
"Append": to add a new segment at the end of the list.
"Remove": to delete the selected mask segment from the list.
5. To add, delete, or move a point of a segment:
a) Select the segment in the "Mask segments" table.
b) Select the point in the "Definition of segment" table.
c) To add or delete the selected point, use the buttons below the table.
● "Insert": to add a new point before the selected point.
● "Append": to add a new point at the end of the list.
● "Remove": to delete the selected point from the list.
d) To move the selected point, change the X- and Y-values.
To rescale and move a mask segment
The settings mentioned here are described in detail in ​chapter 8.3.2.1, "Mask Definition:
User Mask", on page 227.
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Mask Definition" tab.
3. On the left, select the mask test for which you want to change the mask definition.
4. Select the required segment in the "Mask segments" table.
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5. To stretch or compress the selected mask segment, enter the "X-Factor" for horizontal scaling and the "Y-Factor" for vertical scaling. The x-values and y-values of all
points are multiplied with the corresponding factor. Factors >1 stretch the mask segment, while factors between 0 and 1 compress it. Negative values are possible and
change the algebraic sign.
6. To move the selected mask segment, enter the "X-Offset" for horizontal direction and
the "Y-Offset" for vertical direction. The specified offset is added to the corresponding
values of all points.
7. Tap "Recalculate" to perform the scaling and/or move.
8.2.2 Setting Up a Mask Test
In addition to the mask definition, the mask test contains further settings:
●
the waveform to be tested
●
the criteria for a failed test
●
the actions to be taken if a test has failed or has been completed successfully
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Test Definition" tab.
3. Select the "Source" to be tested.
4. Set the conditions for a failed test:
a) Fail condition: select if sample hits or the number of acquisitions with sample hits
are considered.
b) Violation tolerance: number of tolerable sample hits or acquisition hits.
A test has failed if the number of sample hits or acquisition hits exceeds the limit of
violation tolerance hits.
5. Select the "Event Actions / Reset" tab.
6. For each action, select when the action will be executed:
●
●
"On violation" if the mask test has failed
"On successful completion"
8.2.3 Configuring the Mask and Hit Display
The display of masks and mask violation is the same for all mask tests.
The settings mentioned here are described in detail in ​chapter 8.3.4, "Mask Display", on page 235.
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Mask Display" tab.
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3. Select "Show mask" to display the masks of all enabled mask tests on the screen.
4. Define how the sample hits are displayed:
a) Select "Highlight hits" to display the sample hits.
b) Set the "Highlight time" or "Infinite highlight".
Set the "Color" of the sample hits.
5. Define the color of the masks segments depending on the violation state:
●
●
●
Mask without violation
Mask with violation
Mask with contact: This color shows that the edge of the mask segment was
touched. In this case, the resolution is not sufficient to detect if the mask was
really hit or not. Zoom into the concerned area to see the correct result.
8.2.4 Running a Mask Test
Before you can start a mask test, make sure that the mask setup is complete:
●
The mask is defined, see ​chapter 8.2.1.1, "Creating New User
Masks", on page 217 and ​chapter 8.2.1.2, "Modifying User Masks", on page 218.
●
The mask test is defined, see ​chapter 8.2.2, "Setting Up a Mask
Test", on page 221
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●
The mask display is configured, see ​chapter 8.2.3, "Configuring the Mask and Hit
Display", on page 221.
You can perform continuous testing or test a specified number of acquisitions.
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Test Definition" tab.
3. Select "Enable test".
If the acquisition is running, the test starts immediately.
4. If the acquisition is not running, press RUN CONT.
The tests starts and runs until you stop the acquisition or the stop action is executed
if defined.
5. To test a specified number of acquisitions:
a) Press the ACQUISITION key.
b) Set the "Average count" to the number of acquisitions.
See also:​"Acquisition/average count" on page 35
c) Press RUN N×SINGLE.
Note: If you run the acquisition with RUN CONT, the state of the mask test is set to
"Finished" when this number of acquisitions has been captured but the mask testing
continues until the acquisition will be stopped.
8.2.5 Saving and Loading Masks
Mask test definitions remain on the instrument until they are changed or deleted, or
PRESET is performed. If you want to keep a mask test, you can save and reload them.
To save a mask
1. Press the MASKS key on the front panel.
2. Select the "Test Definition" tab.
3. To save the mask file in the current directory, change the file name if needed, and
tap "Save".
You can use the automatic file name generation, see ​"To define the automatic file
name pattern" on page 349.
4. To select the directory and enter the file name, tap "Save As".
To load a mask
1. To load the specified mask file, tap "Load."
2. To load the mask from a different file, tap "Open". Select the file from the file selection
dialog box.
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8.2.6 Mask Testing on History Acquisitions
In the same way as for running acquisitions, you can set up and perform the mask testing
also on history waveforms.
The requirements for mask testing on history waveforms are also the same:
●
The mask is defined, see ​chapter 8.2.1.1, "Creating New User
Masks", on page 217 and ​chapter 8.2.1.2, "Modifying User Masks", on page 218.
●
The mask test is defined, see ​chapter 8.2.2, "Setting Up a Mask
Test", on page 221
●
The mask display is configured, see ​chapter 8.2.3, "Configuring the Mask and Hit
Display", on page 221.
1. Perform and finish the acquisition.
2. Press HISTORY.
3. In the quick-access "History" dialog box, tap "Play".
The mask testing is performed on the complete history memory, starting with the
oldest acquisition. The state of the mask test is set to "Finished" when "Nx Single
count" acquisitions are tested.
For details on history, see ​chapter 4.4, "History", on page 114.
8.3 Reference for Masks
8.3.1 Test Definition
The "Test Definition" tab provides all settings for the mask test itself: the waveform to be
tested, pass/fail conditions, and saving/loading the mask definition.
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The content of the "Test Definition" tab depends on the selected definition type: "User"
or "Waveform". If "Waveform" is selected, the main mask settings can be set directly on
the "Test Definition" tab. For a description of these settings, see ​chapter 8.3.2.2, "Mask
Definition: Waveform Mask", on page 230.
Make sure that the correct "Mask Test" tab is selected on the left side before you enter
the settings.
SCPI commands:
​MTESt:​ADD​ on page 597
​MTESt:​REMove​ on page 598
Enable test
Activates and deactivates the mask test. If the acquisition is running, the test starts
immediately. Otherwise, the test starts when acquisition is started.
The testing is stopped when acquisition is stopped, or if a stop action is configured with ​
Stop acq..
Closing the result box also disables the mask test.
SCPI command:
​MTESt[:​STATe]​ on page 598
Source
Selects the waveform to be tested against the mask. All channel waveforms can be tested.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SOURce​ on page 598
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Definition type
Sets the method of mask definition.
"User"
The mask is created manually by tapping the mask points on the touch
screen and/or by entering the numerical x- and y-values of the mask
points.
"Waveform"
The mask is created from an existing waveform. The envelope of the
waveform builds the upper and lower limit line of the mask, and the limits
are moved and stretched. The result is a tolerance tube around the
waveform that is used as mask.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​CTYPe​ on page 599
Fail condition, Violation tolerance
The fail criteria for a mask test is set by two parameters: "Fail condition" and "Violation
tolerance".
"Fail condition" defines the kind of hits to be considered for test evaluation:
● "Samples": Considers the number of samples that hit the mask.
● "Acquisitions": Considers the number of acquisitions that contain at least one sample
hit. How many samples hit the mask in that acquisition is not relevant.
"Violation tolerance" sets the number of tolerable sample hits or acquisition hits.
A test has failed if the number of sample hits or acquisition hits exceeds the limit of violation tolerance hits.
Example:
The example test has failed when the sixth acquisition violated the mask.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​CONDition​ on page 599
​MTESt:​TOLerance​ on page 599
Save / load mask test
Provides all functions to store and recall a mask test. The mask definition, defined actions
and fail conditions are stored in an R&S RTO-specific xml file.
"Load, Save"
Recalls or stores the specified file.
"Open, Save
As"
Opens a dialog box where you can select the directory the file name.
See also: ​chapter 12.2.4, "File Selection Dialog", on page 355.
"Delete"
Opens a dialog box where you can select the file to be deleted.
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8.3.2 Mask Definition
With mask definition, you define the shape of the mask - the form and position of its limit
lines. The content of the "Mask Definition" tab depends on the selected "Definition
type": "User" or "Waveform".
The "Definition type" is a common setting on the top of the tab, see ​"Definition
type" on page 226.
Below, you find the specific settings:
8.3.2.1
Mask Definition: User Mask
A user mask is defined by entering the time and voltage values for all corner points of the
mask segments. A user mask has at least one segment. Complex masks can have up to
16 segments.
An inner segment is an area defined by three or more points. Upper and lower segments
limit the signal on top and bottom of the screen. They are defined by a line, the region
above or below the line is set automatically as mask segment.
Alternatively, you can set the corner points on the touch screen and adjust the values in
the "Mask Definition" tab.
To save the mask, select the "Test Definition" tab and save the mask test.
Settings overview:
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Make sure that the correct "Mask Test" tab is selected on the left side before you enter
the settings.
Mask segments
Defines the number and state of mask segments for the selected mask test. Here you
can:
● Insert a new segment before the selected segment.
● Append a new segment at the end of the list.
● Remove the selected mask segment from the list.
● Select the region that builds the mask.
– Inner region: the segment points form a closed geometrical shape, which is the
mask segment.
– Upper region: the segment points are connected to a line, the display area above
this line is the mask segment.
– Lower region: the segment points are connected to a line, the display area below
this line is the mask segment.
Enable
and disable the mask segments individually. Disabled segments are not con●
sidered by running tests.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​STATe​ on page 600
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​ADD​ on page 601
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​REMove​ on page 601
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​INSert​ on page 601
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​REGion​ on page 601
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​COUNt​ on page 601
Definition of segment
The number of the selected segment is shown above the table. In the definition table, the
individual points of the selected mask segment are listed with exact horizontal and vertical
numerical coordinates. Here you can:
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●
●
●
●
Insert a new point before the selected point.
Append a new point at the end of the list.
Remove the selected point from the list.
Change the x- and y-values of each point. To scale or move the complete segment,
use offset and factor values, see ​Rescale.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​ADD​ on page 602
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​REMove​ on page 602
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​INSert​ on page 602
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​X​ on page 603
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​Y​ on page 603
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​POINt:​COUNt​ on page 603
Rescale
You can rescale and move mask segments by numerical input of factors and offsets. The
values change the selected mask segment and take effect on "Recalculate".
Offset X ← Rescale
Moves the mask segment horizontally. The specified offset is added to the x-values of all
points of the selected mask segment.
To take effect, tap "Recalculate".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​RESCale:​XOFFset​ on page 605
Factor X ← Rescale
Stretches or compresses the selected mask segment in horizontal direction. The x-values
of all points of the selected mask segment are multiplied with this factor. Factors >1
stretch the mask segment, while factors between 0 and 1 compress it. Negative values
are possible and change the algebraic sign.
To take effect, tap "Recalculate".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​RESCale:​XFACtor​ on page 604
Offset Y ← Rescale
Moves the mask segment vertically. The specified offset is added to the y-values of all
points of the selected mask segment.
To take effect, tap "Recalculate".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​RESCale:​YOFFset​ on page 605
Factor Y ← Rescale
Stretches or compresses the selected mask segment in vertical direction. The y-values
of all points of the selected mask segment are multiplied with this factor. Factors >1
stretch the mask segment, while factors between 0 and 1 compress it. Negative values
are possible and change the algebraic sign.
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To take effect, tap "Recalculate".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​RESCale:​YFACtor​ on page 604
Recalculate ← Rescale
Multiplies and adds the given x- and y-factors and offsets to the coordinates of all points
of the selected mask segment.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​SEGMent:​RESCale:​RECalculate​ on page 604
8.3.2.2
Mask Definition: Waveform Mask
A waveform mask is created from an existing waveform. The envelope of the waveform
builds the upper and lower limit line of the mask, and the limits are moved and stretched.
The result is a tolerance tube around the waveform that is used as mask.
The source for a waveform mask is a reference waveform. The reference waveform can
be defined before mask definition, or loaded from a file, or it is created from the waveform
to be tested. In the latter case, the waveform arithmetic of the waveform must be set to
"Envelope".
Settings overview:
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Common settings:
●
​"Definition type" on page 226
●
​"Source" on page 225
●
​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34
Create mask
Creates the upper and lower mask limit from the envelope of the selected reference
waveform. If the reference waveform was not defined before, it is created automatically
from the mask test "Source" waveform which is selected in the "Test Defintion" tab.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​WFMLupdate​ on page 606
Used reference
Sets the reference waveform from which the mask is created.
The reference waveform can be created before with "Reference Waveform Setup", or
loaded from a file in the lower part of the dialog box. If the reference waveform was not
defined before mask definition, it is created automatically from the mask test "Source"
waveform.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​REFWfm​ on page 605
Horizontal width
Sets the width of the mask in horizontal direction. The specified number of divisions is
added to the positive x-values and subtracted from the negative x-values of the mask
limits in relation to the source waveform of the mask. The overall mask width is twice the
specified horizontal width.
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Fig. 8-1: Waveform mask with horizontal width = 0.2 div
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​WFMRescale:​XWIDth​ on page 606
Vertical width
Sets the width of the waveform mask in vertical direction. The specified number of divisions is added to the y-values of the upper mask limit and subtracted from the y-values
of the lower mask limit. Thus, the upper half of the mask is pulled upwards, the lower half
is pulled down, and the overall height of the mask is twice the vertical width.
Fig. 8-2: Waveform mask with vertical width = 0.5 div
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​WFMRescale:​YWIDth​ on page 606
Vertical stretch
Sets the vertical scaling to stretch the mask in y-direction. The scaling axis is the horizontal line through the lowest value of the lower mask limit. Values > 100% stretch the
mask, and values < 100% compress it.
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Fig. 8-3: Waveform mask with vertical width = 0.5 div, vertical position = -0.5 div, vertical stretch = 110%
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​WFMRescale:​YSTRetch​ on page 607
Vertical position
Moves the mask vertically within the display.
Fig. 8-4: Waveform mask with vertical width = 0.5 div and vertical position = -0.5 div
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​WFMRescale:​YPOSition​ on page 607
Reference waveform: save to or load from file
Loads the waveform from the selected file to the "Reference" and creates the mask
immediately.
See also: ​"Save to or load from file" on page 211.
8.3.3 Event Actions /Reset
The settings in this tab define what happens when the mask test has failed or when it has
passed successfully. Each action can be initiated either on failure or on success.
Furthermore, you can reset all totals and results in the "Mask Test" result boxes.
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Make sure that the correct "Mask Test" tab is selected on the left side before you enter
the settings.
Beep
Generates a beep sound.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​ONViolation:​BEEP​ on page 607
Stop acq.
Stops the waveform acquisition on mask violation.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​ONViolation:​STOP​ on page 608
Print
Prints a screenshot including the mask test results to the printer defined in the "Print"
dialog box (see ​chapter 12.1.1, "Configuring Printer Output and Printing", on page 344).
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​ONViolation:​PRINt​ on page 608
Save Wfm
Saves the failed waveform as a reference waveform to the file specified in FILE > "Save/
Recall" > "Waveform".
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​ONViolation:​SAVewaveform​ on page 608
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Reset
Clears all totals and results in all "Mask Test" result boxes.
SCPI command:
​MTESt:​RST​ on page 598
8.3.4 Mask Display
The "Mask Display" tab contains all settings for mask and hit display.
Show mask
Switches the display of all mask segments on or off.
Waveform style
See: ​"Style" on page 95.
Highlight hits
If selected, the mask hits are highlighted on the screen. You can define the color and the
time of the hit display.
Infinite highlight
If selected, the mask hits are highlighted for an unlimited period of time.
Highlight time
Sets the time how long the mask hits are highlighted.
Color
Sets the color of samples that violated the mask.
Mask without violation
Sets the color of masks segments that were not hit.
Mask with violation
Sets the color of mask segments the signal has entered into.
Mask with contact
Sets the color of masks segments that were touched at the border. In this case, the
resolution is not sufficient to detect if the mask was really hit or not. Zoom into the concerned area to see the actual result.
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Search Conditions and Results
9 Search Functions
Search functions allow you to detect and analyze specific conditions in the acquired data
quickly and simply. This is possible for running acquisitions. Various search conditions
are available, including trigger parameters such as edges, windows or states. Search
results can then be qualified further by other waveform conditions.
Simple searches can be performed very quickly and easily; with some additional configuration, even complex searches are possible.
The results are displayed in a table and optionally in a zoom window.
9.1 Search Conditions and Results
To make the search functions suit your requirements, both the search conditions and the
result display are configurable. You can define up to 8 different searches and let them
run simultaneously. For each search, you can define the conditions, scope, and result
display separately. The settings of a search are deleted when you close its search result
box.
9.1.1 Search Conditions
Search scope
Searches can be performed for any input signal, math or reference waveform. Either the
entire waveform can be searched, or only a defined (gate) area.
Search control
Searches can be performed online, that is repeatedly for each new data acquisition, or
only once.
Search conditions
Various different search conditions are available, depending on the source waveform.
For trigger searches, most parameters available for trigger event definition can also be
configured as search conditions. However, unlike triggering, you can configure several
trigger event types to be searched for simultaneously, and search in any signal, math or
reference waveform. For details on trigger search conditions see ​"Search conditions" on page 243.
Frequency marker searches detect peaks in a spectrum. For this search type you can
define the peak excursion.
9.1.2 Search Results
The results are displayed in a table and optionally in a zoom window.
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Search Results box
Search results are displayed in a "Search Results" box with a tab for each search condition and one for the combined results. Each tab contains a table with the position and,
if available, further parameters for each result. The tables can be sorted by x-position or
value. You can define a maximum number of table entries. As with all result boxes, you
can minimize it to a result icon in the signal bar, or display results in a separate table like
a diagram on the screen. When you close a search results box, all settings of this search
are deleted.
Search zoom windows
The search results can be displayed in a zoom window, which allows you to analyze the
search results in more detail. By default, a zoom window is displayed for the currently
selected search result. The zoom area is indicated in the diagram that displays the source
waveform of the search. You can switch off the zoom diagram in the "Search" dialog box.
9.2 Configuring and Performing Searches
Besides the basic search settings such as the source and conditions, the scope and result
presentation can also be configured. Searches can be performed only once or continuously on running acquisition.
Simple searches can be performed very quickly and easily; with some additional configuration, even complex searches are possible.
9.2.1 Configuring a Trigger Search
Trigger searches look for conditions in the signal that can lead to a trigger event during
data acquisition, by using the same parameters.
To perform a simple edge search
1. Select an active time-based waveform you want to perform the search on.
2. Select the "Search" icon on the toolbar.
3. Tap the diagram with the selected waveform.
The default edge search is configured as "Search<x>" and performed for the selected
time-based waveform. The "Search Results" box is displayed.
To create and configure a more complex trigger search
1. Press the SEARCH key to open the "Search" dialog box.
2. Tap the "Add" icon to create a new tab for the new search configuration, or the
"Copy" icon to copy an existing search configuration.
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3. Enter a name for the search configuration using the displayed on-screen keyboard.
4. Select the "Source" waveform on which you want to perform the search. To perform
a trigger search, select a time-based waveform.
5. Define the search conditions for the search:
a) Select the tab for the search condition.
b) Define the search condition settings as described for the trigger parameters in ​
chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58.
To use the same conditions as defined in the trigger configuration of the A-event,
tap "Copy from A". The selected trigger settings are applied to the search settings.
c) Tap "Select" in the "Setup" tab to include the search condition in the search.
d) Repeat the previous step to define further search conditions for the same search.
6. To filter out noise from the search results, configure noise rejection as described in ​
chapter 9.2.5, "Defining Noise Rejection for Searches", on page 241.
7. Define when and how often the search is to be performed.
To perform the search repeatedly for the current acquisition, select "Search online"
in the "Setup" tab.
To perform the search only once on the current acquisition, select "Search once" in
the "Setup" tab.
8. Configure the results display.
a) To clear the results automatically before each new search, select "Auto clear" in
the "Setup" tab.
b) Configure which results are displayed as described in ​chapter 9.2.3, "Configuring
the Search Results Presentation", on page 239.
9.2.2 Configuring a Frequency Marker Search
A frequency marker search detects peaks in a spectrum, considering a peak excursion
if defined.
To perform a simple frequency marker search
1. Select the "Search" icon on the toolbar.
2. Select an active frequency-based waveform you want to perform the search on.
A frequency marker search is configured as "Search<x>" and performed for the
selected frequency-based waveform. The "Search Results" box is displayed.
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To configure the frequency marker search manually
1. Press the SEARCH key to open the "Search" dialog box.
2. Tap the "Add" icon to create a new tab for the new search configuration, or the
"Copy" icon to copy an existing search configuration.
3. Enter a name for the search configuration using the displayed on-screen keyboard.
4. Select the "Source" waveform on which you want to perform the search. To perform
a frequency marker search you must select a frequency-based waveform.
5. To perform the search only on a part of the waveform. configure the gate in the
"Scope" tab.
6. If necessary, adapt the "Peak excursion" to be considered for the search.
Note that the peak excursion is a global setting and is valid for both cursor measurements and search functions.
7. To filter out noise from the search results, configure noise rejection as described in ​
chapter 9.2.5, "Defining Noise Rejection for Searches", on page 241.
8. Define when and how often the search is to be performed.
To perform the search repeatedly for the current acquisition, select "Search online"
in the "Setup" tab.
To perform the search only once on the stored waveform data, select "Search
once" in the "Setup" tab.
9. Configure the results display.
a) To clear the results automatically before each new search, select "Auto clear" in
the "Setup" tab.
b) Configure which results are displayed as described in ​chapter 9.2.3, "Configuring
the Search Results Presentation", on page 239.
The search is performed and the results are displayed as configured. For details on
the results see ​chapter 9.1, "Search Conditions and Results", on page 236.
9.2.3 Configuring the Search Results Presentation
Search results are displayed in a table in the "Search Results" box. The result tables can
be sorted by x-position or value. You can define a maximum number of table entries.
In addition, a zoom window for each search result can be displayed automatically in the
source diagram so that you can analyze the result in more detail.
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To move the position of the search results display
By default, the "Search Results" box is displayed in front of the other diagrams. Alternatively, you can display it in its own area on the screen, like another diagram. For details
see "Working with Waveforms" in the "Getting Started" manual.
1. Minimize the initial result box.
2. Drag the result icon from the signal bar to the diagram area and drop it in its dedicated
target area, as you would a waveform.
The search results are displayed in a table in the specified area of the screen.
3. To minimize the result box again, select the label of the result area and drag it towards
the signal bar. The result box is replaced by a result icon.
4. To delete the result box, tap the "Delete" icon and then the result box or result icon.
This also deletes the settings of the search.
To configure the result tables
1. Press the SEARCH key to open the "Search" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the search you want to configure.
3. Select the "Result Presentation" tab.
4. Select "Show result table" to display the "Search Results" box.
5. Select the sort mode of the result table.
6. By default, the results are listed in descending order, i.e. the largest value at the top.
To change the sorting direction, enable "Sort ascending".
7. Define a maximum number of results to be displayed in the result table in the "Max
result count" field.
To display search zoom windows
1. In the "Search" dialog box, in the "Result Presentation" tab, select "Show search
zoom windows".
2. Configure the zoom area for all search results as described in ​"To define the zoom
area numerically using position and range values" on page 105.
3. Perform a search.
A zoom window is displayed for the currently selected search result. Directly after a
search this is the last result that was found. You can switch between results in the
result table by selecting the result index to move the zoom window to each one.
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Reference for Search Settings
The zoom area is indicated in the diagram that displays the source waveform of the
search. It can also be moved manually, as with other zoom areas, thus changing the
settings of the zoom window. Be aware, however, that the zoom window settings are
valid for all search zoom windows, so if you change the settings drastically for one
result, they may not be correct for the next search result you switch to.
9.2.4 Clearing Search Results
You can clear the search results manually or automatically before each new search.
1. Press the SEARCH key to open the "Search" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the search whose results you want to delete.
3. Select the "Setup" tab.
4. To clear the current search results tap "Clear results".
To have the results cleared automatically before a new search is performed, tap "Auto
clear".
9.2.5 Defining Noise Rejection for Searches
Noise rejection for searches is very similar to noise rejection for triggers.
1. Press the SEARCH key to open the "Search" dialog box.
2. Select the tab for the search you want to configure.
3. Select the "Noise reject" tab.
4. For each waveform for which noise rejection is to be considered:
a) Select the "Enable" option.
b) Select the mode for the noise values: absolute or relative to the vertical scaling
values.
c) Define the absolute or relative hysteresis. If you change one value, the other is
automatically calculated.
If the signal jitters inside this range and crosses the trigger level, no search result is
detected.
9.3 Reference for Search Settings
Search settings include basic configuration of the source and conditions, as well as the
search scope and result presentation. Finally, noise rejection can be configured.
Each search definition is configured on a separate tab. For procdures to perfom a search,
see ​chapter 9.2, "Configuring and Performing Searches", on page 237.
SCPI commands:
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Reference for Search Settings
​SEARch:​ADD​ on page 611
​SEARch:​REMove​ on page 612
9.3.1 Setup Tab
The "Setup" tab contains the basic search settings, including the source, search conditions and search control.
Source
Defines the source of the search. The source can be any input signal, math or reference
waveform. Depending on the selected source, not all search conditions are available.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​SOURce​ on page 613
Search online
Repeatedly performs a search for each new data acquisition.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​ONLine​ on page 612
Search once
Performs a single search on the existing data from the selected source.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​NEXT​ on page 612
​SEARch:​ALL​ on page 612
Auto clear
Automatically clears the results before each new search.
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Clear results
Clears the search results once to start a new search.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​CLEar​ on page 612
Search conditions
Defines the search conditions, depending on the search type (spectrum or trigger). For
trigger searches, most parameters available for trigger event definition can also be configured as search conditions. However, not only signal channels, but also math and reference waveforms can be selected as the search source.
For details on trigger event definition, see ​chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58.
For frequency marker searches, only the peak excursion can be defined as a parameter
for the search.
The following search conditions are available for trigger searches:
● ​Edge, see page 62
● ​Glitch, see page 63
● ​Width, see page 64
● ​Runt, see page 66
● ​Window, see page 67
● ​Timeout, see page 69
● ​Interval, see page 70
● ​Slew Rate, see page 71
● ​Data2Clock, see page 72
Note: Serial patterns are currently not supported as search conditions.
While the interval and width triggers can only analyze either positive or negative polarity,
searching for an interval or width is also possible for both polarities at the same time
("Either").
The following general functions are available in addition to the trigger-related settings, or
alternatively for frequency-related searches.
SCPI command:
The remote control commands are described in ​chapter 16.2.13.3, "Search Conditions", on page 613.
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Select ← Search conditions
Includes the search conditions for the selected trigger event type in the next search.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​EDGE[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​GLITch[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​WIDTh[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​RUNT[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​WINDow[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​TIMeout[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​INTerval[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​SLEWrate[:​STATe]​ on page 614
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​DATatoclock[:​STATe]​ on page 614
Copy from A ← Search conditions
Copies the trigger event configuration from Trigger A for the selected channel source to
the search condition settings (see ​chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58).
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​EDGE:​ACOPy​ on page 615
Trigger level ← Search conditions
Sets the voltage level for the trigger level that is used to determine other parameters.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​LEVel[:​VALue]​ on page 631
Peak excursion ← Search conditions
Defines the minimum level value by which the waveform must rise or fall so that it will be
identified as a maximum or a minimum by the search functions.
This setting is only available for sources in the frequency domain.
Note that the peak excursion is a global setting and is valid for both cursor measurements
and search functions.
SCPI command:
​CURSor<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 522
9.3.2 Scope Tab
The scope defines the search area within the source waveform. The settings are identical
to those for gate areas for measurements or FFT analysis.
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Use Gate
Performs the search only on the defined gate area of the source waveform.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​GATE[:​STATe]​ on page 632
Show gate
Displays the gate area in the source diagram.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​SHOW​ on page 633
Gate Mode
Defines whether the gate settings are configured using absolute or relative values.
"Absolute"
Gating is performed between the defined absolute start and stop values.
"Relative"
Gating is performed for a percentage of the value range, defined by
start and stop values.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 584
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 572
​SEARch:​GATE:​MODE​ on page 633
(Relative) Start
Defines the starting value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STARt​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STARt​ on page 634
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(Relative) Stop
Defines the end value for the gate.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 584
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 585
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 572
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ABSolute:​STOP​ on page 633
​SEARch:​GATE:​RELative:​STOP​ on page 634
Zoom coupling
If enabled, the gate area is defined identically to the zoom area. If several zoom diagrams
are defined, select the zoom diagram to be used for gating. The "Start" and "Stop" values
of the gate are adjusted accordingly.
Zoom coupling can be set for measurement gates, FFT gates, and search gates.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​FFT:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 586
​MEASurement<m>:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 573
​SEARch:​GATE:​ZCOupling​ on page 634
9.3.3 Result Presentation
The following settings configure the presentation of the search results.
Result table
These settings refer to the search result table.
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Show result table ← Result table
Displays or hides the search result table.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​RESult:​SHOW​ on page 640
Sort mode ← Result table
Sorts the search result table by x-value position or value of the result.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​RESult:​SORT[:​MODE]​ on page 640
Sort ascending ← Result table
By default, the results are listed in descending order, i.e. the largest value at the top. To
change the sorting direction, enable "Sort ascending".
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​RESult:​SORT:​ASCending​ on page 640
Max result count ← Result table
Defines the maximum number of entries in the search result table.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​RESult:​LIMit​ on page 639
Search zoom window
The search results can be displayed in a zoom window, which allows you to analyze the
search results in more detail.
The zoom window settings are identical to those for other waveforms. Note that the settings for the search zoom window are also changed when you move the search zoom
area manually, and that they remain valid for all search result zoom windows.
The search zoom area is marked in the waveform diagram. You can change the color of
the area with: "Display" menu > "Diagram layout" > ​"Search result gate symbol
color" on page 98.
Show search zoom windows ← Search zoom window
If enabled, a zoom window is displayed for the currently selected search result. The zoom
area is indicated in the diagram that displays the source waveform of the search.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​SHOW​ on page 638
Vertical mode ← Search zoom window
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the y-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​MODE​ on page 506
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​MODE​ on page 638
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Position / Relative position ← Search zoom window
Defines the y-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 506
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 507
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 638
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 639
Range / Relative Range ← Search zoom window
Defines the height of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 508
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 507
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 638
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​VERT:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 639
Horizontal mode ← Search zoom window
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the x-axis values.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 503
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​MODE​ on page 637
Position / Relative position ← Search zoom window
Defines the x-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​POSition​ on page 503
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​POSition​ on page 505
Range / Relative Range ← Search zoom window
Defines the width of the zoom area.
SCPI command:
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 504
​LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 505
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​SPAN​ on page 636
​SEARch:​RESDiagram:​HORZ:​RELative:​SPAN​ on page 637
9.3.4 Noise Reject
You can reject noise by setting a hysteresis in order to avoid finding trigger events caused
by noise oscillation around the trigger level.
You can select the hysteresis mode and value for each input channel, math and reference
waveform.
The noise reject settings are similar to those for triggers, see also ​chapter 3.3.3, "Noise
Reject", on page 79.
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Enable
If enabled, the noise reject settings for the waveform are considered for the search.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​LEVel:​NOISe[:​STATe]​ on page 643
Absolute/Relative
Defines whether values absolute or relative to the vertical scaling are used.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​LEVel:​NOISe:​MODE​ on page 642
Hysteresis
Defines a range in absolute or relative values around the trigger level. If the signal jitters
inside this range and crosses the trigger level, no trigger event is detected.
For hysteresis values relative to the vertical scaling, the absolute values are adapted
when either the hysteresis percentage or the vertical scaling values are changed.
For absolute hystersis values, the percentage is adapted if the absolute or vertical scaling
values are changed.
SCPI command:
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​LEVel:​NOISe:​ABSolute​ on page 641
​SEARch:​TRIGger:​LEVel:​NOISe:​RELative​ on page 642
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10 Protocol Analysis
With the R&S RTO and some additional options, you can analyze the following serial
protocols:
●
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) - decoding requires option R&S RTO-K1
●
I²C (Inter-Integrated circuit bus) - decoding requires option R&S RTO-K1
●
UART/RS232 (EIA-232 serial interface) - decoding requires option R&S RTO-K2
●
CAN - decoding and triggering requires option R&S RTO-K3
●
LIN - decoding and triggering requires option R&S RTO-K3
●
FlexRay - decoding and triggering requires option R&S RTO-K4
Triggering on SPI, I²C and UART is available with the main R&S RTO without any options.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Basics of Protocol Analysis...................................................................................250
I²C ........................................................................................................................256
SPI Bus.................................................................................................................269
UART / RS232......................................................................................................278
CAN (Option R&S RTO-K3)..................................................................................286
LIN (Option R&S RTO-K3)....................................................................................296
FlexRay (Option R&S RTO-K4)............................................................................307
10.1 Basics of Protocol Analysis
Before you can analyze a serial signal, the bus has to be configured according to the
protocol and specifics of the signal. The configuration contains:
●
Assignment of the data and clock lines to the input channels
●
Logical thresholds
●
Protocol-specific settings
Serial data can be analyzed in two ways:
●
Triggering: You can trigger on various events that are typical for the selected protocol
type, for example, on start and stop of messages, on specific addresses, or on specified data patterns in the message.
Triggering on a trigger event sequence is not supported, and holdoff settings are not
available.
For all serial protocols except for SPI, I²C and UART, triggering requires an option.
●
Protocol decoding: The digitized signal data is displayed on the screen together with
the decoded content of the messages in readable form, and the decoding results are
listed in a table.
For all serial protocols, decoding requires an option.
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10.1.1 Configuration - General Settings
For all protocols, configuration starts with the selection of the serial bus and the protocol.
The "Trigger Setup" button leads directly to the trigger configuration.
Protocol-specific configuration settings are described in the protocol chapters:
●
I²C: ​chapter 10.2.3.1, "I²C Configuration", on page 260
●
SPI: ​chapter 10.3.3.1, "SPI Configuration", on page 271
●
UART: ​chapter 10.4.2.1, "UART Configuration", on page 279
●
LIN: ​chapter 10.6.2.1, "LIN Configuration", on page 297
●
CAN: ​chapter 10.5.1.1, "CAN Configuration", on page 286
●
FlexRay: ​chapter 10.7.1.1, "FlexRay Configuration", on page 307
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
Protocol
Defines protocol type of the bus for bus configuration and trigger settings.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​TYPE​ on page 643
Decode
Enables the decoding of the selected bus. The signal icon appears on the signal bar.
This function is only available if at least one protocol option is installed. For triggering on
I²C, SPI, and UART signals, the bus can be used as trigger source without any option,
provided that the bus is configured correctly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 644
10.1.2 Display
For all protocols, you can select to display the decoded signal as a table and to show the
binary signal on the screen. Optionally, you can assign a label to the bus.
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Bus label
Defines a label to be displayed with the bus.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LABel​ on page 644
Show decode table
Opens a table with decoded data of the serial signal. The function requires the option for
the analyzed protocol.
The decoding results are protocol-specific. They are described in the related chapters:
● I²C: ​chapter 10.2.3.3, "I²C Decode Results (Option R&S RTO-K1)", on page 265
● SPI: ​chapter 10.3.3.3, "SPI Decode Results (Option R&S RTO-K1)", on page 276
● UART: ​chapter 10.4.2.3, "UART Decode Results (Option R&S RTOK2)", on page 283
● LIN: ​chapter 10.6.2.3, "LIN Decode Results", on page 303
● CAN: ​chapter 10.5.1.3, "CAN Decode Results", on page 292
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​RESult​ on page 644
Show binary signals
For each configured line, the binary signal is displayed additionally to the decoded signal.
Show threshold lines
If selected, the threshold levels are displayed in the diagram.
Data format
Sets the data format for decoded data values in the "Decode results" box and on the
display of the decoded signal.
SCPI command:
​FORMat:​BPATtern​ on page 427
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Binary bit order
Select MSB or LSB to define the data bit order in the display of the decoded signal. The
setting is only available for the binary data format.
Binary bit group size
Sets the number of bits that forms a bit group in the display. The setting is only available
for the binary data format.
10.1.3 Protocol Translation Tables
For all protocols using ID identification of the bus nodes, it is possible to create protocol
translation files containing node IDs, a name for each node (ID Name), and some protocol-specific information. You can load protocol translation files, edit the names and
activate its usage for decoding. As a result, an additional "Label" column appears in the
"Decode results" table, containing the ID Name. The display of the decoded signal shows
the ID name instead of the ID value so it is easy to identify the messages of the different
bus nodes.
10.1.3.1
Content and Format of the PPT File
The PTT file format is an extension of the CSV format (Comma Separated Values). You
can edit it with standard editors, for example, Excel or a text editor.
The PTT file has three types of lines:
●
Comment lines begin with a hash character #. A hash character at any other position
in the line is treated like a standard character.
●
Command lines begin with a commercial at character @. An @ character at any other
position in the line is treated like a standard character.
●
Standard lines are the lines that not qualify as comment or command lines. They build
the core of the translation table.
Command lines
Command lines define the version of the PTT file and the protocol name:
●
@FILE_VERSION: must appear exactly once in the file
●
@PROTOCOL_NAME: must appear at least once in the file. Thus one file can contain
several translation tables for different protocols.
# --- Start of PTT file
@FILE_VERSION
= 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = i2c
[... Translation table for I2C]
@PROTOCOL_NAME = can
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[... Translation table for CAN]
# --- End of PTT file
Standard lines
Standard lines are the definition of the translation table. The rules for standard lines are:
●
Values are separated by commas
●
Space characters are part of the value, they are not ignored
●
Values with a special character (comma, newline, or double quote) must be enclosed
in double quotes
●
Text in double quotes must be escaped by double quote characters
●
Numeric values may be decimal integer (default) or hexadecimal integer (with prefix
"0x")
#
Following two lines are different:
7,0x01,Temperature
7,0x01, Temperature
#
A comma must be enclosed in double quotes:
7,0x01,"Temperature, Pressure, and Volume"
#
A double quote must also be enclosed in double quotes:
7,0x7F,"Charles ""Chuck"" Norris"
#
Following lines yield the same result:
7,0x11,Pressure
0x7,0x11,Pressure
0x7,17,Pressure
1,17,Pressure
Translation tables are protocol-specific. Their contents are described in the corresponding protocol chapters:
10.1.3.2
●
​chapter 10.2.3.4, "I2C Translation Table (Option R&S RTO-K1)", on page 267
●
​chapter 10.5.1.4, "CAN Translation Table", on page 294
●
​chapter 10.6.2.4, "LIN Translation Table", on page 305
●
​chapter 10.7.1.4, "FlexRay Translation Table", on page 317
Translation - General Settings
In the "Translation" tab, you can laod and activate protocol translation files. A translation
table shows the file content; you can edit the ID name in the table.
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Translation tables are protocol-specific. Their contents are described in the corresponding protocol chapters:
●
​chapter 10.2.3.4, "I2C Translation Table (Option R&S RTO-K1)", on page 267
●
​chapter 10.5.1.4, "CAN Translation Table", on page 294
●
​chapter 10.6.2.4, "LIN Translation Table", on page 305
●
​chapter 10.7.1.4, "FlexRay Translation Table", on page 317
The common settings for all protocols are:
Translation
Activates the protocol translation file to be used for decoding. The "ID Names" appear in
the "Decode results" table and in the display of the decoded signal.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SHOWtrans​ on page 662
Load from file
Selects and loads a protocol translation file. The file format is always .csv (commaseparated values).
10.1.4 Bit Pattern Editor
If you want to enter a specified address or data pattern, the bit pattern editor helps you
to enter the pattern in various formats - decimal, hexadecimal, octal, binary and ASCII.
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I²C
The editor displays the pattern in two columns. The left column always shows binary data.
For the right column, you can select the format, the default depends on the data specifics.
You can edit data in the left or right column. The keypad adapts itself to the column format,
only keys appropriate to the format are enabled.
The data is grouped and converted in bit groups. The size of a bit group depends on the
address or data specifics and is set by the instrument. Groups are automatically separated by blanks. The maximum size of a bit group is 64 bit, the most common group size
is 1 byte.
"Overwrite mode": If disabled, the data behind the new digit is shifted to the right. Bit
groups are rearranged. automatically.
Format-specific information:
●
Binary: 0, 1 and X (dont care) are allowed.
●
Decimal: If you enter a decimal number that is too large for the defined bit group, the
number is truncated and a message appears. X (don't care) in the decimal column
sets all binary digits of the bit group to X.
●
Hex: most common format in the right column.
●
Octal: Each digit represents 3 bit.
●
ASCII: In the ASCII column, "X" is the character X. The binary X (don't care) is not
allowed. If an X is included in the binary value in the left column, the ASCII columns
displays "§" to indicate that the value is not defined.
Where applicable, frequently used values are provided in a "Predefined values" list below
the pattern table, for example, reserved end words of data packets in the UART protocol.
10.2 I²C
The Inter-Integrated Circuit is a simple, low-bandwidth, low-speed protocol used for communication between on-board devices.
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10.2.1 The I²C Protocol
This chapter provides an overview of protocol characteristics, data format, address types
and trigger possibilities. For detailed information, read the "I2C-bus specification and user
manual" available on the NXP manuals web page at http://www.nxp.com/.
I²C characteristics
Main characteristics of I²C are:
●
Two-wire design: serial clock (SCL) and serial data (SDA) lines
●
Master-slave communication: the master generates the clock and addresses the
slaves. Slaves receive the address and the clock. Both master and slaves can transmit and receive data.
●
Addressing scheme: each slave device is addressable by a unique address. Multiple
slave devices can be linked together and can be addressed by the same master.
●
Read/write bit: specifies if the master will read (=1) or write (=0) the data.
●
Acknowledge: takes place after every byte. The receiver of the address or data sends
the acknowledge bit to the transmitter.
The R&S RTO supports all operating speed modes: high-speed, fast mode plus, fast
mode, and standard mode.
Data transfer
The format of a simple I²C message (frame) with 7 bit addressing consists of the following
parts:
●
Start condition: a falling slope on SDA while SCL is high
●
7-bit address of the slave device that either will be written to or read from
●
R/W bit: specifies if the data will be written to or read from the slave
●
ACKnowledge bits: is issued by the receiver of the previous byte if the transfer was
successful
Exception: At read access, the master terminates the data transmission with a NACK
bit after the last byte.
●
Data: a number of data bytes with an ACK bit after every byte
●
Stop condition: a rising slope on SDA while SCL is high
Fig. 10-1: I2C write access with 7-bit address
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Address types: 7-bit and 10-bit
Slave addresses can be 7 or 10 bits long. A 7-bit address requires one byte, 7 bits for
the address followed by the R/W bit.
A 10-bit address for write access requires two bytes: the first byte starts with the reserved
sequence 11110, followed by the two MSB of the address and the write bit. The second
byte contains the remaining 8 LSB of the address. The slave acknowledges each address
byte.
Fig. 10-2: 10-bit address, write access
A 10-bit address for read access requires three bytes. The first two bytes are identical to
the write access address. The third byte repeats the address bits of the first byte and sets
the read bit.
