5 The DT Trainer Interface - Accelerations Educational Software

5 The DT Trainer Interface - Accelerations Educational Software

A

ccelerations

E

ducational

Software

From the Founder

As a father of an Autistic child, it is important to me to create effective, robust, and relatively inexpensive tools that target the needs of individuals with learning disabilities. The DT Trainer is a step in this direction, but is very much a work in progress. You the user contribute to this evolution with not only your financial support provided by purchases, but also by your feedback. You the educators and parents understand the needs of the individuals you are teaching. By letting us know what content programs, reinforcers, and features that you need we can help not only you but also many other educators and parents.

I know that these individuals can learn more, go further, and have more rich, fulfilling, and independent lives than what we as a society have been able to provide. With your help, my company will contribute to this effort.

To me this business is not about maximizing profit, but is about maximizing impact. Please let others know about our software. This will help us reach more individuals that need help, and provide us with the revenue that we need to make what you see in our product now just the tip of the iceberg.

Thanks for your interest in the DT Trainer, and again, let us know how we can help.

-Karl W. Smith

Accelerations Educational Software www.DTTrainer.com

[email protected]

[email protected] www.DTTrainer.com/Support/

3

All rights reserved. Portions of this manual may be photocopied without the prior consent of Accelerations Educational Software.

Windows and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of

Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks used in this manual are the property of their respective owners.

© Copyright 2003 by Accelerations Educational Software. All rights reserved.

Printed September 8, 2003

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction

Introduction..............................................................................1-2

Typography Conventions.........................................................1-3

Getting Started Overview ........................................................1-3

Installation ...............................................................................1-5

System Requirements .......................................................1-5

Installing DT Trainer ........................................................1-6

Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 .........................1-7

Upgrading DT Trainer .............................................................1-8

Reinforcer Testing ...................................................................1-8

Troubleshooting................................................................1-9

Known Issues....................................................................1-9

Registering Your Software ....................................................1-10

Training Environment Issues .................................................1-10

Location ..........................................................................1-10

Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture .............................1-10

Monitor ...........................................................................1-11

Touch Screen ..................................................................1-11

Touch Screen Problems ..................................................1-11

Printer .............................................................................1-12

Computer ........................................................................1-12

Speakers/Headphones .....................................................1-12

Keyboard/Mouse.............................................................1-12

Strategies................................................................................1-13

Teaching Strategies.........................................................1-13

Student Strategies ...........................................................1-13

Student Issues ........................................................................1-14

Poor Pointing/Touching..................................................1-14

Student Distractions........................................................1-15

Poor Mouse Skills...........................................................1-15

Student Behavioral Problems..........................................1-15

Desktop Distractions.......................................................1-16

Errors ..............................................................................1-16

Removing DT Trainer............................................................1-16

Support...................................................................................1-16

5

Chapter 2

Student Training

Training Terms ........................................................................2-2

Trial ..................................................................................2-2

Trained..............................................................................2-2

Discriminative Stimulus ...................................................2-2

Sample Trial .....................................................................2-2

Target Item .......................................................................2-3

Distracter ..........................................................................2-3

Prompts.............................................................................2-4

DT Trainer Modes ............................................................2-5

Training An Item ..............................................................2-6

Programs ..................................................................................2-7

Individual Program Options..............................................2-7

Discriminative Stimulus...........................................................2-7

A Student’s Training Session ...........................................2-7

Reinforcers...............................................................................2-8

Selection Screen................................................................2-9

Smart Reinforcers .............................................................2-9

Reinforcer Categories .....................................................2-11

Chapter 3

Administration Overview

Overview of the DT Trainer Administration ...........................3-2

Student Template ..............................................................3-2

Initial Configuration .........................................................3-3

Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks...........3-3

Registering Your Software ......................................................3-3

Registration Dialog...........................................................3-4

DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box...................................3-5

Student Administration Tab..............................................3-6

Common Administration Tab ...........................................3-7

Information Tab ................................................................3-9

Tips Tab..........................................................................3-11

Chapter 4

Getting Started

Step 1: Start DT Trainer...........................................................4-2

Step 2: Review the Content Programs .....................................4-2

Step 3: Review the Reinforcers................................................4-3

Step 4: Setup a Practice Student ..............................................4-4

Step 5: Train Like a Student ....................................................4-8

Step 6: Practice Administration ...............................................4-9

6

Step 7: Setup the Training Environment................................4-10

Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer ..............................................4-10

Chapter 5

The DT Trainer Interface

How to Access a Specific Dialog Box .....................................5-3

Dialog Box Path................................................................5-3

Hover Help...............................................................................5-4

Student Administration ............................................................5-4

Student Options........................................................................5-6

Basic Tab ..........................................................................5-7

Other Tab..........................................................................5-8

Intermediate Tab...............................................................5-9

Advanced Tab.................................................................5-11

Select Training Profile ...........................................................5-12

Programs ................................................................................5-14

Actions Tab.....................................................................5-15

Program Info Tab............................................................5-16

Select Content Programs........................................................5-17

Edit Programs Criteria ...........................................................5-18

Program Items........................................................................5-18

Basic Tab ........................................................................5-20

Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-20

Program Item Graph ..............................................................5-21

Program Item Training Log ...................................................5-22

Program Order Items..............................................................5-22

Program Options ....................................................................5-24

Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-25

Advanced Tab.................................................................5-26

Praise Activation....................................................................5-27

Training Sequence .................................................................5-28

Reinforcers.............................................................................5-29

Add Reinforcers.....................................................................5-30

Program Trend Report ...........................................................5-31

Train States Report ................................................................5-32

Weekly Trial Results Report..................................................5-33

Weekly Training Log.............................................................5-34

Weekly Notes.........................................................................5-35

Training Selection..................................................................5-36

Common Administration Tab ................................................5-36

DT Trainer Programs .............................................................5-38

Action Tab ......................................................................5-40

Program Info Tab............................................................5-41

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Program Filters Tab ........................................................5-41

Selection Keywords Tab.................................................5-41

Reinforcer Manager ...............................................................5-42

Edit Reinforcer.......................................................................5-44

Set Password..........................................................................5-46

System Trend Report .............................................................5-47

System Training Weekly Report............................................5-48

Praise Manager ......................................................................5-49

Chapter 6

Basic Administrative Tasks

Common Administration .........................................................6-2

Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs ...6-2

Managing Program Items Globally...................................6-2

Setting Student Options in the Student Template .............6-3

Viewing and Managing Reinforcers .................................6-4

Setting/Changing an Administration Password ................6-5

Activating Development Features.....................................6-6

Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports.......................6-6

Setting User and Location Information.............................6-6

Registering DT Trainer.....................................................6-7

Viewing DT Trainer Tips .................................................6-7

Student Administration ............................................................6-7

Creating a New Student ....................................................6-7

Selecting a Student .........................................................6-10

Deleting a Student...........................................................6-10

Setting Student Options ..................................................6-10

Managing Student Reinforcers .......................................6-11

Managing Student Programs...........................................6-12

Managing Program Items................................................6-13

Viewing and Printing Student Reports ...........................6-14

Chapter 7

Intermediate Administrative Tasks

Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer...........................................7-2

Ordering Program Items ..........................................................7-3

Adding Items to a Program ......................................................7-4

Setting Intermediate Program Options.....................................7-4

Setting Intermediate Student Options ......................................7-5

Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers ..........7-6

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Chapter 8

Advanced Administrative Tasks

Advanced Program Management Tasks...................................8-2

Customizing Praise Scripts ...............................................8-2

Changing the Training Sequence of Programs .................8-3

Adding a New Program to DT Trainer .............................8-3

Setting Advanced Program Options.........................................8-4

Setting the Active Train Steps ..........................................8-4

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs ....8-4

Setting Student Options ...........................................................8-5

Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options..........................8-5

