DESIGNER’S GUIDE C OPPER - FIN ® B O I L E R 495,000 – 2,065,000 Btu/hr Dear Specifier/Project Manager, At Lochinvar, we have long recognized the importance of innovation to any product or service. Those who enter into business must also accept the challenge of meeting constantly changing needs. The designer’s guide you are now holding has been designed to make it more convenient for you to select the perfect Lochinvar boiler for your projects and provide correct specifications for your teams. All information has been organized and presented in a succinct, easy-to-use manner, so you can use and share information confidently and with minimal effort. However, it is important to remember that this guide is not intended to replace our installation manual. Installers should still refer to our installation manual for specific installation instructions. We hope this manual will make your work easier and more productive. As always, we greatly appreciate your input on additional improvements for the future. Thanks once again for specifying the Lochinvar family of quality standard and custom-built boilers and boilers. Sincerely, Lochinvar Corporation Nashville, TN • 615-889-8900 • Fax: 615-547-1000 Table of Contents Air Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Boiler Operating Temperature Control . . . .16 Circulator Pump Operation . . . . . . . . . . .12 Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Combustion & Ventilation Air . . . . . . . . . . .5 Contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Determining Total “Free Area” . . . . . . . . . .7 Electrical Requirements (North America) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Gas Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 General Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 High Flow Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Location of Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Low Flow Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Low Water Temperature System . . . . . . . .14 Outdoor Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Outdoor Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Primary/Secondary Piping . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Remote Temperature Control . . . . . . . . . . .17 Special Design Applications . . . . . . . . . . .15 Temperature/Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . .16 Three-Way Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Venting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Water Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Water Flow Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Water Velocity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 FIG. 12 Low Temperature Bypass System Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 FIG. 13 Heating/Chilled Water System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 TABLE A. Clearances From Combustibles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TABLE B. Flue Sizes and Combustion Air Pipe Sizes . . . . .8 TABLE C. Outdoor Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 TABLE D. Gas Supply Pipe Sizing . . . . . .11 TABLE E. Inlet Gas Pressure . . . . . . . . . .11 TABLE F. Water Flow Requirements . . . . .12 TABLE G. Minimum and Maximum Boiler Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . .12 TABLE H. Heat Exchanger Head Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 TABLE I. Amp Draw Data . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Boiler Piping Diagrams Primary/Secondary Boiler Piping . . . . . . .A1 Multiple Unit Primary/Secondary Piping . .A2 Low Temperature Boiler Bypass Piping . . .A3 Figures & Tables Index FIG. 1 Models CB 495-2066 Requirements For Installation Over Combustible Floor . . . . . . .3 FIG. 2 Boiler Equipment & Control Orientation . . . . . . . . . . .4 FIG. 3-6 Combustion & Ventilation Air . .5, 6 FIG. 7 Barometric Damper Installation . .8 FIG. 8 Multiple Unit Barometric Damper Installation . . . . . . . . . . .9 FIG. 9 Outdoor Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 FIG. 10 Primary/Secondary System Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 FIG. 11 High Flow System Piping . . . . . .14 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 1 Lochinvar CODES In designing a boiler system, pay special attention to: The equipment shall be installed in accordance with those installation regulations in effect in the local area where the installation is to be made. These shall be carefully followed in all cases. Authorities o Water Velocity (See page 12 for Minimum and Maximum Flow Rates.) having jurisdiction shall be consulted before installations are made. In the absence of such requirements, the o Piping Requirements installation shall conform to the latest edition of and Specialities the National Fuel Gas Code, ANSI Z223.1. (See page 12 for Where required by the authority having Water Flow Requirements jurisdiction, the installation must conform to and system piping.) American Society of Mechanical Engineers Safety Code for Controls and Safety Devices o Low Water Temperature for Automatically Fired Boilers, ASME CSD-1. System Where required by the authority having (See page 14 & 15 for jurisdiction, the installation must comply with piping and design the Canadian Association Code, CAN/CGA- recommendations.) B149.1 and/or B149.2 and/or local codes. o System and Boiler Control LOCATION OF UNIT (See page 16 for Control 1. Locate the unit so that if water connections Connections and should leak, water damage will not occur. Operator Settings.) When such locations cannot be avoided, it is recommended that a suitable drain pan, o Air Elimination and adequately drained, be installed under the Expansion Tank Placement unit. The pan must not restrict combustion (See page 16 for Air air flow. Removal Information.) Under no circumstances is the manufacturer to be held responsible for water damage in connection with this unit or any of its components. 