Fig. 10-3: 10-bit address, read access
Trigger
The R&S RTO can trigger on various parts of I²C messages. The data and clock lines
must be connected to the input channels, triggering on math and reference waveforms
is not possible.
You can trigger on:
●
Start or stop condition
●
Repeated start condition
●
Transfer direction (read or write)
●
Bytes with missing acknowledge bit
●
Specific slave address or address range
●
Specific data pattern in the message
10.2.2 Analyzing I²C Signals
The analysis of I²C consists of two main steps:
●
​Configuring I²C Protocol
●
​Triggering on I²C
To display the decoded signal, option R&S RTO-K1 is required.
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10.2.2.1
Configuring I²C Protocol
The configuration of the I²C is simple - assign the two lines to input channels, and set the
thresholds.
For details on configuration settings, see ​chapter 10.2.3.1, "I²C Configuration", on page 260.
1. Press the PROTOCOL key on the front panel.
2. At the left-hand side, select the vertical tab of the bus you want to set up.
3. Select the "Configuration" tab.
4. Tap the "Protocol" button and select the protocol: "I2C".
5. Optionally, you can enter a "Bus label" on the "Display" tab.
6. Tap the "SDA" button, and select the waveform of the data line.
7. Tap the "SCL" button, and select the waveform of the clock line.
8. Set the logical thresholds: Either according to technology definition with "Preset", or
to the middle reference levels with "Set to 50%", or enter a user-defined value directly
in the "Threshold" fileds.
10.2.2.2
Triggering on I²C
Prerequesites: A I²C-bus is configured, see ​chapter 10.2.2.1, "Configuring I²C Protocol", on page 259. SDA and SCL lines are set to channel waveforms.
1. Press the TRIGGER key.
If the "Protocol Configuration" dialog box is open, you can tap the "Trigger Setup"
button.
2. Tap the "Source" button and select the "Serial" trigger source.
3. Select the serial bus that is set to I²C.
4. Select the "Trigger type".
5. For more complex trigger types, enter the address and/or data conditions: address,
acknowledge bits, R/W bit, and data pattern.
For details, see ​chapter 10.2.3.2, "I²C Trigger", on page 261
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10.2.3 Reference for I²C
10.2.3.1
I²C Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
SDA, SCL
Set the waveforms of the data line (SDA) and clock line (SCL). Waveform 1 of channel
signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be used.
For triggering, both lines require channel waveforms. Do not combine a reference waveform with channel or math waveform because the time correlation of these waveforms
might differ.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​SDA:​SOURce​ on page 645
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​SCL:​SOURce​ on page 645
Threshold
Sets the threshold value for digitization of signals for each line. If the signal value on the
line is higher than the threshold, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic).
Otherwise, the signal state is considered low (0 or false) if the signal value is below the
threshold.
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There are three ways to set the threshold:
● "Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
● "Set to 50%"
Executes the measurement of reference levels and sets the thresholds to the middle
reference level of the measured amplitude.
● "Preset"
Selects the default threshold voltage for various signal technologies from a list. The
value is set to "Manual" if the threshold was set with "Set to 50%", or was entered
directly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​SCL:​THReshold​ on page 645
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​SDA:​THReshold​ on page 646
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​TECHnology​ on page 646
R/W bit
Defines if the R/W bit is considered separately or as part of the address. The setting
affects the ​Address setup of the trigger conditions.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​RWBit​ on page 647
10.2.3.2
I²C Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
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Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Trigger type
Selects the trigger type for I²C analysis.
"Start"
Sets the trigger to the start of the message. The start condition is a
falling edge on SDA while SCL is high. The trigger instant is the falling
edge of the SDA line.
You can change the SDA and SCL lines here if necessary.
"Repeated
start"
Sets the trigger to a repeated start - when the start condition occurs
without previous stop condition. Repeated start conditions occur when
a master exchanges multiple messages with a slave without releasing
the bus.
"Stop"
Sets the trigger to the end of the message. The stop condition is a rising
slope on SDA while SCL is high.
"No Ack (Missing Ack)"
Missing acknowledge bit: the instrument triggers if the data line remains
HIGH during the clock pulse following a transmitted byte. You can also
localize specific missing acknowledge bits by setting the ​No Ack conditions.
"Address"
Sets the trigger to one specific address condition or a combination of
address conditions. The trigger time is the falling clock edge of the
acknowledge bit after the address.
●
Address type
●
Specified address or address range
●
Read/Write bit
Description of trigger type specific settings: ​"Address
setup" on page 263.
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"Address OR"
Triggers on one to four address conditions.
Description of trigger type specific settings: ​"Address OR conditions" on page 264.
"Address and
data"
Sets the trigger to a combination of address and data condition. The
address conditions are the same as for the "Address" trigger type, see
​"Address setup" on page 263 and ​"Data setup" on page 265.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​MODE​ on page 647
No Ack conditions
Selects which missing acknowledge bits is detected if the trigger type is set to "Missing
Ack".
"Address
Nack"
No slave recognizes the address.
"Data write
Nack"
The addressed slave does not accept the data.
"Data read
Nack"
Marks the end of the read process when the master reads data from
the slave. This Nack is sent according to the protocol definition, it is not
an error.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADNack​ on page 648
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DWNack​ on page 649
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DRNack​ on page 649
Address setup
Specifies the address conditions:
Type ← Address setup
Sets the address length to be triggered on: 7 bit, 7+1 bit, or 10 bit. Available settings
depend on the ​R/W bit setting of the bus configuration.
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For "7 bit" and "10 bit", enter the address bits in the ​Addr. min / Addr. max field, and use
the ​"R/W bit" on page 264 field to select the transfer direction.
For "7+1 bit", enter the seven address bits and also the R/W bit in the "Address" field.
If the trigger type is "Address + data", you can set the address type "Any" to trigger on
data only, regardless of the address.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​AMODe​ on page 649
Addr. min / Addr. max ← Address setup
Defines the bit pattern of the slave device address. The length of the entry is adjusted to
the selected address type. In binary format, use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (any
bit). The use of X is restricted to the "Address operator"s "Equal" and "Not equal".
The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern in any format, see ​chapter 10.1.4,
"Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
Depending on the ​Condition, a specific address or an address range must be defined.
To trigger on any address, set the "Address operator" to "Equal" and enter X for each
address bit.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADDRess​ on page 650
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADDTo​ on page 651
Condition ← Address setup
Sets the operator to set a specific address ("Equal" or "Not equal") or an address range.
The address values are set with ​Addr. min / Addr. max.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ACONdition​ on page 650
R/W bit ← Address setup
Toggles the trigger condition between Read and Write access of the master. Select
"Either" if the transfer direction is not relevant for the trigger condition.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ACCess​ on page 648
Address OR conditions
Triggers on one to four address conditions. For each condition to be used, select "Monitor".
Each condition requires an exact address. The definition of address ranges is not possible
here. X (don't care) can be used.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADOR<n>:​ENABle​ on page 651
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADOR<n>:​ADRType​ on page 651
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADOR<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 651
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​ADOR<n>:​RWBit​ on page 652
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Data setup
Specifies the data conditions:
Position ← Data setup
Operator for the data position within a frame. You can define an exact position, or a
position range. Select "Any", if the position of the required pattern is not relevant.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DPOPerator​ on page 652
Index min, Index max ← Data setup
Sets the number of data bytes to be skipped after the address. The index 0 is associated
with the first data byte. If the ​Position defines a range, the first and the last byte of interest
are defined.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DPOSition​ on page 653
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DPTO​ on page 653
Condition ← Data setup
Selects the operator for the "Data" pattern: "Equal", "Not equal", or a range definition.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DCONdition​ on page 653
Value min / Value max ← Data setup
Specifies the data bit pattern. Enter the bytes in msb first bit order. The maximum pattern
length is 64 bit. Waveform data is compared with the pattern byte-by-byte.
The instrument ensures that the max value is always ≥ the min value, and X bits (don't
care) are at the same position in both values.
The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern
Editor", on page 255.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DMIN​ on page 653
​TRIGger<m>:​I2C:​DMAX​ on page 654
10.2.3.3
I²C Decode Results (Option R&S RTO-K1)
If the option is installed, the "Decode" function in the "Configuration" tab is available.
Enable "Decode" to display the decoded signal below the waveforms.
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Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results, see ​
chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
Fig. 10-4: Decoded and binary I2C signal, and decode results
green brackets [...]
yellow
blue
light orange
violet
red
blue block
green block
red block
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
start and end of frame
address
correct data
R/W bit
acknowledge bits
No ack (missing acknowledge bit) or incomplete frame
write frame ok, with transfer direction and address value
read frame ok, with transfer direction and address value
frame is incomplete (end of acquisition before end of frame), with transfer direction and
address value
The "Decode results" box shows the detailed decoded data for each data frame.
Table 10-1: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
State
Overall state of the frame.
"Insuffcient waveform length" indicates that the frame
is not completely contained in the acquisition. Change
the horizontal scale, or move the reference point to
the left to get a longer acquisition.
Frame start
Time of frame start
Address type
Address length, 7 bit or 10 bit
Address value (hex)
Hexadecimal value of the address
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Column
Description
R/W bit
Value of the R/W bit
Ack bit
Value of the address acknowledge bit
Values
Value of all data bytes of the frame. The data format
is selected below the table.
Example:
The signal in ​figure 10-4 shows a write access followed by a read access, both with 10bit
address. The decoded data shows a No Ack bit at the end of the read data. This No Ack
bit is sent according to the protocol definition and is not an error. Thus, the decode results
in the table indicate "Ack" for the second frame.
SCPI commands:
10.2.3.4
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​DATA​ on page 655
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FCOunt​ on page 655
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​AACCess​ on page 655
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ACCess​ on page 655
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ACOMplete​ on page 656
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ADBStart​ on page 656
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ADDRess​ on page 656
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ADEVice​ on page 657
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​AMODe​ on page 657
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​ASTart​ on page 658
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​RWBStart​ on page 658
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​STATus​ on page 658
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​STARt​ on page 659
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​STOP​ on page 659
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BCOunt​ on page 660
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​ACCess​ on page 660
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​ACKStart​ on page 660
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​COMPlete​ on page 661
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​STARt​ on page 661
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​VALue​ on page 662
I2C Translation Table (Option R&S RTO-K1)
Translation tables are protocol-specific. An I2C protocol translation file contains three
values for each bus node. After a file was loaded, these values are shown in the translation table:
●
"ID Type": address type, 7-bit or 10-bit long
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●
"ID Value": decimal address value
●
"ID Name": symbolic label, name of the bus node, specifiing its function in the bus
network. The name can be changed in the table.
If "Translation" is enabled, the names ares visible in the "Decode results" table and
in the display of the decoded signal.
For general information on the "Translation" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.3, "Protocol Translation
Tables", on page 253.
Example: I2C translation file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# PROTOCOL TRANSLATION TABLE
# ---- Format information for I2C ---# Column order and content:
#
ID Type(7,10), ID Value (address, integer), ID Name (label, string)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Copyright: (c) 2011 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & CO KG.
#
All rights reserved.
#
Muehldorfstr. 15, D-81671 Munich, Germany
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = i2c
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
# ----Definition---# ID as hex
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7,0x01,Temperature
7,0x12,Pressure
10,0x123,Speed
# ID as integer
7,17,Brake
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCPI command
●
​BUS<m>:​I2C:​FRAMe<n>:​TRANslation​ on page 662
10.3 SPI Bus
10.3.1 The SPI Protocol
A 4-channel instrument is required for full support of the SPI protocol.
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used for communication with slow peripheral devices, in particular, for transmission of data streams.
Main characteristics of SPI are:
●
Master-slave communication
●
No device addressing; The slave is accessed by a chip select, or slave select line.
●
No acknowledgement mechanism to confirm receipt of data
●
Duplex capability
Most SPI buses have four lines, two data and two control lines:
●
Clock line to all slaves (SCLK)
●
Slave Select or Chip Select line (SS or CS)
●
Master data output, slave data input (MOSI or SDI)
●
Master data input, slave data output (MISO or SDO)
When the master generates a clock and selects a slave device, data may be transferred
in either or both directions simultaneously.
Fig. 10-5: Simple configuration of SPI bus
The data bits of a message are grouped by following criteria:
●
A word contains a number of successive bits. The word length is defined in the protocol configuration.
●
A frame contains a number of successive words, at least one word.
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For SPI buses, the R&S RTO provides the following trigger possibilities:
●
On frame start
●
On a serial pattern
●
On a serial pattern at a specified position
10.3.2 Analyzing SPI Signals
10.3.2.1
Configuring SPI Signals
For configuration, assign the lines to the input channels, and define the active states and
the logical thresholds.
For details on configuration settings, see ​chapter 10.3.3.1, "SPI Configuration", on page 271.
1. Press the PROTOCOL key on the front panel.
2. At the left hand-side, select the vertical tab of the bus you want to set up.
3. Select the "Configuration" tab.
4. Tap the "Protocol" button and select the protocol: "SPI".
5. Optionally, you can enter a "Bus label" in the "Display" tab.
6. Tap the "SCLK Source" button, and select the waveform of the clock line.
7. Set the polarity (clock mode) for SCLK.
8. For each of the available SS, MISO and MOSI lines, assign the waveform and define
the polarity (active state) of the line.
9. Set the logical thresholds: Either according to technology definition with "Preset", or
to the middle reference levels with "Set to 50%", or enter a user-defined value directly
in the "Threshold" fileds.
10. Set the "Bit order", "Word length", and "Frame condition" according to your signal.
10.3.2.2
Triggering on SPI
Prerequesites: A bus is configured for the SPI signal to be analyzed.
1. Press the TRIGGER key.
2. Tap the "Source" button and select the "Serial" trigger source.
3. Select the serial bus that is set to SPI.
4. Select the "Trigger type".
5. For more complex trigger types, enter the data pattern conditions
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For details, see ​chapter 10.3.3.2, "SPI Trigger", on page 273
10.3.3 Reference for SPI
10.3.3.1
SPI Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
SCLK
Defines the settings for the clock line.
SCLK source ← SCLK
Sets the input channel of the clock line. Waveform 1 of channel signals, math waveforms,
and reference waveforms can be used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus, a
channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​SCLK:​SOURce​ on page 664
Polarity ← SCLK
Two settings define the clock mode: the clock polarity and the clock phase. Together,
they determine the edges of the clock signal on which the data are driven and sampled.
A master/slave pair must use the same parameter pair values to communicate.
The clock polarity is "Idle low" (idle = 0) or "Idle high" (idle = 1).
The clock phase defines the slope. It selects if data is stored with the rising or falling slope
of the clock. The slope marks the begin of a new bit.
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SS, MISO, MOSI
Configures the Slave Select, MISO and MOSI lines.
Source ← SS, MISO, MOSI
Sets the input channel of the selected line. Waveform 1 of channel signals, math waveforms, reference waveforms, or no waveform can be selected. For triggering on a serial
bus, a channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​SSELect:​SOURce​ on page 664
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MISO:​SOURce​ on page 665
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MOSI:​SOURce​ on page 665
Polarity ← SS, MISO, MOSI
Selects whether transmitted data or the slave select signal is high active (high = 1) or low
active (low = 1).
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​SSELect:​POLarity​ on page 665
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MISO:​POLarity​ on page 665
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MOSI:​POLarity​ on page 666
Threshold
Sets the threshold value for digitization of signals for each line. If the signal value on the
line is higher than the threshold, the signal state is high. Otherwise, the signal state is
considered low if the signal value is below the threshold. The interpretation of HIGH and
LOW is defined by the ​Polarity.
There are three ways to set the threshold:
● "Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
● "Set to 50%"
Executes the measurement of reference levels and sets the thresholds to the middle
reference level of the measured amplitude.
● "Preset"
Selects the default threshold voltage for various signal technologies from a list. The
value is set to "Manual" if the threshold was set with "Set to 50%", or was entered
directly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​SCLK:​THReshold​ on page 667
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MISO:​THReshold​ on page 667
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​MOSI:​THReshold​ on page 667
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​SSELect:​THReshold​ on page 667
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​TECHnology​ on page 666
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Bit order
Defines if the data of the messages starts with msb (most significant bit) or lsb (least
significant bit). The display of the decoded signal considers this setting, results are displayed in the specified order.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​BORDer​ on page 663
Word length
Sets the number of bits in a word. The maximum length is 32 bit.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​WSIZe​ on page 664
Frame condition
Defines the start of a frame. A frame contains a number of successive words, at least
one word.
"SS"
Start and end of the frame is defined by the active state of the slave
select signal.
"CLK timeout"
Defines a timeout on the clock line SCLK as limiter between two frames.
The timeout condition is used for SPI connections without an SS line.
Enter the minimum clock idle time in the field.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRCondition​ on page 667
Timeout
Sets the minimum clock idle time if a timeout on the clock line SCLK is used as limiter
between two frames.
See also: ​"Frame condition" on page 273.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​TIMeout​ on page 667
10.3.3.2
SPI Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
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Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Trigger type
Selects the trigger type for SPI analysis.
"Frame start
(SS)"
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Trigger on the start of the frame when the slave select signal SS
changes to the active state. This trigger type is available if ​Frame condition is set to "SS".
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"Frame start
(Timeout)"
Triggers on the start of the frame when the clock idle time exceeds the
"Timeout" time. This trigger type is available if ​Frame condition is set to
"CLK timeout".
"MOSI"
Sets the trigger to a specified data pattern expected on the MOSI line.
See: ​"MOSI and MISO data conditions" on page 275.
"MISO"
Sets the trigger to a specified data pattern expected on the MISO line.
See: ​"MOSI and MISO data conditions" on page 275.
"MOSI/MISO"
Sets the trigger to specified data patterns expected on the MOSI and
MISO lines.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​MODE​ on page 668
MOSI and MISO data conditions
The trigger on MOSI and MISO patterns is defined in the same way:
Condition ← MOSI and MISO data conditions
Selects the operator for the "Data" pattern: "Equal" or "Not equal".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​FCONdition​ on page 670
MOSI pattern, MISO pattern ← MOSI and MISO data conditions
Specifies the data pattern to be found on the MOSI or MISO line, respectively. Enter the
words in msb first bit order. The maximum pattern length is 256 bit if one pattern is defined.
If both MOSI and MISO patterns are used, the maximum pattern length of each pattern
is 128 bit. The starting point of the pattern is defined by ​Index min, Index max and ​Search
mode.
The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern
Editor", on page 255.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​MOSipattern​ on page 670
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​MISopattern​ on page 670
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SPI Bus
Position ← MOSI and MISO data conditions
Operator for the data position. You can defined an exact position, a position range, or let
the position undefined ("Any").
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​DPOPerator​ on page 669
Index min, Index max ← MOSI and MISO data conditions
The effect of data positioning depends on the ​Search mode. It sets the number of bits or
words before the first word of interest. These offset bits/words are skipped. If the position
operator defines a range, the first and the last bit/word of interest are defined. The index
0 is associated with the first data bit or word.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​DPOSition​ on page 669
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​DPTO​ on page 670
Search mode ← MOSI and MISO data conditions
Defines how the specified data pattern is searched:
"Word-aligned" The pattern is matched only at word boundaries.
"Bit-aligned"
Bit-by-bit: the pattern can start at any position in the message.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SPI:​PALignment​ on page 668
10.3.3.3
SPI Decode Results (Option R&S RTO-K1)
If the option is installed, the "Decode" function in the "Configuration" tab is available.
Enable "Decode" to display the decoded signal below the waveforms.
Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results, see ​
chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
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SPI Bus
Fig. 10-6: Decoded and binary SPI signal with SCLK, MOSI, and SS line
green brackets [...]
red brackets [...]
yellow
red
=
=
=
=
start and end of complete frame
start and end of incomplete frame
word
error
The "Decode results" box shows the detailed decoded data for each data frame.
Fig. 10-7: Decode results
Table 10-2: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
State
Overall state of the frame
Frame start , Frame stop
Times of frame start and frame end
Word count
Number of words in the frame
MOSI values
Value of the MOSI data words. The data format is
selected below the table.
MISO values
Value of the MISO data words. The data format is
selected below the table.
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UART / RS232
Example:
In the figure above, the first three frames contain two words each. The fourth frame is
incomplete, only one word of the frame was recognized
SCPI commands:
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​DATA​ on page 671
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FCOunt​ on page 671
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​STATus​ on page 672
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​STARt​ on page 672
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​STOP​ on page 672
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​WCOunt​ on page 673
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​WORD<o>:​STARt​ on page 673
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​WORD<o>:​STOP​ on page 674
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​WORD<o>:​MISO​ on page 674
●
​BUS<m>:​SPI:​FRAMe<n>:​WORD<o>:​MOSI​ on page 674
10.4 UART / RS232
10.4.1 The UART / RS232 Interface
The Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UART converts a word of data into
serial data, and vice versa. It is the base of many serial protocols like of RS-232. The
UART uses only one line, or two lines for transmitter and receiver.
Data transfer
The data is transmitted in words, also referred to as symbols or characters. Each word
consists of a start bit, several data bits, an optional parity bit, and one or more stop bits.
Several words can form a package, or frame. The end of a package is marked with a
reserved word or by a pause between two words.
Start
Data0 Data1 Data2 Data3 Data4 [Data5] [Data6] [Data7] [Data8] [Parity]
Stop
Fig. 10-8: Bit order in a UART word (symbol)
●
The start bit is a logic 0.
●
The stop bits and the idle state are always logic 1.
The UART protocol has no clock for synchronization. The receiver synchronizes by
means of the start and stop bits, and the bit rate that must be known to the receiver.
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Trigger
The R&S RTO can trigger on specified parts of UART serial signals:
●
Start bit
●
Packet start
●
Parity errors, and breaks
●
Stop errors
●
A serial pattern at any or a specified position
10.4.2 Reference for UART/RS-232 Interface
10.4.2.1
UART Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
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Source: Tx, Rx
Select the input channels for the transmitter and receiver signals. Waveform 1 of channel
signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus, a channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​TX:​SOURce​ on page 676
​BUS<m>:​UART:​RX:​SOURce​ on page 675
Threshold
Sets the threshold value for digitization of signals for each line. If the signal value on the
line is higher than the threshold, the signal state is high. Otherwise, the signal state is
considered low if the signal value is below the threshold. The interpretation of HIGH and
LOW is defined by the ​Polarity.
There are three ways to set the threshold:
● "Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
● "Set to 50%"
Executes the measurement of reference levels and sets the thresholds to the middle
reference level of the measured amplitude.
● "Preset"
Selects the default threshold voltage for various signal technologies from a list. The
value is set to "Manual" if the threshold was set with "Set to 50%", or was entered
directly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​RX:​THReshold​ on page 676
​BUS<m>:​UART:​TX:​THReshold​ on page 676
​BUS<m>:​UART:​TECHnology​ on page 677
Polarity
Defines the logic levels of the bus. The idle state corresponds to a logic 1. the start bit to
a logic 0. "Idle high" (high=1) is used, for example, for control signals, while "Idle low"
(low=1) is defined for data lines (RS-232).
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​POLarity​ on page 679
Bit rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second. To select a bit rate from list of predefined
values, tap the icon beside the "Bit rate" field. To enter a specific value, open the keypad.
The list of predefined values is also available in the keypad.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​BITRate​ on page 677
​BUS<m>:​UART:​BAUDrate​ on page 678
Data bits
Sets the number of data bits of a word in a range from 5 to 8 bits.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​SSIZe​ on page 679
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Bit order
Defines if a word starts with msb (most significant bit) or lsb (least significant bit). The
display of the decoded signal considers this setting, results are displayed in the specified
order.
Stop bits
Sets the number of stop bits: 1 or 1.5 or 2 stop bits are possible.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​SBIT​ on page 679
Parity
Defines the optional parity bit that is used for error detection.
"None"
No parity bit is used.
"Odd"
The parity bit is set to "1" if the number of data bits set to "1" is even.
"Even"
The parity bit is set to "1" if the number of data bits set to "1" is odd.
"Mark"
The parity bit is always a logic 1.
"Space"
The parity bit is always a logic 0.
"Don't care"
The parity is ignored.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​PARity​ on page 678
Packets
Allows to define packets of several words in the data stream.
"None"
Packets are not considered.
"End word"
Defines a pattern as end condition of a packet, for example, a reserved
word like CR or LF. The bit pattern editor provides frequently used values in the "Predefined values" list below the pattern table.
A new packet starts with the first start bit after the defined end pattern.
"Timeout"
Defines a timeout between a stop bit and the next start bit. Enter the
minimum time that marks the end of a packet.
A new packet starts with the first start bit after the timeout.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​UART:​BITime​ on page 678
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10.4.2.2
UART Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Type
Selects the trigger type for UART analysis.
"Start bit"
Triggers on a start bit. The start bit is the first low bit after a stop bit.
"Packet start"
Triggers on the begin of a data packet. The frame start is configured
with ​"Packets" on page 281.
"Data"
Trigger on a serial pattern at a defined position in the data packet. The
pattern can include several subsequent symbols (data frames).
See ​"Data conditions" on page 283.
"Parity error"
Triggers on a parity error indicating a transmission error. This trigger
type is only available if a parity is configured for the UART bus.
"Break condition"
Triggers if a start bit is not followed by a stop bit, the data line remains
at logic 0 for longer than a UART word.
"Stop error"
Triggers if the stop bit is a logic 0.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​TYPE​ on page 680
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Trigger source
Selects the transmitter or receiver line as trigger source.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​SOURce​ on page 680
Data conditions
Specify the data conditions if the trigger type is set to "Data".
Condition ← Data conditions
Selects the operator for the "Data" pattern: "Equal" or "Not equal".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​FCONdition​ on page 681
Pattern ← Data conditions
Specifies the data pattern to be found on the specified trigger source, in binary or hex
format. Enter the words in msb first bit order. The starting point of the pattern is defined
by ​Position and ​Index min, Index max.
The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern
Editor", on page 255.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​DATA​ on page 681
Position ← Data conditions
Operator for the data position. You can defined an exact position, or a position range.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​DPOPerator​ on page 680
Index min, Index max ← Data conditions
Sets the number of words before the first word of interest. These offset words are ignored.
If the ​Position defines a range, the first and the last word of interest are defined.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​DPOSition​ on page 681
​TRIGger<m>:​UART:​DPTO​ on page 681
10.4.2.3
UART Decode Results (Option R&S RTO-K2)
If the option is installed, the "Decode" function in the "Configuration" tab is available.
Enable "Decode" to display the decoded signal below the waveforms.
Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results, see ​
chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
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Fig. 10-9: Decoded and binary UART signal
blue
red
orange
yellow
violet
=
=
=
=
=
start and stop bits if ok
start error, stop error, parity error
parity bit if ok
word ok
word contains error
The "Decode results" box shows the detailed decoded data for each word.
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Fig. 10-10: Decode results of the UART signal
Table 10-3: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
Source
Line, Tx or Rx
State
Decoding state of the word.
"Insuffcient waveform length" indicates that the word is not completely contained in
the acquisition. Change the horizontal scale, or move the reference point to the left
to get a longer acquisition.
Start
Time of the word start (start bit)
Tx value
Value of the Tx word. The data format is selected below the table.
Rx value
Value of the Rx word. The data format is selected below the table.
SCPI commands:
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​COUNt​ on page 682
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​SOURce​ on page 683
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​STATe​ on page 683
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​STARt​ on page 683
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​TXValue​ on page 682
●
​BUS<m>:​UART:​WORD<n>:​RXValue​ on page 682
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10.5 CAN (Option R&S RTO-K3)
CAN is the Controller Area Network, a bus system used within automotive network architecture.
10.5.1 Reference for CAN
10.5.1.1
CAN Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
Data
Sets the source of the selected data line. Waveform 1 of channel signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus,
a channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​DATA:​SOURce​ on page 684
Type
Selects the CAN-High or CAN-Low line. CAN uses both lines for differential signal transmission.
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If you measure with a differential probe, connect the probe to both CAN-H and CAN-L
lines, and select the data "Type" CAN-H.
With single-ended probes, connect the probe to either CAN_L or CAN_H, and select the
data type accordingly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​TYPE​ on page 685
Threshold
Sets the threshold value for digitization of the signal. If the signal value on the line is
higher than the threshold, the signal state is high (1 or true for the boolean logic). Otherwise, the signal state is considered low (0 or false).
There are three ways to set the threshold:
● "Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
● "Set to 50%"
Executes the measurement of reference levels and sets the thresholds to the middle
reference level of the measured amplitude.
● "Preset"
Selects the default threshold voltage for various signal technologies from a list. The
value is set to "Manual" if the threshold was set with "Set to 50%", or was entered
directly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​DATA:​THReshold​ on page 685
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​TECHnology​ on page 685
Bit rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second. The maximum bit rate for High Speed
CAN is 1 Mbit/s. The bit rate is uniform and fixed for a given CAN bus.
To select a bit rate from the list of predefined values, tap the icon beside the "Bit rate"
field. To enter a specific value, open the keypad. The list of predefined values is also
available in the keypad.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​BITRate​ on page 686
Synchronization: Sample point, Time segments, Jump width
The CAN bus interface uses an asynchronous transmission scheme. The standard
specifies a set of rules to resynchronize the local clock of a CAN node to the message.
In R&S RTO, tha sample point divides the nominal bit period into two distinct time segments. The length of the time segments is defined in time quanta according to network
and node conditions during CAN development.
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CAN (Option R&S RTO-K3)
To specify the bit timing, enter either "Time seg1" and "Time seg2", or directly the "Sample
point". Additionally, set the "Jump width".
"Time seg1,
Time seg2"
Set the number of time quanta before the sample point (Time seg1) and
after the sample point (Time seg2). The "Sample point" percentage
value is adjusted accordingly.
Time seg1 comprises the segments Synch_seg, Prop_seg, and
Phase_seg1 which are specified in the CAN standard. Time seg2
matches Phase_seg2 from the standard.
The maximum sum of Time seg1 and Time seg2 is 25.
"Sample point"
Sets the position of the sample point within the bit in percent ot the
nominal bit time.
The time quanta values "Time seg1, Time seg2" are adjusted accordingly.
"Jump width"
Time segment1 may be lengthened or time segment2 may be shortened due to resynchronization. Resynchronization corrects the phase
error of an edge caused by the drift of the oscillators. The jump width
defines the maximum number of time quanta for phase correction. The
maximum value of the jump width is 4, or Time seg1 - Time seg2 if this
difference is lower than 4.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​T1Segment​ on page 687
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​T2Segment​ on page 687
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​SAMPlepoint​ on page 686
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​JWIDth​ on page 687
10.5.1.2
CAN Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
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Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Trigger type
Selects the trigger type for CAN analysis.
"Start of frame" Triggers on the first edge of the dominant SOF bit (synchronization bit).
"Frame type"
Triggers on a specified frame type (data, remote, error, or overload).
For data and remote frames, also the identifier format is considered.
For details, see:
"Identifier"
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​"Frame type" on page 290
●
​"ID type" on page 290
Sets the trigger to a specific message identifier or an identifier range.
See ​"Identifier setup: Condition, Identifier min, Identifier
max" on page 290.
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CAN (Option R&S RTO-K3)
"Identifier +
Data"
Sets the trigger to a combination of identifier and data condition. The
instrument triggers at the end of the last byte of the specified data pattern.
The identifier conditions are the same as for the "Identifier" trigger type,
see ​"Identifier setup: Condition, Identifier min, Identifier
max" on page 290. Data conditions are set with ​"Data setup: DLC,
Transfer, Condition, Data min, Data max" on page 291.
"Error condition"
Identifies various errors in the frame, see ​"Error conditions: CRC, Bit
stuffing, Form, Ack" on page 292.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​TYPE​ on page 688
Frame type
CAN has four frame types which can be used as trigger condition.
For data and remote frames, the identifier format has to be set with ​ID type.
"Data"
The data frame is the only frame for actual data transmission.
"Remote"
The remote frame initiates the transmission of data by another node.
The frame format is the same as of data frames but without the data
field.
"Error"
When a node recognizes an error, it cancels transmission by sending
an error frame.
The instrument triggers seven bit periods after the end of the error flag
that is marked by a dominant-recessive edge.
The ID type is irrelevant for error frames.
"Overload"
When a node needs a delay between data and/or remote frames, it
sends and overload frame.
The instrument triggers seven bit periods after the end of the overload
flag that is marked by a dominant-recessive edge.
The ID type is irrelevant for overload frames.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​FTYPe​ on page 688
ID type
Selects the format of data and remote frames.
"11 bit"
Standard format. The instrument triggers on the sample point of the IDE
bit.
"29 bit"
Extended format. The instrument triggers on the sample point of the
RTR bit.
"Any"
The ID type is not relevant. If the trigger type is "Identifier + Data", set
the "ID type" to "Any" if you want to trigger only on data.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​ITYPe​ on page 689
Identifier setup: Condition, Identifier min, Identifier max
The identifier setup consists mainly of the condition and one or two identifier patterns.
Additionally, ID type and frame type may qualify the identifier.
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The trigger point depends on the ID type.
"Frame type"
Data frames and remote frames contain an identifier. Select the frame
type to be triggered on, or select "Any" if the frame type is not relevant.
"ID type"
See: ​"ID type" on page 290.
"Condition"
Defines the operator to set a specific identifier ("Equal" or "Not equal")
or an identifier range.
"Identifier min"
Defines the bit pattern of the message identifier. In binary format, use
the following characters: 1; 0; or X (any bit). The use of X is restricted
to the conditions "Equal" and "Not equal".
The length of the bit patterns is restricted to the selected "ID type". The
bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern in any format, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
"Identifier max" The second identifier pattern is required to specify a range with conditions "In range" and "Out of range".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​ICONdition​ on page 689
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​IMIN​ on page 690
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​IMAX​ on page 690
Data setup: DLC, Transfer, Condition, Data min, Data max
The data setup consists of the transfer direction, the number of bytes, the condition, and
one or two data patterns.
To trigger only on data, set the "ID type" of the identifier setup to "Any".
"Transfer"
Sets the byte order (endianess) of the data transfer. With big endian,
the most significant byte is transmitted first. The reverse order, least
significant byte first, is called "Little endian".
"DLC"
Sets the Data Length Code, the number of data bytes to be found. For
"Big Endian" transfer direction, you can trigger on a number of bytes
less than the DLC of the frame, that means, on the beginning of the
data pattern. For "Little Endian" transfer direction, the exact number of
data bytes in the frame must be set.
Example: DLC ≥ 2. The frame has at least two bytes, and you trigger
on the data of the first two bytes.
"Condition"
Sets the operator to set a specific data pattern ("Equal" or "Not equal")
or a data range.
"Data min"
Defines the data pattern. The pattern length is adjusted to the DLC setting (and vice versa), maximum is 8 bytes. Enter the pattern MSB first
and with big endian byte order.
In binary format, use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (any bit). The
bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern in any format, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
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"Data max"
The second data pattern is required to specify a range with conditions
"In range" and "Out of range".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​BORDer​ on page 691
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​DCONdition​ on page 690
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​DMIN​ on page 691
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​DMAX​ on page 691
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​DLCCondition​ on page 692
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​DLC​ on page 692
Error conditions: CRC, Bit stuffing, Form, Ack
If a CAN detects a bit stuffing error, form error, or ack error, it transmits an error flag at
the next bit. The R&S RTO detects errors in the message and triggers on these errors
even if no CAN node sends an error flag.
● CRC error
CAN uses the Cyclic Redundancy Check, which is a complex checksum calculation
method. The transmitter calculates the CRC and sends the result in the CRC
sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the same way. A CRC error occurs
when the calculated result differs from the received value in the CRC sequence.
● Bit stuffing error
The frame segments Start Of Frame, Arbitration Field, Control Field, Data Field and
CRC Sequence are coded by the bit stuffing method. The transmitter automatically
inserts a complementary bit into the bit stream when it detects five consecutive bits
of identical value in the bit stream to be transmitted. A stuff error occurs when the 6th
consecutive equal bit level in the mentioned fields is detected.
● Form error
A form error occurs when a fixed-form bit field contains one or more illegal bits.
● Ack error
An acknowledgement error occurs when the transmitter does not receive an acknowledgment - a dominant bit during the Ack Slot.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​CRCerror​ on page 693
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​BITSterror​ on page 693
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​FORMerror​ on page 693
​TRIGger<m>:​CAN:​ACKerror​ on page 692
10.5.1.3
CAN Decode Results
To display the decoded signal below the waveforms, enable "Decode" on the "Configuration" tab.
Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results using
the setting on the "Display" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
Data is decoded and displayed in the order of its reception. The endianess setting is not
considered for decoding. The "Decode results" box shows the detailed decoded data for
each frame as it is received.
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Fig. 10-11: Decoded and binary CAN signal, and decode results
green brackets [...]
green frame header
cyan frame header
magenta frame header
red frame header
no frame header
yellow
blue
gray-blue
violet
gray
red
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Start and end of frame
Data frame, ok
Remote frame, ok
Overload frame, ok
Frame contains an error
Error frame
Identifier
DLC
data
CRC (checksum)
Error frame
Error occured
Table 10-4: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
State
Overall state of the frame.
"Insuffcient waveform length" indicates that the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition. Change the horizontal scale, or move the reference point to the left
to get a longer acquisition.
Start
Time of frame start
Type
Frame type: Data, Remote, Error, or Overload
ID type
11 bit standard format or 29 bit extended format
ID value (hex)
Identifier value, hexadecimal value
DLC
Data length code, number of data bytes
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Column
Description
Values
Value of the data bytes. The data format is selected below the table. Remote frames
do not transmit data, therefore "- - -" is displayed.
CRC (hex)
Value of the Cyclic Redundance Check (checksum), hexadecimal value
SCPI commands:
10.5.1.4
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FCOunt​ on page 694
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​STATus​ on page 694
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​DATA​ on page 696
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​STARt​ on page 695
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​STOP​ on page 695
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​TYPE​ on page 695
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​ACKState​ on page 696
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​ACKValue​ on page 697
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​BSEPosition​ on page 699
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​STATe​ on page 699
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​VALue​ on page 699
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​CSSTate​ on page 696
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​CSValue​ on page 697
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​DLCState​ on page 696
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​DLCValue​ on page 697
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDSTate​ on page 696
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDTYpe​ on page 698
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDValue​ on page 698
CAN Translation Table
Translation tables are protocol-specific. A CAN protocol translation file contains three
values for each bus node. After a file was loaded, these values are shown in the translation table:
●
"ID Type": address type, 11-bit or 29-bit long
●
"ID Value": decimal address value
●
"ID Name": symbolic label, name of the bus node, specifiing its function in the bus
network. The name can be changed in the table.
If "Translation" is enabled, the names ares visible in the "Decode results" table and
in the display of the decoded signal.
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For general information on the "Translation" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.3, "Protocol Translation
Tables", on page 253.
Example: CAN translation file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# PROTOCOL TRANSLATION TABLE
# ---- Format information for CAN ---# Column order and content:
#
ID Type(11,29), ID Value (address, integer), ID Name (label, string)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Copyright: (c) 2011 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & CO KG.
#
All rights reserved.
#
Muehldorfstr. 15, D-81671 Munich, Germany
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = can
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
# ----Definition---# ID as hex
11,0x64,Temperature
11,0x12,Pressure
11,0x0FC,Left break
11,0x0F0,Right break
# Following ID is provided as integer
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11,17,Brake
# ID Name with comma
29,1,"Accelerator, speed"
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCPI command
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​TRANslation​ on page 700
10.6 LIN (Option R&S RTO-K3)
The Local Interconnect Network (LIN) is a simple, low-cost bus system used within automotive network architectures. LIN is usually a sub-network of a CAN bus. The primary
purpose of LIN is the integration of uncritical sensors and actuators with low bandwidth
requirements. Common applications in a motor vehicle are the control of doors, windows,
wing mirrors, and wipers.
10.6.1 The LIN Protocol
This chapter provides an overview of protocol characteristics, frame format, identifiers
and trigger possibilities. For detailed information, order the LIN specification on http://
www.lin-subbus.org/ (free of charge).
LIN characteristics
Main characteristics of LIN are:
●
Single-wire serial communications protocol, based on the UART byte-word interface
●
Single master, multiple slaves - usually up to 12 nodes
●
Master-controlled communication: master coordinates communication with the LIN
schedule and sends identifier to the slaves
●
Synchronization mechanism for clock recovery by slave nodes without crystal or
ceramics resonator
The R&S RTO supports several versions of the LIN standard: v1.3, v2.0, v2.1 and the
american SAE J2602.
Data transfer
Basic communication concept of LIN:
●
Communication in an active LIN network is always initiated by the master.
●
Master sends a message header including the synchronization break, the synchronization byte, and the message identifier.
●
The identified node sends the message response: one to eight data bytes and one
checksum byte.
●
Header and response form the message frame.
The data is transmitted in bytes using the UART byte-word interface without the parity
bit. Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 bits and a stop bit.
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Fig. 10-12: Structure of a byte field
Data bytes are transmitted LSB first.
The identifier byte consists of 6 bits for the frame identifier and two parity bits. This combination is known as protected identifier.
Trigger
The R&S RTO can trigger on various parts of LIN frames. The data line must be connected to an input channel, triggering on math and reference waveforms is not possible.
You can trigger on:
●
Frame start (synchronization field)
●
Specific slave identifier or identifier range
●
Data pattern in the message
●
Wake up signal
●
Checksum error (error in data), parity error (error in identifier)
10.6.2 Reference for LIN
10.6.2.1
LIN Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
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See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
Data
Sets the source waveform of the data line. Waveform 1 of channel signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus,
a channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​DATA:​SOURce​ on page 701
Threshold
Sets the threshold value for digitization of the signal. If the signal value on the line is
higher than the threshold, the signal state is high. Otherwise, the signal state is considered low if the signal value is below the threshold. The interpretation of HIGH and LOW
is defined by the ​Polarity.
There are three ways to set the threshold:
● "Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
● "Set to 50%"
Executes the measurement of reference levels and sets the thresholds to the middle
reference level of the measured amplitude.
● "Preset"
Selects the default threshold voltage for various signal technologies from a list. The
value is set to "Manual" if the threshold was set with "Set to 50%", or was entered
directly.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​DATA:​THReshold​ on page 701
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​TECHnology​ on page 702
Bit rate
Sets the number of transmitted bits per second. The maximum bit rate for LIN is 20 kbit/
s.
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To select a bit rate from list of predefined values, tap the icon beside the "Bit rate" field.
To enter a specific value, open the keypad. The list of predefined values is also available
in the keypad.
If the "LIN standard" is "J2602", the bit rate is 10417 kbit/s and cannot be changed.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​BITRate​ on page 702
LIN standard
Selects the version of the LIN standard that is used in the DUT. The setting mainly defines
the checksum version used during decoding.
The most common version is LIN 2.x. For mixed networks, or if the standard is unknown,
set the LIN standard to "Auto".
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​STANdard​ on page 703
Polarity
Defines the idle state of the bus. The idle state is the rezessive state and corresponds to
a logic 1.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​POLarity​ on page 702
10.6.2.2
LIN Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
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Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Trigger type
Selects the trigger type for LIN analysis.
"Start of frame
(Sync)"
Triggers on the stop bit of the sync field.
"Identifier"
Sets the trigger to one specific identifier or an identifier range. Enter
only the 6 bit identifier without parity bits, not the protected identifier.
Description of trigger type specific settings: ​"Identifier setup: Condition,
Frame ID min, Frame ID max" on page 300.