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students......8-5

Setting Student Response Options....................................8-6

Chapter 9

Development Administrative Tasks

Global Praise Management ......................................................9-2

Managing Programs Items .......................................................9-3

Setting Program Options..........................................................9-4

Chapter 10

Analyzing Reports

System Reports ......................................................................10-2

System Trend Report ......................................................10-2

System Training Weekly Report.....................................10-2

Student Reports......................................................................10-3

Program Trend Report ....................................................10-3

Train States Report .........................................................10-4

Weekly Trial Results Report...........................................10-6

Data Guidelines ..............................................................10-7

Weekly Training Log......................................................10-8

Weekly Notes .................................................................10-8

Evaluating Student Usage ......................................................10-9

Reviewing the System Trend Report ..............................10-9

Reviewing the Student’s Training Log .........................10-10

Evaluating Student Performance..........................................10-10

Reviewing Class Level Reports....................................10-10

Reviewing Student Level Reports ................................10-11

Reviewing the Program Item Graph .............................10-12

Reviewing the Item Training Log.................................10-13

Evaluating and Adjusting Programs ....................................10-14

Evaluating Progress ......................................................10-14

Adjusting Program Content ..........................................10-15

Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings ...........10-15

9

Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers .................................10-18

Reinforcer Influences on Performance .........................10-18

Adjusting Reinforcers...................................................10-19

Glossary of Terms

Index

10

Chapter

1

Introduction

Introduction..............................................................................1-2

Typography Conventions.........................................................1-3

Getting Started Overview ........................................................1-3

Installation ...............................................................................1-5

System Requirements .......................................................1-5

Installing DT Trainer ........................................................1-6

Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 .........................1-7

Upgrading DT Trainer .............................................................1-8

Reinforcer Testing ...................................................................1-8

Troubleshooting................................................................1-9

Known Issues....................................................................1-9

Registering Your Software ....................................................1-10

Training Environment Issues .................................................1-10

Location ..........................................................................1-10

Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture .............................1-10

Monitor ...........................................................................1-11

Touch Screen ..................................................................1-11

Touch Screen Problems ..................................................1-11

Printer .............................................................................1-12

Computer ........................................................................1-12

Speakers/Headphones .....................................................1-12

Keyboard/Mouse.............................................................1-12

Strategies................................................................................1-13

Teaching Strategies.........................................................1-13

Student Strategies ...........................................................1-13

Student Issues ........................................................................1-14

Poor Pointing/Touching..................................................1-14

Student Distractions........................................................1-15

Poor Mouse Skills...........................................................1-15

Student Behavioral Problems..........................................1-15

Desktop Distractions.......................................................1-16

Errors ..............................................................................1-16

Removing DT Trainer............................................................1-16

Support...................................................................................1-16

1-1

Introduction

The Discrete Trial Trainer, referred to throughout this manual as the DT Trainer, was designed to teach individuals with autism and other learning or retention disorders. The current educational content is appropriate for learners developmentally between 2 and 9 years of age. These individuals vary greatly and need highly adjustable software to meet their needs. The configurability within the DT Trainer allows the user to adjust the software for learners with special needs to typically developing individuals.

DT Trainer is a software tool based on a teaching method, referred to as

Discrete Trial, within the framework of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).

Discrete Trial is a behaviorally-based intervention primarily used for gaining instructional control and as a method for teaching children with autism. During discrete trial instruction, a particular trial may be repeated within a session, multiple sessions, or even many sessions, until the skill is mastered. Varying degrees of prompts (clues) are utilized to increase the probability of a correct response and then gradually eliminated as the learner's abilities increase.

Children with disabilities often face many deficits and difficulties in learning; among them are short attention spans and lack of motivation. During discrete trial instruction, tasks are broken down into short, simple trials and as the child's attention span increases, the length of the interaction increases accordingly. As with ABA, discrete trial attempts to build motivation or increase the preferred behavior by positively reinforcing performance of desired behaviors and task completion with tangible or external reinforcement (treats, music, toys, etc.).

The external reinforcement is then paired or presented jointly with social/verbal praise with the hope that eventually the praise will become equally reinforcing.

The DT Trainer is an automated discrete trial system that supports the teacher or therapist in their educational program. Since the DT Trainer can handle certain repetitious teaching and maintenance tasks, the therapist, teachers, and parents can focus on the generalization, integration, and articulation of the knowledge.

For a list of links to information on the Discrete Trial methodology and Applied

Behavioral Analysis, visit http://www.dttrainer.com/methodology/.

Trial Example: The student is asked to respond to a single and usually a simple command such as “Point to ball.” or “How much is one plus one?” If the response is correct, the student receives variable praise (“way to go”,

“awesome”, etc.) and direct reinforcement of the concept being taught. For example the student might receive the verbal reinforcement, “Good job, Bill.

One plus one equals two.” while “1 + 1 = 2” is displayed.

Chapter 1 1-2

If the response is not correct, DT Trainer may simply respond with one of the following:

• a correction (visual and verbal reinforcement of the correct response); this is the default response

• verbal “No.” or “Try again.”

• no response or a blank screen

• a combination of the above

This single command and the student’s response is a discrete trial. The DT

Trainer automatically captures data on each trial response and then provides you with a variety of reporting formats. Learning is broken down into small simple steps giving the student a high chance of success.

Before you begin using the DT Trainer in your classroom with students or with your child in your home, you should first read this manual. This manual provides you with the information you need to successfully administer and manage the program. This manual addresses classroom use, but most issues also apply to the home and other institutional settings.

This manual explains terms, concepts, and software functions essential to appropriately set up students. This manual includes illustrations and explanations of each step involved, as well as training adjustment information that will be useful at a later time in the student’s training. You should read this book in chapter order because the material is organized in a “progressive” fashion. Later chapters use terms or ideas that are explained in earlier chapters.

Typography Conventions

The following conventions are used in this manual:

• Labels for dialog box components such as tabs, buttons, and text boxes appear as bold text.

• A sequence of selections such as

Common Administration > Programs

means to click the

Common Administration tab and then click the

Programs

button.

• Terms, URLs, and names of files and folders are italicized.

Getting Started Overview

The DT Trainer CD is self-starting. When inserted into the CD-ROM drive, the system automatically runs an introductory program that provides options for viewing an overview of DT Trainer and installing the DT Trainer to your computer.

To help you get started using the Discrete Trial Trainer, follow the steps below.

To use the software successfully, it is critical that you read this manual and familiarize yourself with the content programs and reinforcers before you start setting up and training your child or student(s).

1. Read this manual.

2. Insert the CD and the navigation menu will open automatically. Click the buttons to the left of the menu items to navigate through the available information.

3. Install the DT Trainer Software.

• See “Installation” on page 1-5.

• See “Support” on page 1-16 if you experience problems during installation.

4. Familiarize yourself with the software.

• Start DT Trainer.

− Double-click the

DT Trainer Administration

icon on your desktop.

• Review the content programs and reinforcers.

• Setup a Practice Student.

− Select

Student Administration > Create Student

to create a practice student.

− Enter a name like “John Doe”.

− Follow the instructions to select a training profile, programs, and reinforcers.

− Exit DT Trainer Administration.

• Train like a student.

− Double-click the practice student training icon in the DTT Students folder (to open this folder, double-click the DT Trainer Students icon on the desktop).

− Familiarize yourself with the student training environment.

• Practice Administration.

− Start DT Trainer Administration and using your practice student, familiarize yourself with the administration aspect of the DT

Trainer program.

5. Setup the Training Environment.

• See “Training Environment” for information on ways to make the area used for training better for your students.

6. Start using DT Trainer.

• Setup Student(s).

• Start Training.

Chapter 1 1-4

Note: See Chapter 4, “Getting Started” for detailed information on the previous steps.

