5 The DT Trainer Interface - Accelerations Educational Software

Accelerations Educational
Software
From the Founder
As a father of an Autistic child, it is important to me to create effective,
robust, and relatively inexpensive tools that target the needs of
individuals with learning disabilities. The DT Trainer is a step in this
direction, but is very much a work in progress. You the user contribute to
this evolution with not only your financial support provided by purchases,
but also by your feedback. You the educators and parents understand the
needs of the individuals you are teaching. By letting us know what
content programs, reinforcers, and features that you need we can help not
only you but also many other educators and parents.
I know that these individuals can learn more, go further, and have more
rich, fulfilling, and independent lives than what we as a society have
been able to provide. With your help, my company will contribute to this
effort.
To me this business is not about maximizing profit, but is about
maximizing impact. Please let others know about our software. This will
help us reach more individuals that need help, and provide us with the
revenue that we need to make what you see in our product now just the
tip of the iceberg.
Thanks for your interest in the DT Trainer, and again, let us know how
we can help.
-Karl W. Smith
Accelerations Educational Software
www.DTTrainer.com
Sales@DTTrainer.com
Support@DTTrainer.com
www.DTTrainer.com/Support/
3
All rights reserved. Portions of this manual may be photocopied without the
prior consent of Accelerations Educational Software.
Windows and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other
trademarks used in this manual are the property of their respective owners.
© Copyright 2003 by Accelerations Educational Software. All rights reserved.
Printed September 8, 2003
4
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Introduction..............................................................................1-2
Typography Conventions.........................................................1-3
Getting Started Overview ........................................................1-3
Installation ...............................................................................1-5
System Requirements .......................................................1-5
Installing DT Trainer ........................................................1-6
Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 .........................1-7
Upgrading DT Trainer .............................................................1-8
Reinforcer Testing ...................................................................1-8
Troubleshooting................................................................1-9
Known Issues....................................................................1-9
Registering Your Software ....................................................1-10
Training Environment Issues .................................................1-10
Location ..........................................................................1-10
Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture .............................1-10
Monitor ...........................................................................1-11
Touch Screen ..................................................................1-11
Touch Screen Problems ..................................................1-11
Printer .............................................................................1-12
Computer ........................................................................1-12
Speakers/Headphones .....................................................1-12
Keyboard/Mouse.............................................................1-12
Strategies................................................................................1-13
Teaching Strategies.........................................................1-13
Student Strategies ...........................................................1-13
Student Issues ........................................................................1-14
Poor Pointing/Touching..................................................1-14
Student Distractions........................................................1-15
Poor Mouse Skills...........................................................1-15
Student Behavioral Problems..........................................1-15
Desktop Distractions.......................................................1-16
Errors ..............................................................................1-16
Removing DT Trainer............................................................1-16
Support...................................................................................1-16
5
Chapter 2
Student Training
Training Terms ........................................................................2-2
Trial ..................................................................................2-2
Trained..............................................................................2-2
Discriminative Stimulus ...................................................2-2
Sample Trial .....................................................................2-2
Target Item .......................................................................2-3
Distracter ..........................................................................2-3
Prompts.............................................................................2-4
DT Trainer Modes ............................................................2-5
Training An Item ..............................................................2-6
Programs ..................................................................................2-7
Individual Program Options..............................................2-7
Discriminative Stimulus...........................................................2-7
A Student’s Training Session ...........................................2-7
Reinforcers...............................................................................2-8
Selection Screen................................................................2-9
Smart Reinforcers .............................................................2-9
Reinforcer Categories .....................................................2-11
Chapter 3
Administration Overview
Overview of the DT Trainer Administration ...........................3-2
Student Template ..............................................................3-2
Initial Configuration .........................................................3-3
Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks ...........3-3
Registering Your Software ......................................................3-3
Registration Dialog...........................................................3-4
DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box...................................3-5
Student Administration Tab..............................................3-6
Common Administration Tab ...........................................3-7
Information Tab ................................................................3-9
Tips Tab..........................................................................3-11
Chapter 4
Getting Started
Step 1: Start DT Trainer...........................................................4-2
Step 2: Review the Content Programs .....................................4-2
Step 3: Review the Reinforcers................................................4-3
Step 4: Setup a Practice Student ..............................................4-4
Step 5: Train Like a Student ....................................................4-8
Step 6: Practice Administration ...............................................4-9
6
Step 7: Setup the Training Environment................................4-10
Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer ..............................................4-10
Chapter 5
The DT Trainer Interface
How to Access a Specific Dialog Box .....................................5-3
Dialog Box Path................................................................5-3
Hover Help...............................................................................5-4
Student Administration ............................................................5-4
Student Options........................................................................5-6
Basic Tab ..........................................................................5-7
Other Tab..........................................................................5-8
Intermediate Tab...............................................................5-9
Advanced Tab.................................................................5-11
Select Training Profile ...........................................................5-12
Programs ................................................................................5-14
Actions Tab.....................................................................5-15
Program Info Tab............................................................5-16
Select Content Programs........................................................5-17
Edit Programs Criteria ...........................................................5-18
Program Items........................................................................5-18
Basic Tab ........................................................................5-20
Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-20
Program Item Graph ..............................................................5-21
Program Item Training Log ...................................................5-22
Program Order Items..............................................................5-22
Program Options ....................................................................5-24
Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-25
Advanced Tab.................................................................5-26
Praise Activation....................................................................5-27
Training Sequence .................................................................5-28
Reinforcers.............................................................................5-29
Add Reinforcers.....................................................................5-30
Program Trend Report ...........................................................5-31
Train States Report ................................................................5-32
Weekly Trial Results Report..................................................5-33
Weekly Training Log.............................................................5-34
Weekly Notes.........................................................................5-35
Training Selection..................................................................5-36
Common Administration Tab ................................................5-36
DT Trainer Programs .............................................................5-38
Action Tab ......................................................................5-40
Program Info Tab............................................................5-41
7
Program Filters Tab ........................................................5-41
Selection Keywords Tab.................................................5-41
Reinforcer Manager ...............................................................5-42
Edit Reinforcer.......................................................................5-44
Set Password ..........................................................................5-46
System Trend Report .............................................................5-47
System Training Weekly Report............................................5-48
Praise Manager ......................................................................5-49
Chapter 6
Basic Administrative Tasks
Common Administration .........................................................6-2
Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs ...6-2
Managing Program Items Globally...................................6-2
Setting Student Options in the Student Template .............6-3
Viewing and Managing Reinforcers .................................6-4
Setting/Changing an Administration Password ................6-5
Activating Development Features.....................................6-6
Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports .......................6-6
Setting User and Location Information.............................6-6
Registering DT Trainer.....................................................6-7
Viewing DT Trainer Tips .................................................6-7
Student Administration ............................................................6-7
Creating a New Student ....................................................6-7
Selecting a Student .........................................................6-10
Deleting a Student...........................................................6-10
Setting Student Options ..................................................6-10
Managing Student Reinforcers .......................................6-11
Managing Student Programs...........................................6-12
Managing Program Items................................................6-13
Viewing and Printing Student Reports ...........................6-14
Chapter 7
Intermediate Administrative Tasks
Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer...........................................7-2
Ordering Program Items ..........................................................7-3
Adding Items to a Program ......................................................7-4
Setting Intermediate Program Options.....................................7-4
Setting Intermediate Student Options ......................................7-5
Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers ..........7-6
8
Chapter 8
Advanced Administrative Tasks
Advanced Program Management Tasks...................................8-2
Customizing Praise Scripts ...............................................8-2
Changing the Training Sequence of Programs .................8-3
Adding a New Program to DT Trainer .............................8-3
Setting Advanced Program Options.........................................8-4
Setting the Active Train Steps ..........................................8-4
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs ....8-4
Setting Student Options ...........................................................8-5
Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options ..........................8-5
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students......8-5
Setting Student Response Options ....................................8-6
Chapter 9
Development Administrative Tasks
Global Praise Management ......................................................9-2
Managing Programs Items .......................................................9-3
Setting Program Options..........................................................9-4
Chapter 10
Analyzing Reports
System Reports ......................................................................10-2
System Trend Report ......................................................10-2
System Training Weekly Report.....................................10-2
Student Reports......................................................................10-3
Program Trend Report ....................................................10-3
Train States Report .........................................................10-4
Weekly Trial Results Report...........................................10-6
Data Guidelines ..............................................................10-7
Weekly Training Log......................................................10-8
Weekly Notes .................................................................10-8
Evaluating Student Usage ......................................................10-9
Reviewing the System Trend Report ..............................10-9
Reviewing the Student’s Training Log .........................10-10
Evaluating Student Performance..........................................10-10
Reviewing Class Level Reports ....................................10-10
Reviewing Student Level Reports ................................10-11
Reviewing the Program Item Graph .............................10-12
Reviewing the Item Training Log.................................10-13
Evaluating and Adjusting Programs ....................................10-14
Evaluating Progress ......................................................10-14
Adjusting Program Content ..........................................10-15
Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings ...........10-15
9
Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers .................................10-18
Reinforcer Influences on Performance .........................10-18
Adjusting Reinforcers...................................................10-19
Glossary of Terms
Index
10
Chapter
1
Introduction
Introduction..............................................................................1-2
Typography Conventions.........................................................1-3
Getting Started Overview ........................................................1-3
Installation ...............................................................................1-5
System Requirements .......................................................1-5
Installing DT Trainer ........................................................1-6
Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 .........................1-7
Upgrading DT Trainer .............................................................1-8
Reinforcer Testing ...................................................................1-8
Troubleshooting................................................................1-9
Known Issues....................................................................1-9
Registering Your Software ....................................................1-10
Training Environment Issues .................................................1-10
Location ..........................................................................1-10
Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture .............................1-10
Monitor ...........................................................................1-11
Touch Screen ..................................................................1-11
Touch Screen Problems ..................................................1-11
Printer .............................................................................1-12
Computer ........................................................................1-12
Speakers/Headphones .....................................................1-12
Keyboard/Mouse.............................................................1-12
Strategies................................................................................1-13
Teaching Strategies.........................................................1-13
Student Strategies ...........................................................1-13
Student Issues ........................................................................1-14
Poor Pointing/Touching..................................................1-14
Student Distractions........................................................1-15
Poor Mouse Skills...........................................................1-15
Student Behavioral Problems..........................................1-15
Desktop Distractions.......................................................1-16
Errors ..............................................................................1-16
Removing DT Trainer............................................................1-16
Support...................................................................................1-16
1-1
Introduction
The Discrete Trial Trainer, referred to throughout this manual as the DT Trainer,
was designed to teach individuals with autism and other learning or retention
disorders. The current educational content is appropriate for learners
developmentally between 2 and 9 years of age. These individuals vary greatly
and need highly adjustable software to meet their needs. The configurability
within the DT Trainer allows the user to adjust the software for learners with
special needs to typically developing individuals.
DT Trainer is a software tool based on a teaching method, referred to as
Discrete Trial, within the framework of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).
Discrete Trial is a behaviorally-based intervention primarily used for gaining
instructional control and as a method for teaching children with autism. During
discrete trial instruction, a particular trial may be repeated within a session,
multiple sessions, or even many sessions, until the skill is mastered. Varying
degrees of prompts (clues) are utilized to increase the probability of a correct
response and then gradually eliminated as the learner's abilities increase.
Children with disabilities often face many deficits and difficulties in learning;
among them are short attention spans and lack of motivation. During discrete
trial instruction, tasks are broken down into short, simple trials and as the child's
attention span increases, the length of the interaction increases accordingly. As
with ABA, discrete trial attempts to build motivation or increase the preferred
behavior by positively reinforcing performance of desired behaviors and task
completion with tangible or external reinforcement (treats, music, toys, etc.).
The external reinforcement is then paired or presented jointly with social/verbal
praise with the hope that eventually the praise will become equally reinforcing.
The DT Trainer is an automated discrete trial system that supports the teacher or
therapist in their educational program. Since the DT Trainer can handle certain
repetitious teaching and maintenance tasks, the therapist, teachers, and parents
can focus on the generalization, integration, and articulation of the knowledge.
For a list of links to information on the Discrete Trial methodology and Applied
Behavioral Analysis, visit http://www.dttrainer.com/methodology/.
Trial Example: The student is asked to respond to a single and usually a simple
command such as “Point to ball.” or “How much is one plus one?” If the
response is correct, the student receives variable praise (“way to go”,
“awesome”, etc.) and direct reinforcement of the concept being taught. For
example the student might receive the verbal reinforcement, “Good job, Bill.
One plus one equals two.” while “1 + 1 = 2” is displayed.
Chapter 1
1-2
If the response is not correct, DT Trainer may simply respond with one of the
following:
•
•
•
•
a correction (visual and verbal reinforcement of the correct response); this is
the default response
verbal “No.” or “Try again.”
no response or a blank screen
a combination of the above
This single command and the student’s response is a discrete trial. The DT
Trainer automatically captures data on each trial response and then provides you
with a variety of reporting formats. Learning is broken down into small simple
steps giving the student a high chance of success.
Before you begin using the DT Trainer in your classroom with students or with
your child in your home, you should first read this manual. This manual
provides you with the information you need to successfully administer and
manage the program. This manual addresses classroom use, but most issues also
apply to the home and other institutional settings.
This manual explains terms, concepts, and software functions essential to
appropriately set up students. This manual includes illustrations and
explanations of each step involved, as well as training adjustment information
that will be useful at a later time in the student’s training. You should read this
book in chapter order because the material is organized in a “progressive”
fashion. Later chapters use terms or ideas that are explained in earlier chapters.
Typography Conventions
The following conventions are used in this manual:
•
•
•
Labels for dialog box components such as tabs, buttons, and text boxes
appear as bold text.
A sequence of selections such as Common Administration > Programs means
to click the Common Administration tab and then click the Programs button.
Terms, URLs, and names of files and folders are italicized.
Getting Started Overview
The DT Trainer CD is self-starting. When inserted into the CD-ROM drive, the
system automatically runs an introductory program that provides options for
viewing an overview of DT Trainer and installing the DT Trainer to your
computer.
1-3
Introduction
To help you get started using the Discrete Trial Trainer, follow the steps below.
To use the software successfully, it is critical that you read this manual and
familiarize yourself with the content programs and reinforcers before you start
setting up and training your child or student(s).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Read this manual.
Insert the CD and the navigation menu will open automatically. Click the
buttons to the left of the menu items to navigate through the available
information.
Install the DT Trainer Software.
• See “Installation” on page 1-5.
• See “Support” on page 1-16 if you experience problems during
installation.
Familiarize yourself with the software.
• Start DT Trainer.
− Double-click the DT Trainer Administration icon on your desktop.
• Review the content programs and reinforcers.
• Setup a Practice Student.
− Select Student Administration > Create Student to create a practice
student.
− Enter a name like “John Doe”.
− Follow the instructions to select a training profile, programs, and
reinforcers.
− Exit DT Trainer Administration.
• Train like a student.
− Double-click the practice student training icon in the DTT Students
folder (to open this folder, double-click the DT Trainer Students
icon on the desktop).
− Familiarize yourself with the student training environment.
• Practice Administration.
− Start DT Trainer Administration and using your practice student,
familiarize yourself with the administration aspect of the DT
Trainer program.
Setup the Training Environment.
• See “Training Environment” for information on ways to make the area
used for training better for your students.
Start using DT Trainer.
• Setup Student(s).
• Start Training.
Chapter 1
1-4
Note: See Chapter 4, “Getting Started” for detailed information on the
previous steps.
Installation
This section covers the hardware and software requirements for DT Trainer,
how to install and upgrade DT Trainer, information on upgrading or installing
Microsoft Internet Explorer, recommendation for testing reinforcers, and tips for
problems such as poor system performance and sound.
System Requirements
The Discrete Trial Trainer has the following software and hardware
requirements.
Software Requirements
•
•
Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000, or
Windows XP (Windows NT is not supported)
Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) 5.5 or higher
Minimum Hardware Requirements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
IBM Compatible PC with 200 MHz processor
64 MB RAM
CD-ROM or DVD drive
700 MB free disk space
SVGA monitor
Multimedia system with good sound card and speakers
Touch screen if student cannot use mouse
Head phones (optional if not used in sound sensitive area)
Preferred System
•
•
IBM Compatible 450 MHz processor or faster
1 GB free disk space
Related Notes
Various system components effect overall system performance. You may need
to judge acceptable performance for your students and their tolerance for system
delays. Certain higher level graphics programs (such as the SkipCountingBy...
and CtsTo...Coins programs) and reinforcers (such as Blinky) may require a
faster processor (450-600 MHz).
1-5
Introduction
A 15-inch or 17-inch monitor is recommended if you need a touch screen (touch
screens for 17-inch monitors are much more expensive than those for 15-inch
monitors, and 21-inch touch screens cost significantly more).
If your system is running Windows 98, Windows 2000, or Windows ME, you
may need to upgrade your Internet Explorer to IE 6.0. IE does not have to be the
default browser, but you must have IE installed. DT Trainer needs the
multimedia engines that are part of Internet Explorer.
If your system is running Windows 95, you will have to use Internet
Explorer 5.5.
See http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/ for additional installation
information.
Installing DT Trainer
The following instructions are for an initial or new installation of DT Trainer. If
DT Trainer is already installed on your system, refer to “Upgrading DT Trainer”
on page 1-8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Verify that the system requirements have been met.
Update Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) if version 6.0 is not installed. For
more information on installing and updating, see “Upgrading to Microsoft
Internet Explorer 6.0”.
Install DT Trainer from the CD.
a. Insert the CD into the CD-ROM drive. The CD is self-starting and will
display a list of options.
b. Click Install DT Trainer.
c. Update Macromedia Flash and Shockwave, when prompted, as
instructed.
Test the reinforcers.
a. Double-click the DT Trainer Administration icon on the desktop to start
DT Trainer Administration.
b. See “Reinforcer Testing” on page 1-8 for detailed information.
Reinforcer testing will verify that the operation of sound, video and
multimedia engines are working properly.
c. Upgrade system drivers or components as necessary.
Verify that the system clock is set to the correct date and time.
Verify that the touch screen (if being used) responds to touch and that it has
been calibrated from the student’s vantage point. See the instructions that
came with your touch screen for information on calibrating your touch
screen.
Chapter 1
1-6
7.
8.
Verify the system color and screen resolution settings.
a. Access the Display Properties dialog box in Windows (right-click on
the desktop and then click Properties).
b. Click the Settings tab.
c. Change the Colors setting to High Color (16 bit) or True Color (32 bit).
d. Change the Screen Area setting to 800 by 600 pixels.
The DT Trainer displays best in the 16 bit color mode or more. DT Trainer
graphics and reinforcers do not look good at 256 colors. Older software may
reset your color settings to 256 colors. Our images are optimized for the 800
x 600 screen resolution and some of the administration dialogs needs this
resolution.
Position the Windows taskbar and set its properties as follows:
a. Move the taskbar to a side or the top of the screen to minimizing
interfering with a student’s training. Click on any plain background
area of the taskbar and drag it to either side or to the top of the screen.
b. Right-click on a blank area of the Taskbar to display a shortcut menu.
c. Click Properties to display the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties
dialog box.
d. Clear the Always on top checkbox.
e. Select Auto hide to automatically hide the taskbar.
Note: To display the hidden task bar, move the mouse to the edge of
the screen where the task bar is hidden.
f.
Click OK.
Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0
The DT Trainer uses multimedia components delivered through the Microsoft
Internet Explorer (IE). The IE does not have to be the default browser or even
have an icon on the desktop, but it does have to be on the system. Without
upgrading IE, some of the reinforcers in the DT Trainer will not work. It is
therefore highly recommended that you upgrade to the IE 6.0 Service Pack 1.
Computers using Windows XP should have IE 6.0 so you may want to check the
IE version if you have a new computer. To get all the latest multimedia engines,
download and install Internet Explorer.
There are two primary ways to get IE 6.0:
•
Download IE 6.0 from the Microsoft site
http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com.
1-7
Introduction
•
Order the Internet Explorer 6 CD ($5.00 US / $7.00 Canada) from
http://www.microsoft.com. This CD contains Internet Explorer 6 with
Service Pack 1. After you get the CD, insert the CD into your CD-ROM
drive. The installation will automatically start.
If your system is running Windows 95, you will have to use IE 5.5.
For problems or concerns, see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/.
Upgrading DT Trainer
If you have DT Trainer, Release 1.x installed and want to upgrade to Release 2.0,
see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/ for instructions on how to perform this
upgrade.
Reinforcer Testing
Reinforcer testing is a necessary part of installation. Reinforcer startup and
performance is greatly impacted by factors such as the system speed, amount of
RAM, and video card quality.
Your goal is to identify any reinforcers that either do not work or do not perform
adequately. You need to identify the cause and then do one or more of the
following.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Upgrade the system as necessary.
Verify that the Macromedia Shockwave plug-in has been properly installed.
Verify that Media Player was updated at the same time as Internet Explorer
6.0. If not, refer to “Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0.”
Adjust the reinforcer Run Time or First Load Delay (these options are
accessed by selecting Common Administration > Reinforcer > Edit).
Do not use the reinforcer (delete the reinforcer; select Common
Administration > Reinforcer > Delete).
Refer to http://www.dttrainer.com/support/ for the most current support
information
Test reinforcers by selecting Common Administration > Reinforcer, highlighting
the reinforcer, and then clicking Preview. Check a variety of reinforcers,
including those in the “Known Issues” section and the following:
•
•
Test html reinforcers such as DrawBots in the Activities\BasicCauseEffect
category. These reinforcers will verify that the Virtual Machine, system
performance, and touch screen interactions are working properly.
Test puzzles from the Assorted1PuzzleSet4Piece reinforcer in the category
Activities\Games \JigsawPuzzles. Dragging pieces should be instantaneous.
Chapter 1
1-8
•
•
•
•
Test songs in the ChildrenSongs1 reinforcer in the category
Sounds\ChildrensSongs\Male1. You should hear the song and the sound
quality should be reasonable.
Test a video (mpeg) reinforcer such as Bugs Day in the
Videos\Animations\Creatures category. You should see and hear the video.
Test a Shockwave reinforcer such as Quads in Activities\BasicCauseEffect.
You should be able to see and interact with the Shockwave content in the
web browser.
Test a Shockwave executable reinforcer such as AnimalNoises in
Activities\BasicCauseEffect. You should be able to see, hear, and interact
with the reinforcer.
Note: See “Step 3: Review the Reinforcers” on page 4-3 for instructions for
testing reinforcers.
Troubleshooting
Assuming the system meets the minimum requirements and the installed version
of IE is 6.0, here are some tips:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Poor system performance... Upgrade the amount of RAM and possibly the
video card or CPU. Low hard drive space can also impact performance.
No/Poor sound... Check sound volume, speaker volume, speaker
connections and power, or upgrade sound card drivers, or sound card.
No/Bad video... Upgrade video drivers or video card.
Reinforcer freezes up... There may be a problem with the reinforcer, or a
conflict between a multimedia engine or some other software.
Unable to see Shockwave content... The Shockwave plug-in may not be
properly installed. Download the latest version from
http://www.macromedia.com.
Unable to see Virtual Machine content... The Virtual Machine may need to
be updated or installed. See http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/.
For more information, see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/.
Known Issues
Windows 98 has had problems with video reinforcers causing the program to
shut down.
1-9
Introduction
Registering Your Software
The first time that you click on the DT Trainer Administrator’s icon, you will be
asked to register the software. If you choose not to register the software at this
time, you will be prompted each time you start DT Trainer Administration. You
can register the software at any time by clicking on the Register Now button on
the pop-up reminder or you may register from the Information tab of DT Trainer
Administration. For more information about registering your software see
“Registering Your Software” on page 3-3.
If you are trialing the DT Trainer, you will not need to register. The DT Trainer
will run for 30 days and then stop running. However you may want to purchase
the DT Trainer before the end of the 30 days to prevent or minimize interruption
of training with students.
Training Environment Issues
Setup issues are largely dependent on the students’ issues. Fairly high
functioning students may need little or no adjustments, but with other children
you may need to consider many of the following issues. Ideas to assist you as
you set up your training area are also provided.
Location
The physical location of the computer and the training environment may be very
important factors for a student’s training. If the environment is too distracting
for the student, you may need to remove the distractions, or move the computer
to another training area, put it into a study carrol or place a screen next to it.
Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture
An ideal training setup is where the student is able to comfortably sit close to the
table with his feet on the floor. Hips, knees, and feet should be at a 90º degree
angle. If the student’s feet do not touch the floor, try placing a box or stool under
the feet to help with stability. If a student tends to slide down in his chair, try
placing a barrier in front of his legs, like the side of a desk, to prevent him from
sliding down.