"Identifier OR"
Sets the trigger to a combination of up to four identifiers.
Description of trigger type specific settings: ​"Identifier OR setup: Monitor, Frame ID" on page 301
"Identifier +
Data"
Sets the trigger to a combination of identifier and data condition. The
instrument triggers at the end of the last byte of the specified data pattern.
The identifier conditions are the same as for the "Identifier" trigger type,
see ​Identifier setup: Condition, Frame ID min, Frame ID max. Data
conditions are set with ​Data setup: Data length, Transfer, Condition,
Data min, Data max.
"Wakeup
frame"
Triggers after a wakeup frame.
"Error condition"
Identifies various errors in the frame, see ​"Error conditions" on page 302.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​TYPE​ on page 703
Identifier setup: Condition, Frame ID min, Frame ID max
The identifier setup consists of the condition and one or two identifier pattern.
"Condition"
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Defines the operator to set a specific identifier ("Equal" or "Not equal")
or an identifier range.
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"Frame ID min / Defines the bit pattern of the slave identifier. Enter only the 6 bit identifier
without parity bits, not the protected identifier.
Frame ID"
In binary format, use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (don't care).
The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern in any format, see ​
chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
"Frame ID
max"
The second identifier pattern is required to specify a range with conditions "In range" and "Out of range".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​ICONdition​ on page 704
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​IMIN​ on page 705
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​IMAX​ on page 705
Identifier OR setup: Monitor, Frame ID
Sets the trigger to a combination of up to four identifiers. Enter the patterns in the "Frame
ID" fields. In binary and hex format, characters 1, 0, and X (don't care) are allowed. For
each identifier pattern to be triggered on, enable "Monitor".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​IDOR<n>:​ENABle​ on page 708
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​IDOR<n>[:​VALue]​ on page 708
Data setup: Data length, Transfer, Condition, Data min, Data max
The data setup consists of the transfer direction, the number of bytes, the condition, and
one or two data patterns.
"Transfer"
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Sets the byte order (endianess) of the data transfer. With "Big endian",
the data is analyzed and evaluated in the order of reception.
With "Little endian", the instrument reads the complete data and then
compares it with the data pattern in reverse order.
According to the standard, LIN data is transmitted in little endian transfer order.
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"Data length"
Sets the length of the bit pattern to be found, in bytes. For "Big
Endian" transfer direction, you can trigger on a number of bytes less
than the data length of the frame, that means, on the beginning of the
data pattern. For "Little Endian" transfer direction, the exact number of
data bytes in the frame must be set.
Example: Data length ≥ 2 and Transfer = Big endian. The frame has at
least two bytes, and you trigger on the data of the first two bytes.
"Condition"
Sets the operator to set a specific data pattern ("Equal" or "Not equal")
or an data range.
"Data min"
Defines the data pattern. The pattern length is adjusted to the data
length setting (and vice versa), maximum is 8 bytes. Enter the pattern
MSB first and with big endian byte order. The data is compared byte by
byte.
In binary format, use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (don't care).
The use of X is restricted to the operators "Equal" and "Not equal".
"Data max"
The second data pattern is required to specify a range with conditions
"In range" and "Out of range".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​BORDer​ on page 706
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​DLECondition​ on page 707
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​DLENgth​ on page 707
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​DCONdition​ on page 705
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​DMIN​ on page 706
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​DMAX​ on page 706
Error conditions
Triggers if one or more of the following errors occur:
●
●
●
Checksum error
The checksum verifies the correct data transmission. It is the last byte of the frame
response. The checksum includes not only the data but also the protected identifier
(PID). To identify checksum errors caused by data, additional settings are required:
Enter the bit pattern of the slave identifier ("Frame ID"), the number of data bytes
("Data length"), and select "LIN standard". See also: ​"LIN standard" on page 299.
Identifier parity error
Parity bits are the bits 6 and 7 of the identifier. They verify the correct transmission
of the identifier.
Sync error
Synchronization error
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SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​CHKSerror​ on page 709
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​ERRPattern​ on page 709
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​CRCDatalen​ on page 710
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​STANdard​ on page 710
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​IPERror​ on page 709
​TRIGger<m>:​LIN:​SYERror​ on page 708
10.6.2.3
LIN Decode Results
To display the decoded signal below the waveforms, enable "Decode" on the "Configuration" tab.
Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results using
the setting on the "Display" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
Data is decoded and displayed in the order of its reception. The endianess setting is not
considered for decoding. The "Decode results" box shows the detailed decoded data for
each frame as it is received.
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Fig. 10-13: Decoded and binary LIN signal, and decode results
green brackets [...]
green frame header
red frame header
magenta frame header
magenta
blue
yellow
grey
violet
red
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
start and end of frame
frame state is ok
error in frame
wakeup frame
break
sync
frame ID ok
data bytes
parity bit, or checksum ok
error in frame ID, or checksum, or parity bit
Fig. 10-14: Decoded frame with checksum error (frame No 1 in figure above)
Table 10-5: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
State
Overall state of the frame.
Start
Time of frame start
Sync state
Result of synchronization
Frame ID (hex)
Identifier value
Frame PID (hex)
Protected identifier
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Column
Description
Values
Value of the data bytes. The data format is selected below the table.
Chks (hex)
Checksum value
SCPI commands:
10.6.2.4
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FCOunt​ on page 710
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​STATus​ on page 711
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​STARt​ on page 711
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​STOP​ on page 711
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​VERSion​ on page 712
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​SYSTate​ on page 714
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDSTate​ on page 712
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDValue​ on page 713
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​CSSTate​ on page 714
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​CSValue​ on page 715
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​IDPValue​ on page 713
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​DATA​ on page 712
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​STATe​ on page 715
●
​BUS<m>:​LIN:​FRAMe<n>:​BYTE<o>:​VALue​ on page 716
LIN Translation Table
Translation tables are protocol-specific. A CAN protocol translation file contains three
values for each bus node. After a file was loaded, these values are shown in the translation table:
●
"ID Value": decimal address value
●
"Data length": number of data bytes
●
"Checksum version": LIN standard
●
"ID Name": symbolic label, name of the bus node, specifiing its function in the bus
network. The name can be changed in the table.
If "Translation" is enabled, the names ares visible in the "Decode results" table and
in the display of the decoded signal.
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For general information on the "Translation" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.3, "Protocol Translation
Tables", on page 253.
Example: LIN translation file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# PROTOCOL TRANSLATION TABLE
# ---- Format information for LIN ---# Column order and content:
#
ID Value (6 bit,address, integer), Data length (0...8),
#
Chks.Vers. (0,1,2), ID Name (label, string)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Copyright: (c) 2011 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & CO KG.
#
All rights reserved.
#
Muehldorfstr. 15, D-81671 Munich, Germany
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = lin
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
# ----Definition---# ID as hex
0x64,6,2,Temperature
0x12,2,1,Pressure
# ID as integer
17,5,1,Brake
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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SCPI command
●
​BUS<m>:​CAN:​FRAMe<n>:​TRANslation​ on page 700
10.7 FlexRay (Option R&S RTO-K4)
FlexRay is designed for use in safety-related distributed applications in the automotive
industry. It is applied in real-time applications when higher data rates and reliable communication are required. In particular, FlexRay supports x-by-wire applications, for example, steer-by-wire or brake-by-wire.
10.7.1 Reference for FlexRay
10.7.1.1
FlexRay Configuration
Make sure that the tab of the correct serial bus is selected on the left side.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.1, "Configuration - General Settings", on page 251.
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Source type
Sets the type of measurement. The instrument adjusts the thresholds to the selected
source type.
"Single-ended"
For measurements with single-ended probes, or single-ended voltage
measurements with differential probes on the FlexRay bus. Two thresholds have to be defined as absolute voltage levels.
"Differential"
For differential measurements on the FlexRay bus. This is the most
common measurement. Two thresholds have to be defined as differential voltages.
"Logic"
For measurements of the logic signal inside the FlexRay node, between
the communication controller and the bus driver. It is possible to measure simultaneously on a data line and on the enable line. Each line
requires its own threshold.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​SRCType​ on page 717
Data
Sets the input channel of the bus signal, or of the data line in case of a "Logic" source
type. Waveform 1 of channel signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be
used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus, a channel signal is required.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​SOURce<n>​ on page 718
Enable
Sets the input channel of the enable line in case of a "Logic" source type. None, waveform
1 of channel signals, math waveforms, and reference waveforms can be used for decoding. For triggering on a serial bus, a channel signal is required.
The enable line transfers the control signal of the bus guardian to the bus driver.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​SOURce<n>​ on page 718
Thresholds
Threshold values are used for digitization of the signal.
For measurements on a FlexRay bus, two thresholds are required to distinguish the three
possible states of the signal - high, low and idle. If the signal value on the line is higher
than the upper threshold, the signal state is high. Otherwise, the signal state is considered
low if the signal value is below the lower threshold. If the value is between the threshold,
the signal is in idle state.
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Differential
Single-ended
Idle
0
1
0
Bus plus
-A
1
Idle
Threshold high
2.5 V
Threshold low
+A
Threshold high
2.5 V
Threshold low
+2A
Threshold high
Bus minus
BP - BM
-2A
0V
Threshold low
For measurements inside the FlexRay node (with "Source type" = "Logic"), each line
requires its threshold level.
There are two ways to set the thresholds: selection of a predefined value, or direct entry
of a value.
● "Preset"
Selects default threshold voltages from a list. The predefined values depend on the
selected source type. The value is set to "Manual" if at least one threshold was
entered directly.
● "Threshold high" and "Threshold low"
Upper and lower levels for single-ended or differential source types. You can enter
the values directly in the fields.
● "Threshold data" and "Threshold enable"
Levels for data and enable line in case of logic source type. You can enter the values
directly in the fields.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​PRSingle​ on page 719
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​PRDiff​ on page 720
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​PRLogic​ on page 720
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​THReshold<n>​ on page 718
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​THData​ on page 719
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​THENable​ on page 719
Polarity
Selects the wire on which the bus signal is measured in case of "Single-ended" measurement: "Bus plus" or "Bus minus". The setting affects the digitization of the signal.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​POLarity​ on page 721
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Bit rate
Selects the number of transmitted bits per second from a list.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​BITRate​ on page 721
Channel
Selects the FlexRay channel on which the signal is measured, either cahnnel A or channel
B. The setting is considered in the calculation of the frame CRC.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​CHTYpe​ on page 721
Separate header bits
The setting affects the decoding and its display. If enabled, the leading five indicator bits
of the header are decoded as five single bits. Otherwise, the indicator bits are shown as
one word with word length five bits.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​SEHB​ on page 721
10.7.1.2
FlexRay Trigger
The "Events" tab of the "Trigger" dialog box provides the trigger settings for the configured
serial buses.
Make sure that:
●
the trigger sequence is set to "A only"
●
the trigger source is "Serial bus", and the data source(s) of the bus are channel signals
●
the correct serial bus is selected
●
the correct protocol is selected
Trigger type
Selects the trigger type for FlexRay analysis.
"Start of frame" Triggers on the first rising edge after the transmission start sequence
(TSS).
"Identifier
+data"
"Symbol"
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Triggers on the decoded frame content, on header and payload data:
●
Indicator bits, see ​"Indicator bits" on page 311
●
Frame identifier, see ​"Frame ID (min/max)" on page 311
●
Payload length, see ​"Payload length (min/max)" on page 312
●
Cycle count, see ​"Cycle count (min, max), Step" on page 312
●
Data position, see ​"Position, Index (min, max) - Data
setup" on page 313
●
Data bit pattern, see ​"Condition, Data (min, max) - Data
setup" on page 313
Triggers on a symbol or wakeup pattern, see ​"Symbol" on page 313.
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Triggers on one or more errors that are detected in the decoded data,
see ​"Error conditions" on page 314.
"Error condition"
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​TYPE​ on page 722
Indicator bits
Triggers on one or more indicator bits at the beginning of the header segment. Each bit
can be set to 0, 1, or X (don't care).
Startup frame
Synch frame
Null frame
Payload preamble
Reserved bit
Trigger type: "Identifier + data"
Frame ID
Payload
length
Header
CRC
Cycle
count
Payload
Trailer
Indicators
5 bits
"Payload preamble"
Indicates a Network Management Vector in the payload segment. The
NMV allows the host processor to send data directly, without processing
by the communication controller.
"Null frame"
Indicates a frame without usable data.
"Sync frame"
Indicates that the frame is used for synchronization of the FlexRay system. Only sync nodes can send this frame type.
"Startup frame" Indicates a startup frame used for startup of the network. Only specific
start nodes can send this frame type.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​PLPReamble​ on page 723
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​NUFRame​ on page 724
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​SYFRame​ on page 724
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​STFRame​ on page 724
Frame ID (min/max)
The frame ID contains the number of the slot in which the frame is transmitted. Each
frame ID occurs only once during a FlexRay cycle.
Indicators
Frame ID
Payload
length
Header CRC
Cycle
count
5 bits
11 bits
7 bits
11 bits
6 bits
Payload
Trailer
To trigger on a frame ID, you have to define a condition and one or two identifier patterns.
The second identifier pattern is required to specify a range with conditions "In range" and
"Out of range". In binary format, use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (any bit). The use
of X is restricted to the conditions "Equal" and "Not equal". If the identifier is not relevant
for the trigger setup, set it to "Off".
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The maximum length of the pattern is 11 bit. The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the
pattern in any format, see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
Trigger type: "Identifier + data"
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​FCONdition​ on page 725
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​FMIN​ on page 725
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​FMAX​ on page 725
Payload length (min/max)
The payload length contains the number of of words transmitted in the payload segment.
Information is transmitted in 2-byte words, so the number of data bytes in the payload
segment is twice the payload length.
Indicators
Frame ID
Payload
length
Header CRC
Cycle
count
5 bits
11 bits
7 bits
11 bits
6 bits
Payload
Trailer
To trigger on the payload length, you have to define a condition and one or two numbers
of words. The second number is required to specify a range with conditions "In range"
and "Out of range". If the payload length is not relevant for the trigger setup, set it to
"Off".
Trigger type: "Identifier + data"
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​PCONdition​ on page 726
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​PMIN​ on page 726
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​PMAX​ on page 726
Cycle count (min, max), Step
The cycle count contains the number of the current FlexRay cycle.
Indicators
Frame ID
Payload
length
Header CRC
Cycle
count
5 bits
11 bits
7 bits
11 bits
6 bits
Payload
Trailer
To trigger on the cycle count, you have to define a condition and one or two numbers. If
the condition is a range ("In range" or "Out of range"), a second number "Cycle count
max" is required.
Additionally, you can define a "Step" to trigger on each n-th cycle inside the given range.
This allows for specific triggering if slot multiplexing is used.
If the cycle count is not relevant for the trigger setup, set it to "Off".
Trigger type: "Identifier + data"
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​CENable​ on page 727
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​CMIN​ on page 727
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​CMAX​ on page 727
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​CSTep​ on page 728
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Position, Index (min, max) - Data setup
Sets the position of the first byte of data bit pattern within the payload segment. You can
define an exact position, or a position range.
Trigger type: "Identifier + data"
"Position"
Operator for the data position. Select "Off", if the position of the required
pattern is not relevant.
"Index"
Sets the number of data bytes to be skipped after start of the payload
segment if "Position" is "Equal" or "Greater or equal". The index 0 is
associated with the first data byte.
"Index min, Index max"
If the "Position" operator defines a range, the indexes of the first and
the last byte are defined between which the required bit pattern may
start.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DPOPerator​ on page 728
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DPOSition​ on page 729
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DPTO​ on page 729
Condition, Data (min, max) - Data setup
Specifies the data bit pattern to be found in the payload segment. The starting point of
the pattern is defined by ​"Position, Index (min, max) - Data setup" on page 313. The
pattern comparision is byte-aligned, and the instrument triggers at the end of a byte.
"Condition"
Sets the operator to set a specific data pattern ("Equal" or "Not equal")
or a data range.
"Data (min/
max)"
Enter the bytes in msb first bit order. The maximum pattern length is 8
bytes.
In binary format, you can use the following characters: 1; 0; or X (any
bit). The bit pattern editor helps you to enter the pattern in any format,
see ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DCONdition​ on page 729
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DMIN​ on page 730
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​DMAX​ on page 730
Symbol
Triggers on a symbol or on a wakeup pattern.
Trigger type: "Symbol"
"CAS/MTS"
Collision Avoidance Symbol / Media access Test Symbol. These symbols are identical and can be sent in the optional symbol window at the
end of a communication cycle. They are used to avoid collisions during
the system start.
"Wakeup Pattern"
The wakeup pattern is sent to activate the nodes of the system.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​SYMBol​ on page 730
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Error conditions
Triggers on one or more errors in the frame.
Trigger type: "Error conditions"
"FSS"
Error in a Frame Start Sequence. FSS follows the Transmission Start
Sequence TSS at the beginning of each frame.
"BSS"
Error in a Byte Start Sequence. The BSS is transmitted before each
byte.
"FES"
Error in Frame End Sequence. FES indicates the end of each frame.
"Header CRC"
Error in a cyclic redundancy check code of the header data which covers mainly frame ID and payload length.
"Payload CRC" Error in a cyclic redundancy check code of the complete frame.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​FSSerror​ on page 731
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​BSSerror​ on page 730
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​FESerror​ on page 731
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​HCRCerror​ on page 731
​TRIGger<m>:​FLXRay:​PCRCerror​ on page 731
10.7.1.3
FlexRay Decode Results
To display the decoded signal below the waveforms, enable "Decode" on the "Configuration" tab.
Additionally, you can display the binary signal and the detailed decoding results using
the corresponding settings on the "Display" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.2, "Display", on page 251.
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Fig. 10-15: FlexRay - decoded static slot
Data is decoded and displayed in the order of its reception. The "Decode results" box
shows the detailed decoded data for each frame as it is received.
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Fig. 10-16: FlexRay - decoded dynamic slot and results table
Table 10-6: Content of the "Decode results" table
Column
Description
State
Overall state of the frame.
"Insuffcient waveform length" indicates that the frame is not completely contained in
the acquisition. Change the horizontal scale, or move the reference point to the left
to get a longer acquisition.
Frame start
Time of frame start
Type
Frame type: Frame of the static segment, frame of the dynamic segment, wakeup
frame, symbol in the frame
Flags
State of indicator bits
Payload length
Number of data words in the payload segment.
Frame ID
Value of the frame ID (slot number)
HCRC
Value of the header CRC
FCRC
Value of the frame CRC
Cycle count
Number of the current FlexRay cycle
Values
Value of the data bytes. The data format is selected below the table. Wakeup and
symbol frames frames do not transmit data, therefore "- - -" is displayed.
SCPI commands:
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FCOunt​ on page 732
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10.7.1.4
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​DATA​ on page 734
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​ADID​ on page 734
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​CSSTate​ on page 736
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​CSValue​ on page 736
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​CYCount​ on page 735
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​FCSTate​ on page 736
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​FCValue​ on page 737
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​FLAGs​ on page 734
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​PAYLength​ on page 735
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​STATus​ on page 732
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​STARt​ on page 733
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​STOP​ on page 733
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​TYPE​ on page 733
FlexRay Translation Table
Translation tables are protocol-specific. A FlexRay protocol translation file contains three
values for each bus node. After a file was loaded, these values are shown in the translation table:
●
"ID Value": number of the slot in which the frame is transmitted
●
"Base cycle":
●
"Repetition":
●
"ID Name": symbolic label, name of the bus node, specifiing its function in the bus
network. The name can be changed in the table.
If "Translation" is enabled, the names ares visible in the "Decode results" table and
in the display of the decoded signal.
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For general information on the "Translation" tab, see ​chapter 10.1.3, "Protocol Translation
Tables", on page 253.
Example: FlexRay translation file
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# PROTOCOL TRANSLATION TABLE
# ---- Format information for FlexRay ---# Column order and content:
#
ID Value (12 bit, slot number, integer), Base cycle (0,1,...,63),
#
Repetition (1,...,64), ID Name (label, string)
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------# Copyright: (c) 2011 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & CO KG.
#
All rights reserved.
#
Muehldorfstr. 15, D-81671 Munich, Germany
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
@FILE_VERSION = 1.0
@PROTOCOL_NAME = flexray
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------#
# ----Definition---# ID as hex
0x64,6,35,Temperature
0x12,2,21,Pressure
# ID as integer
17,0,1,Brake
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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SCPI command
●
​BUS<m>:​FLXRay:​FRAMe<n>:​TRANslation​ on page 738
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11 Mixed Signal Option (MSO, R&S RTO-B1)
The Mixed Signal Option R&S RTO-B1 adds logic analyzer functions to the classical
oscilloscope functions. Using the MSO option, you can analyze and debug embedded
systems with mixed-signal designs that use analog signals and correlated digital signals
simultaneously.
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About MSO
11.1 About MSO
The Mixed Signal Option provides 16 digital channels grouped in two logic probes (pods)
with 8 channels each. The instrument ensures that analog and digital waveforms are timealigned and synchronized so that critical timing interactions between analog and digital
signals can be displayed and tested. The automatic alignment compensates the skew
between the probe connectors of the analog channels and the probe boxes of the digital
channels.
If digital channels are active, the equivalent-time sampling is not available.
Digital channels and parallel buses
Each digital channel can be displayed on the screen and used as trigger source. Digital
channels may be grouped and displayed as a parallel bus, all 16 digital channels are
available for bus assigment. Up to four parallel buses can be configured; and two bus
types are supported: clocked bus and unclocked bus. The clocked bus is available only
on parallel bus 1 and 2.
You can display each bus and use it as trigger source, as well. For each active parallel
bus, the corresponding signal icon appears on the signal bar and indicates the assigned
digital channels. Individual digital channels do not have a signal icon.
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Display
You can adjust the display of the parallel bus signals and the individual digital channels
to optimize the analysis of bus data:
●
show the digital channels which are assigned to the bus, and drag them to the optimal
position
●
show the decoded bus signal with bus values
●
alternatively, show the bus values as amplitudes, similar to an analog waveform
(quasi-analog waveform)
Each parallel bus is shown in a separate diagram, and the diagrams can be minimized
and arranged as usual. The signal icon indicates the activities on the digital channels.
See also: ​chapter 11.2.3, "Adjusting the Display of Digital Channels and Parallel
Buses", on page 325.
The display update rate of the oscilloscope is adapted to the visual perception of human
eyes, and it is slower than the acquisition rate. All analog and digital waveforms that are
acquired during one display update cycle are overlapped and displayed at once. Thus
you can see the cumulative occurance of binary states and edge transitions on the screen
at once. Bus signals are not overlapped. To access and analyze one or more specific
acquisitions, you can use the History Viewer in the common way.
Furthermore, you can zoom in digital signals and bus signal in the same way as in analog
waveforms.
See also:
●
​chapter 4.4, "History", on page 114
●
​chapter 4.2, "Zoom", on page 101
Trigger possibilities
For digital trigger sources are all trigger types useful that require only one trigger level as
trigger condition. This level is the logical threshold. Possible trigger sources are the individual digital channels, parallel bus signals, or any logical combination of digital channels.
The following trigger types are available:
Table 11-1: Trigger types and digital trigger sources
Trigger type
Trigger source is
Digital channel
Logic combination of
digital channels
Edge
X
X
Width
X
X
Timeout
X
X
Data2Clock
X
Parallel bus
X
State
X
X
Pattern (with holdoff)
X
X
Serial Pattern
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For details, see: ​chapter 11.3.4, "Trigger Settings for Digital Signals and Parallel
Buses", on page 332.
Additionally, you can define trigger holdoff conditions in the "Sequence" tab. See also: ​
"Holdoff mode" on page 81.
Automatic Measurements
Several automatic time measurements can be performed on digital signals. As for all
measurements, the instruments analyzes the type of the measurement source and displays only measurement types appropriate for the selected measurement source. If a
digital channel is selected as measurement source, the positive pulse measurement
(width of a positive pulse) is set as default measurement.
Statistical evaluation of time measurements and limit tests are also possible. The result
of the limit test can initiate an action, for example, stopping the acquisition or saving the
waveform.
Eye/Jitter measurements and histogram measurements on digital sources are not available.
Fig. 11-1: Automatic measurements for digital signals
See also: ​"Time Measurements" on page 134.
Cursor Measurements
Cursor measurements can be performed on digital signals and unclocked parallel buses.
In this case, only vertical cursor lines are used, and the corresponding time measurement
results are displayed: t1, t1, Δt, and 1/Δt. The instrument decodes the bus value at the
cursor position and indicates it as Y-value.
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Mathematics
A parallel bus that is displayed as quasi-analog waveform can be analyzed with FFT. To
configure the FFT, use the "Advanced" mode and the formula editor.
Data export
The data of digital channels and parallel buses can be saved in the same way as analog
waveform data. One source waveform per file can be saved.
See also:
●
See also: ​chapter 12.1.2, "Saving and Loading Waveform Data", on page 345
●
​chapter 12.2.1.3, "Waveforms", on page 351
11.2 Analyzing Digital Signals
This chapter provides step-by-step procedures for working with the MSO R&S RTO-B1
option.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Using Digital Probes..............................................................................................324
Configuring Digital Channels and Parallel Buses..................................................325
Adjusting the Display of Digital Channels and Parallel Buses..............................325
Setting the Logical Thresholds..............................................................................326
Triggering on Digital Signals and Parallel Buses..................................................326
Performing Measurements on Digital Signals.......................................................327
11.2.1 Using Digital Probes
Consider the following guidelines for good probing practices:
●
The ground lead from each digital channel group (D15–D8 and D7–D0) should be
attached to the ground of the device under test if any channel within the group is being
used for data capture. The ground lead improves signal fidelity to the oscilloscope,
ensuring accurate measurements.
●
For high-speed timing measurements (rise time < 3 ns), each digital channel probe
should use its own ground.
1. Connect the digital probe cable to any of the MSO connectors on the rear panel of
the instrument as shown on the Documentation Card delivered with the digital probe.
2. Connect the ground lead on each set of channels (each pod) with a probe grabber.
3. Connect a grabber to one of the probe leads.
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4. Connect the grabber to a node in the circuit you want to test.
5. For high-speed signals, connect a ground lead to the probe lead, and connect the
ground lead to ground in the device under test.
6. Repeat these steps until you have connected all points of interest.
11.2.2 Configuring Digital Channels and Parallel Buses
The configuration of a parallel bus includes the selection and setup of the digital channels,
the configuration of the bus display, and, if required, the clock configuration.
For a detailed description of the settings, see ​chapter 11.3.1, "MSO Configuration", on page 328.
1. On the "Protocol" menu, tap "Parallel buses", or tap "Digital Channels" on the "Vertical" menu
2. In the "State" column of the "Signal selection" table, enable the digital channels to be
displayed and included in the bus.
To enable or disable all channels of a pod at once, tap "D0-D7" or "D8-D15".
Enabling one or more channels also enables the display of the signals - "Show dig.
signals", and enables the parallel bus.
The digital signals are shown in the diagram, and the signal icon of the parallel bus
appears on the signal bar. Using this bus icon, you can minimize, arrange, and switch
off the bus together with its channels in the same way as you do with a waveform.
3. Optionally, you can enter a "Label" for each digital channel, and a "Deskew" value to
time-align the channel.
4. Set the logical thresholds as described in ​chapter 11.2.4, "Setting the Logical Thresholds", on page 326.
5. If the bus has a clock signal, enable "Bus clocked" and select the "Clock source" and
"Clock slope".
Now the configuration of the parallel bus is completed.
11.2.3 Adjusting the Display of Digital Channels and Parallel Buses
The display of digital channels and parallel buses is flexible, you can adjust it to your
needs by combining the following settings:
1. Enable "Show bus" if you want to display the bus signal in the diagram. Under "Bus
representation", select if you want to display the decoded bus signal with bus values
("Comb"), or show the bus values as amplitudes, similar to an analog waveform
("Analog").
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2. Check the signal icon of the bus to monitor the activities on the digital channels even
if they are not displayed in the diagram:
●
●
●
blue: channel is low
green: channel is high
gray: channel state is changing
3. In the diagram, you can change the display order of the digital channels by dragging
the individual channels to the required position.
4. To adjust the line height and vertical position of all digital channels at once, tap one
of the digital channels and turn the vertical SCALE and POSITION rotary knobs.
5. If the bus signal is displayed as quasi-analog waveform, you can doble-tap the waveform to open the "Parallel buses" dialog box.
6. To switch off the display of the digital channels, disable "Show signals".
11.2.4 Setting the Logical Thresholds
For a detailed description of the settings, see ​"Threshold setup" on page 331.
1. On the "Vertical" menu, tap "Digital Channels", or
on the "Protocol" menu, tap "Parallel buses".
2. To set the thresholds, use one of the following ways:
●
●
●
Tap "Technology" and select a predefined value according to technology definition.
The value is applied to all "Threshold" fields.
Enter a user-defined value directly in the "Threshold" fields. One threshold value
is used for a group of four digital channels. For each channel group, a different
threshold can be set.
Enable "Coupling" and set one threshold value for all digital channels, either a
"Technology" value or a user-defined value.
3. Set the "Hysteresis" for each threshold to avoid the change of signal states due to
noise.
11.2.5 Triggering on Digital Signals and Parallel Buses
For a detailed description of the settings, see ​chapter 11.3.4, "Trigger Settings for Digital
Signals and Parallel Buses", on page 332.
1. Press the TRIGGER key and select the "Events" tab.
2. Select the trigger "Source":
●
one of the digital channels "D0" ... "D15"
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●
a logic combination of digital channels: "Logic"
●
one of the parallel buses "Par. bus1" ... "Par. bus4"
3. Select the trigger "Type".
4. Under "Trigger type dependent settings", configure the trigger.
5. For trigger source "Logic", enter the logical expression of the digital channel combination. Tap and hold the "Logical expression" field until the "Qualification Editor"
opens. It provides all logic operators that can be used in the expression.
11.2.6 Performing Measurements on Digital Signals
Measurements on digital signals are performed in the same way as measurements on
analog waveforms. For digital signals, only time measurements are useful. If a digital
channel is selected as measurement source, the instrument sets the positive pulse measurement as main measurement and provides only the appropriate time measurement
types for selection.
For detailed procedures, see:
●
​chapter 5.2.2.1, "Starting an Automatic Measurement", on page 142
●
​chapter 5.2.2.2, "Taking a Default Measurement", on page 143
●
​chapter 5.2.2.3, "Configuring Measurements", on page 143
●
​chapter 5.2.2.7, "Using Gate Areas", on page 150
●
​chapter 5.2.2.9, "Compiling Measurement Statistics", on page 151
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11.3 Reference for MSO
●
●
●
●
●
MSO Configuration................................................................................................328
MSO Display.........................................................................................................332
MSO Digital Probes...............................................................................................332
Trigger Settings for Digital Signals and Parallel Buses.........................................332
MSO Resolution....................................................................................................342
11.3.1 MSO Configuration
Access: "Protocol" menu > "Parallel buses" or "Vertical" menu > "Digital Channels"
Digital channels can be displayed individually, and they can be grouped and displayed
as a parallel bus. You can configure and enable up to 4 buses with a maximum of 16
digital channels associated to each bus.
If you have configured several parallel buses and you want to modify the configuration
or display settings, make sure that the tab of the correct bus is selected on the left side.
Enable bus..................................................................................................................329
Show dig. signals........................................................................................................329
Show bus....................................................................................................................329
Bus representation......................................................................................................329
Bus clocked.................................................................................................................330
Signal selection...........................................................................................................330
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└ D0-D7, D8-D15.............................................................................................331
└ Deskew offset...............................................................................................331
Threshold setup..........................................................................................................331
Enable bus
Enables the selected parallel bus. The corresponding signal icon appears on the signal
bar.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​STATe​ on page 740
Show dig. signals
If enabled, the selected digital channels are shown in the diagram. Each channel is displayed as a logic signal.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​DISPlay:​SHDI​ on page 740
Show bus
If enabled, the resulting bus signal and bus values are displayed in the diagram. Select
the presentation type for the bus signal with ​Bus representation.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​DISPlay:​SHBU​ on page 741
Bus representation
Defines how the parallel bus is displayed:
"Comb"
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Displays the decoded bus signal with bus values. When at least one
digital channel changes its value, the bus value changes too.
329
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Reference for MSO
"Analog"
Displays the bus values as signal amplitudes, similar to an analog
waveform. Thus, a quasi-analog waveform is created.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​DISPlay:​BTYP​ on page 741
Bus clocked
Enable this option, if the bus is a clocked bus - one of the digital channels serves as clock
of the bus.
For an unclocked bus, the logical state of the bus is determined for each sample. For a
clocked bus, the logical state is determined only at the specified clock edges.
"Clock source"
Selects the digital channel used as clock.
"Clock slope"
Selects the slope of the clock signal at which all digital channels of the
bus are analyzed.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​CLOCk​ on page 741
Signal selection
In the table, you select and configure the digital channels that are used in the selected
bus.
"State"
Enables a digital channel, and assigns it to the bus.
"Label"
You can enter a name for each digital channel. The name is displayed
in the diagram.
"Deskew"
Sets an individual delay for each digital channel to time-align it with
other digital channels. The deskew value compensates delays that are
known from the circuit specifics or caused by the different length of
cables. The skew between the probe boxes of the digital channels and
the probe connectors of the analog channels is automatically aligned
by the instrument. You can also set a value that is applied to all digital
channels, see ​"Deskew offset" on page 331.
SCPI command:
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​BIT<n>​ on page 740
​DIGital<m>:​LABel​ on page 738
​DIGital<m>:​DESKew​ on page 739
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Reference for MSO
D0-D7, D8-D15 ← Signal selection
The buttons select or deselect all digital channels of a pod at once.
Deskew offset ← Signal selection
Sets a general delay for all digital channels. The resulting deskew of a digital channel is
the sum of the general "Deskew offset" and the individual "Deskew".
Threshold setup
Sets the logical threshold. For each sample, the instrument compares the input voltage
with the threshold value. If the input voltage is above the threshold, the signal state "1"
is stored. Otherwise, the signal state "0" is stored if the input voltage is below the threshold.
To avoid the change of signal states due to noise, a hysteresis is considered.
Threshold
Hysteresis
Logic 0
Logic 1
Logic 0
One threshold value is used for a group of four digital channels. For each channel group,
a different threshold and hysteresis can be set. The range of threshold levels and the
minimum voltage swing are given in the data sheet.
There are several ways to set the threshold:
"Threshold"
Enter the value directly in the field.
"Technology"
Selects the threshold voltage for various types of integrated circuits
from a list and applies it to all digital channels. The value is set to "Manual" if a user-defined threshold was entered directly.
"Coupling"
Sets the threshold for all digital channels to the same value. Also the
hysteresis value is applied to all digital channels.
"Hysteresis"
Defines the size of the hysteresis. Three values are available:
●
Normal: the instrument sets a small value suitable for the signal and
its settings. Use this setting for clean signals.
●
Maximum: the instrument sets the maximum value that is possible
and useful for the signal and its settings. Use this setting for noisy
signals.
●
Robust: sets different hysteresis values for falling and rising edges
to avoid an undefined state of the trigger system. Use this setting
for very noisy signals. For details, see ​"Robust trigger" on page 61.
SCPI command:
​DIGital<m>:​THReshold​ on page 739
​BUS<m>:​PARallel:​THCoupling​ on page 742
​DIGital<m>:​HYSTeresis​ on page 739
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Reference for MSO
11.3.2 MSO Display
Access: "Protocol" menu > "Parallel buses" > "Display" tab
The Display tab provides settings for clocked buses and analog bus display.
Show decode table
The setting is relevant only for clocked buses to check the data words. If enabled, a results
box opens with decoded values of the bus signal and its time. Each clock edge corresponds to one row in the table. Below the table, you can select the data format for the
bus values
Upper / Lower reference voltage
Set the upper and lower level for the quasi-analog waveform of the bus signal. The highest
bus value corresponds to the upper voltage level, and the lowest bus value to the lower
voltage level.
See also: ​"Bus representation" on page 329
11.3.3 MSO Digital Probes
Access: "Protocol" menu > "Parallel buses" > "Digital Probes" tab
Logic probes provided by R&S are recognized by the instrument. The fields show the
characteristics of each recognized probe (pod) for information. "Write EEPROM" and
"Flash it" are service functions.
11.3.4 Trigger Settings for Digital Signals and Parallel Buses
Depending on the selected source, the instrument provides the appropriate trigger types
and the corresponding trigger settings.
The settings in the "Event" tab are:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
11.3.4.1
Basic Trigger Settings...........................................................................................332
Edge......................................................................................................................333
Width.....................................................................................................................334
Timeout.................................................................................................................336
Data2Clock............................................................................................................337
State......................................................................................................................338
Pattern...................................................................................................................339
Serial Pattern........................................................................................................341
Basic Trigger Settings
The basic trigger settings for MSO are the trigger source and the trigger type. They are
selected in the upper part of the "Trigger" dialog box.
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Make sure that the trigger sequence is set to "A only".
Additionally, you can define trigger holdoff conditions in the "Sequence" tab. See also: ​
"Holdoff mode" on page 81.
Source
If the Mixed Signal Option is installed, the variety of trigger sources of the A-event setup
is enhanced with specific digital trigger sources. You can select as trigger source:
●
one of the digital channels "D0" ... "D15"
●
a logic combination of digital channels: "Logic"
●
one of the parallel buses "Par. bus1" ... "Par. bus4"
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​SOURce​ on page 453
Type
Depending on the selected source, the instrument provides the appropriate trigger types
and the corresponding trigger settings. For mixed signal analysis, the following trigger
types are available:
● ​Edge, see page 333
● ​Width, see page 334
● ​Timeout, see page 336
● ​Data2Clock, see page 337
● ​State, see page 338
● ​Pattern, see page 339
● ​Serial Pattern, see page 341
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TYPE​ on page 743
11.3.4.2
Edge
Using the edge trigger, you can also trigger on a single digital channel (a logic bit), and
a logical combination of digital channels.
Depending on the selected trigger source, different trigger settings are available. The
trigger level is already set - in MSO the logical threshold is used as trigger level.
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Reference for MSO
Fig. 11-2: Edge trigger settings for trigger source = logical combination of digital channels (Logic)
Slope
Defines the edge - the state transition - of the signal.
"Rising"
Means a 0 to 1 transition of the state.
"Falling"
Means a 1 to 0 transition of the state.
"Either"
Triggers on any activity on the selected trigger source.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​EDGE:​SLOPe​ on page 745
Logical expression
Defines a logical combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". If the "Slope" is rising, the trigger occurs when the logical expression
comes true. If the "Slope" is falling, the trigger occurs when the logical expression comes
false.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​EDGE:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
11.3.4.3
Width
The width trigger detects positive and/or negative pulses of a pulse width (duration) inside
or outside of a defined time limit. It can trigger on a single digital channel or a logical
combination of digital channels.
The instrument triggers at the end of the detected pulse.
Fig. 11-3: Width trigger settings for trigger source = logical combination of digital channels
Range
Selects how the range of a pulse width is defined:
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Reference for MSO
"Within"
Triggers on pulses inside a given time range. The time limit is defined
by Width ± Delta.
"Outside"
Triggers on pulses shorter or longer than a given time range. The time
limit definition is the same as for "Within" range.
"Shorter"
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given "Width".
"Longer"
Triggers on pulses longer than the given "Width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​WIDTh:​RANGe​ on page 745
Width
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the width defines the center of a range which is
defined by the limits "±Delta".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​WIDTh:​WIDTh​ on page 746
±Delta
Defines a range around the given width value.
The combination "Range" = Within and "±Delta" = 0 triggers on pulses with a pulse width
that equals "Width".
The combination "Range" = Outside and "±Delta" = 0 means to trigger on pulse widths
≠ "Width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​WIDTh:​DELTa​ on page 746
Polarity
Sets the polarity of a pulse to "Positive", "Negative", or "Both".
When triggering on a positive pulse, the trigger event occurs on the high to low transition
of the pulse if the timing condition is true. When triggering on a negative pulse, the trigger
event occurs on the low to high transition of the pulse if the timing condition is true.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​WIDTh:​POLarity​ on page 745
Logical expression
Defines a logical combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". As long as the digital signals match the logical expression (true), the
pulse is positive. Otherwise, the pulse is negative.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​WIDTh:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
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11.3.4.4
Timeout
The timeout trigger event checks if the trigger source signal stays above or below the
threshold voltage for a specified time lapse. In other words, the event occurs if the state
condition remains unchanged for the specified time.
You can use the timeout trigger on a single digital channel, or a logical combination of
digital channels.
Fig. 11-4: Timeout trigger settings for trigger source = logical combination of digital channels
Range
Sets the state condition:
"Stays high"
The level of a digital channel stays above the threshold, or the logical
expression for "Logic" trigger source is true.
"Stays low"
The level of a digital channel stays below the threshold, or the logical
expression for "Logic" trigger source is false.
"High or low"
The signal state remains unchanged.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​RANGe​ on page 747
Time
Defines the time limit for the timeout at which the instrument triggers.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​TIME​ on page 747
Logical expression
Defines a logic combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". The "Qualification Editor" supports the entry of the expression.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
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11.3.4.5
Data2Clock
The Data2Clock trigger event occurs when the state of the trigger source signal changes
inside a given time before the clock edge (setup time) or after the clock edge (hold time).
This trigger type is also known as setup/hold trigger. The trigger event occurs at the clock
edge for which the setup and/or hold time was violated.
With Data2Clock trigger, you can trigger on a single digital channel, or a parallel bus to
check several digital channels simultaneously. The clock signal is connected to one of
the digital channels.
Fig. 11-5: Data2clock trigger settings
Clock source
Selects the digital channel of the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​CSOurce:​VALue​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
Clock edge
Sets the edge of the clock signal. The crossing of the clock edge and the logical threshold
defines the time reference point for the setup and hold time measurement.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ on page 748
Setup time
Sets the minimum time before the clock edge while data should be stable and not change
its state.
The setup time can be negative. In this case, the setup interval starts after the clock edge,
and the hold time starts after the setup time has expired. Thus, the hold time is always
positive. If you change the negative setup time, the hold time is adjusted by the instrument.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​STIMe​ on page 748
Hold time
Sets the minimum time after the clock edge while data should be stable and not change
its state.
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The hold time can be negative. In this case, the hold time ends before the clock edge,
and the setup interval ends when the hold interval starts. Thus, the setup time is always
positive. If you change the negative hold time, the setup time is adjusted by the instrument.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​HTIMe​ on page 748
11.3.4.6
State
The state trigger detects the logical state of several logically combined digital channels
at a given clock edge. The trigger source is a logical combination of digital channels or a
parallel bus. The trigger occurs at the clock edge at which the state condition is true.
Fig. 11-6: State trigger settings for trigger source = parallel bus
Clock source
Selects the digital channel of the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​CSOurce:​VALue​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
Clock edge
Sets the edge of the clock signal. The crossing of the clock edge and the logical threshold
defines the time at which the logical states and the bus value are analyzed.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ on page 749
Channel states
For each digital channel that is used in the bus, set the required state: 1, 0, or X (don't
care).
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​BIT<n>​ on page 749
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Reference for MSO
Logical expression
Defines a logic combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". The "Qualification Editor" supports the entry of the expression.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
11.3.4.7
Pattern
The pattern trigger identifies a logical state of several logically combined digital channels
(pattern) and a time limitation (holdoff). The pattern definition is defined by the logical
expression, if "Logic" is used for trigger source. For a parallel bus trigger source, the
pattern is defined by setting the state of each digital channel.