Installation

This section covers the hardware and software requirements for DT Trainer, how to install and upgrade DT Trainer, information on upgrading or installing

Microsoft Internet Explorer, recommendation for testing reinforcers, and tips for problems such as poor system performance and sound.

System Requirements

The Discrete Trial Trainer has the following software and hardware requirements.

Software Requirements

• Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000, or

Windows XP (Windows NT is not supported)

• Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) 5.5 or higher

Minimum Hardware Requirements

• IBM Compatible PC with 200 MHz processor

• 64 MB RAM

• CD-ROM or DVD drive

• 700 MB free disk space

• SVGA monitor

• Multimedia system with good sound card and speakers

• Touch screen if student cannot use mouse

• Head phones (optional if not used in sound sensitive area)

Preferred System

• IBM Compatible 450 MHz processor or faster

• 1 GB free disk space

Related Notes

Various system components effect overall system performance. You may need to judge acceptable performance for your students and their tolerance for system delays. Certain higher level graphics programs (such as the SkipCountingBy... and CtsTo...Coins programs) and reinforcers (such as Blinky) may require a faster processor (450-600 MHz).

A 15-inch or 17-inch monitor is recommended if you need a touch screen (touch screens for 17-inch monitors are much more expensive than those for 15-inch monitors, and 21-inch touch screens cost significantly more).

If your system is running Windows 98, Windows 2000, or Windows ME, you may need to upgrade your Internet Explorer to IE 6.0. IE does not have to be the default browser, but you must have IE installed. DT Trainer needs the multimedia engines that are part of Internet Explorer.

If your system is running Windows 95, you will have to use Internet

Explorer 5.5.

See http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/ for additional installation information.

Installing DT Trainer

The following instructions are for an initial or new installation of DT Trainer. If

DT Trainer is already installed on your system, refer to “Upgrading DT Trainer” on page 1-8

1. Verify that the system requirements have been met.

2. Update Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) if version 6.0 is not installed. For more information on installing and updating, see “Upgrading to Microsoft

Internet Explorer 6.0”.

3. Install DT Trainer from the CD. a. Insert the CD into the CD-ROM drive. The CD is self-starting and will display a list of options. b. Click

Install DT Trainer

. c. Update Macromedia Flash and Shockwave, when prompted, as instructed.

4. Test the reinforcers. a. Double-click the

DT Trainer Administration

icon on the desktop to start

DT Trainer Administration. b. See “Reinforcer Testing” on page 1-8 for detailed information.

Reinforcer testing will verify that the operation of sound, video and multimedia engines are working properly. c. Upgrade system drivers or components as necessary.

5. Verify that the system clock is set to the correct date and time.

6. Verify that the touch screen (if being used) responds to touch and that it has been calibrated from the student’s vantage point. See the instructions that came with your touch screen for information on calibrating your touch screen.

Chapter 1 1-6

7. Verify the system color and screen resolution settings. a. Access the Display Properties dialog box in Windows (right-click on the desktop and then click

Properties

). b. Click the

Settings

tab. c. Change the

Colors

setting to

High Color (16 bit)

or

True Color (32 bit)

. d. Change the

Screen Area

setting to

800 by 600 pixels

.

The DT Trainer displays best in the 16 bit color mode or more. DT Trainer graphics and reinforcers do not look good at 256 colors. Older software may reset your color settings to 256 colors. Our images are optimized for the 800 x 600 screen resolution and some of the administration dialogs needs this resolution.

8. Position the Windows taskbar and set its properties as follows: a. Move the taskbar to a side or the top of the screen to minimizing interfering with a student’s training. Click on any plain background area of the taskbar and drag it to either side or to the top of the screen. b. Right-click on a blank area of the Taskbar to display a shortcut menu. c. Click

Properties

to display the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box. d. Clear the

Always on top

checkbox. e. Select

Auto hide

to automatically hide the taskbar.

Note: To display the hidden task bar, move the mouse to the edge of the screen where the task bar is hidden. f. Click

OK

.

Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0

The DT Trainer uses multimedia components delivered through the Microsoft

Internet Explorer (IE). The IE does not have to be the default browser or even have an icon on the desktop, but it does have to be on the system. Without upgrading IE, some of the reinforcers in the DT Trainer will not work. It is therefore highly recommended that you upgrade to the IE 6.0 Service Pack 1.

Computers using Windows XP should have IE 6.0 so you may want to check the

IE version if you have a new computer. To get all the latest multimedia engines, download and install Internet Explorer.

There are two primary ways to get IE 6.0:

• Download IE 6.0 from the Microsoft site

http://windowsupdate.microsoft.com.

• Order the Internet Explorer 6 CD ($5.00 US / $7.00 Canada) from

http://www.microsoft.com. This CD contains Internet Explorer 6 with

Service Pack 1. After you get the CD, insert the CD into your CD-ROM drive. The installation will automatically start.

If your system is running Windows 95, you will have to use IE 5.5.

For problems or concerns, see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/.

Upgrading DT Trainer

If you have DT Trainer, Release 1.x installed and want to upgrade to Release 2.0, see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/ for instructions on how to perform this upgrade.

Reinforcer Testing

Reinforcer testing is a necessary part of installation. Reinforcer startup and performance is greatly impacted by factors such as the system speed, amount of

RAM, and video card quality.

Your goal is to identify any reinforcers that either do not work or do not perform adequately. You need to identify the cause and then do one or more of the following.

• Upgrade the system as necessary.

• Verify that the Macromedia Shockwave plug-in has been properly installed.

• Verify that Media Player was updated at the same time as Internet Explorer

6.0. If not, refer to “Upgrading to Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0.”

• Adjust the reinforcer

Run Time

or

First Load Delay

(these options are accessed by selecting

Common Administration > Reinforcer > Edit

).

• Do not use the reinforcer (delete the reinforcer; select

Common

Administration > Reinforcer > Delete

).

• Refer to http://www.dttrainer.com/support/ for the most current support information

Test reinforcers by selecting

Common Administration > Reinforcer

, highlighting the reinforcer, and then clicking

Preview.

Check a variety of reinforcers, including those in the “Known Issues” section and the following:

• Test html reinforcers such as DrawBots in the Activities\BasicCauseEffect category. These reinforcers will verify that the Virtual Machine, system performance, and touch screen interactions are working properly.

• Test puzzles from the Assorted1PuzzleSet4Piece reinforcer in the category

Activities\Games \JigsawPuzzles. Dragging pieces should be instantaneous.

Chapter 1 1-8

• Test songs in the ChildrenSongs1 reinforcer in the category

Sounds\ChildrensSongs\Male1. You should hear the song and the sound quality should be reasonable.

• Test a video (mpeg) reinforcer such as Bugs Day in the

Videos\Animations\Creatures category. You should see and hear the video.

• Test a Shockwave reinforcer such as Quads in Activities\BasicCauseEffect.

You should be able to see and interact with the Shockwave content in the web browser.

• Test a Shockwave executable reinforcer such as AnimalNoises in

Activities\BasicCauseEffect. You should be able to see, hear, and interact with the reinforcer.

Note: See “Step 3: Review the Reinforcers” on page 4-3 for instructions for testing reinforcers.

Troubleshooting

Assuming the system meets the minimum requirements and the installed version of IE is 6.0, here are some tips:

• Poor system performance... Upgrade the amount of RAM and possibly the video card or CPU. Low hard drive space can also impact performance.

• No/Poor sound... Check sound volume, speaker volume, speaker connections and power, or upgrade sound card drivers, or sound card.

• No/Bad video... Upgrade video drivers or video card.

• Reinforcer freezes up... There may be a problem with the reinforcer, or a conflict between a multimedia engine or some other software.

• Unable to see Shockwave content... The Shockwave plug-in may not be properly installed. Download the latest version from

http://www.macromedia.com.

