DESIGNER’S GUIDE
C OPPER - FIN ® B O I L E R
495,000 –
2,065,000 Btu/hr
Dear Specifier/Project Manager,
At Lochinvar, we have long recognized the importance of innovation to any
product or service. Those who enter into business must also accept the challenge
of meeting constantly changing needs.
The designer’s guide you are now holding has been designed to make it more
convenient for you to select the perfect Lochinvar boiler for your projects
and provide correct specifications for your teams.
All information has been organized and presented in a succinct, easy-to-use
manner, so you can use and share information confidently and with minimal
effort.
However, it is important to remember that this guide is not intended to replace our
installation manual. Installers should still refer to our installation manual for
specific installation instructions.
We hope this manual will make your work easier and more productive. As always,
we greatly appreciate your input on additional improvements for the future.
Thanks once again for specifying the Lochinvar family of quality standard
and custom-built boilers and boilers.
Sincerely,
Lochinvar Corporation
Nashville, TN • 615-889-8900 • Fax: 615-547-1000
Table of Contents
Air Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Boiler Operating Temperature Control . . . .16
Circulator Pump Operation . . . . . . . . . . .12
Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Combustion & Ventilation Air . . . . . . . . . . .5
Contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Determining Total “Free Area” . . . . . . . . . .7
Electrical Requirements
(North America) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Gas Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
General Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
High Flow Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Location of Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Low Flow Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Low Water Temperature System . . . . . . . .14
Outdoor Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Outdoor Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Primary/Secondary Piping . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Remote Temperature Control . . . . . . . . . . .17
Special Design Applications . . . . . . . . . . .15
Temperature/Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . .16
Three-Way Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Venting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Water Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Water Flow Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Water Velocity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
FIG. 12 Low Temperature Bypass
System Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
FIG. 13 Heating/Chilled
Water System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
TABLE A. Clearances From
Combustibles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
TABLE B. Flue Sizes and
Combustion Air Pipe Sizes . . . . .8
TABLE C. Outdoor Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
TABLE D. Gas Supply Pipe Sizing . . . . . .11
TABLE E. Inlet Gas Pressure . . . . . . . . . .11
TABLE F. Water Flow Requirements . . . . .12
TABLE G. Minimum and Maximum
Boiler Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . .12
TABLE H. Heat Exchanger
Head Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
TABLE I. Amp Draw Data . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Boiler Piping Diagrams
Primary/Secondary Boiler Piping . . . . . . .A1
Multiple Unit Primary/Secondary Piping . .A2
Low Temperature Boiler Bypass Piping . . .A3
Figures & Tables Index
FIG. 1
Models CB 495-2066
Requirements For Installation
Over Combustible Floor . . . . . . .3
FIG. 2
Boiler Equipment &
Control Orientation . . . . . . . . . . .4
FIG. 3-6 Combustion & Ventilation Air . .5, 6
FIG. 7
Barometric Damper Installation . .8
FIG. 8
Multiple Unit Barometric
Damper Installation . . . . . . . . . . .9
FIG. 9
Outdoor Venting . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
FIG. 10 Primary/Secondary
System Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
FIG. 11 High Flow System Piping . . . . . .14
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
COPPER
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BOILER
615-889-8900
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Lochinvar
CODES
In designing a boiler system,
pay special attention to:
The equipment shall be installed in
accordance with those installation
regulations in effect in the local area where
the installation is to be made. These shall
be carefully followed in all cases. Authorities
o Water Velocity
(See page 12 for Minimum
and Maximum Flow Rates.)
having jurisdiction shall be consulted before
installations are made.
In the absence of such requirements, the
o Piping Requirements
installation shall conform to the latest edition of
and Specialities
the National Fuel Gas Code, ANSI Z223.1.
(See page 12 for
Where required by the authority having
Water Flow Requirements
jurisdiction, the installation must conform to
and system piping.)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Safety Code for Controls and Safety Devices
o Low Water Temperature
for Automatically Fired Boilers, ASME CSD-1.
System
Where required by the authority having
(See page 14 & 15 for
jurisdiction, the installation must comply with
piping and design
the Canadian Association Code, CAN/CGA-
recommendations.)
B149.1 and/or B149.2 and/or local codes.
o System and Boiler Control
LOCATION OF UNIT
(See page 16 for Control
1. Locate the unit so that if water connections
Connections and
should leak, water damage will not occur.
Operator Settings.)
When such locations cannot be avoided, it
is recommended that a suitable drain pan,
o Air Elimination and
adequately drained, be installed under the
Expansion Tank Placement
unit. The pan must not restrict combustion
(See page 16 for Air
air flow.
Removal Information.)
Under no circumstances is the
manufacturer to be held responsible
for water damage in connection
with this unit or any of its
components.
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D E S I G N E R’ S
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2. The indoor units must be installed so that
• This procedure should also be
the ignition system components are
followed if electrical conduit or
protected from water (dripping, spraying,
radiant heat distribution piping
rain, etc.) during appliance operation and
runs through the floor and
service (circulator replacement, control
beneath the appliance.
replacement, etc.).
• Ensure that combustible floor base
3. The appliance must be installed
meets local fire code requirements.
on a level, non-combustible floor.