The timing starts when the pattern comes true. The decision level is the logical threshold.
Fig. 11-7: Pattern trigger settings for trigger source = parallel bus and timeout
Channel states
For each digital channel that is used in the bus, set the required state: 1, 0, or X (don't
care).
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​BIT<n>​ on page 749
Logical expression
Defines a logic combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". The "Qualification Editor" supports the entry of the expression.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
Timing mode: Off, Timeout, Width
Sets the mode of the timing condition.
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Reference for MSO
"Off"
No timing condition, only the logical pattern condition is relevant.
"Timeout"
Defines a minimum time qualification to avoid triggering on unstable or
transitional conditions. Even in best-designed systems, there are slight
delays between the signal when digital signals change states. This
means that there are always transitional state conditions when signals
are switching.
See ​"Timeout settings" on page 340 for a description of the settings.
The trigger event occurs when the pattern stays unchanged for the
specified time.
"Width"
Sets a pulse width as timing condition, see ​"Width settings" on page 340. The pulse starts when the pattern comes true, and
the trigger event occurs when the pattern comes false during the specified time limit.
Using this mode, you can, for example, trigger exclusively on unstable
conditions - if the pattern is present for less than a specified time.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​MODE​ on page 750
Timeout settings
The timeout settings "Range" and "Time" appear if the timing mode is set to "Timeout".
Range ← Timeout settings
Sets the state condition:
"Stays high"
The pattern stays true for the specified time.
"Stays low"
The pattern stays false for the specified time.
"High or low"
The pattern remains unchanged for the specified time.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​TIMeout:​MODE​ on page 750
Time ← Timeout settings
Defines the time limit for the timeout at which the instrument triggers.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​TIMeout[:​TIME]​ on page 750
Width settings
The width settings "Range", "Width" and "±Delta" appear if the timing mode is set to
"Width".
Range ← Width settings
Selects how the range of a pulse width is defined:
"Within"
Triggers when the pattern comes false inside a given time range. The
time limit is defined by Width ± Delta.
"Outside"
Triggers when the pattern comes false before or after the given time
range. The time limit definition is the same as for "Within" range.
"Shorter"
Triggers when the pattern comes false before the given "Width" has
expired.
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"Longer"
Triggers when the pattern comes false after the given "Width" has
expired..
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​RANGe​ on page 751
Width ← Width settings
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the width defines the maximum and minimum time
limit, respectively.
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the width defines the center of a range which is
defined by the limits "±Delta".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​WIDTh[:​WIDTh]​ on page 751
±Delta ← Width settings
Defines a range around the given width value.
The combination "Range" = Within and "±Delta" = 0 triggers on pulses with a pulse width
that equals "Width".
The combination "Range" = Outside and "±Delta" = 0 means to trigger on pulse widths
≠ "Width".
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​DELTa​ on page 752
11.3.4.8
Serial Pattern
The serial pattern trigger identifies a serial bit string trigger on a single digital channel, or
for a logical combination of digital channels. The trigger requires a clocked bus; the bits
are read at the specified clock edge. The trigger event occurs at the last clock edge of
the serial bit string.
This trigger type allows you to trigger on specific address or data transmissions in serial
input and output signals.
Fig. 11-8: Serial pattern trigger settings for trigger source = logical combination of digital channels
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Reference for MSO
Clock edge
Sets the edge of the clock signal. The bit value is determined at the crossing of the clock
edge and the logical threshold.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ on page 752
Clock source
Selects the digital channel of the clock signal.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​CSOurce:​VALue​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​ on page 744
Logical expression
Defines a logic combination of several digital channels as trigger condition if "Logic" is
set for "Source". The "Qualification Editor" supports the entry of the expression.
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​TIMeout:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​STATe:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​PATTern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​EXPRession[:​DEFine]​ on page 744
Pattern
Defines the serial bit string on which to trigger. Touch and hold the "Pattern" field to open
the "Bit Pattern Editor" where you can enter the pattern in various formats. The pattern
has to be defined exactly, X (don't care) is not supported in binary format.
See also: ​chapter 10.1.4, "Bit Pattern Editor", on page 255
SCPI command:
​TRIGger<m>:​PARallel:​SPATtern:​PATTern​ on page 752
11.3.5 MSO Resolution
Access: RES / REC LEN key
If an MSO option is installed and at least one digital channel is active, additional information appears on the "Resolution" tab of the "Horizontal" dialog box.
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Reference for MSO
Dig. resolution, Dig. record length
The parameter show the current digital record length used by each digital channel, and
the digital resolution of the digital channels. The maximum digital record length is always
200 MSa per digital channel. This number is independent of additionally installed memory.
If ​Auto adjustment (Time scale dependency) is enabled, the digital record length is the
same as the record length of analog channels. If "Auto adjustment" is disabled, increasing
the acquisition time increases the digital record length independently of the record length
of analog channels until the maximum is reached, and the digital resolution remains constant. Further increase of the acquisition time impairs the digital resolution, it increases,
too.
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Data and Results Management
Saving, Loading and Printing Data
12 Data and Results Management
This chapter describes how to manage measurement settings and results and other data.
●
●
●
Saving, Loading and Printing Data........................................................................344
Reference for FILE Settings..................................................................................349
Reference for PRINT Settings...............................................................................357
12.1 Saving, Loading and Printing Data
After a measurement with the R&S RTO you would usually like to save the results for
further evaluation or comparison. You can save the results of a measurement as a data
file containing the waveform data, or print or save the current measurement display to a
printer or a file. In order to repeat measurements at different times or perform similar
measurements with different test data, it is useful to save the used instrument settings
and load them again later. These tasks are described here.
●
●
●
●
●
Configuring Printer Output and Printing................................................................344
Saving and Loading Waveform Data....................................................................345
Saving and Loading Settings................................................................................346
Restoring Settings.................................................................................................348
Defining Default File Paths and Names................................................................349
12.1.1 Configuring Printer Output and Printing
If you want to store the graphical results of the measurement, you can either print the
current display on a printer or save an image to a file.
You can configure the format and colors used for printing, inverse the colors, and edit the
image. A preview of the current print image is shown for reference.
1. Press the PRINT key to display the "Print" dialog box.
2. Tap the printer selection box to select the printer to use for printing.
3. Tap the "Color" selection box to configure black and white or color images.
4. Tap the "Orientation" selection box to select the paper format.
5. To enhance waveform printouts on white paper, enable the "Inverse color" option.
6. If the current display is likely to have changed since you opened the "Print" dialog
box (e.g. due to a running measurement), tap the "Update image" button.
The current print image is updated.
7. In order to zoom into the image preview, enable the "Zoom" option beneath the preview area.
The image is enlarged and scrollbars are displayed to scroll through the print image.
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Saving, Loading and Printing Data
8. To edit the image in an external application and process it further from there, tap the
"Edit image" button.
The print image is opened in the Paint application. Edit the image as necessary, and
store or print the file from there. Alternatively, save the file and close the Paint application to return to the "Print" dialog. Then print or save the (edited) image as described
below. The changes are not shown in the preview.
9. To print the image to the selected printer, tap the "Print" button.
10. To save the print image to the specified file, tap the "Save" button.
To save it to a different file, tap the "Save As" button and select the file in the file
selection dialog box.
12.1.2 Saving and Loading Waveform Data
You can save the data of one channel, math or reference waveform to an .xml, .csv,
or .bin file. Files in .bin format can be reloaded to the R&S RTO as reference waveforms.
Not only a complete waveform can be saved, but also a part of it, limited by a previously
defined zoom, cursor lines, measurement gate or user-defined time values.
It is also possible to save history data to file. Furthermore, you can save a "live record"
of a running RUN Nx SINGLE acquisition to one data file.
Saving the data of several waveform sources into one file is not supported.
For details on waveform save/recall settings, see ​chapter 12.2.1.3, "Waveforms", on page 351.
●
​"To save a waveform or a part of a waveform to a file" on page 345
●
​"To export waveform data of a running acquisition" on page 346
●
​"To save the history" on page 117
●
​"To load waveform data as a reference waveform" on page 346
To save a waveform or a part of a waveform to a file
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Waveform" tab.
4. Tap the source icon to select the waveform you want to save.
5. In the "Scope" list, select the part of the waveform record to be saved.
Zoom, cursor and gate segments require the according setup for the selected waveform before saving. For "Manual", enter the "Start" and "Stop" time of the section.
6. Check the file name under "Save to file" and change it, if needed. Usually, autonaming
is used.
7. Tap "Save" to save the waveform data to the specified file.
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Tap "Save As" to save the waveform data to a different file or file type. Select the file
from the file selection dialog box.
To export waveform data of a running acquisition
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Waveform" tab.
4. Tap the source icon to select the waveform you want to save.
5. If you want to save only a section of each waveform, set the "Scope".
6. Enable "Data logging".
7. Enter the number of acquisitions to be acquired and saved in "Acq count".
8. Check the file name under "Save to file" and change it, if needed. Usually, autonaming
is used.
9. Tap "Start Export" to start the acquisition and to save the acquired waveform data to
the specified file.
To load waveform data as a reference waveform
In order to re-load waveform data from a previous measurement, the waveform must
have been stored as a reference waveform in a .bin file before.
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Waveform" tab.
4. Select the tab for the reference waveform you want to define ("Ref1"/2/3/4).
5. Tap "Load" to load the waveform from the specified file.
Tap "Open" to load the waveform from a different file. Select the file from the file
selection dialog box.
The selected waveform is displayed as the specified reference waveform.
For details on configuring reference waveforms, see ​chapter 7.1, "Working with Reference Waveforms", on page 208.
12.1.3 Saving and Loading Settings
In order to repeat measurements at different times or perform similar measurements with
different test data, it is useful to save the used instrument settings and load them again
later. Furthermore, it can be helpful to refer to the instrument settings of a particular
measurement when analyzing the results. Therefore, you can easily save the instrument
settings of a measurement. In addition to the measurement-related settings, user-specific
settings concerning the display and data management can also be saved and loaded.
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Settings can be stored in a file with user-defined name and location, or in a quick saveset.
The settings in a saveset can be saved and retrieved very quickly at the touch of a button,
so savesets are ideal for frequently used measurements.
To save instrument settings in a SaveSet
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Settings" tab.
4. Tap one of the three available "Save" buttons in the "Quick savesets" area.
The current instrument settings are saved in the selected SaveSet.
To load instrument settings from a SaveSet
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Settings" tab.
4. Tap the required "Recall" button in the "Quick savesets" area.
The saved settings are loaded to the R&S RTO.
Restoring Default Settings
After loading saved instrument settings, you can restore the default settings by pressing
the PRESET key or the "Factory Defaults" button in the "User Defined Preset" tab. For
details see ​chapter 12.1.4, "Restoring Settings", on page 348.
To save settings to a file
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Settings" tab to save instrument settings, or the "User Preferences" tab
to save user-specific settings.
4. Tap "Save" to save the settings to the specified file.
Tap "Save As" to save the settings to a different file. Select the file from the file selection dialog box.
The current settings are saved to the selected file.
To load settings from a file
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Settings" tab to load instrument settings, or the "User Preferences" tab to
load user-specific settings.
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4. Tap "Load" to load the settings from the specified file.
Tap "Open" to load the settings from a different file. Select the file from the file selection dialog box.
The saved settings are loaded to the R&S RTO.
12.1.4 Restoring Settings
When you have changed many different settings on the instrument and are no longer
sure which settings are causing which effect in the measurement, you may want to restore
the default settings and start anew. Depending on the situation and which data is to be
restored, the following methods are available:
●
Restoring the instrument settings to their default values
●
Restoring settings from a file (see ​"To load settings from a file" on page 347)
●
Restoring the default instrument settings and user-specific settings to a saved state
in one step during one measurement session
●
Restoring all settings on the R&S RTO to the factory-defined values
To restore the instrument settings to their default values
► Press the PRESET key.
The instrument settings are restored to their default values.
To restore the default instrument settings and user-specific settings to a saved
state in one step
This method is only available during one measurement session.
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "User-defined Preset" tab.
3. Tap the "Create SaveSet" button to save the current user-specific settings temporarily
in a SaveSet. The SaveSet remains available until you switch off the instrument, then
it is deleted.
4. Enable the "Enable user-defined preset" option.
5. At any time during the same measurement session, press the PRESET key.
The instrument settings are reset to their default values, the user-specific settings are
reset to the values saved in the SaveSet.
To restore all settings on the R&S RTO to the factory-defined values
► Tap the "Factory Reset" button.
All settings on the R&S RTO are reset to their factory-defined values.
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12.1.5 Defining Default File Paths and Names
When a save or load operation is performed, a default file name and path is provided.
You can configure which path is used and how the file name is generated. In the file
selection dialog box you can change the folder and name as desired.
To define the default file path
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Save/Recall" tab.
3. Select the "Settings" tab.
4. Double-tap the "Default path for all file operations" field.
The directory selection dialog box is opened.
5. Select the folder in which the data is to be stored by default.
6. To restore the factory-set default path, tap "Reset" next to the path field.
To define the automatic file name pattern
The automatic file name pattern can consist of the following elements:
<Prefix>_<UserText>_<Date>_<Index>_<Time>
The prefix depends on the data type to be stored and cannot be changed by the user.
The other elements can be enabled or disabled as required.
1. Press the FILE key.
2. Select the "Autonaming" tab.
3. To insert a user-defined text after the prefix, enter the text in the edit field.
4. To insert the current date, time or an index (serial number), enable the corresponding
option.
The specified elements are used to generate the default file name for the next storage
operation.
12.2 Reference for FILE Settings
The FILE key provides functions for saving and restoring data on the instrument. The
following types of data can be saved and loaded:
●
Instrument and measurement settings
●
User-specific display settings
●
Waveform data
●
Preset values
A naming pattern is availabe and can be adjusted to simplify a clear data storage.
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●
●
●
●
Save/Recall...........................................................................................................350
Autonaming...........................................................................................................354
User-defined Preset..............................................................................................355
File Selection Dialog.............................................................................................355
12.2.1 Save/Recall
In this tab you define the storage settings for each type of data to be saved.
●
●
●
12.2.1.1
Settings.................................................................................................................350
User Preferences..................................................................................................351
Waveforms............................................................................................................351
Settings
In this tab, the storage configuration for instrument settings is defined. These settings
contain the complete instrument and measurement configuration except for user-specific
display settings stored as "User Preferences". You can save an unlimited number of
setting files. For the most frequently used measurements, store the settings in "Quick
savesets" and recall them very quickly.
Save to or load from file
Enter the file name to load or to save the seeting data to, and select the file format with
the format button on the right. Double-tap the file name to open the file selection dialog
box. See also: ​chapter 12.2.4, "File Selection Dialog", on page 355.
By default, settings file names have the prefix "Settings_".
"Load"
Loads the specified file.
"Open"
Opens a file selection dialog box and loads the selected file.
"Save"
Saves the data to the selected file.
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"Save As..."
Opens the file selection dialog box and saves the data to the selected
file.
".dfl/.xml"
Selects the file format.
"Delete"
Deletes the selected file.
Quick savesets
A saveset stores the current measurement and instrument settings at the touch of a button, and reloads them in the same way. Three savesets are available for the most frequently used measurement.
Savesets are stored automatically with standard names, so it is useful to describe the
settings in a comment.
Save ← Quick savesets
Saves the current measurement and instrument settings to one of the three savesets.
Recall ← Quick savesets
Loads the instrument settings from one of the three savesets.
Comment ← Quick savesets
Double-tap the edit field to describe the settings saved in the selected saveset.
Clear ← Quick savesets
Deletes the selected saveset.
12.2.1.2
User Preferences
In this tab, the storage settings for user-specific display settings (diagram layout, toolbar,
and transparency settings) are defined. By default, these file names have the prefix
"UserPreferences_".
Save to or load from file
The file name to load or to save the data to.
By default, user preference file names have the prefix "UserPreferences_".
For details, see the ​Save to or load from file function in the "Settings" tab.
12.2.1.3
Waveforms
In this tab, the storage settings for waveform data are defined.
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See also: .​chapter 12.1.2, "Saving and Loading Waveform Data", on page 345.
Source
Selects the source waveform for export from the active waveforms of input channels,
math signals and reference waveforms. If an MSO option is installed, you can save also
digital channels and parallel buses.
One source waveform per file can be saved.
SCPI command:
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​SOURce​ on page 760
Scope
Defines the part of the waveform record that has to be stored.
"Full waveform"
Saves the complete waveform record.
"Zoom"
Saves the data included in the zoom area if at least one zoom is defined
for the source waveform. The start and stop values of the area are
shown. If several zooms are defined, select the "Zoom" to be used for
export.
"Cursor"
Saves the data between the cursor lines if at least one cursor measurement is defined for the source waveform. The start and stop values
of the area between the cursor lines are shown. If several cursor sets
are defined, select the "Cursor set" to be used for export.
"Gate"
Saves the data included in the measurement gate if a gated measurement is defined for the source waveform. Select the "Measurement" for
which the required gate is defined. The start and stop values of the gate
are shown.
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"Manual"
Saves the data between user-defined "Start" and "Stop" values.
SCPI command:
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​SCOPe​ on page 760
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​STARt​ on page 761
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​STOP​ on page 761
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​ZOOM​ on page 761
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​CURSorset​ on page 761
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​MEAS​ on page 762
Data logging / Multiple Wfms
"Data logging" enables the export of all waveforms of a running acquisition into one file.
The waveform records are written in historical order one after the other, either the complete records or the sections as defined in "Scope". Set the number of acquisitions to be
acquired and stored with "Acq. count". The maximum amount of data that can be written
is shown in "Max. file size".
If "Export history" is enabled, the option "Multiple Wfms" allows aou to save several or all
history waveforms.
SCPI command:
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​DLOGging​ on page 762
Export history
Enables the history mode and allows to save history waveforms to file.
To save one waveform out of the history, enter the number of the required acquisition in
"Acq index".
To save several subsequent history waveforms, enable "Multiple Wfms" and define the
range of the waveforms to be saved with "Start acq" and "Stop acq". Start the history
replay and simultaneous saving with "Start Export".
Start Export
Starts an Nx Single acquisition serie and simultaneous saving if the waveform data to a
file.
If "Export history" is enabled, the button starts the history replay and simultaneous saving.
Save to file
Enter the file name to save the waveform to. Double-tap the file name to open the file
selection dialog box.
By default, the file name has the prefix "RefCurves_". You can define a pattern for automatic naming in the "Autonaming" tab.
"Save"
Saves the waveform as a reference waveform in the selected file.
"Save As..."
Opens the file selection dialog box and saves the waveform to the
selected file. See also ​chapter 12.2.4, "File Selection Dialog", on page 355
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".bin/.xml/.csv"
Selects the file format. Note that reference waveforms can be loaded
from .bin files only.
SCPI command:
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​NAME​ on page 762
​EXPort:​WAVeform:​SAVE​ on page 762
12.2.2 Autonaming
In this tab you can define the pattern for automatic file name generation. This name is
used as the default file name in the file selection dialog box when data is saved to a new
file ("Save As").
User text
User-defined text to be inserted after the prefix.
User text (enable)
If enabled, inserts the specified user text after the prefix.
Date
If enabled, inserts the current date.
Index
If enabled, inserts an index.
Time
If enabled, inserts the current time.
Default path for all file operations
Defines the default path displayed in the file selection dialog box for loading and storing
operations.
Reset
Resets the default file path.
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12.2.3 User-defined Preset
A user-defined preset contains the complete instrument setup including display settings,
except for transparency and intensity. You can save the current configuration to a preset
file, and load a previously saved preset file. You can then specify that these settings are
to be applied, in addition to the standard instrument settings, with the PRESET function.
Save to or load from file
The file name with extension .dfl to load or to save the settings to.
For details, see the ​Save to or load from file function in the "Settings" tab.
Enable user-defined preset
If enabled, the settings from the selected preset file are restored when the PRESET key
is pressed.
If disabled, PRESET sets the instrument to the factory defaults.
Factory defaults
Resets the instrument to the factory default settings.
12.2.4 File Selection Dialog
The file selection dialog provides a file explorer from which you can select a file to load
or to save data to.
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Path
Tap the path to change the current folder. The default folder is defined in ​"Default path
for all file operations" on page 354.
You can save the data in a local folder on the instrument, to an external storage device
(usually a USB flash drive), or to an folder on a connected network drive. The path list
provides all available drives and folders.
Delete
Deletes the selected file
New Folder
Creates a new subfolder in the current folder.
Rename
Opens an online keyboard to enter a new name for the selected file or folder.
Options
Opens a menu with view and delete options.
"Size"
Shows the a column with the file sizes.
"Last modified" Show a column with the date and time of the last modification of the file.
"Multi-selection for delete"
Enables mult-selection. Tap the files you want delete, and then tap the
"Delete" button.
"Select all files for delete"
Selects all files in the current folder. Tap the "Delete" button to remove
the files.
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File Name
The file name to be loaded or stored to. Double-tap the file name to open the file selection
dialog and select a different file name, or enter the file name directly using the online
keyboard.
The default file name for new files is defined in the "Autonaming" tab, see ​chapter 12.2.2,
"Autonaming", on page 354.
Online keyboard
Opens an online keyboard to enter the file name. Tap the ENTER key to close the keyboard.
File Type
The file extension of the file to be loaded or stored to.
Select
Selects the specified file for the open or save operation and closes the dialog box.
Cancel
Closes the dialog box without selecting a file.
12.3 Reference for PRINT Settings
The PRINT key provides functions for printing data to a printer or a file on the instrument.
The data to be printed is a screenshot of the graphic area, without any dialog boxes that
may be open. The print image is created when you press the PRINT key or select
"File" menu > "Print", and can be updated at any time.
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Printer..........................................................................................................................358
Color............................................................................................................................358
Orientation...................................................................................................................358
Image preview.............................................................................................................358
└ Zoom.............................................................................................................358
Update image..............................................................................................................359
Inverse color................................................................................................................359
Edit image...................................................................................................................359
Print.............................................................................................................................359
Save image to file........................................................................................................359
└ Save..............................................................................................................359
└ Save As.........................................................................................................359
└ Delete............................................................................................................359
Printer
Selects a configured printer. You can use a local printer or a network printer. To make a
printer available for R&S RTO, add and configure it in the Windows XP "Printers and
Faxes" window. The instrument firmware uses the Windows printer configuration, no
additional printer setup is required.
Depending on the printer driver, printing to a file is also possible. By default, the "RS
Printer" drivers for JPG, PDF, PNG, and TIFF files are installed. To configure these drivers, in particular the name and storage location of the printed files, open the Windows
XP "Printers and Faxes" window and select "File > Printing Preferences > Save" for the
required driver.
SCPI command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​SELect<1..2>​ on page 767
Color
Defines the color mode for printing.
"Black and
white"
Black and white output
"Color"
Color output
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice<m>:​COLor​ on page 765
Orientation
Toggles the page orientation between "Landscape" and "Portrait."
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​PAGE:​ORIentation<1..2>​ on page 765
Image preview
Shows a preview of the print image. The image is created when the PRINT key, or
"File" menu > "Print", or "Update image" is selected.
Zoom ← Image preview
Enlarges the preview display and adds scrollbars to zoom into specific areas of the print
image. Zooming does not affect the original display.
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Update image
Updates the preview of the print image with the current display view, e.g. after changes
to the settings have been made or an additional channel has been activated.
Inverse color
Inverts the colors of the output, i.e. a dark waveform is printed on a white background.
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice<m>:​INVerse​ on page 765
Edit image
Opens a temporary file with the current print image in a graphic editor. There you can
edit the image. Save and print the image, or use "Save as" to set the file name and storage
location. The changes are not shown in the preview.
Print
Prints the current print image together with saved editing changes on the selected ​
Printer.
If the printer is configured to print to a file, "Print" is an alternative of "Save image to
file".
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​DESTination<1..2>​ on page 763
​HCOPy:​IMMediate<m>[:​DUM]​ on page 766
​HCOPy:​IMMediate<m>:​NEXT​ on page 766
Save image to file
Defines the file name if the print image is saved. By default, the file name has the prefix
"RTOSCreenshot_".
Double-tap the file name to open the file selection dialog box.
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice<m>:​LANGuage​ on page 764
​HCOPy:​DESTination<1..2>​ on page 763
​MMEMory:​NAME​ on page 764
Save ← Save image to file
Saves the current print image to the specified file name.
SCPI command:
​HCOPy:​IMMediate<m>[:​DUM]​ on page 766
​HCOPy:​IMMediate<m>:​NEXT​ on page 766
Save As... ← Save image to file
Opens the file selection dialog box and saves the current print image to the selected file
name.
Delete ← Save image to file
Opens the file selection dialog box and deletes the selected file.
SCPI command:
​MMEMory:​DELete​ on page 757
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Setting Up the Instrument
13 General Instrument Setup
Some basic instrument settings concerning the user interface and general system are
configurable and may need to be adapted to your specific requirements. Furthermore,
the input channels may need to be aligned.
13.1 Setting Up the Instrument
The following procedures for the general instrument setup are described in the "Getting
Started" manual:
●
Connecting external devices (keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, memory stick)
●
Adjusting the Instrument (Self-alignment)
●
Aligning the Touch Screen
●
Adjusting Passive Probes (compensation)
The following setup procedures are described in this manual:
●
​chapter 14.2, "Firmware Update", on page 373
●
​chapter 14.3, "Software Options", on page 374
●
​chapter 14.4.2, "LXI Configuration", on page 379
13.2 Reference for General Instrument Settings
The SETUP key provides functions for basic instrument settings.
"Self-alignment" is available from the "File" menu.
●
●
●
Setup.....................................................................................................................360
Front Panel Setup.................................................................................................368
Self-alignment.......................................................................................................369
13.2.1 Setup
●
●
●
●
●
●
13.2.1.1
System..................................................................................................................360
Screen...................................................................................................................362
SW Options...........................................................................................................365
HW Options...........................................................................................................366
Remote Settings....................................................................................................366
LXI.........................................................................................................................367
System
The settings on this tab are related to the basic instrument and system configuration.
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Firmware version
Indicates the firmware version currently installed on the instrument.
SCPI command:
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​FWVersion​ on page 768
Bios version
Indicates the bios version currently installed on the instrument.
Image version
Indicates the image version currently installed on the instrument.
Desktop (minimize all)
Minimizes all displayed application windows on the instrument, so that the desktop
becomes visible on the screen to access the Windows functionality.
This function is also available from the "File" menu.
Computer name, IP Address, DHCP
Indicates the currently defined computer name, the defined IP address and DHCP
address enabling. These values are required to configure the instrument for work in a
network.
NOTICE! Risk of network problems. All parameters can be edited here; however, beware
that changing the computer name has major effects in a network. For details, see ​chapter 14.4.1, "Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection", on page 376.
SCPI command:
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​COMPutername​ on page 768
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System
Opens the standard Windows "System Properties" dialog box to configure system settings.
Network
Opens the standard Windows "Network Connections" dialog box to configure a network.
Screensaver
Opens the standard Windows "Display Properties" dialog box to configure a screensaver.
Time, date
Opens the standard Windows "Date and Time Properties" dialog box to set the correct
date and time.
Note: Usually date and time are set correctly. To adjust your regional time, select the
correct time zone rather than changing the time.
SCPI command:
​SYSTem:​DATE​ on page 768
​SYSTem:​TIME​ on page 768
Log on as
Sets the user that is automatically logged on during the startup process of the instrument.
The change of this setting takes effect at the next instrument startup
"User autologon"
Auto-logon as standard user with limited access. Enter the "User
name" and "Password" of the user who will log on at the next instrument
startup.
"Admin autologon"
Auto-logon with unrestricted access to the instrument and network. The
setting is only available for adminstrators. Enter the administrator
"Password" to enable the auto-logon.
"None"
No auto-logon, user name and password are requested at instrument
startup.
Select Setup for firmware update
Performs the firmware update.
See also: ​chapter 14.2, "Firmware Update", on page 373.
Load ← Select Setup for firmware update
Loads the specified file.
Open ← Select Setup for firmware update
Opens a file selection dialog box and loads the selected file (Setup_*.exe).
13.2.1.2
Screen
The settings on this tab are related to the screen display.
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Click capture area size
Defines the number of pixels around each element (e.g. button, icon, data point) that
create a capture area. If you tap your finger or click the mouse pointer within this capture
area, this element is considered to be selected. If you tap or click outside this area, a
different or no element is selected.
The larger the area, the easier is it to select an element. However, when selecting data
points, for example, a large frame does not allow you to select precisely.
Max move range for click
Defines the maximum number of pixels around an element (e.g. data point) within which
your pointing device must stay in order to "click" the element. When you tap your finger
or click the mouse pointer on a specific element and move your finger or the mouse
outside this range, it is considered to be a "moving" or "dragging") operation.
Touchscreen calibration
Opens the touch screen calibration application, see "Setting Up the Instrument" in the
Quick Start Guide.
Touchscreen setup
Opens the touch screen configuration application for advanced touch screen setup and
more sophisticated calibration.
Font size
Defines the font size of the text in dialog boxes.
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Dialog transparency
Defines the transparency of the dialog box background. For high transparency values,
you can see the waveform display in the background, and possibly check the effect of
the changed setting. For lower transparency values, readability in the dialog box
improves.
Result Dialog transparency
Defines the transparency of the measurement result boxes in the same way as ​Dialog
transparency.
Theme
Defines the color scheme and contrast of the dialog boxes. Different themes are provided
to optimize the display for the most frequent operating situations.
"Default"
The default setting for standard operation according to user preferences
"Contrast"
Special setting for optimized contrast when using high transparency
values for the dialog box background; dialog text is white, the background is dark-colored
"Printing"
Special setting for optimized printing; dialog text is black, background
is light-colored
Include dialog navigation in undo
If enabled, navigation steps in dialogs are included and displayed when the undo function
is used. Thus, you can see the changes to settings in dialogs as they are undone step
by step.
If disabled, changes are also undone; however, the dialog is not displayed and you do
not see which settings are restored.
Show date/time
Displays the current date and time on the toolbar.
Rotary knob acceleration method
Selects a method to accelerate the movement of the element on the screen compared
to the actual movement of the rotary knob. Acceleration is useful if you need to move
from one end of the screen to the other, for example. Without acceleration, you might
have to turn the knob quite a while. On the other hand, acceleration can make precise
selection difficult, since a small movement of the knob causes a relatively large movement
on the screen.
"None"
No acceleration method used.
"Squared"
Moderate acceleration method used.
"Exponential"
Strong acceleration method used.
Rotary knob acceleration interval
Defines the delay time during which the movement of the rotary knob is analyzed before
acceleration is applied. For short intervals, acceleration sets in quickly, but is not as
effective. For long intervals, acceleration is more effective, however the delay time before
a reaction occurs is longer. Furthermore, when you turn the knob slowly during finetuning,
subsequent movements that occur during the same interval are accelerated, making
precise selection difficult.
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13.2.1.3
SW Options
This tab provides information on installed software options and functions to install new
options via license keys.
The "State" of the option indicates whether the installed option is an official or merely a
beta-release version. Beta-release versions must be activated explicitely in the "Mode"
dialog box (see ​chapter 14.3.1, "Mode", on page 375).
Option list
Indicates the installed options. The information provided in the "Option list" is for administration and troubleshooting purposes only. Should you require support for the option,
provide this information to the service representative.
Material number, Serial number
Indicates the material number and serial number of your instrument. These numbers are
required to order a new option.
SCPI command:
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​PARTnumber​ on page 769
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​SERialnumber​ on page 769
Enter new option key
For each option you order an option key is provided. Enter the option key here to activate
the option.
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Install from file
Alternatively to entering the option key manually, it can be read from a special option file
provided with the option.
Load ← Install from file
Loads the specified file.
Open ← Install from file
Opens a file selection dialog box and loads the selected file.
13.2.1.4
HW Options
This tab provides information on the availability of hardware options.
13.2.1.5
Remote Settings
The settings on this tab are required for remote control of the instrument via a connected
computer, see ​chapter 16.1, "Basics", on page 389.
Address
Indicates the GPIB address of the instrument if an optional GPIB bus card is installed.
The address can be edited here; however, beware that changing the address has major
effects on the communication to the remote computer. For details see ​chapter 16.1,
"Basics", on page 389.
Terminator
Specifies which symbol is used as a terminator in GPIB communication.
Transfer data format
Defines the format for data export with commands:
●
●
●
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​DATA[:​VALues]​
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​DATA[:​VALues]​
​REFCurve<m>:​DATA[:​VALues]​
"Ascii"
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"FLOAT"
Binary data values are written to a file.
SCPI command:
​FORMat[:​DATA]​ on page 426
Bit pattern format
Sets the format for all bit pattern queries.
SCPI command:
​FORMat:​BPATtern​ on page 427
SCPI emulation mode
If option R&S RTO-K301 is installed, you can define the remote control behavior of the
instrument.
"Tektronix
DPO7000 /
TDS540"
Emulated remote commands of these Tektronix oscilloscopes are used.
"Native"
By default, remote commands of R&S RTO are used.
SCPI command:
​SYSTem:​LANGuage​ on page 427
SCPI emulation mode settings
"IDN response" and "OPT response" define the responses to commands IDN*? and
OPT*? which are expected by the remote control scripts. Instead of the actual RTO identification and options, these specified strings are returned. Use the "Description" field to
add a comment to the response settings.
The settings are only relevant if the SCPI emulation mode is set to Tektronix emulation
(requires option R&S RTO-K301).
13.2.1.6
LXI
This tab provides settings for LXI, which allows you to connect your R&S RTO to other
devices in a network. For details, see ​chapter 14.4.2, "LXI Configuration", on page 379.
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Description
Instrument description of the R&S RTO (read-only)
Password
Password for LAN configuration. The default password is LxiWebIfc.
LAN Reset
Resets the LAN configuration to its default settings.
LXI Info
Displays the current LXI information from the R&S RTO.
"Current version"
Current LXI version
"LXI Class"
LXI device class
"Computer
name"
Name of the R&S RTO as defined in the operating system
"MAC address" Media Access Control address (MAC address), a unique identifier for
the network card in the R&S RTO
"IP address"
IP address of the R&S RTO as defined in the operating system.
"Auto MDIX"
Enables the use of the built-in Auto-MDI(X) Ethernet functionality.
Reload Info
Reloads LXI configuration
13.2.2 Front Panel Setup
Front Panel settings adjust the luminosity of keys and screen.
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LCD Intensity
Changes the background luminosity of the touch screen.
LED Intensity
Defines the luminosity of illuminated front panel keys and rotary knobs.
13.2.3 Self-alignment
When data from several input channels is displayed at the same time, it may be necessary
to align the data vertically or horizontally in order to synchronize the time bases or amplitudes and positions. This is the case, for example, when strong temperature changes
occur (> 5°).
13.2.3.1
Control
Start Alignment
Starts the self-alignment procedure for all channels.
Date / Time / Overall alignment state
Show the date and the summary result of the self-alignment process: Passed or Failed.
Detailed results are provided on the "Results" tab.
13.2.3.2
Results
For each channel, the results of the individual aligment steps are shown for all technical
channel component. In case you require support, you may be asked to provide this information.
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Operating System
14 Software and Network Operation
14.1 Operating System
The R&S RTO contains the Windows XP operating system which has been configured
according to the instrument's features and needs. To ensure that the instrument software
functions properly, certain rules must be adhered to when using the operating system.
Risk of causing instrument unusability
The instrument is equipped with the Windows XP operating system. Additional software
can therefore be installed on the instrument. The use and installation of additional software may impair instrument function. Thus, run only programs that Rohde & Schwarz
has tested for compatibility with the instrument software.
The drivers and programs used on the instrument under Windows XP have been adapted
to the instrument. Existing instrument software must always be modified using only
update software released by Rohde & Schwarz.
Changes in the system setup are only required if the network configuration does not
comply with the default settings (see ​chapter 14.4.1.1, "Connecting the Instrument to the
Network", on page 377).
14.1.1 Virus Protection
Users must take appropriate steps to protect their instruments from infection. Beside the
use of strong firewall settings and regularly scanning any removable storage device used
with a R&S instrument, it is also recommended that anti-virus software be installed on
the instrument. While Rohde & Schwarz does NOT recommend running anti-virus software in the background ("on- access" mode) on Windows-based instruments, due to
potentially degrading instrument performance, it does recommend running it during noncritical hours.
For details and recommendations, see the R&S White Paper "Malware Protection" available at http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/appnote/1EF73.
14.1.2 Service Packs and Updates
Microsoft regularly creates security updates and other patches to protect Windowsbased operating systems. These are released through the Microsoft Update website and
associated update server. Instruments using Windows, especially those that connect to
a network, should be updated regularly.
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For more details and information on configuring automatic updates see the R&S White
Paper "Malware Protection" (available at http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/appnote/
1EF73).
Changes in the system setup are only required when peripherals like keyboard or a printer
are installed or if the network configuration does not comply with the default settings (see
​chapter 14.4.1.1, "Connecting the Instrument to the Network", on page 377). After the
R&S RTO is started, the operating system boots and the instrument firmware is started
automatically.
14.1.3 Logon
Windows XP requires that users identify themselves by entering a user name and password in a logon window. You can set up two types of user accounts, either an administrator account with unrestricted access to the computer/domain or a standard user
account with limited access.
If the instrument is connected to the network, you are automatically logged on to the
network at the same time you log on to the operating system. As a prerequisite, the user
name and the password must be identical under Windows XP and on the network. The
instrument provides an auto-logon function that can be configured for user and administrator access. The configuration requires the user name and password. All users except
for the administrator are treated as standard user with limited access. See also: ​"Log on
as" on page 362
By default, the user name for the administrator account is "instrument", and the user name
for the standard user account is "NormalUser". In both cases the initial password is
"894129". You can change the password in Windows XP for the standard user at any
time via "Settings > Control Panel > User Accounts". Some administrative tasks require
administrator rights, e.g. the configuration of a LAN network.
To configure the auto-logon for admistrator
Starting situation: the auto-logon is configured for a standard user.
1. Press the SETUP key and select the "System" tab.
2. Set the "Auto-logon" to "None".
3. Restart the instrument an log on as administrator.
4. Set the "Auto-logon" to "Admin" and enter the admistrator's password.
14.1.4 Accessing Windows XP functionality
All required Windows XP settings can be changed using the touch screen and the onscreen keyboard that is part of the Windows system. However, modification is easier if
you connect a mouse and/or keyboard to the instrument.
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To access Windows XP
► On the "File" menu, select "Minimize application".
The application is minimized to the task bar and the "Start" menu becomes available.
To access Windows XP using an external keyboard
► To open the "Start" menu, press the Windows key or the CTRL + ESC key combination on your keyboard.
To access the desktop, press the Windows key + D on your keyboard.
To access Windows XP settings directly
Important Windows XP settings can be accessed directly from the R&S RTO interface.
1. Press the SETUP key and tap the "System" tab.
2. Select one of the settings buttons to access the corresponding Windows dialog box.
Once you have opened a Windows dialog box, the task bar and the "Start" menu are
also available.
14.2 Firmware Update
The firmware on your R&S RTO may need to be updated in order to enable additional
new features or if reasons for improvement come up. Ask your sales representative or
check the Rohde&Schwarz website for availability of firmware updates. A firmware
update package includes at least a setup file and release notes.
Before updating the firmware on your instrument, read the release notes delivered with
the firmware version.
1. Download the update package from the Rohde&Schwarz website and store it on a
memory stick, on the instrument, or on a server network drive that can be accessed
by the instrument.
2. NOTICE! Stop acquisition. The firmware update must not be performed during running acquisition.
If an acquisition is running, stop it by pressing RUN CONT or RUN N×SINGLE.
3. Press the SETUP key, or tap "Setup" on the "File" menu.
4. Select the "System" tab.
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5. If the name of the file that contains the update is already displayed in the "Select
Setup for firmware update" field, tap "Load".
Otherwise tap "Open" to open the file selection dialog box and select the
Setup*.exe file.
6. Select "Next" in the installation dialog box and select the firmware packages. By
default, all packages are installed.
7. Tap "Install" to start the update.
8. After the firmware update, the R&S RTO reboots automatically.
9. Depending on the previous firmware version, a reconfiguration of the hardware might
be required during the first startup of the firmware. The reconfiguration starts automatically, and a message box informs you about the process. When the reconfiguration has finished, the instrument again reboots automatically.
Note: Do not switch off the instrument during the reconfiguration process!
Now the firmware update is complete. It is recommended that you perform a selfalignment after the update ("File > Selfalignment").
The self-alignment procedure is described in the "Getting Started" manual, chapter
"Setting Up the Instrument".
14.3 Software Options
Additional options for the R&S RTO can be enabled using a license key. To obtain the
license key, consult your sales representative. You need the material number and serial
number of your instrument to get a license key. No additional installation is required.
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To install an option using a license key
1. Press the SETUP key and select the "SW options" tab.
2. If you received a key in written form, enter the key in the "Enter new option key" field.
If you received a key in digital form as a file, enter the path and file name in the "Install
from file" field and tap "Load". Alternatively, tap "Open" to open the file selection dialog
box and select the option key file.
3. If you want to enable several options, repeat step 2 for each option.
4. Restart the instrument or restart the firmware.
The functions of the additional option are available for use in your instrument.
The information provided in the "Option list" is for administration and troubleshooting
purposes only. Should you require support for the option, provide this information to the
service representative.
See also: ​chapter 13.2.1.3, "SW Options", on page 365
14.3.1 Mode
The MODE key opens a dialog box to activate options with beta-release state. These
options are deactivated by default. If you want to use a beta-released option, you must
activate it. The activation is effective until the next shut-down of the firmware.
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Operation in a Network
14.4 Operation in a Network
A LAN connection is the prerequisite for all network operations. The LAN connection
settings can be configured directly in the Windows operating system, or with LXI (LAN
eXtension for Instruments).
Remote operation
Remote monitoring and operation of the instrument from a connected computer is possible with a standard Web browser and the common cross-platform technology Virtual
Network Computing (VNC). You have to install the VNC server on the R&S RTO. Installation and configuration is described in the Application Note "Remote Monitoring and
Control of the R&S RTO with a Web Browser", available on the Rohde & Schwarz Internet.
The Remote Desktop Connection of the Windows operating system is not supported for
instrument control. It can be used for file transfer from and to the instrument.
14.4.1 Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection
The R&S RTO is equipped with a network interface and can be connected to an Ethernet
LAN (local area network). Provided the appropriate rights have been assigned by the
network administrator and the Window XP firewall configuration is adapted accordingly,
the interface can be used, for example:
●
To transfer data between a controller and the tester, e.g. in order to run a remote
control program. See chapter "Remote Control"
●
To access or control the measurement from a remote computer using the "Remote
Desktop" application (or a similar tool)
●
To connect external network devices (e.g. printers)
●
To transfer data from a remote computer and back, e.g. using network folders
This section describes how to configure the LAN interface. It includes the following topics:
●
​chapter 14.4.1.1, "Connecting the Instrument to the Network", on page 377
●
​chapter 14.4.1.2, "Assigning the IP Address", on page 377
LXI
The R&S RTO complies with LXI Class C. LXI gives you direct access to the LAN settings
described below.