2 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 2. The indoor units must be installed so that • This procedure should also be the ignition system components are followed if electrical conduit or protected from water (dripping, spraying, radiant heat distribution piping rain, etc.) during appliance operation and runs through the floor and service (circulator replacement, control beneath the appliance. replacement, etc.). • Ensure that combustible floor base 3. The appliance must be installed meets local fire code requirements. on a level, non-combustible floor. Concrete over wood is not considered a 5. Outdoor models require the installation of non-combustible floor. Maintain required an optional vent cap. Instructions for clearances from combustible surfaces. placement of the vent cap are included in the venting section. 4. For installation on a combustible floor only when installed on Outdoor models must not be installed special base: Units installed over a directly on the ground. The outdoor unit combustible floor must use the Special must be installed on a concrete brick, Combustible Floor Base. The unit must be block or other non-combustible pad. centered on the base as shown in FIG. 1. SPECIAL LOCATION: OUTDOOR USE • Provide a base of hollow clay tile or Outdoor models have additional location concrete blocks from 8 to 12 inches thick and clearance requirements. These and extending 24 inches beyond the sides. requirements must be adhered to carefully, since wind, rain, snow and cold cannot be • The blocks must be placed in line so that the holes line up horizontally to provide a controlled in outdoor applications. See Outdoor Installation on page 9. clear passage through the blocks. (TABLE A) – CLEARANCES FROM COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION CLEARANCES Right Side Rear Left Side Front Top Flue * Alcove is a closet without a door. + Consult local codes and/or vent material manufacturer. (FIG. 1) CB 495-2066 REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OVER COMBUSTIBLE FLOOR Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE CB 495-2066 3" 3" 3" (30" for Service) ALCOVE* (24" for Service) 3" 1"+ COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 3 Lochinvar RIGHT SIDE FLUE PRODUCTS VENT INLET GAS CONNECTION FRESH AIR INLET TERMINAL STRIP HOT WATER OUTLET ON/OFF SWITCH 120V ELECTRICAL CONNECTION COLD WATER INLET FRONT RELIEF VALVE TAPPING BACK DRAIN BURNER INSPECTION PORT CB 495-745 LEFT SIDE RIGHT SIDE FLUE PRODUCTS VENT OPERATOR GAS CONNECTION ON/OFF SWITCH AIR INLET TERMINAL STRIP HOT WATER OUTLET COLD WATER INLET FRONT BACK BURNER INSPECTION PORT DRAIN LEFT SIDE CB 986-2066 (FIG. 2) BOILER EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL ORIENTATION. 4 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 COMBUSTION & VENTILATION AIR opening must be located within 12 inches (30 cm) of the bottom of the enclosure. Provisions for combustion and ventilation air must be in accordance with Section 5.3, B. Ventilation air opening with a minimum free area of one square inch per 4000 Btu/hr input (5.5 cm2 per kW). This opening must be located within 12 inches (30 cm) of the top of the enclosure. Air for Combustion and Ventilation, of the latest edition of the National Fuel Gas Code, ANSI Z223.1; in Canada, the latest edition of CGA Standard B149 Installation Code for Gas Burning Appliances and Equipment; or applicable provisions of the local building codes. The equipment room must be provided with properly sized openings to assure adequate combustion air and proper ventilation when the unit is installed with conventional venting or sidewall venting. (FIG. 4) COMBUSTION AIR THROUGH DUCTWORK CAUTION: Under no circumstances should the equipment room be under a negative pressure when atmospheric combustion equipment is installed in the room. 2. If combustion and ventilation air is taken from the outdoors using a duct to deliver the air to the mechanical room, each of the two openings should be sized based on a minimum free area of one square inch per 2000 Btu/hr input (11 cm2 per kW). (FIG. 3) COMBUSTION AIR DIRECT FROM OUTSIDE 1. If air is taken directly from outside the building with no duct, provide two permanent openings: A. Combustion air opening with a minimum free area of one square inch per 4000 Btu/hr input (5.5 cm2 per kW). This Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE (FIG. 5) COMBUSTION AIR FROM AN INTERIOR SPACE 3. If air is taken from another