Concrete over wood is not considered a
5. Outdoor models require the installation of
non-combustible floor. Maintain required
an optional vent cap. Instructions for
clearances from combustible surfaces.
placement of the vent cap are included in
the venting section.
4. For installation on a combustible
floor only when installed on
Outdoor models must not be installed
special base: Units installed over a
directly on the ground. The outdoor unit
combustible floor must use the Special
must be installed on a concrete brick,
Combustible Floor Base. The unit must be
block or other non-combustible pad.
centered on the base as shown in FIG. 1.
SPECIAL LOCATION: OUTDOOR USE
• Provide a base of hollow clay tile or
Outdoor models have additional location
concrete blocks from 8 to 12 inches thick
and clearance requirements. These
and extending 24 inches beyond the sides.
requirements must be adhered to carefully,
since wind, rain, snow and cold cannot be
• The blocks must be placed in line so that
the holes line up horizontally to provide a
controlled in outdoor applications. See
Outdoor Installation on page 9.
clear passage through the blocks.
(TABLE A) – CLEARANCES FROM
COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION
CLEARANCES
Right Side
Rear
Left Side
Front
Top
Flue
* Alcove is a closet without a door.
+ Consult local codes and/or vent material manufacturer.
(FIG. 1) CB 495-2066 REQUIREMENTS FOR
INSTALLATION OVER COMBUSTIBLE FLOOR
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
CB 495-2066
3"
3"
3"
(30" for Service)
ALCOVE*
(24" for Service)
3"
1"+
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RIGHT SIDE
FLUE PRODUCTS VENT
INLET GAS
CONNECTION
FRESH AIR
INLET
TERMINAL
STRIP
HOT WATER
OUTLET
ON/OFF SWITCH
120V ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION
COLD WATER
INLET
FRONT
RELIEF VALVE
TAPPING
BACK
DRAIN
BURNER INSPECTION PORT
CB 495-745
LEFT SIDE
RIGHT SIDE
FLUE PRODUCTS VENT
OPERATOR
GAS
CONNECTION
ON/OFF SWITCH
AIR
INLET
TERMINAL STRIP
HOT WATER
OUTLET
COLD WATER
INLET
FRONT
BACK
BURNER
INSPECTION PORT
DRAIN
LEFT SIDE
CB 986-2066
(FIG. 2) BOILER EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL ORIENTATION.
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D E S I G N E R’ S
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615-889-8900
COMBUSTION & VENTILATION AIR
opening must be located within 12 inches
(30 cm) of the bottom of the enclosure.
Provisions for combustion and ventilation air
must be in accordance with Section 5.3,
B. Ventilation air opening with a minimum
free area of one square inch per 4000
Btu/hr input (5.5 cm2 per kW). This
opening must be located within 12 inches
(30 cm) of the top of the enclosure.
Air for Combustion and Ventilation, of the
latest edition of the National Fuel Gas
Code, ANSI Z223.1; in Canada, the latest
edition of CGA Standard B149 Installation
Code for Gas Burning Appliances and
Equipment; or applicable provisions of the
local building codes.
The equipment room must be provided with
properly sized openings to assure adequate
combustion air and proper ventilation when
the unit is installed with conventional venting
or sidewall venting.
(FIG. 4) COMBUSTION AIR THROUGH DUCTWORK
CAUTION: Under no circumstances should
the equipment room be under a negative
pressure when atmospheric combustion
equipment is installed in the room.
2. If combustion and ventilation air is
taken from the outdoors using a
duct to deliver the air to the
mechanical room, each of the two
openings should be sized based on a
minimum free area of one square inch
per 2000 Btu/hr input (11 cm2 per kW).
(FIG. 3) COMBUSTION AIR DIRECT FROM OUTSIDE
1. If air is taken directly from outside
the building with no duct, provide two
permanent openings:
A. Combustion air opening with a
minimum free area of one square inch per
4000 Btu/hr input (5.5 cm2 per kW). This
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
(FIG. 5) COMBUSTION AIR FROM AN
INTERIOR SPACE
3. If air is taken from another interior
COPPER
space, each of the two openings
specified above should have a net free
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BOILER
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Lochinvar
area of one square inch for each 1000
Btu/hr (22 cm2 per kW) of input, but not
less than 100 square inches (645 cm2).
VENTING
General
These boilers are classified as Category I
appliances when tested to the latest ANSI
Standard. This classification requires all
conventionally vented combustion products
to be vented using Category I listed vent
pipe.
Additionally, it is recommended that this
(FIG. 6) COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTSIDE,
SINGLE OPENING
vent material be double wall construction
or insulated in the field. A Category I
4. If a single combustion air opening
appliance operates with a non-positive
is provided to bring combustion
static vent pressure and with flue loss
air in directly from the outdoors,
greater than 17 percent.
the opening must be sized based on a
minimum free area of one square inch
Vent installations for connection to gas vents
per 3000 Btu/hr input (7 cm2 per kW).