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14.4.1.1
Connecting the Instrument to the Network
There are two methods to establish a LAN connection to the instrument:
●
A non-dedicated network (Ethernet) connection from the instrument to an existing
network made with an ordinary RJ-45 network cable. The instrument is assigned an
IP address and can coexist with a computer and with other hosts on the same network.
●
A dedicated network connection (Point-to-point connection) between the instrument
and a single computer made with a (crossover) RJ-45 network cable. The computer
must be equipped with a network adapter and is directly connected to the instrument.
The use of hubs, switches, or gateways is not required, however, data transfer is still
performed using the TCP/IP protocol. An IP address has to be assigned to the instrument and the computer, see ​chapter 14.4.1.2, "Assigning the IP
Address", on page 377.
Risk of network failure
Before connecting the instrument to the network or configuring the network, consult your
network administrator. Errors may affect the entire network.
► To establish a non-dedicated network connection, connect a commercial RJ-45 cable
to one of the LAN ports.
To establish a dedicated connection, connect a (crossover) RJ-45 cable between the
instrument and a single PC.
If the instrument is connected to the LAN, Windows XP automatically detects the network
connection and activates the required drivers.
The network card can be operated with a 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet IEEE 802.3u interface.
14.4.1.2
Assigning the IP Address
Depending on the network capacities, the TCP/IP address information for the instrument
can be obtained in different ways.
●
If the network supports dynamic TCP/IP configuration using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), all address information can be assigned automatically.
●
If the network does not support DHCP, or if the instrument is set to use alternate TCP/
IP configuration, the addresses must be set manually.
By default, the instrument is configured to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration and obtain
all address information automatically. This means that it is safe to establish a physical
connection to the LAN without any previous instrument configuration.
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Risk of network errors
Connection errors can affect the entire network. If your network does not support DHCP,
or if you choose to disable dynamic TCP/IP configuration, you must assign valid address
information before connecting the instrument to the LAN. Contact your network administrator to obtain a valid IP address.
Assigning the IP address on the instrument
1. Press the SETUP key and select the "System" tab.
2. Select "Network".
3. Touch and hold (or right-click) "Local Area Connection" and select "Properties" from
the context-sensitive menu.
4. On the "General" tab, select "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)" and then select "Properties".
5. Select "Use the following IP address" and enter the address information as obtained
from the network administrator.
6. If necessary, select "Use the following DNS server addresses" and enter your own
DNS addresses.
14.4.1.3
Using computer names
Alternatively to the IP address, each PC or instrument connected in a LAN can be
accessed via an unambiguous computer name. Each instrument is delivered with an
assigned computer name, but this name can be changed.
To change the computer name
1. Press the SETUP key and select the "System" tab or "LXI" tab.
The current computer name is displayed and can be edited.
2. Alternatively, tap "System" on the "System" tab.
3. Select "Change", enter the new computer name and confirm the entry.
14.4.1.4
Changing the Windows Firewall Settings
A firewall protects an instrument by preventing unauthorized users from gaining access
to it through a network. Rohde & Schwarz highly recommends the use of the firewall on
your instrument. R&S instruments are shipped with the Windows firewall enabled and
preconfigured in such a way that all ports and connections for remote control are enabled.
For more details on firewall configuration see the R&S White Paper "Malware Protection"
(available at http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/file_13784/1EF73_0E.pdf) and the Windows XP help system.
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Note that changing firewall settings requires administrator rights.
14.4.2 LXI Configuration
LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation (LXI) is an instrumentation platform for measuring
instruments and test systems that is based on standard Ethernet technology. LXI is
intended to be the LAN-based successor to GPIB, combining the advantages of Ethernet
with the simplicity and familiarity of GPIB.
14.4.2.1
LXI Classes and LXI Functionality
LXI-compliant instruments are divided into three classes, A, B and C, with the functionality
of the classes hierarchically based one upon the other:
●
Class C instruments are characterized by a common LAN implementation, including
an ICMP ping responder for diagnostics. The instruments can be configured via a
web browser; a LAN Configuration Initialize (LCI) mechanism resets the LAN configuration. The LXI Class C instruments shall also support automatic detection in a
LAN via the VXI-11 discovery protocol and programming by means of IVI drivers.
●
Class B adds IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and peer-to-peer communication to the base class. IEEE 1588 allows all instruments on the same network to
automatically synchronize to the most accurate clock available and then provide time
stamps or time-based synchronization signals to all instruments with exceptional
accuracy.
●
Class A instruments are additionally equipped with the eight-channel hardware trigger bus (LVDS interface) defined in the LXI standard.
For information about the LXI standard refer to the LXI website at http://www.lxistandard.org. See also the article at the Rohde&Schwarz website: http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/en/technologies/connectivity/LXI/information/.
Instruments of classes A and B can generate and receive software triggers via LAN messages and communicate with each other without involving the controller.
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The R&S RTO complies with LXI Class C. In addition to the general class C features
described above, it provides the following LXI-related functionality:
●
Integrated "LXI Configuration" dialog box for LXI activation and reset of the LAN configuration (LAN Configuration Initialize, LCI).
Firmware update
After a firmware update, shut-down and re-start the instrument in order to enable the full
LXI functionality.
14.4.2.2
LXI Configuration
The "LXI" tab of the "Setup" dialog box provides basic LXI functions and information for
the R&S RTO.
Default state of the network settings
"Reset" initiates the network configuration reset mechanism (LCI) for the instrument.
According to the LXI standard, an LCI must set the following parameters to a default state.
Parameter
Value
TCP/IP Mode
DHCP + Auto IP Address
Dynamic DNS
Enabled
ICMP Ping
Enabled
Password for LAN configuration
LxiWebIfc
The LAN settings are configured using the instrument's LXI Browser Interface.
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14.4.2.3
LXI Browser Interface
The instrument's LXI browser interface works correctly with all W3C compliant browsers.
► Type the instrument's host name or IP address in the address field of the browser on
your PC, e.g. "http://10.113.10.203".
The "Instrument Home Page" (welcome page) opens.
The instrument home page displays the device information required by the LXI standard
including the VISA resource string in read-only format.
► Press the "Device Indicator" button to activate or deactivate the LXI status icon on
the toolbar of the R&S RTO. A green LXI status symbol indicates that a LAN connection has been established; a red symbol indicates an error, for exmaple, that no
LAN cable is connected. While a device is connecting to the instrument, the LXI logo
is blinking, and the "Host Name" is updated on the LXI home page. The "Device
Indicator" setting is not password-protected.
The most important control elements in the navigation pane of the browser interface are
the following :
●
"LAN Configuration" opens the menu with configuration pages.
●
"Status" displays information about the LXI status of the instrument.
●
"Help > Glossary" opens a document with a glossary of terms related to the LXI
standard.
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14.4.2.4
LAN Configuration
The LAN configuration consists of three parts:
●
"IP configuration" provides all mandatory LAN parameters.
●
"Advanced LAN Configuration" provides LAN settings that are not declared mandatory by the LXI standard.
●
"Ping Client" provides the ping utility to verify the connection between the instrument
and other devices.
IP Configuration
The "LAN Configuration > IP configuration" web page displays all mandatory LAN parameters and allows their modification.
The "TCP/IP Mode" configuration field controls how the IP address for the instrument
gets assigned (see also ​chapter 14.4.1.2, "Assigning the IP Address", on page 377). For
the manual configuration mode, the static IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
are used to configure the LAN. The automatic configuration mode uses DHCP server or
Dynamic Link Local Addressing (Automatic IP) to obtain the instrument IP address.
Changing the LAN configuration is password-protected. The password is LxiWebIfc
(notice upper and lower case characters). This password cannot be changed in the current firmware version.
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Advanced LAN Configuration
The "LAN Configuration > Advanced LAN Configuration" parameters are used as follows:
●
The "Negotiation" configuration field provides different Ethernet speed and duplex
mode settings. In general, the "Auto Detect" mode is sufficient.
●
"ICMP Ping" must be enabled to use the ping utility.
●
"VXI-11" is the protocol that is used to detect the instrument in the LAN. According
to the standard, LXI devices must use VXI-11 to provide a detection mechanism;
other additional detection mechanisms are permitted.
●
mDNS and DNS-SD are two additional protocols: Multicast DNS and DNS Service
Discovery. They are used for device communication in zero configuration networks
working without DNS and DHCP
Ping Client
Ping is a utility that verifies the connection between the LXI-compliant instrument and
another device. The ping command uses the ICMP echo request and echo reply packets
to determine whether the LAN connection is functional. Ping is useful for diagnosing IP
network or router failures. The ping utility is not password-protected.
To initiate a ping between the LXI-compliant instrument and a second connected device:
1. Enable "ICMP Ping" on the "Advanced LAN Configuration" page (enabled after an
LCI).
2. On the "Ping Client" page, enter the IP address of the second device without the
ping command and without any further parameters into the "Destination
Address" field (e.g. 10.113.10.203).
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3. Click "Submit".
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Maintenance
Cleaning
15 Maintenance
The instrument does not need a periodic maintenance. Only the cleaning of the instrument is essential.
To protect the front panel and to transport the instrument to another workplace safely and
easily, two accessories are provided:
●
Soft case (R&S RTO-Z3, order number 1304.9118.02)
●
Front cover (R&S RTO-Z1, order number 1304.9101.02)
Follow the instructions in the service manual and the safety instructions when exchanging
modules or ordering spares. The order no. for spare parts is included in the service manual. The service manual includes further information particularly on troubleshooting,
repair, exchange of modules (including adjustment of the OCXO oscillator) and alignment.
The "Board Detection/Maintenance dialog" box provides further information on your particular instrument configuration which may be helpful in case you require support.
The addresses of Rohde & Schwarz support centers can be found at http://www.customersupport.rohde-schwarz.com. A list of all service centers is available via http://
www.services.rohde-schwarz.com.
15.1 Cleaning
The outside of the instrument can be cleaned sufficiently using a soft, lint-free dust cloth.
Make sure that the air vents are not obstructed.
Shock hazard
Before cleaning the instrument, make sure that the instrument is switched off and disconnected from all power supplies.
Instrument damage caused by cleaning agents
Cleaning agents contain substances that may damage the instrument, e.g. cleaning
agents that contain a solvent may damage the front panel labeling or plastic parts.
Never use cleaning agents such as solvents (thinners, acetone, etc), acids, bases, or
other substances.
The outside of the instrument can be cleaned sufficiently using a soft, lint-free dust cloth.
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Troubleshooting with RTOServiceReporter
15.2 Troubleshooting with RTOServiceReporter
The RTOServiceReporter creates and saves a complete bug report with all relevant
setup, reporting, and log files. In case of a firmware failure, contact one of the Rohde &
Schwarz support centers and send the report file for fast problem analysis.
1. On the R&S RTO display, open the "File" menu and tap "Minimize Application".
2. On the Windows desktop, execute the "RTOServiceReporter".
The system creates the report and saves it as zip file directly on the Windows desktop.
3. Send the report file to a Rohde & Schwarz support center.
15.3 Data Security
If you have to send the instrument to the service, or if the instrument is used in a secured
environment, consider the document "Resolving Security Issues When Working in
Secure Areas" that is delivered on the documentation CD-ROM and on the R&S RTO
internet web page.
Instrument configuration data and user data are stored on a removable hard disk only.
Thus it is sufficient to remove the hard disk before the instrument leaves a secured environment. Details are given in the document mentioned above.
15.4 Storing and Packing
The storage temperature range of the instrument is given in the data sheet. If the instrument is to be stored for a longer period of time, it must be protected against dust.
Repack the instrument as it was originally packed when transporting or shipping. The two
protective foam plastic parts prevent the control elements and connectors from being
damaged. The antistatic packing foil avoids any undesired electrostatic charging to occur.
If you do not use the original packaging, use a sturdy cardboard box of suitable size and
provide for sufficient padding to prevent the instrument from slipping inside the package.
Wrap antistatic packing foil around the instrument to protect it from electrostatic charging.
15.5 Performing a Selftest
The instrument selftest checks the hardware for correct operation. Perform the selftest if
you suspect problems in hardware operation.
1. From the "File" menu, select "Selftest".
2. Tap "Selftest".
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The test might take several minutes. The summary result is shown in the "State" field.
In case you require support, you may be asked to provide this information.
15.6 Reference for Maintenance Settings
15.6.1 Board Detection/Maintenance
The "Board Detection/Maintenance" dialog box in the "File" menu provides service information for your R&S RTO. In case you require support, you may be asked to provide this
information.
15.6.1.1
System Info
This tab provides general information on the hardware configuration, and indicates where
system information can be found on the instrument.
15.6.1.2
Mainboard
This tab provides information on the mainboard configuration in your instrument.
15.6.1.3
Frontend
This tab provides information on the frontend configuration in your instrument.
15.6.1.4
Frontpanel
This tab provides information on the frontpanel module installed in your instrument.
15.6.1.5
Service
This tab allows the service personnel to enter a password that activates further service
functions.
SCPI command: ​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​PWD​ on page 771
15.6.2 Selftest
The instrument selftest checks the hardware for correct operation. Perform the selftest if
you suspect problems in hardware operation.
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Selftest
Starts the selftest.
SCPI command:
​*TST​ on page 426
State
Shows the summary result of the selftest: Pass or Fail.
SCPI command:
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​STST:​STATe​ on page 771
Result
Opens a log file with detailed information on the selftest steps and hardware components
operation. In case you require support, you may be asked to provide this information.
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16 Remote Control
16.1 Basics
This chapter provides basic information on operating an instrument via remote control.
16.1.1 Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols
The instrument supports different interfaces for remote control. The following table gives
an overview.
Table 16-1: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Protocols, VISA address
string
Remarks
Local Area
Network
(LAN)
Protocol: VXI-11
The LAN connector is located on rear panel of the instrument.
VISA address string:
The interface is based on TCP/IP and supports the VXI-11 protocol.
See also:
GPIB (IEC/
IEEE Bus
Interface)
TCPIP::<IP
address>[::inst0]::INSTR
VISA address string:
GPIB::primary
address[::INSTR]
(no secondary address)
●
●
​"VXI-11 Protocol" on page 390
​chapter 16.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 389
The optional GPIB bus interface according to standard IEC
625.1/IEEE 488.1 is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
See also: ​chapter 16.1.1.3, "GPIB Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus
Interface)", on page 391.
Within this interface description, the term GPIB is used as a synonym for the IEC/IEEE
bus interface.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
SCPI commands - messages - are used for remote control. Commands that are not taken
from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The instrument supports the SCPI
version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the
standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status registers.
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control - A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2" from
John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI.
16.1.1.1
VISA Libraries
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to
communicate with instruments. Instrument access via VXI11 protocol is usually achieved
from high level programming platforms using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer.
VISA encapsulates the low level VXI or even GPIB function calls and thus makes the
transport interface transparent for the user.
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The I/O channel (LAN or TCP/IP, USB, GPIB,...) is selected at initialization time by means
of the channel–specific address string ("VISA resource string") indicated in ​table 16-1, or
by an appropriately defined VISA alias (short name). A VISA installation is a prerequisite
for remote control of R&S RTO.
For more information about VISA refer to the VISA user documentation.
16.1.1.2
LAN Interface
To be integrated in a LAN, the instrument is equipped with a LAN interface, consisting of
a connector, a network interface card and protocols. For remote control via a network,
the PC and the instrument must be connected via the LAN interface to a common network
with TCP/IP network protocol. They are connected using a commercial RJ45 cable.The
TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured on the
instrument. Software for instrument control and the VISA program library for specified
protocols must be installed on the controller.
IP address
Only the IP address of the instrument is required to set up the connection. It is part of the
"VISA resource string" used by programs to identify and control the instrument. The VISA
resource string has the form:
TCPIP::<IP address>[::inst0]::INSTR
where:
●
IP address identifies the instrument in the network
●
inst0 is the LAN device name. VISA supports several devices running on the instrument. On R&S RTO, only one device is configured, so the LAN device name can be
omitted.
●
INSTR indicates that the VXI-11 protocol is used
Example: If the instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3, the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::INSTR
If the LAN is supported by a DNS server, the host name can be used instead of the IP
address. The DNS server (Domain Name System server) translates the host name to the
IP address. The VISA resource string has the form:
TCPIP::<host name>[::inst0]::INSTR
Example: If the computer name is RSRT1, the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::RSRT1::INSTR.
See also:
●
Find IP address: SETUP > "System" tab, see ​chapter 13.2.1.1, "System", on page 360
●
​chapter 14.4.1.2, "Assigning the IP Address", on page 377
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
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The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the exchanged
messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages
cannot be lost.
16.1.1.3
GPIB Interface (IEC/IEEE Bus Interface)
To be able to control the instrument via the GPIB bus, the instrument and the controller
must be linked by a GPIB bus cable. A GPIB bus card, the card drivers and the program
libraries for the programming language used must be provided in the controller. The controller must address the instrument with the GPIB bus address.
Characteristics
●
Up to 15 instruments can be connected
●
The total cable length is restricted to a maximum of 15 m; the cable lenth between
two instruments should not exceed 2m.
●
A wired "OR"-connection is used if several instruments are connected in parallel.
GPIB Instrument Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the
GPIB address. The remote control address is factory-set to 20, but it can be changed in
the network environment settings. For remote control, addresses 0 through 30 are
allowed. The GPIB address is maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
See also: ​"Address" on page 366.
16.1.2 Starting and Stopping Remote Control
16.1.2.1
Starting a Remote Control Session
When you switch on the instrument, it is always in manual operation state ("local" state)
and can be operated via the front panel, the touch screen and external keyboard and/or
mouse.
► To start remote control:
●
●
Send a command from the controller.
VXI-11 protocol (LAN or USB interface): Use &GTR interface message.
While remote control is active, the instrument settings are optimized for maximum measurement speed; the display is switched off. Operation via the front panel is disabled.
On the touch screen, two buttons appear in the upper left corner: "Local" and "View".
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16.1.2.2
Using the display during remote control
You can observe the screen while a remote control script is executed. This is helpful for
program test purposes but tends to slow down the measurement. Therefore it is recommended that you switch off the display in real measurement applications where a tested
program script is to be executed repeatedly.
► To switch on the display, tap the "View" button in the upper left corner of the touch
screen.
► To switch off the display, tap the "View" button again.
16.1.2.3
Returning to Manual Operation
The instrument switches back to manual operation when the remote connection is closed.
Besides, you can return to manual operation manually or via remote control.
► To return to manual operation:
●
●
Tap the "Local" button in the upper left corner of the touch screen.
VXI-11 protocol: Use &GTL interface message.
16.1.3 Messages
16.1.3.1
Instrument Messages
Instrument messages are employed in the same way for all interfaces, if not indicated
otherwise in the description.
There are different types of instrument messages, depending on the direction they are
sent:
●
Commands
●
Instrument responses
Commands
Commands (program messages) are messages the controller sends to the instrument.
They operate the instrument functions and request information. The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
●
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
– Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument
or setting the frequency.
–
●
Queries cause data to be provided for remote control, e.g. for identification of the
instrument or polling a parameter value. Queries are formed by directly appending
a question mark to the command header.
According to their definition in standards:
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–
Common commands: their function and syntax are precisely defined in standard
IEEE 488.2. They are employed identically on all instruments (if implemented).
They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status registers,
reset and self test.
–
Instrument control commands refer to functions depending on the features of
the instrument such as frequency settings. Many of these commands have also
been standardized by the SCPI committee. These commands are marked as
"SCPI compliant" in the command reference chapters. Commands without this
SCPI label are device-specific, however, their syntax follows SCPI rules as permitted by the standard.
Instrument responses
Instrument responses (response messages and service requests) are messages the
instrument sends to the controller after a query. They can contain measurement results,
instrument settings and information on the instrument status.
See also:
16.1.3.2
●
Structure and syntax of the instrument messages are described in ​chapter 16.1.4,
"SCPI Command Structure", on page 395.
●
Detailed description of all messages: ​chapter 16.2, "Command Reference", on page 418
Interface Massages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines. They are used to
communicate between the controller and the instrument. Interface messages can only
be sent by instruments that have GPIB bus functionality.
GPIB Interface Messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the attention
line (ATN) being active (LOW). They are used for communication between the controller
and the instrument and can only be sent by a computer which has the function of a GPIB
bus controller. GPIB interface messages can be further subdivided into:
●
Universal commands: act on all instruments connected to the GPIB bus without
previous addressing
●
Addressed commands: only act on instruments previously addressed as listeners
Universal Commands
Universal commands are encoded in the range 10 through 1F hex. They affect all instruments connected to the bus and do not require addressing.
Command
Effect on the instrument
DCL (Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the command
processing software to a defined initial state. Does not change the instrument
settings.
IFC (Interface Clear) *)
Resets the interfaces to the default setting.
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Command
Effect on the instrument
LLO (Local Lockout)
The LOC/IEC ADDR key is disabled.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
Ready for serial poll.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
End of serial poll.
PPU (Parallel Poll Unconfigure)
End of the parallel-poll state.
*) IFC is not a real universal command, it is sent via a separate line; however, it also affects all instruments
connected to the bus and does not require addressing
Addressed Commands
Addressed commands are encoded in the range 00 through 0F hex. They only affect
instruments addressed as listeners.
Command
Effect on the instrument
GET (Group Execute Trigger)
Triggers a previously active instrument function (e.g. a sweep). The
effect of the command is the same as with that of a pulse at the
external trigger signal input.
GTL (Go to Local)
Transition to the "local" state (manual control).
GTR (Go to Remote)
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control).
PPC (Parallel Poll Configure)
Configures the instrument for parallel poll.
SDC (Selected Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the
command processing software to a defined initial state. Does not
change the instrument setting.
LAN Interface Messages
In the LAN connection, the interface messages are called low–level control messages.
These messages can be used to emulate interface messages of the GPIB bus.
Command
Long term
Effect on the instrument
&ABO
Abort
Aborts processing of the commands just received.
&DCL
Device Clear
Aborts processing of the commands just received and sets
the command processing software to a defined initial state.
Does not change the instrument setting.
&GTL
Go to Local
Transition to the "local" state (manual control).
&GTR
Go to Remote
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control).
&GET
Group Execute Trigger
Triggers a previously active instrument function (e.g. a
sweep). The effect of the command is the same as with that
of a pulse at the external trigger signal input.
&LLO
Local Lockout
Disables switchover from remote control to manual control
by means of the front panel keys.
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Command
Long term
Effect on the instrument
&NREN
Not Remote Enable
Enables switchover from remote control to manual operation by means of the front panel keys
&POL
Serial Poll
Starts a serial poll.
16.1.4 SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. The header and the parameters are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0
to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several mnemonics (keywords). Queries are formed by appending a question mark directly to the header.
The commands can be either device-specific or device-independent (common commands). Common and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
16.1.4.1
Syntax for Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk
(*) and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
*RST
RESET
Resets the instrument.
*ESE
EVENT STATUS ENABLE
Sets the bits of the event status enable
registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY
Queries the contents of the event status
register.
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY
Queries the instrument identification
string.
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16.1.4.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands
Not all commands used in the following examples are necessarily implemented in the
instrument.
For demonstration purposes only, assume the existence of the following commands for
this section:
●
DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
●
FORMat:READings:DATA <type>[,<length>]
●
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor <Boolean>
●
HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
●
HCOPy[:IMMediate]
●
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
●
HCOPy:ITEM:LABel <string>
●
HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
●
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
●
HCOPy:PAGE:SCALe <numeric value>
●
MMEMory:COPY <file_source>,<file_destination>
●
SENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
●
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP <numeric value>
●
SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
Long and short form
The mnemonics feature a long form and a short form. The short form is marked by upper
case letters, the long form corresponds to the complete word. Either the short form or the
long form can be entered; other abbreviations are not permitted.
Example:
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor ON is equivalent to HCOP:DEV:COL ON.
Case-insensitivity
Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
Numeric suffixes
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific channels or
sources, the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command.
Numeric suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <i>) and are replaced
by a single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the
suffix 1.
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Example:
Definition: HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
Command: HCOP:PAGE:DIM:QUAD2
This command refers to the quadrant 2.
Different numbering in remote control
For remote control, the suffix may differ from the number of the corresponding selection
used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix 1 is
the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. If the numbering differs in
manual operation and remote control, it is indicated for the corresponding command.
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in the description. The instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Example:
Definition: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
Command: HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
Optional mnemonics with numeric suffixes
Do not omit an optional mnemonic if it includes a numeric suffix that is relevant for the
effect of the command.
Example:
Definition:DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
Command: DISP:MAX ON refers to window 1.
In order to refer to a window other than 1, you must include the optional WINDow parameter with the suffix for the required window.
DISP:WIND2:MAX ON refers to window 2.
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters
are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,). For a description of the
parameter types, refer to ​chapter 16.1.4.3, "SCPI Parameters", on page 398.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
Command:HCOP:DEV:CMAP:COL:RGB 3,32,44
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Special characters
|
Parameters
A vertical stroke in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of "or". The effect
of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND specifies landscape orientation
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT specifies portrait orientation
Mnemonics
A selection of mnemonics with an identical effect exists for several commands. These mnemonics are
indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical stroke. Only one of these mnemonics needs
to be included in the header of the command. The effect of the command is independent of which of the
mnemonics is used.
Example:
DefinitionSENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created:
SENS:BAND:RES 1
SENS:BWID:RES 1
[]
Mnemonics in square brackets are optional and may be inserted into the header or omitted.
Example: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
{}
Parameters in curly brackets are optional and can be inserted once or several times, or omitted.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
The following are valid commands:
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20,30,40
16.1.4.3
SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32
decimal, e.g. blank). Allowed parameters are:
●
Numeric values
●
Special numeric values
●
Boolean parameters
●
Text
●
Character strings
●
Block data
The parameters required for each command and the allowed range of values are specified in the command description.
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Numeric values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa
may comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range -32000
to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent alone is not
allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes
are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also allowed), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro)
and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example: SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Units
For physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes are:
●
G (giga)
●
MA (mega), MOHM, MHZ
●
K (kilo)
●
M (milli)
●
U (micro)
●
N (nano)
If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Some settings allow relative values to be stated in percent. According to SCPI, this unit
is represented by the PCT string.
Example:
HCOP:PAGE:SCAL 90PCT
Special numeric values
The texts listed below are interpreted as special numeric values. In the case of a query,
the numeric value is provided.
●
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
●
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value
conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step width can
be specified via an allocated step command for each parameter which can be set via
UP, DOWN.
●
INF/NINF
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INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numeric values 9.9E37 or -9.9E37,
respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as instrument responses.
●
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as a instrument
response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by zero,
the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing values.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:LIST:FREQ MAXimum
Query: SENS:LIST:FREQ?, Response: 3.5E9
Queries for special numeric values
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding mnemonics to the command. They must be entered following
the quotation mark.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQ? MAXimum
Returns the maximum numeric value as a result.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The "ON" state (logically true) is represented
by "ON" or a numeric value 1. The "OFF" state (logically untrue) is represented by
"OFF" or the numeric value 0. The numeric values are provided as the response for a
query.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
Text parameters
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header
by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
Character strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
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Example:
HCOP:ITEM:LABel "Test1" or HCOP:ITEM:LABel 'Test1'
Block data
Block data is a format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
FORMat:READings:DATA
#45168xxxxxxxx
The ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following
digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission
of these data bytes all end or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
#0 specifies a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite format requires a
NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful when the length of
the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations prevent segmentation
of the data into blocks of definite length.
16.1.4.4
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following table provides an overview of the syntax elements:
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon
marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
''
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it (both single and double quotation marks are
possible).
"
#
The hash symbol introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
●
Octal: #O7612
●
Hexa: #HF3A7
●
Block: #21312
●
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates the header from the
parameters.
16.1.4.5
Structure of a command line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by one of the
following:
●
a <New Line>
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a <New Line> with EOI
●
an EOI together with the last data byte
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the next
command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon.
Example:
MMEM:COPY "Test1","MeasurementXY";:HCOP:ITEM ALL
This command line contains two commands. The first command belongs to the MMEM
system, the second command belongs to the HCOP system.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in
common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command after
the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon following
the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;:HCOP:IMM
This command line contains two commands. Both commands are part of the HCOP command system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below
HCOP. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the command
line reads as follows:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;IMM
A new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL
HCOP:IMM
16.1.4.6
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE
488.2.
●
The requested parameter is transmitted without a header.
Example: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?, Response: LAND
●
Maximum values, minimum values and all other quantities that are requested via a
special text parameter are returned as numeric values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX, Response: 3.5E9
●
Numeric values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the basic
units or to the units set using the Unit command. The response 3.5E9 in the previous example stands for 3.5 GHz.
●
Truth values (Boolean values) are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
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Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
●
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
16.1.5 Command Sequence and Synchronization
IEEE 488.2 defines a distinction between overlapped and sequential commands:
●
A sequential command is one which finishes executing before the next command
starts executing. Commands that are processed quickly are usually implemented as
sequential commands.
●
An overlapping command is one which does not automatically finish executing before
the next command starts executing. Usually, overlapping commands take longer to
process and allow the program to do other tasks while being executed. If overlapping
commands do have to be executed in a defined order, e.g. in order to avoid wrong
measurement results, they must be serviced sequentially. This is called synchronization between the controller and the instrument.
Setting commands within one command line, even though they may be implemented as
sequential commands, are not necessarily serviced in the order in which they have been
received. In order to make sure that commands are actually carried out in a certain order,
each command must be sent in a separate command line.
Example: Commands and queries in one message
The response to a query combined in a program message with commands that affect the
queried value is not predictable.
The following commands always return the specified result:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHZ;SPAN 100 :FREQ:STAR?
Result:
1000000000 (1 GHz)
Whereas the result for the following commands is not specified by SCPI:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHz;STAR?;SPAN 1000000
The result could be the value of STARt before the command was sent since the instrument might defer executing the individual commands until a program message terminator
is received. The result could also be 1 GHz if the instrument executes commands as they
are received.
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages.
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Example: Overlapping command with *OPC
The instrument implements SINGle as an overlapped command. Assuming that
SINGle takes longer to execute than *OPC, sending the following command sequence
results in initiating a sweep and, after some time, setting the OPC bit in the ESR:
SINGle; *OPC.
Sending the following commands still initiates a sweep:
SINGle; *OPC; *CLS
However, since the operation is still pending when the instrument executes *CLS, forcing
it into the "Operation Complete Command Idle" State (OCIS), *OPC is effectively skipped.
The OPC bit is not set until the instrument executes another *OPC command.
16.1.5.1
Preventing Overlapping Execution
To prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC, *OPC?
or *WAI can be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be carried out
after the hardware has been set. By suitable programming, the controller can be forced
to wait for the corresponding action to occur.
Table 16-2: Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action
Programming the controller
*OPC
Sets the Operation Complete bit in the ESR
●
after all previous commands have been execu- ●
●
ted.
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1 is returned. Sending *OPC? directly after the command
This is only the case after the Operation Com- whose processing should be terminated before
plete bit has been set in the ESR. This bit indi- other commands can be executed.
cates that the previous setting has been completed.
*WAI
Stops further command processing until all
commands sent before *WAI have been executed.
Setting bit 0 in the ESE
Setting bit 5 in the SRE
Waiting for service request (SRQ)
Sending *WAI directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated before
other commands are executed.
Command synchronization using *WAI or *OPC? appended to an overlapped command
is a good choice if the overlapped command takes only little time to process. The two
synchronization techniques simply block overlapped execution of the command.
For time consuming overlapped commands it is usually desirable to allow the controller
or the instrument to do other useful work while waiting for command execution. Use one
of the following methods:
*OPC with a service request
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Set bit no. 5 in the SRE: *SRE 32 to enable ESB service request.
3. Send the overlapped command with *OPC
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4. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with a service request
1. Set bit no. 4 in the SRE: *SRE 16 to enable MAV service request.
2. Send the overlapped command with *OPC?
3. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
Event Status Register (ESE)
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
3. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: *OPC; *ESR?
A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with short timeout
1. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
2. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: <short timeout>; *OPC?
3. A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished. In
case of a timeout, the operation is ongoing.
4. Reset timeout to former value
5. Clear the error queue with SYStem:ERRor? to remove the "-410, Query interrupted"
entries.
Using several threads in the controller application
As an alternative, provided the programming environment of the controller application
supports threads, separate threads can be used for the application GUI and for controlling
the instrument(s) via SCPI.
A thread waiting for a *OPC? thus will not block the GUI or the communication with other
instruments.
16.1.6 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the current operating state of the
instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. Both can be queried via GPIB bus or LAN interface
(STATus... commands).
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16.1.6.1
Structure of a SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts. Each part has a width of 16 bits and has
different functions. The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware
status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant
bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed
by the controller as positive integers.
Fig. 16-1: The status-register model
Description of the five status register parts
The five parts of a SCPI register have different properties and functions:
●
CONDition
The CONDition part is written into directly by the hardware or the sum bit of the next
lower register. Its contents reflect the current instrument status. This register part can
only be read, but not written into or cleared. Its contents are not affected by reading.
●
PTRansition
The two transition register parts define which state transition of the CONDition part
(none, 0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
The Positive-TRansition part acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the
EVENt bit is set to 1.
– PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
●
NTRansition
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the
EVENt bit is set to 1.
– NTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
NTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
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This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
●
EVENt
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is
the "memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the transition
filters. It is permanently updated by the instrument. This part can only be read by the
user. Reading the register clears it. This part is often equated with the entire register.
●
ENABle
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the
sum bit (see below). Each bit of the EVENt part is "ANDed" with the associated
ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed
on to the sum bit via an "OR" function (symbol '+').
ENABle bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle bit = 1: if the associated EVENt bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user as required. Its contents are not
affected by reading.
Sum bit
The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result is
then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event can
lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
16.1.6.2
Hierarchy of status registers
As shown in the following figure, the status information is of hierarchical structure.
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Fig. 16-2: Overview of the status registers hierarchy
●
STB, SRE
The STatus Byte (STB) register and its associated mask register Service Request
Enable (SRE) form the highest level of the status reporting system. The STB provides
a rough overview of the instrument status, collecting the information of the lower-level
registers.
●
ESR, SCPI registers
The STB receives its information from the following registers:
– The Event Status Register (ESR) with the associated mask register standard
Event Status Enable (ESE).
–
●
The STATus:OPERation and STATus:QUEStionable registers which are
defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument.
IST, PPE
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The IST flag ("Individual STatus"), like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status
in a single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the
service request.
●
Output buffer
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It
is not part of the status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in
the STB and thus is represented in the overview.
All status registers have the same internal structure.
SRE, ESE
The service request enable register SRE can be used as ENABle part of the STB if the
STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be used as the ENABle
part of the ESR.
16.1.6.3
Contents of the Status Registers
In the following sections, the contents of the status registers are described in more detail.
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STatus Byte (STB) is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview
of the instrument status by collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. A
special feature is that bit 6 acts as the sum bit of the remaining bits of the status byte.
The STB can thus be compared with the CONDition part of an SCPI register and
assumes the highest level within the SCPI hierarchy.
The STB is read using the command ​*STB​ or a serial poll.
The STatus Byte (STB) is linked to the Service Request Enable (SRE) register.
Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored. If a bit is set
in the SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a service request
(SRQ) is generated. The SRE can be set using the command ​*SRE​ and read using the
command *SRE?.
Table 16-3: Meaning of the bits used in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
0...1
Not used
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue. If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each
entry of the error queue generates a service request. Thus an error can be recognized and specified in greater detail by polling the error queue. The poll provides an informative error message.
This procedure is to be recommended since it considerably reduces the problems involved with
remote control.
3
QUEStionable status sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified
in greater detail by polling the QUEStionable status register.
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Bit No.
Meaning
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output buffer which can be read. This bit can be used
to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the controller.
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is set and
enabled in the event status enable register. Setting of this bit indicates a serious error which can
be specified in greater detail by polling the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other bits of
this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable register SRE.
7
OPERation status register sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The type
of action can be determined by polling the OPERation status register.
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
As with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It can
be read by means of a parallel poll (see ​"Parallel Poll" on page 415) or using the command ​*IST​.
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute to the
IST flag. The bits of the STB are "ANDed" with the corresponding bits of the PPE, with
bit 6 being used as well in contrast to the SRE. The IST flag results from the "ORing" of
all results. The PPE can be set using commands ​*PRE​ and read using command *PRE?.
Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable Register (ESE)
The ESR is defined in IEEE 488.2. It can be compared with the EVENt part of a SCPI
register. The event status register can be read out using command ​*ESR?.
The ESE corresponds to the ENABle part of a SCPI register. If a bit is set in the ESE and
the associated bit in the ESR changes from 0 to 1, the ESB bit in the STB is set. The ESE
register can be set using the command ​*ESE​ and read using the command *ESE?.
Table 16-4: Meaning of the bits used in the event status register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have been
executed.
1
Not used
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having sent a
query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the instrument instead.
The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be executed.
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Bit No.
Meaning
3
Device-dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs. An error message with a number between -300
and -399 or a positive error number, which denotes the error in greater detail, is entered into the
error queue.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct but cannot be performed for other
reasons. An error message with a number between -200 and -300, which denotes the error in
greater detail, is entered into the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a command is received, which is undefined or syntactically incorrect. An error
message with a number between -100 and -200, which denotes the error in greater detail, is
entered into the error queue.
6
User Request
This bit is set when the instrument is switched over to manual control.
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set on switching on the instrument.
STATus:OPERation Register
In the CONDition part, this register contains information on which actions the instrument
is being executing. In the EVENt part, it contains information on which actions the instrument has executed since the last reading.
Table 16-5: Bits in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a self alignment or a selftest.
1
Not used
2
AUToset
This bit is set while the instrument is performing an auto setup.
3
WTRIgger
This bit is set while the instrument is waiting for the trigger.
4
MEASuring
The bit is set as long as an acquisition - sampling and postprocessing - is running. In run continuous
mode, the bit is always set.
5 - 15
Not used
STATus:QUEStionable Register
This register contains information about indefinite states which may occur if the unit is
operated without meeting the specifications. It can be read using the commands
STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?
The remote commands for the STATus:QUEStionable register are described in ​chapter 16.2.19.1, "STATus:QUEStionable Registers", on page 772 .
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Fig. 16-3: Overview of the STATus:QUEStionable register
Table 16-6: Bits in the STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0 to 2
not used
3
COVerload
This bit is set if a questionable channel overload occurs (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:COVerload
register" on page 413).
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if a questionable temperature occurs (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:TEMPerature
register" on page 413).
5 to 7
Not used
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Bit No.
Meaning
8
NOALigndata
This bit is set if no alignment data is available - the instrument is uncalibrated.
9
LIMit
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit, STATus:QUEStionable:MARGin, STATus:QUEStionable:LAMP registers" on page 413).
10
MARGin
This bit is set if a margin value is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit, STATus:QUEStionable:MARGin, STATus:QUEStionable:LAMP registers" on page 413).
11
LAMP (Low AMPlitude)
This bit is set if the magnitude of the signal is too low to get reliable measurement results.
12
MASK
This bit is set if a mask value is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:MASK register" on page 414
13 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:COVerload register
This register contains all information about overload of the channels. The bit is set if the
assigned channel is overloaded.
Table 16-7: Bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:COVerload register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CHANnel1
1
CHANnel2
2
CHANnel3
3
CHANnel4
STATus:QUEStionable:TEMPerature register
This register contains information about the instrument's temperature.
Table 16-8: Bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:TEMPerature register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
TEMP WARN
This bit is set if a temperature warning on channel 1, 2, 3 or 4 occured.
1
TEMP ERRor
This bit is set if a temperature error on channel 1, 2, 3 or 4 occured.
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit, STATus:QUEStionable:MARGin, STATus:QUEStionable:LAMP registers
These registers contain information about the observance of the limits or margins of
measurements. For LIMit and MARGin, this bit is set if the limits or margins of the main
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or additional measurement of assigned measurement are violated. The LAMP (Low
AMPlitude) bit is set if the magnitude of the signal is too low to get reliable measurement
results.
Table 16-9: Bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit, STATus:QUEStionable.MARGin, and STATus:QUEStionable:AMP registers
Bit No.
Meaning
0
MEAS1
1
MEAS2
2
MEAS3
3
MEAS4
4
MEAS5
5
MEAS6
6
MEAS7
7
MEAS8
STATus:QUEStionable:MASK register
This register contains information about the violation of masks. This bit is set if the
assigned mask is violated.
Table 16-10: Bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:MASK register
16.1.6.4
Bit No.
Meaning
0
MASK1
1
MASK2
2
MASK3
3
MASK4
4
MASK5
5
MASK6
6
MASK7
7
MASK8
Application of the Status Reporting System
The purpose of the status reporting system is to monitor the status of one or several
devices in a measuring system. To do this and react appropriately, the controller must
receive and evaluate the information of all devices. The following standard methods are
used:
●
Service request (SRQ) initiated by the instrument
●
Serial poll of all devices in the bus system, initiated by the controller in order to find
out who sent a SRQ and why
●
Parallel poll of all devices
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●
Query of a specific instrument status by means of commands
●
Query of the error queue
Service Request
Under certain circumstances, the instrument can send a service request (SRQ) to the
controller. Usually this service request initiates an interrupt at the controller, to which the
control program can react appropriately. As evident from ​figure 16-2, an SRQ is always
initiated if one or several of bits 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7 of the status byte are set and enabled in
the SRE. Each of these bits combines the information of a further register, the error queue
or the output buffer. The ENABle parts of the status registers can be set such that arbitrary
bits in an arbitrary status register initiate an SRQ. In order to make use of the possibilities
of the service request effectively, all bits should be set to "1" in enable registers SRE and
ESE.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each
controller program should cause the instrument to initiate a service request if errors occur.
The program should react appropriately to the service request.
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command *STB, the status byte of an instrument is queried.
However, the query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly faster.
The serial poll method is defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll the status byte. The method also works for instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The serial poll is mainly used to obtain a fast overview of the state of several instruments
connected to the controller.
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller
using a single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the data lines, i.e., to set
the data line allocated to each instrument to a logical "0" or "1".
In addition to the SRE register, which determines the conditions under which an SRQ is
generated, there is a Parallel Poll Enable register (PPE) which is ANDed with the STB
bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. This register is ANDed with the STB bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. The results are ORed, the result is possibly inverted and then sent
as a response to the parallel poll of the controller. The result can also be queried without
parallel poll using the command ​*IST​.
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using the command PPC. This command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines whether the response is to
be inverted. The parallel poll itself is executed using PPE.
The parallel poll method is mainly used to find out quickly which one of the instruments
connected to the controller has sent a service request. To this effect, SRE and PPE must
be set to the same value.
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Query of an instrument status
Each part of any status register can be read using queries. There are two types of commands:
●
The common commands *ESR?, *IDN?, *IST?, *STB? query the higher-level registers.
●
The commands of the STATus system query the SCPI registers
(STATus:QUEStionable...)
The returned value is always a decimal number that represents the bit pattern of the
queried register. This number is evaluated by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on
the cause of the SRQ.
Decimal representation of a bit pattern
The STB and ESR registers contain 8 bits, the SCPI registers 16 bits. The contents of a
status register are specified and transferred as a single decimal number. To make this
possible, each bit is assigned a weighted value. The decimal number is calculated as the
sum of the weighted values of all bits in the register that are set to 1.
Example:
The decimal value 40 = 32 + 8 indicates that bits no. 3 and 5 in the status register (e.g.
the QUEStionable status summary bit and the ESB bit in the STatus Byte ) are set.