The table should have a height where the monitor will be directly in front of the
student’s face. If the table and chair are sized for adults, you may need to make
some adjustments so that the learning environment is as comfortable as possible
for the students. Cushions can be used to raise the student to table level. The
table surface should be approximately two inches above the crux of the elbow to
give the body good support. Move 'n' Sit Wedge® seat cushions or other wedge
cushions can be used to encourage a more erect sitting posture for students who
Chapter 1
1-10
tend to slouch. These are sold in a variety of catalogs; for more information,
consult your occupational therapist.
In a home environment, the family computer may not be in a suitable placement.
Limiting distractions on and around the table and wall will help students stay
focused on the DT Trainer training screen. Students that have a low interest in
what you want them to learn and a high interest in other objects in the room,
need a very uncluttered environment except for the computer.
Monitor
Monitor placement is less of an issue for students using a mouse, but the
monitor should be placed at the level of the student’s head. For touch screen
users, the monitor needs to be placed low enough so that the student is not
reaching up above their head to touch the screen. If the student is reaching up to
touch the screen, he may not be able to touch the screen correctly. To place the
monitor low enough, you would generally not place the monitor on the computer.
For students who have a problem playing with the screen, consider placing the
monitor at the front of the table so that the student does not have a place to rest
his elbows.
Touch Screen
A teacher should begin a student using a touch screen unless the student is
known to be mouse proficient. For touch screen users, select the Touch Screen
option on the Student Options dialog box to hide the screen pointer during a
student’s training. The touch screen emulates dragging and clicking. The
computer thinks the touch screen is a mouse. For a student using a mouse, do
not check the Touch Screen check box or he will not be able to see the mouse
pointer. After the student is working well with the touch screen on the DT
Trainer and shows an interest in the mouse, then start training the student on the
use of the mouse. Use hand-over-hand at first (your hand over the student’s,
helping him to guide and use the mouse to make a choice). You can fade
prompts by moving your hand-over-hand to guiding at the elbow.
Touch Screen Problems
There are a number of possible touch screen issues. Touch screens can fall off or
be moved. This is mostly a problem with touch screens that only velcro to the
front of the monitor. Keytec’s touch screen (www.Magictouch.com) does not
have this problem since it velcros to both the top and front of the monitor
making it mechanically very stable. Touch screens that frequently fall off or
move should be replaced since this problem will interfere with the student’s use
of the system. You will need to recalibrate the touch screen every time the
screen is moved or if the pointer is not under your finger. Calibrate the touch
screen from the student’s vantage point.
1-11
Introduction
Sometimes touch screens fail. If the touch screen does not work when you start
up the system, try restarting your system. If the pointer returns to one point on
the screen after you touch someplace else or otherwise will not respond, then
you have a bad screen and need to have it replaced.
The Edmark touch screens can interrupt playing sound files like the voice files.
Commands and praises in the DT Trainer will sound like they stutter or sound
like “Max Headroom”. Edmark has a fix for this problem; contact your DT
Trainer installer or go to the Edmark web site at www.Edmark.com to get an
updated driver.
Printer
In general, buttons on the printer should not be accessible. Higher functioning
students and students that do not tend to explore their environment may not have
a problem with the buttons. In most cases, the printer should be placed out of the
reach of students.
Computer
Consider turning the computer so that the front panel is not facing the student.
For example, a good arrangement for a standard desktop computer is to place the
computer on the back of the table, on its side, and turned to the side so that the
teacher can still reach the buttons and insert CDs. Another option is to place the
computer under the table, but where it can not be kicked.
Speakers/Headphones
Speakers and headphones need to be of sufficient quality to produce good sound
during a student’s training. Headphones are useful if the DT Trainer program
sounds are disturbing other students. Headphones may also be useful in
decreasing distracting noises in the training environment. A teacher will need to
have two headphone sets with a splitter to be able to monitor a student’s training
as needed. Check the volume in both headphones to ensure they are set at an
appropriate volume.
Keyboard/Mouse
Place the keyboard out of the reach of students because there is no keyboard
input during training. The mouse should be placed out of the reach of touch
screen students to eliminate handling or playing with the mouse during training.
As noted earlier, the table surface should be approximately two inches above the
crux of the elbow. This places the keyboard and mouse at the correct height and
provides the appropriate support for the body. See “Table and Chair / Sitting and
Posture” for more information.
Chapter 1
1-12
Strategies
The teaching strategy is dependent on the student or students and whether the
system is being used in a home or classroom situation. Most of the issues apply
to either situation, but in a classroom, the administrator may also need to
prioritize which students are started first.
Teaching Strategies
Administrators can use the DT Trainer with students in a variety of ways. Any
student may benefit from several of the uses at the same time. A few uses of the
DT Trainer with students who have different needs follow.
Lead Teaching: The DT Trainer can be used for lead teaching on a program.
Just add the unknown program to the student’s training.
Generalization: Another use is for generalization of a program the student has
already learned. The student may need less training on programs learned in
another environment or program depending on his generalization skills. Set the
initial train step higher for these programs than with unknown programs. The
initial train step is dependent upon the student’s generalization skills. Poor
generalizers may need to start at about the same step in the Train mode as they
start a new program. Better generalizers can be started higher than the Train
mode or even the Random mode. Use the Step/State options in the Program
Items dialog to reset the initial train step or mode.
Maintenance: The teacher can use the DT Trainer for maintenance of
programs generally known to a student who still needs infrequent training. You
only need to do this for students who tend to forget. Set the program train mode
to Random or Maintenance from the Step/State options in the Program Items
dialog.
Building Computer Interaction and Interest. For very low functioning
students, choose some of the reinforcers that develop interactions with the
computer and teach some basic cause and effect relationships. Use the student’s
reinforcer manager (Reinforcer dialog box) to run the reinforcers. You can
increase the run time of a reinforcer to give this student more time by overriding
the default run time in the Reinforcer dialog box.
Student Strategies
Discover the reinforcers that students like. You may need to use the Reinforcer
Manager and test reinforcers in front of the student to see what the student likes.
These reinforcers may be related to favorite self-stimulation activities like water
videos clips for students who love water. Parents may also be a good source of
information on favorite activities or self-stimulation activities. If the DT Trainer
does not have an appropriate reinforcer for the student, inform AES of the ideas
1-13
Introduction
that you have for motivating reinforcers for the student. Email requests to
Support@dttrainer.com.
For moderately low functioning students select the “Pre-Trainer” profile where
the student only has to touch the target item with no distracters to receive
reinforcement. This should help them learn the basic cause and effect
relationship of the discrete trial method. Start low functioning students slowly.
Students tend to like what they are familiar with, so build familiarity with both
the overall program and specific reinforcers. Some students may need handover-hand support at first; a daily routine will also generally help.
Start higher functioning students first. Higher functioning students may more
quickly become independent on the system allowing you to attend to other
students or classroom activities.
For students initially not interested in reinforcers on the system, use external
reinforcers and then pair them with DT Trainer reinforcers. Another option is to
add other reinforcers like a video of a student performing a favorite activity.
Student Issues
The administrator needs to observe the student during training to identify
possible issues. For example:
•
•
•
•
•
Does the student understands the basic task?
Is the student in general attending and staying on task?
Has he realized that by responding correctly he receives reinforcement?
Does he understand if he does well the system will move on?
Does he look away or act bored during specific reinforcers?
Poor Pointing/Touching
Look for poor pointing or touching of the touch screen with touch screen users.
Train the student on a single firm touch of the screen with the index finger.
Watch out for multiple touch points, repeated touches, and light touches.
Practice pointing away from the computer screen. Use a pointing stylus only if
necessary; try to get the student to use his index finger.
Sometimes a student may need to use another pointing device. Any device that
can simulate a mouse is a potential input device for the DT Trainer. As
discussed earlier in “Training Environment Issues” on page 1-10, monitor
placement in relation to the student can be critical for touch screen users. A
straight single touch with reasonable force is a good “touching” action for touch
screen users. Monitors placed too high may cause a student to reach up, possibly
touching the screen in several places with a fist or curled fingers resulting in a
Chapter 1
1-14
bad touch. A student may actually know the correct response but because of a
“bad” touching action he may touch the wrong choice first.
Student Distractions
Keep the student from playing with the screen by saying “hands down” or
“hands quiet”, or use hand-over-hand to bring the student’s hands down, and
praise the student for hands down. The student should only reach to touch the
screen as a response to the trial or with interactive reinforcers, otherwise his
hands should be down away from the screen at all other times. The buttons and
printed designs on the front of the monitor can be a problem for students using a
touch screen. Designs on the monitor sometimes cause a problem if they provide
tactile stimulation when the student rubs his finger back and forth across the
design. If necessary, cover these designs by placing tape over them or taping a
piece of foam core board over the buttons. You may have to cut a groove in the
board so that it does not interfere with raised buttons.
Poor Mouse Skills
The wrong mouse can cause problems for some students. The scrolling wheel on
a mouse can be a distracting stim activity, and the right mouse button can also
be a problem. If one or more students are having problems, consider getting a
two-button or a one-button mouse. Adaptive mice can be found in various
catalogs or you may want to consult your occupational therapist. Also watch for
a student that just keeps clicking. You may need to do some hand-over-hand
work to correct this problem. Some of the reinforcers like Circle Pop, Scribble
Color, Flood Fill Coloring, and Liner are good for building mouse skills. Use the
student’s reinforcer manager to play these reinforcers.
Student Behavioral Problems
For students with behavioral problems start slow and build a routine. Pair
external reinforcers with DT Trainer reinforcers if necessary, and remove
distractions. DT Trainer allows you to start with only the reinforcer programs
for short periods of time. Once positive reinforcers are identified, you can
gradually increase the time spent training and start to add some content
programs. See “Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers” on page 7-6
for instructions.
As you are well aware, have a lot of patience. Unfortunately behavioral
problems can prevent students from using the DT Trainer just as they prevent
students from learning in general.
1-15
Introduction
Desktop Distractions
You can set the desktop to have a screen saver that is password protected so that
students are unable to access the classroom computer. A plain black screen saver
makes the computer appear to be off and is the most non-distracting screen saver.
Errors
If the DT Trainer reports an error, send an email to Support@dttrainer.com.
Please include the error message and what was happening on the system at the
time of the error. Also include the student name, the time, the program and item,
or reinforcer.
Removing DT Trainer
DT Trainer can be removed using the Add/Remove Programs dialog box in
Windows. Removing DT Trainer removes all program files and student
configuration files. To remove DT Trainer, perform the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Start > Settings > Control Panel > Add/Remove Programs. The
Add/Remove Programs dialog box is displayed with a list of installed
programs.
Select DT Trainer in the list. When selected, additional information is
displayed as shown in the following figure.
Click Change/Remove. The InstallShield Wizard is loaded.
When the InstallShield Wizard dialog box is displayed, select Remove and
then click Next.
Follow the instructions in the InstallShield Wizard.
Support
Visit www.DTTrainer.com/support/ for the most current support information.
Chapter 1
1-16
Chapter
2
Student Training
Training Terms ........................................................................2-2
Trial ..................................................................................2-2
Trained..............................................................................2-2
Discriminative Stimulus ...................................................2-2
Sample Trial .....................................................................2-2
Target Item .......................................................................2-3
Distracter ..........................................................................2-3
Prompts.............................................................................2-4
Prompt Level 0 ..........................................................2-4
Prompt Level 3 ..........................................................2-4
Prompt Level 2 ..........................................................2-4
Prompt Level 1 ..........................................................2-5
DT Trainer Modes ............................................................2-5
Train Mode ................................................................2-5
13 Steps of Train Mode .............................................2-5
Random Mode ...........................................................2-6
Maintenance Mode ....................................................2-6
Training An Item ..............................................................2-6
Programs ..................................................................................2-7
Individual Program Options..............................................2-7
Discriminative Stimulus...........................................................2-7
A Student’s Training Session ...........................................2-7
Reinforcers...............................................................................2-8
Selection Screen................................................................2-9
Smart Reinforcers .............................................................2-9
Reinforcer Categories .....................................................2-11
Activities Category ..................................................2-11
Non-Interactive........................................................2-13
Sounds .....................................................................2-13
User .........................................................................2-13
Videos......................................................................2-14
2-1
Student Training
The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize you with what a student will
experience during training. It defines and illustrates terms used during a
student’s training, and covers DT Trainer programs, discriminative stimulus, and
reinforcement.
Training Terms
Trial
A trial is a task requiring a simple response from a student. The DT Trainer
presents a single task to be completed during each trial.
Trained
The term trained in this manual implies that an item or items in a program are
being repeatedly presenting to the student or have been repeatedly presented to
the student in numerous trials. If an item is said to have been trained, the student
can identify and associate to some level information, such as a function, label, or
sound, to the item.
Discriminative Stimulus
The discriminative stimulus (SD) is a command telling the student what to do.
Sample Trial
If the SD is “What is 1 +
1?” the student should
touch or click the number
“2” which is the target
item. The DT Trainer
supports both touch
screen and mouse input.If
the response is correct, the
student receives variable
praise (“way to go”,
“awesome”, etc.) and
direct reinforcement of
the concept being taught.
The concept reinforcement may be an image, text, or animation depending on
the program being trained as well as verbal reinforcement of the concept. The
student’s name is sometimes used in the praise. For example the student might
receive the verbal praise and reinforcement, “Good job, Bill. One plus one
equals two.” while “1 + 1 = 2” is displayed. Based on the reinforcement
frequency, the student will receive a reinforcer.
Chapter 2
2-2
An incorrect response may be followed by the image and verbal indicator of the
correct response if the administrator chooses to use the default setting of a
correction. Other options to an incorrect response include the software saying
“No” or “Try again”, or an action such as blanking the screen, doing nothing, or
a combination of these, and then starting a new trial. If the student does not
respond to the SD given within the default time of 10 seconds, the DT Trainer
goes to Wait Mode. Once the student again responds to the system, the DT
Trainer starts a new trial.
Target Item
The target item is an item presented to the
student to be trained, and is always the
CORRECT choice. The target item is
always randomly positioned across the
bottom of the screen.
Distracter
An item used to provide the student with an incorrect alternative to the target
item is called a distracter. A distracter is used to determine if the student really
knows the correct response. If the student chooses a distracter, in this case the
block or the crayon, the trial is recorded as incorrect.
One or two distracters are presented to the
student during a trial. There are two types
of distracters. A non-familiar distracter is
an item that the student has not yet trained.
Non-familiar distracters are less distracting
to the student than familiar distracters.
Trials using non-familiar distracters are
easier than trials using familiar distracters.
A familiar distracter is an item that the
student has already trained. Familiar distracters are more distracting to the
student than non-familiar distracters. Trials using familiar distracters are harder
than trials using non-familiar distracters.
Note: Some programs do not have the familiar/unfamiliar distracters (images
or text).
2-3
Student Training
Prompts
Prompts are visual clues of position
or size and vary in degree of
difficulty. The DT Trainer applies
prompting by placing distracters in
row 3 or 2, or by displaying the
distracter smaller than the target
item, or with a combination of both
visual clues. As the distracter is
moved from Row 2 to Row 1, the
prompt is eliminated.
Row 3
Row 2
Row 1
Prompt Level 0
The easiest prompt level is PL0 because the
target item is presented alone on the screen
with no distracters. There is only one answer
possible, so the task is simply to touch the
target item. This is called Prompt Level 0
because there are no distracters.
Prompt Level 3
Distracters placed in row 3 are the easiest to
determine as the incorrect answer. The visual
clue is the vertical distance between one or
more distracters and the target. This trial for
the student is easy because the vertical
distance between the distracter and the target
is at the highest level or farthest in distance.
This is called Prompt Level 3 because the
distracters are placed in row 3.
Prompt Level 2
Distracters placed in row 2 are a little
harder to determine as the incorrect answer.
This trial for the student is harder than
Prompt Level 3 because the vertical distance
between one or more distracters and the
target is less than in Prompt Level 3. This is
called Prompt Level 2 because the distracters
are placed in row 2.
Chapter 2
2-4
Prompt Level 1
Distracters placed in row 1 are the hardest
to determine as the incorrect answer. This
trial for the student is the hardest because
there is no visual clue indicating the correct
or incorrect answer. Since the prompt has
been eliminated, the trial is a discrimination
task. This is called Prompt Level 1 because
the distracters are placed in row 1, the same
row as the target item.
DT Trainer Modes
There are three training modes in the DT Trainer: Train mode, Random mode
and Maintenance mode. Only the Train mode uses prompting and has multiple
levels of difficulty. The Random and Maintenance modes are strictly
discrimination tasks.
Train Mode
The Train mode is a high intensity introduction to program items. An item is
repetitively presented to a student through a series of up to 13 steps or levels of
difficulty. These steps are determined by the number of distracters on the screen,
the prompt level, and the student’s familiarity with the images. For example, if
the item being trained is “Ball,” then “Ball” will be repetitively drilled through
the training steps.
13 Steps of Train Mode
Only the Train mode uses a combination of number of distracters, Prompt Level
(PL) and Familiar Distracters (FD) or Non-Familiar Distracters (NFD). There
are 13 steps with step 0 being the easiest and step 12 being the hardest.
Difficulty is determined by the type of distracter presented and the prompt level
placement.
The following list shows the 13 steps with the corresponding descriptions.
Step 12
Step 11
Step 10
Step 9
Step 8
Step 7
Step 6
Step 5
Step 4
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
Target + 2 FD at PL1
Target + 2 FD at PL2
Target + 2 FD at PL3
Target + 1 FD at PL1
Target + 1 FD at PL2
Target + 1 FD at PL3
Target + 2 NFD at PL1
Target + 2 NFD at PL2
Target + 2 NFD at PL3
2-5
Student Training
Step
Step
Step
Step
3
2
1
0
>
>
>
>
Target + 1 NFD at PL1
Target + 1 NFD at PL2
Target + 1 NFD at PL3
Target Only
Random Mode
The Random mode is a less intensive continuation of training. The student has
advanced the item from the repetitive drilling of the Train mode. The item is
familiar to a student but not completely learned. During the Random mode, DT
Trainer presents the item randomly. For example if the student has advanced
“Ball” from the Train mode to the Random mode, “Ball” will be randomly
presented with other items already in the Random mode during a student’s
training. Advancing from the Random mode demonstrates basic knowledge of
an item.
Maintenance Mode
The Maintenance mode is a low intensity continuation of training. The item is
now generally known to the student. An item that is in the Maintenance mode is
presented to the student, but very infrequently.
The Maintenance mode ensures that the student remembers the item. For
example, if “Ball” has advanced to the Maintenance mode, “Ball” will be
presented to the student during training of other maintenance items, but very
infrequently. Advancing from the Maintenance mode demonstrates knowledge
retention.
Training An Item
The training flow of a single item is based on a student’s response to each trial
versus the advancement and fallback criteria that has been set for the student.
The training flow starts with an untrained item presented to the student for
training. The item is marked as being in the Train mode and is trialed repeatedly.
Once the student has advanced the item through the Train mode, the item is
marked as being in the Random mode. The DT Trainer now presents the item
“randomly” while the student is receiving training on another item. Upon
advancement from the Random mode, the DT Trainer marks the item as
Maintenance, and the item is presented less frequently. Moving the item from
the Maintenance mode, the DT Trainer marks the item as Proficient. Items
marked as proficient are not presented to the student for training.
Incorrect trials also affect the progress of an item. Incorrect responses from the
student will move an item to a lower train mode or train step. The fallback
criteria specify the number of incorrect responses a student can make before an
item is moved to a lower train mode or train step.
Chapter 2
2-6
Programs
The DT Trainer has many programs that support learning. The topics include
classification, counting, identification, matching, math, money, sequencing,
spatial relations, time, word analysis, written words, and “wh---” questions (who,
what, when, etc.). The program filters allow the administrator to break programs
within these topics down by developmental level (2 years to 4th grade), skill
(money, letters, counting, etc.), and subject (life skills, language arts, math, etc.).
For a list of the content programs on your installation, start DT Trainer
Administration and then select Common Administration > Programs. DT Trainer
plans to continue releasing new content programs in the future. For a complete
list of content programs, see http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/content/.
Individual Program Options
Not all programs have the same options. Almost all programs allow you to
specify whether or not to use random commands (SDs) or use the default
command. Some programs allow you to randomize images of items or to select a
default image. Programs may have options for cues, SDs (verbal, text, or both),
and labeling. Program options are set using the Program Options dialog box. For
more information, see “Program Options” on page 5-24.
Discriminative Stimulus
The Discriminative Stimulus (SD) mode is the type of command telling the
student what to do. The command may be verbal or textual, or both verbal and
textual.
The Verbal option only uses a verbal command. Generally, young or other nonreading students are going to start with Verbal. The Text option has no verbal
command and the student must read the text in order to respond. This is a good
option for students starting to learn sight words. You can select the Both option
to give a verbal command as well as a textual command. This option may help
students that are good visual learners, but poor auditory learners. This may also
be a good option where students are just starting to learn sight words.
Available options are dependent on the program.
A Student’s Training Session
The DT Trainer is launched for a student’s training session by the
student or by the teacher with a student’s training icon such as
Brad Smith’s icon. Student icons are located in the DTT Students
folder which can be opened by double-clicking the DT Trainer
Students icon on the desktop.
2-7
Student Training
Auto run is the normal method for training a student for a session. In auto run
mode, the DT Trainer picks active programs and modes to train randomly but
does not repeat any program mode until all programs and modes have been
trialed. Each program and mode is trialed for specified numbers of trials.
The DT Trainer also tries to end each program and mode on a successful trial.
The number of trials may be extended from the specified number if the student
responds incorrectly on the last trial. When a session ends, the progress through
the list of programs and modes is saved so that the next session continues to pick
from the programs and modes that have not yet been trialed.
For example, the administrator has selected the “Colors,” “Shapes” and “Objects
1” programs for the student. Once the student or teacher has launched the
training session, DT Trainer automatically runs the session.
Here is one possible random sequence for a training session:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The DT Trainer randomly picks the “Shapes” program and Random mode.
Items in this program and mode are trialed until the DT Trainer has
performed a specified number of trials.
Next, the software randomly picks the “Colors” program and the Train
mode. An item is repeatedly trialed until a specified number of trials have
been performed. If the item is advanced to the Random mode before
completing the specified number of trials, then the next item from the train
order is used to complete the specified number of trials.
Then the DT Trainer randomly picks the “Shapes” program again but now
the Train mode. The software runs a specified number of trials.
The next program picked may be “Objects 1” in the Maintenance mode.
The software continues to pick programs and modes randomly until all
programs and modes have been trialed, and then the random selection starts
again on all programs and modes.
For special situations, the teacher can start training with the Training Selection
dialog. This dialog allows the teacher to pick the student, the program, and the
training mode.
Reinforcers
Reinforcers are rewards for the student for one or more correct responses. Many
of the reinforcers are not only “rewards” for the student, but are also “skill
builders”. AES frequently provides a developmental sequence of a skill building
reinforcer to allow progression from simpler versions to more advanced versions.
AES differentiates reinforcers within the sequence by using naming conventions
like Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3, or with the number of pieces that corresponds
to the level of difficulty such as a 4 piece puzzle or a 9 piece puzzle reinforcer.
Chapter 2
2-8
Selection Screen
Some reinforcers allow the student to pick which instance of the reinforcer to
use. For example, a puzzle selection screen has a variety of puzzles for the
student to pick from to solve. The student can choose the last one they did, or
they may pick another puzzle to solve. Use the selection screens only if the
student has choice making skills, otherwise just select single puzzles so that the
student does not have to make a choice.
Smart Reinforcers
The names of smart reinforcers are preceded with the word “Super”. Examples
of a smart reinforcers include SuperPop which is found in the
Activities\EyeHand category, and SuperBlinky and SuperPong which are found
in the Activities\Games category. Smart reinforcers are designed to be highly
configurable to each student, and are effective in skill building and teaching at
many development levels.
Smart reinforcers have options that can be configured to customize the
reinforcer. These options vary among the smart reinforcers. For example,
SuperBlinky has 24 levels and allows you to specify the starting (or current)
level (1-24). The reinforcer can be configured to advance automatically after
each success or allow for more practice at each level. The following figure
shows the configuration screen for SuperBlinky.
2-9
Student Training
The following figures illustrate various levels for SuperBlinky
Level 12
Level 1
As you can see, the complexity of the
game corresponds to the playing
level, with Level 1 being the easiest,
and Level 24 being the most
difficult.
Each smart reinforcer has its own set
of defaults. You can use the defaults,
change the defaults, or use custom
settings.
Level 24
Chapter 2
2-10
For a list of current smart reinforcers available from AES, visit
http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/reinforcers/.