CAUTION!
or chimneys must be in accordance with
This opening must be located within 12
Part 7, “Venting of Equipment,” of the latest
EXHAUST FANS:
Any fan or equipment
which exhausts air
from the equipment
room may deplete the
combustion air supply
and/or cause a down
draft in the venting
system. If a fan is used
to supply combustion
air to the equipment
room, it must by sized
such to make sure that
it does not cause drafts
which could lead to
nuisance operational
problems with the
boiler.
inches (30 cm) of the top of the enclosure.
edition of the National Fuel Gas Code, ANSI
Z223.1, or applicable provisions of the local
CONTAMINANTS
building codes.
Combustion air drawn from an interior
or exterior space must be free of any
The connection from the appliance vent
chemical fumes which could be corrosive to
to the stack must be as direct as possible
the boiler.
and sized correctly. The horizontal breeching
Burning chemical fumes results in the
of a vent must have at least 1/4” rise per
formation of corrosive acids which attack the
linear foot. The horizontal portions should
boiler, cause improper combustion and
also be supported for the design and weight
premature failure of the boiler and vent.
of the material employed to maintain
These fumes are often present in areas
clearances, prevent physical damage and
where refrigerants, salts, and solvents are
separation of joints.
used. Therefore, be aware of swimming
pool equipment, water softening, and
The connection from the appliance vent
cooling system placement.
to the stack or vent termination outside the
building must be made with listed
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Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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BOILER
615-889-8900
Category I double wall vent (or equivalent)
Vent Terminations
EXAMPLE OF
connectors and sized according to vent
The vent terminal should be vertical and
SIZING FOR
sizing tables (FAN column) in the latest
exhaust outside the building at least 2 feet
COMBUSTION
edition of the National Fuel Gas Code.
(0.6 m) above the highest point of the roof
& VENTILATION
when within a 10 foot (3.05 m) radius.
The Category I vent and accessories, such as
AIR OPENINGS
(BOILER WITH
2,065,000 Btu/hr
firestop spacers, thimbles, caps, etc., must
Additionally, vertical terminations must be a
be installed in accordance with the vent
minimum of 3 feet (0.9 m) above the roof
manufacturer’s listing. The vent connector and
line, and when less than 10 feet (3.05 m)
firestop must provide correct spacing to
from a parapet wall must be a minimum of
from directly outside the
combustible surfaces and seal to the vent
2 feet (0.61 m) higher than the parapet wall.
building (FIG. 4), divide
connector on the upper and lower sides of
INPUT):
When combustion and
ventilated air is taken
the total BTU’s by 4,000.
each floor or ceiling through which the vent
Vent caps should have a minimum clearance
This yields 516.25 sq.in.
connector passes.
of 4 feet (1.2 m) horizontally from, and in no
of “Free Area” without
case above or below [unless a 4 feet (1.2 m)
restriction.
(2,065,000 ÷ 4000 =
Any improper operation of the common
horizontal distance is maintained], electric
venting system in an existing building should
meters, gas meters, regulators and relief
Since the air opening is
be corrected when new equipment is
equipment.
50% closed due to
installed, so the installation conforms to the
516.25 sq.in.)
screens and louvers, the
latest edition of the National Fuel Gas Code,
Maintain a distance of at least 3 feet
total opening must be
ANSI Z223.1.
(0.9 m) above any forced air inlet within
multiplied by 2.
10 feet (3.05 m) and a distance of at
(516.25 sq. in. x 2 =
1,032 sq.in.)
When resizing any portion of the common
least 4 feet (1.2 m) below, 4 feet (1.2 m)
venting system, it should be resized to
horizontally from, or 1 foot (30 cm) above
Ventilation Air Opening
approach the minimum size as determined
any door, window or gravity air inlet.
with net “Area” of
using the appropriate tables in the National
Fuel Gas Code.
The weight of the venting system must not
rest on the boiler. The venting system must
be adequately supported in compliance with
local codes and other applicable codes.
This project requires one
1,032 square inches with
Do not terminate the vent in a window well,
stairwell, alcove, courtyard or other recessed
area. The vent can not terminate
below grade. The bottom of the vent
terminal shall be located at least 12 inches
(30 cm) above grade and clear of snow,
ice, leaves or other debris.
louver dimensions of 30”
x 35” and one
Combustion Air Opening
with net “Area” of
1,032 square inches with
louver dimensions
of 30” x 35”.
The distance of the vent terminal from
adjacent public walkways, adjacent
buildings, windows, and building openings
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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Lochinvar
must be consistent with the National Fuel
Gas Code Z223.1 or in Canada, the latest
edition of CGA Standard B149 Installation
Code for Gas Burning Appliances and
Equipment.
The minimum flue pipe diameters for all
models, utilizing negative draft venting
are as follows:
(TABLE B)
FLUE SIZES AND COMBUSTION AIR PIPE SIZES
VENTING OPTIONS
Conventional Venting
A conventional venting system utilizes
the natural buoyancy of the heated flue
products to generate a negative draft. This
draft forces flue products to rise vertically
through a rooftop flue termination. The vent
connection is made directly to the top of the
unit and combustion air supplied from the
mechanical room. Properly sizing vent
material and the use of a barometric
damper (when required) will lead to proper
vent operation.
MODEL
NUMBER
FLUE SIZE
CB495
6"
CB645
8"
CB745
8"
CB986
10"
CB1256
12"
CB1436
12"
CB1796
14"
CB2066
14"
Size vent material using the “FAN” category
of vent sizing tables in the latest edition of
the National Fuel Gas Code. “FAN” applies
to fan-assisted combustion appliances in
Category I.