Error Queue
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of the
error queue are detailed plain text error messages that can be looked up in the Error Log
or queried via remote control using SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? or
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?. Each call of SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? provides one entry from
the error queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument responds
with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the
entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially
in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried regularly since
faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there as well.
16.1.6.5
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System
The following table contains the different commands and events causing the status
reporting system to be reset. None of the commands, except *RST and
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SYSTem:PRESet, influence the functional instrument settings. In particular, DCL does
not change the instrument settings.
Table 16-11: Resest of the status reporting system
Event
Switching on supply
voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
DCL, SDC *RST or
STASYSTus:PRE(Device
Tem:PRESet
Clear,
Selected Set
*CLS
Effect
0
1
Device
Clear)
Clear STB, ESR
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear SRE, ESE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear PPE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear EVENt parts of the registers
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear ENABle parts of all
OPERation and QUEStionable
registers;
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
Clear error queue
yes
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
Clear command processing and yes
input buffer
yes
yes
-
-
-
Fill ENABle parts of all other registers with "1".
Fill PTRansition parts with "1";
Clear NTRansition parts
1) The first command in a command line that immediately follows a <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>
clears the output buffer.
16.1.7 General Programming Recommendations
Initial instrument status before changing settings
Manual operation is designed for maximum possible operating convenience. In contrast,
the priority of remote control is the "predictability" of the instrument status. Thus, when a
command attempts to define incompatible settings, the command is ignored and the
instrument status remains unchanged, i.e. other settings are not automatically adapted.
Therefore, control programs should always define an initial instrument status (e.g. using
the *RST command) and then implement the required settings.
Command sequence
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages. Otherwise, the result of the query may vary depending on which operation is performed first
(see also Preventing Overlapping Execution).
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Reacting to malfunctions
The service request is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own.
Each controller program should instruct the instrument to initiate a service request in case
of malfunction. The program should react appropriately to the service request.
Error queues
The error queue should be queried after every service request in the controller program
as the entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers.
Especially in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried
regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there
as well.
16.2 Command Reference
This chapter provides the description of all remote commands available for R&S RTO.
16.2.1 Finding the Appropriate Command
In the following chapters, the commands are sorted according to the menu and dialog
structure of the instrument.
A list of all commands in alphabetical order ist given in the "List of Commands" at the end
of this documentation.
To find the appropriate command for a setting easily, you can use the context help:
1. Enable the "Tooltip" icon on the toolbar.
2. Tap the parameter for which you need information.
The tooltip opens.
3. Tap the "Show Help" button in the lower right corner of the tooltip.
The "Help" window opens and displays the comprehensive description and the corresponding remote command.
4. Tap the remote command link to open the command description.
16.2.2 Frequently Used Parameters and Suffixes
This chapter describes in general those parameters and suffixes that are used in several
subsystems.
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16.2.2.1
Waveform Suffix
The numeric waveform suffix is used in REFLevel commands to indicate the source
waveform number from which the reference level is taken, and to assign color tables to
waveforms.
Depending on the command, not all suffix values are supported. For example, in REFLevel commands, only suffixes 2...21 are allowed. The range of supported suffix numbers
ist indicated in the description of the individual commands.
Suffix 1
Suffix 1 means that no waveform is assigned. The first waveform C1W1 corresponds to
suffix number 2.
Waveform number
Description
1
None
2...4
Channel 1 waveforms: C1W1, C1W2, C1W3
5...7
Channel 2waveforms: C2W1, C2W2, C2W3
8...10
Channel 3 waveforms: C3W1, C3W2, C3W3
11...13
Channel 4 waveforms: C4W1, C4W2, C4W3
14...17
Math waveforms: M1, M2, M3, M4
18...21
Reference waveforms: R1, R2, R3, R4
22...25
XY-waveforms: XY1, XY2, XY3, XY4
26...34
Measurement results: MRESult1, MRESult2, MRESult3, MRESult4, MRESult5,
MRESult6, MRESult7, MRESult8
34 = IMResult, result of immediate measurements available on Tektronix instruments. Only relevant for Tektronix emulation (option R&S RTO-K301)
16.2.2.2
35...38
Serial buses: SBUS1, SBUS2, SBUS3, SBUS4
39...54
Digital channels: D0...D15 (option R&S RTO-B1)
55...58
Digital buses: MSO1, MSO2, MSO3, MSO4 (option R&S RTO-B1)
59
not used
Waveform Parameter
In many commands, one of the waveforms has to be specified as source. The table lists
all waveforms. For each command using a waveform parameter, the available waveforms
are specified.
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Depending on the command, not all parameter values are allowed for usage:
●
SEARch, EXPort commands, XY-diagram: Only analog channel waveforms (CxWy),
math (Mx) and reference waveforms (Rx) are allowed.
●
Sources for serial buses: Only waveform 1 of analog channels (CxW1), math (Mx)
and reference waveforms (Rx) are allowed.
Waveform
Description
C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3
Channel 1 waveforms
C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3
Channel 2waveforms
C2W3 | C3W1 | C3W2
Channel 3 waveforms
C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3
Channel 4 waveforms
M1 | M2 | M3 | M4
Math waveforms
R1 | R2 | R3 | R4
Reference waveforms
XY1 | XY2 | XY3 | XY4
XY-waveforms
MRESult1 | MRESult2 | MRESult3 | MRESult4 Measurement results
| MRESult5 | MRESult6 | MRESult7 | MRESult8
Result of immediate measurements available on Tektronix
IMResult
instruments. Only relevant for Tektronix emulation (option
R&S RTO-K301).
SBUS1 | SBUS2 | SBUS3 | SBUS4
Serial buses
D0 | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | Digital channels (option R&S RTO-B1)
D10 | D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 | D15
MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
16.2.2.3
Digital buses (option R&S RTO-B1)
Slope Parameter
The slope parameter is used with several trigger and search condition commands.
16.2.2.4
Slope
Description
POSitive
Rising edge, that is a positive voltage change.
NEGative
Falling edge, that is a negative voltage change
EITHer
rising as well as the falling edge.
Polarity Parameter
The polarity parameter is used with several trigger and search condition commands.
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16.2.2.5
Polarity
Description
POSitive
Positive going pulses.
NEGative
Negative going pulses.
EITHer
Both positive and negative going pulses.
Event Parameter
The event parameter is used with commands defining an action for mask testing, limit
checks and margin checks.
Event
Description
NOACtion
The action is not initiated.
SUCCess
The action is initiated if the operation finished successfully:
●
●
VIOLation
The action is initiated if the operation finished with error:
●
●
16.2.2.6
Limits or margins were not exceeded during the entire measurement
Mask test passed
Limits or margins were violated during the measurement
Mask test failed
Bit Pattern Parameter
Bit pattern parameter are required with commands triggering on address, identifier, or
data pattern.
To set the pattern value, you can user either a numeric parameter as defined in the SCPI
standard, or a string parameter.
Bit pattern in numeric parameter
In a numeric paramter, the values are listed byte-by-byte, with bytes separated by commas and MSB first. The default numeral format is decimal, other formats can be indicated
by a format identifier (#B = binary, #H = hexadecimal, #O = octal).
Example: Parameter with three bytes, decimal byte values are 10, 20, 30
●
TRIGger:CAN:DMIN 10,20,30
●
TRIGger:CAN:DMIN #B00001010,#B00010100,#B00011110
●
TRIGger:CAN:DMIN #H0A,#H14,#H1E
●
TRIGger:CAN:DMIN #Q012,#Q024,#Q036
Bit pattern in string parameter
In a string, the complete binary pattern is written without separation of bytes, for example:
TRIGger:CAN:DMIN '000010100001010000011110'
Unlike a numeric parameter, the string parameter accepts wildcards for single bits (X =
don't care). Whether wildcards can be used or not depends on the remote command.
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Usually, address and identifier parameter require unique patterns while data paramters
may contain wildcards.
Query for a pattern
The pattern format for the return value of a pattern is defined by the ​FORMat:​
BPATtern​ command.
16.2.3 Common Commands
Common commands are described in the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625-2) standard. These commands have the same effect and are employed in the same way on different devices.
The headers of these commands consist of "*" followed by three letters. Many common
commands are related to the Status Reporting System.
Available common commands:
*CAL​.............................................................................................................................422
*CLS​.............................................................................................................................422
*ESE​.............................................................................................................................423
*ESR​............................................................................................................................423
*IDN​.............................................................................................................................423
*IST​..............................................................................................................................423
*OPC​............................................................................................................................423
*OPT​............................................................................................................................424
*PCB​............................................................................................................................424
*PRE​............................................................................................................................424
*PSC​............................................................................................................................424
*RCL​.............................................................................................................................425
*RST​.............................................................................................................................425
*SAV​.............................................................................................................................425
*SRE​............................................................................................................................425
*STB​.............................................................................................................................425
*TRG​............................................................................................................................426
*TST​.............................................................................................................................426
*WAI​.............................................................................................................................426
*CAL
Calibration Query
Initiates a calibration of the instrument and subsequently queries the calibration status.
Responses > 0 indicate errors.
*CLS
CLear Status
Sets the status byte (STB), the standard event register (ESR) and the EVENt part of the
QUEStionable and the OPERation registers to zero. The command does not alter the
mask and transition parts of the registers. It clears the output buffer.
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Usage:
Setting only
*ESE <Value>
Event Status Enable
Sets the event status enable register to the specified value. The query returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
Parameters:
<Value>
Range:
0 to 255
*ESR?
Event Status Read
Returns the contents of the event status register in decimal form and subsequently sets
the register to zero.
Return values:
<Contents>
Range:
Usage:
Query only
0 to 255
*IDN?
IDeNtification: returns the instrument identification.
Return values:
<ID>
"Rohde&Schwarz,<device type>,<serial number>,<firmware version>"
Example:
Rohde&Schwarz,RTO,1316.1000k14/200153,1.30.0.25
Usage:
Query only
*IST?
Individual STatus query
Returns the contents of the IST flag in decimal form. The IST flag is the status bit which
is sent during a parallel poll.
Return values:
<ISTflag>
0|1
Usage:
Query only
*OPC
OPeration Complete
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Sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have been executed.
This bit can be used to initiate a service request. The query form writes a "1" into the
output buffer as soon as all preceding commands have been executed. This is used for
command synchronization.
*OPT?
OPTion identification query
Queries the options included in the instrument. For a list of all available options and their
description refer to the CD-ROM.
Return values:
<Options>
Usage:
The query returns a list of options. The options are returned at
fixed positions in a comma-separated string. A zero is returned for
options that are not installed.
Query only
*PCB <Address>
Pass Control Back
Indicates the controller address to which remote control is returned after termination of
the triggered action.
Setting parameters:
<Address>
Range:
Usage:
0 to 30
Setting only
*PRE <Value>
Parallel poll Register Enable
Sets parallel poll enable register to the indicated value. The query returns the contents
of the parallel poll enable register in decimal form.
Parameters:
<Value>
Range:
0 to 255
*PSC <Action>
Power on Status Clear
Determines whether the contents of the ENABle registers are preserved or reset when
the instrument is switched on. Thus a service request can be triggered when the instrument is switched on, if the status registers ESE and SRE are suitably configured. The
query reads out the contents of the "power-on-status-clear" flag.
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Parameters:
<Action>
0|1
0
The contents of the status registers are preserved.
1
Resets the status registers.
*RCL <Number>
ReCaLl calls up the instrument settings from an intermediate memory identified by the
specified number. The instrument settings can be stored to this memory using the command ​*SAV​ with the associated number.
It also activates the instrument settings which are stored in a file and loaded using ​
MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​.
*RST
ReSeT
Sets the instrument to a defined default status. The default settings are indicated in the
description of commands.
Usage:
Setting only
*SAV <Number>
SAVe stores the current instrument settings under the specified number in an intermediate memory. The settings can be recalled using the command ​*RCL​ with the associated
number.
To transfer the stored instrument settings to a file, use ​MMEMory:​STORe:​STATe​.
*SRE <Contents>
Service Request Enable
Sets the service request enable register to the indicated value. This command determines
under which conditions a service request is triggered.
Parameters:
<Contents>
Contents of the service request enable register in decimal form.
Bit 6 (MSS mask bit) is always 0.
Range:
0 to 255
*STB?
STatus Byte query
Reads the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
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Usage:
Query only
*TRG
TRiGger
Triggers all actions waiting for a trigger event. In particular, *TRG generates a manual
trigger signal (Manual Trigger). This common command complements the commands of
the TRIGger subsystem.
Usage:
Event
*TST?
self TeST query
Triggers selftests of the instrument and returns an error code in decimal form (see Service
Manual supplied with the instrument). "0" indicates no errors occured.
Usage:
Query only
*WAI
WAIt to continue
Prevents servicing of the subsequent commands until all preceding commands have
been executed and all signals have settled (see also command synchronization and ​
*OPC​).
Usage:
Event
16.2.4 General Remote Settings
This chapter describes commands that have effect on many other commands in different
applications of the instrument.
FORMat[:​DATA]​.............................................................................................................426
FORMat:​BPATtern​.........................................................................................................427
SYSTem:​LANGuage​......................................................................................................427
FORMat[:DATA] <Format>, [<Length>]
Defines the format for data export with
●
​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​DATA[:​VALues]​
●
​CALCulate:​MATH<m>:​DATA[:​VALues]​
●
​REFCurve<m>:​DATA[:​VALues]​
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Parameters:
<Format>
ASCii | REAL
ASCii
Data values are returned in ASCII format.
REAL
Binary data values are written to a file.
*RST:
ASCii
<Length>
The length is 0 for ASCII format, and 32 if Format = REAL.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
FORMat:BPATtern <BitPatternFormat>
Sets the format for all bit pattern queries.
Parameters:
<BitPatternFormat>
DEC | HEX | OCT | BIN | ASCII | STRG
*RST:
HEX
Firmware/Software: V 1.25
SYSTem:LANGuage <SCPIEmulation>
Defines the remote control behavior of the instrument and sets the remote control command set.
Parameters:
<SCPIEmulation>
SCPI | DPO7000 | TDS540
DPO7000 | TDS540
Compatible remote command set of Tektronix oscilloscopes
DPO7000 or TDS540 is used. If one of these emulation modes is
used, you can define alternative responses to the IDN*? and
OPT*? commands on the SETUP > "Remote settings" tab.
SCPI
R&S RTO remote command set is used.
*RST:
SCPI
Firmware/Software: V 1.35
Options:
R&S RTO-K301
16.2.5 Acquisition and Setup
●
●
●
●
●
Starting and Stopping Acquisition.........................................................................428
Time Base.............................................................................................................428
Acquisition.............................................................................................................430
Vertical..................................................................................................................436
Waveform Data.....................................................................................................440
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●
●
●
●
16.2.5.1
Probes...................................................................................................................441
Digital Filter...........................................................................................................450
Skew.....................................................................................................................451
Reference (OCXO Option R&S RTO)-B4.............................................................452
Starting and Stopping Acquisition
RUNContinous​...............................................................................................................428
RUN​.............................................................................................................................428
RUNSingle​....................................................................................................................428
SINGle​..........................................................................................................................428
STOP​...........................................................................................................................428
RUNContinous
RUN
Starts the continuous acquisition.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
RUNSingle
SINGle
Starts a defined number of acquisition cycles. The number of cycles is set with ​
ACQuire:​COUNt​.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
STOP
Stops the running acquistion.
Usage:
16.2.5.2
Event
Asynchronous command
Time Base
TIMebase:​SCALe​...........................................................................................................429
TIMebase:​RANGe​..........................................................................................................429
TIMebase:​DIVisions​.......................................................................................................429
TIMebase:​POSition​........................................................................................................429
TIMebase:​REFerence​.....................................................................................................430
TIMebase:​ROLL:​ENABle​................................................................................................430
TIMebase:​ROLL:​MTIMe​..................................................................................................430
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TIMebase:SCALe <TimeScale>
Sets the horizontal scale - the time per division on the x-axis - for all channel and math
waveforms.
The setting accuracy depends on the current resolution (sample rate) and the setting for
resolution enhancement:
●
In interpolated time mode if sample rate > ADC sample rate:
Any value for the horizontal scale can be set due to the interpolation factor.
●
In real time mode and equivalent time mode for all sample rates; and in interpolated
time mode if sample rate < ADC sample rate:
The resolution is an integer multiple of the ADC sample rate.
Parameters:
<TimeScale>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
25E-12 to 50
1E-12
10E-9
s/div
TIMebase:RANGe <AcquisitionTime>
Defines the time of one acquisition, that is the time across the 10 divisions of the diagram:
TimeScale*10.
Parameters:
<AcquisitionTime>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
250E-12 to 500
1E-12
0.5
s
TIMebase:DIVisions?
Queries the number of horizontal divisions on the screen. The number cannot be
changed.
Return values:
<HorizDivCount>
Usage:
Range:
4 to 20
Increment: 2
*RST:
10
Query only
TIMebase:POSition <Offset>
Defines the trigger offset - the time interval between trigger point and reference point to
analize the signal some time before or after the trigger event.
See also: ​TIMebase:​REFerence​ on page 430
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Parameters:
<Offset>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-500 to 500
0.01
0
s
TIMebase:REFerence <ReferencePoint>
Sets the reference point of the time scale in % of the display. The reference point defines
which part of the waveform is shown. If the "Trigger offset" is zero, the trigger point
matches the reference point.
See also: ​TIMebase:​POSition​ on page 429
Parameters:
<ReferencePoint>
The reference point is the zero point of the time scale.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
50
%
TIMebase:ROLL:ENABle <Mode>
Activates the automatic roll mode.
Parameters:
<Mode>
AUTO | OFF
AUTO: the instrument activates the roll mode under specific conditions.
See: ​"Mode" on page 29
*RST:
AUTO
TIMebase:ROLL:MTIMe <MinHorizGain>
The roll mode is enabled automatically if the acquisition time exceeds the given value,
and if ​TIMebase:​ROLL:​ENABle​ is set to AUTO.
Parameters:
<MinHorizGain>
Treshold value for roll mode enabling.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
16.2.5.3
1 to 600
1
10
s
Acquisition
AUToscale​....................................................................................................................431
ACQuire:​POINts:​AUTO​...................................................................................................431
ACQuire:​POINts:​MAXimum​.............................................................................................431
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ACQuire:​POINts:​ARATe​.................................................................................................432
ACQuire:​SRATe​............................................................................................................432
ACQuire:​RESolution​.......................................................................................................432
ACQuire:​POINts[:​VALue]​................................................................................................432
ACQuire:​MODE​.............................................................................................................433
ACQuire:​INTerpolate​......................................................................................................433
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>][:​STATe]​............................................................................433
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​TYPE​...............................................................................434
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​ARIThmetics​.....................................................................434
ACQuire:​COUNt​............................................................................................................435
ACQuire:​SEGMented:​STATe​..........................................................................................435
ACQuire:​SEGMented:​MAX​.............................................................................................435
AUToscale
Performs an autoset process: analyzes the enabled channel signals, and obtains appropriate horizontal, vertical, and trigger settings to display stable waveforms.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
ACQuire:POINts:AUTO <RecLengthManual>
Selection to keep constant either the resolution or the record length when you adjust the
time scale (​TIMebase:​SCALe​) or acquisition time (​TIMebase:​RANGe​).
Parameters:
<RecLengthManual> RESolution | RECLength
RESolution
Resolution is kept constant. Set the required resolution value with
​ACQuire:​RESolution​.
RECLength
The record length is kept constant. Set the required record length
value with ​ACQuire:​POINts[:​VALue]​.
*RST:
RESolution
ACQuire:POINts:MAXimum <RecLengthLim>
Sets a limit for the record length to prevent very large records. This value only takes effect
if a constant resolution is selected with ​ACQuire:​POINts:​AUTO​. If you increase the
time scale, the resolution remains constant and the record length increases until the limit
is reached. Further increase of the time scale changes the resolution and keeps the
record length limit.
Parameters:
<RecLengthLim>
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Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1000 to 1000000000
2
1000000
Sa
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ACQuire:POINts:ARATe?
Retrieves the sample rate of the ADC, that is the number of points that are sampled by
the ADC in one second.
Return values:
<ADCSampleRate>
Usage:
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 to 20E+9
1
10E+9
Hz
Query only
ACQuire:SRATe <SampleRate>
Defines the sample rate, that is the number of recorded waveform samples per second.
See also: ​"Sample rate" on page 30.
Parameters:
<SampleRate>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
2 to 20E+12
1
20E+3
Sa/s
ACQuire:RESolution <Resolution>
Indicates the time between two waveform points in the record.
Parameters:
<Resolution>
A fine resolution with low values produces a more precise waveform record.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1E-15 to 0.5
10E-12
500E-6
s
ACQuire:POINts[:VALue] <RecordLength>
Indicates the record length, the number of recorded waveform points that build the waveform across the acquisition time. [:VALue] can be omitted.
Parameters:
<RecordLength>
Number of recorded waveform points.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
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2
1000
Sa
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ACQuire:MODE <EnhancementMode>
Selects the method of adding waveform points to the samples of the ADC in order to fill
the record length.
See also: ​"Resolution enhancement" on page 32.
Parameters:
<EnhancementMode>RTIMe | ITIMe | ETIMe
RTIMe
Real Time Mode: The sampled points of the input signal are used
to build the waveform, no waveform points are added.
ITIMe
Interpolated time: Interpolation of waveform points with the
method set by the interpolation mode, see ​ACQuire:​
INTerpolate​ on page 433.
ETIMe
Equivalent time: The waveform points are taken from several
acquisitions of a repetive signal at a different time in relation to the
trigger point.
*RST:
ITIMe
ACQuire:INTerpolate <IntpolMode>
Selects the interpolation method if ​ACQUire:MODE ITIMe (interpolated time) is set for
enhancement.
See also: ​"Interpolation mode" on page 33.
Parameters:
<IntpolMode>
LINear | SINX | SMHD
LINear
Linear interpolation between two adjacent sample points
SINX
Interpolation by means of a sin(x)/x curve.
SMHD
Sample/Hold causes a histogram-like interpolation.
*RST:
SINX
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>][:STATe] <State>
Activates or deactivates a waveform. [:STATe] can be omitted.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel.
433
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
<n>
Parameters:
<State>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:TYPE <DecimationMode>
Selects the method to reduce the data stream of the ADC to a stream of waveform points
with lower sample rate.
See also:​"Decimation" on page 34.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Parameters:
<DecimationMode>
SAMPle | PDETect | HRESolution | RMS
SAMPle
One of n samples in a sample interval of the ADC is recorded as
waveform point.
PDETect
Peak Detect: the minimum and the maximum of n samples in a
sample interval are recorded as waveform points.
HRESolution
High resolution: The average of n sample points is recorded as
waveform point.
RMS
The waveform point is the root mean square of n sample values.
*RST:
SAMPle
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:ARIThmetics <TrArith>
Selects the method to build the resulting waveform from several consecutive acquisitions
of the signal.
See also: ​"Wfm Arithmetic" on page 34.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel.
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
<n>
Parameters:
<TrArith>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
OFF | ENVelope | AVERage
OFF
The data of the current acquisition is recorded according to the
decimation settings.
ENVelope
Detects the minimum and maximum values in an sample interval
over a number of acquisitions. To define the reset method, use ...
AVERage
Calculates the average from the data of the current acquisition and
a number of acquisitions before. To define the number of acquisitions, use ​ACQuire:​COUNt​.
*RST:
OFF
ACQuire:COUNt <MaxAcqCount>
The acquisition and average count has a double effect:
●
it sets the number of waveforms acquired with RUNSingle.
●
it defines the number of waveforms used to calculate the average waveform, and
Parameters:
<MaxAcqCount>
Range:
1 to 16777215
Increment: 10
*RST:
1
ACQuire:SEGMented:STATe <State>
Switches the Ultra Segmentation mode on and off.
See also: ​chapter 2.3.1.4, "Ultra Segmentation", on page 35.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
ACQuire:SEGMented:MAX <MaxAcquisitions>
The number of acquisitions in a Ultra Segmentation acquisition series depends on the
record length.
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<MaxAcquisitions>
ON | OFF
ON
The maximum possible number of acquisitions in a series is used.
OFF
Acquires the number of acquisitions defined using ​ACQuire:​
COUNt​.
*RST:
16.2.5.4
OFF
Vertical
CHANnel<m>:​STATe​.....................................................................................................436
CHANnel<m>:​COUPling​.................................................................................................436
CHANnel<m>:​GND​........................................................................................................437
CHANnel<m>:​SCALe​.....................................................................................................437
CHANnel<m>:​RANGe​....................................................................................................437
CHANnel<m>:​POSition​...................................................................................................438
CHANnel<m>:​OFFSet​....................................................................................................438
CHANnel<m>:​BANDwidth​...............................................................................................439
CHANnel<m>:​IMPedance​...............................................................................................439
CHANnel<m>:​OVERload​................................................................................................439
CHANnel<m>:STATe <State>
Switches the channel signal on or off.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CHANnel<m>:COUPling <Coupling>
Selects the connection of the indicated channel signal.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel.
436
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Coupling>
DC | DCLimit | AC
DC
Direct connection with 50 Ωtermination.
DCLimit
Direct connection with 1 MΩ termination.
AC
Connection through DC capacitor.
*RST:
DCLimit
CHANnel<m>:GND <State>
Connects the signal to the ground.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CHANnel<m>:SCALe <Scale>
Sets the vertical scale for the indicated channel.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Scale>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Scale value, given in Volts per division.
Range:
Depends on attenuation factors and coupling. With
1:1 probe and external attenuations and 50 Ω input
coupling, the vertical scale (input sensitivity) is 1 mV/
div to 1 V/div. For 1 MΩ input coupling, it is 1 mV/div
to 10 V/div. If the probe and/or external attenuation
is changed, multiply the values by the attenuation
factors to get the actual scale range.
Increment: 1E-3
*RST:
0.05
Default unit: V/div
CHANnel<m>:RANGe <Range>
Sets the voltage range across the 10 vertical divisions of the diagram. Use the command
alternativly instead of ​CHANnel<m>:​SCALe​.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Range>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Voltage range value
Range:
Depends on attenuation factors and coupling. With
1:1 probe and external attenuations and 50 Ω input
coupling, the range is 10 mV to 10 V. For 1 MΩ input
coupling, it is 10 mV to 100 V. If the probe and/or
external attenuation is changed, multiply the range
values by the attenuation factors.
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.5
Default unit: V/div
CHANnel<m>:POSition <Position>
Sets the vertical position of the indicated channel as a graphical value.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Position>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Positive values move the waveform up, negative values move it
down.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-5 to 5
0.02
0
div
CHANnel<m>:OFFSet <Offset>
The offset voltage is subtracted to correct an offset-affected signal. The offset of a signal
is determined and set by the autoset procedure.
See also: ​"Offset" on page 39
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel.
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Offset>
Negative values move the waveform up, positive values move it
down.
Range:
Depends on attenuation factors, input coupling, and
the offset compensation range of active probes. The
nominal offset range for 1:1 attenuation and probe
offset compensation = 0 is specified in the data sheet.
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0
Default unit: V
CHANnel<m>:BANDwidth <BandwidthLimit>
Selects the bandwidth limit for the indicated channel.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<BandwidthLimit>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
FULL | B800 | B200 | B20
FULL
Use full bandwidth.
B800
Limit to 800 MHz.
B200
Limit to 200 MHz.
B20
Limit to 20 MHz.
*RST:
FULL
CHANnel<m>:IMPedance <Impedance>
Sets the impedance of the channel for power calculations and measurements.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Impedance>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1 to 100E+3
1
50
Ohm
CHANnel<m>:OVERload <Overload>
Retrieves the overload status of the specified channel from the status bit. When the
overload problem is solved, the command resets the status bit.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Parameters:
<Overload>
ON | OFF
Use OFF to reset the overload status bit.
*RST:
CHANnel2:OVERload?
Queries the overload status of channel 2.
CHANnel2:OVERload OFF
Resets the overload status bit.
Example:
16.2.5.5
OFF
Waveform Data
To set the export data format, see ​FORMat[:​DATA]​ on page 426.
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​DATA:​HEADer​..................................................................440
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​DATA[:​VALues]​.................................................................441
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:DATA:HEADer?
Returns the header of channel waveform data.
Table 16-12: Header data
Position
Meaning
Example
1
XStart in s
-9.477E-008 = - 94,77 ns
2
XStop in s
9.477E-008 = 94,77 ns
3
Record length of the waveform in Samples
200000
4
Number of values per sample interval. For most
waveforms the result is 1, for peak detect and envelope waveforms it is 2.
1
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. If [WAVeform<n>] is omitted, waveform 1
is adressed.
Example:
CHAN1:WAV1:DATA:HEAD?
-9.477E-008,9.477E-008,200000,1
Usage:
Query only
SCPI confirmed
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Command Reference
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:DATA[:VALues]?
Returns the data of the channel waveform points. The waveforms data can be used in
MATLAB, for example.
To set the export format, use ​FORMat[:​DATA]​.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. If [WAVeform<n>] is omitted, waveform 1
is adressed.
Return values:
<Data>
16.2.5.6
Comma-separated list of vertical values - the voltages of recorded
waveform samples.
Example:
CHAN1:WAV1:DATA?
-0.125000,-0.123016,-0.123016,-0.123016,
-0.123016,-0.123016,...
Usage:
Query only
Probes
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​STATe​.............................................................................................442
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​MODE​..........................................................................442
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation[:​AUTO]​.........................................................................442
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​DEFProbe​.....................................................................442
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​UNIT​............................................................................443
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​MANual​........................................................................443
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​GAIN:​MANual​...................................................................................443
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​MEASurement​..................................................................................444
CHANnel<m>:​EATScale​.................................................................................................444
CHANnel<m>:​EATTenuation​...........................................................................................444
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​OFFSet:​AZERo​................................................................................445
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​OFFSet:​TOMean​..............................................................................445
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​MODE​.............................................................................................445
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​TYPE​...............................................................................................446
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​NAME​..............................................................................................446
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​IMPedance​.......................................................................................447
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​CAPacitance​....................................................................................447
PROBe<m>:​SETup:​BANDwidth​.......................................................................................447
PROBe<m>:​ID:​SWVersion​..............................................................................................448
PROBe<m>:​ID:​PRDate​..................................................................................................448
PROBe<m>:​ID:​PARTnumber​..........................................................................................448
PROBe<m>:​ID:​SRNumber​..............................................................................................448
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt:​RUN​...................................................................................449
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt:​STATus​..............................................................................449
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STESt[:​RESult]​..............................................................................449
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Command Reference
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​FW:​PATH​.....................................................................................449
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​FW:​FLASh​....................................................................................450
PROBe<m>:​SERVice:​STATe​..........................................................................................450
PROBe<m>:SETup:STATe?
Queries if the probe at the specified input channel is active (detected) or not active (not
detected). To switch the probe on, use ​CHANnel<m>:​STATe​.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Return values:
<State>
DETected | NDETected
*RST:
Usage:
NDETected
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:MODE <ProbeAttMode>
Set the mode to MANual if the instrument does not detect the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ProbeAttMode>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
AUTO | MANual
*RST:
AUTO
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation[:AUTO]?
Queries the attenuation of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Return values:
<ProbeAttModeAuto> Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
Usage:
0.1 to 1000
1
1
V/V
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:DEFProbe <SelectedPredefinedProbe>
Selects a predefined current probe. Current probes are not recognized automatically but
the parameters of R&S current probes (R&S RT-ZCxx) are known to the instrument.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<PredefinedProbe>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
ZC10 | ZC20 | FREE
ZC10 | ZC20
Current probe R&S RT-ZC10 or R&S RT-ZC20
FREE
Any other probe that is not recognized by the instrument.
*RST:
FREE
Firmware/Software: V 1.27
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:UNIT <ProbeAttUnit>
Sets the unit for the connected probe type if ​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​MODE​
on page 442 is set to MANual.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ProbeAttUnit>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
V|A|W
Voltage probe (V), current probe (A), power probe (W)
*RST:
V
PROBe<m>:SETup:ATTenuation:MANual <ProbeAttModeManual>
Sets the attenuation for the connected probe if ​PROBe<m>:​SETup:​ATTenuation:​
MODE​ on page 442 is set to MANual.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Parameters:
<ProbeAttModeManual>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0.1 to 10000
1
10
V/V
PROBe<m>:SETup:GAIN:MANual <ProbeGainModeManual>
Sets the gain of a current probe.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<ProbeGainModeManual>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-6 to 10
0.01
0.1
V/V
PROBe<m>:SETup:MEASurement <ProbeMeterMeas>
Selects the input voltage that is measured by the differential active probe.
See also: ​"Differential active probes" on page 22.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ProbeMeterMeas>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
DIFFerential | COMMonmode
DIFFerential
Measures the voltage between the positive and negative signal
sockets.
COMMonmode
Measures the mean voltage between the signal sockets and the
ground socket.
*RST:
NONE
CHANnel<m>:EATScale <ExtAttScale>
Sets the attenuation scale for an external divider.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ExtAttScale>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
LIN | LOG
*RST:
LIN
CHANnel<m>:EATTenuation <ExtAtt>
Sets the attenuation of an external voltage divider.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ExtAtt>
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.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1E-3 to 1000
0.01
1
The unit depends on the selected scale.
444
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSet:AZERo
Performs an automatic correction of the zero error. If the DUT is ground-referenced, the
Auto Zero function can improve the measurement results.
See also: ​"Auto Zero, AutoZero DC offset, Use AutoZero" on page 46
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Usage:
Event
PROBe<m>:SETup:OFFSet:TOMean
Performs an automatic compensation for a DC component of the specified input signal
using the result of a background mean measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Usage:
Event
PROBe<m>:SETup:MODE <Mode>
Select the action that is started with the micro button on the probe head.
See also: ​"Micro button action" on page 46.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
445
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
Parameters:
<Mode>
RCONtinuous | RSINgle | AUToset | AZERo | SEToffsettomean |
PRINt | SITFile | NOACtion
RCONtinuous
Run continuous: The acquisition is running as long as the probe
button is pressed.
RSINgle
Run single: starts one acquisition.
AUTOSET
Starts the autoset procedure.
AZero
Auto zero: performs an automatic correction of the zero error.
SEToffsettomean
Set offset to mean: performs an automatic compensation for a DC
component of the input signal.
PRINt
Prints the current display according to the printer set with ​
SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​SELect<1..2>​.
SITFile
Save Image To File:
Directs the display image to a file. The ​MMEMory:​NAME​ command
defines the file name. The file format is defined with ​HCOPy:​
DEVice<m>:​LANGuage​.
NOACtion
Nothing is started on pressing the micro button.
*RST:
RCONtinuous
PROBe<m>:SETup:TYPE?
Queries the type of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Type>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
String containing one of the following values:
– None (no probe detected)
– Passive Probe
– active single-ended
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:NAME?
Queries the name of the probe.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Return values:
<Name>
Name string
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:IMPedance?
Queries the termination of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<InputImpedance>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-15 to 1E+9
1E-12
50
Ohm
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:CAPacitance?
Queries the input capacitance of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<InputCapacity>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-15 to 1E-9
1E-12
10E-12
F
Query only
PROBe<m>:SETup:BANDwidth?
Queries the bandwidth of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Return values:
<Bandwidth>
Usage:
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1E+6 to 20E+9
10
1E+9
Hz
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:SWVersion?
Queries the version of the probe firmware.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Return values:
<Softwareversion>
Version number in a string.
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:PRDate?
Queries the production date of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Return values:
<ProductionDate>
Date in a string.
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:PARTnumber?
Queries the R&S part number of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Return values:
<PartNumber>
Part number in a string.
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:ID:SRNumber?
Queries the serial number of the probe.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
448
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Return values:
<SerialNo>
Serial number in a string.
Usage:
Query only
PROBe<m>:SERVice:STESt:RUN
Starts the selftest of the probe connected to the specified channel input.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Usage:
Event
PROBe<m>:SERVice:STESt:STATus?
Queries the status of a probe selftest for the specified channel input.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<SelfTestStatus>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
PSSD | FAILed | UNDefined
When the selftest has finished, the status is passed or failed, otherwise it is undefined.
*RST:
Usage:
UNDefined
Query only
PROBe<m>:SERVice:STESt[:RESult]?
Queries the result of a probe selftest for the specified channel input.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<SelftestResult>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
The string contains the pass/fail results of all steps of the probe
selftest.
Query only
PROBe<m>:SERVice:FW:PATH <FlashPath>
Indicates the location of the firmware update package.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
449
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<FlashPath>
String with the path and file name of the update package.
PROBe<m>:SERVice:FW:FLASh
Starts the update of the probe firmware.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Usage:
Event
PROBe<m>:SERVice:STATe?
Queries the update status of the probe firmware.
See also: ​"Probe FW update" on page 48.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<ServiceState>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
MEASuring | UPDate | FAILed | UNKNown
*RST:
Usage:
16.2.5.7
UNKNown
Query only
Digital Filter
CHANnel<m>:​DIGFilter:​STATe​.......................................................................................450
CHANnel<m>:​DIGFilter:​CUToff​.......................................................................................450
TRIGger<m>:​COUPling​..................................................................................................451
TRIGger<m>:​RFReject<n>​.............................................................................................451
CHANnel<m>:DIGFilter:STATe <State>
Enables the DSP filter.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CHANnel<m>:DIGFilter:CUToff <CutOffLP>
Sets the limit frequency of the Lowpass filter for input channels.
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Command Reference
The filter value is applied to two channels in R&S RTO1022 and R&S RTO1024, or
applied to all available channels in R&S RTO1012 and R&S RTO1014.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<CutOffLP>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E+3 to 4E+9
1000
1E+6
Hz
TRIGger<m>:COUPling <DigitalTrigCoup>
Selects the filter for the trigger channel(s). Other channels must use the same filter, or
proceed unfiltered.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Parameters:
<DigitalTrigCoup>
OFF | RFReject
OFF
The trigger signal is not filtered.
RFReject
Frequencies higher a given limit are rejected, lower frequencies
pass the filter. The limit is set with ​TRIGger<m>:​RFReject<n>​.
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:RFReject<n> <RejectBandwidth>
Sets the limit frequency, if the trigger coupling is set to RFReject. See ​TRIGger<m>:​
COUPling​.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RejectBandwidth>
16.2.5.8
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event, 3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E+3 to 4E+9
1000
1E+6
Hz
Skew
CHANnel<m>:​SKEW:​MANual​.........................................................................................452
CHANnel<m>:​SKEW:​TIME​.............................................................................................452
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Command Reference
CHANnel<m>:SKEW:MANual <ManualCompensation>
If enabled, the skew offset value (​CHANnel<m>:​SKEW:​TIME​) is used for compensation.
This improves horizontal and trigger accuracy.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Parameters:
<ManualCompensation>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
CHANnel<m>:SKEW:TIME <Offset>
Sets an delay value, that is known from the circuit specifics but cannot be compensated
by the instrument automatically. It affects only the selected input channel.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Offset>
16.2.5.9
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E-9 to 100E-9
1E-12
0
s
Reference (OCXO Option R&S RTO)-B4
SENSe[:​ROSCillator]:​SOURce​........................................................................................452
SENSe[:​ROSCillator]:​EXTernal:​FREQuency​.....................................................................452
SENSe[:ROSCillator]:SOURce <RefOscillatorSrc>
Enables the use of the external reference signal instead of the internal OCXO reference.
Parameters:
<RefOscillatorSrc>
INTernal | EXTernal
*RST:
INTernal
SENSe[:ROSCillator]:EXTernal:FREQuency <ExternalRef>
Sets the frequency of an external reference input signal that is connected to the external
reference input on the rear panel.
Parameters:
<ExternalRef>
User Manual 1316.0827.02 ─ 06
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
1E+6 to 20E+6
1E+6
10E+6
Hz
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Command Reference
16.2.6 Trigger
●
●
●
●
●
●
16.2.6.1
Trigger Events and Trigger Types.........................................................................453
Trigger Qualification..............................................................................................478
Noise Reject..........................................................................................................481
Trigger Sequence..................................................................................................483
Trigger Position.....................................................................................................489
Trigger Control......................................................................................................490
Trigger Events and Trigger Types
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Basic Trigger Settings...........................................................................................453
Edge Trigger.........................................................................................................456
Glitch Trigger.........................................................................................................459
Width Trigger.........................................................................................................461
Runt Trigger..........................................................................................................462
Window Trigger.....................................................................................................465
Timeout Trigger.....................................................................................................468
Interval Trigger......................................................................................................468
Slew Rate Trigger.................................................................................................470
Data2Clock Trigger...............................................................................................473
Pattern Trigger......................................................................................................475
Serial Pattern Trigger............................................................................................477
Basic Trigger Settings
DISPlay:​TRIGger:​LINes​..................................................................................................453
TRIGger<m>:​SOURce​....................................................................................................453
TRIGger<m>:​TYPE​........................................................................................................454
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>[:​VALue]​......................................................................................455
TRIGger<m>:​FINDlevel​..................................................................................................455
TRIGger<m>:​ROBust​.....................................................................................................456
TRIGger<m>:​ECOupling​.................................................................................................456
TRIGger<m>:​SCOupling​.................................................................................................456
DISPlay:TRIGger:LINes <State>
Hides or shows the trigger levels in the diagrams.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:SOURce <SourceDetailed>
Selects the source of the trigger signal.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SourceDetailed>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
CHANnel1 | CHANnel2 | CHANnel3 | CHANnel4 | EXTernanalog |
SBUS | D0 | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 | D11 |
D12 | D13 | D14 | D15 | LOGIC | MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 |
MSOB4
CHANnel1...4
Input channels
EXTernanalog
External analog signal connected to the External Trigger Input on
the rear panel. For this source, only the analog edge trigger is
available.
SBUS
Serial bus
D0...D15
Digital channels (option R&S RTO-B1)
LOGIc
Logic combination of digital channels, used as trigger source
(option R&S RTO-B1)
MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
Parallel bus (option R&S RTO-B1)
*RST:
CHANnel1
TRIGger<m>:TYPE <Type>
Selects the trigger type for the trigger event.
See also: ​chapter 3.3.1, "Events", on page 58.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Type>
EDGE | GLITch | WIDTh | RUNT | WINDow | TIMeout | INTerval |
SLEWrate | DATatoclock | STATe | PATTern | ANEDge |
SERPattern
Most of the type values are self-explanatory.
DATatoclock
Data2Clock: analyzes the relative timimg between a data signal
and the synchronous clock signal.
ANEDge
Analog Edge trigger which uses the analog trigger signal while the
Edge trigger uses the digitized trigger signal.
SERPattern
Serial Pattern for signals with serial data patterns in relation to a
clock signal.
*RST:
EDGE
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>[:VALue] <Level>
Sets the trigger level for the specified event and source.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5 = External Trigger Input on the rear panel for analog signals
6...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Voltage for the trigger level.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0
V
TRIGger<m>:FINDlevel
Sets the trigger level automatically. The command is not available for an external trigger
source.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:ROBust <Robust>
The "robust trigger" setting is relevant for all trigger types with an event condition that is
based on the time difference between a rising and a falling edge. These trigger types are:
glitch, width, runt, timeout, window, data2clock, pattern, and serial pattern. It avoids an
undefined state of the trigger system that might occur due to hysteresis, for example,
when triggering on the envelope of a modulated signal.