• Unable to see Virtual Machine content... The Virtual Machine may need to be updated or installed. See http://www.dttrainer.com/support/installation/.

For more information, see http://www.dttrainer.com/support/.

Known Issues

Windows 98 has had problems with video reinforcers causing the program to shut down.

Registering Your Software

The first time that you click on the DT Trainer Administrator’s icon, you will be asked to register the software. If you choose not to register the software at this time, you will be prompted each time you start DT Trainer Administration. You can register the software at any time by clicking on the

Register Now

button on the pop-up reminder or you may register from the

Information

tab of DT Trainer

Administration. For more information about registering your software see

“Registering Your Software” on page 3-3.

If you are trialing the DT Trainer, you will not need to register. The DT Trainer will run for 30 days and then stop running. However you may want to purchase the DT Trainer before the end of the 30 days to prevent or minimize interruption of training with students.

Training Environment Issues

Setup issues are largely dependent on the students’ issues. Fairly high functioning students may need little or no adjustments, but with other children you may need to consider many of the following issues. Ideas to assist you as you set up your training area are also provided.

Location

The physical location of the computer and the training environment may be very important factors for a student’s training. If the environment is too distracting for the student, you may need to remove the distractions, or move the computer to another training area, put it into a study carrol or place a screen next to it.

Table and Chair / Sitting and Posture

An ideal training setup is where the student is able to comfortably sit close to the table with his feet on the floor. Hips, knees, and feet should be at a 90º degree angle. If the student’s feet do not touch the floor, try placing a box or stool under the feet to help with stability. If a student tends to slide down in his chair, try placing a barrier in front of his legs, like the side of a desk, to prevent him from sliding down.

The table should have a height where the monitor will be directly in front of the student’s face. If the table and chair are sized for adults, you may need to make some adjustments so that the learning environment is as comfortable as possible for the students. Cushions can be used to raise the student to table level. The table surface should be approximately two inches above the crux of the elbow to give the body good support. Move 'n' Sit Wedge® seat cushions or other wedge cushions can be used to encourage a more erect sitting posture for students who

Chapter 1 1-10

tend to slouch. These are sold in a variety of catalogs; for more information, consult your occupational therapist.

In a home environment, the family computer may not be in a suitable placement.

Limiting distractions on and around the table and wall will help students stay focused on the DT Trainer training screen. Students that have a low interest in what you want them to learn and a high interest in other objects in the room, need a very uncluttered environment except for the computer.

Monitor

Monitor placement is less of an issue for students using a mouse, but the monitor should be placed at the level of the student’s head. For touch screen users, the monitor needs to be placed low enough so that the student is not reaching up above their head to touch the screen. If the student is reaching up to touch the screen, he may not be able to touch the screen correctly. To place the monitor low enough, you would generally not place the monitor on the computer.

For students who have a problem playing with the screen, consider placing the monitor at the front of the table so that the student does not have a place to rest his elbows.

Touch Screen

A teacher should begin a student using a touch screen unless the student is known to be mouse proficient. For touch screen users, select the

Touch Screen

option on the Student Options dialog box to hide the screen pointer during a student’s training. The touch screen emulates dragging and clicking. The computer thinks the touch screen is a mouse. For a student using a mouse, do not check the

Touch Screen

check box or he will not be able to see the mouse pointer. After the student is working well with the touch screen on the DT

Trainer and shows an interest in the mouse, then start training the student on the use of the mouse. Use hand-over-hand at first (your hand over the student’s, helping him to guide and use the mouse to make a choice). You can fade prompts by moving your hand-over-hand to guiding at the elbow.

Touch Screen Problems

There are a number of possible touch screen issues. Touch screens can fall off or be moved. This is mostly a problem with touch screens that only velcro to the front of the monitor. Keytec’s touch screen (www.Magictouch.com) does not have this problem since it velcros to both the top and front of the monitor making it mechanically very stable. Touch screens that frequently fall off or move should be replaced since this problem will interfere with the student’s use of the system. You will need to recalibrate the touch screen every time the screen is moved or if the pointer is not under your finger. Calibrate the touch screen from the student’s vantage point.

Sometimes touch screens fail. If the touch screen does not work when you start up the system, try restarting your system. If the pointer returns to one point on the screen after you touch someplace else or otherwise will not respond, then you have a bad screen and need to have it replaced.

The Edmark touch screens can interrupt playing sound files like the voice files.

Commands and praises in the DT Trainer will sound like they stutter or sound like “Max Headroom”. Edmark has a fix for this problem; contact your DT

Trainer installer or go to the Edmark web site at www.Edmark.com to get an updated driver.

Printer

In general, buttons on the printer should not be accessible. Higher functioning students and students that do not tend to explore their environment may not have a problem with the buttons. In most cases, the printer should be placed out of the reach of students.

Computer

Consider turning the computer so that the front panel is not facing the student.

For example, a good arrangement for a standard desktop computer is to place the computer on the back of the table, on its side, and turned to the side so that the teacher can still reach the buttons and insert CDs. Another option is to place the computer under the table, but where it can not be kicked.

Speakers/Headphones

Speakers and headphones need to be of sufficient quality to produce good sound during a student’s training. Headphones are useful if the DT Trainer program sounds are disturbing other students. Headphones may also be useful in decreasing distracting noises in the training environment. A teacher will need to have two headphone sets with a splitter to be able to monitor a student’s training as needed. Check the volume in both headphones to ensure they are set at an appropriate volume.

Keyboard/Mouse

Place the keyboard out of the reach of students because there is no keyboard input during training. The mouse should be placed out of the reach of touch screen students to eliminate handling or playing with the mouse during training.

As noted earlier, the table surface should be approximately two inches above the crux of the elbow. This places the keyboard and mouse at the correct height and provides the appropriate support for the body. See “Table and Chair / Sitting and

Posture” for more information.

Chapter 1 1-12

Strategies

The teaching strategy is dependent on the student or students and whether the system is being used in a home or classroom situation. Most of the issues apply to either situation, but in a classroom, the administrator may also need to prioritize which students are started first.

Teaching Strategies

Administrators can use the DT Trainer with students in a variety of ways. Any student may benefit from several of the uses at the same time. A few uses of the

DT Trainer with students who have different needs follow.

Lead Teaching: The DT Trainer can be used for lead teaching on a program.

Just add the unknown program to the student’s training.

Generalization: Another use is for generalization of a program the student has already learned. The student may need less training on programs learned in another environment or program depending on his generalization skills. Set the initial train step higher for these programs than with unknown programs. The initial train step is dependent upon the student’s generalization skills. Poor generalizers may need to start at about the same step in the Train mode as they start a new program. Better generalizers can be started higher than the Train mode or even the Random mode. Use the

Step/State

options in the Program

Items dialog to reset the initial train step or mode.

Maintenance: The teacher can use the DT Trainer for maintenance of programs generally known to a student who still needs infrequent training. You only need to do this for students who tend to forget. Set the program train mode to Random or Maintenance from the

Step/State

options in the Program Items dialog.

Building Computer Interaction and Interest. For very low functioning students, choose some of the reinforcers that develop interactions with the computer and teach some basic cause and effect relationships. Use the student’s reinforcer manager (Reinforcer dialog box) to run the reinforcers. You can increase the run time of a reinforcer to give this student more time by overriding the default run time in the Reinforcer dialog box.

Student Strategies

Discover the reinforcers that students like. You may need to use the Reinforcer

Manager and test reinforcers in front of the student to see what the student likes.

These reinforcers may be related to favorite self-stimulation activities like water videos clips for students who love water. Parents may also be a good source of information on favorite activities or self-stimulation activities. If the DT Trainer does not have an appropriate reinforcer for the student, inform AES of the ideas

that you have for motivating reinforcers for the student. Email requests to

[email protected].