interior COPPER space, each of the two openings specified above should have a net free -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 5 Lochinvar area of one square inch for each 1000 Btu/hr (22 cm2 per kW) of input, but not less than 100 square inches (645 cm2). VENTING General These boilers are classified as Category I appliances when tested to the latest ANSI Standard. This classification requires all conventionally vented combustion products to be vented using Category I listed vent pipe. Additionally, it is recommended that this (FIG. 6) COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTSIDE, SINGLE OPENING vent material be double wall construction or insulated in the field. A Category I 4. If a single combustion air opening appliance operates with a non-positive is provided to bring combustion static vent pressure and with flue loss air in directly from the outdoors, greater than 17 percent. the opening must be sized based on a minimum free area of one square inch Vent installations for connection to gas vents per 3000 Btu/hr input (7 cm2 per kW). CAUTION! or chimneys must be in accordance with This opening must be located within 12 Part 7, “Venting of Equipment,” of the latest EXHAUST FANS: Any fan or equipment which exhausts air from the equipment room may deplete the combustion air supply and/or cause a down draft in the venting system. If a fan is used to supply combustion air to the equipment room, it must by sized such to make sure that it does not cause drafts which could lead to nuisance operational problems with the boiler. inches (30 cm) of the top of the enclosure. edition of the National Fuel Gas Code, ANSI Z223.1, or applicable provisions of the local CONTAMINANTS building codes. Combustion air drawn from an interior or exterior space must be free of any The connection from the appliance vent chemical fumes which could be corrosive to to the stack must be as direct as possible the boiler. and sized correctly. The horizontal breeching Burning chemical fumes results in the of a vent must have at least 1/4” rise per formation of corrosive acids which attack the linear foot. The horizontal portions should boiler, cause improper combustion and also be supported for the design and weight premature failure of the boiler and vent. of the material employed to maintain These fumes are often present in areas clearances, prevent physical damage and where refrigerants, salts, and solvents are separation of joints. used. Therefore, be aware of swimming pool equipment, water softening, and The connection from the appliance vent cooling system placement. to the stack or vent termination outside the building must be made with listed 6 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 Category I double wall vent (or equivalent) Vent Terminations EXAMPLE OF connectors and sized according to vent The vent terminal should be vertical and SIZING FOR sizing tables (FAN column) in the latest exhaust outside the building at least 2 feet COMBUSTION edition of the National Fuel Gas Code. (0.6 m) above the highest point of the roof & VENTILATION when within a 10 foot (3.05 m) radius. The Category I vent and accessories, such as AIR OPENINGS (BOILER WITH 2,065,000 Btu/hr firestop spacers, thimbles, caps, etc., must Additionally, vertical terminations must be a be installed in accordance with the vent minimum of 3 feet (0.9 m) above the roof manufacturer’s listing. The vent connector and line, and when less than 10 feet (3.05 m) firestop must provide correct spacing to from a parapet wall must be a minimum of from directly outside the combustible surfaces and seal to the vent 2 feet (0.61 m) higher than the parapet wall. building (FIG. 4), divide connector on the upper and lower sides of INPUT): When combustion and ventilated air is taken the total BTU’s by 4,000. each floor or ceiling through which the vent Vent caps should have a minimum clearance This yields 516.25 sq.in. connector passes. of 4 feet (1.2 m) horizontally from, and in no of “Free Area” without case above or below [unless a 4 feet (1.2 m) restriction. (2,065,000 ÷ 4000 = Any improper operation of the common horizontal distance is maintained], electric venting system in an existing building should meters, gas meters, regulators and relief Since the air opening is be corrected when new equipment is equipment. 50% closed due to installed, so the installation conforms to the 516.25 sq.in.) screens and louvers, the latest edition of the National Fuel Gas Code, Maintain a distance of at least 3 feet total opening must be ANSI Z223.1. (0.9 m) above any forced air inlet within multiplied by 2. 