See also: ​"Robust trigger" on page 61
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Robust>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event, 3 = R-event.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:ECOupling <TrigLevEvtCoup>
Sets the trigger levels of the channels to the values of the indicated event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TrigLevEvtCoup>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event (reset event).
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
TRIGger<m>:SCOupling <TrigLevSrcCoup>
Sets the trigger levels of all channels to the value of channel 1 for the indicated trigger
event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TrigLevSrcCoup>
.
1..3
Indicates the trigger event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 =
B-event, 3 = R-event (reset event).
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Edge Trigger
TRIGger<m>:​EDGE:​SLOPe​............................................................................................457
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​COUPling​.....................................................................................457
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​CUToff:​HIGHpass​.........................................................................457
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​CUToff:​LOWPass​.........................................................................458
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​FILTer​.........................................................................................458
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​GND​............................................................................................459
TRIGger<m>:​ANEDge:​SLOPe​.........................................................................................459
TRIGger<m>:EDGE:SLOPe <Slope>
Defines the edge for the edge trigger event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Slope>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event, 3 = R-event.
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.3, "Slope Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:COUPling <Coupling>
Sets the coupling for the analog trigger signal.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Coupling>
.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
DC | DCLimit | AC
DC
Direct connection with 50 Ω termination, passes both DC and AC
components of the trigger signal.
DCLimit
Direct connection with 1 MΩ termination, passes both DC and AC
components of the trigger signal.
AC
Connection through DC capacitor, removes DC and very low-frequency components.
*RST:
DCLimit
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:CUToff:HIGHpass <AnalogCutOffHP>
Frequencies below the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected, higher frequencies pass the filter.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
457
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<AnalogCutOffHP>
KHZ5 | KHZ50 | MHZ50
Cut-off frequency
KHZ5
5 kHz
KHZ50
50 kHz
MHZ50
50 MHz
*RST:
KHZ50
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:CUToff:LOWPass <AnalogCutOffLP>
Frequencies higher than the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected, lower frequencies pass the
filter.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<AnalogCutOffLP>
.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
KHZ5 | KHZ50 | MHZ50
KHZ5
5 kHz
KHZ50
50 kHz
MHZ50
50 MHz
*RST:
KHZ50
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:FILTer <Filter>
The analog trigger signal is used for triggering; you can directly select an additional filter
to reject high or low frequencies.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Filter>
OFF | LFReject | RFReject
OFF
The trigger signal is not filtered.
LFReject
Frequencies higher than the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected,
lower frequencies pass the filter.
You can adjust the "Cut-off" frequency using the ​TRIGger<m>:​
ANEDge:​CUToff:​LOWPass​ command, the default is 50 kHz.
RFReject
Frequencies below the "Cut-off" frequency are rejected, higher
frequencies pass the filter.
You can adjust the "Cut-off" frequency using the ​TRIGger<m>:​
ANEDge:​CUToff:​HIGHpass​ command, the default is 50 kHz.
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:GND <Ground>
Connects the analog signal to the ground.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Ground>
.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:ANEDge:SLOPe <Slope>
Sets the edge for the trigger event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Slope>
.
1..3
Only suffix 1 = A-event is allowed, the analog edge trigger is not
available for B- and R-events.
POSitive | NEGative
See ​chapter 16.2.2.3, "Slope Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
Glitch Trigger
The glitch trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​POLarity​........................................................................................460
TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​RANGe​..........................................................................................460
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​WIDTh​...........................................................................................460
TRIGger<m>:GLITch:POLarity <Polarity>
Defines the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Polarity>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 3 = R-event.
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.4, "Polarity Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:GLITch:RANGe <RangeMode>
Selects which glitches are identified: shorter or longer than the width specified using ​
TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​WIDTh​.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
SHORter | LONGer
SHORter
Glitches shorter than the specified width are identified.
LONGer
Glitches longer than the specified width are identified.
*RST:
SHORter
TRIGger<m>:GLITch:WIDTh <Width>
Sets the length of a glitch. The instrument triggers on pulses shorter or longer than this
value, depnding on the ​TRIGger<m>:​GLITch:​RANGe​ command.
You need to know the expected pulse widths of the circuit to set the glitch width correctly.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Width>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-6
1E-9
s
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Command Reference
Width Trigger
The width trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​POLarity​.........................................................................................461
TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​RANGe​..........................................................................................461
TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​WIDTh​...........................................................................................462
TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​DELTa​...........................................................................................462
TRIGger<m>:WIDTh:POLarity <Polarity>
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Polarity>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 3 = R-event.
POSitive | NEGative
See ​chapter 16.2.2.4, "Polarity Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:WIDTh:RANGe <RangeMode>
Defines how the range of a pulse width is defined in relation to the width and delta specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​WIDTh​ and ​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​DELTa​, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin
Triggers on pulses inside a given range. The range is defined by
the width ±delta.
OUTSide
Triggers on pulses outside a given range. The range is defined by
the width ±delta.
SHORter
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given width.
LONGer
Triggers on pulses longer than the given width.
*RST:
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WITHin
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:WIDTh:WIDTh <Width>
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside" (defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​RANGe​), the
width defines the center of a range which is defined by the limits "±Delta" (see ​
TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​DELTa​ on page 462).
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Width>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
5E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:WIDTh:DELTa <WidthDelta>
Defines a range around the width value specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​WIDTh:​WIDTh​.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<WidthDelta>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 432
500E-12
0
s
Runt Trigger
The runt trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​POLarity​..........................................................................................462
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​RUNT:​UPPer​..............................................................................463
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​RUNT:​LOWer​.............................................................................463
TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​RANGe​...........................................................................................463
TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​WIDTh​............................................................................................464
TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​DELTa​............................................................................................464
TRIGger<m>:RUNT:POLarity <Polarity>
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 3 = R-event.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Polarity>
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.4, "Polarity Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:RUNT:UPPer <Level>
Sets the upper voltage threshold.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:RUNT:LOWer <Level>
Sets the lower voltage threshold.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
-0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:RUNT:RANGe <Mode>
Defines the time limit of the runt pulse in relation to the ​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​WIDTh​ and
​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​DELTa​ settings.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Mode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
ANY | LONGer | SHORter | WITHin | OUTSide
ANY
Triggers on all runts fulfilling the level condition, without time limitation.
LONGer
Triggers on runts longer than the given "Runt width".
SHORter
Triggers on runts shorter than the given "Runt width".
WITHin
Triggers if the runt length is inside a given time range. The range
is defined by "Runt width" and "±Delta".
OUTSide
Triggers if the runt length is outside a given time range. The range
is defined by "Runt width" and "±Delta".
*RST:
ANY
TRIGger<m>:RUNT:WIDTh <Width>
Defines the upper or lower voltage threshold. This command is not available if ​
TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​RANGe​ is set to "ANY".
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Width>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
5E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:RUNT:DELTa <WidthDelta>
Defines a range around the runt width specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​WIDTh​. This
command is only available if ​TRIGger<m>:​RUNT:​RANGe​ is set to "WITHin" or "OUTSide".
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<WidthDelta>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 864
100E-9
100E-12
s
Window Trigger
The window trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​WINDow:​UPPer​..........................................................................465
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​WINDow:​LOWer​.........................................................................465
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​RANGe​........................................................................................466
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​TIME​...........................................................................................466
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​WIDTh​.........................................................................................467
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​DELTa​.........................................................................................467
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:WINDow:UPPer <Level>
Sets the upper voltage limit for the window.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:WINDow:LOWer <Level>
Sets the lower voltage limit for the window.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
-0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:WINDow:RANGe <RangeMode>
Defines the signal run in relation to the window:
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
ENTer | EXIT | WITHin | OUTSide
ENTer
Triggers when the signal crosses the upper or lower level and thus
enters the window made up of these two levels.
EXIT
Triggers when the signal leaves the window.
WITHin
Triggers if the signal stays between the upper and lower level for
a specified time. The time is defined using the ​TRIGger<m>:​
WINDow:​TIME​ command.
OUTSide
Triggers if the signal stays above the upper level or below the
lower level for a specified time. The time is defined using the ​
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​TIME​ command.
*RST:
ENTer
TRIGger<m>:WINDow:TIME <TimeRangeMode>
Defines the limit of the window in relation to the time specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​
WINDow:​WIDTh​ and ​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​DELTa​. Time conditioning is available for ​
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​RANGe​= "WITHin" and "OUTSide".
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<TimeRangeMode>
WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin
Triggers if the signal stays inside or outside the vertical window
limits at least for the time Width - Delta and for Width + Delta at
the most.
OUTSide
"Outside" is the opposite definition of "Within". The instrument
triggers if the signal stays inside or outside the vertical window
limits for a time shorter than Width - Delta or longer than Width +
Delta.
SHORter
Triggers if the signal crosses vertical limits before the specified
"Width" time is reached.
LONGer
Triggers if the signal crosses vertical limits before the specified
"Width" time is reached.
*RST:
WITHin
TRIGger<m>:WINDow:WIDTh <Width>
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside" (defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​RANGe​),
the width defines the center of a time range which is defined by the limits "±Delta" (see ​
TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​DELTa​ on page 467).
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", it defines the maximum and minimum time lapse,
respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Width>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
5E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:WINDow:DELTa <WidthDelta>
Defines a range around the "Width" value specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​WINDow:​
WIDTh​.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
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Parameters:
<WidthDelta>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 432
500E-12
0
s
Timeout Trigger
The timeout trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​TIMeout:​RANGe​.........................................................................................468
TRIGger<m>:​TIMeout:​TIME​............................................................................................468
TRIGger<m>:TIMeout:RANGe <TimeoutMode>
Defines the relation of the signal level to the trigger level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TimeoutMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
HIGH | LOW | EITHer
HIGH
The signal level stays above the trigger level.
LOW
The signal level stays below the trigger level.
EITHer
The signal level stays above or below the trigger level.
*RST:
HIGH
TRIGger<m>:TIMeout:TIME <Time>
Defines the time limit for the timeout at which the instrument triggers.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Time>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
100E-9
s
Interval Trigger
The interval trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
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TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​POLarity​.......................................................................................469
TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​RANGe​........................................................................................469
TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​WIDTh​.........................................................................................469
TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​DELTa​.........................................................................................470
TRIGger<m>:INTerval:POLarity <Polarity>
Indicates the polarity of a pulse, that is the direction of the first pulse slope.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Polarity>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 3 = R-event.
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.4, "Polarity Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:INTerval:RANGe <RangeMode>
Defines the range of an interval in relation to the interval width specified using ​
TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​WIDTh​ and ​TRIGger<m>:​INTerval:​DELTa​.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin
Triggers on pulses inside a given range. The range is defined by
the interval width ±delta.
OUTSide
Triggers on pulses outside a given range. The range is defined by
the interval width ±delta.
SHORter
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given interval width.
LONGer
Triggers on pulses longer than the given interval width.
*RST:
OUTSide
TRIGger<m>:INTerval:WIDTh <Width>
Defines the time between two pulses.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Width>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
5E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:INTerval:DELTa <WidthDelta>
Defines a range around the "Interval width" value specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​
INTerval:​WIDTh​ on page 469.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<WidthDelta>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 10
100E-9
0
s
Slew Rate Trigger
The slew rate trigger is not available for the B-event (Suffix = 2).
TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​SLOPe​............................................................................................470
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​SLEW:​UPPer​..............................................................................471
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​SLEW:​LOWer​.............................................................................471
TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RANGe​...........................................................................................471
TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RATE​..............................................................................................472
TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​DELTa​............................................................................................472
TRIGger<m>:SLEW:SLOPe <Slope>
Selects the edge type for the trigger event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Slope>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 3 = R-event.
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.3, "Slope Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
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POSitive
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TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:SLEW:UPPer <Level>
Defines the upper voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate
measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:SLEW:LOWer <Level>
Defines the lower voltage threshold. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate
measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5...9 = not available
Parameters:
<Level>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
-0.1
V
TRIGger<m>:SLEW:RANGe <RangeMode>
Defines the time limit for the slew rate in relation to the upper or lower trigger level (see ​
TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RATE​ on page 472 and ​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​DELTa​
on page 472). The time measurement starts when the signal crosses the first trigger level
- the upper or lower level depending on the selected slope - and stops when the signal
crosses the second level.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RangeMode>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
INSRange | OUTRange | LTHan | GTHan
INSRange
Triggers on pulses inside a given range. The range is defined by
the slew rate ±delta.
OUTRange
Triggers on pulses outside a given range. The range is defined by
the slew rate ±delta.
LTHan
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given slew rate.
GTHan
Triggers on pulses longer than the given slew rate.
*RST:
GTHan
TRIGger<m>:SLEW:RATE <Time>
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside", the slew rate defines the center of a range which
is defined by the limits "±Delta".
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the slew rate defines the maximum and minimum
slew rate limits, respectively. When the signal crosses this level, the slew rate measurement starts or stops depending on the selected slope (see ​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​
SLOPe​ on page 470).
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Time>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
100E-12
s
TRIGger<m>:SLEW:DELTa <TimeDelta>
Defines a time range around the slew rate specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​SLEW:​RATE​.
Suffix:
<m>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
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Parameters:
<TimeDelta>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 10
100E-9
0
s
Data2Clock Trigger
The Data2Clock trigger is only available for the A-event (Suffix = 1).
TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​...................................................................473
TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​EDGE​......................................................................473
TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​LEVel​......................................................................473
TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​HTIMe​...................................................................................474
TRIGger<m>:​DATatoclock:​STIMe​....................................................................................474
TRIGger<m>:DATatoclock:CSOurce[:VALue] <ClockSource>
Selects the source of the clock signal.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ClockSource>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
CHANnel1 | CHANnel2 | CHANnel3 | CHANnel4
Input channel
*RST:
CHANnel1
TRIGger<m>:DATatoclock:CSOurce:EDGE <ClockEdge>
Sets the edge of the clock signal to define the time reference point for the setup and hold
time.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ClockEdge>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.3, "Slope Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:DATatoclock:CSOurce:LEVel <ClockLevel>
Sets the voltage level for the clock signal. Both this command and ​TRIGger<m>:​
DATatoclock:​CSOurce:​EDGE​ define the starting point for calculation of the setup and
hold time.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ClockLevel>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0
V
TRIGger<m>:DATatoclock:HTIMe <HoldTime>
Sets the minimum time after the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady above
or below the data level.
The hold time can be negative. In this case, the setup time is always positive. The setup/
hold interval starts before the clock edge (setup time) and ends before the clock edge
(hold time). If you change the negative hold time, the setup time is adjusted by the intrument.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<HoldTime>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-99.999E-9 to 100E-9
1E-9
0
s
TRIGger<m>:DATatoclock:STIMe <SetupTime>
Sets the minimum time before the clock edge while the data signal must stay steady
above or below the data level.
The setup time can be negative. In this case, the hold time is always positive. The setup/
hold interval starts after the clock edge (setup time) and ends after the clock edge (hold
time). If you change the negative setup time, the hold time is adjusted by the intrument.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SetupTime>
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.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-99.999E-9 to 100E-9
1E-9
0
s
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Pattern Trigger
The pattern trigger is only available for the A-event (Suffix = 1).
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​MODE​.........................................................................................475
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​TIMeout:​MODE​............................................................................475
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​TIMeout[:​TIME]​............................................................................476
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​RANGe​............................................................................476
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh[:​WIDTh]​............................................................................476
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​DELTa​..............................................................................477
TRIGger<m>:PATTern:MODE <Mode>
Adds additional time limitation to the pattern definition.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Mode>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
OFF | TIMeout | WIDTh
OFF
No time limitation. The event occurs if the pattern condition is fulfilled.
TIMeout
Defines how long the result of the pattern condition must be true
or false. The duration of the timeout is defined using ​
TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​TIMeout[:​TIME]​.
WIDTh
Defines a time range for keeping up the true result of the pattern
condition. The range is defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​
WIDTh:​RANGe​.
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:PATTern:TIMeout:MODE <TimeoutMode>
Defines the condition for the timeout.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TimeoutMode>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
HIGH | LOW
HIGH
The result stays high.
LOW
The result stays low.
*RST:
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TRIGger<m>:PATTern:TIMeout[:TIME] <Time>
Defines how long the result of the pattern condition must be true or false.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Time>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
100E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:PATTern:WIDTh:RANGe <WidthRangeMode>
Defines how the range of a pulse width is defined for keeping up the true result of the
pattern condition. The width and delta are specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​
WIDTh[:​WIDTh]​ and ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​DELTa​, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
Parameters:
<WidthRangeMode> WITHin | OUTSide | SHORter | LONGer
WITHin
Triggers on pulses inside a given range. The range is defined by
the width ±delta.
OUTSide
Triggers on pulses outside a given range. The range is defined by
the width ±delta.
SHORter
Triggers on pulses shorter than the given width.
LONGer
Triggers on pulses longer than the given width.
*RST:
WITHin
TRIGger<m>:PATTern:WIDTh[:WIDTh] <Width>
For the ranges "Within" and "Outside" (defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​
RANGe​), the width defines the center of a range which is defined by the limits "±Delta"
(see ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​WIDTh:​DELTa​ on page 477).
For the ranges "Shorter" and "Longer", the width defines the maximum and minimum
pulse width, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..3
1 = A-event only
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Parameters:
<Width>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-12 to 10000
100E-9
5E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:PATTern:WIDTh:DELTa <WidthDelta>
Defines a range around the width value specified using ​TRIGger<m>:​PATTern:​
WIDTh[:​WIDTh]​.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<WidthDelta>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 432
500E-12
0
s
Serial Pattern Trigger
The slew serial pattern trigger is only available for the A-event (Suffix = 1).
TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce[:​VALue]​........................................................................477
TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​EDGE​..........................................................................477
TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​LEVel​...........................................................................478
TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​PATTern​.....................................................................................478
TRIGger<m>:SPATtern:CSOurce[:VALue] <ClockSource>
Defines the source of the clock signal.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ClockSource>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
CHANnel1 | CHANnel2 | CHANnel3 | CHANnel4
Input channel
*RST:
CHANnel1
TRIGger<m>:SPATtern:CSOurce:EDGE <ClockEdge>
Together with the clock level (see ​TRIGger<m>:​SPATtern:​CSOurce:​LEVel​
on page 478), the clock edge defines the point in time when the state of the data signal
is checked.
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Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
1 = A-event only
Parameters:
<ClockEdge>
POSitive | NEGative | EITHer
See ​chapter 16.2.2.3, "Slope Parameter", on page 420.
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:SPATtern:CSOurce:LEVel <ClockLevel>
Defines the voltage level for the clock signal.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Parameters:
<ClockLevel>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-10 to 10
1E-3
0
V
TRIGger<m>:SPATtern:PATTern <Pattern>
The pattern contains the bits of the serial data to be found in the data stream. The maximum length of the pattern is 128 bit.
.
1..3
Indicates the event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event,
3 = R-event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Pattern>
16.2.6.2
Numeric or string pattern, see ​chapter 16.2.2.6, "Bit Pattern
Parameter", on page 421. The string parameter accepts the bit
value X (don't care).
Trigger Qualification
The A-event and B-event in a trigger sequence can have their own trigger qualification.
Qualification is not available for R-events (Event-Suffix m = 3).
The trigger type to which the qualification belongs is defined by a suffix.
Table 16-13: Trigger type suffixes
Suffix
Trigger type
1
EDGE
2
GLITch
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Suffix
Trigger type
3
WIDTh
4
RUNT
5
WINDow
6
TIMeout
7
INTerval
8
qualification is not supported (SLEWrate)
9
qualification is not supported (DATatoclock)
10
PATTern
11
qualification is not supported (ANEDge)
12
currently not used
13
currently not used
14
qualification is not supported (SERPattern)
15
qualification is not supported (MSOState, option R&S RTO-B1)
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​STATe​....................................................................................479
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​A[:​ENABle]​..............................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​B[:​ENABle]​..............................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​C[:​ENABle]​..............................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​D[:​ENABle]​..............................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​A:​LOGic​..................................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​B:​LOGic​..................................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​C:​LOGic​.................................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​D:​LOGic​.................................................................................480
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​AB:​LOGic​................................................................................481
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​CD:​LOGic​...............................................................................481
TRIGger<m>:​QUALify<n>:​ABCD:​LOGic​...........................................................................481
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:STATe <AddTrigLogic>
Enables the use of the qualification definition for the selected trigger event.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event.
<n>
1..15
Defines the trigger type, see ​table 16-13.
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Parameters:
<AddTrigLogic>
ON | OFF
ON
The qualification expression is considered for the trigger event.
OFF
The qualification expression is ignored for the trigger event.
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:A[:ENABle] <State>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:B[:ENABle] <State>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:C[:ENABle] <State>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:D[:ENABle] <State>
Selects one of the channels and the specified trigger event to be considered for qualification:
●
A[:ENABle]: CH1
●
B[:ENABle]: CH2
●
C[:ENABle]: CH3
●
D[:ENABle]: CH4
You can select all channel signals except for the trigger source. In pattern trigger setup,
the trigger source channel is selected by default, and you can select all other channel
signals.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event.
<n>
1..15
Defines the trigger type, see ​table 16-13.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
ON
The qualification expression is considered.
OFF
The qualification expression is ignored.
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:A:LOGic <Operator>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:B:LOGic <Operator>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:C:LOGic <Operator>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:D:LOGic <Operator>
Defines the logic for the indicated channel:
●
A: CH1
●
B: CH2
●
C: CH3
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●
D: CH4
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event.
<n>
1..15
Defines the trigger type, see ​table 16-13.
Parameters:
<Operator>
DIRect | NOT
DIRect
Input value remains unchanged
NOT
Input value is inverted
*RST:
DIRect
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:AB:LOGic <Operator>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:CD:LOGic <Operator>
TRIGger<m>:QUALify<n>:ABCD:LOGic <Operator>
Defines the logical combination of the indicated channels after evaluating the previous
logical operations:
●
AB: CH1 and CH2
●
CD: CH3 and CH4
●
ABCD: all four channels
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence: 1 = A-event, 2 = B-event.
<n>
1..15
Defines the trigger type, see ​table 16-13.
Parameters:
<Operator>
AND | NAND | OR | NOR
AND
logical AND, conjunctive combination
NAND
logical NOT AND
OR
logical OR, disjunctive combination
NOR
logical NOT OR
*RST:
16.2.6.3
AND
Noise Reject
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe[:​STATe]​...........................................................................482
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TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​MODE​.............................................................................482
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​ABSolute​.........................................................................483
TRIGger<m>:​LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​RELative​..........................................................................483
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:NOISe[:STATe] <HysteresisMode>
Selects how the hysteresis is set.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence, the suffix is irrelevant.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source:
1...4 = channel 1...4
5 = External Trigger Input on the rear panel for analog signals
6...9 = Not available
Parameters:
<HysteresisMode>
AUTO | MANual
AUTO
This is the recommended mode. The hysteresis is set by the
instrument to reject at least the internal noise of the instrument.
You can define a higher minimum value using ​TRIGger<m>:​
LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​ABSolute​.
MANual
The hysteresis is defined directly with ​TRIGger<m>:​
LEVel<n>:​NOISe:​ABSolute​.
*RST:
AUTO
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:NOISe:MODE <HystSizeMode>
Selects how the hysteresis is set.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence, the suffix is irrelevant.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source: 1...4 = channel 1...4;
5 = External Trigger Input on the rear panel;
6...9 = Not available
Parameters:
<HystSizeMode>
ABS | REL
ABS
The hysteresis is set in absolute values (voltage).
REL
The hysteresis is defined in relative values (div).
*RST:
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ABS
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:NOISe:ABSolute <HystAbs>
Defines a range in absolute values around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this
range and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence, the suffix is irrelevant.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source: 1...4 = channel 1...4;
5 = External Trigger Input on the rear panel for analog signals;
6...9 = Not available
Parameters:
<HystAbs>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 10
1E-3
0
V
TRIGger<m>:LEVel<n>:NOISe:RELative <HystRel>
Defines a range in percent around the trigger level. If the signal jitters inside this range
and crosses the trigger level thereby, no trigger event occurs.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
Event in a trigger sequence, the suffix is irrelevant.
<n>
1..9
Indicates the trigger source: 1...4 = channel 1...4;
5 = External Trigger Input on the rear panel for analog signals;
6...9 = Not available
Parameters:
<HystRel>
16.2.6.4
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1
0
%
Trigger Sequence
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​MODE​......................................................................................484
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​DELay​......................................................................................484
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​COUNt​.....................................................................................484
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​EVENt​............................................................................485
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​TIMeout[:​ENABle]​............................................................485
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​RESet:​TIMeout:​TIME​.................................................................485
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​.........................................................................................485
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​TIME​...........................................................................................486
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​EVENts​........................................................................................487
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MIN​.............................................................................................487
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Remote Control
Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MAX​............................................................................................487
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​AUTotime​.....................................................................................488
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​SCALing​......................................................................................488
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:MODE <Type>
Selects the type of the sequence.
See also: ​chapter 3.3.4, "Sequence", on page 80.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Type>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
AONLy | ABR
AONLy
Triggers only on A-events. Additionally, a holdoff condition can be
set.
ABR
Triggers if all conditions of A- and B-events, as well as additional
delay and reset timeout or R-event (reset) conditions are fulfilled.
*RST:
AONLy
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:DELay <Delay>
Sets the time the instrument waits after an A-event until it recognizes B-events.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Delay>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1E-12
0
s
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:COUNt <Events>
Sets the number of B-events to be fulfilled after an A-event. The last B-event causes the
trigger.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Events>
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.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
1 to 2147483647
Increment: 10
*RST:
1
484
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:RESet:EVENt <EnabRstEvt>
If set to ON, the trigger sequence is restarted by the R-event if the specified number of
B-event does not occur.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<EnabRstEvt>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:RESet:TIMeout[:ENABle] <State>
If set to ON, the instrument waits for the time defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​
RESet:​TIMeout:​TIME​ for the specified number of B-events. If no trigger occurs during
that time, the sequence is restarted with the A-event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:SEQuence:RESet:TIMeout:TIME <ResetTimeout>
The time the instrument waits for the number of B-events specified using ​
TRIGger<m>:​SEQuence:​COUNt​ before the sequence is restarted with the A-event.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ResetTimeout>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1E-12
0
s
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:MODE <Mode>
Selects the method to define the holdoff condition.
The trigger holdoff defines when the next trigger after the current will be recognized. Thus,
it affects the next trigger to occur after the current one. Holdoff helps to obtain stable
triggering when the oscilloscope is triggering on undesired events.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Mode>
.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
TIME | EVENts | RANDom | AUTO | OFF
TIME
Defines the holdoff directly as a time period. The next trigger
occurs only after the "Holdoff time" has passed (defined using ​
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​TIME​).
EVENts
Defines the holdoff as a number of trigger events. The next trigger
occurs only when this number of events is reached. The number
of triggers to be skipped is defined using ​TRIGger<m>:​
HOLDoff:​EVENts​.
RANDom
Defines the holdoff as a random time limited by ​TRIGger<m>:​
HOLDoff:​MIN​ on page 487 and ​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MAX​
on page 487. For each acquisition cycle, the instrument selects a
new random holdoff time from the specified range.
AUTO
The holdoff time is calculated automatically based on the current
horizontal scale.
OFF
No holdoff
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:TIME <Time>
Defines the holdoff time period. The next trigger occurs only after this time has passed.
The setting is relevant if the holdoff mode is set to TIME.
See also:
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
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.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-9 to 10
200E-6
1E-3
s
TRIGger1:HOLDoff:MODE TIME
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:TIME 1ms
The holdoff time is set to 1 ms.
486
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:EVENts <Events>
Defines the number of triggers to be skipped. The next trigger only occurs when this
number of events is reached. The setting is relevant if the holdoff mode is set to EVENts.
See also:
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Events>
Example:
.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
Range:
1 to 2147483647
Increment: 10
*RST:
1
TRIGger1:HOLDoff:MODE EVENts
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:EVENts 5
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:MIN <RandomMinTime>
Defines the lower limit for the random time holdoff. The setting is relevant if the holdoff
mode is set to RANDom.
See also:
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MAX​
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RandomMinTime>
Example:
.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-9 to 5
200E-6
1E-3
s
TRIGger1:HOLDoff:MODE RANDom
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:MIN 1ms
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:MAX 2ms
The holdoff time is set randomly between 1 ms and 2 ms.
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:MAX <RandomMaxTime>
Defines the upper limit for the random time holdoff. The setting is relevant if the holdoff
mode is set to RANDom.
See also:
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MIN​
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
Parameters:
<RandomMaxTime> Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-9 to 10
200E-6
2E-3
s
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:AUTotime?
Returns the resulting holdoff time if the holdoff mode is set to AUTO: Auto time = Auto
time scaling * Horizontal scale. The auto time scaling factor is defined with ​
TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​SCALing​.
See also: ​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<AutoTime>
.
1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
Holdoff time
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
100E-9 to 10
200E-6
1E-3
s
Example:
TRIGger1:HOLDoff:MODE AUTO
TRIGger1:HOLDoff:SCALing 0.5
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:AUTotime?
1ms
Result if the horizontal scale is 1 ns/div
Usage:
Query only
TRIGger<m>:HOLDoff:SCALing <AutoTimeScaling>
Sets the auto time scaling factor the horizontal scale is multipied with: Auto time = Auto
time scaling * Horizontal scale. The setting is relevant if the holdoff mode is set to AUTO.
See also:
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​MODE​
●
​TRIGger<m>:​HOLDoff:​AUTotime​ on page 488
Suffix:
<m>
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1..3
For holdoff settings, only suffix 1 (A-event) is available.
488
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<AutoTimeScaling>
16.2.6.5
Range:
1E-3 to 1000
Increment: 1
*RST:
0.5
Trigger Position
TIMebase:​REFerence​.....................................................................................................489
TIMebase:​POSition​........................................................................................................489
TRIGger<m>:​OFFSet:​LIMited​..........................................................................................489
TIMebase:REFerence <ReferencePoint>
Sets the reference point of the time scale in % of the display. The reference point defines
which part of the waveform is shown. If the "Trigger offset" is zero, the trigger point
matches the reference point.
See also: ​TIMebase:​POSition​ on page 429
Parameters:
<ReferencePoint>
The reference point is the zero point of the time scale.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
50
%
TIMebase:POSition <Offset>
Defines the trigger offset - the time interval between trigger point and reference point to
analize the signal some time before or after the trigger event.
See also: ​TIMebase:​REFerence​ on page 430
Parameters:
<Offset>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-500 to 500
0.01
0
s
TRIGger<m>:OFFSet:LIMited <State>
Ensures that the trigger occurs within within one acquisition cycle.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..3
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
489
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
If ON, the range of the trigger offset is limited considering the
acquisition time and the reference point. Thus the trigger cannot
be set outside the waveform diagram.
*RST:
16.2.6.6
ON
Trigger Control
TRIGger<m>:​MODE​.......................................................................................................490
TRIGger<m>:​FORCe​.....................................................................................................490
TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​STATe​...............................................................................................491
TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​POLarity​............................................................................................491
TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​PLENgth​............................................................................................491
TRIGger<m>:​OUT:​DELay​...............................................................................................491
TRIGger<m>:MODE <TriggerMode>
Sets the trigger mode which determines the behaviour of the instrument if no trigger
occurs.
See also: ​"Trigger mode" on page 85
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TriggerMode>
.
1..3
The numeric suffix is irrelevant.
AUTO | NORMal | FREerun
AUTO
The instrument triggers repeatedly after a time interval if the trigger
conditions are not fulfilled. If a real trigger occurs, it takes precedence. The time interval depends on the time base.
NORMal
The instrument acquires a waveform only if a trigger occurs.
FREerun
The instrument triggers after a very short time interval - faster than
in AUTO mode. Real triggers are ignored
*RST:
AUTO
TRIGger<m>:FORCe
If the acquisition is running in normal mode and no valid trigger occurs, forcing the trigger
provokes an immediate single acquisition. Thus you can confirm that a signal is available
and use the waveform display to determine how to trigger on it.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..3
irrelevant
490
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
Usage:
Event
TRIGger<m>:OUT:STATe <State>
Enables/disbales the trigger out signal that is provided to the EXT TRIGGER OUT connector on the rear panel when a trigger occurs.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
TRIGger<m>:OUT:POLarity <Polarity>
Sets the polarity of the trigger out pulse.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Polarity>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
POSitive | NEGative
*RST:
POSitive
TRIGger<m>:OUT:PLENgth <PulseLength>
Sets the length of the trigger out pulse.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<PulseLength>
.
1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
4E-9 to 1E-3
20E-9
100E-9
s
TRIGger<m>:OUT:DELay?
Returns the delay of the first pulse edge to the trigger point.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..3
The suffix is irrelevant.
491
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Return values:
<Delay>
Constant value: 250 ns
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
Usage:
1E-9 to 1
1E-9
800E-9
s
Query only
16.2.7 Display
●
●
●
●
●
●
16.2.7.1
Signal Colors / Persistence...................................................................................492
Color Tables..........................................................................................................494
Diagram Layout.....................................................................................................496
Zoom.....................................................................................................................502
XY-Diagram...........................................................................................................509
History...................................................................................................................511
Signal Colors / Persistence
DISPlay:​PERSistence[:​STATe]​........................................................................................492
DISPlay:​PERSistence:​INFinite​.........................................................................................492
DISPlay:​PERSistence:​TIME​............................................................................................493
DISPlay:​PERSistence:​RESet​..........................................................................................493
DISPlay:​INTensity​..........................................................................................................493
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​STYLe​...............................................................................................493
DISPlay:​COLor:​SIGNal<m>:​ASSign​.................................................................................494
DISPlay:​COLor:​SIGNal<m>:​USE​.....................................................................................494
DISPlay:PERSistence[:STATe] <State>
If enabled, each new data point in the diagram area remains on the screen for the duration
defined using ​DISPlay:​PERSistence:​TIME​, or as long as ​DISPlay:​
PERSistence:​INFinite​ is enabled.
If disabled, the signal value is only displayed as long as it actually occurs.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:PERSistence:INFinite <State>
If persistence is enabled (​DISPlay:​PERSistence[:​STATe]​), each new data point in
the diagram area remains on the screen infinitely until this command is set to "OFF".
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:PERSistence:TIME <Time>
If persistence is enabled (​DISPlay:​PERSistence[:​STATe]​), each new data point in
the diagram area remains on the screen for the duration defined here.
Parameters:
<Time>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0.05 to 50
0.05
0.05
s
DISPlay:PERSistence:RESet
Resets the display, removing persistent values.
Usage:
Event
DISPlay:INTensity <Intensity>
This value determines the strength of the waveform line in the diagram. Enter a percentage between 0 (not visible) and 100% (very strong).
The exact mapping of the cumulative value occurences according to the assigned color
table is guaranteed only if the intensity is set to 50% (default). All other intensity values
falsify the mapping but may improve the visibility of the signal.
See also: ​chapter 4.1.2.1, "Editing Waveform Colors", on page 89.
Parameters:
<Intensity>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
50
%
DISPlay:DIAGram:STYLe <Style>
Select the style in which the waveform is displayed.
Parameters:
<Style>
VECTors | DOTS
VECTors
The individual data points are connected by a line.
DOTS
Only the individual data points are displayed.
*RST:
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Command Reference
DISPlay:COLor:SIGNal<m>:ASSign <ColorTable>
Assigns the color table to the specified signal.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ColorTable>
.
1..59
Waveform number, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Color table name to be assigned to the signal.
DISPlay:COLor:SIGNal<m>:USE <UseColorTable>
If enabled, the selected waveform is displayed according to its assigned color table.
If this option is disabled, the default color table is used, i.e. the intensity of the specific
signal color varies according to the cumulative occurance of the values.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<UseColorTable>
.
1..59
Waveform number, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
ON | OFF
*RST:
16.2.7.2
OFF
Color Tables
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​ADD​..........................................................................................494
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​REMove​....................................................................................494
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​COUNt​......................................................................................495
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​ADD​................................................................................495
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​INSert​..............................................................................495
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​REMove​...........................................................................495
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt[:​VALue]​............................................................................495
DISPlay:​COLor:​PALette:​POINt:​COUNt​.............................................................................496
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:ADD <Name>
Adds a new color table with the specified name.
Setting parameters:
<Name>
color table
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:REMove <Name>
Removes the specified color table.
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Command Reference
Setting parameters:
<Name>
color table
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:COUNt?
Queries the number of configured color maps.
Usage:
Query only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt:ADD <PaletteName>
Appends a new row at the end of the color table.
Setting parameters:
<PaletteName>
color table
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt:INSert <PaletteName>, <PointIndex>
Inserts the entry at the specified index in the color table.
Setting parameters:
<PaletteName>
color table
<PointIndex>
row number in the color table
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt:REMove <PaletteName>, <PointIndex>
Removes the entry with the specified index from the color table.
Setting parameters:
<PaletteName>
color table
<PointIndex>
row number in the color table
Usage:
Setting only
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt[:VALue] <ColorTableName>,
<ColorTableColorPointIdx>,<Position>, <Color>
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt[:VALue]? <ColorTableName>,
<ColorTableColorPointIdx>
Inserts a new entry or queries the specified entry in the specified color table.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<Position>
cumulative occurance value
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
<Color>
0 to 100
1
50
%
ARGB value of the color to be used for the table entry.
ARGB=<Opacity(alpha) value><red value><green value><blue
value>, in hexadecimal or decimal format.
Range:
0 to 4294967295
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
Parameters for setting and query:
<ColorTableName> color table to be edited
<ColorTableColorPointIdx>
index (row number) of the new entry in the color table
DISPlay:COLor:PALette:POINt:COUNt? <PaletteName>
Queries the number of entries in the color table.
16.2.7.3
Query parameters:
<PaletteName>
color table
Usage:
Query only
Diagram Layout
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​GRID​.................................................................................................497
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​CROSshair​.........................................................................................497
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​LABels​...............................................................................................497
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​TITLe​.................................................................................................497
DISPlay:​DIAGram:​YFIXed​..............................................................................................497
DISPlay:​SIGBar[:​STATe]​................................................................................................497
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​POSition​...............................................................................................498
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE[:​AUTO]​.........................................................................................498
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​TIME​............................................................................................498
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​HEAD​..........................................................................................498
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​TRANsparency​..............................................................................499
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​COLor:​BORDer​.....................................................................................499
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​COLor:​FILL​...........................................................................................499
LAYout:​ADD​..................................................................................................................499
LAYout:​REMove​............................................................................................................500
LAYout:​SHOW​...............................................................................................................500
LAYout:​SIGNal:​ASSign​...................................................................................................500
LAYout:​SIGNal:​AXIS​......................................................................................................501
LAYout:​SIGNal:​UNASsign​..............................................................................................501
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Command Reference
DISPlay:DIAGram:GRID <Show>
If enabled, a grid is displayed in the diagram area.
Parameters:
<Show>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:DIAGram:CROSshair <Crosshair>
If selected, a crosshair is displayed in the diagram area. A crosshair allows you to select
a specific data point by its co-ordinates.
Parameters:
<Crosshair>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:DIAGram:LABels <ShowLabels>
If enabled, labels mark values on the x- and y-axes in specified intervals in the diagram.
Parameters:
<ShowLabels>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:DIAGram:TITLe <DiagTitleState>
If enabled, the tab titles of all diagrams are displayed: "Diagram1", "Diagram2" ...
If disabled, the tab titles are not shown except for those in a tabbed diagram. In tabbed
diagrams, the tab titles are required to change the tabs.
Parameters:
<DiagTitleState>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:DIAGram:YFIXed <YGridFixed>
If enabled, the horizontal grid lines remain in their position when the position of the curve
is changed. Only the values at the grid lines are adapted. This reflects the behavior of
traditional oscilloscopes.
Parameters:
<YGridFixed>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:SIGBar[:STATe] <State>
If enabled, the signal bar is displayed in the diagram area.
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
DISPlay:SIGBar:POSition <Position>
The signal bar can be placed vertically at the right (default position) or at the left, or
horizontally at the top, bottom or center of the diagram to ensure best visibility of the
waveforms.
Parameters:
<Position>
LEFT | RIGHt
*RST:
RIGHt
DISPlay:SIGBar:HIDE[:AUTO] <AutoHide>
If enabled, the signal bar disappears automatically after some time, similar to the Windows task bar. With the commands ​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE:​TIME​ and ​DISPlay:​
SIGBar:​HIDE:​TRANsparency​, you can define when and how the signal bar hides.
The signal bar reappears if you tap it, or if an action changes the content of the bar.
Parameters:
<AutoHide>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
DISPlay:SIGBar:HIDE:TIME <AutoHideTime>
Sets the time when the signal bar is faded out if ​DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE[:​AUTO]​ is
"ON".
Parameters:
<AutoHideTime>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0.03 to 86.4E+3
0.5
5
s
DISPlay:SIGBar:HIDE:HEAD <HideHeadAlso>
If enabled, the "Auto hide" function hides also the horizontal and trigger label at the top
of the signal bar.
Parameters:
<HideHeadAlso>
ON | OFF
*RST:
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DISPlay:SIGBar:HIDE:TRANsparency <HidingTransparency>
Sets the transparency of the signal bar when the signal bar is faded out with ​
DISPlay:​SIGBar:​HIDE[:​AUTO]​.
Parameters:
<HidingTransparency>Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
20 to 70
5
50
%
DISPlay:SIGBar:COLor:BORDer <BorderColor>
Defines the color of the signal bar border.
See also: ​"To change the colors" on page 92.
Parameters:
<BorderColor>
ARGB color value
Range:
0 to 4294967295
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
DISPlay:SIGBar:COLor:FILL <FillColor>
Define the fill color of the signal bar.
See also: ​"To change the colors" on page 92.
Parameters:
<FillColor>
ARGB color value
Range:
0 to 4294967295
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
LAYout:ADD <NodeName>, <ParentType>, <InsertBefore>, <FirstSource>,
<DiagramName>
Adds a new diagram with a waveform on the screen, in relation to an existing diagram.
Setting parameters:
<NodeName>
Name of the existing diagram
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<ParentType>
NONE | HORizontal | VERTical | TAB
Position of the new diagram in relation to the existing one.
HORizontal
Besides the existing diagram
VERTical
Above or below the existing diagram
TAB
In a new tab in the existing diagram
<InsertBefore>
ON | OFF
If on, the new diagram is inserted to the left (for HORizontal),
above (for VERTical) or in a tab before the existing one.
<FirstSource>
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | XY1 | XY2 | XY3 | XY4 | MRESult1 | MRESult2 |
MRESult3 | MRESult4 | MRESult5 | MRESult6 | MRESult7 |
MRESult8 | SBUS1 | SBUS2 | SBUS3 | SBUS4 | D0 | D1 | D2 |
D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 | D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 |
D15 | MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
Waveform to be diplayed in the new diagram, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419.
<DiagramName>
Name of the new diagram.
Usage:
Setting only
SCPI confirmed
LAYout:REMove <sNodeName>
Setting parameters:
<sNodeName>
Usage:
Setting only
SCPI confirmed
LAYout:SHOW <sNodeName>
Setting parameters:
<sNodeName>
Usage:
Setting only
SCPI confirmed
LAYout:SIGNal:ASSign <DiagramName>, <Source>
Shows the specified waveform in the selected diagram.