Barometric Dampers
A barometric damper is required when draft
exceeds 0.08 inches of negative water
column. When installed and adjusted
properly, a barometric damper will maintain
draft between 0.02 and 0.08 inches of
negative water column ensuring proper
operation.
Multiple unit installations with combined
venting also require barometric dampers to
regulate draft at each unit. Again, the
negative draft must be within the range of
0.02 to 0.08 inches of negative water
column to ensure proper operation.
(FIG. 7) BAROMETRIC DAMPER INSTALLATION
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D E S I G N E R’ S
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generate proper draft. This will result in
condensing of flue products, damage of the
masonry flue/tile, insufficient draft and
possible spillage of flue products into an
occupied living space.
NOTE:
Common venting
systems may be too
large when an existing
unit is removed. Be
careful to resize any
(FIG. 8) MULTIPLE UNIT BAROMETRIC
DAMPER INSTALLATION
For this type of installation, it is best to use a
draft control for each boiler located on the
riser between the vent outlet and the
breeching - Location “A”. When this riser is
too short to permit the installation of a draft
control, locate a separate control for each
boiler on the main breeching as illustrated in
Location “B”. If, because of general
crowding or other reasons, neither of these
locations are possible, use a single large
Carefully inspect all chimney systems during
common venting system
the project design phase. If there is any doubt
when new appliances
about the sizing or condition of a masonry
are installed or existing
chimney, it is prudent to reline the chimney
appliances are replaced.
with a properly sized and approved chimney
liner system. Metallic liner systems (Type “B”
doublewall or flexible or rigid metallic liners)
are recommended. Consult with local code
officials to determine code requirements or the
advisability of using or relining a masonry
chimney.
NOTE:
Flue gases will form a
OUTDOOR INSTALLATION
white plume in winter.
Plume could obstruct
control in the breeching between the boiler
window view. Flue gas
nearest the chimney and the chimney, as
condensate can freeze
shown in Location “C”.
on exterior surfaces or
on the vent cap. Flue
All draft readings are made while unit is in
gas condensate can
stable operation (approximately 5 minutes
cause discoloration of
running time).
exterior building
surfaces. Adjacent brick
Masonry Chimney
A masonry chimney must be properly sized
for the installation of a high efficiency gas
fired appliance. Exterior masonry chimneys,
with one or more sides exposed to cold
outdoor temperatures, are more likely to
have venting problems. The temperature of
the flue products from a high efficiency
appliance may not be able to sufficiently
heat the masonry structure of the chimney to
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
(FIG. 9) OUTDOOR VENTING
or masonry surfaces
should be protected with
Units are self venting and can be used
a rust resistant sheet
outdoors when installed with the optional
metal plate.
Outdoor Cap. This cap mounts directly to
the top of the boiler and covers the flue
outlet and combustion air inlet openings on
the jacket. No additional vent piping is
required. Maintain a minimum clearance of
3 inches (76 mm) to combustible surfaces
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and a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm)
(TABLE C) - OUTDOOR VENT KIT PART NUMBERS
clearance to the air inlet.
MODEL
NUMBER
PART NUMBER
CB495
ODK3023
CB645
ODK3024
that high winds can deflect off of adjacent
CB745
ODK3024
walls, buildings or shrubbery causing
CB986
ODK3046
CB1256
ODK3047
An outdoor unit should not be located so
recirculation. Recirculation of flue products
CB1436
ODK3047
may cause operational problems, bad
CB1796
ODK3048
combustion or damage to controls. The unit
CB2066
ODK3048
should be located at least 3 feet (0.91m)
from any wall or vertical surface to prevent
adverse wind conditions from affecting
performance.
Freeze ProtectionOutdoor Installation
A snow screen should be installed to prevent
snow and ice accumulation around the
appliance or its venting system.
Multiple unit outdoor installations require 48
inches (1.22 m) clearance between each
vent cap. The outdoor cap must be located
4 feet (1.22 m) below and 4 feet (1.22 m)
horizontally from any window, door,
walkway or gravity air intake.
The combustion air inlet of the outdoor cap
must be located at least one foot (0.30 m)
above grade and above normal snow
levels. The boiler must be at least 10 feet
If for any reason the unit is to be shut off:
(a.) Shut off water supply.
(b.) Drain unit completely.
(c.) Drain pump and piping.
If freeze protection is not provided for the
system, a low ambient temperature alarm or
automatic drain system is recommended.
GAS SUPPLY
1. Safe operation of unit requires properly
sized gas supply piping (See TABLE D).
(3.05 m) away from any forced air inlet
and at least 3 feet (0.91 m) outside any
overhang.
2. Gas pipe size may be larger than the
heater connection.
NOTE:
Venting of a high
efficiency appliance into
a cold or oversized
masonry chimney can
result in operational and
safety problems.
Do not install in locations where rain from
3. A gas pressure regulator is suggested to
help assure proper inlet gas pressure. If
upstream pressure exceeds 6 oz. (10.5
inches of water column), an intermediate
gas pressure regulator, of the lockup type,
must be installed.
building runoff drains will spill onto the boiler.