10 feet (3.05 m) and a distance of at (516.25 sq. in. x 2 = 1,032 sq.in.) When resizing any portion of the common least 4 feet (1.2 m) below, 4 feet (1.2 m) venting system, it should be resized to horizontally from, or 1 foot (30 cm) above Ventilation Air Opening approach the minimum size as determined any door, window or gravity air inlet. with net “Area” of using the appropriate tables in the National Fuel Gas Code. The weight of the venting system must not rest on the boiler. The venting system must be adequately supported in compliance with local codes and other applicable codes. This project requires one 1,032 square inches with Do not terminate the vent in a window well, stairwell, alcove, courtyard or other recessed area. The vent can not terminate below grade. The bottom of the vent terminal shall be located at least 12 inches (30 cm) above grade and clear of snow, ice, leaves or other debris. louver dimensions of 30” x 35” and one Combustion Air Opening with net “Area” of 1,032 square inches with louver dimensions of 30” x 35”. The distance of the vent terminal from adjacent public walkways, adjacent buildings, windows, and building openings Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 7 Lochinvar must be consistent with the National Fuel Gas Code Z223.1 or in Canada, the latest edition of CGA Standard B149 Installation Code for Gas Burning Appliances and Equipment. The minimum flue pipe diameters for all models, utilizing negative draft venting are as follows: (TABLE B) FLUE SIZES AND COMBUSTION AIR PIPE SIZES VENTING OPTIONS Conventional Venting A conventional venting system utilizes the natural buoyancy of the heated flue products to generate a negative draft. This draft forces flue products to rise vertically through a rooftop flue termination. The vent connection is made directly to the top of the unit and combustion air supplied from the mechanical room. Properly sizing vent material and the use of a barometric damper (when required) will lead to proper vent operation. MODEL NUMBER FLUE SIZE CB495 6" CB645 8" CB745 8" CB986 10" CB1256 12" CB1436 12" CB1796 14" CB2066 14" Size vent material using the “FAN” category of vent sizing tables in the latest edition of the National Fuel Gas Code. “FAN” applies to fan-assisted combustion appliances in Category I. Barometric Dampers A barometric damper is required when draft exceeds 0.08 inches of negative water column. When installed and adjusted properly, a barometric damper will maintain draft between 0.02 and 0.08 inches of negative water column ensuring proper operation. Multiple unit installations with combined venting also require barometric dampers to regulate draft at each unit. Again, the negative draft must be within the range of 0.02 to 0.08 inches of negative water column to ensure proper operation. (FIG. 7) BAROMETRIC DAMPER INSTALLATION 8 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 generate proper draft. This will result in condensing of flue products, damage of the masonry flue/tile, insufficient draft and possible spillage of flue products into an occupied living space. NOTE: Common venting systems may be too large when an existing unit is removed. Be careful to resize any (FIG. 8) MULTIPLE UNIT BAROMETRIC DAMPER INSTALLATION For this type of installation, it is best to use a draft control for each boiler located on the riser between the vent outlet and the breeching - Location “A”. When this riser is too short to permit the installation of a draft control, locate a separate control for each boiler on the main breeching as illustrated in Location “B”. If, because of general crowding or other reasons, neither of these locations are possible, use a single large Carefully inspect all chimney systems during common venting system the project design phase. If there is any doubt when new appliances about the sizing or condition of a masonry are installed or existing chimney, it is prudent to reline the chimney appliances are replaced. with a properly sized and approved chimney liner system. Metallic liner systems (Type “B” doublewall or flexible or rigid metallic liners) are recommended. Consult with local code officials to determine code requirements or the advisability of using or relining a masonry chimney. NOTE: Flue gases will form a OUTDOOR INSTALLATION white plume in winter. Plume could obstruct control in the breeching between the boiler window view. Flue gas nearest the chimney and the chimney, as condensate can freeze shown in Location “C”. on exterior surfaces or on the vent cap. Flue All draft readings are made while unit is in gas condensate can stable operation (approximately 5 minutes cause discoloration of running time). exterior building surfaces. Adjacent brick Masonry Chimney A masonry chimney must be properly sized for the installation of a high efficiency gas fired appliance. Exterior masonry chimneys, with one or more sides exposed to cold outdoor temperatures, are more likely to have venting problems. The temperature of the flue products from a high efficiency appliance may not be able to sufficiently heat the masonry structure of the chimney to Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE (FIG. 9) OUTDOOR VENTING or masonry surfaces should be protected with Units are self venting and can be used a rust resistant sheet outdoors when installed with the optional metal plate. Outdoor Cap. This cap mounts directly to the top of the boiler and covers the flue outlet and combustion air inlet openings on the jacket. No additional vent piping is required. Maintain a minimum clearance of 3 inches (76 mm) to combustible surfaces COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 9 Lochinvar and a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) (TABLE C) - OUTDOOR VENT KIT PART NUMBERS clearance to the air inlet. MODEL NUMBER PART NUMBER CB495 ODK3023 CB645 