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Setting parameters:
<DiagramName>
String with the diagram name
<Source>
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | XY1 | XY2 | XY3 | XY4 | MRESult1 | MRESult2 |
MRESult3 | MRESult4 | MRESult5 | MRESult6 | MRESult7 |
MRESult8 | SBUS1 | SBUS2 | SBUS3 | SBUS4 | D0 | D1 | D2 |
D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 | D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 |
D15 | MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
Waveform to be assigned, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform
Parameter", on page 419
Usage:
Setting only
LAYout:SIGNal:AXIS <DiagramName>, <Source>, <XSource>
Creates an XY-diagram by adding a second waveform to a diagram with a channel, math
or reference waveform.
Setting parameters:
<DiagramName>
String with the name of the diagram where the waveform is added.
<Source>
C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 | C3W2 |
C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 | R2 | R3 |
R4
Waveform to be added, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419
<XSource>
ON | OFF
If on, the added waveform is assigned to the x-axis.
If off, it is assigned to the y-axis.
Usage:
Setting only
LAYout:SIGNal:UNASsign <Source>
Removes the specified waveform from the diagram.
Setting parameters:
<Source>
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | XY1 | XY2 | XY3 | XY4 | MRESult1 | MRESult2 |
MRESult3 | MRESult4 | MRESult5 | MRESult6 | MRESult7 |
MRESult8 | SBUS1 | SBUS2 | SBUS3 | SBUS4 | D0 | D1 | D2 |
D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 | D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 |
D15 | MSOB1 | MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
See ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419
*RST:
Usage:
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NONE
Setting only
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16.2.7.4
Zoom
LAYout:​ZOOM:​ADD​.......................................................................................................502
LAYout:​ZOOM:​ADDCoupled​...........................................................................................503
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​MODE​..........................................................................................503
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​POSition​.........................................................................503
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​SPAN​.............................................................................504
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STARt​............................................................................504
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​ABSolute:​STOP​.............................................................................504
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​POSition​.........................................................................505
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​SPAN​.............................................................................505
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​STARt​............................................................................505
LAYout:​ZOOM:​HORZ:​RELative:​STOP​.............................................................................506
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​MODE​......................................................................................506
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​POSition​.....................................................................506
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​SPAN​........................................................................507
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STARt​........................................................................507
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​ABSolute:​STOP​........................................................................507
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​POSition​.....................................................................507
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​SPAN​.........................................................................508
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​STARt​........................................................................508
LAYout:​ZOOM:​VERTical:​RELative:​STOP​.........................................................................508
LAYout:​ZOOM:​REMove​..................................................................................................509
LAYout:ZOOM:ADD <DiagramName>, <ParentType>, <InsertBefore>, <XStart>,
<XStop>, <YStart>, <YStop>, <ZoomName>
Adds a new zoom diagram based on the specified waveform.
Setting parameters:
<DiagramName>
Name of diagram to be zoomed
<ParentType>
NONE | HORizontal | VERTical | TAB
Position of the zoom diagram in relation to the original one.
HORizontal
Besides the existing diagram
VERTical
Above or below the existing diagram
TAB
In a new tab in the existing diagram
<InsertBefore>
ON | OFF
If on, the zoom diagram is inserted to the left (for HORizontal),
above (for VERTical) or in a tab before the original diagram.
<XStart>
Defines the x-value at the beginning of the zoom area.
<XStop>
Defines the x-value at the end of the zoom area.
<YStart>
Defines the y-value at the beginning of the zoom area.
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<YStop>
Defines the y-value at the end of the zoom area.
<ZoomName>
Defines the name of the new zoom diagram.
Usage:
Setting only
SCPI confirmed
LAYout:ZOOM:ADDCoupled <ZoomName>, <XOffset>, <YOffset>,
<NewZoomName>
Creates a new zoom diagram based on the settings of an existing zoom area for the same
source.
Parameters:
<NewZoomName>
Defines the name of the new zoom diagram.
Setting parameters:
<ZoomName>
Defines the name of the zoom diagram to be copied.
<XOffset>
Defines an offset to the existing zoom area in x direction.
<YOffset>
Defines an offset to the existing zoom area in y direction.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:MODE <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Mode>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:MODE? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the x-axis values. Since
the zoom area refers to the active signal, relative values ensure that the zoom area
remains the same.
Parameters:
<Mode>
ABS | REL
Mode used to specify the x-axis values of the zoom area.
*RST:
ABS
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:POSition <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<Position>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:POSition? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the x-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<Position>
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Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
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Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:SPAN <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Span>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:SPAN? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the width of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<Span>
Range:
0 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:STARt <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Start>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:STARt? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
Parameters:
<Start>
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:STOP <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Stop>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:ABSolute:STOP? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
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Name of the zoom diagram
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LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:POSition <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelPosi>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:POSition? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the x-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<RelPosi>
Relative position of the centerpoint (x-value)
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
100
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:SPAN <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeSpan>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:SPAN? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the width of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<RelativeSpan>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:STARt <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeStart>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:STARt? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
Parameters:
<RelativeStart>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
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Name of the zoom diagram
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LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:STOP <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeStop>
LAYout:ZOOM:HORZ:RELative:STOP? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the x-axis.
Parameters:
<RelativeStop>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
100
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:MODE <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Mode>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:MODE? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines whether absolute or relative values are used to specify the y-axis values. Since
the zoom area refers to the active signal, relative values ensure that the zoom area
remains the same.
Parameters:
<Mode>
ABS | REL
Mode used to specify the y-axis values of the zoom area.
*RST:
ABS
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:POSition <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<Position>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:POSition? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the y-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<Position>
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
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Name of the zoom diagram
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LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:SPAN <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Span>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:SPAN? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the height of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<Span>
Range:
0 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:STARt <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Start>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:STARt? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
Parameters:
<Start>
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:STOP <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>,<Stop>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:ABSolute:STOP? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0.01
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:POSition <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelPosi>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:POSition? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the y-value of the centerpoint of the zoom area.
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Parameters:
<RelPosi>
Relative position of the centerpoint (y-value)
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
100
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:SPAN <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeSpan>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:SPAN? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the height of the zoom area.
Parameters:
<RelativeSpan>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:STARt <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeStart>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:STARt? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the lower limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
Parameters:
<RelativeStart>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:STOP <DiagramName>,
<ZoomName>,<RelativeStop>
LAYout:ZOOM:VERTical:RELative:STOP? <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Defines the upper limit of the zoom area on the y-axis.
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Parameters:
<RelativeStop>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
100
%
Parameters for setting and query:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
LAYout:ZOOM:REMove <DiagramName>, <ZoomName>
Removes the specified zoom diagram.
Setting parameters:
<DiagramName>
Name of the diagram on which the zoom area is based.
16.2.7.5
<ZoomName>
Name of the zoom diagram
Usage:
Setting only
SCPI confirmed
XY-Diagram
WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​RATio​......................................................................................509
WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​STATe​.....................................................................................509
WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​SWAP​......................................................................................510
WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​XSOurce​..................................................................................510
WAVeform<m>:​XYCurve:​YSOurce​..................................................................................510
WAVeform<m>:XYCurve:RATio <ConstantXYRatio>
If enabled, the x- and y-axes maintain a constant ratio in the diagram.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<ConstantXYRatio>
.
1...4
XY-diagram
ON | OFF
*RST:
Usage:
ON
SCPI confirmed
WAVeform<m>:XYCurve:STATe <State>
Activates an XY-waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
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XY-diagram
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Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Usage:
OFF
SCPI confirmed
WAVeform<m>:XYCurve:SWAP
Replaces the source of the x-axis with the source of the y-axis and vice versa.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
XY-diagram
Usage:
Event
SCPI confirmed
WAVeform<m>:XYCurve:XSOurce <XYCurveXSource>
Defines the signal source that supplies the x-values of the XY-diagram.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
XY-diagram
Parameters:
<XYCurveXSource> NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4
Source of x-values, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419
*RST:
Usage:
NONE
SCPI confirmed
WAVeform<m>:XYCurve:YSOurce <XYCurveYSource>
Defines the signal source that supplies the y-values of the XY-diagram.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
XY-diagram
Parameters:
<XYCurveYSource> NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4
Source of y-values, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419
*RST:
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Usage:
16.2.7.6
SCPI confirmed
History
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory[:​STATe]​...............................................................511
ACQuire:​AVAilable​.........................................................................................................511
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​CURRent​.............................................................511
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​STARt​.................................................................512
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​STOP​..................................................................512
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TPACq​................................................................513
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​PLAY​..................................................................513
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​REPLay​...............................................................513
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSDate​................................................................514
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSABsolute​..........................................................514
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​TSRelative​...........................................................515
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory[:STATe] <State>
Enables or disables the history display.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
ACQuire:AVAilable?
Returns the number of acquisitions currently saved in the memory. This number of
acquisitions is available for history viewing. It is also the number of acquisitions in an Ultra
Segmentation acquisition series.
Return values:
<AcqCount>
Usage:
Range:
0 to 4294967295
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
Query only
Firmware/Software: V 1.25
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:CURRent <CurrAcqIdx>
Accesses a particular acquisition in the memory to display it.
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If a replay is running, the query returns the number of the currently shown acquisition.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Parameters:
<CurrAcqIdx>
Range:
0 to 0
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:STARt <StartAcqIdx>
Sets the start point for the history replay.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Parameters:
<StartAcqIdx>
The start index is always negative.
Range:
0 to 0
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:STOP <StopAcqIdx>
Sets the end point for the history viewer.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
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Parameters:
<StopAcqIdx>
Number of the stop acquisition. The newest acquisition always has
the index "0".
Range:
0 to 0
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:TPACq <TimePerAcq>
Sets the display time for one acquisition. The shorter the time, the faster is the replay.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Parameters:
<TimePerAcq>
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
40E-6 to 10
1
0.05
s
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:PLAY
Starts and stops the replay of the history waveforms.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Usage:
Event
Asynchronous command
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:REPLay <AutoRepeat>
If ON, the replay of the history waveform sequence repeats automatically. Otherwise, the
replay stops at the stop index set with ​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​
STOP​.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the input channel.
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<n>
Parameters:
<AutoRepeat>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
ON | OFF
*RST:
Usage:
OFF
Asynchronous command
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:TSDate?
Returns the date of the current acquisition that is shown in the history viewer (​
CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​CURRent​).
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
addressed.
Return values:
<DateAbsString>
String with date of the current acquisition (absolute time)
Usage:
Query only
CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:TSABsolute?
Returns the abolsute daytime of the current acquisition that is shown in the history viewer
(​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​CURRent​).
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
addressed.
Return values:
<TimeAbsolute>
Usage:
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Range:
0 to 0
Increment: 1
*RST:
0
Query only
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CHANnel<m>[:WAVeform<n>]:HISTory:TSRelative?
Returns the relative time of the current acquisition - the time difference to the newest
acquisition (index = 0).
See also: (​CHANnel<m>[:​WAVeform<n>]:​HISTory:​CURRent​).
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the input channel.
<n>
1..3
Selects the waveform. For each channel, up to three waveforms
can be analyzed. If WAVeform<n> is omitted, waveform 1 is
adressed.
Return values:
<TimeRelative>
Usage:
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 179.769E+24
1
0
s
Query only
16.2.8 Cursor Measurements
CURSor<m>:​AOFF​........................................................................................................516
CURSor<m>:​STATe​.......................................................................................................516
CURSor<m>:​FUNCtion​...................................................................................................516
CURSor<m>:​TRACking[:​STATe]​.....................................................................................516
CURSor<m>:​SOURce​....................................................................................................517
CURSor<m>:​X1Position​.................................................................................................517
CURSor<m>:​X2Position​.................................................................................................517
CURSor<m>:​XCOupling​.................................................................................................517
CURSor<m>:​Y1Position​.................................................................................................518
CURSor<m>:​Y2Position​.................................................................................................518
CURSor<m>:​YCOupling​.................................................................................................518
CURSor<m>:​X1ENvelope​...............................................................................................519
CURSor<m>:​X2ENvelope​...............................................................................................519
CURSor<m>:​XDELta[:​VALue]​.........................................................................................520
CURSor<m>:​XDELta:​INVerse​.........................................................................................520
CURSor<m>:​YDELta[:​VALue]​.........................................................................................520
CURSor<m>:​YDELta:​SLOPe​..........................................................................................521
CURSor<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​.......................................................................................521
CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​.........................................................................................521
CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​........................................................................................521
CURSor<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​........................................................................................522
CURSor<m>:​PEXCursion​...............................................................................................522
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CURSor<m>:AOFF
This command switches all cursors off.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
The numeric suffix is ignored.
Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:STATe <State>
Switches the indicated cursor on or off.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:FUNCtion <Type>
Defines the type of the indicated cursor.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Type>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
HORizontal | VERTical | PAIRed
HORizontal
A pair of horizontal cursor lines.
VERTical
A pair of vertical cursor lines.
PAIRed
Both vertical and horizontal cursor line pairs.
*RST:
PAIRed
CURSor<m>:TRACking[:STATe] <TrackCurve>
If set to ON, the horizontal cursor lines follow the waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TrackCurve>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
ON | OFF
*RST:
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CURSor<m>:SOURce <CursorSource>
Defines the source of the cursor measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<CursorSource>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | XY1 | XY2 | XY3 | XY4 | D0 | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 |
D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 | D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 | D15 | MSOB1 |
MSOB2 | MSOB3 | MSOB4
Source of the cursor measurement, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform Parameter", on page 419
*RST:
NONE
CURSor<m>:X1Position <XPosition1>
Defines the position of the left vertical cursor line.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<XPosition1>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
0 to 500
Increment: 0.1
*RST:
0
CURSor<m>:X2Position <XPosition2>
Defines the position of the right vertical cursor line.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<XPosition2>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 500
0.1
0
s
CURSor<m>:XCOupling <Coupling>
Defines the positioning mode of the vertical cursor.
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Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Coupling>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
ON | OFF
ON
Moving one cursor line moves the other cursor line too. The cursor
lines always remain a fixed distance.
OFF
Each cursor line is positioned independently.
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:Y1Position <YPosition1>
Defines the position of the lower horizontal cursor line.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<YPosition1>
.
1..4
Cursor measurement
Range:
-50 to 50
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0
CURSor<m>:Y2Position <YPosition2>
Defines the position of the upper horizontal cursor line.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<YPosition2>
.
1..4
Cursor measurement
Range:
-50 to 50
Increment: 0.01
*RST:
0
CURSor<m>:YCOupling <Coupling>
Defines the positioning mode of the horizontal cursor. If the horizontal cursor lines track
the waveform, the y-coupling is irrelevant (​CURSor<m>:MODE TRACk).
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
Selects the cursor.
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Parameters:
<Coupling>
ON | OFF
ON
Moving one cursor line moves the other cursor line too. The cursor
lines always remain a fixed distance.
OFF
Each cursor line is positioned independently.
*RST:
OFF
CURSor<m>:X1ENvelope <EnvelopeCurve1>
If the waveform arithmetics are set to envelope curve (see ​CHANnel<m>[:​
WAVeform<n>]:​ARIThmetics​ on page 434) and ​CURSor<m>:​TRACking[:​STATe]​
is set to "ON", this setting defines how the first horizontal cursor is positioned.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<EnvelopeCurve1>
.
1..4
math waveform
MIN | MAX | BOTH
MIN
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical
cursor with the minimum waveform envelope.
MAX
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical
cursor with the maximum waveform envelope.
BOTH
The envelope is ignored and the cursor is set to the crossing point
of the vertical cursor with the usual waveform
*RST:
MAX
CURSor<m>:X2ENvelope <EnvelopeCurve2>
If the waveform arithmetics are set to envelope curve (see ​CHANnel<m>[:​
WAVeform<n>]:​ARIThmetics​ on page 434) and ​CURSor<m>:​TRACking[:​STATe]​
is set to "ON", this setting defines how the second horizontal cursor is positioned.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..4
math waveform
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Command Reference
Parameters:
<EnvelopeCurve2>
MIN | MAX | BOTH
MIN
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical
cursor with the minimum waveform envelope.
MAX
The horizontal cursor is set to the crossing point of the vertical
cursor with the maximum waveform envelope.
BOTH
The envelope is ignored and the cursor is set to the crossing point
of the vertical cursor with the usual waveform
*RST:
MIN
CURSor<m>:XDELta[:VALue]?
Queries the delta value (distance) of two vertical cursor lines.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Delta>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
s
Query only
CURSor<m>:XDELta:INVerse?
Queries the inverse value of the delta value (distance) of the two vertical cursor lines.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<DeltaInverse>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0.1
0
Hz
Query only
CURSor<m>:YDELta[:VALue]?
Queries the delta value (distance) of the two horizontal cursor lines.
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Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Delta>
Usage:
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
CURSor<m>:YDELta:SLOPe <DeltaSlope>
Returns the inverse value of the voltage difference - the reciprocal of the vertical distance
of two horizontal cursor lines: 1/ΔV.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<DeltaSlope>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
CURSor<m>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
Sets both cursors to the absolute peak value.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor (set).
Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:MAXimum:LEFT
Sets cursor 2 to the next maximum to the left of the current position.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor.
Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:MAXimum:RIGHt
Sets cursor 2 to the next peak to the right (from the current position).
Suffix:
<m>
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Selects the cursor (set).
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Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:MAXimum:NEXT
Sets cursor 2 to the next smaller peak (from the current position).
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..4
Selects the cursor (set).
Usage:
Event
CURSor<m>:PEXCursion <PeakExcursion>
Defines the minimum level by which the waveform must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by the search functions.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<PeakExcursion>
.
1..4
irrelevant
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
5
dB
16.2.9 Automatic Measurements
This chapter contains all remote commands to set up automatic measurements and to
analyze the measurement results.
Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>
With R&S RTO you can configure up to eight simultaneous measurements, and each can
include several measurement types. For manual operation, these eight measurements
are representented as tabs "Meas 1" to "Meas 8" in the "Measurements" dialog box. For
remote operation, the measurement is indicated by the suffix <m>, containing the number
of the measurement.
Only for remote operation in Tektronix emulation mode (​SYSTem:​LANGuage​
on page 427), an additional measurement with suffix number 9 is available for Tektronix'
immediate measurements.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
General Settings...................................................................................................523
Reference Level....................................................................................................527
Amplitude/Time Measurement..............................................................................542
Eye/Jitter Measurement........................................................................................550
Spectrum...............................................................................................................552
Histograms............................................................................................................555
Display..................................................................................................................564
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●
●
●
●
●
16.2.9.1
Limit check............................................................................................................565
Statistics and Long-term Measurements...............................................................566
Results..................................................................................................................570
Gating....................................................................................................................572
Event Actions........................................................................................................574
General Settings
MEASurement<m>[:​ENABle]​...........................................................................................523
MEASurement<m>:​SOURce​...........................................................................................523
MEASurement<m>:​CATegory​.........................................................................................524
MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​................................................................................................524
MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​.........................................................................................525
MEASurement<m>:​AON​.................................................................................................526
MEASurement<m>:​AOFF​...............................................................................................526
MEASurement<m>:​CLEar​...............................................................................................526
MEASurement<m>:​MULTiple​..........................................................................................527
MEASurement<m>:​MNOMeas​........................................................................................527
MEASurement<m>[:ENABle] <State>
Switches the indicated measurement on or off.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
MEASurement<m>:SOURce <SignalSource>, [<SignalSource2>]
Defines the source of the measurement. The source can be any input signal, math or
reference waveform. Depending on the selected source, only suitable measurement
types are available.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SignalSource>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | D0 | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 |
D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 | D15
Source of the measurement, see ​chapter 16.2.2.2, "Waveform
Parameter", on page 419
Digital channels are provided with option R&S RTO-B1.
*RST:
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<SignalSource2>
NONE | C1W1 | C1W2 | C1W3 | C2W1 | C2W2 | C2W3 | C3W1 |
C3W2 | C3W3 | C4W1 | C4W2 | C4W3 | M1 | M2 | M3 | M4 | R1 |
R2 | R3 | R4 | D0 | D1 | D2 | D3 | D4 | D5 | D6 | D7 | D8 | D9 | D10 |
D11 | D12 | D13 | D14 | D15
MEASurement<m>:CATegory <Category>
Defines the measurement category.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Category>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
AMPTime | EYEJitter | SPECtrum | HIST
AMPTime
Amplitude and time measurements
EYEJitter
Eye and jitter mesurements
SPECtrum
Spectrum measurements
HIST
Histogram measurements
*RST:
AMPTime
MEASurement<m>:MAIN <MeasType>
Defines or queries the main measurement. This measurement is the one referred to if
the measurement waveform is used as a source for math calculations. The main measurement type must belong to the same category as the other types assigned to the same
measurement waveform, if there are any.
For details on the measurement types and categories, see ​chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement
Types and Results", on page 129.
Suffix:
<m>
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1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
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Parameters:
<MeasType>
Amplitude/time measurements
HIGH | LOW | AMPLitude | MAXimum | MINimum | PDELta | MEAN
| RMS | STDDev | POVershoot | NOVershoot | AREA | RTIMe |
FTIMe | PPULse | NPULse | PERiod | FREQuency | PDCYcle |
NDCYcle | CYCarea | CYCMean | CYCRms | CYCStddev |
PULCnt | DELay | PHASe | BWIDth | PSWitching | NSWitching |
PULSetrain | EDGecount | SHT | SHR | PROBemeter
See ​chapter 16.2.9.3, "Amplitude/Time Measurement", on page 542.
*RST value for amplitude/time measurements: AMPLitude.
Eye/jitter measurements
ERPercent | ERDB | EHEight | EWIDth | ETOP | EBASe | QFACtor
| RMSNoise | SNRatio | DCDistortion | ERTime | EFTime | EBRate
| EAMPlitude | PPJitter | STDJitter | RMSJitter
See ​chapter 16.2.9.4, "Eye/Jitter Measurement", on page 550.
*RST value for eye/jitter measurements: ERPercent.
Spectrum measurements
CPOWer | OBWidth | SBWidth | THD
See ​chapter 16.2.9.5, "Spectrum", on page 552.
*RST value spectrum measurements: CPOWer.
Histogram measurements
WCOunt | WSAMples | HSAMples | HPEak | PEAK | UPEakvalue
| LPEakvalue | HMAXimum | HMINimum | MEDian | MAXMin |
HMEan | HSTDdev | M1STddev | M2STddev | M3STddev |
MKPositive | MKNegative
See ​"Histogram Measurement" on page 560.
*RST value for histogram measurements: WCOunt.
MEASurement<m>:ADDitional <MeasType>, <State>
MEASurement<m>:ADDitional? <MeasType>
Enables or disables an additional measurement. Only one measurement type can be
enabled or disabled per command. The query returns the state of the specified measurement type.
Note that each measurement waveform can only perform measurements from the same
category. For example, if you enable an amplitude measurement for measurement waveform 1, then you cannot enable an eye width measurement for the same waveform.
For details on the measurement types and categories, see ​chapter 5.2.1, "Measurement
Types and Results", on page 129.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
ON | OFF
Enables or disables the measurement type.
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Parameters for setting and query:
<MeasType>
Amplitude/time measurements
HIGH | LOW | AMPLitude | MAXimum | MINimum | PDELta | MEAN
| RMS | STDDev | POVershoot | NOVershoot | AREA | RTIMe |
FTIMe | PPULse | NPULse | PERiod | FREQuency | PDCYcle |
NDCYcle | CYCarea | CYCMean | CYCRms | CYCStddev |
PULCnt | DELay | PHASe | BWIDth | PSWitching | NSWitching |
PULSetrain | EDGecount | SHT | SHR | PROBemeter
See ​chapter 16.2.9.3, "Amplitude/Time Measurement", on page 542.
Eye/jitter measurements
ERPercent | ERDB | EHEight | EWIDth | ETOP | EBASe | QFACtor
| RMSNoise | SNRatio | DCDistortion | ERTime | EFTime | EBRate
| EAMPlitude | PPJitter | STDJitter | RMSJitter
See ​chapter 16.2.9.4, "Eye/Jitter Measurement", on page 550.
Spectrum measurements
CPOWer | OBWidth | SBWidth | THD
See ​chapter 16.2.9.5, "Spectrum", on page 552.
Histogram measurements
WCOunt | WSAMples | HSAMples | HPEak | PEAK | UPEakvalue
| LPEakvalue | HMAXimum | HMINimum | MEDian | MAXMin |
HMEan | HSTDdev | M1STddev | M2STddev | M3STddev |
MKPositive | MKNegative
See ​"Histogram Measurement" on page 560.
MEASurement<m>:AON
Enables all additional measurements in all categories of the indicated measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Usage:
Event
MEASurement<m>:AOFF
Disables all additional measurements in all categories of the indicated measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Usage:
Event
MEASurement<m>:CLEar
Deletes the statistic results of the indicated mesurement.
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Suffix:
<m>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Usage:
Event
MEASurement<m>:MULTiple <MultiMeas>
The measurement is performed repeatedly if the measured parameter occurs several
times inside the defined gate.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<MultiMeas>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
MEASurement<m>:MNOMeas <MaxNoOfMeasPerAcq>
Sets the maximum number of measurements per acquisition if multiple measurement is
enabled (​MEASurement<m>:​MULTiple​ is ON.
Suffix:
<m>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Parameters:
<MaxNoOfMeasPerAcq>
Range:
2 to 100000
Increment: 1
*RST:
1000
16.2.9.2
Reference Level
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Programming Examples........................................................................................527
General Reference Level Settings........................................................................528
Automatic Configuration........................................................................................530
Manual Configuration............................................................................................532
Hysteresis.............................................................................................................537
Tube......................................................................................................................537
Results..................................................................................................................540
Programming Examples
Example: Manual reference level definition using absolute values
The modes, the upper and lower reference level, and the top and bottom distance are
set for waveform C1W1.
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Command Reference
REFLevel2:LDETection MANual
REFLevel2:LMODe ABS
REFLevel2:USRLevel UREF
REFLevel2:ABSolute:LLEVel 0.001
REFLevel2:ABSolute:BDIStance 0.02
REFLevel2:ABSolute:ULEVel 0.01
REFLevel2:ABSolute:TDIStance 0.03
REFLevel2:ABSolute:MLEVel 0.005
Example: Manual reference level definition using relative values
Reference levels are set to 15%, 50%, and 85% of the high signal level for waveform
C3W1.
REFLevel8:LDETection MANual
REFLevel8:LMODe REL
REFLevel8:RELative:MODE USER
REFLevel8:RELative:LOWer 15
REFLevel8:RELative:MIDDle 50
REFLevel8:RELative:UPPer 85
Example: Automatic level detection, peak probability
Reference levels are set to the signal levels with the highest probability values for waveform C2W1.
REFLevel5:LDETection Auto
REFLevel5:AUTO:MODE PPRobability
General Reference Level Settings
REFLevel<m>:​LDETection​..............................................................................................528
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MODE​.......................................................................................529
REFLevel<m>:​USRLevel​................................................................................................529
REFLevel<m>:​LMODe​...................................................................................................530
REFLevel<m>:LDETection <LevelDetection>
Defines whether the reference level is configured manually or automatically.
For automatic configuration, select the signal level to be used (see ​REFLevel<m>:​
AUTO:​MODE​ on page 530).
Suffix:
<m>
User Manual 1316.0827.02 ─ 06
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2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
528
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
Parameters:
<LevelDetection>
AUTO | MANual
*RST:
Example:
AUTO
REFLevel2:LDETection MANual
Sets manual level configuration for Channel1/Waveform1. C1W1
corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​"Programming Examples" on page 527
REFLevel<m>:RELative:MODE <RelativeLevels>
The lower, middle and upper reference levels, defined as percentages of the high signal
level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RelativeLevels>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
FIVE | TEN | TWENty | USER
FIVE
5/50/95
TEN
10/50/90
TWENty
20/50/80
USER
Set the reference levels to individual values with ​
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​LOWer​, ​REFLevel<m>:​
RELative:​MIDDle​, and ​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​UPPer​.
*RST:
TEN
Example:
REFL2:REL:MODE FIVE
Reference levels for Channel1/Waveform1: Lower reference level
= 5% of high signal level, middle reference level = 50% of high
signal level, upper reference level = 95% of high signal level
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using relative
values" on page 528
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:USRLevel <UserLevel>
Defines whether the user-defined signal levels or user-defined reference levels are used
for the measurements.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<UserLevel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
USIGnal | UREF
USIGnal
The high and low signal levels are defined by the user.
UREF
The reference levels are defined by the user.
*RST:
Example:
USIGnal
REFLevel2:USRLevel UREF
Sets user-defined reference levels to be used for Channel1/Waveform1. C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
REFLevel<m>:LMODe <LevelMode>
Defines whether the reference is configured using absolute or relative values.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<LevelMode>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
ABS | REL
*RST:
Example:
REL
REFLevel2:LMODe ABS
Sets definition of reference levels to absolute values for Channel1/
Waveform1. C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using relative
values" on page 528
Automatic Configuration
REFLevel<m>:​AUTO:​MODE​...........................................................................................530
REFLevel<m>:​AUTO[:​STATe]​.........................................................................................531
REFLevel<m>:​AUTO:​COUNt​..........................................................................................532
REFLevel<m>:AUTO:MODE <AutoLevelMode>
Defines the high and low signal levels from which the reference levels are derived.
This setting is only available for automatic reference level mode (see ​REFLevel<m>:​
LDETection​ on page 528).
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<AutoLevelMode>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
AUTO | PPRobability | MPRobability | ABSolutepeak | UPLM |
UMLP
AUTO
Auto select absolute probability: most suitable signal levels for the
selected measurement
PPRobability
Peak probability: signal levels with the highest probability value
MPRobability
Mean probability: signal levels with mean probability
ABSolutepeak
Absolute peak: absolute peak signal levels
UPLM
Upper absolute peak, lower mean probability: high signal level is
the upper absolute peak, low signal level is the level with the mean
probability in the lower half of the histogram.
UMLP
Upper mean probability, lower absolute peak: high signal level is
the level with mean probability in the upper half of the histogram,
low signal level is the lower absolute peak.
*RST:
AUTO
Example:
REFLevel5:AUTO:MODE PPRobability
Sets the automatic reference level mode for Channel2/Waveform1
to "Peak probability". C2W1 corresponds to suffix number 5.
See also: ​example "Automatic level detection, peak probability" on page 528
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:AUTO[:STATe] <HistgAveraging>
Enables averaging over several histograms to determine the reference levels. The number of histograms to consider is defined using ​REFLevel<m>:​AUTO:​COUNt​.
This function is only available in automatic reference level mode (see ​REFLevel<m>:​
LDETection​ on page 528).
Suffix:
<m>
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2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
531
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
Parameters:
<HistgAveraging>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Usage:
OFF
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:AUTO:COUNt <Weight>
Defines the number of histograms to calculate the average from if ​REFLevel<m>:​
AUTO[:​STATe]​ is set to ON.
This function is only available in automatic reference level mode (see ​REFLevel<m>:​
LDETection​ on page 528).
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Weight>
Usage:
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
2 to 128
Increment: 2
*RST:
128
SCPI confirmed
Manual Configuration
●
●
User Signal Level..................................................................................................532
User Reference Level...........................................................................................534
User Signal Level
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​HIGH​........................................................................................532
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​LOW​.........................................................................................533
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TDIStance​.................................................................................533
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BDIStance​.................................................................................533
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:HIGH <SignalHigh>
The signal value that represents a high level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SignalHigh>
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2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
532
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:HIGH 0.015
Sets the high signal level for Channel1/Waveform1 to 15 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:LOW <SignalLow>
The signal value that represents a low level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SignalLow>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:Low 0.0015
Sets the low signal level for Channel1/Waveform1 to 1.5 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:TDIStance <TopDistance>
The distance between the high signal level and the upper reference level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TopDistance>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:TDIStance 0.0002
Sets the top distance for Channel1/Waveform1 to 0.2 mV. C1W1
corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:BDIStance <BottomDistance>
The distance between the lower reference level and the low signal value.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<BottomDistance>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:BDIStance 0.0002
Sets the bottom distance for Channel1/Waveform1 to 0.2 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
User Reference Level
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​ULEVel​.....................................................................................534
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​MLEVel​.....................................................................................535
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​LLEVel​......................................................................................535
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​UPPer​.......................................................................................535
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MIDDle​......................................................................................536
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​LOWer​......................................................................................536
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:ULEVel <UpperLevel>
The upper reference level, required e.g. to determine a rise.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<UpperLevel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:ULEVel 0.01
Sets the upper reference level for Channel1/Waveform1 to 10 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
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REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:MLEVel <MiddleLevel>
The middle reference level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<MiddleLevel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:MLEVel 0.005
Sets the middle reference level for Channel1/Waveform1 to 5 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:LLEVel <LowerLevel>
The lower reference level, required e.g. to determine a fall.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<LowerLevel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
Example:
REFLevel2:ABSolute:LLEVel 0.001
Sets the lower reference level for Channel1/Waveform1 to 1 mV.
C1W1 corresponds to suffix number 2.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using absolute values" on page 527
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:RELative:UPPer <UppRefLevRel>
Sets the upper relative reference level if ​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MODE​ is set to
USER.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<UppRefLevRel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Percentage of the high signal level.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
90
%
Example:
REFLevel8:RELative:LOWer 85
Sets the upper reference level for Channel3/Waveform1 to 85 %.
C3W1 corresponds to suffix number 8.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using relative
values" on page 528
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:RELative:MIDDle <MiddleRefLevRel>
Sets the middle relative reference level if ​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MODE​ is set to
USER.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<MiddleRefLevRel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Percentage of the high signal level.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
50
%
Example:
REFLevel8:RELative:MIDDle 50
Sets the middle reference level for Channel3/Waveform1 to 50 %.
C3W1 corresponds to suffix number 8.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using relative
values" on page 528
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:RELative:LOWer <LowRefLevRel>
Sets the lower relative reference level if ​REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​MODE​ is set to
USER.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<LowRefLevRel>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Percentage of the high signal level.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
10
%
Example:
REFLevel8:RELative:LOWer 15
Sets the lower reference level for Channel3/Waveform1 to 15 %.
C3W1 corresponds to suffix number 8.
See also: ​example "Manual reference level definition using relative
values" on page 528
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
Hysteresis
REFLevel<m>:RELative:HYSTeresis <Hysteresis>
Defines a hysteresis for the middle reference level. A rise or fall from the middle reference
value that does not exceed the hysteresis is rejected as noise.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Hysteresis>
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1
5
%
Tube
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​OTUBe​......................................................................................537
REFLevel<m>:​RELative:​ITUBe​.......................................................................................538
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TOTube​....................................................................................538
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​TITube​......................................................................................539
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BITube​......................................................................................539
REFLevel<m>:​ABSolute:​BOTube​....................................................................................539
REFLevel<m>:RELative:OTUBe <RelOuterDist>
Defines a percentage of the signal level by which the absolute signal level may be larger
than the high signal level or lower than the low signal level to be considered high or low,
respectively.
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RelOuterDist>
Usage:
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100
1
10
%
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:RELative:ITUBe <RelativeInnDist>
Defines a percentage of the signal level by which the absolute signal level may be higher
than the low signal level or lower than the high signal level to be considered low or high,
respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<RelativeInnDist>
Usage:
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1
0
%
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:TOTube <TopOuterDist>
Defines an area above the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TopOuterDist>
Usage:
User Manual 1316.0827.02 ─ 06
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2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
SCPI confirmed
538
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:TITube <TopInnerDist>
Defines an area beneath the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<TopInnerDist>
Usage:
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:BITube <BottomInnerDist>
Defines an area above the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<BottomInnerDist>
Usage:
.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
SCPI confirmed
REFLevel<m>:ABSolute:BOTube <BottomOuterDist>
Defines an area beneath the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<BottomOuterDist>
Usage:
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.
2...21
Source waveform, see ​chapter 16.2.2.1, "Waveform Suffix", on page 419.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 100E+24
1E-3
0
V
SCPI confirmed
539
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
Results
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​LOWer​...................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​MIDDle​...................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​UPPer​....................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​SIGLow​..................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​SIGHigh​.................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​BINNer​...................................................................540
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​BOUTer​..................................................................541
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​TINNer​...................................................................541
MEASurement<m>:​REFLevel:​RESult:​TOUTer​..................................................................541
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:LOWer?
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:MIDDle?
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:UPPer?
Return the lower, middle, and upper reference level, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Level>
Usage:
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:SIGLow?
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:SIGHigh?
Return the signal value that represents a low or high level, respectively.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<Level>
Usage:
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:BINNer?
Returns the area above the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
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R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<BottomInner>
Usage:
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:BOUTer?
Returns the area beneath the low signal level which is still considered to be low level.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<BottomOuter>
Usage:
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:TINNer?
Returns the area beneath the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
Suffix:
<m>
Return values:
<TopInner>
Usage:
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
MEASurement<m>:REFLevel:RESult:TOUTer?
Returns the area above the high signal level which is still considered to be high level.
Suffix:
<m>
User Manual 1316.0827.02 ─ 06
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
541
R&S®RTO
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Command Reference
Return values:
<TopOuter>
Usage:
16.2.9.3
Range:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
Increment: 0
*RST:
0
Query only
SCPI confirmed
Amplitude/Time Measurement
The following table lists the measurement suffixes and the <MeasType> parameter value
with a short description.
For a detailed description, see ​chapter 5.2.1.2, "Amplitude/Time Measurements", on page 132.
Table 16-14: Amplitude and time measurement types
Meas.
suffix
<MeasType>
parameter value
Meas. type
Description/Result
1
HIGH
High
High signal level
2
LOW
Low
Low signal level
3
AMPLitude
Amplitude
Amplitude of the signal
4
MAXimum
Max
Maximum value of the waveform
5
MINimum
Min
Minimum value of the waveform
6
PDELta
Peak to peak
Peak-to-peak value of the waveform
7
MEAN
Mean
Mean value of the waveform
8
RMS
RMS
RMS (Root Mean Square) value of the voltage
9
STDDev
σ (S-dev)
Standard deviation of the waveform
10
POVershoot
Pos. overshoot
Positive overshoot of a square wave
11
NOVershoot
Neg. overshoot
Negative overshoot of a square wave
12
AREA
Area
Area beneath the waveform (integral)
13
RTIMe
Rise time
Rise time of the left-most rising edge of the waveform.
14
FTIMe
Fall time
Falling time of the left-most falling edge of the waveform.
15
PPULse
Pos. pulse
Width of a positive pulse – a rising edge followed by a falling
edge. The measurement requires at least one complete
period of a triggered signal.
16
NPULse
Neg. pulse
Width of a negative pulse – a falling edge followed by a
rising edge. The measurement requires at least one complete period of a triggered signal.
17
PERiod
Period
Length of the left-most signal period of the waveform
18
FREQuency
Frequency
Frequency of the signal. The result is based on the period
measurement.
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Command Reference
Meas.
suffix
<MeasType>
parameter value
Meas. type
Description/Result
19
PDCYcle
Pos. duty cycle
Positive duty cycle. The measurement requires at least one
complete period of a triggered signal.
20
NDCYcle
Neg. duty cycle
Negative duty cycle. The measurement requires at least
one complete period of a triggered signal.
21
CYCarea
Cycle area
Area (integral) beneath one cycle
22
CYCMean
Cycle mean
Mean value of one cycle
23
CYCRms
Cycle RMS
The RMS (Root Mean Square) value of one cycle
24
CYCStddev
Cycle σ (S-dev)
Standard deviation of one cycle
25
PULCnt
Pulse count
Number of positive or negative pulses of the waveform, or
both
26
DELay
Delay
Time difference between the any edges of two measurement sources at any reference level. The measurement
result is negative if the edge of the second source comes
before the edge of the first source.
27
PHASe
Phase
Phase difference between two waveforms
28
BWIDth
Burst width
Duration of one burst, measured from the first edge to the
last
29
PSWitching
Pos. switching
Settling time at rising edges
30
NSWitching
Neg. switching
Settling time at falling edges
31
PULSetrain
Pulse train
Duration of N positive pulses, measured from the rising
edge of the first pulse to the falling edge of the N-th pulse.
N has to be configured.
32
EDGecount
Edge count
Number of positive or negative edges of the waveform, or
both
Only available for digital channels (requires MSO option
R&S RTO-B1).
33
SETup
Setup time
34
HOLD
Hold time
35
SHT
Setup/Hold time
Parameters to query the setup and hold times.
Use these parameters only in queries with ​
MEASurement<m>:​ARES​ on page 570 and ​MEASurement<n>:RESult:.. commands.
Setting parameter to enable Setup/Hold time measurements.
Use this parameter only as setting with ​
MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524 and ​
MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
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Command Reference
Meas.
suffix
<MeasType>
parameter value
Meas. type
Description/Result
36
SHR
Setup/Hold ratio
Setup/Hold ratio measurement. Setup/Hold ratio is the
ratio of the setup time to the sum of hold and setup time:
TSetup / (TSetup + THold)
Used as setting to activate the Setup/Hold ratio measurement with ​MEASurement<m>:​MAIN​ on page 524 and ​
MEASurement<m>:​ADDitional​ on page 525
Used also in queries with ​MEASurement<m>:​ARES​
on page 570 and ​MEASurement<n>:RESult:.. commands.
37
PROBemeter
Trig. ProbeMeter
DC voltage measured by the connected active R&S probe
MEASurement<m>:​ENVSelect​........................................................................................544
MEASurement<m>:​DETThreshold​...................................................................................545
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​ALEVel​..............................................................................545
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​PSLope​.............................................................................545
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​DIRection​..........................................................545
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​ECOunt​.............................................................546
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​LSELect​............................................................546
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DELay<n>:​SLOPe​..............................................................546
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​PTCount​............................................................................547
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​ESLope​.............................................................................547
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​CSLope​.............................................................................547
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​CLCK<n>:​LSELect​.............................................................548
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​DATA<n>:​LSELect​.............................................................548
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​VALid​..............................................................548
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​LIMit​.....................................................549
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​LIMit​.....................................................549
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​LOWer:​MARGin​...............................................549
MEASurement<m>:​AMPTime:​LCHeck<n>:​UPPer:​MARGin​................................................549
MEASurement<m>:ENVSelect <EnvelopeCurve>
The command is only relevant for measurements on envelope waveforms. It selects the
envelope to be used for measurement.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<EnvelopeCurve>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
MIN | MAX | BOTH
MIN: measures on the lower envelope
MAX: measures on the upper envelope
BOTH: the envelope is ignored and the waveform measured as
usual
*RST:
BOTH
Firmware/Software: V 1.25
User Manual 1316.0827.02 ─ 06
544
R&S®RTO
Remote Control
Command Reference
MEASurement<m>:DETThreshold <SignDetectThres>
Defines the value above which measurement results are displayed. Values beneath the
threshold are considered to be noise and they are ignored.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<SignDetectThres>
.
1..9
irrelevant
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
0 to 50
1
5
%
MEASurement<m>:AMPTime:ALEVel <AreaLevel>
Defines the reference level used to integrate the waveform.
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<AreaLevel>
.
1..9
See ​"Measurement selection: MEASurement<m>" on page 522.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100E+24 to 100E+24
0
0
V
MEASurement<m>:AMPTime:PSLope <PulsesSlope>
Sets the first slope of the pulses to be counted. The setting is only relevant for pulse count
measurement (MEASurement<m>:MAIN PULCnt or
MEASurement<m>:ADDitional PULCnt,ON).
Suffix:
<m>
Parameters:
<Pulse