Lochinvar must furnish an outdoor vent kit
in accordance with CSA international
requirements. Each kit includes the flue
outlet/combustion air inlet, assembly,
4. Installation of a union is suggested for
gasket and pump cover.
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ease of service.
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reduced in an appliance above 2000 feet.
5. Install a manual main gas shut-off valve
with test plug, outside of the appliance
gas connection and before the gas valve,
when local codes require.
Ratings should be reduced at the rate of 4
percent for each 1000 feet above sea level.
(TABLE E) – INLET GAS PRESSURE
LPG GAS
MODELS
NAT. GAS
6. A trap (drip leg) should be provided in
the inlet of the gas connection to the unit.
High Altitude Applications
Atmospheric pressure decreases as the
height above sea level increases. At any
altitude above sea level, a cubic foot will
CB 495-645
Minimum Allowable
Maximum Allowable
5”
10.5”
11”
13”
CB745
Minimum Allowable
Maximum Allowable
5.5”
10.5”
11”
13”
CB 986-2066
Minimum Allowable
Maximum Allowable
4.5”
10.5”
8”
13”
contain less gas than a cubic foot at sea
level. Thus, the heating value of a cubic foot
WATER CONNECTIONS
of fuel gas will decrease as height above
Inlet and Outlet Water Connections
For ease of service, install unions on inlet and
outlet of the boiler.
sea level increases.
Specific gravity of a gas with respect to sea
level also decreases with altitude. These
The connection on the unit marked “Inlet”
should be used for return water from the
storage tank. The connection on the header
marked “Outlet” should be connected to the
inlet of the storage tank. (See Appendix A for
Boiler Piping Diagrams).
changes in heating value and specific
gravity tend to offset each other.
However, as elevation above sea level is
increased, there is less oxygen per cubic foot
of air. Therefore, heat input rate should be
(TABLE D) – GAS SUPPLY PIPE SIZING
Length of Pipe In Straight Feet
Nominal Iron
Pipe Size, Inches
3/4
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
125
150
175
369
256
205
174
155
141
128
121
113
106
95
86
79
74
1
697
477
384
328
292
267
256
246
210
200
179
164
149
138
200
1 1/4
1,400
974
789
677
595
543
502
472
441
410
369
333
308
287
1 1/2
2,150
1,500
1,210
1,020
923
830
769
707
666
636
564
513
472
441
2
4,100
2,820
2,260
1,950
1,720
1,560
1,440 1,330
1,250
1,180
1,100
974
871
820
2 1/2
6,460
4,460
3,610
3,100
2,720
2,460
2,310 2,100
2,000
1,900
1,700
1,540
1,400
1,300
11,200
7,900
6,400
5,400
4,870
4,410
4,000 3,800
3,540
3,300
3,000
2,720
2,500
2,340
23,500 16,100 13,100 11,100 10,000
9,000
8,300 7,690
7,380
6,870
6,150
5,640
5,130
4,720
3
1
3 /2
Maximum capacity of pipe in thousands of BTU’s per hour for gas pressures of 14” Inches Water Column (0.5 PSIG) or less and a total
system pressure drop of 0.05 Inch Water Column (Based on NAT GAS, 1025 BTU’s per Cubic Foot of Gas and 0.60 Specific Gravity).
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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COPPER
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BOILER
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11
Lochinvar
EXAMPLE OF
HIGH ALTITUDE
APPLICATIONS
For example, if a unit’s
input is 100,000 Btu/hr
at sea level, the rated
input at 4000 feet of
elevation can be calculated
efficient operation, a boiler needs adequate
water flow. Pump sizing, pipe sizing, and
piping layout must be taken into
consideration for proper system flow.
WATER VELOCITY CONTROL
IMPORTANT
To ensure proper velocity through the heat
exchanger, it is necessary to regulate the
temperature rise across the heat exchanger
from inlet to outlet. (This must be done on
initial installation and periodically rechecked).
(TABLE F) provides Gallons Per Minute and
boiler head-loss at various temperature rises
for each boiler based on Btu/hr input.
(TABLE G) provides maximum and minimum
flow data for each model. These two charts
will provide assistance in system flow design.
by derating input 4% per
1000 feet above sea
level.
[Btu/hr Input]
[1.00 - (Elevation/ 1000
ft. x 0.04)] = Btu/hr
Input at specified
elevation.
[100,000][1.00 - (4000
ft. /1000 ft. x 0.04)]
= Btu/hr Input 4000’
elevation.
[100,000][0.84] =
84,000 Btu/hr Input at
With the correct temperature rise across the
heat exchanger (See TABLE F), you may be
assured of the proper velocity in the tubes
and long life and economical operation from
the boiler.
(TABLE G) – MINIMUM & MAXIMUM
BOILER FLOW RATES
MODEL
NUMBER
CIRCULATOR PUMP OPERATION
A pump control relay is optional on
CB 495-2066 heating boilers. When
designing a system to utilize primary/
secondary operation, specify a pump control
relay for intermittent pump operation.
4000 ft. elevation.