For moderately low functioning students select the “Pre-Trainer” profile where the student only has to touch the target item with no distracters to receive reinforcement. This should help them learn the basic cause and effect relationship of the discrete trial method. Start low functioning students slowly.

Students tend to like what they are familiar with, so build familiarity with both the overall program and specific reinforcers. Some students may need handover-hand support at first; a daily routine will also generally help.

Start higher functioning students first. Higher functioning students may more quickly become independent on the system allowing you to attend to other students or classroom activities.

For students initially not interested in reinforcers on the system, use external reinforcers and then pair them with DT Trainer reinforcers. Another option is to add other reinforcers like a video of a student performing a favorite activity.

Student Issues

The administrator needs to observe the student during training to identify possible issues. For example:

• Does the student understands the basic task?

• Is the student in general attending and staying on task?

• Has he realized that by responding correctly he receives reinforcement?

• Does he understand if he does well the system will move on?

• Does he look away or act bored during specific reinforcers?

Poor Pointing/Touching

Look for poor pointing or touching of the touch screen with touch screen users.

Train the student on a single firm touch of the screen with the index finger.

Watch out for multiple touch points, repeated touches, and light touches.

Practice pointing away from the computer screen. Use a pointing stylus only if necessary; try to get the student to use his index finger.

Sometimes a student may need to use another pointing device. Any device that can simulate a mouse is a potential input device for the DT Trainer. As discussed earlier in “Training Environment Issues” on page 1-10, monitor placement in relation to the student can be critical for touch screen users. A straight single touch with reasonable force is a good “touching” action for touch screen users. Monitors placed too high may cause a student to reach up, possibly touching the screen in several places with a fist or curled fingers resulting in a

Chapter 1 1-14

bad touch. A student may actually know the correct response but because of a

“bad” touching action he may touch the wrong choice first.

Student Distractions

Keep the student from playing with the screen by saying “hands down” or

“hands quiet”, or use hand-over-hand to bring the student’s hands down, and praise the student for hands down. The student should only reach to touch the screen as a response to the trial or with interactive reinforcers, otherwise his hands should be down away from the screen at all other times. The buttons and printed designs on the front of the monitor can be a problem for students using a touch screen. Designs on the monitor sometimes cause a problem if they provide tactile stimulation when the student rubs his finger back and forth across the design. If necessary, cover these designs by placing tape over them or taping a piece of foam core board over the buttons. You may have to cut a groove in the board so that it does not interfere with raised buttons.

Poor Mouse Skills

The wrong mouse can cause problems for some students. The scrolling wheel on a mouse can be a distracting stim activity, and the right mouse button can also be a problem. If one or more students are having problems, consider getting a two-button or a one-button mouse. Adaptive mice can be found in various catalogs or you may want to consult your occupational therapist. Also watch for a student that just keeps clicking. You may need to do some hand-over-hand work to correct this problem. Some of the reinforcers like Circle Pop, Scribble

Color, Flood Fill Coloring, and Liner are good for building mouse skills. Use the student’s reinforcer manager to play these reinforcers.

Student Behavioral Problems

For students with behavioral problems start slow and build a routine. Pair external reinforcers with DT Trainer reinforcers if necessary, and remove distractions. DT Trainer allows you to start with only the reinforcer programs for short periods of time. Once positive reinforcers are identified, you can gradually increase the time spent training and start to add some content programs. See “Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers” on page 7-6 for instructions.

As you are well aware, have a lot of patience. Unfortunately behavioral problems can prevent students from using the DT Trainer just as they prevent students from learning in general.

Desktop Distractions

You can set the desktop to have a screen saver that is password protected so that students are unable to access the classroom computer. A plain black screen saver makes the computer appear to be off and is the most non-distracting screen saver.

Errors

If the DT Trainer reports an error, send an email to [email protected].

Please include the error message and what was happening on the system at the time of the error. Also include the student name, the time, the program and item, or reinforcer.

Removing DT Trainer

DT Trainer can be removed using the Add/Remove Programs dialog box in

Windows. Removing DT Trainer removes all program files and student configuration files. To remove DT Trainer, perform the following steps:

1. Select

Start > Settings > Control Panel > Add/Remove Programs

. The

Add/Remove Programs dialog box is displayed with a list of installed programs.

2. Select

DT Trainer

in the list. When selected, additional information is displayed as shown in the following figure.

3. Click

Change/Remove

. The InstallShield Wizard is loaded.

4. When the InstallShield Wizard dialog box is displayed, select

Remove

and then click

Next

.

5. Follow the instructions in the InstallShield Wizard.

Support

Visit www.DTTrainer.com/support/ for the most current support information.

Chapter 1 1-16

Chapter

2

Student Training

Training Terms ........................................................................2-2

Trial ..................................................................................2-2

Trained..............................................................................2-2

Discriminative Stimulus ...................................................2-2

Sample Trial .....................................................................2-2

Target Item .......................................................................2-3

Distracter ..........................................................................2-3

Prompts.............................................................................2-4

Prompt Level 0 ..........................................................2-4

Prompt Level 3 ..........................................................2-4

Prompt Level 2 ..........................................................2-4

Prompt Level 1 ..........................................................2-5

DT Trainer Modes ............................................................2-5

Train Mode ................................................................2-5

13 Steps of Train Mode .............................................2-5

Random Mode ...........................................................2-6

Maintenance Mode ....................................................2-6

Training An Item ..............................................................2-6

Programs ..................................................................................2-7

Individual Program Options..............................................2-7

Discriminative Stimulus...........................................................2-7

A Student’s Training Session ...........................................2-7

Reinforcers...............................................................................2-8

Selection Screen................................................................2-9

Smart Reinforcers .............................................................2-9

Reinforcer Categories .....................................................2-11

Activities Category ..................................................2-11

Non-Interactive........................................................2-13

Sounds .....................................................................2-13

User .........................................................................2-13

Videos......................................................................2-14

The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize you with what a student will experience during training. It defines and illustrates terms used during a student’s training, and covers DT Trainer programs, discriminative stimulus, and reinforcement.

Training Terms

Trial

A trial is a task requiring a simple response from a student. The DT Trainer presents a single task to be completed during each trial.

Trained

The term trained in this manual implies that an item or items in a program are being repeatedly presenting to the student or have been repeatedly presented to the student in numerous trials. If an item is said to have been trained, the student can identify and associate to some level information, such as a function, label, or sound, to the item.

Discriminative Stimulus

The discriminative stimulus (SD) is a command telling the student what to do.

Sample Trial

If the SD is “What is 1 +

1?” the student should touch or click the number

“2” which is the target item. The DT Trainer supports both touch screen and mouse input.If the response is correct, the student receives variable praise (“way to go”,

“awesome”, etc.) and direct reinforcement of the concept being taught.

The concept reinforcement may be an image, text, or animation depending on the program being trained as well as verbal reinforcement of the concept. The student’s name is sometimes used in the praise. For example the student might receive the verbal praise and reinforcement, “Good job, Bill. One plus one equals two.” while “1 + 1 = 2” is displayed. Based on the reinforcement frequency, the student will receive a reinforcer.

Chapter 2 2-2

An incorrect response may be followed by the image and verbal indicator of the correct response if the administrator chooses to use the default setting of a correction. Other options to an incorrect response include the software saying

“No” or “Try again”, or an action such as blanking the screen, doing nothing, or a combination of these, and then starting a new trial. If the student does not respond to the SD given within the default time of 10 seconds, the DT Trainer goes to Wait Mode. Once the student again responds to the system, the DT

Trainer starts a new trial.

Target Item

The target item is an item presented to the student to be trained, and is always the

CORRECT choice. The target item is always randomly positioned across the bottom of the screen.

Distracter

An item used to provide the student with an incorrect alternative to the target item is called a distracter. A distracter is used to determine if the student really knows the correct response. If the student chooses a distracter, in this case the block or the crayon, the trial is recorded as incorrect.