Reinforcer Categories
Currently Activities, Non-Interactive, Sounds,
and Videos are the major reinforcer categories
in DT Trainer. The reinforcers by AES
provide a continuum beginning with very
simple reinforcers appropriate for low
functioning students. The User category is
provided for adding your own reinforcers.
These could be web-based reinforcers or
games such as Freecell.
To download additional reinforcers as they
become available, visit
http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/reinforcers/.
Activities Category
The Activities category includes reinforcers
that require the student to participate by either
touching, clicking, or dragging during
reinforcement.
The Arts and Graphics sub-category includes various drawing, painting, and
other graphics activities.
Level 1 Flood Fill Coloring has eight big
crayons and large coloring objects. The
student will touch or click on a crayon and
then “fill” in the picture, which in this
example is a Duck in Water. With Level 1 or
Level 2, the crayons are large enough that the
student can use a touch screen.
2-11
Student Training
As you progress the student to Level 2 and
Level 3, the crayon size gets smaller, there
are more colors to choose from, and the
pictures become more detailed. The Parrot is
a Level 3 Flood Fill Coloring example. The
crayons and image areas are small enough
that the student needs to use a mouse.
reinforcers require the
student to perform simple interactions. The
Dancing Bees reinforcer has bees that follow
the student’s finger or the mouse pointer,
while the student hears fun music.
Basic Cause and Effect
The Basic Problem Solving reinforcers
provide activities that improve appropriate
play skills. Each of the reinforcers is similar
to a cut-out doll activity. Basic problem
solving activities are more appropriate for
medium to high functioning students.
Controls reinforcers provides visual stimulation. The Circling Dots reinforcer
has a red dot rotates around a circle of dots. Rotation can be clockwise or
counter-clockwise; the direction is controlled by touching or clicking the up or
down arrow.
activities improve a student’s eye-hand coordination. Eye-hand skills
are improved with reinforcers such as Circle Pop. When the student clicks or
touches a circle, it disappears with a popping sound. Circle Pop is simple
enough for low functioning students but may be stimulating enough for higher
functioning students. Once all the circles are gone, a frog croaks at the end as a
reward for popping all the circles. This is an amazingly popular reinforcer.
Eye Hand
The Games category includes jigsaw puzzles, matching, and other games. Puzzle
Sets come in 2 to 25 and selectable piece puzzles. The Selectable Puzzle allows
the student to choose the size of each puzzle. Puzzles are ideal for medium to
high functioning students. The puzzle pieces are “dragged” to the puzzle guide.
Once a piece is close to its spot, it “snaps” in upon release. Once a student has
completed the puzzle, the Back button allows him to return to the selection
screen and select another puzzle until his time runs out.
IntermediateCauseEffect reinforcers are more advanced than those in the
BasicCauseEffect sub-category. For example, in Alien Invaders, the student has
to fire a cannon ball at a moving spaceship and points are scored when the
spaceship is hit.
Chapter 2
2-12
The Music reinforcers provide auditory stimulation. For example, the student can
make a sound by touching, clicking, or dragging the mouse across piano keys in
the Player Piano reinforcers. Various sounds can be selected from the
instruments displayed at the bottom of the reinforcer screen. The difference
between Player Piano 1 and Player Piano 2 (which correspond to level 1 and
level 2) is that the number of keys increases.
Non-Interactive
The Non-Interactive reinforcers are for students
who enjoy “visual effects”. These reinforcers
are colorful and active.
Sounds
The administrator can choose individual
songs for low functioning students or a song
selection screen for students that can make
choices. For example, the administrator may
choose a single song like “The Itsy Bitsy
Spider”; the student hears the song while
viewing the lyrics and an animated graphic.
User
This category contains reinforcers that you add; these reinforcers are not
provided by AES. For example, you could add the Freecell game as a reinforcer.
Reinforcers that you add should be tested to verify that they work on your
system. If you find that they don’t work properly, they should be removed. Third
party reinforcers are not supported by AES. You can also create sub-categories
under User for organizing your reinforcers. For information on adding your own
reinforcers to DT Trainer, see “Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer”on page 7-2.
A list of suggested sites for obtaining reinforcers can be found at
http://www.dttrainer.com/support/webreinforcers/.
2-13
Student Training
Videos
Videos are grouped into Animations and
Movies.
“Bugs Day” is a sample of a DT Trainer
Animation reinforcer. The bug crawls along
and then jumps on a leaf as the student hears
sound effects.
The “F-18 Plane Taking Off” is a sample
of a DT Trainer Movie reinforcer.
Chapter 2
2-14
Chapter
3
Administration Overview
Overview of the DT Trainer Administration ...........................3-2
Student Template ..............................................................3-2
Initial Configuration .........................................................3-3
Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks ...........3-3
Accessing DT Trainer Administration.......................3-3
Registering Your Software ......................................................3-3
Registration Dialog...........................................................3-4
Sending Registration Information..............................3-4
DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box...................................3-5
Student Administration Tab..............................................3-6
Common Administration Tab ...........................................3-7
Information Tab ................................................................3-9
Tips Tab..........................................................................3-11
3-1
Administration Overview
Overview of the DT Trainer Administration
The DT Trainer was developed for multi-student use in a classroom or clinical
environment, but can be used for a single student in a home environment. The
Program Administrator may be a teacher, therapist, or in some cases a parent.
DT Trainer Administration is used to setup and manage a student’s program.
The DT Trainer Administration dialog box is composed of the following four
tabs:
•
•
•
•
Student Administration
Common Administration
Information
Tips
This chapter briefly describes these tabs and the options on them. These tabs and
their options are described in more detail in Chapter 5.
The two most commonly used tabs are Common Administration and Student
Administration. Common Administration is used by the administrator to
accomplish tasks that are common to all students. These tasks are initiated with
the Programs, Reinforcers, Student Options, Trend and Weekly reports, and Praise
Management buttons. Student Administration is used to accomplish tasks that are
specific to a student. The administrator creates each student, and then “manages”
each student’s training from this tab. These tasks are initiated with the Create,
Delete, Options, Programs, Reinforcers, and student reports buttons.
Student Template
“Default Template” is the template used for all real students and content
programs. You should make changes to the Default Template’s settings under
Common Administration before you add real students if all or most of your
students will have the same settings. This is not required but can save you some
work if you don’t want to use the default settings.
One change that can save you a lot of work is altering the training order of items
within content programs. You do not need to change the default order unless you
have strong preferences on the order that items should be trained for all your
students. If the order of items trained will be different for each student, then do
not change the Default Template, but just change the item order in the programs
for each specific student.
Chapter 3
3-2
Initial Configuration
Before you start adding and configuring students, you need to do the following:
•
•
•
Familiarize yourself with the content programs (page 4-2)
Familiarize yourself with reinforcers (page 4-3)
Familiarize yourself with training profiles (page 5-12)
Note: Set up a practice student to familiarize yourself with the process. For
more information, see Chapter 4, “Getting Started”.
Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks
As you read through the remainder of this manual, keep in mind the following
topics and carefully read sections related to them.
•
•
Creating new students (page 6-7)
Configuring students
Options:
−
−
Changing the training profile for all programs (page 5-12)
Changing the number of consecutive trials trained to a specific mode
(page 5-8)
Programs:
−
−
Adding and deleting programs (page 5-15)
Changing the step and state of specific items within a program (page
5-18)
Reinforcers: Adding and removing programs for a student (page 5-30)
•
Using student reports (page 5-31)
− Viewing training logs, trend reports, and train states
− Creating notes
Accessing DT Trainer Administration
To open the DT Trainer Administration program, double-click
the DT Trainer Administration icon on your computer screen
desktop.
Registering Your Software
The first time that you open DT Trainer Administration, you are asked to
register the software. If you choose not to register the software at this time you
will be prompted each time you start the DT Trainer Administration by the
License Control dialog box.
3-3
Administration Overview
After a 30 day period you will
be unable to run the DT
Trainer until you register the
software for either an
evaluation extension which
must be requested or by
purchasing the software. You
can register the software at
any time by clicking Register
on the pop-up reminder or by
clicking License / Registration
on the Information tab of DT
Trainer Administration.
Registration Dialog
This section explains how to register your software. This process involves
pasting information to a web page. You will need an authorization code. If you
have already purchased DT Trainer, you should have received your
authorization code. If you need an authorization code, contact AES.
Copy This
(Hover your mouse
over the highlighted
text, right-click, and
then choose Copy.)
Sending Registration Information
1.
2.
Copy the highlighted text as shown in the previous figure.
Using Internet Explorer, open the URL www.DTTrainer.com/Register.htm.
Select the appropriate type of registration to display its registration form.
Chapter 3
3-4
3.
4.
Enter your authorization code and complete the form. On the form there is a
place to paste the registration information. Right-click in that field and
select Paste.
Click Submit at the bottom of the form.
If you have problems with the web registration form, please email the
information to Register@DTTrainer.com.
If your DT Trainer program is not installed on a computer that has web access,
then you may want to copy and paste the information into a blank document
using a word processor or text editor such as Notepad, and then take that
document to another system that has web access.
AES will provide you with an activation code and customer ID within 24 hours
(weekdays) in most cases. Insert the activation code in the Activation Code box
and the customer ID in the Customer ID box. Click Process Registration to
complete the registration.
DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box
As noted earlier, the DT Trainer Administration dialog box is composed of four
tabs.
The Common Administration tab is used to accomplish tasks that are common to
all students. These tasks are initiated with the Program, Student Options,
Reinforcers, Set Password, Praise Management, and the Trend and Weekly report
buttons.
The Student Administration tab is used to accomplish tasks that are specific to a
student. The administrator creates each student, and then manages each student’s
training from this tab. These tasks are initiated with the Create, Delete, Options,
Programs, Reinforcers, Train, and student report buttons.
The Information tab is used to identify the user and DT Training location and to
display registration and Accelerations Educational Software (AES) company
information.
The Tips tab displays additional information on topics such as new features and
problems that are not documented in this manual.
In the sections that follow, the buttons, lists, and options on each tab are
described. Dialog boxes that are displayed as the result of clicking a button on
one of these tabs or in another dialog box are described in Chapter 5.
3-5
Administration Overview
Student Administration Tab
The administration of a specific student is initiated from the Student
tab. Once students have been created, their names are listed in the
drop down list in the Currently Selected Student section. The selected student is
the student currently displayed in the name field; changes made to student
options, programs and reinforcers are applied only to the selected student.
Administration
This dialog box has the following main sections.
Currently Selected Students. Contains options for selecting the current student
and for creating and deleting students.
Contains options for changing the selected student’s
options, programs, and reinforcers.
Student Configuration.
Student Reports.
Contains options for displaying various progress reports for the
selected student.
Special Training Tool.
Contains an option for starting a student’s training program
in a specific mode.
Create. Creates or adds students to the DT Trainer program. The create student
process walks you through a series of dialogs. These dialogs may be accessed at
any later time to adjust the currently selected student’s training.
Chapter 3
3-6
Delete. Deletes the name of the selected student from the list and removes the
student’s settings from the program.
Displays the Student Options dialog box for configuring settings for the
selected student’s training. Once set, these options rarely change.
Options.
Displays the Programs dialog box for viewing a list of programs and
tailoring the selected student’s educational content and training flow.
Programs.
Reinforcers. Displays the Reinforcers dialog box for adding, removing, and
editing the reinforcers and reinforcer run times.
Displays the Program Trend Report that shows a weekly history
of all programs or just active programs.
Program Trends.
Train States. Displays the Train States Report that shows a snapshot of the
training states of each program item.
Trial Results. Displays the Trial Results Report that shows a summary of the
overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level.
Displays the Weekly Training Log that shows a student’s training
log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks.
Training Log.
Displays the Weekly Notes dialog that provides the means for
documenting information specific to the student on a weekly basis.
Notes.
Displays the Training Selection dialog box for use in special situations
where you want to train a student on only one program and in a specific training
mode.
Train.
Common Administration Tab
The administration of content programs and program items, reinforcers for all
students, administration password, and global student options is initiated from
the Common Administration tab. Class level reports are also accessed from this
tab. Changes to programs, reinforcers, and student options affect only those
students created later. Existing students are not affected by the changes.
3-7
Administration Overview
Common Administration
has the following options.
Displays the DT Trainer Programs dialog box for managing content
programs and program items.
Programs.
Displays the Student Options dialog box for the Default
Template. Changes made to this student template affect only students created
after the changes. Some of the options that can be set include whether a touch
screen is used for training, the session duration, and training screen color.
Student Options.
Reinforcers. Displays the Reinforcer Manager dialog box for performing
management tasks such as editing, removing, activating, and testing an existing
reinforcer and adding new reinforcers.
Maintenance.
Contains an option for managing DT Trainer data by allowing you
to backup and restore data for one or more students.
Activates the password access feature. If checked, the next time DT
Trainer is opened, the Enter Password dialog box is displayed and the user must
enter the appropriate password to access the DT Trainer Administration window.
Password.
Set Password. Displays the Set Password dialog box for specifying the password
that must be used when opening DT Trainer. Password must be checked for the
password to be put into effect.
Chapter 3
3-8
Activate Development Features. Displays additional tabs and options on the
various dialog boxes that allow you to perform development level tasks such as
adding your own programs to DT Trainer. This option should only be used by
very advanced administrators. Development features are not documented in this
manual. For more information, visit www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.
Displays the System Trend Report that shows a number of summaries by
student and class. This report shows trends across training weeks and is useful
for seeing how the class is doing and which students may have training issues.
Trend.
Displays the System Training Weekly Report that shows a number of
summaries for training results for each student and the class. The reports are in
the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing a
student’s progress with their program content.
Weekly.
If Activate Development Features is selected, the Advanced / Development group
box is displayed as shown in the following figure.
Praise Management. Displays the Praise
Manager dialog box for editing existing
praises and creating new praises. In general,
it is not necessary to administer praises since
DT Trainer installs the praises appropriate for
each program. This is an advanced feature.
Information Tab
The Information tab allows you to enter user and DT Trainer location information,
view registration and company information, and register the product.
Information such as the teacher’s name, the class or location, the school or
building, and the school district is used for support purposes.
3-9
Administration Overview
Information
has the following main sections and buttons.
User and DT Trainer Location Information.
Contains the following text boxes for
entering user and location information.
•
•
•
•
Teacher’s Name
Class or Location
School or Bldg.
Sch. Dist. or Inst.
AES Contact Information. Displays relevant contact information for Accelerations
Educational Software such as product related URLs, email addresses, phone
numbers, phone numbers and mailing address.
Displays information such as the type of license,
expiration date, authorized program count, and the number of created students. It
also contains a License / Registration button for displaying the Registration
dialog box.
Registration Information.
License / Registration.
Displays the Registration dialog box for registering DT
Trainer.
Chapter 3
3-10
Tips Tab
Additional information on topics such as new features and suggestions for
frequently encountered problems are displayed in a scrollable window on this
tab.
If checked, the Show Tips first on DT Trainer Administration startup check box
shows the Tips tab instead of the Student Administration tab when DT Trainer is
started.
3-11
Administration Overview
Chapter
4
Getting Started
Step 1: Start DT Trainer...........................................................4-2
Step 2: Review the Content Programs .....................................4-2
Step 3: Review the Reinforcers................................................4-3
Step 4: Setup a Practice Student ..............................................4-4
Step 5: Train Like a Student ....................................................4-8
Step 6: Practice Administration ...............................................4-9
Step 7: Setup the Training Environment................................4-10
Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer ..............................................4-10
4-1
Getting Started
The purpose of this chapter is to help you become familiar with DT Trainer so
that you’ll be better prepared to manage the programs within DT Trainer and
your students.
Step 1: Start DT Trainer
If you have installed DT Trainer, there should be a DT Trainer Administration icon
on your desktop.
•
Double-click the DT Trainer Administration icon on your desktop.
Step 2: Review the Content Programs
DT Trainer is installed with over 120 programs. As new content programs
become available, they may be downloaded from
http://www.dttrainer/support/update/.
Before you can appropriately select programs for a student, you need to have
some knowledge about the content of the programs. The best way to do this is to
preview the programs.
1.
2.
Click the Common Administration tab.
Click Programs to display the DT Trainer Programs dialog box that lists all
the programs. A short description appears to the right of each program name
in the Description column. By default, all programs are listed and content is
sorted by topic which can be identified by the prefix to the left of the
program name. For example, Identification programs have the prefix
“Ident” placed before the program named Colors (e.g.,Ident-Colors). A
complete list of topics and their prefixes can be found at
http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/content/. The DT Trainer Programs dialog box
is described on page 5-38.
You can filter the list of programs to view only those programs that meet
the Level, Skill, and Subject criteria you specify. This can substantially
reduce the number of programs you will need to preview.
3.
To filter the list, click the Program Filters tab and
then click Edit Criteria to display the Edit
Programs Criteria dialog box. Click the plus (+)
icon to expand the Level, Skill, or Subject list.
Check the levels, skills, and subjects you’re
interested in to display only programs that meet
the criteria checked and then click Select.
Filter the list so that it lists only programs
suitable for 1st graders, ± one year as shown.
Chapter 4
4-2
Tip: Set filters for the target development age range plus or minus one
year.
4.
5.
6.
Click a program name to select (highlight) it.
Click Preview on the Actions tab to preview (demo) a trial of the program.
Click Items to view the items in the program in the Program Items dialog
box. Click Done to close the dialog box. The Program Items dialog box is
described on page 5-18.
7. Click Options to view additional information and the options that can be set
for the program in the Program Options dialog box. These options vary
from program to program. Click Done to close the dialog box. The Program
Options dialog box is described on page 5-24.
8. Click the Program Info tab to display detailed information about the program
such as skills trained by the program, age/education appropriate levels,
options, training method used, prerequisites, and related programs. Other
information such as credits and next steps may also be provided.
9. Repeat steps 4 through 8 for each program that you want to review.
10. Click Done to close the DT Trainer Programs dialog box and return to the
Common Administration tab.
Step 3: Review the Reinforcers
DT Trainer is installed with hundreds of reinforcers and they are grouped into
these major categories: Activities, Non-Interactive, Sounds, User, and Videos.
As new reinforcers become available, they may be downloaded from
http://www.dttrainer.com/support/updates/.
Before you can appropriately select reinforcers for a student, you need to know
what the student likes and determine which reinforcers would appeal to the
student. The best way to do this is to test the reinforcers to see what they do and
then prior to assigning reinforcers to a student, test the reinforcers with the
student and observe his reaction.
Testing (previewing) the reinforcers allows you to verify that the reinforcers
work properly on the system.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the Common Administration tab.
Click Reinforcers to display the Reinforcer Manager dialog box that lists all
the reinforcers under the appropriate category.
To view the reinforcers in a category or sub-category, click the plus (+) icon
to the left of a category to expand its list.
Click a reinforcer name to select (highlight) it.
4-3
Getting Started
5.
6.
Click Preview to preview the reinforcer.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for several reinforcers in each category and subcategory.
7. Click Done to close the Reinforcer Manager and return to the Common
Administration tab.
For more information on the Reinforcer Manager dialog box, see page 5-42.
Basic reinforcer management tasks are covered in Chapter 6.
Step 4: Setup a Practice Student
This section walks you through the creation of a practice student.
1.
2.
Click the Student Administration tab.
Click Create. The following prompt is displayed.
3.
Type “Practice Student” and then click Done. The Student Options prompt
is displayed.
4.
Click OK. The Student Options dialog box is displayed. Only the Basic tab
is displayed when creating a new student. For more information on the
Student Options dialog box, see page 5-6.
Chapter 4
4-4
5.
Click Select New Profile to display the Select Training Profile dialog box.
For more information on the Select Training Profile dialog box, see page
5-12.
6.
Select “Early Learner 2” from the Select Profile list and then click Select.
The Student Options dialog box is displayed.
4-5
Getting Started
7.
Click Done on the Student Options dialog box. The Student Setup prompt is
displayed.
8.
Click OK. The Select Content Programs dialog box is displayed. For more
information on the Select Content Programs dialog box, see page 5-17.
Select the programs you want to add to the student and then click Select.
For the Practice Student, highlight the “Sequence-Days...”, “SequenceMonths...”, and “Sequence-Nums...” programs as shown in the following
figure and then click Select. To select multiple programs, press and hold the
CTRL key as you click on the names of the programs you want to add.
9.
Note: You can also edit the filter criteria by clicking Edit Criteria and
changing the criteria if the global filter criteria are not appropriate for the
new student. The filter criteria shown in the following figure was set
earlier in “Step 2: Review the Content Programs.”
Chapter 4
4-6
10. The Programs dialog box and the Question prompt are displayed.
11. Click Yes. The Reinforcement Setup prompt is displayed.
12. Click OK. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. For more
information on the Add Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-30.
13. Expand the Activities category and then the BasicCauseEffect sub-category
by clicking the plus (+) icon to the left of these category names.
14. Click DancingBees.ref and then click Add to add the reinforcer to the
Student’s Reinforcers list. Add the reinforcers Animal Noises and
DrawBots. As each reinforcer is added, it is moved from the Available
Reinforcers list to the Student’s Reinforcers list.
4-7
Getting Started
15. Click Done. The following prompt is displayed.
16. Click Done. A training icon named “Practice Student” is created in the DT
Trainer Students folder and the following prompt is displayed.
17. Click OK. The setup for the new student is complete and the Student
Administration tab is displayed.
18. Click Exit to close DT Trainer Administration.
Step 5: Train Like a Student
As you train like the Practice Student, trials for the items in the selected
programs are presented randomly. The default trial timeout is 10 seconds. If you
don’t respond to the SD within 10 seconds, the program goes into Wait Mode
and displays the GO screen. When the session times out, the program tells you it
is closing and then automatically closes. The default session time is 10 minutes.
Note: The trial timeout can be changed for each student and for each
student’s program.
The following information shows the selections made during the creation of the
Practice Student.
Training Profile:
Early Learner 2 with an Initial Train Step of 4.
Programs:
Sequence-DaysOfWeek-After
Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before
Sequence-Months-After
Sequence-Months-Before
Sequence-Numbers0to9-After
Sequence-Numbers1to10-Before
Chapter 4
4-8
Reinforcers
1.
2.
Animal Noises
DrawBots
DancingBees
Double-click the DT Trainer Students icon on the desktop to open the folder
containing the student training icons.
Double-click the Practice Student training icon.
Note: If you prefer to have the student’s icon on the desktop, you can
place a copy of it on the desktop by dragging and dropping the icon in
the folder onto the desktop while pressing the Ctrl key.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click inside the green oval containing “GO” to start the training.
Respond to each trial.
A reinforcer token is earned for each correct response. These tokens appear
in the lower-right corner of the screen. Earned tokens are solid green; when
all tokens are green, a reinforcer is run. For the Practice Student, the default
number of earned tokens required to run a reinforcer is three.
While being the “Practice Student” observe the student’s training
environment. Note any problems that could interfere with a student’s
learning.
To exit the training at any time, press D.
Step 6: Practice Administration
After a student has been created, the student’s name appears in the Currently
Selected Student list on the Student Administration tab. Programs, options, and
reinforcers can be changed at any time for a student in the list. The following
steps walk you through several changes to the training program and options for
the Practice Student.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Start DT Trainer Administration.
Click the Student Administration tab.
Select “Practice Student” from the Currently Selected Student list.
Change the training profile to “Pre-Trainer”.
Select Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile to display the Select Training
Profile dialog box. Click the Select Profile arrow and select “Intermediate
Learner 1” from the list. Click Select to close the dialog box and return to
the Basic tab within Student Options.
4-9
Getting Started
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Change the session duration to five (5) minutes.
On the Basic tab in the Limit Session Duration group box, type “5” in the
Minutes box and then click Done.
Delete the following programs from the student’s training program:
• Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before
• Sequence-Months-Before
• Sequence-Numbers1to10-Before
Select Programs to display the Programs dialog box. Highlight “SequenceDaysOfWeek-Before” and then click Delete. When prompted, click Yes to
confirm that you want to delete the program. Delete the other two programs.
Add the “Ident-Colors” program to the student’s training program and then
preview the program.
Select Programs > Add, highlight “Ident-Colors” in the Available Programs
list and then click Select. Click Yes in response to the question. Highlight
“Ident-Colors” and then click Preview. Click Done to close the Programs
dialog box.
Explore the other features available from the Student Administration tab.
Explore the features available from the Common Administration tab.
Step 7: Setup the Training Environment
If the training environment has not been evaluated and adapted to improve
physical access to the computer system and reduce distractions while using the
computer, please do so now. Any problems that were noticed while “being a
student” should be corrected before you begin training students. For more
suggestions on ways to make the training area better for your sudents, see
“Training Environment Issues” on page 1-10.
Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer
1.
2.
3.
Prior to creating new students, make any desired global changes using the
Common Administration tab. For example, if the majority of your students
will be using a touch screen, select Student Options > Basic tab and then
check the Touch Screen option. This change is made to the default template
and affects all new students created from this point forward.
Create the students.
If necessary, make any necessary changes to the training program of the
individual students (student options, programs, program items, reinforcers,
etc.) prior to starting training.
Chapter 4
4-10
4.
Start training your students.
• Teaching strategies are dependent on the student or students being
trained and their environment. Administrators can use the DT Trainer
in a variety of ways. For additional information on teaching strategies
see page 1-13.
• Student strategies are dependent on the student’s or students’ degree of
functioning and interest. The administrator needs to observe each
student during training to identify possible issues. For additional
information on student strategies and issues see pages 1-13 through
1-16.
4-11
Getting Started
Chapter
5
The DT Trainer Interface
How to Access a Specific Dialog Box .....................................5-3
Dialog Box Path................................................................5-3
Hover Help...............................................................................5-4
Student Administration ............................................................5-4
Student Options........................................................................5-6
Basic Tab ..........................................................................5-7
Other Tab..........................................................................5-8
Intermediate Tab...............................................................5-9
Advanced Tab.................................................................5-11
Select Training Profile ...........................................................5-12
Programs ................................................................................5-14
Actions Tab.....................................................................5-15
Program Info Tab............................................................5-16
Select Content Programs........................................................5-17
Edit Programs Criteria ...........................................................5-18
Program Items........................................................................5-18
Basic Tab ........................................................................5-20
Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-20
Program Item Graph ..............................................................5-21
Program Item Training Log ...................................................5-22
Program Order Items..............................................................5-22
Program Options ....................................................................5-24
Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-25
Advanced Tab.................................................................5-26
Praise Activation....................................................................5-27
Training Sequence .................................................................5-28
Reinforcers.............................................................................5-29
Add Reinforcers.....................................................................5-30
Program Trend Report ...........................................................5-31
Train States Report ................................................................5-32
Weekly Trial Results Report..................................................5-33
Weekly Training Log.............................................................5-34
Weekly Notes.........................................................................5-35
Training Selection..................................................................5-36
Common Administration Tab ................................................5-36
DT Trainer Programs .............................................................5-38
Action Tab ......................................................................5-40
5-1
The DT Trainer Interface
Program Info Tab............................................................5-41
Program Filters Tab ........................................................5-41
Selection Keywords Tab.................................................5-41
Reinforcer Manager ...............................................................5-42
Edit Reinforcer.......................................................................5-44
Set Password ..........................................................................5-46
System Trend Report .............................................................5-47
System Training Weekly Report............................................5-48
Praise Manager ......................................................................5-49
Chapter 5
5-2
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the dialog boxes displayed by DT
Trainer and their options. Several dialog boxes utilize tabs; generally, these tabs
are labeled Basic, Intermediate, or Advanced. These tab names indicate the task
level of the features and options available from the tab. Chapters 6, 7, and 8
cover the administrative tasks that are considered to be basic, intermediate, or
advanced.
In many cases, common dialog boxes are accessed when performing common
and student administration. In these cases, the dialog box is described only once.
If a tab or an option is not available or hidden during common or student
administration, it is noted in the description.
How to Access a Specific Dialog Box
Some dialog boxes are used in the administration of specific students and
common settings, programs, and reinforcers. Because there may be more than
one way to access a dialog box and the path to a dialog box may involve
clicking options on other dialog boxes, the complete sequence of “clicks”
required to access each dialog box is provided. This sequence is referred to in
this manual as the dialog box path.
Dialog Box Path
The following example shows the dialog box path to the Select Training Profile
dialog box.
Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile
For example, to access the Select Training Profile dialog box using this path,
perform these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click the Student Administration tab in the DT Trainer Administration
window.
Click the Options button.
Click the Basic tab on the Student Options dialog box.
Click the Select New Profile button.
The path is provided at the beginning of each dialog box section in this chapter.
Dialog boxes that are common to both Common Administration and Student
Administration features have two paths.
5-3
The DT Trainer Interface
Hover Help
DT Trainer displays hover help when you position the cursor over a button or
over an INFO or TIP icon as shown in the following figures. It should be noted
that not all buttons display hover help. Hover help for buttons explains the
function of the button. The INFO icon displays related information for the option
to the left of the icon; TIP icons display information such as suggestions and
recommendations.
Student Administration
The administrator utilizes the Student Administration tab to accomplish tasks that
are specific to the selected student. Using features available on this tab, you can
create and manage each student’s training.
Administration of a specific student is initiated from the Student Administration
tab. Once students have been created, their names are listed in the drop down list
in the Currently Selected Student section. The selected student is the student
currently displayed in the list box; changes made to student options, programs
and reinforcers are applied only to the selected student.
The Student Administration tab has the following main sections.
Currently Selected Students. Contains options for selecting the current student,
creating and deleting students.
Contains options for changing the selected student’s
options, programs, and reinforcers.
Student Configuration.
Student Reports.
Contains options for displaying various progress reports for the
selected student.
Special Training Tool.
Contains an option for starting a student’s training program
in a specific mode.
Chapter 5
5-4
A description of the buttons and boxes follows.
Student List.
Name displayed indicates the currently selected student.
Create. Creates or adds students to the DT Trainer program. The create student
process walks you through a series of dialogs. These dialogs also may be
accessed at any later time to adjust the students training.
Delete. Deletes the name of the selected student from the list and removes the
student’s settings from the program.
Displays the Student Options dialog box for configuring settings for the
selected student’s training. Once set, these options rarely change. For a
description of the Student Options dialog box, see page 5-6.
Options.
Displays the Programs dialog box for viewing a list of programs and
tailoring the selected student’s educational content and training flow. For a
description of the Programs dialog box, see page 5-14.
Programs.
Reinforcers. Displays the Reinforcers dialog box for adding, removing, and
editing the reinforcers and reinforcer run times. For a description of the
Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-29.
5-5
The DT Trainer Interface
Displays the Program Trend Report that shows a weekly history
of all programs or just active programs. For a description of the Program Trend
Report, see page 5-31.
Program Trends.
Train States. Displays the Train States Report that shows a snapshot of the
training states of each program item. For a description of the Train States Report,
see page 5-32.
Trial Results. Displays the Weekly Trial Results Report that shows a summary of
the overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level.
For a description of the Weekly Trial Results Report, see page 5-33.
Displays the Weekly Training Log that shows a student’s training
log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks. For a
description of the Weekly Training Log, see page 5-34.
Training Log.
Displays the Weekly Notes dialog box that provides the means for
documenting information specific to the student on a weekly basis. For a
description of the Weekly Notes dialog box , see page 5-35.
Notes.
Displays the Training Selection dialog box for use in special situations
where you want to train a student on only one program and in a specific training
mode. The dialog box allows you to select the student, the program, and the
mode. For a description of the Training Selection dialog box , see page 5-36.
Train.
Student Options
Student Administration Tab > Options
Common Administration Tab > Student Options
Using the Student Options dialog box, you can configure the settings for a
student’s training. Once set, many of the options will rarely change. This dialog
box has four tabbed panes: Basic, Other, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic
tab is the default tab.
Chapter 5
5-6
Basic Tab
Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab
Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Basic Tab
The options displayed on this tab must be set for each student. When a student is
created, this tab is displayed.
Displays the Select Training Profile dialog box for choosing a
different profile and setting training options such as the Initial Train Step, the
Reinforcer Tokens, and the Trial Timeout. This option is not available for the
Default Template. For a description of the Select Training Profile dialog box,
see page 5-12.
Select New Profile.
Allows you to set a time limit on the
student’s training session. This setting overrides the normal session duration and
limits it to the number of minutes specified in the box. If selected, at the end of
the session the DT Trainer tells the student “All Done, Bye Bye” and then ends
the session. This is the recommended setting for classroom use.
Limit Session Duration to ___ Minutes.
Specifies whether or not the student will be using a touch screen.
When this option is checked, the pointer is not displayed during the student’s
training since his finger is the pointer.
Touch Screen.
Male / Female. Specifies
the gender of the student.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Other Tab
Student Administration Tab > Options > Other Tab
This tab has five main sections of options that allow you to specify student
information, set the number of consecutive trials, specify DT Trainer’s reponse
to incorrect responses, and specify the use of SDs.
Displays the student’s full name that the software uses on the screens
and in reports. The full name should be in the form “John Doe” with capitalized
first letters and a space between the first and last names.
Full Name.
Student Id. Displays the identification number of the student. This field may be
left blank if desired. It may be useful for institutional uses of the software.
Spoken. Sets the name that the software uses to speak the student’s name in
praises. There must be a corresponding <name>^.wav file for the DT Trainer to
actually say the name.
User Name.
Specifies how often the student’s name is spoken in praises.
Train (#).
Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the Train mode
before training another program or mode. For example, lower the Train mode
trials to limit the repeated trials of the same item.
Chapter 5
5-8
Random (#).
Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the Random
mode before training another program or mode
Maintenance (#). Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the
Maintenance mode before training another program or mode.
Verbal Response.
Specifies the spoken word for an incorrect response.
Display Correction.
If checked, displays only the target item in response to an
incorrect response.
Blank Screen for ___ seconds.
Displays a blank screen before the next trial for the
specified number of seconds.
Removes previously earned reinforcement tokens when incorrect
and no responses are given. This setting is generally not set for lower level
students but is recommended for higher level students or if a student is
intentionally responding incorrectly.
Response Cost.
Randomize SDs / Use Default SD Only.
Allows you to vary the SDs where
appropriate or use the default SD.
Allows you to use randomized
images (multiple exampliers) to promote generalization or to use only the
default image.
Randomize Images / Use Default Image Only.
Intermediate Tab
Student Administration Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab
Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Intermediate Tab
This tab has five main sections of options that allow you to override certain
training profile parameters, set training screen options, specify the default
speaker, select special reinforcer options, and create a new student training icon.
5-9
The DT Trainer Interface
Initial Training Step. Specifies the starting step (0-12) for items in the Train mode.
For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.
Reinforcer Tokens. Specifies the number of reinforcement tokens that must be
earned (one token is earned for each correct response) in order for a reinforcer to
be played. Tokens can be taken away for incorrect responses.
Trial Timeout.
Specifies the number of seconds allowed for each trial.
Allows you to specify the color of the training screen by varying
the amounts of Red, Green, and Blue using the sliding bars.
Screen Color.
If checked, displays Done and Pause buttons on the training
screen. If not checked, you will need to press D if you need to stop the program
early.
Display Buttons.
Hide Tokens. If checked, removes the visual display of earned tokens from the
screen. It is recommended that you select this option only if the tokens are
interfering with the student’s training.
Disable Escape Key. If checked, prevents the student from being able to end the
problem by pressing Esc. Generally, this is not necessary since you can remove
the keyboard from the reach of the student.
Speaker.
Chapter 5
Specifies the voice to be used for commands and praises.
5-10
If checked, turns off the token based
reinforcement and plays one reinforcer at the end of the training session.
Only Reinforce at End of Training.
If checked, the student’s training program skips trials and
cycles only through the reinforcers. Use this option for very low functioning
students who are not ready for trials or for special purposes such as building
interest or teaching mouse skills.
Reinforcers Only.
Create Icon. Displays a dialog box for recreating a deleted training icon for the
selected student.
Advanced Tab
Student Administration Tab > Options > Advanced Tab
Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Advanced Tab
This tab has three main sections of options that allow you to adjust the distracter
prompt levels, adjust the advancement and fallback criteria, and change student
response options. The distracter prompt level settings allows you to set the
distance and size of the distracters as compared to the target item.
PL3 Y Offset.
Specifies the vertical distance between rows 3 and 2.
Specifies the size of the distracters in row 3 in comparison to the
training item.
PL3 Scaling.
5-11
The DT Trainer Interface
PL2 Y Offset.
Specifies the vertical distance between rows 2 and 1.
Specifies the size of the distracters in row 2 in comparison to the
training item.
PL2 Scaling.
Advancement is based on the number of Correct
responses within the set number of Trials that will advance a student’s training to
a higher train level. Fallback is based on the number of Incorrect responses
within a set number of Trials that will set a student’s training back to a lower
train level. In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to
respond correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the
Maintenance mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the
item to fall back to Train PL1.
Advancement / Fallback Criteria.
You can only view the Advancement / Fallback Criteria for the Default
Template.
Displays the stimulus images, text, or
item questioned while the student is hearing the SD and then displays the target
and distracters after the SD.
Hide Target and Distracters until after SD.
Specifies the number of times the SD may be
given before going into Wait Mode if there is no response by the student. This
option is generally set to 1. This option may be useful if you have a student that
needs to hear an instruction more than once. It should be noted that the student’s
statistics are impacted by no responses to the trials. Repeating the SD can
sometimes become reinforcing.
# of no reponses before Wait Mode.
Block Early Responses. Prevents
the system from recording a response before the
SD is done.
Select Training Profile
Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab >
Select New Profile
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab >
Select New Profile
The Select Training Profile dialog box allows you to view the description and
parameters of the available student profiles and select a profile for the currently
selected student.
Chapter 5
5-12
Clicking the Select Profile arrow displays a list of profiles from which to choose.
A general description for the selected profile is displayed in the field to the right
of the drop down list. AES can easily customize profiles to conform to customer
preferences. A brief description of each profile follows.
The Pre-Trainer (PT) profile displays only the target item during training and
never advances beyond that. This is useful for a very low functioning student not
yet ready for distracters. The student only has to touch the target item to receive
reinforcement. The Initial Train Step is set to zero. The Reinforcer Tokens is set to
reinforce after each trial.
The Early Learner 1 (EL1) profile is descriptive of a student that is very young
or very low functioning, and is ready to use distracters. This student needs a lot
of repetition and frequent reinforcement. The Initial Train Step is set to zero to
provide a high amount of repetitive drilling. The Reinforcer Tokens is set to
reinforce after one successful trial. This reinforcement schedule will help the
student associate a correct response with the reinforcement.
The Early Learner 2 (EL2) and Intermediate Learner 1 (IL1) profiles are
descriptive of a student that may be developmentally between three and five
years old. The student is a slow learner and needs a moderate amount of
reinforcement. The Initial Train Step is set to four or seven respectively to provide
a moderate amount of repetitive drilling. The Reinforcer Tokens is set to
reinforce after three or five successful trials respectively.
The Advanced Learner 1 and 2 (AL1 and AL2) profiles are descriptive of a
student that is developmentally an elementary student. The student is a good
learner, self-motivated, and only needs reinforcement occasionally. The Initial
Train Step is set to 10 or 11 to provide little repetitive drilling. The Reinforcer
Tokens is set to reinforce after 25, 50, or 100 successful trials respectively.
Advancement/Fallback Criteria. This section shows the number of Correct and
Incorrect responses within a set number of trials that either advances a student
5-13
to
The DT Trainer Interface
the next training level for the training item or goes back to a lower training level.
Advancement is based on the number of Correct responses within the set number
of Trials that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level. Fallback is
based on the number of Incorrect responses within the set number of Trials that
will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.
Displays the Step (0-12) at which Untrained Items begin
training for the selected profile. For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes”
on page 2-5.
Initial Train Step.
Displays the number of earned tokens required for the DT
Trainer to activate a reinforcer for the selected profile.
Reinforcer Tokens.
Displays the number of seconds that the DT Trainer waits after
starting a trial before recording a “No Response” from the student. The default
time for all profiles is 10 seconds.
Trial Timeout.
Note: Clear the check boxes if you do not want to use the settings for Initial
Train Step, Reinforcer Tokens, or Trial Timeout. Overrides can be made to these
settings in the Student Options - Intermediate tab.
Programs
Student Administration Tab > Programs
The Programs dialog box is used to view and tailor a student’s educational
content and training flow. This dialog box has two tabs and a pane in which
information about each program in the student’s training program is displayed in
columnar format. The columns of information displayed for each content
program in the student’s training program are as follows: Program Name, Status,
Profile, UnTrained, Train, Rand, Maint, Prof, and DNT.
Chapter 5
5-14
Program Name.
Names of the programs selected for the student.
Status.
Displays Active or Inactive as the status for the program.
Profile.
Displays the student training profile for the program.
UnTrained.
The number of untrained items in the program.
Train.
The number of trained items in the program.
Rand.
The number of program items in the Random mode.
Maint.
The number of programs items in the Maintenance mode.
Prof.
The number of programs items in which the student is proficient.
DNT. The number of program items which are not to be trained. DNT is an
acronym for “Do Not Train.”
Actions Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab
This tab has two sections, Basic and Advanced that contain buttons for
performing basic and advanced management tasks.
5-15
The DT Trainer Interface
Add. Displays the Select Content Programs dialog box that allows you to select
and add programs not yet in the current student’s program list. For a description
of the Select Content Programs dialog box, see page 5-17.
Displays the Print dialog box that allows you to print the program
information displayed.
Print.
Preview.
Demonstrates the selected training program.
Displays the Program Items dialog box, allowing you to edit, view, and
order items within the selected program. For a description of the Program Items
dialog box, see page 5-18.
Items.
Displays the Program Options dialog box, allowing you to set options
that are common to the items in the selected program for a student such as the
training profile. For a description of the Program Options dialog box, see page
5-24.
Options.
Toggles the active status of the selected program between
“Active” and “Inactive” to deactivate or reactivate a program in the student’s list.
Toggle Active.
Delete.
Removes the selected program from the student’s list of programs.
Praise. Displays the Program Praise Activation dialog box for viewing and
managing the status of each praise script. For a description of the Program
Praise Activation dialog box, see page 5-27.
Displays the Training Sequence dialog box for changing the order in
which programs in the various training modes are presented during training. For
a description of the Training Sequence dialog box, see page 5-28.
Sequence.
Program Info Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Program Info Tab
The Program Information tab displays detailed information about the selected
program. Information displayed includes a general description of the program,
skills that are taught using the program, and information such as skills taught
and the education level such as preschool.
Chapter 5
5-16
Select Content Programs
Student Administration > Programs > Action Tab > Add
The Select Contents Programs dialog box allows you add content programs to a
student’s training. The dialog box has a list of Available Programs on the left
from which you can select programs. Programs already in the student’s list are
not shown.
Multiple programs can be selected by holding down Ctrl as you click on the
programs you want to add. After highlighting the programs you want to add,
click Select.
You can also filter the list of programs displayed by specifying program criteria
such as levels, skills, and subjects. The Type and Value of the current criteria are
shown in the box on the right.
Displays the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box for selecting the
criteria for programs that you want to view in the Available Programs list. For a
description of the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, see page 5-18.
Edit Criteria.
Program Description.
Displays a brief description of a selected program.
Select. Closes the dialog box and adds the programs highlighted
Programs list to the student’s list in the Programs dialog box.
5-17
in the Available
The DT Trainer Interface
Edit Programs Criteria
Student Administration > Programs > Action Tab > Add
> Edit Criteria
The Edit Programs Criteria dialog box displays a
hierarchical tree-like structure for selecting the
criteria for filtering the list of available programs
shown in Select Content Programs dialog box.
Click the plus button to expand a type and show
the values in it. Check the values you want to use.
The type (e.g., Level) is automatically checked if
one of its values is checked; the type check box is
automatically cleared if no values are checked. To
collapse a type, click the minus button to the left
of the type.
Program Items
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab> Items
The Program Items dialog box allows you to view and manage the items within
a specific program. The name of items within the program (selected in the
Programs dialog box) and information about the items such as their order
number, train state, and train step are displayed in columnar format in a pane on
the left of the dialog box. A graphic of the selected item appears in a pane to the
right of the list. Below the graphic on the right are three tabs containing options
for editing and managing the selected item, and below the tabs are options for
setting the initial train step and train state of the selected item.
Chapter 5
5-18
Set Initial Train Step of: Sets the initial train step of “All” items or the “Selected”
item to the value specified in the to box. Click Apply to save the changes. The
list options are shown in the following figure on the left. For more information,
see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.
Sets the train state of the item(s) specified by the option
selected in the list box to that specified in the to box. Click Apply to save the
changes. The list options are shown in the following figure on the right.
Set Train State of:
5-19
The DT Trainer Interface
Basic Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab
Options on this tab allow you to preview
the selected item in the program, view a
“trial response” graph for the selected item,
and view a chronological list of the
completed trials for the selected item.
Preview.
Demos the selected item in the program.
Displays the Program Item Graph dialog box for the selected item.
The Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.
For a description of the Program Item Graph dialog box, see page 5-21.
View Graph.
Displays the Program Item Training Log dialog box for the selected
item. The Item Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials
for the selected item. For a description of the Program Item Graph dialog box,
see page 5-22.
View Log.
Intermediate Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Intermediate Tab (Program
Items)
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Intermediate Tab
(Program Items)
Displays the Program Order
Items dialog box that allows you to change
the order of the training in the selected
program. For a description of the Program
Order Items dialog box, see page 5-22.
Order Items.
Allows you to add additional items to a content program when AES
enhances existing content programs already in use. If there are no unused items,
the message “Did not find any more program items to add.” is displayed. If there
are items that can be added, the Select Program Items dialog box is displayed.
Add Items.
Chapter 5
5-20
Program Item Graph
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Graph
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Graph
The Program Item Graph dialog box displays a visual “trial response” graph for
the selected item. The Levels column represents the trial “Steps” starting at 0
where there is nothing on the screen except the Target Item, to Proficient where
the item no longer is actively trialed.
The numbers 0 to 12 are the steps in the Train mode. Mnemonics are given to
aid in understanding what the user sees at each step. For example, at Train step 1
the 1N3 means 1 Non-familiar distracter at prompt level 3. At Train Step 11 the
2F2 means 2 Familiar distracters at prompt level 2.
The three prompt levels are color coded on the graph. Prompt level 3 is blue, 2 is
green, and 1 is red. This is useful when identifying specific item problems by
prompt level. Trial results are represented across the bottom of the graph starting
with the first trial to the left and subsequent trials moving to the right. C is for
Correct, I is for Incorrect, and N is for No Response.
5-21
The DT Trainer Interface
Program Item Training Log
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Log
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Log
The Program Item Training Log dialog box displays a chronological list of the
completed trials for the selected item. Generally, this level of detail is not
needed except in the case where a summary report reveals an issue with the item.
This dialog gives information useful for determining if there are training
problems for the item caused by certain distracters or reinforcers, or problems
associated with the length of time the student was using the DT Trainer.
Program Order Items
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Intermediate Tab > Order
Items
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Intermediate Tab >
Order Items
The Program Order Items dialog allows you to modify the system’s default
order of the training item and the distracter, and determine if an item is active or
inactive as a distracter. This allows customization of the training to suit the
student needs or the teaching philosophies of the teacher.
Chapter 5
5-22
A columnar table is displayed in the dialog box that shows for each item in the
program the following columns of information:
•
•
•
•
The name of the item.
The training order of the item.
Distracter. The distracter order of the item.
Active Distracter. Indicates if the item is to be used as a distracter. If a
distracter is causing problems for a student while he is training, the
distracter may be deactivated. The distracters may be reactivated if desired.
Item.
Training.
Training, Distracter,
and Both. If the Training radio button is selected, only the
training order is reordered when you move items up and down in the Item list. If
Distracter is selected, only the distracter order is reordered when you moved
items up and down in the list. The order of the distracters may be set to have
more or less interference with the target items as is appropriate. If Both is
selected, then both training and distracter orders are changed when moving
items up and down in the list.
The Arrows move the selected item either up or down in the list order.
These buttons control the offset of the presentation of the
distracters in relation to the target item. The less than (<) button offsets the
distracter by one place back. The equal (=) button makes the distracters and
target equal. The greater than (>) button offsets the distracter by one place
forward. This is an advanced feature.
5-23
The DT Trainer Interface
Toggles the active status of an item between “Yes” and “No” to
activate or deactivate an item as a distracter.
Toggle Active.
Program Options
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options
The Program Options dialog box allows you to manage parameters of a specific
program. Many parameters are advanced features that are only set when a
program is created. Most administrators will not need to change these
parameters.
This dialog box has tabs for managing intermediate and advanced features.
Chapter 5
5-24
Intermediate Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab
Training Profile.
Displays the training profile for the selected program.
Displays the Select Training Profile dialog box that allows
you to change the training profile for the student’s program. For a description of
the Select Training Profile dialog box, see page 5-12.
Select New Profile.
Initial Training Step. Specifies the Step (0-12) at which untrained items will begin
training for the selected profile. For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes”
on page 2-5.
Specifies the number of seconds that the DT Trainer waits after
starting a trial before recording a No Response from the student. The default
time for all profiles is 10 seconds.