WATER FLOW REQUIREMENTS
and SYSTEM PIPING
MINIMUM
FLOW (GPM)
MAXIMUM
FLOW (GPM)
CB495
20.5
75
CB645
21.0
75
CB745
25.0
75
CB986
32.0
90
CB1256
41.0
90
CB1436
47.0
90
CB1796
59.0
90
CB2066
68.0
90
Lochinvar boilers are generally capable of
operating within the design flow rates for the
building heating system. To ensure the most
(TABLE F) – WATER FLOW REQUIREMENTS
TEMPERATURE RISE
12
10ºF ∆T
15ºF ∆T
GPM FT.HD GPM FT.HD
20ºF ∆T
25ºF ∆T
30ºF ∆T
35ºF ∆T
40ºF ∆T
INPUT
OUTPUT
GPM FT.HD
GPM
FT.HD
GPM FT.HD
GPM
FT.HD
GPM
495,000
400,950
—
—
53.5
5.3
41.0
4.1
32.1
1.9
27.0
1.6
22.9
0.8
20.0
FT.HD
0.7
645,000
522,450
—
—
69.7
6.7
53.0
5.1
41.8
3.6
35.0
3.0
29.9
1.8
27.0
1.6
745,000
603,450
—
—
—
—
61.0
6.1
48.3
4.8
41.0
4.1
34.5
2.6
31.0
2.3
985,000
797,850
—
—
—
—
81.0
5.2
63.9
3.0
54.0
2.5
45.6
1.7
41.0
1.5
1,255,000
1,016,550
—
—
—
—
—
—
81.4
5.1
69.0
4.3
58.1
3.0
52.0
2.7
1,435,000
1,162,350
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
79.0
6.3
66.4
4.2
59.0
3.7
1,795,000
1,453,950
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
83.1
7.3
74.0
6.5
2,065,000
1,672,650
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
85.0
8.8
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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BOILER
615-889-8900
(TABLE H – HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD LOSS
HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD-LOSS
MODELS CB 495-745
secondary pump(s). When piped correctly,
NOTE:
the secondary pump helps to prevent flow
Care should be taken to
through the boiler(s) when they are not firing.
measure temperature
Use of a primary/secondary system will
rise and maintain proper
eliminate the need for a System or Boiler
water velocity in the
Bypass. (FIGURE 10) depicts one example
heat exchanger.
of primary/secondary piping.
LIT0476
MAKE-UP WATER
NOTE:
If a pressure valve or
HEATING SUPPLY
LOOP
HEAT EXCHANGER HEAD-LOSS
MODELS CB 986-2066
TO FLOOR
DRAIN
check valve is in the
system a properly sized
tank may be required.
*12” MAX
HEATING RETURN LOOP
(FIG. 10) PRIMARY/SECONDARY SYSTEM PIPING
Three Way Valves
The installation of a three-way valve in a
hydronic heating application is not generally
Primary/Secondary Piping
recommended as most piping methods allow
Using a primary/secondary piping
the three-way valve to vary flow through the
arrangement can solve many system flow
boiler. This variable flow through the boiler is
complications.
not recommended as it alters heat transfer
This piping arrangement uses a dedicated
pump to supply flow to the boiler. The pump
is sized based on the required boiler flow
speed and places undue heat stresses on the
heat exchanger surface. Additionally, low
flow rates can result in overheating of the
boiler water, which can cause short burner
rate, boiler head-loss and head-loss in the
secondary system piping. A separate pump
is used to provide the desired flow for the
system. Primary/Secondary piping allows
the system and the boiler(s) to operate at their
optimum flow rate. The system works best
on cycles, system noise and in extreme cases,
a knocking flash to steam. For these reasons,
constant circulation is recommended to
maintain proper operation while the boiler
is firing.
when the boiler(s) are supplied with pump
control relays which are used to cycle the
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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Lochinvar
Water Flow Switch
a higher flow rate through the boiler and the
Due to the low water content (between 1 and 6
secondary loop piping to ensure proper
gallons) of the copper finned tube heat
operation. See “Primary/Secondary Piping”
exchanger, a flow switch is factory installed
for installation and piping requirements.
as a low water cutoff device on all CB models.
The flow switch is installed in the outlet piping
of the boiler and wired into the ignition system.
Per ASME CSD1 and in most localities, a flow
switch is accepted as a low water cutoff for
boilers requiring forced circulation. (See CSD1
CW-210, Part A) It is prudent to verify
preference with the local code official.
A specially sealed flow switch and conduit
are furnished for outdoor installations.
High Flow Systems
When the flow rate of the system exceeds the
maximum allowable flow rate through the
boiler (TABLE G), boiler bypass piping should
be installed. The bypass will divert the
required portion of the system flow to the
boiler and bypass excess system flow. This
will effectively reduce boiler flow to an
acceptable rate and increase system flow.
The bypass piping should be sized equal to
the system piping. (FIGURE 11) depicts the
proper piping arrangement for the boiler
Low Water Cutoff
If this boiler is installed above radiation level,
bypass.
MAKE-UP WATER
a low water cutoff device must be installed
LIT0471
at the time of boiler installation (option,
available from factory).
HEATING SUPPLY
LOOP
Relief Valve
TO FLOOR
DRAIN
This boiler is supplied with a pressure relief
valve(s) sized in accordance with ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IV
HEATING RETURN LOOP
“Heating Boilers”.