ODK3024 that high winds can deflect off of adjacent CB745 ODK3024 walls, buildings or shrubbery causing CB986 ODK3046 CB1256 ODK3047 An outdoor unit should not be located so recirculation. Recirculation of flue products CB1436 ODK3047 may cause operational problems, bad CB1796 ODK3048 combustion or damage to controls. The unit CB2066 ODK3048 should be located at least 3 feet (0.91m) from any wall or vertical surface to prevent adverse wind conditions from affecting performance. Freeze ProtectionOutdoor Installation A snow screen should be installed to prevent snow and ice accumulation around the appliance or its venting system. Multiple unit outdoor installations require 48 inches (1.22 m) clearance between each vent cap. The outdoor cap must be located 4 feet (1.22 m) below and 4 feet (1.22 m) horizontally from any window, door, walkway or gravity air intake. The combustion air inlet of the outdoor cap must be located at least one foot (0.30 m) above grade and above normal snow levels. The boiler must be at least 10 feet If for any reason the unit is to be shut off: (a.) Shut off water supply. (b.) Drain unit completely. (c.) Drain pump and piping. If freeze protection is not provided for the system, a low ambient temperature alarm or automatic drain system is recommended. GAS SUPPLY 1. Safe operation of unit requires properly sized gas supply piping (See TABLE D). (3.05 m) away from any forced air inlet and at least 3 feet (0.91 m) outside any overhang. 2. Gas pipe size may be larger than the heater connection. NOTE: Venting of a high efficiency appliance into a cold or oversized masonry chimney can result in operational and safety problems. Do not install in locations where rain from 3. A gas pressure regulator is suggested to help assure proper inlet gas pressure. If upstream pressure exceeds 6 oz. (10.5 inches of water column), an intermediate gas pressure regulator, of the lockup type, must be installed. building runoff drains will spill onto the boiler. Lochinvar must furnish an outdoor vent kit in accordance with CSA international requirements. Each kit includes the flue outlet/combustion air inlet, assembly, 4. Installation of a union is suggested for gasket and pump cover. 10 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S ease of service. GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 reduced in an appliance above 2000 feet. 5. Install a manual main gas shut-off valve with test plug, outside of the appliance gas connection and before the gas valve, when local codes require. Ratings should be reduced at the rate of 4 percent for each 1000 feet above sea level. (TABLE E) – INLET GAS PRESSURE LPG GAS MODELS NAT. GAS 6. A trap (drip leg) should be provided in the inlet of the gas connection to the unit. High Altitude Applications Atmospheric pressure decreases as the height above sea level increases. At any altitude above sea level, a cubic foot will CB 495-645 Minimum Allowable Maximum Allowable 5” 10.5” 11” 13” CB745 Minimum Allowable Maximum Allowable 5.5” 10.5” 11” 13” CB 986-2066 Minimum Allowable Maximum Allowable 4.5” 10.5” 8” 13” contain less gas than a cubic foot at sea level. Thus, the heating value of a cubic foot WATER CONNECTIONS of fuel gas will decrease as height above Inlet and Outlet Water Connections For ease of service, install unions on inlet and outlet of the boiler. sea level increases. Specific gravity of a gas with respect to sea level also decreases with altitude. These The connection on the unit marked “Inlet” should be used for return water from the storage tank. The connection on the header marked “Outlet” should be connected to the inlet of the storage tank. (See Appendix A for Boiler Piping Diagrams). changes in heating value and specific gravity tend to offset each other. However, as elevation above sea level is increased, there is less oxygen per cubic foot of air. Therefore, heat input rate should be (TABLE D) – GAS SUPPLY PIPE SIZING Length of Pipe In Straight Feet Nominal Iron Pipe Size, Inches 3/4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 369 256 205 174 155 141 128 121 113 106 95 86 79 74 1 697 477 384 328 292 267 256 246 210 200 179 164 149 138 200 1 1/4 1,400 974 789 677 595 543 502 472 441 410 369 333 308 287 1 1/2 2,150 1,500 1,210 1,020 923 830 769 707 666 636 564 513 472 441 2 4,100 2,820 2,260 1,950 1,720 1,560 1,440 1,330 1,250 1,180 1,100 974 871 820 2 1/2 6,460 4,460 3,610 3,100 2,720 2,460 2,310 2,100 2,000 1,900 1,700 1,540 1,400 1,300 11,200 7,900 6,400 5,400 4,870 4,410 4,000 3,800 3,540 3,300 3,000 2,720 2,500 2,340 23,500 16,100 13,100 11,100 10,000 9,000 8,300 7,690 7,380 6,870 6,150 5,640 5,130 4,720 3 1 3 /2 Maximum capacity of pipe in thousands of BTU’s per hour for gas pressures of 14” Inches Water Column (0.5 PSIG) or less and a total system pressure drop of 0.05 Inch Water Column (Based on NAT GAS, 1025 BTU’s per Cubic Foot of Gas and 0.60 Specific Gravity). Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 11 Lochinvar EXAMPLE OF HIGH ALTITUDE APPLICATIONS For example, if a unit’s input is 100,000 Btu/hr at sea level, the rated input at 4000 feet of elevation can be calculated efficient operation, a boiler needs adequate water flow. Pump sizing, pipe sizing, and piping layout must be taken into consideration for proper system flow. WATER VELOCITY CONTROL IMPORTANT To ensure proper velocity through the heat exchanger, it is necessary to regulate the temperature rise across the heat exchanger from inlet to outlet. (This must be done on initial installation and periodically rechecked). (TABLE F) provides Gallons Per Minute and boiler head-loss at various temperature rises for each boiler based on Btu/hr input. (TABLE G) provides maximum and minimum flow data for each model. These two charts will provide assistance in system flow design. by derating input 4% per 1000 feet above sea level. [Btu/hr Input] [1.00 - (Elevation/ 1000 ft. x 0.04)] = Btu/hr Input at specified elevation. [100,000][1.00 - (4000 ft. /1000 ft. x 0.04)] = Btu/hr Input 4000’ elevation. [100,000][0.84] = 84,000 Btu/hr Input at With the correct temperature rise across the heat exchanger (See TABLE F), you may be assured of the proper velocity in the tubes and long life and economical operation from the boiler. (TABLE G) – MINIMUM & MAXIMUM BOILER FLOW RATES MODEL NUMBER CIRCULATOR PUMP OPERATION A pump control relay is optional on CB 495-2066 heating boilers. When designing a system to utilize primary/ secondary operation, specify a pump control relay for intermittent pump operation. 4000 ft. elevation. WATER FLOW REQUIREMENTS and SYSTEM PIPING MINIMUM FLOW (GPM) MAXIMUM FLOW (GPM) CB495 20.5 75 CB645 21.0 75 CB745 25.0 75 CB986 32.0 90 CB1256 41.0 90 CB1436 47.0 90 CB1796 59.0 90 CB2066 68.0 90 Lochinvar boilers are generally capable of operating within the design flow rates for the building heating system. To ensure the most (TABLE F) – WATER FLOW REQUIREMENTS TEMPERATURE RISE 12 10ºF ∆T 15ºF ∆T GPM FT.HD GPM FT.HD 20ºF ∆T 25ºF ∆T 30ºF ∆T 35ºF ∆T 40ºF ∆T INPUT OUTPUT GPM FT.HD GPM FT.HD GPM FT.HD GPM FT.HD GPM 495,000 400,950 — — 53.5 5.3 41.0 4.1 32.1 1.9 27.0 1.6 22.9 0.8 20.0 FT.HD 0.7 645,000 522,450 — — 69.7 6.7 53.0 5.1 41.8 3.6 35.0 3.0 29.9 1.8 27.0 1.6 745,000 603,450 — — — — 61.0 6.1 48.3 4.8 41.0 4.1 34.5 2.6 31.0 2.3 985,000 797,850 — — — — 81.0 5.2 63.9 3.0 54.0 2.5 45.6 1.7 41.0 1.5 1,255,000 1,016,550 — — — — — — 81.4 5.1 69.0 4.3 58.1 3.0 52.0 2.7 1,435,000 1,162,350 — — — — — — — — 79.0 6.3 66.4 4.2 59.0 3.7 1,795,000 1,453,950 — — — — — — — — — — 83.1 7.3 74.0 6.5 2,065,000 1,672,650 — — — — — — — — — — — — 85.0 8.8 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 (TABLE H – HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD LOSS HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD-LOSS MODELS CB 495-745 secondary pump(s). When piped correctly, NOTE: the secondary pump helps to prevent flow Care should be taken to through the boiler(s) when they are not firing. measure temperature Use of a primary/secondary system will rise and maintain proper eliminate the need for a System or Boiler water velocity in the Bypass. (FIGURE 10) depicts one example heat exchanger. of primary/secondary piping. LIT0476 MAKE-UP WATER NOTE: If a pressure valve or HEATING SUPPLY LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD-LOSS MODELS CB 986-2066 TO FLOOR DRAIN check valve is in the system a properly sized tank may be required. *12” MAX HEATING RETURN LOOP (FIG. 10) PRIMARY/SECONDARY SYSTEM PIPING Three Way Valves The installation of a three-way valve in a hydronic heating application is not generally Primary/Secondary Piping recommended as most piping methods allow Using a primary/secondary piping the three-way valve to vary flow through the arrangement can solve many system flow boiler. This variable flow through the boiler is complications. not recommended as it alters heat transfer This piping arrangement uses a dedicated pump to supply flow to the boiler. The pump is sized based on the required boiler flow speed and places undue heat stresses on the heat exchanger surface. Additionally, low flow rates can result in overheating of the boiler water, which can cause short burner rate, boiler head-loss and head-loss in the secondary system piping. A separate pump is used to provide the desired flow for the system. Primary/Secondary piping allows the system and the boiler(s) to operate at their optimum flow rate. The system works best on cycles, system noise and in extreme cases, a knocking flash to steam. For these reasons, constant circulation is recommended to maintain proper operation while the boiler is firing. when the boiler(s) are supplied with pump control relays which are used to cycle the Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 13 Lochinvar Water Flow Switch a higher flow rate through the boiler and the Due to the low water content (between 1 and 6 secondary loop piping to ensure proper gallons) of the copper finned tube heat operation. See “Primary/Secondary Piping” exchanger, a flow switch is factory installed for installation and piping requirements. as a low water cutoff device on all CB models. The flow switch is installed in the outlet piping of the boiler and wired into the ignition system. Per ASME CSD1 and in most localities, a flow switch is accepted as a low water cutoff for boilers requiring forced circulation. (See CSD1 CW-210, Part A) It is prudent to verify preference with the local code official. A