One or two distracters are presented to the student during a trial. There are two types of distracters. A non-familiar distracter is an item that the student has not yet trained.

Non-familiar distracters are less distracting to the student than familiar distracters.

Trials using non-familiar distracters are easier than trials using familiar distracters.

A familiar distracter is an item that the student has already trained. Familiar distracters are more distracting to the student than non-familiar distracters. Trials using familiar distracters are harder than trials using non-familiar distracters.

Note: Some programs do not have the familiar/unfamiliar distracters (images or text).

Prompts

Row 3

Row 2

Row 1

Prompt Level 0

The easiest prompt level is PL0 because the target item is presented alone on the screen with no distracters. There is only one answer possible, so the task is simply to touch the target item. This is called Prompt Level 0 because there are no distracters.

Prompts are visual clues of position or size and vary in degree of difficulty. The DT Trainer applies prompting by placing distracters in row 3 or 2, or by displaying the distracter smaller than the target item, or with a combination of both visual clues. As the distracter is moved from Row 2 to Row 1, the prompt is eliminated.

Prompt Level 3

Distracters placed in row 3 are the easiest to determine as the incorrect answer. The visual clue is the vertical distance between one or more distracters and the target. This trial for the student is easy because the vertical distance between the distracter and the target is at the highest level or farthest in distance.

This is called Prompt Level 3 because the distracters are placed in row 3.

Prompt Level 2

Distracters placed in row 2 are a little

harder to determine as the incorrect answer.

This trial for the student is harder than

Prompt Level 3 because the vertical distance between one or more distracters and the target is less than in Prompt Level 3. This is called Prompt Level 2 because the distracters are placed in row 2.

Chapter 2 2-4

Prompt Level 1

Distracters placed in row 1 are the hardest to determine as the incorrect answer. This trial for the student is the hardest because there is no visual clue indicating the correct or incorrect answer. Since the prompt has been eliminated, the trial is a discrimination task. This is called Prompt Level 1 because the distracters are placed in row 1, the same row as the target item.

DT Trainer Modes

There are three training modes in the DT Trainer: Train mode, Random mode and Maintenance mode. Only the Train mode uses prompting and has multiple levels of difficulty. The Random and Maintenance modes are strictly discrimination tasks.

Train Mode

The Train mode is a high intensity introduction to program items. An item is repetitively presented to a student through a series of up to 13 steps or levels of difficulty. These steps are determined by the number of distracters on the screen, the prompt level, and the student’s familiarity with the images. For example, if the item being trained is “Ball,” then “Ball” will be repetitively drilled through the training steps.

13 Steps of Train Mode

Only the Train mode uses a combination of number of distracters, Prompt Level

(PL) and Familiar Distracters (FD) or Non-Familiar Distracters (NFD). There are 13 steps with step 0 being the easiest and step 12 being the hardest.

Difficulty is determined by the type of distracter presented and the prompt level placement.

The following list shows the 13 steps with the corresponding descriptions.

Step 12 >

Step 11 >

Step 10 >

Step 9 >

Step 8 >

Step 7 >

Step 6 >

Step 5 >

Step 4 >

Target + 2 FD at PL1

Target + 2 FD at PL2

Target + 2 FD at PL3

Target + 1 FD at PL1

Target + 1 FD at PL2

Target + 1 FD at PL3

Target + 2 NFD at PL1

Target + 2 NFD at PL2

Target + 2 NFD at PL3

Step 3 >

Step 2 >

Step 1 >

Step 0 >

Target + 1 NFD at PL1

Target + 1 NFD at PL2

Target + 1 NFD at PL3

Target Only

Random Mode

The Random mode is a less intensive continuation of training. The student has advanced the item from the repetitive drilling of the Train mode. The item is

familiar to a student but not completely learned. During the Random mode, DT

Trainer presents the item randomly. For example if the student has advanced

“Ball” from the Train mode to the Random mode, “Ball” will be randomly presented with other items already in the Random mode during a student’s training. Advancing from the Random mode demonstrates basic knowledge of an item.

Maintenance Mode

The Maintenance mode is a low intensity continuation of training. The item is now generally known to the student. An item that is in the Maintenance mode is presented to the student, but very infrequently.

The Maintenance mode ensures that the student remembers the item. For example, if “Ball” has advanced to the Maintenance mode, “Ball” will be presented to the student during training of other maintenance items, but very infrequently. Advancing from the Maintenance mode demonstrates knowledge retention.

Training An Item

The training flow of a single item is based on a student’s response to each trial versus the advancement and fallback criteria that has been set for the student.

The training flow starts with an untrained item presented to the student for training. The item is marked as being in the Train mode and is trialed repeatedly.

Once the student has advanced the item through the Train mode, the item is marked as being in the Random mode. The DT Trainer now presents the item

“randomly” while the student is receiving training on another item. Upon advancement from the Random mode, the DT Trainer marks the item as

Maintenance, and the item is presented less frequently. Moving the item from the Maintenance mode, the DT Trainer marks the item as Proficient. Items marked as proficient are not presented to the student for training.

Incorrect trials also affect the progress of an item. Incorrect responses from the student will move an item to a lower train mode or train step. The fallback criteria specify the number of incorrect responses a student can make before an item is moved to a lower train mode or train step.

Chapter 2 2-6

Programs

The DT Trainer has many programs that support learning. The topics include classification, counting, identification, matching, math, money, sequencing, spatial relations, time, word analysis, written words, and “wh---” questions (who, what, when, etc.). The program filters allow the administrator to break programs within these topics down by developmental level (2 years to 4th grade), skill

(money, letters, counting, etc.), and subject (life skills, language arts, math, etc.).

For a list of the content programs on your installation, start DT Trainer

Administration and then select

Common Administration > Programs

. DT Trainer plans to continue releasing new content programs in the future. For a complete list of content programs, see http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/content/.

Individual Program Options

Not all programs have the same options. Almost all programs allow you to specify whether or not to use random commands (SDs) or use the default command. Some programs allow you to randomize images of items or to select a default image. Programs may have options for cues, SDs (verbal, text, or both), and labeling. Program options are set using the Program Options dialog box. For more information, see “Program Options” on page 5-24.

Discriminative Stimulus

The Discriminative Stimulus (SD) mode is the type of command telling the student what to do. The command may be verbal or textual, or both verbal and textual.

The

Verbal option only uses a verbal command. Generally, young or other nonreading students are going to start with

Verbal

. The

Text

option has no verbal command and the student must read the text in order to respond. This is a good option for students starting to learn sight words. You can select the

Both

option to give a verbal command as well as a textual command. This option may help students that are good visual learners, but poor auditory learners. This may also be a good option where students are just starting to learn sight words.

Available options are dependent on the program.

A Student’s Training Session

The DT Trainer is launched for a student’s training session by the student or by the teacher with a student’s training icon such as

Brad Smith’s icon. Student icons are located in the DTT Students folder which can be opened by double-clicking the

DT Trainer

Students

icon on the desktop.

Auto run is the normal method for training a student for a session. In auto run mode, the DT Trainer picks active programs and modes to train randomly but does not repeat any program mode until all programs and modes have been trialed. Each program and mode is trialed for specified numbers of trials.

The DT Trainer also tries to end each program and mode on a successful trial.

The number of trials may be extended from the specified number if the student responds incorrectly on the last trial. When a session ends, the progress through the list of programs and modes is saved so that the next session continues to pick from the programs and modes that have not yet been trialed.

For example, the administrator has selected the “Colors,” “Shapes” and “Objects

1” programs for the student. Once the student or teacher has launched the training session, DT Trainer automatically runs the session.

Here is one possible random sequence for a training session:

1. The DT Trainer randomly picks the “Shapes” program and Random mode.

Items in this program and mode are trialed until the DT Trainer has performed a specified number of trials.