(FIG. 11) HIGH FLOW SYSTEM PIPING
Low Flow Systems
When the system flow rate is less than the
minimum flow required for proper boiler
operation, the boiler should be installed
with a primary/secondary piping system.
This will allow the installation of a secondary
circulating pump sized specifically to provide
14
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
COPPER
Low Water Temperature System
Any boiler system operating at a temperature
of less than 140°F is considered a “low water
temperature system” and must be piped with
a low temperature bypass. There are a
number of hydronic boiler applications that
call for system water temperatures in the
range of 60°F to 100°F. Typical applications
-FIN
BOILER
615-889-8900
are: Radiant heating systems; Water source
heat pump systems; Greenhouse soil heating
and irrigation systems; Process and
manufacturing operations. These installations
often incur problems resulting from boiler
condensation, thermal stresses and poor
overall system efficiency.
Copper-tube boilers are particularly adaptable
to these applications for several reasons:
A boiler operated with an inlet temperature of
IMPORTANT:
Operation of this boiler
less than 140°F (60°C) must have a bypass
on low temperature
to prevent problems with condensation.
systems requires
special piping to insure
A Low Temperature bypass as shown in
correct operation.
Figure 14 should be piped into the system at
Consult low temperature
the time of installation. This piping is like a
system section for
primary/secondary boiler installation with a
piping details.
bypass in the secondary boiler piping. Inlet
water temperatures below 140°F (60°C) can
1. A copper-tube boiler is an instantaneous
boiler, requiring virtually no heat-up time,
and having no temperature “overshoot.”
excessively cool the products of combustion
resulting in condensation on the heat
exchanger and in the flue.
Result - High system efficiency.
The bypass allows part of the boiler
2. The boiler’s unique construction prevents
discharge water to be mixed with the cooler
the transfer of heat exchanger thermal
boiler return water to increase the boiler
stresses to other boiler components,
inlet temperature to at least 140°F (60°C).
reducing wear and tear while increasing
This will prevent the products of combustion
equipment life.
from condensing in most installations. Size
Low Temperature bypass Piping equal to
system piping, and use fully ported control
3. Its compact, simple design and low
valves.
boiler mass permits a simple bypass
arrangement which will allow the system to
be operated at any temperature above 60°F.
SPECIAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS
Air Conditioning Re-Heat System
LIT0473
MAKE-UP WATER
When used in connection with a refrigeration
system, the boiler must be installed so the
chilled medium is piped in parallel with the
boiler and with appropriate valves to prevent
HEATING SUPPLY
LOOP
TO FLOOR
DRAIN
the chilled medium from entering the boiler.
The piping system of the hot water boiler
(when connected to heating coils located in
air handling units where they may be exposed
HEATING RETURN LOOP
(FIG. 12) LOW TEMPERATURE BYPASS
SYSTEM PIPING
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
to refrigerated air circulation) must be
equipped with flow control valves or other
COPPER
-FIN
BOILER
615-889-8900
15
Lochinvar
automatic means to prevent gravity circulation
NOTE:
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE GAUGE
of the boiler water during the cooling cycle.
When the unit is
This boiler is equipped with a dial type
installed in Canada,
temperature/pressure gauge. This gauge is
it MUST conform to
The heating coil must be vented at the high
the CAE C22.1,
factory installed in the outlet side of the heat
point, and the hot water from the boiler must
Canadian Electrical
exchanger. The gauge has one scale for
enter the coil at this point. Due to the fast
Code, Part 1
reading system pressure and a separate scale
heating capacity of the boiler, it is not
for water temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
and/or local Electrical
Codes.
necessary to provide a duct-stat to delay
circulator operation; also, omit thermal flow
BOILER OPERATING
TEMPERATURE CONTROL
checks, as the boiler is cold when the heating
thermostat is satisfied. This provides greater
In the absence of a remote temperature
economy overall by maintaining standby heat.
control, a digital operator controls the boiler
operating temperature. The sensing element
AIR REMOVAL
for the operator is placed in a bulb well,
An air separation device should be placed in
installed in the inlet side of the heat
the installation piping, on the suction side of
exchanger front header. Due to the location
the system pump, to eliminate trapped air in
of the temperature sensor, the operator will
the system. Locate a system air vent at the
generally require a lower temperature
highest point in the system. Additionally, a
setpoint to achieve the desired discharge
properly sized expansion tank is required. Air
water temperature from the boiler. This
charged, diaphragm-type compression tanks
sensing element location allows a boiler
are common. The expansion tank must be
operating with a low to moderate flow rate to
installed close to the boiler and on the suction
sustain longer burner “ON” cycles, based on
side of the system pump to ensure proper
high discharge water temperatures.
operation.