Trial Timeout.
Specifies the time added to the default response time for a
trial. This is set for programs that take a longer time for the student to process
the trials. For example, it takes longer to process textually-based problems and
math problems than simple recognition trials. The longer response time gives the
student the time necessary to process and respond to the trial.
Extra Processing Time.
SD Mode.
Specifies the mode in which SDs (commands) are given.
Display Item Name. If selected, displays the textual name beneath the item. This
option is not available for all programs.
Display Trial Cue. If selected, displays a cue at the top of the screen. For example,
the cue for the program “Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before” is the days of the
weeks listed in order from left to right. This option is not available for all
programs.
Allows you to view a list of the verbal commands and to activate,
test, and set the default verbal SD for the program.
Verbal SD Tab.
The * sets the selected SD as the default command. The
check activates the SD, the minus deactivates the SD,
and Preview demos the SD.
Allows you to specify criteria for filtering target
images. This tab is not displayed for programs that don’t use target images. In
cases where program items have one active image, there will be no criteria.
Target Image Criteria Tab.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Advanced Tab
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Advanced Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Advanced Tab
Using this tab, you can select the active train steps for the selected program and
customize the student’s advancement and fallback criteria for the program.
The Active Train Steps correspond to 13 steps of Train mode that are described
in “13 Steps of Train Mode” on page 2-5. You can select the steps that you want
to train.
Check All.
Selects all train steps. All steps are used during training.
Clears all train steps. You can then individually select the steps you
want to use during training.
Uncheck All.
Advancement is based on the number of Correct
responses within the set number of Trials that will advance a student’s training to
a higher train level. Fallback is based on the number of Incorrect responses
within a set number of Trials that will set a student’s training back to a lower
train level.
Advancement / Fallback Criteria.
In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to respond
correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the Maintenance
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mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the item to fall back
to Train PL1.
Praise Activation
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Praise
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Praise
The Program Praise Activation dialog box allows you to specify which scripts
should be active for a program. The dialog box displays a list of the Praise
Scripts for the program and the ID and Active status of each script. This is an
advanced feature and does not generally need to be used.
Toggle Active. Toggles the Active status for the selected Praise Script between
“Yes” and “No”.
Sets the Active status of all praise scripts to “No.” After performing this
action, you must reactivate at least one praise script.
Clear All.
Sets the Active status of all praise scripts to the program’s
default settings. This option is available only if performing student
administration.
Restore Defaults.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Update All. Resets the Active status of all praise scripts for the program as shown
in the Active column for all students using the program. This option is available
only if performing common administration.
Training Sequence
Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Sequence
The Training Sequence dialog box allows you to change the order in which the
programs and training modes are presented to the student. You can also change
the number of trials for each program and mode.
These arrows move the selected program/mode up or down in the list.
Specifies the number of trials to be presented to the student during training
for the selected program/mode.
Toggles the Active status for the selected program/mode between
“Yes” and “No”.
Toggle Active.
Random.
Presents the programs in random order.
Sequential.
Chapter 5
Presents the programs in the order listed.
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Reinforcers
Student Administration Tab > Reinforcers
The Reinforcers dialog box allows you to add, remove, and edit reinforcer run
times for the selected student.
Displays the Add Reinforcers dialog box that allows you to add
and remove reinforcers for the current student. For a description of the Add
Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-30.
Add/Remove.
Preview.
Demos the selected reinforcer.
Preview All.
Demos all the reinforcers.
Allows you to configure special settings for the selected smart
reinforcer. This option is enabled only for “smart” reinforcers; the names of
these reinforcers are prefixed with “Super”.
Configure.
Indicates that the default run time should be used
and displays the default run time.
Common Defaults / Run Time.
Indicates that the run time specified will be used
for the selected reinforcer, overriding the default run time.
Student Overrides / Run Time.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Add Reinforcers
Student Administration Tab > Reinforcers > Add / Remove
The Add Reinforcers dialog box allows you to add, remove, and test reinforcers
for the current student.
Lists by category the names of reinforcers that are
available for the current student.
Available Reinforcers.
Lists the names of reinforcers selected for the student. Add
and remove reinforcers until the list is what you want for the student.
Student’s Reinforcers.
Path.
Identifies the associated category path of each reinforcer.
Add. Moves the selected reinforcer
Student’s Reinforcers list.
Remove. Moves the selected
Available Reinforcers list.
Preview.
from the Available Reinforcers list to the
reinforcer from the Student’s Reinforcers list to the
Demos the selected reinforcer from either list of reinforcers.
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5-30
Program Trend Report
Student Administration Tab > Program Trends
The student’s Program Trend Report shows a weekly history of all programs or
just active programs. Using this report, areas warranting a more detailed review
can be quickly identified. Two of the most useful summaries of this report are
the Total Summary and the Percentage Correct Summary that are described later
in Chapter 10, “Reports.”
Programs are displayed alphabetically in the left-most column. Data for each
program is displayed by the reporting year, month, and weekly start day as
indicated by the headings shown in the figure that follows.
Active.
All.
Displays data for Active programs only.
Displays data for All programs.
Train Mode Buttons. The trial totals of all modes or for each training mode can be
displayed individually by clicking one of four trial mode buttons. Only one
mode can be selected at any one time. The buttons are as follows: Trials (all
modes), Train, Random, and Maintenance.
The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect,
or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial
response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are
as follows: Total, Correct, Incorrect, and No Response.
Trial Response Buttons.
By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials
for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If Total is not selected,
three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a
Data Display Buttons.
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The DT Trainer Interface
percentage or a raw value. The data display buttons and a description of each
follows:
%X/T.
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as percentages of total
trials.
%X/(C+I). Displays Correct or Incorrect responses as percentages of when the
student responded (excludes No Responses).
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as an actual number of
trials with each result.
Raw.
Train States Report
Student Administration Tab > Train States
The Train States Reports shows a snapshot of the training states of each program
item.
Specifies the programs that are to be included in the report. Options
include “All”, “Active”, and each student program name.
Program.
States: Specifies the states of the selected programs to be included in the report.
Select one or more of the following states: Untrained, Train, Random,
Maintenance, Proficient, and Do Not Train.
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Weekly Trial Results Report
Student Administration Tab > Trial Results
The Trial Results Report gives a summary of the overall progress of the student
and also gives details down to the item level to help pinpoint problems. The
report gives a weekly summary for the student's training program and specific
items listing by mode levels.
Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view. The date
format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a two
character month, and DD is a two character day.
Week:
Final Report/Partial:
Indicates if the week has been completed.
Report Component Check Boxes:
Check the boxes for the report components that
you want to see.
Time Period Radio Buttons: Click on the button to display data for the week or for
a specific day within the training week selected.
%X/T:
Displays Correct, Incorrect or No Response data as percentages of total
trials.
%X/(C+I): Displays Correct or Incorrect responses as percentage of when the
student responded (excluding No Responses).
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as an actual number of
Trials with each result.
Raw:
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The DT Trainer Interface
The data labels are defined as follows: T = Trial, C = Correct Response, I =
Incorrect Response, N = No Response, and RT = Response Time.
Data Category.
Identifies the individual programs and All Programs.
Sub Category 1.
Identifies the training mode or level.
Sub Category 2.
Identifies the summary mode or the program item being
summarized.
Weekly Training Log
Student Administration Tab > Training Log
The Weekly Training Log displays a student’s training log of all program items
trialed for the current or previous weeks. Here you can determine if the student
is getting access to the system when expected, or if he is having performance
issues due to the length of time on the system.
Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view.
The date format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a
two character month, and DD is a two character day.
Training Logs:
Final Report/Partial Week:
Time Stamp:
Program:
Chapter 5
This indicates if the week has been completed.
Displays when the trial occurred.
The program that was trialed.
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Item:
The target item trialed.
State:
The item state during the trial.
Step:
The train step of the item during the trial. The step refers to the Train mode
only.
Result:
RT(s):
The trial result is Correct, Incorrect, No Response.
The student's reaction time for the response in seconds.
The session time in minutes and seconds. This is how long the student has
been actively using the system.
ST:
Distracter1, 2:
The name of one or both distracters if used.
Last Reinforcer:
Displays the last reinforcer used.
Weekly Notes
Student Administration Tab > Notes
The Weekly Notes dialog box provides an area for you to document information
specific to the student. For example you may want to document program or
reinforcer changes, student illness, and other system use issues.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Training Selection
Student Administration Tab > Train
The Training Selection dialog box allows you to start training for the selected
student for a specified program and training mode.
Student.
Specifies the student whose training you want to start.
Program.
Mode.
Start.
Specifies the program to be used during training.
Specifies the train mode for the program.
Starts the training program for the selected student.
Common Administration Tab
The administration of content programs and program items, reinforcers for all
students, administration password, and global student options such as session
duration and screen options, is initiated from the Common Administration tab.
Class level reports are also accessed from this tab. Changes to programs,
reinforcers, and student options affect only those students created later. Existing
students are not affected by the changes.
This dialog box has the following main sections.
Contains an option for viewing and managing content programs and
program items.
Programs.
StudentOptions.
Contains an option for changing the options in the student
template.
Reinforcers.
Contains an option for managing reinforcers for all students.
Maintenance. Contains an option for managing DT Trainer data by allowing you
to backup and restore data for one or more students.
Administrative Control. Contains options for assigning and requiring a password
to perform DT Trainer administration and an option for activating development
level features.
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Class Level Reports. Contains options for displaying weekly and trend reports for
all students as a whole and as individual students.
Advanced / Development. Contains an option for managing praise scripts. This
section is displayed only if the Activate Development Features option is checked.
A description of the buttons and checkboxes follows.
Displays the DT Trainer Programs dialog box for managing content
programs and program items.
Programs.
Displays the Student Options dialog box for the “Default
Template”. Changes made to this template affect only students created after the
changes. Some of the options that can be set include whether a touch screen is
used for training, the session duration, and training screen color.
Student Options.
Reinforcers. Displays the Reinforcer Manager dialog box for performing
management tasks such as editing, removing, activating, and testing an existing
reinforcer and adding new reinforcers. For a description of the Reinforcer
Manager dialog box, see page 5-42.
Maintenance Tools. Displays the DT Trainer Maintenance dialog box for
performing backup and restore procedures on student and DT Trainer data.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Activates the password access feature. If checked, the next time DT
Trainer is opened, the Enter Password dialog box is displayed and the user must
enter the appropriate password to access the DT Trainer Administration window.
Password.
Set Password. Displays the Set Password dialog box for specifying the password
that must be used when opening DT Trainer. Password must be checked for the
password to be put into effect. For a description of the Set Password dialog box,
see page 5-46.
Activate Development Features. If checked, displays additional tabs and options
on the various dialog boxes that allow you to perform development level tasks
such as adding your own programs to DT Trainer. This option should only be
used by very advanced administrators. Development features are not
documented in this manual. For more information, visit
http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.
Displays the System Trend Report that shows a number of summaries by
student and class. This report shows trends across training weeks and is useful
for seeing how the class is doing and which students may have training issues.
For a description of the System Trend Report, see page 5-47.
Trend.
Displays the System Training Weekly Report that shows a number of
summaries for training results for each student and the class. The reports are in
the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing
the students’ progress with their program content. For a description of the
System Training Weekly Report, see page 5-48.
Weekly.
Praise Management. This option is displayed only if the Activate Development
Features option is checked. Praise Management displays the Praise Manager
dialog box for editing existing praises and creating new praises. In general, it is
not necessary to administer praises since DT Trainer installs the praises
appropriate for each program. This is an advanced feature. For a description of
the Praise Manager dialog box, see page 5-49.
DT Trainer Programs
Common Administration Tab > Programs
The DT Trainer Programs dialog box is used to manage content programs and
program items. A list of all content programs and descriptions of the programs
are displayed. Content programs are sorted by topic, which can be identified by
the prefix to the left of the program name. A program is managed by selecting
the program name in the list and selecting the appropriate button on one of the
available tabs. The most often used management features are available on the
Actions tab.
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A summary of the features available on each of the tabs follows:
Contains buttons for printing a list of programs, previewing a program,
managing the items in a program, and changing program options. Some
advanced features are also available for development and special purposes.
Actions.
Displays information about the selected program. Information
displayed usually includes a description, the skills taught, and the education
level for which the program is appropriate.
Program Info.
Program Filters. Allows you to filter the list of programs by specifying program
criteria such as skills and levels.
Selection Keywords. Lists the keywords for the selected program. These
keywords should not be modified or program filtering may not work.
* Program Keywords. Lists the keywords for all programs. These keywords
should not be modified or program filtering may not work. This is an advanced
feature and is displayed only if the Activate Development Features option is
checked on the Common Administration tab.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Action Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab
Displays the Print dialog box for printing the list of programs displayed
and their descriptions.
Print.
Preview.
Demos the selected program.
Displays the selected program’s Program Items dialog box for the Default
Template. Changes made to program items affect all students created afterwards.
Current students are not affected. For a description of the Program Item dialog
box, see page 5-18.
Items.
Options. Displays the selected program’s Program Options dialog box for the
Default Template. Changes made to the program options affect all students
created afterwards. Current students are not affected. For a description of the
Program Options dialog box, see page 5-24.
Praise. Displays the Program Praise Activation dialog box for the selected
program for the Default Template. Changes made to the praise scripts affect all
student created afterwards. Current students are not affected. For a description
of the Program Praise Activation dialog box, see page 5-27.
This option is not available for common administration. Training
sequences can only be administered for a selected student.
Sequence.
New. Allows you to add a new content program to DT Trainer. As with the
create a new student process, you are prompted for information such as the name
of the new program and dialog boxes are displayed for entering information
required for the new program. This is a development feature that is displayed
only when the Activate Development Features option is checked on the Common
Administration tab.
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Program Info Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Program Info Tab
This tab displays information about the selected program such as the skills
trained by the program, grade level, and options.
Program Filters Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Program Filters Tab
The current filter criteria are used to filter the list of programs displayed. The
criteria can be changed by clicking Edit Criteria and specifying the new criteria.
Displays the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box that allows you to
specify program types and levels to be used in filtering the list of programs
displayed. For a description of the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, see page
5-18.
Edit Criteria.
Selection Keywords Tab
Common Administration Tab > Programs > Selection Keywords Tab
Lists the keywords for the selected program. These keywords should not be
modified or program filtering may not work.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Reinforcer Manager
Common Administration Tab > Reinforcers
The Reinforcer Manager dialog box allows you to view, test, and edit reinforcers
for all students. Most administrators will generally just use the Preview feature to
view reinforcers, and sometimes the Edit feature to change the run time of
reinforcers. The scrollable list displays reinforcers categorically. When you
initially open the Reinforcer Manager you see the top level reinforcer categories.
To navigate the Reinforcer Manager dialog box click on the plus or minus signs
in the list to open (expand) or close (collapse) reinforcer categories.
Edit. Displays a dialog that enables the administrator to make changes to the
selected reinforcer.
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Configure. This option is only enabled for smart reinforcers. If the selected
reinforcer is a smart reinforcer, this option can be selected and you can change
settings specific to the reinforcer. Smart reinforcers can be recognized by their
name; the names of smart reinforcers are prefixed with “Super.” The reinforcer
SuperBlinky in the Activities\Games category is a smart reinforcer; its
configuration screen is shown in the following figure.
Smart reinforcers have a student configuration screen that is similar to the one
shown for SuperBlinky. The configuration options for each smart reinforcer are
specific to the reinforcer and independent of other reinforcers. Some common
configurations employed throughout smart reinforcers are the Advancement and
Fallback criteria. The Advancement criteria gives the administrator the option to
choose between Fast-Track and Skill-Builder. The Fast-Track option quickly
determines the user’s level of competency by advancing automatically after each
success. Skill-Builder allows for more practice at each level. The amount of time
spent at each level is determined by the administrator. TheFallback criteria
allows the administrator to choose the number of times that a user can fail at a
level before it reverts back to the previous level.
Info. This
option displays information about the reinforcer.
This button toggles between the two actions. If the selected
reinforcer is not active as indicated by a red X icon, the button label reads
Deactivate/Activate.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Activate and lets you active the reinforcer. If the selected reinforcer is active as
indicated by the green check mark icon, the button label reads Deactivate and lets
you deactivate the reinforcer.
Runs the selected reinforcer for a short period of time, allowing you to
view the reinforcer.
Preview.
New. Asks for a new name, adds the associated reinforcer, and opens the Edit
Reinforcer dialog box to complete the reinforcer definition for any new
reinforcers created. When adding new reinforcers, you should place them in the
User category or one of its sub-categories. If you place your reinforcer anywhere
else, there is a possibility that it could be overwritten. Third party reinforcers are
not supported by AES. For a description of the Edit Reinforcer dialog box, see
page 5-44. How to add new reinforcer to DT Trainer is described on page 7-2.
Prompts you to enter the name of a new directory. A directory
(reinforcer category) is added under the selected category.
New Directory.
Delete. Deletes the reinforcer definition within the software; it does not actually
remove associated resources like bitmaps, html files, avi files, or executable files
from the hard drive.
Edit Reinforcer
Common Administration Tab > Reinforcers > Edit
The Edit Reinforcer dialog box allows you to edit certain aspects of a reinforcer,
but not the reinforcer itself. This dialog box is displayed when you click Edit or
New in the Reinforcer Manager dialog box. If you are creating a new reinforcer,
you’ll be asked to enter a name before the Edit Reinforcer dialog box is
displayed. This dialog box is available only when the Activate Development
Feature option is checked.
If you are editing an AES reinforcer, only the Run Time, First Load Delay, and
options can be edited. All other options are disabled.
Inactive
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Name.
The name of the reinforcer.
Directory.
Directory containing the reinforcer.
Web. Indicates that the reinforcer is web-based. Check this option if you are
adding a new reinforcer that is web-based; File is replaced with Web URL,
allowing you specify the web URL for the reinforcer.
Indicates that the reinforcer itself has configurable options. For
example, as with video games, some smart reinforcers may have different
playing levels and automatically adjust themselves to the student’s ability.
Configurable.
If checked, prevents the reinforcer from being used. This option is
useful when you have a reinforcer that can’t be played on the system or doesn’t
work properly.
Inactive.
File. The reinforcer file name. This box is shown if Web is not checked. If
creating a new reinforcer, click the button with the three dots to display the
Open dialog box that allows you to find and select the new reinforcer. A User
directory is already setup and the file structure should follow the current file
structure in place for other Reinforcer categories. Video clips of a student
engaged in a favorite activity or a game on the system are examples of possible
reinforcers that you could add. If you add other games you must also verify that
they do not cause problems such as lock ups for other DT Trainer reinforcers.
Once a new reinforcer is created, the navigation button is disabled and you can
not make changes to the file name.
Web URL. The web address of the reinforcer. This box is shown if Web is
checked. If adding a new reinforcer, click the button with the three dots; you are
then prompted to enter the URL of the reinforcer. A User directory is already
setup and the file structure should follow the current file structure in place for
other Reinforcer categories. You should verify that you can access the webbased reinforcer and that it works and does not cause problems such as lock ups
for other DT Trainer reinforcers.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Reinforcers are installed with a default run time, however, you can
change the run time of a reinforcer for all students from this dialog. Some
reinforcers can be set for a shorter or longer time period if they are not time
dependent reinforcers such as videos or sound clips. These reinforcers have
specific durations and are already set appropriately.
Run Time.
First Load Delay. The First Load Delay edit box lets you give the computer the
time required to load and display a reinforcer without robbing the student of runtime. Some reinforcers can be slow to load on old computers. This parameter is
adjusted to give a cushion of extra time to compensate for the first time that the
system loads the slower loading reinforcer. Subsequent uses of the reinforcer
usually load considerably quicker because the reinforcer is already loaded in the
computer’s memory. If subsequent plays of a Reinforcer are taking as long to
display on the screen as the first time it was used, the computer needs an
upgrade of the system’s RAM. Adding an additional 64 or more megabytes of
RAM generally solves the problem.
Type.
Indicates the file type of the reinforcer.
Info. Optional
information about the reinforcer.
Set Password
Common Administration Tab > Set Password
The Set Password dialog box allows you specify the password that is to be used
when accessing DT Trainer Administration.
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Enter Password.
Type the password.
Renter Password.
Re-type the password to verify that you typed it correctly the
first time.
Type a hint that will help you remember the password. For example,
if you used your favorite color as the password, an appropriate hint would be
“favorite color”.
Enter Hint.
System Trend Report
Common Administration Tab > Trend
The System Trend Report generates a number of summaries by student and class.
This report shows trends across training weeks. It is generally the first report
that should be looked when you want to see how the class as a whole is doing
and to find out which students may have training issues.
For more information, see “Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports” on page
6-6 and Chapter 10.
Train Mode Buttons. The trial totals of all modes or for each training mode can be
displayed individually by clicking one of four trial mode buttons. Only one
mode can be selected at any one time. The buttons are as follows: Trials (all
modes), Train, Random, and Maintenance.
The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect,
or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial
Trial Response Buttons.
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The DT Trainer Interface
response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are
as follows: Total, Correct, Incorrect, and No Response.
By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials
for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If Total is not selected,
three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a
percentage or a raw value. The data displays buttons and a description of each
follows:
Data Display Buttons.
%X/T.
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as percentages of total
trials.
%X/(C+I). Displays Correct or Incorrect responses as percentages of when the
student responded (excludes No Responses).
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as an actual number of
trials with each result.
Raw.
System Training Weekly Report
Common Administration Tab > Weekly
The System Training Weekly Report provides a summary by response results
and mode. This report can be scanned to review a student’s progress with the
program content.
For more information, see “Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports” on page
6-6 and Chapter 10.
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Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view. The date
format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a two
character month, and DD is a two character day.
Week:
Final Report/Partial Week Report:
Indicates if the week has been completed.
The selected option, “Response” or “Train Mode”, determines if the
summary is by response results or by mode. If by “Response”, the column
headings are Trials, Train, Random, and Maintenance. If by “Train Mode”, the
column headings are Trials, Correct, Incorrect, and No Response.
Report.
The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect,
or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial
response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are
as follows: Total, Correct, Incorrect, and No Response.
Trial Response Buttons.
By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials
for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If Total is not selected,
three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a
percentage or a raw value. The data displays buttons and a description of each
follows:
Data Display Buttons.
%X/T.
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as percentages of total
trials.
%X/(C+I). Displays Correct or Incorrect responses as percentages of when the
student responded (excludes No Responses).
Displays Correct, Incorrect, or No Response data as an actual number of
trials with each result.
Raw.
Praise Manager
Common Administration Tab > Praise Management
Praise is the positive verbal feedback given to a student after a correct response.
This option is available only if the Activate Development Features option is
checked on the Common Administration tab. The Praise Manager dialog box
provides for complete administration of praises including editing existing
praises and creating new praises. Most administrators will not need to use the
Praise Manager dialog box because the DT Trainer installs the praises
appropriate with each program. This is an advanced feature.
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The DT Trainer Interface
Available Word Files. List of praise word audio files. These words are recognized
in scripts. When adding new praise scripts, your scripts should be limited to
words found in this list. The caret (^) implies an inflected version of the word
sound.
ID.
Identification number associated with a specific praise script.
Indicates that the script has been parsed and that the word files are
available.
Good.
Praise Script.
The script associated with the ID number.
View.
Displays the script for the selected Praise Script in an editable text box.
Play.
Plays the audio file associated with the selected Praise Script.
New. Allows you add a new script to the list. A new ID is automatically assigned
to the script and the Good status is set to “No” in the list of praise scripts. In the
View box, enter the new script.
Delete.
Deletes the selected Praise Script from the list.
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Chapter
6
Basic Administrative Tasks
Common Administration .........................................................6-2
Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs ...6-2
Managing Program Items Globally...................................6-2
Setting Student Options in the Student Template .............6-3
Viewing and Managing Reinforcers .................................6-4
Setting/Changing an Administration Password ................6-5
Activating Development Features.....................................6-6
Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports .......................6-6
Setting User and Location Information.............................6-6
Registering DT Trainer.....................................................6-7
Viewing DT Trainer Tips .................................................6-7
Student Administration ............................................................6-7
Creating a New Student ....................................................6-7
Selecting a Student .........................................................6-10
Deleting a Student...........................................................6-10
Setting Student Options ..................................................6-10
Managing Student Reinforcers .......................................6-11
Managing Student Programs...........................................6-12
Managing Program Items................................................6-13
Viewing and Printing Student Reports ...........................6-14
6-1
Basic Administrative Tasks
Common Administration
Changes that are made through the Common Administration tab affect all students
created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the
same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the
changes to each student through the Student Administration tab.
Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs
The DT Trainer Programs dialog box is used for viewing and managing
programs within DT Trainer. Basic tasks that can be performed from this dialog
box include the following:
•
•
•
•
Viewing program information
Filtering the list of programs
Printing the list of programs
Previewing a program
The following procedure describes how to perform these tasks.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Common Administration > Programs to display the DT Trainer
Programs dialog box.
The list of programs and descriptions (if available) are displayed in a
scrollable pane.
To filter the list, select Program Filters > Edit Criteria to display the Edit
Programs Criteria dialog box. Check the appropriate criteria values and then
click Select. The list of programs displayed is updated based on the criteria.
To print the list, select Actions > Print to display the Print dialog box. Select
the appropriate printer and then click OK.
To preview or see a demonstration of a program, highlight the program and
then select Actions > Preview.
Click Done to return to the Common Administration tab.
Managing Program Items Globally
Items within a program can be managed and customized in the Program Items
dialog box. Basic program items management tasks include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Viewing and printing the program items list
Previewing items
Viewing a graph of trials by program item
Viewing a log of trials by program item
Changing the step or state of an item
Chapter 6
6-2
To perform these basic management tasks, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
Select Commont Administration > Programs to display the DT Trainer
Programs dialog box. Click the Actions tab.
To view and perform management tasks on a program’s items, highlight the
program and then click Items to display the Program Items dialog box. Click
the Basic tab if it is not the active tab.
The following information is displayed for each item in the program:
• item name
• training order
• current train state
• current train step
3. To print the list of item information, click Print. Select the appropriate
printer in the Print dialog box and then click OK.
4. To view the image of an item, highlight the item in the list. The image is
displayed to the right of the list.
5. To preview or see a demonstration of the item in the program, highlight the
item and then click Preview.
6. To view a graph of trials by program item, click View Graph. The Program
Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.
Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box.
7. To view a log of trials by program item, click View Log. The Program Item
Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the
selected item. Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box
8. To change the step an item or specified items:
a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the Set Initial Train Step of list.
b. In the to box, type the new initial train step (0-12).
c. Click Apply.
9. To change the state of an item or specified items:
a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the Set Train State of list.
b. In the to box, select the new train state.
c. Click Apply.
10. Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box.
Setting Student Options in the Student Template
Default student options are specified in the Default Template. When configuring
global student options and programs, “Default Template” appears in the title bar
of the various dialog boxes. When a new student is created, he has the same
options as the Default Template. Existing students are not affected by changes to
the Default Template.
6-3
Basic Administrative Tasks
Default student options are set in the Default Template: Student Options dialog
box. Basic customization tasks that can be performed from this dialog box
include the following:
•
•
•
Limiting the session duration
Specifying whether or not a touch screen is used
Specifying the student’s gender
The following procedure describes the steps to change basic default student
options.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select Common Administration > Student Options to display the Default
Template: Student Options dialog box.
Click the Basic tab.
To limit the session duration for students created later, check Limit Session
Duration to: and type the number of minutes in the Minutes box.
If most students will use a touch screen, check the Touch Screen box;
otherwise clear the check box.
If most students are males, select Male; otherwise select Female.
Click Done to save the changes and return to the Common Administration tab.
Viewing and Managing Reinforcers
The Reinforcer Manager dialog box is used to view, test, and edit reinforcers for
all students. Generally, you’ll use the Preview feature to view and test a
reinforcer, and the Edit feature to change the run time of reinforcers. Basic tasks
that can be performed from the Reinforcer Manager dialog box include the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Viewing a list of reinforcers by category
Deleting a reinforcer
Activating or deactivating a reinforcer
Previewing a reinforcer
Changing the run time of a reinforcer
Specifying a delay period the first time a reinforcer is loaded
The following procedure describes the steps to view and manage reinforcers.
1.
2.
Select Common Administration > Reinforcers to display the Reinforcer
Manager dialog box.
Categories of reinforcers are displayed in the dialog box.
To view sub-categories and their reinforcers, click the plus button to expand
the list. To collapse a category list, click the minus button.
Chapter 6
6-4
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A a beside a reinforcer indicates that the reinforcer is active; an r
indicates that the reinforcer is inactive.
To delete a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click Delete.
To activate or deactivate a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click
Activate or Deactivate. The label of the Activate/Deactivate button changes
depending upon the state of the selected reinforcer.
To view or test a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click Preview.
To change the default run time of a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and
click Edit to display the Edit Reinforcer dialog box. In the Run Time box,
type the number of seconds that the reinforcer is to run and then click Done.
To specify a first load delay time for a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer
and click Edit to display the Edit Reinforcer dialog box. In the First Load
Delay box, type the number of seconds for the delay and then click Done.
By specifying a delay time, you give the computer the time required to load
and display a reinforcer without robbing the student of run time. Some
reinforcers can be slow to load on old computers. This parameter is adjusted
to give a cushion of extra time to compensate for the first time that the
system loads the reinforcer. Subsequent uses of the reinforcer usually load
considerably quicker. If subsequent uses of the reinforcer are taking as long
to display on the screen as the first time it was used, the computer will need
an upgrade of the system RAM (memory). An additional 64 megabytes
(MB) or more of RAM will generally solve the problem.
Click Done to return to the Common Administration tab.
Setting/Changing an Administration Password
If a number of people have access to the computer running DT Trainer and you
want to limit the people who can make changes in DT Trainer, you can set an
administration password and have DT Trainer prompt the user for the password.
To set the password, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Common Administration > Set Password to display the Set Password
dialog box.
Type the new password in the Enter Password and Reenter Password boxes.
Type a hint to help you remember the password in the Enter Hint box.
Click Done.
Check the Password check box on the Common Administration tab to activate
the password feature. The next time DT Trainer is accessed, the user will be
prompted for the password.
6-5
Basic Administrative Tasks
Activating Development Features
DT Trainer has a number of development features that require an expert
understanding of DT Trainer features and how to manage and configure the
system and students. If not used correctly, some development features can
corrupt DT Trainer. Development features are not normally displayed. These
features are activated by checking the Activate Development Feature option on the
Common Administration tab. The default for this option is clear. When checked,
additional tabs (named Development) and options are displayed within DT
Trainer Administration dialog boxes. This manual does not cover development
tasks in detail. For detailed information on development tasks, visit
http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.
Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports
Class level reports, System Trend Report and System Training Weekly Report,
are accessed from the Common Administration tab. For more information on
using reports, see Chapter 10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Select Common Administration > Trend to generate the System Trend report.
This report is described on page 5-47.
To view the total number of trials performed by students by week, select
Trials and Total. This summary is the default report.
To view the percent correct data, select Trials and Correct.
Click Done to return to the Common Administration tab.
Select Common Administration > Weekly to generate the System Training
Weekly report. This report provides a summary by response results and by
mode. Use this report to review students’ progress with their program
content. The System Training Weekly report is described on page 5-48.
Select the week that you want to check from the Week list.
Select “Response” or “Train Mode” from the Report list.
Click Done to return to the Common Administration tab.
Setting User and Location Information
The Information tab is used to enter user and DT Trainer location information, to
view registration information, register DT Trainer, and view Accelerations
Educational Software company information. This information is used for
support purposes.
1.
2.
From the DT Training Administration window, click the Information tab.
This tab is described on page 3-9.
Type the appropriate information into the text boxes in the User and DT
Trainer Location Information group box.
Chapter 6
6-6
Registering DT Trainer
The first time you access DT Trainer, you are asked to register the software.
You are prompted to register the product each time you open DT Trainer until it
is registered. DT Trainer will not run after 30 days if it is not registered.
To register the program at any time, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
From the DT Trainer Administration window, click the Information tab.
Click License/Registration to display the Registration dialog box. Follow the
instructions in the dialog box. For more information, see “Registering Your
Software” on page 3-3.
Enter the appropriate registration information from Accelerations
Educational Software into the Activation Key and Customer ID boxes and
then click Process Registration.
Viewing DT Trainer Tips
Tips on topics such as new features and improving performance are displayed in
the Tips tab. From the DT Trainer Administration window, click the Tips tab.
The Tips tab is shown on page 3-11.
Student Administration
Creating a New Student
DT Trainer guides you through the creation of a new student. After creating the
student, you can select the student and then view and manage the student’s
programs, program items, options, reinforcers, and praise scripts.
To create a new student, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Student Administration > Create to begin the process. The prompt
“Enter unique full name of the new student. (Like John Doe) Then click
Done.” is displayed.
Type the unique full name of the new student and then click Done. The
prompt “Now select the appropriate “Training Profile” and other options
and then click Done.” is displayed.
Click OK. The Student Options dialog box is displayed. Click Select New
Profile to display the Select Training Profile dialog box. The Select Training
Profile dialog box is described on page 5-12.
6-7
Basic Administrative Tasks
4.
5.
6.
Select a profile from the Select Profile list and then click Select. Click Done
on the Student Options dialog box. The prompt “Next add one or more
programs for trials. Then click Select, and follow the instructions.” is
displayed.
Click OK. The Select Content Programs dialog box is displayed. This dialog
box is described on page 5-17.
Highlight the programs you want to add to the student and then click Select.
Chapter 6
6-8
To select multiple programs, press and hold the CTRL key while you select
the programs. The Programs dialog box and the prompt “Are all of the
programs you are now adding for the student to learn from the beginning?
(Not for practice, generalization, or maintenance).”are displayed.
Note: If the program filter criteria are not appropriate for the student,
click Edit Criteria and edit the criteria to update the list of programs.
7.
8.
9.
Click Yes. The Reinforcement Setup prompt, “Now select reinforcers from
the “Available Reinforcers” list clicking the “Add” button to add
reinforcers to the “Student’s Reinforcers” list. Then click Done.” is
displayed.
Click OK. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is
described on page 5-30.
Add reinforcers to the Student Reinforcers list and then click Done. The
prompt, “Edit name of Student Training Icon, and then press Done. The
student’s icon will appear in the DT Trainer Students training folder. You
will normally use that icon to start student training.” is displayed.
6-9
Basic Administrative Tasks
10. Edit the name of the student’s training icon if necessary and then click Done.
The Basic Student Setup Complete prompt is displayed.
11. Click OK. The setup for the new student is complete.
Selecting a Student
Before you can make changes to a student, you must first the select the student.
To select the student that you want to manage, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Student Administration.
In the Currently Selected Student group box, click the down arrow of the list
box to display the list of students.
Select the student that you want administer.
Tasks performed from the Student Administration tab are performed on the
student displayed in the student name box.
Deleting a Student
When you delete a student, all training configuration information for the student
is deleted.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Student Administration.
In the Currently Selected Student group box, click the down arrow of the list
box to display the list of students.
Select the student that you want to delete.
Click Delete.
Setting Student Options
Student options are configured using the Student Options dialog box. Once set,
the options rarely need to be changed. Basic tasks that can be performed from
the Student Options dialog box include the following:
• Setting the student’s training profile
• Setting the touch screen option
• Limiting the training session duration
• Specifying the student’s gender
• Setting student information
• Setting the number of consecutive trials
• Setting the DT Trainer’s action to incorrect responses
• Setting verbal SDs (commands)
Chapter 6
6-10
To configure the settings for the currently selected student, perform the
following steps.
1. Select Student Administration > Options to display the Student Options dialog
box and then click the Basic tab.
2. To change the student’s training profile, click Select New Profile to display
the Select Training Profile dialog box. Select the appropriate profile from
the Select Profile list. Uncheck the Initial Train Step, Reinforcer Tokens, and
Trial Timeout check boxes if you do not want to use their settings. Click
Select to return to the Training Options dialog box.
3. To set the touch screen option, check the Touch Screen check box to
configure the system to accept student responses from a touch screen. Clear
the check box if the student is going to use a mouse.
4. To override the default session duration, check the Limit Session Duration to
check box and enter the session time in minutes in the Minutes box.
5. To set the gender, select Male or Female.
6. To change student information, click the Other tab and make the appropriate
changes to the options in the Student Information group box.
a. Edit the text in the Full Name, Student ID, and Spoken boxes. The Full
Name is used in reports. The name specified in the Spoken box is used
in SDs and praise scripts.
b. To change the frequency of the usage of the student’s name in SDs,
change the percentage in the Use Name box.
7. To set the number of trials performed consecutively before training another
program or mode, make the appropriate changes to the options in the
Consecutive Trials group box.
8. To change the way DT Trainer responds to incorrect student responses,
make the appropriate changes to options in the Incorrect Response Action
group box.
9. To vary the SDs (commands) or use the default SD, select Randomize SDs
or Use Default SD Only.
10. Click Done to save the settings and return to the Student Administration tab.
Managing Student Reinforcers
Student reinforcers are configured using the Reinforcers dialog box. Basic tasks
that can be performed from the Reinforcers dialog box include the following:
• Viewing student reinforcers
• Adding and removing reinforcers
• Testing reinforcers
• Configuring reinforcers
• Overriding the default run time of a reinforcer
6-11
Basic Administrative Tasks
To configure the currently selected student’s reinforcers, perform the following
steps.
1. Select Student Administration > Reinforcers to display the Reinforcers dialog
box.
The current list of reinforcers for the student is displayed in the dialog box.
Name includes the reinforcer category, sub-category, and the name of the
reinforcer.
2. To add or remove a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click Add /
Remove. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is
described on page 5-30.
a. To add a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer in the Available Reinforcers
list and then click Add.
b. To remove a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer in the Student’s
Reinforcers list and then click Remove.
c. Click Done to return to the Reinforcers dialog box.
3. To preview or test a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and then click
Preview. To test all reinforcers, click Preview All.
4. To configure a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer, and then click Configure.
This option is not available for all reinforcers. Configuration options vary.
5. To override the default run time of a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer,
select Student Overrides, and in the Run Time box, type the number of
seconds the reinforcer is to run.
6. Click Done to save changes and return to the Student Administration tab.
Managing Student Programs
Student programs are configured using the Programs dialog box described on
page 5-14. Basic tasks that can be performed from the Programs dialog box
include the following:
• Viewing and printing the student programs list
• Viewing information about a program
• Adding and removing programs
• Previewing program
• Changing a program’s status
• Customizing program items
To configure the currently selected student’s programs, perform the following
steps.
1. Select Student Administration > Programs to display the Programs dialog box
and the list of student programs.
The current list of programs and training activity for the student is displayed
in the dialog box. Information displayed for each program includes the
Chapter 6
6-12
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
following: program name, status, and the number of items in the untrained,
trained, random, maintenance, and proficient mode or state.
To print the student programs list, click Print. Select the appropriate printer
in the Print dialog box and then click OK.
To add a program, click Add to display the Select Content Programs dialog
box. Highlight the programs you want to add in the Available Programs list
and then click Select. The dialog box closes and the added programs appear
in the student program list.
To remove a program, highlight the program and then click Delete.
To preview or see a demonstration of a program, highlight the program and
then click Preview.
To change the status of a program, highlight the program and then click
Toggle Status to toggle the status between “Active” and “Inactive”.
To customize the items in a program, highlight the program and then click
Items to display the Program Items dialog box. A list of programs items is
displayed along with each item’s train state and train step. For more
information on managing program items, see “Managing Program Items”.
Click Done to return to the Programs dialog box.
Click Done to return to the Student Administration tab.
Managing Program Items
Items within a program can be managed and customized in the Program Items
dialog box, described on page 5-18. Basic program items management tasks
include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Viewing and printing the program items list
Previewing items
Viewing a graph of trials by program item
Viewing a log of trials by program item
Changing the step or state of an item
To perform these basic management tasks, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
Select Student Administration > Programs to display the Programs dialog box.
To view and perform management tasks on a program’s items, highlight the
program and then click Items to display the Program Items dialog box. Click
the Basic tab if it is not the active tab.
6-13
Basic Administrative Tasks
The following information is displayed for each item in the program:
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
• item name
• training order
• current train state
• current train step
To print the list of item information, click Print. Select the appropriate
printer in the Print dialog box and then click OK.
To view the image of an item, highlight the item in the list. The image is
displayed to the right of the list.
To preview or see a demonstration of the item in the program, highlight the
item and then click Preview.
To view a graph of trials by program item, click View Graph. The Program
Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.
Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box.
To view a log of trials by program item, click View Log. The Program Item
Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the
selected item. Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box
To change the initial train step for an item or specified items:
a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the Set Initial Train Step of list.
b. In the to box, type the new initial train step (0-12).
c. Click Apply.
To change the train state of an item or specified items:
a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the Set Train State of list.
b. In the to box, select the new train state.
c. Click Apply.
Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box.
Viewing and Printing Student Reports
Reports for a specific student are generated from the Student Administration tab.
Four types of reports can be generated for the currently selected student. Click
Program Trends, Train States, Trial Results, or Training Log to display the
corresponding report:
•
•
•
•
Program Trend Report
Train States Report
Weekly Trial Results Report
Weekly Training Log
For more information on using student reports, see Chapter 10.
Chapter 6
6-14
Chapter
7
Intermediate Administrative Tasks
Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer...........................................7-2
Ordering Program Items ..........................................................7-3
Adding Items to a Program ......................................................7-4
Setting Intermediate Program Options.....................................7-4
Setting Intermediate Student Options ......................................7-5
Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers ..........7-6
7-1
Intermediate Administrative Tasks
Intermediate level tasks require that the administrator have a good understanding
the DT Trainer program and be an experienced user. This chapter covers tasks
that are considered to be intermediate level or are performed from Intermediate
tabs. In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform common and
student administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In these cases,
the procedure is written for both global and student only changes.
Changes that are made through the Common Administration tab affect all students
created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the
same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the
changes to each student through the Student Administration tab.
Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer
1.
2.
Select Common Administration > Reinforcers to display the Reinforcer
Manager dialog box.
Highlight the User category and then click New.
A prompt appears with the name of the selected category and instructs you
to enter the name of a new reinforcer (e.g., Freecell).
3.
Type a name for the reinforcer and then click Done. The Edit Reinforcer
dialog box is displayed. The Edit Reinforcer dialog box is described on
page 5-44.
4.
Set the Web, Configurable, and Inactive options if appropriate.
If Web is checked, the File option is replaced with Web URL and you are
prompted to enter a URL when click the navigation button (...).
Chapter 7
7-2
5.
Click the navigation button (...) located to the right of File. The Open dialog
box is displayed.
6.
Find and select the file that plays the reinforcer and then click Open.
The following fields have been updated in the Edit Reinforcer dialog box:
File, Directory, and Type.
7.
8.
Modify the Run Time and First Load Delay if necessary.
Click Done to save the settings and add the reinforcer to DT Trainer.
Ordering Program Items
To change the training order of program items, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Common Administration > Programs to display the DT Trainer
Programs dialog box.
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs to display the Programs dialog box.
The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.
Select the program in the list that you want to manage.
Select Actions tab > Items > Intermediate tab.
7-3
Intermediate Administrative Tasks
4.
5.
6.
Click Order Items to display the Program Order Items dialog box. For more
information on the Order Items dialog box, see page 5-22.
Adjust the training order of the items, which is indicated by the number in
the Training column, by selecting an item and then clicking the arrows to
move the item up or down in the list.
The order of distracters and the status of an item as a distracter can also be
adjusted in this dialog box.
Click Done to return to the Program Items dialog box.
Adding Items to a Program
To add program items, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select Common Administration > Programs to display the DT Trainer
Programs dialog box.
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs to display the Programs dialog box.
The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.
Select the program in the list that you want to manage.
Select Actions tab > Items > Intermediate tab.
Click Add Item. The Select Program Items dialog box is displayed
containing a list of unused items.
Highlight the item(s) to be added to the program
Click Select to return to the Program Items dialog box.
Setting Intermediate Program Options
Intermediate level tasks that can be performed on program options are
performed from the Intermediate tab of the Program Options dialog box. Tasks
that can be performed from this tab include the following:
•
•
•
Setting the default student training profile and profile options for a program
Setting the SD (command) mode and verbal SDs
Setting the target image criteria
The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.
1.
2.
Select Common Administration > Programs to display the DT Programs
dialog box.
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs to display the Programs dialog box.
The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.
Select the program in the list that you want to manage.
Chapter 7
7-4
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select Actions tab > Options > Intermediate tab.
To set the default training profile for the selected program, click Select New
Profile to display the Select Training Profile dialog box, described on page
5-12. Select a profile from the Select Profile list and then click Select to
return to the Program Options dialog box described on page 5-24. Change
the Initial Training Step and Trial Timeout values if necessary.
To change the command or SD Mode, select the appropriate mode from the
SD Mode list box
To change the activation status of verbal SD associated with the program or
to test SD, click the Verbal SD tab, select an SD, and then click the
appropriate button (* to set as the default SD, ato activate, qto deactivate,
and Preview to review the SD).
To change the target image criteria associated with images in a program,
click the Target Image Criteria tab. If a program does not have item images,
this tab is not available. You can specify whether only the default image is
displayed for an item or if selected images are randomly displayed for the
item.
If you click Edit Criteria, the Edit Image Criteria dialog box is displayed,
allowing you to specify criteria for filtering the images. For example,
images for a program may be categorized by skin tone, age, or by the type
of picture (photo icon, photo, or drawing).
Setting Intermediate Student Options
Intermediate student options are set on the Intermediate tab of the Student
Options dialog box. Tasks that can be performed from this tab include the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
Overriding training profile parameters
Setting training screen options
Setting the default speaker
Setting special reinforcer options
Recreating a student training icon
The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.
1.
Select Common Administration > Student Options > Intermediate tab to set the
options globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Options > Intermediate tab to set the options
for the currently selected student.
The Student Options - Intermediate tab is described on page 5-9.
7-5
Intermediate Administrative Tasks
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
To override training profile parameters, enter the appropriate values in the
Initial Training Step, Reinforcer Tokens, and Trial Timeout boxes.
To change training screen options:
a. Adjust the Red, Green, and Blue slider bars until the color you want is
displayed to change the screen color.
b. Check or clear the appropriate check boxes in the Training Screen
Options group box to show the Done and Pause buttons on the training
screen, remove the visual display of earned tokens from the screen, and
disable the Esc key.
To change the default speaker, select a speaker from the Speaker box.
To turn off the token based reinforcement and play one reinforcer at the end
of the training session, check the Only Reinforce at End of Training check box.
To skip trials and cycle only through the reinforcers, check the Reinforcers
Only check box. This option cannot be set for the Default Template.
To recreate a student training icon, click Create Icon. A dialog box is
displayed that prompts you to edit the name of the student training icon that
will go in the DT Trainer Students folder on the desktop. The default name
is the full name of the currently selected student.
Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers
For students with behavioral problems, you may need to start with only the
reinforcer programs and add content programs later. To configure a student’s
training to use only reinforcers, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Student Administration > Options > Intermediate tab to set the options
for the currently selected student. The Student Options - Intermediate tab is
described on page 5-9.
Check the option Reinforcers Only.
Click Done.
Chapter 7
7-6
Chapter
8
Advanced Administrative Tasks
Advanced Program Management Tasks...................................8-2
Customizing Praise Scripts ...............................................8-2
Changing the Training Sequence of Programs .................8-3
Adding a New Program to DT Trainer .............................8-3
Setting Advanced Program Options.........................................8-4
Setting the Active Train Steps ..........................................8-4
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs ....8-4
Setting Student Options ...........................................................8-5
Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options ..........................8-5
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students......8-5
Setting Student Response Options ....................................8-6
8-1
Advanced Administrative Tasks
Advanced level tasks require that the administrator have an excellent
understanding the DT Trainer program and be an expert user. This chapter
covers tasks that are considered to be advanced level or are performed from
Advanced tabs. In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform
common and student administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In
these cases, the procedure is written for both global and student only changes.
Changes that are made through the Common Administration tab affect all students
created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the
same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the
changes to each student through the Student Administration tab.
Advanced Program Management Tasks
Advanced program management tasks are performed from the Advanced group
box on the Active tab of the DT Trainer Programs dialog box (if managing
programs for all students) and the Programs dialog box (for an individual
student). The advance management tasks for programs include the following:
• Customizing praise scripts
• Changing the training sequence (Student Administration only)
• Adding new programs (Common Administration only)
Customizing Praise Scripts
To customize praise scripts for a program, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer Programs)
to manage programs globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab (Programs) to
programs for the currently selected student.
Select a program.
To customize praise scripts for the selected program, click Praise to display
the Program Praise Activation dialog box, described on page 5-27.
• To change the Active value of a script in the list, highlight the script and
click Toggle Active.
• To deactivate all scripts, click Clear All.
• To apply praise script changes to the program for all students using the
program, click Update All (Common Administration only).
• To reset the Active values to the DT Trainer defaults, click Restore
Defaults (Student Administration only).
Click Done to close the dialog box.