specially sealed flow switch and conduit are furnished for outdoor installations. High Flow Systems When the flow rate of the system exceeds the maximum allowable flow rate through the boiler (TABLE G), boiler bypass piping should be installed. The bypass will divert the required portion of the system flow to the boiler and bypass excess system flow. This will effectively reduce boiler flow to an acceptable rate and increase system flow. The bypass piping should be sized equal to the system piping. (FIGURE 11) depicts the proper piping arrangement for the boiler Low Water Cutoff If this boiler is installed above radiation level, bypass. MAKE-UP WATER a low water cutoff device must be installed LIT0471 at the time of boiler installation (option, available from factory). HEATING SUPPLY LOOP Relief Valve TO FLOOR DRAIN This boiler is supplied with a pressure relief valve(s) sized in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV HEATING RETURN LOOP “Heating Boilers”. (FIG. 11) HIGH FLOW SYSTEM PIPING Low Flow Systems When the system flow rate is less than the minimum flow required for proper boiler operation, the boiler should be installed with a primary/secondary piping system. This will allow the installation of a secondary circulating pump sized specifically to provide 14 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER Low Water Temperature System Any boiler system operating at a temperature of less than 140°F is considered a “low water temperature system” and must be piped with a low temperature bypass. There are a number of hydronic boiler applications that call for system water temperatures in the range of 60°F to 100°F. Typical applications -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 are: Radiant heating systems; Water source heat pump systems; Greenhouse soil heating and irrigation systems; Process and manufacturing operations. These installations often incur problems resulting from boiler condensation, thermal stresses and poor overall system efficiency. Copper-tube boilers are particularly adaptable to these applications for several reasons: A boiler operated with an inlet temperature of IMPORTANT: Operation of this boiler less than 140°F (60°C) must have a bypass on low temperature to prevent problems with condensation. systems requires special piping to insure A Low Temperature bypass as shown in correct operation. Figure 14 should be piped into the system at Consult low temperature the time of installation. This piping is like a system section for primary/secondary boiler installation with a piping details. bypass in the secondary boiler piping. Inlet water temperatures below 140°F (60°C) can 1. A copper-tube boiler is an instantaneous boiler, requiring virtually no heat-up time, and having no temperature “overshoot.” excessively cool the products of combustion resulting in condensation on the heat exchanger and in the flue. Result - High system efficiency. The bypass allows part of the boiler 2. The boiler’s unique construction prevents discharge water to be mixed with the cooler the transfer of heat exchanger thermal boiler return water to increase the boiler stresses to other boiler components, inlet temperature to at least 140°F (60°C). reducing wear and tear while increasing This will prevent the products of combustion equipment life. from condensing in most installations. Size Low Temperature bypass Piping equal to system piping, and use fully ported control 3. Its compact, simple design and low valves. boiler mass permits a simple bypass arrangement which will allow the system to be operated at any temperature above 60°F. SPECIAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS Air Conditioning Re-Heat System LIT0473 MAKE-UP WATER When used in connection with a refrigeration system, the boiler must be installed so the chilled medium is piped in parallel with the boiler and with appropriate valves to prevent HEATING SUPPLY LOOP TO FLOOR DRAIN the chilled medium from entering the boiler. The piping system of the hot water boiler (when connected to heating coils located in air handling units where they may be exposed HEATING RETURN LOOP (FIG. 12) LOW TEMPERATURE BYPASS SYSTEM PIPING Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE to refrigerated air circulation) must be equipped with flow control valves or other COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 15 Lochinvar automatic means to prevent gravity circulation NOTE: TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE GAUGE of the boiler water during the cooling cycle. When the unit is This boiler is equipped with a dial type installed in Canada, temperature/pressure gauge. This gauge is it MUST conform to The heating coil must be vented at the high the CAE C22.1, factory installed in the outlet side of the heat point, and the hot water from the boiler must Canadian Electrical exchanger. The gauge has one scale for enter the coil at this point. Due to the fast Code, Part 1 reading system pressure and a separate scale heating capacity of the boiler, it is not for water temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. and/or local Electrical Codes. necessary to provide a duct-stat to delay circulator operation; also, omit thermal flow BOILER