2. Next, the software randomly picks the “Colors” program and the Train mode. An item is repeatedly trialed until a specified number of trials have been performed. If the item is advanced to the Random mode before completing the specified number of trials, then the next item from the train order is used to complete the specified number of trials.

3. Then the DT Trainer randomly picks the “Shapes” program again but now the Train mode. The software runs a specified number of trials.

4. The next program picked may be “Objects 1” in the Maintenance mode.

The software continues to pick programs and modes randomly until all programs and modes have been trialed, and then the random selection starts again on all programs and modes.

For special situations, the teacher can start training with the Training Selection dialog. This dialog allows the teacher to pick the student, the program, and the training mode.

Reinforcers

Reinforcers are rewards for the student for one or more correct responses. Many of the reinforcers are not only “rewards” for the student, but are also “skill builders”. AES frequently provides a developmental sequence of a skill building reinforcer to allow progression from simpler versions to more advanced versions.

AES differentiates reinforcers within the sequence by using naming conventions like Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3, or with the number of pieces that corresponds to the level of difficulty such as a 4 piece puzzle or a 9 piece puzzle reinforcer.

Chapter 2 2-8

Selection Screen

Some reinforcers allow the student to pick which instance of the reinforcer to use. For example, a puzzle selection screen has a variety of puzzles for the student to pick from to solve. The student can choose the last one they did, or they may pick another puzzle to solve. Use the selection screens only if the student has choice making skills, otherwise just select single puzzles so that the student does not have to make a choice.

Smart Reinforcers

The names of smart reinforcers are preceded with the word “Super”. Examples of a smart reinforcers include SuperPop which is found in the

Activities\EyeHand category, and SuperBlinky and SuperPong which are found in the Activities\Games category. Smart reinforcers are designed to be highly configurable to each student, and are effective in skill building and teaching at many development levels.

Smart reinforcers have options that can be configured to customize the reinforcer. These options vary among the smart reinforcers. For example,

SuperBlinky has 24 levels and allows you to specify the starting (or current) level (1-24). The reinforcer can be configured to advance automatically after each success or allow for more practice at each level. The following figure shows the configuration screen for SuperBlinky.

The following figures illustrate various levels for SuperBlinky

Level 1

Chapter 2

Level 24

Level 12

As you can see, the complexity of the game corresponds to the playing level, with Level 1 being the easiest, and Level 24 being the most difficult.

Each smart reinforcer has its own set of defaults. You can use the defaults, change the defaults, or use custom settings.

2-10

For a list of current smart reinforcers available from AES, visit

http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/reinforcers/.

Reinforcer Categories

Currently Activities, Non-Interactive, Sounds, and Videos are the major reinforcer categories in DT Trainer. The reinforcers by AES provide a continuum beginning with very simple reinforcers appropriate for low functioning students. The User category is provided for adding your own reinforcers.

These could be web-based reinforcers or games such as Freecell.

To download additional reinforcers as they become available, visit

http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/reinforcers/.

Activities Category

The

Activities

category includes reinforcers that require the student to participate by either touching, clicking, or dragging during reinforcement.

The

Arts and Graphics

sub-category includes various drawing, painting, and other graphics activities.

Level 1 Flood Fill Coloring has eight big crayons and large coloring objects. The student will touch or click on a crayon and then “fill” in the picture, which in this example is a Duck in Water. With Level 1 or

Level 2, the crayons are large enough that the student can use a touch screen.

As you progress the student to Level 2 and

Level 3, the crayon size gets smaller, there are more colors to choose from, and the pictures become more detailed. The Parrot is a Level 3 Flood Fill Coloring example. The crayons and image areas are small enough that the student needs to use a mouse.

Basic Cause and Effect

reinforcers require the student to perform simple interactions. The

Dancing Bees reinforcer has bees that follow the student’s finger or the mouse pointer, while the student hears fun music.

The

Basic Problem Solving

reinforcers provide activities that improve appropriate play skills. Each of the reinforcers is similar to a cut-out doll activity. Basic problem solving activities are more appropriate for medium to high functioning students.

Controls

reinforcers provides visual stimulation. The Circling Dots reinforcer has a red dot rotates around a circle of dots. Rotation can be clockwise or counter-clockwise; the direction is controlled by touching or clicking the up or down arrow.

Eye Hand

activities improve a student’s eye-hand coordination. Eye-hand skills are improved with reinforcers such as Circle Pop. When the student clicks or touches a circle, it disappears with a popping sound. Circle Pop is simple enough for low functioning students but may be stimulating enough for higher functioning students. Once all the circles are gone, a frog croaks at the end as a reward for popping all the circles. This is an amazingly popular reinforcer.

The

Games

category includes jigsaw puzzles, matching, and other games. Puzzle

Sets come in 2 to 25 and selectable piece puzzles. The Selectable Puzzle allows the student to choose the size of each puzzle. Puzzles are ideal for medium to high functioning students. The puzzle pieces are “dragged” to the puzzle guide.

Once a piece is close to its spot, it “snaps” in upon release. Once a student has completed the puzzle, the

Back

button allows him to return to the selection screen and select another puzzle until his time runs out.

IntermediateCauseEffect

reinforcers are more advanced than those in the

BasicCauseEffect sub-category. For example, in Alien Invaders, the student has to fire a cannon ball at a moving spaceship and points are scored when the spaceship is hit.

Chapter 2 2-12

The

Music

reinforcers provide auditory stimulation. For example, the student can make a sound by touching, clicking, or dragging the mouse across piano keys in the Player Piano reinforcers. Various sounds can be selected from the instruments displayed at the bottom of the reinforcer screen. The difference between Player Piano 1 and Player Piano 2 (which correspond to level 1 and level 2) is that the number of keys increases.

Non-Interactive

The

Non-Interactive

reinforcers are for students who enjoy “visual effects”. These reinforcers are colorful and active.

Sounds

The administrator can choose individual songs for low functioning students or a song selection screen for students that can make choices. For example, the administrator may choose a single song like “The Itsy Bitsy

Spider”; the student hears the song while viewing the lyrics and an animated graphic.

User

This category contains reinforcers that you add; these reinforcers are not provided by AES. For example, you could add the Freecell game as a reinforcer.

Reinforcers that you add should be tested to verify that they work on your system. If you find that they don’t work properly, they should be removed. Third party reinforcers are not supported by AES. You can also create sub-categories under

User

for organizing your reinforcers. For information on adding your own reinforcers to DT Trainer, see “Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer”on page 7-2.

A list of suggested sites for obtaining reinforcers can be found at

http://www.dttrainer.com/support/webreinforcers/.

Videos

Videos are grouped into

Animations

and

Movies

.

“Bugs Day” is a sample of a DT Trainer

Animation

reinforcer. The bug crawls along and then jumps on a leaf as the student hears sound effects.

The “F-18 Plane Taking Off” is a sample of a DT Trainer

Movie

reinforcer.

Chapter 2 2-14

Chapter

3

Administration Overview

Overview of the DT Trainer Administration ...........................3-2

Student Template ..............................................................3-2

Initial Configuration .........................................................3-3

Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks...........3-3

Accessing DT Trainer Administration.......................3-3

Registering Your Software ......................................................3-3

Registration Dialog...........................................................3-4

Sending Registration Information..............................3-4

DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box...................................3-5

Student Administration Tab..............................................3-6

Common Administration Tab ...........................................3-7

Information Tab ................................................................3-9

Tips Tab..........................................................................3-11

Overview of the DT Trainer Administration

The DT Trainer was developed for multi-student use in a classroom or clinical environment, but can be used for a single student in a home environment. The

Program Administrator may be a teacher, therapist, or in some cases a parent.

DT Trainer Administration is used to setup and manage a student’s program.