For example, a boiler operating with a 180°F
EXPANSION
TANK
HEATING &
COOLING
COIL
PUMP
LOW WATER
FLOW SWITCH
A
OUT
C
IN
R
B
D
GAS
SUPPLY
WATER
SUPPLY
E
CHILLER
BOILER
3. CLOSE BOTH "A" AND "C" VALVES WHEN RUNNING CHILLER.
4. CLOSE BOTH "B" AND "D" VALVES WHEN RUNNING BOILER.
5. WATER SUPPLY VALVE REMAINS OPEN AT ALL TIMES.
DIAGRAM NOTES:
1. VALVES "D" AND "C" MAY BE MANUAL OR AUTOMATIC- TO SUIT.
2. PROVIDE DRAIN FOR RELIEF VALVE "R" TO SAFE PLACE.
(FIG. 13) HEATING/CHILLED WATER SYSTEM
16
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’S
G U I DE
C OP P ER
-
F I N
B O I L E R
615-889-8900
discharge and a 20°F temperature rise would
(TABLE I) – AMP DRAW DATA
require approximately a 160°F to 165°F set
MODEL
NUMBER
FAN(S)
temperature set point is based on system
CB495
3.6
3.6
7.2
requirements.
CB645
3.6
3.6
7.2
CB745
3.6
3.6
7.2
CB986
3.4
4.6
8.0
CB1256
3.4
4.6
8.0
CB1436
3.8
4.6
8.4
equipped with a terminal strip to allow
CB1796
3.8
4.6
8.4
easy connection. Connection to the terminal
CB2066
3.8
4.6
8.4
point with the temperature sensor installed on
CONTROLS APPROX. TOTAL AMPS
@ 120 VAC
the inlet side of the heat exchanger. The exact
REMOTE TEMPERATURE CONTROL,
CONNECTION TO TERMINAL STRIP
A remote temperature control may be
connected to the boiler. The boiler is
CAUTION!
For proper
operation the
system should
not be operated
at less than 12
PSIG.
strip will allow the remote temperature control
to make and break the 24 VAC boiler control
circuit, turning the boiler on and off based on
building and system demands.
ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
(North America)
The appliance is wired for 120 volts.
1. All wiring between the unit and field
installed devices shall be made of type
T wire [63°F (35°C) rise].
2. The pump must run continuously when
the unit is firing.
3. It is recommended that the boiler and
pump be wired on separate circuits with
properly sized circuit breakers.
Lochinvar
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17
BOILER PIPING DIAGRAMS
PIPING DIAGRAM
PRIMARY/SECONDARY BOILER PIPING
MAKE-UP WATER
HEATING SUPPLY LOOP
TO FLOOR DRAIN
12” MAX*
*AS CLOSE AS
PRACTICAL –
12” OR 4 PIPE
DIAMETERS MAXIMUM
DISTANCE BETWEEN
MANIFOLD
CONNECTIONS TO
SYSTEM.
HEATING RETURN LOOP
This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering
or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated.
LIT0476
L E G E N D
A1
PRESSURE
REDUCING VALVE
FULL PORT
BALL VALVE
RELIEF VALVE
CHECK VALVE
TEE
ELBOW
EXPANSION TANK
TANK FITTING
SYSTEM PUMP
LOW WATER
CUTOFF
UNION
AIR SEPARATOR
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PIPING DIAGRAM
MULTIPLE UNIT PRIMARY/SECONDARY PIPING
MAKE-UP WATER
TO SYSTEM SUPPLY
CAP EACH MANIFOLD
12” MAX*
FROM SYSTEM
RETURN
*AS CLOSE AS
PRACTICAL –
12” OR 4 PIPE
DIAMETERS MAXIMUM
DISTANCE BETWEEN
MANIFOLD
CONNECTIONS TO
SYSTEM.
This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering
or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated.
LIT0475
L E G E N D
PRESSURE
REDUCING VALVE
FULL PORT
BALL VALVE
RELIEF VALVE
CHECK VALVE
TEE
ELBOW
EXPANSION TANK
TANK FITTING
SYSTEM PUMP
LOW WATER
CUTOFF
UNION
AIR SEPARATOR
Lochinvar
D E S I G N E R’ S
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BOILER
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A2
PIPING DIAGRAM
LOW TEMPERATURE BOILER-BYPASS PIPING
MAKE-UP WATER
HEATING SUPPLY
LOOP
TO FLOOR
DRAIN
BYPASS
*12” MAX
PRIMARY - SECONDARY BOILER
PIPING WITH BYPASS FOR LOW
TEMPERATURE OPERATION
HEATING RETURN
LOOP
*AS CLOSE AS PRACTICAL –
12” OR 4 PIPE DIAMETERS MAXIMUM
DISTANCE BETWEEN MANIFOLD
CONNECTIONS
TO SYSTEM.
This illustration is for concept only and should not be used for any actual installation without engineering
or technical advice from a licensed engineer. All necessary equipment may not be illustrated.
LIT0473
L E G E N D
PRESSURE
REDUCING VALVE
FULL PORT
BALL VALVE
RELIEF VALVE
CHECK VALVE
TEE
ELBOW
EXPANSION TANK
TANK FITTING
SYSTEM PUMP
LOW WATER
CUTOFF
UNION
AIR SEPARATOR
A3
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D E S I G N E R’ S
GUIDE
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BOILER
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Lochinvar Corporation • Lebanon, TN • 615-889-8900 / Fax: 615-547-1000
www.Lochinvar.com
CB-DG-05
5M-4/04-Printed in U.S.A.