OPERATING TEMPERATURE CONTROL checks, as the boiler is cold when the heating thermostat is satisfied. This provides greater In the absence of a remote temperature economy overall by maintaining standby heat. control, a digital operator controls the boiler operating temperature. The sensing element AIR REMOVAL for the operator is placed in a bulb well, An air separation device should be placed in installed in the inlet side of the heat the installation piping, on the suction side of exchanger front header. Due to the location the system pump, to eliminate trapped air in of the temperature sensor, the operator will the system. Locate a system air vent at the generally require a lower temperature highest point in the system. Additionally, a setpoint to achieve the desired discharge properly sized expansion tank is required. Air water temperature from the boiler. This charged, diaphragm-type compression tanks sensing element location allows a boiler are common. The expansion tank must be operating with a low to moderate flow rate to installed close to the boiler and on the suction sustain longer burner “ON” cycles, based on side of the system pump to ensure proper high discharge water temperatures. operation. For example, a boiler operating with a 180°F EXPANSION TANK HEATING & COOLING COIL PUMP LOW WATER FLOW SWITCH A OUT C IN R B D GAS SUPPLY WATER SUPPLY E CHILLER BOILER 3. CLOSE BOTH "A" AND "C" VALVES WHEN RUNNING CHILLER. 4. CLOSE BOTH "B" AND "D" VALVES WHEN RUNNING BOILER. 5. WATER SUPPLY VALVE REMAINS OPEN AT ALL TIMES. DIAGRAM NOTES: 1. VALVES "D" AND "C" MAY BE MANUAL OR AUTOMATIC- TO SUIT. 2. PROVIDE DRAIN FOR RELIEF VALVE "R" TO SAFE PLACE. (FIG. 13) HEATING/CHILLED WATER SYSTEM 16 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’S G U I DE C OP P ER - F I N B O I L E R 615-889-8900 discharge and a 20°F temperature rise would (TABLE I) – AMP DRAW DATA require approximately a 160°F to 165°F set MODEL NUMBER FAN(S) temperature set point is based on system CB495 3.6 3.6 7.2 requirements. CB645 3.6 3.6 7.2 CB745 3.6 3.6 7.2 CB986 3.4 4.6 8.0 CB1256 3.4 4.6 8.0 CB1436 3.8 4.6 8.4 equipped with a terminal strip to allow CB1796 3.8 4.6 8.4 easy connection. Connection to the terminal CB2066 3.8 4.6 8.4 point with the temperature sensor installed on CONTROLS APPROX. TOTAL AMPS @ 120 VAC the inlet side of the heat exchanger. The exact REMOTE TEMPERATURE CONTROL, CONNECTION TO TERMINAL STRIP A remote temperature control may be connected to the boiler. The boiler is CAUTION! For proper operation the system should not be operated at less than 12 PSIG. strip will allow the remote temperature control to make and break the 24 VAC boiler control circuit, turning the boiler on and off based on building and system demands. ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (North America) The appliance is wired for 120 volts. 1. All wiring between the unit and field installed devices shall be made of type T wire [63°F (35°C) rise]. 2. The pump must run continuously when the unit is firing. 3. It is recommended that the boiler and pump be wired on separate circuits with properly sized circuit breakers. Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 17 BOILER PIPING DIAGRAMS PIPING DIAGRAM PRIMARY/SECONDARY BOILER PIPING MAKE-UP WATER HEATING SUPPLY LOOP TO FLOOR DRAIN 12” MAX* *AS CLOSE AS PRACTICAL – 12” OR 4 PIPE DIAMETERS MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN MANIFOLD CONNECTIONS TO SYSTEM. HEATING RETURN LOOP This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated. LIT0476 L E G E N D A1 PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FULL PORT BALL VALVE RELIEF VALVE CHECK VALVE TEE ELBOW EXPANSION TANK TANK FITTING SYSTEM PUMP LOW WATER CUTOFF UNION AIR SEPARATOR Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 PIPING DIAGRAM MULTIPLE UNIT PRIMARY/SECONDARY PIPING MAKE-UP WATER TO SYSTEM SUPPLY CAP EACH MANIFOLD 12” MAX* FROM SYSTEM RETURN *AS CLOSE AS PRACTICAL – 12” OR 4 PIPE DIAMETERS MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN MANIFOLD CONNECTIONS TO SYSTEM. This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated. LIT0475 L E G E N D PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FULL PORT BALL VALVE RELIEF VALVE CHECK VALVE TEE ELBOW EXPANSION TANK TANK FITTING SYSTEM PUMP LOW WATER CUTOFF UNION AIR SEPARATOR Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 A2 PIPING DIAGRAM LOW TEMPERATURE BOILER-BYPASS PIPING MAKE-UP WATER HEATING SUPPLY LOOP TO FLOOR DRAIN BYPASS *12” MAX PRIMARY - SECONDARY BOILER PIPING WITH BYPASS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION HEATING RETURN LOOP *AS CLOSE AS PRACTICAL – 12” OR 4 PIPE DIAMETERS MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN MANIFOLD CONNECTIONS TO SYSTEM. This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated. LIT0473 L E G E N D PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE FULL PORT BALL VALVE RELIEF VALVE CHECK VALVE TEE ELBOW EXPANSION TANK TANK FITTING SYSTEM PUMP LOW WATER CUTOFF UNION AIR SEPARATOR A3 Lochinvar D E S I G N E R’ S GUIDE COPPER -FIN BOILER 615-889-8900 Lochinvar Corporation • Lebanon, TN • 615-889-8900 / Fax: 615-547-1000 www.Lochinvar.com CB-DG-05 5M-4/04-Printed in U.S.A.