Chapter 8
8-2
Changing the Training Sequence of Programs
To change the training sequence of programs, the number of trials, and the
active state of training modes for the currently selected student, perform the
following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab to programs for the
currently selected student.
Click Sequence to display the Training Sequence dialog box. This dialog
box lists all the student’s training programs, their modes, number of trials,
and current status. The Training Sequence dialog box is described on page
5-28.
To change the training order click
the arrow buttons to move the
highlighted program up or down
in the list.
To change the number of Trials
for highlighted the program,
change the value in the box to the
left of Toggle Active.
To change the Active state for
highlighted the program, click
Toggle Active.
Click Random to train the
programs in random order or
click Sequential to train them in
the order shown in the list.
Click Done to close the dialog box.
Adding a New Program to DT Trainer
To add a new program to DT Trainer, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer
Programs).
Click New. You’re prompted to enter name of new program and then click
Done. The new program name appears in the DT Trainer Programs list.
Highlight the new program and then configure its items, options, and
praises.
Click Done to return to DT Trainer Administration.
8-3
Advanced Administrative Tasks
Setting Advanced Program Options
Advanced program options are set from the Advanced tab of the Program
Options dialog box. The advanced program settings include the following:
• Active train steps
• Advancement/fallback criteria
Setting the Active Train Steps
To change the active train steps for a program, perform the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer Programs)
to set program options globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab (Programs) to set
program options for the currently selected student.
Select a program.
Select Options > Advanced to display the Advanced tab on the Program
Options dialog box.
To set the Active Train Steps, check the steps that you want to train. The
Active Train Steps correspond to the 13 steps of Train Mode that are
described in “13 Steps of Train Mode”.
• Click Check All to select all train steps.
• Click Uncheck All to clear all train steps so that none are used during
training.
Click Done to save the changes and close the dialog box.
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs
To change the advancement and fallback criteria for a program, perform the
following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer Programs)
to set program options globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab (Programs) to set
program options for the currently selected student.
Select a program.
Select Options > Advanced to display the Advanced tab on the Program
Options dialog box.
Change the values in the Trials, Correct, and Incorrect boxes for the various
training levels and modes.
Advancement is based on the number of Correct responses within the set
number of Trials that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level.
Chapter 8
8-4
Fallback is based on the number of Incorrect responses within a set number
of Trials that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.
In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to respond
correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the
Maintenance mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the
item to fall back to Train PL1.
5.
Click Done to save the changes and close the dialog box.
Setting Student Options
Advanced student options are set from the Advanced tab of the Student Options
dialog box. The advanced student settings include the following:
• Distracter Prompt Level (PL) placement and size
• Advancement/fallback criteria (Student Administration only)
• Student response options
Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options
The placement of distractor prompt levels and the size of the distractors can be
setting by performing the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
Select Common Administration > Options > Advanced tab (Student Options) to
set student options globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced tab (Student
Options) to set student options for the currently selected student.
To change the vertical distance between distracters for PL3 (row 3) and PL2
(row 2), edit the value in the appropriate Y Offset box. This value must be
between 0 and 40.
To change the size of the distracters for PL3 (row 3) and PL2 (row 2) in
comparison to the target item (which is 100%), edit the value in the
appropriate Scaling box. This value must be between 50 and 100.
Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students
The advancement and fallback criteria can be set globally for all students or for
the currently selected student by performing the following steps.
1.
Select Common Administration > Options > Advanced tab (Student Options) to
set student options globally (Default Template).
- OR 8-5
Advanced Administrative Tasks
2.
3.
Select Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced tab (Student
Options) to set student options for the currently selected student.
Change the values in the Trials, Correct, and Incorrect boxes for the various
training levels and modes.
Advancement is based on the number of Correct responses within the set
number of Trials that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level.
Fallback is based on the number of Incorrect responses within a set number
of Trials that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.
In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to respond
correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the
Maintenance mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the
item to fall back to Train PL1.
Click Done to save the changes and close the dialog box.
Setting Student Response Options
You can change the way the system responds to student responses (or lack of
responses) by performing the following steps.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Common Administration > Options > Advanced tab (Student Options) to
set student options globally (Default Template)
-ORSelect Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced tab (Student
Options) to set student options for the currently selected student
To instruct the system to wait for X number of responses before going into
Wait Mode, change the number in the No Responses before Wait Mode box.
To ignore responses made before the SD (command) is given, check Block
Early Responses.
Click Done to save the changes and close the dialog box.
Chapter 8
8-6
Chapter
9
Development Administrative Tasks
Global Praise Management ......................................................9-2
Managing Programs Items .......................................................9-3
Setting Program Options..........................................................9-4
9-1
Development Administrative Tasks
Development level tasks require that the administrator have an excellent
understanding of the DT Trainer program and be an expert user. This chapter
briefly outlines the tasks that are considered to be development level or are
performed from Development tabs. These tabs and development level options are
not displayed unless the Activate Development Functions option is checked on the
Common Administration tab.
In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform common and student
administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In these cases, the
procedure is written for both global and student only changes.
Changes that are made through the Common Administration tab affect all students
created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the
same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the
changes to each student through the Student Administration tab.
This chapter provides an overview of development tasks. For more information,
visit http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.
Global Praise Management
Praise is the positive verbal feedback given to a student after a correct response.
The Praise Manager dialog box provides for complete administration of praises
including editing existing praises and creating new praises. Generally, it is not
necessary to use the Praise Manager because DT Trainer installs the praises that
are appropriate for each program. Tasks that can be performed from the Praise
Manager dialog box, include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Viewing the list of praise scripts
Playing a praise script
Editing a praise script
Deleting a praise script
Creating a praise script
The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Common Administration > Praise Management to display the Praise
Manager dialog box, described on page 5-49.
A list is displayed showing the ID, active status, and name of each praise
script.
To play a script, highlight it and then click Play.
To edit a script, highlight it and then edit it in the View box.
To delete a script, highlight it and then click Delete.
Chapter 9
9-2
5.
To create a new script, click New. A new ID is added to the list and given
the status “No”. In the View box, type the script. Click View to see how the
script is parsed in the View Praise Parse dialog box; click Done. Click Play
to verify that the praise script works as expected.
6.
Click Done to return to the Common Administration tab.
Managing Programs Items
Development level program items management tasks are performed from the
Development tab of the Programs Items dialog box. The development
management tasks for program items include the following:
• Editing
• Renaming
• Deleting
• Adding new program items
The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer Programs)
to manage programs globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab (Programs) to
programs for the currently selected student.
Select a program.
Select Items > Development to display the Development tab on the Program
Items dialog box.
Select an item.
To edit the highlighted item, click Edit Item to display the Program Edit Item
dialog box.
9-3
Development Administrative Tasks
6.
7.
8.
9.
To rename the highlighted item, click Rename Item. When prompted, enter
the new name and then click Done.
To delete the highlighted item, click Delete Item. When prompted, confirm
whether or not you want to delete the item.
To add a new program item, click New Item. When prompted, enter the
name of the new item and then click Done. The new item is added to the
items list.
a. Select the new item.
b. Click Edit to configure the new item. Click Done to close the Program
Edit Item dialog box when finished.
Click Done to close the Program Items dialog box.
Setting Program Options
Development program options are set in from the Development tab of the
Program Options dialog box. The advanced program settings include the
following:
• Trial functions
• Item audio files
• General settings
• Verbal SD
• Image keywords
The following procedure describes the steps to change these settings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Select Common Administration > Programs >Active tab (DT Trainer Programs)
to set program options globally (Default Template).
- OR Select Student Administration > Programs > Active tab (Programs) to set
program options for the currently selected student.
Select a program.
Select Options > Development to display the Development tab on the Program
Options dialog box.
Check the appropriate check boxes in the Trial Functions group box.
Check the appropriate check boxes in the Item Audio Files group box.
Click the Settings tab and make the appropriate changes.
Click the Verbal SD tab and make the appropriate changes.
Click the Image Keywords tab and make the appropriate changes.
Click Done to return to the DT Trainer Program or Programs dialog box.
Chapter 9
9-4
Chapter
10
Analyzing Reports
System Reports ......................................................................10-2
System Trend Report ......................................................10-2
System Training Weekly Report.....................................10-2
Student Reports......................................................................10-3
Program Trend Report ....................................................10-3
Total Summary ........................................................10-3
Percentage Correct Summary ..................................10-4
Train States Report .........................................................10-4
Using the Train States Report..................................10-5
The Untrained Summary .........................................10-5
The Maintenance Summary.....................................10-5
Weekly Trial Results Report...........................................10-6
Using the Weekly Trial Results Report ...................10-7
Data Guidelines ..............................................................10-7
Weekly Training Log......................................................10-8
Using the Weekly Training Log ..............................10-8
Weekly Notes .................................................................10-8
Evaluating Student Usage ......................................................10-9
Reviewing the System Trend Report ..............................10-9
Reviewing the Student’s Training Log .........................10-10
Evaluating Student Performance..........................................10-10
Reviewing Class Level Reports ....................................10-10
System Trend Report .............................................10-10
System Training Weekly Report ...........................10-11
Reviewing Student Level Reports ................................10-11
Program Trend Report ...........................................10-11
Weekly Trial Results Report .................................10-12
Reviewing the Program Item Graph .............................10-12
Reviewing the Item Training Log.................................10-13
Evaluating and Adjusting Programs ....................................10-14
Evaluating Progress ......................................................10-14
Adjusting Program Content ..........................................10-15
Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings ...........10-15
Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers .................................10-18
Reinforcer Influences on Performance .........................10-18
Adjusting Reinforcers...................................................10-19
10-1
Analyzing Reports
This chapter contains a description of the various system (class level) reports
and the student reports and then discusses the usage of the reports in the
management and adjustment of programs. Program management and adjustment
topics include the student’s use of the DT Trainer, analysis of a student’s
performance, how to adjust a student’s training, and how to adjust reinforcement
and a student’s program content.
System Reports
There are two system reports that can be accessed from the Common
Administration tab, the System Trend Report and the System Training Weekly
Report.
System Trend Report
The System Trend Report generates a number of summaries by student and class.
This report shows trends across training weeks. It is generally the first report
that should be looked when you want to see how the class as a whole is doing
and to find out which students may have training issues.
System Training Weekly Report
The System Training Weekly Report shows a number of summaries of the
training results for each student and for the class as a whole. The reports are in
the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing a
student’s progress with their program content. Students having most of their
Chapter 10
10-2
trials in the Train mode after significant training may not be progressing
program items. Students having most of their trials in the Random and
Maintenance modes and few trials in the Train mode have progressed program
items to the point that the student needs content programs added to their training.
Student Reports
You can view training logs, trial reports, trend reports, train states, and create
notes for the selected student in the Student Administration tab. Generally,
student reports are used to investigate specific students that have been identified
as needing a program assessment or monitoring.
Program Trend Report
The student’s Program Trend Report shows a weekly history of all programs or
only active programs. Using this report, areas warranting a more detailed review
can be quickly identified. Two of the most useful summaries of this report are
the Total Summary and the Percentage Correct Summary.
Programs are displayed alphabetically in the left-most column. Data for each
program is displayed by the reporting year, month, and weekly start day.
Total Summary
The Total Summary shows DT Trainer usage for the selected student. The
summary provides the total number of weekly trials for each program and
overall total trials. Usage data is helpful in determining if the student has enough
access to training sessions, and is helpful in determining if enough trials were
10-3
Analyzing Reports
performed to provide meaningful data. To view the Total Summary, select
Active, Trials, and Totals.
Percentage Correct Summary
The Percentage Correct Summary provides the weekly percentage of correct
trials for each program and for the student. This dialog helps the administrator
identify problem areas specific to programs and determine if a student’s profile
settings are appropriate or need adjusting. To view the Percentage Correct
Summary, select Active, Trials, and Correct.
Train States Report
The Train States Reports shows a snapshot of the training states of each program
item.
Chapter 10
10-4
Program: Active
or All programs may be displayed.
States: Untrained, Train, Random, Maintenance, Proficient,
and Do Not Train
Using the Train States Report
•
•
•
•
Check all check boxes to capture snapshots at different times, making this a
useful report to quickly determine the overall progress of the student. For
example you may want to create a snapshot at the beginning or early in the
school term, and then at different points through the term.
Check only Maintenance for a "hit list" for generalization activities at home
or in the classroom.
Check only Train to view items actually being trained.
Check only Untrained for an item list of upcoming items that will be trialed.
This list is useful to determine when to add more programs. More programs
should be added when there are few untrained items.
The Train States Report has two very useful summaries which are the Untrained
and the Maintenance Summary.
The Untrained Summary
To view the Untrained Summary Report, check the Untrained check box; all the
check boxes should be clear. The Untrained Summary provides a list of items
that the student has not trained yet but will be trialed in the future. This list is
useful to determine when to add more programs. More programs should be
added when there are few untrained items.
The Maintenance Summary
To view the Maintenance Summary Report, check the Maintenance check box;
all other check boxes should be clear. The maintenance summary provides a hit-
10-5
Analyzing Reports
list of items the student has completed training on and is now ready for
articulation and generalization in the classroom or at home.
Weekly Trial Results Report
The Weekly Trial Results Report gives a summary of the overall progress of the
student and also gives details down to the item level to help pinpoint problems.
The report gives a weekly summary for the student's program and specific items
listing by mode levels.
Chapter 10
10-6
Using the Weekly Trial Results Report
•
•
•
•
The Trial Results Report should be reviewed prior to making adjustments to
a student’s program. The specificity of this weekly report will assist the
administrator with the information needed to adjust the student’s profile
(Advancement/Fallback) and/or the step of programs in the Train Level.
Identify specific areas (i.e., program, item, mode level) in which the student
is experiencing problems or success.
Identify problem or success rates within each mode level (i.e., a student
performs well in the Train mode, but not the Random mode. This student
may need more practice for knowledge retention).
Print this report to show the “step by step” successes to a parent, therapist,
or administrator.
Data Guidelines
When evaluating a student’s progress, always take into consideration the total
number of trials before adjusting a student’s program. The more trials a student
has completed, the more significant the data. Two hundred to three hundred or
more trials per week for each student produce significant data to use in program
assessment and monitoring.
When assessing a program, consider the following:
•
•
Consistent low or high percentage correct is an indicator that a student’s
training is either too low or too high.
Consistency in the eighty to ninety percent range is the target for a student’s
training.
The following table provides guidelines based on the percent correct.
Percent
Data Guidelines
91 - 100%
Consistent high percentages mean training is too easy or the
student may already know the active programs.
80 - 90%
Student is experiencing a good level of success without trials
being too easy.
70 - 79%
Training might be too challenging for the student. Not
enough success might hamper the student’s progress and
interest.
Below 70%
Training is set too hard or the student may not be
cooperating.
10-7
Analyzing Reports
Weekly Training Log
The Weekly Training Log displays a student’s training log of all program items
trialed for the current or previous weeks. Here you can determine if the student
is getting access to the system when expected, or if he is having performance
issues due to length of time on the system.
Using the Weekly Training Log
The main purpose of this report is for accountability. Here you can determine
when the student used the DT Trainer and for how long.
Some other uses include determining if the student is having performance issues
due to length of training, or to get a feel for the students overall use pattern.
Weekly Notes
The Weekly Notes dialog box provides an area for the administrator to
document information specific to the student. For example you may want to
document program or reinforcer changes, student illness, and other system use
issue.
Chapter 10
10-8
Evaluating Student Usage
The administrator should review student use of the DT Trainer to determine
level of use and when to add programs. The System Trend Report and the
student’s training log provide “use” information.
Reviewing the System Trend Report
The System Trend Report provides “use” information at both the student and
class levels. From the System Trend Report, select the radio buttons for Trials
and Total to view the total number of trials performed by the student. This
summary is the default report and shows the number of trials performed by a
student by week.
Look for a minimum of 200 to 300 trials per week for independent students; 100
trials per week or more for assisted students. More than 1000 trials per week
may cause students to burn out on the program. In addition to the number of
trials in a week, several weeks of data are more significant than a single week
because you can see “training trends”. For students with low usage, reviewing
several weeks of data may be necessary.
The System Trend Report assists the administrator in determining if a student is
on the DT Trainer enough to warrant adjusting the training or if the student
needs to establish a more routine pattern of training before making a change to a
student’s training.
10-9
Analyzing Reports
Reviewing the Student’s Training Log
The student’s Weekly Training Log is a detailed report of all program items
trialed for the current or previous weeks, and provides information on more
specific usage issues for a specific student. A teacher is able to determine if a
student is “using” the system when intended by reviewing the date time stamp of
trials. Establishing a routine, or a specific time of day for a student to train may
be a factor for some students who perform better at a certain time of day or who
need a routine in their schedule.
The Session Duration Time (ST) column displays in minutes and seconds how
long the student has been training. The Result column and Session Time column
can be reviewed to determine if a student’s session duration is set too long or too
short. An increase in incorrect or no responses towards the end of sessions
indicates that training sessions are set too long for a student.
Based on findings, adjustments can be made to assist in student use and access
issues. Change the session duration minutes from the Student Options dialog if a
student needs a longer or shorter training session. Increase the minutes if you are
building the student’s use, or decrease the minutes if a student’s performance is
dropping toward the end of his session.
Change the student’s physical access to the system to change the number of
accesses per day. Establish a daily routine for lower functioning students or
students who perform better with a routine or use at a certain time of day.
Evaluating Student Performance
A student’s performance review begins with the big picture and drills down into
specific training issues. A good place to start is by identifying students whose
training is off target (percent corrects are either too high or too low), and then
analyze performance scores within reports that provide more program and item
specific data. Remember that the “on target” range is eighty to ninety percent.
Above or below that range is “off target”.
Reviewing Class Level Reports
The System Trend Report and System Training Weekly Report are class level
reports that provide a variety of summaries.
System Trend Report
Generally the first report to look at to see how the overall class is doing and
which students may have training issues is the System Trend Report’s percent
correct summary.
Chapter 10
10-10
Select Trials and Correct to view percent correct data. Determine which students
are too low or too high. The greater the difference from the eighty to ninety
percent correct the more we should be concerned. In this report Bill Jones’s data
is now on target range, but Brad Smith’s data shows his performance “off
target” on the low side.
System Training Weekly Report
The System Training Weekly Report provides a summary by response results
and mode. Scan this report to review a student’s progress with their program
content.
Students having most of their trials in the Train mode after significant training
may not be progressing program items. Students having most of their trials in
the Random and Maintenance mode and few trials in the Train mode have
progressed program items to the point the students need content programs added
to their training.
Reviewing Student Level Reports
Once specific students are identified whose training is “off target”, the teacher
can begin to narrow down possible problem areas by reviewing several student
level reports. Those reports are: Student Trend Report, Student Weekly Trial
Results Report, Student Program Item Graph and Logs, and Student Train States
Report.
Program Trend Report
The student’s Program Trend Report assists in pinpointing specific programs
needing a more detailed look.
Select Trials and Correct to view the Percent Correct Summary. Determine if a
student is scoring too high or low in all programs or just some of the programs.
Check significance of specific percentages by selecting the Totals or Raw radio
buttons. Selecting Totals or Raw displays actual data, not percentages. To view
responses versus when the student responded select %X/(C+I). This view includes
Correct and Incorrect responses, but does not include No Responses. This is the
10-11
Analyzing Reports
default view. To view the responses versus total responses select %X/T. Total
responses include correct, incorrect and no response.
Weekly Trial Results Report
The student’s Weekly Trial Results Report is a good place to look if the student
has a performance issue with a training mode, program, program item, or with a
specific reinforcer.
The report provides summaries for the week, the programs, the modes, and the
items. For example, a teacher may find the student tends to score high correct
percentages during the constant drilling of the Train Mode, but once the items
are advanced to Random Mode, where they are presented less frequently, the
correct percentages are low, indicating the student may not have had sufficient
experience during the Train mode.
Reviewing the Program Item Graph
The Program Item Graph displays the pattern of progression or lack of
progression for an item. Check several item graphs to get a feel for the program
in general.
Check the item progression from the Train mode to the Random mode. Is the
item maintaining the Random mode or is it slipping back to the Train mode?
Where the student is not progressing, look for:
•
•
•
incorrect responses distributed between the prompt levels in the Train mode
incorrect responses almost strictly on the PL1 lines
attaining Random mode just to slip back
Check the difference in performance between the prompt levels in the Train
mode. PL1 lines will generally show a lower performance than PL2 or PL3 lines
because there is no visual clue at PL1. If the student is not able to progress from
the PL1 steps and keeps falling back, and if the student is doing almost perfect at
PL2 and PL3, then we have a student that is not attending to the details of the
items.
Chapter 10
10-12
Path: Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Basic Tab > View
Graph
Reviewing the Item Training Log
An item’s specific training log is also available from the student’s Program Item
dialog. You can review the details of each trial to determine, for example, if a
student is having problems with specific distracters or reinforcers.
Note in the following example of Brad Smith’s log for January 6, the number of
No Responses recorded for eight straight trials. Also note that the same
reinforcer was repeatedly used for each trial. The administrator has set the
scribble reinforcer to repeat 8 times in a row. Brad is probably burned out of the
reinforcer. Remove this reinforcer from Brad’s reinforcer or set the repeats to
zero.
10-13
Analyzing Reports
Path: Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Basic Tab > View
Log
Evaluating and Adjusting Programs
Evaluating Progress
Check the student’s Train States Report. The Train States Report shows overall
progress of the student by displaying the state of program items and help to
answer the question, “Are items being progressed?” Look for items in the
Random, Maintenance, and Proficient modes to ensure student progress. A
student with no items advancing after significant training may not be
progressing. Lack of progress may be in all or just specific programs. To
determine the cause of poor progression, drill down into the student’s Weekly
Trial Results Report and Program Item Graphs and Logs.
Progression is highly dependent on the level of the student. A high functioning
student should progress items quickly. A higher profile provides less drilling,
enabling a student to progress items faster between modes. Lower functioning
students generally progress items slowly. A lower profile provides more drilling,
giving a student more experience with an item. A lower profile student
progresses items at a slower rate. Over time as the student becomes a better
learner, items will progress more quickly.
Chapter 10
10-14
To determine if there are items in the untrained state, check Untrained only (all
others should be clear). A student with a few items in the untrained state needs
programs added to their training. Consider adding one or more programs.
To view a list of items ready for generalization in the classroom or at home,
check Maintenance only.
Adjusting Program Content
A student’s active training program is an important issue when monitoring a
student’s training. The student’s Program Trend Report and Programs dialog
box provide program content and status, and listing of each program.
The Program Trend Report provides a summary of Active programs and All
programs. Select the desired view by clicking Active or All.
A program should be deactivated in the following situations:
•
•
•
All items are at the proficient level
Items are incorporated into another higher level or next step program
You want to put the program on hold
A program can be put on hold if the student is not quite ready for the program,
or has too many active programs and his performance is not at an acceptable
level. The problem may be that he has too many programs for his level of use.
You can add programs when he does not have enough content in the train mode
or if he is doing so well with his programs that he can handle more programs.
Consider the student’s use in trying not to spread the student too thin. You could
have too few trials on specific items per week to support advancement.
To add or deactivate programs, go to the student’s Program dialog box and
either add additional programs or toggle active or inactive program content for
the student’s training. The Active column displays “Yes” if the program is being
actively trained, and “No” if the program has been deactivated so that it is not
being trained.
Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings
Finding 1: A student’s Trend Report shows the student is scoring too low across
all programs.
•
•
•
Try selecting a lower training profile from the Student Options dialog.
Another option is to try deactivating programs for a student. The student
may just be overloaded.
Increase the use if insufficient use is causing trials to be too infrequent
thereby causing poor performance.
10-15
Analyzing Reports
Finding 2: A student’s Trend Report shows that the student is scoring too high
across all programs.
•
•
Try selecting a higher training profile from the Student Options dialog.
Try adding additional programs. The student may be able to handle more.
Finding 3: A student’s Trend Report shows that most programs are within the
target range except for one or more programs with significantly lower
percentages.
•
Try selecting a lower training profile for just the specific programs.
Changing to a lower profile will automatically decrease the initial train step,
and increase the advancement/fallback criteria.
For example, a student’s Trend Report shows sixty-eight percent correct for
the Objects 1 program, but all other programs are scoring between eighty
and ninety percent. Try selecting a lower profile for the Objects 1 program.
Finding 4: A student’s Trend Report shows that most programs are within the
target range except for one or more programs with significantly higher
percentages.
•
Try selecting a higher training profile for just the specific programs.
Changing to a higher profile will automatically increase the initial train step,
and decrease the advancement/fallback criteria. Also, selecting a higher
initial train step which decreases the amount of experience with an item is
another possibility.
For example, a student’s Trend Report shows ninety-eight percent correct
for the Objects 1 program, but all other programs are scoring between
eighty and ninety percent. Try selecting a higher profile for the Objects 1
program.
•
Try changing the program mode for the specific program. For example, if
the student’s Trend Report shows ninety-eight percent for the Objects 1
Program, but all other programs are scoring between eighty and ninety
percent, and the Objects 1 Program is in the Train mode, try changing the
mode of the Objects 1 Program from Train to Random, where the items will
be presented less frequently.
Finding 5: The student has few items that are untrained. This may be seen by
reviewing the Weekly Trial Results report, and determining that almost all of a
student’s trials are in Random or Maintenance modes. You may also view the
Student’s Train States report and observe that for active programs there are few
items in the untrained state.
For example, the Weekly Trial Results report shows that a student has
performed 25 trials in the Train Mode, 185 trials in the Random Mode, and 103
Chapter 10
10-16
trials in the Maintenance Mode. The student is running out of items in the
Untrained state. The student’s Train States Report should confirm this situation.
•
Add or activate programs for the student’s training.
Finding 6: A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps
and incorrect responses are distributed between the Prompt Levels. This finding
is for specific program(s).
•
•
•
Try selecting a lower training profile for just the specific program(s).
Try selecting a lower initial train step for the specific program(s).
Try deactivating the program(s) if the student is not ready to train this
program(s).
Finding 7:
A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps
and incorrect responses are distributed between the Prompt Levels for all of the
student’s programs. There may be a number of potential reasons the student has
this situation.
•
•
Try selecting a lower training profile for the student.
Other possibilities are issues with the train step, program readiness,
reinforcement, and the student’s interest. Further analysis may be necessary
to determine the exact problem.
Finding 8: A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps
and incorrect responses are strictly on the PL1 steps for specific or all program.
The student is using the prompt but not paying attention to the images or cannot
hear the difference in the SD.
•
•
If the student is not paying attention to the images, then decrease the
Distracter/Prompt Level Settings on the Student Options dialog. Try setting
the offset to 10 for PL3 and to 1 for PL2, and the scaling to 75 percent for
PL3 and to 90 percent for PL2. This would decrease the distracter vertical
displacement and scaling to make it more difficult for the student to
determine the correct item based on the prompt alone.
If the student is having difficulties processing the auditory information then
try changing the program SD mode to Both from the Program Options
dialog. The student will then see and hear the SD.
Note: Not all programs support the Both option.
Finding 9:
A student is progressing items to the Random mode only to have them
slip back to the Train mode. If the student did not get sufficient experience in the
Train mode then the data may show that items frequently slip back from the
Random mode.
•
•
Move the items back to untrained and lower the student training profile.
Move the items back to untrained and decrease the initial training step only.
10-17
Analyzing Reports
Note: An administrator may want to move items for some programs back if the
student had an extended illness, absence, or another setback.
Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers
Reinforcer Influences on Performance
Observations of the student during reinforcement will be necessary from time to
time to determine if the selected reinforcement is motivating. Other information
that can also help is found in the reinforcer section of the Weekly Trial Results
Report. This report will not necessarily indicate reinforcers that are not
motivating to a student, but can show this for some students. What this report
shows is the trial result following specific reinforcers and trial results following
no reinforcement. Some students MAY perform worse or not respond following
reinforcers that they do not like. If the performance of a reinforcer is
substantially lower than other reinforcers then the student probably is not
motivated by the reinforcer. Note that just because the performance is not
negatively impacted, does not mean that the student likes or is motivated by the
reinforcer. In general, this is a more meaningful report where the student is
reinforced frequently, and is using the system a good amount.
Check Reinforcers to view the Reinforcers Summary of this report. Are there
reinforcers for which trial performance is very low? Review the number of trials
for data significance, and check previous weeks to see if the same reinforcers
exhibit problems. Look for high incorrect or no responses. In the below report,
there is not sufficient frequency of reinforcement to indicate problems with any
reinforcer.
Chapter 10
10-18
Adjusting Reinforcers
Changing reinforcers can keep the student motivated to use the system. How
often reinforcers are changed for a student is highly dependent on that student.
Some students will enjoy the same reinforcers for long periods of time. They
like doing the same thing over and over and tend not to get bored. This is
especially true for low functioning students but may apply to higher functioning
students also. For low functioning students and students that are difficult to
reach we want to start with these stim reinforcers. And then mix in other
reinforcers to build familiarity and eventual enjoyment of a broader variety of
activities. For example, if a student loves trains, you may first start with trains
and then add something like circle pop to start shifting his interest from strictly
trains to a broader variety of interests. Higher functioning students tend to get
bored of activities more quickly so they need a larger variety of active
reinforcers. The fewer active reinforcers, the more frequently you should change
their reinforcers. For the most part you should just change a few reinforcers at a
time.
Reinforcement frequency can also affect student motivation and use of the DT
Trainer. Start with frequent reinforcement as appropriate for the student. If the
student’s performance is good and the student seems to be interested in the
program, then decrease the reinforcement frequency. Increase the frequency of
reinforcement if the student’s interest seems to drop after a previous decrease in
reinforcement. You change the reinforcement frequency by either changing the
student’s training profile or changing the reinforcement on the Student Options
dialog.
10-19
Analyzing Reports
Glossary of Terms
Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)
The branch of psychology that evolved from the research of B.F. Skinner.
Auto-Run
The normal method of training a student for a session. In Auto Run, the DT
Trainer picks active programs and modes to train randomly but will not
repeat any program mode until all programs and modes have been trialed.
Discriminative Stimulus
A command that tells the student what to do.
Verbal, Textual, and Both.
Discrete Trial Methodology
Discrete trial is a behaviorally-based intervention primarily used for
teaching children with autism.
Distracter
An item used to provide the student with an incorrect alternative to the
Target Item. A Distracter is used to determine if the student really knows
the correct response
Fading the Prompt
The process of decreasing the degree of prompting from PL3 to PL1 during
the Train mode.
Familiar Distracter
An Item the student has already trained. Familiar Distracters are more
distracting to the student than Non-Familiar Distracters. Trials using
Familiar Distracters are harder than trials using Non-Familiar Distracters.
Labels Function
The function that teaches the label of an image.
Maintenance Mode
A low intensity continuation of training. The item is now “generally
known” to the student. An item that is in the “Maintenance Mode” is
Glossary-1
Glossary of Terms
presented to the student very infrequently. The Maintenance mode ensures
that the student “remembers” the item.
Non-Familiar Distracter
An Item the student has not yet trained. Non-Familiar Distracters are less
distracting to the student than Familiar Distracters. Trials using Nonfamiliar Distracters are easier than trials using Familiar Distracters.
Praise
The positive verbal feedback for a correct answer.
Programs
Educational content such as Objects I, Shapes, and Body Parts.
Prompting
Visual clues of position or size that vary in degree of difficulty. The visual
clue is the vertical distance between one or more Distracters and the Target.
Prompt Level 0
The level with no prompting. PL0 is the easiest prompt level because the
target item is presented alone so there is only one answer possible.
Prompt Level 1
The level of prompting at row 1. This trial for the student is the hardest
because there is no visual clue indicating the correct or incorrect answer.
Since the prompt has been eliminated, the trial is a discrimination task.
Prompt Level 2
The level of prompting at row 2. This trial for the student is harder than
Prompt Level 3 because the vertical distance between one or more
Distracters in row 2.
Prompt Level 3
The level of prompting at row 3. This trial for the student is easy because
the vertical distance between the Distracters and the Target is at the highest
level or farthest in distance. This is called PL3 because distracters are
placed in row 3.
Random Mode
A less intensive continuation of training. The student has advanced the
target item from the repetitive drilling of the Train Mode. The item is
“familiar” to a student but not completely learned while in the Random
mode.
Glossary
Glossary-2
Reinforcement
A student’s reward for one or more correct answers.
SD
See Discriminative Stimulus.
Stim
An abbreviation for any usage of stimulation.
Train
Refers to the usage of repetition and rewards to “teach”. If an item has been
“trained,” the student can identify and associate to some level, information
such as a label, function, or sound with an item.
Train Steps
Levels of difficulty that an item progresses while in he Train mode. The
number of distracter(s) it uses and at which prompt level (0,3,2,1) defines
the level of difficulty. Step 0 is the easiest and Step 12 is the hardest.
Sounds Function
The function that teaches the sound associated with an item
Target Item
An item presented to the student to be trained that is always the correct
choice.
Train Mode
A high intensity introduction to program items. An item is repetitively
presented to a student through a series of 13 steps or levels of difficulty
while in the Train mode.
Trial
A single task given to the student during training.
Glossary-3
Glossary of Terms
Index
1
13 train steps, 2-5, 5-26, 8-4
A
accessing a dialog box, 5-3
accessing DT Trainer Administration,
3-3
action to incorrect response, 6-10
Activate Development Features option,
3-9, 5-38
activating
development features, 6-6
praise scripts, 8-2
programs, 8-3
reinforcers, 6-4
activation code, 3-5
active train steps, 8-4
Add Reinforcers dialog box, 5-29, 5-30,
6-9, 6-12
adding
program items, 7-4, 9-3
programs, 6-12, 6-13
programs items, 5-20
programs to a student, 5-16
programs to DT Trainer, 5-40, 8-2,
8-3
reinforcers, 6-11
reinforcers to a student, 5-29, 5-30
reinforcers to DT Trainer, 5-44, 7-2
administrative tasks performed
frequently, 3-3
advancement criteria, 8-4, 8-5
advancement/fallback criteria, 5-12,
5-26
Applied Behavior Analysis, 1-2
authorization code, 3-4
auto run mode, 2-8
B
behavioral problems, 1-15
C
changing
active train steps, 8-4
advancement/fallback criteria, 8-4,
8-5
item’s initial train step, 6-13, 6-14
item’s train state, 6-13, 6-14
number of trials for a program, 8-3
training order of items, 7-4
training sequence, 8-2
class level reports, 5-37, 6-6, 10-2,
10-10
Common Administration tab, 3-7, 5-36,
6-2
configuration screen for smart
reinforcers, 2-9
configuring
reinforcers, 6-11
SDs, 6-11
smart reinforcers, 5-43
student settings, 5-5
students, 3-3
creating
a practice student, 4-4
praise scripts, 9-2, 9-3
student training icons, 7-6
students, 5-5, 6-7
training icons, 7-5
current student, 5-4, 5-5
customer ID, 3-5
customizing program items, 6-12, 6-13
D
data guidelines, 10-7
deactivating
praise scripts, 8-2
default run time, 6-11
Default Template, 3-2, 5-37, 5-40, 6-3
training profile, 7-4
deleting
praise scripts, 9-2
program items, 9-3
programs from a student, 5-16
reinforcer definitions, 5-44
reinforcers, 6-4
students, 5-5, 6-10
Glossary-1
Index
Development tabs, 9-2
dialog box path, 5-3
disabling the Esc key, 5-10
discrete trial, 1-2
Discrete Trial Trainer, 1-2
discriminative stimulus, 2-2, See SDs
Discriminative Stimulus (SD) mode,
2-7
displaying item names, 5-25
displaying trial cues, 5-25
distracters, 2-3, 5-11, 5-23
ordering, 7-4
placement and size, 8-5
distractions, 1-15
DT Trainer
adding programs to, 8-3
administration overview, 3-2
installing, 1-6
programs, 2-7
removing, 1-16
student training overview, 2-2
DT Trainer Administration dialog box,
3-5
DT Trainer programs, 5-40
DT Trainer Programs dialog box, 5-37,
5-38, 6-2
Action Tab, 5-40
Program Filters Tab, 5-41
Program Info Tab, 5-41
Selection Keywords Tab, 5-41
F
fallback criteria, 8-4, 8-5
familiar distracter, 2-3
filtering
images, 7-5
list of DT Trainer programs, 5-41
list of programs, 6-2
program list, 5-17, 5-18
target images, 5-25
first load delay for reinforcers, 5-46,
6-5
G
getting started, 4-2
graph of trials by program items, 6-13,
6-14
H
headphones, 1-12
hiding tokens, 5-10
hover help, 5-4
I
E
Edit Image Criteria dialog box, 7-5
Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, 5-17,
5-18, 5-41, 6-2
Edit Reinforcer dialog box, 5-44, 6-5,
7-2, 7-3
editing
program filtering criteria, 5-41
program items, 9-3
reinforcers, 5-42, 5-44
Esc key, 5-10
evaluating
performance, 10-10
progress, 10-7
usage, 10-9
extra processing time, 5-25
Glossary
incorrect response action, 5-9
INFO icon, 5-4
Information tab, 3-9, 6-6
initial train step, 5-10, 5-14, 5-25
of items, 5-19
setting, 6-13, 6-14
installation, 1-6
Internet Explorer, 1-7
item images
filtering, 7-5
viewing, 6-14
K
keyboards, 1-12
L
learning functions, 2-7
level of use, 10-9
limiting session duration, 5-7
list of programs
printing, 6-12, 6-13
viewing, 6-12, 6-13
log of trials by program items, 6-13,
6-14
Glossary-2
M
Maintenance mode, 2-6, 5-9
Maintenance Summary Report, 10-5
managing
DT Trainer programs, 5-37
praises, 9-2
program items, 5-16, 5-18
program items globally, 5-40
reinforcers globally, 5-37, 5-42
student praises, 5-16
mouse skills, 1-15
multimedia components, 1-7
N
non-familiar distracter, 2-3
number of consecutive trials, 6-10
number of trials, 8-3
O
Open dialog box, 7-3
ordering
distracters, 5-23, 7-4
program items, 7-3
programs and training modes, 5-28
training items, 5-20, 5-22, 5-23
P
password feature, 5-38
percent correct data, 6-6
Percentage Correct Summary, 5-31,
10-3, 10-4
performance, 10-10
at prompt levels, 10-12
reinforcer influences, 10-18
pointing devices, 1-14
Praise Manager dialog box, 5-38, 5-49,
9-2
praise scripts, 5-27
creating, 9-2, 9-3
customizing, 8-2
deleting, 9-2
editing, 9-2
for a program, 5-40
managing, 5-16, 9-2
playing, 9-2
updating all, 8-2
viewing list of, 9-2
previewing
content programs, 4-2
program items, 6-2, 6-13, 6-14
programs, 5-16, 5-40, 6-2, 6-12,
6-13
reinforcers, 4-3, 5-29, 5-30, 5-44,
6-4
Print dialog box, 5-16, 5-40, 6-2
printing
class level reports, 6-6
list of DT Trainer programs, 5-40
list of programs, 6-2
list of student’s programs, 5-16
program items list, 6-14
program list, 6-12, 6-13
program content, 10-15
Program Edit Item dialog box, 9-3
program information, 5-41, 6-12
Program Item Graph, 5-20, 5-21, 6-3,
6-14, 10-11, 10-12, 10-14
Program Item Training Log, 5-20, 5-22,
6-3, 6-14, 10-11, 10-13, 10-14
program items, 5-16
active status, 5-24
adding, 7-4, 9-3
changing training order, 7-4
customizing, 6-12, 6-13
deleting, 9-3
displaying item names, 5-25
editing, 9-3
graph of trials, 6-13, 6-14
information, 6-14
initial train step, 5-19
log of trials, 6-13, 6-14
ordering, 7-3
previewing, 6-13, 6-14
printing list of, 6-14
renaming, 9-3
Program Items dialog box, 5-16, 5-18,
5-40, 6-2, 6-3, 6-13, 9-3
program options, 2-7
Program Options dialog box, 5-16,
5-24, 5-40, 7-4, 8-4, 9-4
Advanced Tab, 5-26
Intermediate Tab, 5-25
Program Order Items dialog box, 5-20,
5-22, 7-4
Glossary-3
Index
Program Praise Activation dialog box,
5-16, 5-27, 8-2
program status, 6-12, 6-13
Program Trend Report, 5-6, 5-31, 6-14,
10-3, 10-11, 10-15
programs, 2-7
activating, 8-3
active status, 5-16
adding, 6-12, 6-13
adding to a student, 5-16
adding to DT Trainer, 5-40, 8-2, 8-3
available, 5-17
default training profile, 7-5
deleting from a student, 5-16
list of verbal SDs, 5-25
previewing, 5-40, 6-12, 6-13
removing, 6-12, 6-13
reviewing, 4-2
training sequence, 8-3
viewing detailed information, 5-16
Programs dialog box, 5-5, 5-14, 6-12
Action tab, 5-15
Program Info tab, 5-16
Programs Items dialog box, 9-3
progression, 10-14
prompt levels, 2-4
offsets, 5-11
performance at, 10-12
Prompt Levels, 8-5
prompts, 2-4
R
Random mode, 2-6, 5-9
randomize SDs, 5-9
registering DT Trainer, 1-10, 3-3, 6-7
Registration dialog box, 3-4, 6-7
reinforcement frequency, 10-19
reinforcer
categories, 2-11
definitions, 5-44
tokens, 5-10
Reinforcer Manager dialog box, 5-37,
5-42, 6-4, 7-2
reinforcer tokens, 5-10, 5-11, 5-14
reinforcers, 2-8
activating/deactiviating, 5-43
adding, 6-11
adding to a student, 5-29
Glossary
adding to DT Trainer, 5-44, 7-2
adjusting, 10-19
assigned to student, 5-30
available, 5-30
configuring, 6-11
default run time, 5-29
deleting from DT Trainer, 6-4
editing, 5-44
file name, 5-45
first load delay, 5-46
influence on performance, 10-18
options, 7-5
previewing, 5-29, 5-44
removing, 6-11
reviewing, 4-3
run time, 5-46, 6-11
testing, 1-8, 6-11
troubleshooting, 1-9
using only, 5-11, 7-6
viewing, 6-11
web address, 5-45
web-based, 5-45, 7-2
Reinforcers dialog box, 5-5, 5-29, 6-11,
6-12
Reinforcers Summary, 10-18
removing
DT Trainer, 1-16
programs, 6-12, 6-13
reinforcers, 6-11
reinforcers from a student, 5-30
renaming program items, 9-3
reports
class level, 10-2
Maintenance Summary, 10-5
Percentage Correct Summary, 10-4
Program Item Graph, 10-11
Program Item Training Log, 10-11
Program Trend, 10-3, 10-11
student, 6-14, 10-2, 10-3
Student Program Trend, 10-11
System Training Weekly, 10-2,
10-11
System Trend, 10-2, 10-9
System Trend, 10-10
Total Summary, 10-3
Train States, 10-4, 10-11, 10-14
Untrained Summary, 10-5
Weekly Training Log, 10-8, 10-10
Glossary-4
Weekly Trial Results, 10-6, 10-7,
10-11, 10-12
response cost, 5-9
responses
before Wait Mode, 5-12
blocking, 5-12
reviewing
a student’s progress, 5-48
content programs, 4-2
reinforcers, 4-3
run time, 6-5
for reinforcers, 5-29
S
scaling distracters, 5-11
screen color, 5-10, 7-6
SD mode, 5-25, 7-4
SD Mode, 7-5
SDs, 5-9, 5-25
Select Content Programs dialog box,
5-16, 5-17, 5-18, 6-8, 6-13
Select Program Items dialog box, 7-4
Select Training Profile dialog box, 5-7,
5-12, 5-25, 6-7, 6-11
selecting a student, 6-10
selection screens, 2-9
Set Password dialog box, 5-38, 5-46,
6-5
setting
active status of programs and modes,
5-28
active train steps, 8-4
advanced program options, 9-4
advancement/fallback criteria for a
student, 5-12
blank screen time, 5-9
default run time for a reinforcer,
5-46
default speakers, 7-6
default student options, 5-37, 6-3
default training profile for a program,
7-5
distracter options, 8-5
extra processing time, 5-25
frequency of spoken name in praises,
5-8
initial training step, 5-10
number of consecutive trials, 5-8
number of trials for programs and
modes, 5-28
password for DT Trainer
Administration, 5-46, 6-5
program options, 5-24
program options globally, 5-40
reinforcer first load delay, 6-4
reinforcer run time, 5-29, 6-4
reinforcer tokens, 5-10
screen color, 5-10
session duration, 5-7, 6-4
smart reinforcer options, 5-29
step or state of an item, 6-2
student gender, 5-7, 6-4
student ID, 5-8
student name, 5-8
student options, 6-10, 8-5
student response options, 8-6
target image criteria, 7-4
token based reinforcement, 7-6
touch screen, 6-4
training profile, 5-7, 6-10
training profile for a program, 5-25
training profile parameters, 7-6
training screen options, 7-6
training session duration, 6-10
trial timeout, 5-10
user and location information, 6-6
voice for SDs and praises, 5-10
smart reinforcers, 2-9, 5-29, 5-43, 5-45
speakers, 1-12, 7-5
status of verbal SDs, 7-5
student
administration, 5-4
identification, 5-8
information, 5-8
progression, 10-14
reports, 10-2, 10-3
response options, 8-6
template, 3-2
training icons, 7-5, 7-6
Student Administration tab, 3-6, 5-4
student information, 6-10
student level reports, 10-11
student options, 6-10
setting, 8-5
Student Options dialog box, 5-5, 5-6,
5-37, 6-7, 6-10, 7-5, 8-5, 8-6
Glossary-5
Index
Advanced tab, 5-11
Advanced tab, 5-11
Basic tab, 5-7
Intermediate tab, 5-9
Other tab, 5-8
Student Program Trend Report, 10-11
student reports, 6-14
student training profile, 7-4
students
adjusting program content, 10-15
creating, 5-5, 6-7
deleting, 5-5, 6-10
issues, 1-14
selecting, 6-10
setting options, 5-5
training sequence, 5-16
summaries by student and class, 10-2
summaries of the training results, 10-2
summary by mode, 5-48
summary by response results, 5-48, 6-6
system requirements, 1-5
System Training Weekly Report, 5-38,
5-48, 6-6, 10-2, 10-10, 10-11
System Trend Report, 5-38, 5-47, 6-6,
10-2, 10-9, 10-10
T
target
image criteria, 7-4
images, 5-25
items, 2-3
teaching strategies, 1-13
testing reinforcers, 1-8, 6-11
TIP icon, 5-4
Tips tab, 3-11, 6-7
token based reinforcement, 5-11
token based reinforcement options, 7-6
tokens
displaying, 7-6
total number of trials, 6-6
Total Summary, 5-31, 10-3
touch screen, 5-7, 6-10
touch screens, 1-11
Train mode, 2-5, 5-8, 5-21, 5-26
train state
setting, 6-13, 6-14
Train States Report, 5-6, 5-32, 6-14,
10-4, 10-11, 10-14
Glossary
train steps, 8-4
setting, 8-4
training, 6-10
changing sequence, 8-2
environment, 1-10
flow, 2-6
icons, 5-11, 7-5
logs, 10-8
modes, 2-5
profile parameters, 7-5
profiles, 5-13, 5-25
profiles trial timeout, 5-25
screen buttons, 5-10
screen options, 7-5
sequence of programs, 8-3
sessions, 5-7
states for student program items,
5-32
terms, 2-2
training like a student, 4-8
training logs, 10-8
training profile parameters
overriding, 7-6
training results, 10-2
training screen options, 7-6
Training Selection dialog box, 5-6,
5-36
Training Sequence dialog box, 5-16,
5-28, 8-3
training sessions, 2-7
trial cues, 5-25
Trial Results Report, 5-6
trial timeout, 5-10, 5-14, 5-25
typography conventions, 1-3
U
Untrained Summary Report, 10-5
updating all praise scrips, 8-2
upgrading
DT Trainer, 1-8
Internet Explorer, 1-7
usage, 10-9
user and location information, 6-6
User reinforcer category, 2-13
using reinforcers only, 7-6
V
varying SDs, 5-9
Glossary-6
verbal SDs, 5-25, 6-10, 7-5
View Praise Parse dialog box, 9-3
viewing
class level reports, 6-6
completed trials for an item, 5-20,
5-22
graph of trials, 6-13, 6-14
graph of trials by program item, 6-2
item image, 6-14
list of program items, 6-2
list of reinforcers, 6-4
log of trials, 6-13, 6-14
log of trials by program item, 6-2
praise script list, 9-2
program information, 6-2, 6-12
program item information, 6-14
program items list, 6-14
program list, 6-12, 6-13
reinforcers, 6-11
visual trial response graph, 5-20, 5-21
W
web-based reinforcers, 5-45, 7-2
Weekly Notes, 5-6, 5-35, 10-8
Weekly Training Log, 5-6, 5-34, 6-14,
10-8, 10-10
Weekly Trial Results Report, 5-33,
6-14, 10-6, 10-7, 10-11, 10-12,
10-14, 10-18
Glossary-7
Index
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