The DT Trainer Administration dialog box is composed of the following four tabs:

• Student Administration

• Common Administration

• Information

• Tips

This chapter briefly describes these tabs and the options on them. These tabs and their options are described in more detail in Chapter 5.

The two most commonly used tabs are

Common Administration

and

Student

Administration

.

Common Administration

is used by the administrator to accomplish tasks that are common to all students. These tasks are initiated with the

Programs

,

Reinforcers

,

Student Options

,

Trend

and

Weekly

reports, and

Praise

Management

buttons.

Student Administration

is used to accomplish tasks that are

specific to a student. The administrator creates each student, and then “manages” each student’s training from this tab. These tasks are initiated with the

Create

,

Delete

,

Options

,

Programs

,

Reinforcers

, and student reports buttons.

Student Template

“Default Template” is the template used for all real students and content programs. You should make changes to the Default Template’s settings under

Common Administration

before you add real students if all or most of your students will have the same settings. This is not required but can save you some work if you don’t want to use the default settings.

One change that can save you a lot of work is altering the training order of items within content programs. You do not need to change the default order unless you have strong preferences on the order that items should be trained for all your students. If the order of items trained will be different for each student, then do not change the Default Template, but just change the item order in the programs for each specific student.

Chapter 3 3-2

Initial Configuration

Before you start adding and configuring students, you need to do the following:

• Familiarize yourself with the content programs (page 4-2)

• Familiarize yourself with reinforcers (page 4-3)

• Familiarize yourself with training profiles (page 5-12)

Note: Set up a practice student to familiarize yourself with the process. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Getting Started”.

Most Frequently Performed Administrative Tasks

As you read through the remainder of this manual, keep in mind the following topics and carefully read sections related to them.

• Creating new students (page 6-7)

• Configuring students

Options:

− Changing the training profile for all programs (page 5-12)

− Changing the number of consecutive trials trained to a specific mode

(page 5-8)

Programs:

− Adding and deleting programs (page 5-15)

− Changing the step and state of specific items within a program (page

5-18)

Reinforcers: Adding and removing programs for a student (page 5-30)

• Using student reports (page 5-31)

− Viewing training logs, trend reports, and train states

− Creating notes

Accessing DT Trainer Administration

To open the DT Trainer Administration program, double-click the

DT Trainer Administration

icon on your computer screen desktop.

Registering Your Software

The first time that you open DT Trainer Administration, you are asked to register the software. If you choose not to register the software at this time you will be prompted each time you start the DT Trainer Administration by the

License Control dialog box.

After a 30 day period you will be unable to run the DT

Trainer until you register the software for either an evaluation extension which must be requested or by purchasing the software. You can register the software at any time by clicking

Register

on the pop-up reminder or by clicking

License / Registration

on the

Information

tab of DT

Trainer Administration.

Registration Dialog

This section explains how to register your software. This process involves pasting information to a web page. You will need an authorization code. If you have already purchased DT Trainer, you should have received your authorization code. If you need an authorization code, contact AES.

Copy This

(Hover your mouse over the highlighted text, right-click, and then choose

Copy

.)

Sending Registration Information

1. Copy the highlighted text as shown in the previous figure.

2. Using Internet Explorer, open the URL www.DTTrainer.com/Register.htm.

Select the appropriate type of registration to display its registration form.

Chapter 3 3-4

3. Enter your authorization code and complete the form. On the form there is a place to paste the registration information. Right-click in that field and select

Paste

.

4. Click

Submit

at the bottom of the form.

If you have problems with the web registration form, please email the information to [email protected].

If your DT Trainer program is not installed on a computer that has web access, then you may want to copy and paste the information into a blank document using a word processor or text editor such as Notepad, and then take that document to another system that has web access.

AES will provide you with an activation code and customer ID within 24 hours

(weekdays) in most cases. Insert the activation code in the

Activation Code

box and the customer ID in the

Customer ID

box. Click

Process Registration

to complete the registration.

DT Trainer Administration Dialog Box

As noted earlier, the DT Trainer Administration dialog box is composed of four tabs.

The

Common Administration

tab is used to accomplish tasks that are common to all students. These tasks are initiated with the

Program

,

Student Options

,

Reinforcers

,

Set Password

,

Praise Management

, and the

Trend

and

Weekly

report buttons.

The

Student Administration

tab is used to accomplish tasks that are specific to a student. The administrator creates each student, and then manages each student’s training from this tab. These tasks are initiated with the

Create

,

Delete

,

Options

,

Programs

,

Reinforcers

,

Train

, and student report buttons.

The

Information

tab is used to identify the user and DT Training location and to display registration and Accelerations Educational Software (AES) company information.

The

Tips

tab displays additional information on topics such as new features and problems that are not documented in this manual.

In the sections that follow, the buttons, lists, and options on each tab are described. Dialog boxes that are displayed as the result of clicking a button on one of these tabs or in another dialog box are described in Chapter 5.

Student Administration Tab

The administration of a specific student is initiated from the

Student

Administration

tab. Once students have been created, their names are listed in the drop down list in the

Currently Selected Student

section. The selected student is the student currently displayed in the name field; changes made to student options, programs and reinforcers are applied only to the selected student.

This dialog box has the following main sections.

Currently Selected Students.

Contains options for selecting the current student and for creating and deleting students.

Student Configuration.

Contains options for changing the selected student’s options, programs, and reinforcers.

Student Reports.

Contains options for displaying various progress reports for the selected student.

Special Training Tool.

Contains an option for starting a student’s training program in a specific mode.

Create.

Creates or adds students to the DT Trainer program. The create student process walks you through a series of dialogs. These dialogs may be accessed at any later time to adjust the currently selected student’s training.

Chapter 3 3-6

Delete.

Deletes the name of the selected student from the list and removes the student’s settings from the program.

Options.

Displays the Student Options dialog box for configuring settings for the selected student’s training. Once set, these options rarely change.

Programs.

Displays the Programs dialog box for viewing a list of programs and tailoring the selected student’s educational content and training flow.

Reinforcers.

Displays the Reinforcers dialog box for adding, removing, and editing the reinforcers and reinforcer run times.

Program Trends.

Displays the Program Trend Report that shows a weekly history of all programs or just active programs.

Train States.

Displays the Train States Report that shows a snapshot of the training states of each program item.

Trial Results.

Displays the Trial Results Report that shows a summary of the overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level.

Training Log.

Displays the Weekly Training Log that shows a student’s training log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks.

Notes.

Displays the Weekly Notes dialog that provides the means for documenting information specific to the student on a weekly basis.

Train.

Displays the Training Selection dialog box for use in special situations where you want to train a student on only one program and in a specific training mode.

Common Administration Tab

The administration of content programs and program items, reinforcers for all students, administration password, and global student options is initiated from the

Common Administration

tab. Class level reports are also accessed from this tab. Changes to programs, reinforcers, and student options affect only those students created later. Existing students are not affected by the changes.

Common Administration

has the following options.

Programs.

Displays the DT Trainer Programs dialog box for managing content programs and program items.

Student Options.

Displays the Student Options dialog box for the Default

Template. Changes made to this student template affect only students created after the changes. Some of the options that can be set include whether a touch screen is used for training, the session duration, and training screen color.

Reinforcers.

Displays the Reinforcer Manager dialog box for performing management tasks such as editing, removing, activating, and testing an existing reinforcer and adding new reinforcers.

Maintenance

. Contains an option for managing DT Trainer data by allowing you to backup and restore data for one or more students.

Password.

Activates the password access feature. If checked, the next time DT

Trainer is opened, the Enter Password dialog box is displayed and the user must enter the appropriate password to access the DT Trainer Administration window.

Set Password.

Displays the Set Password dialog box for specifying the password that must be used when opening DT Trainer.

Password

must be checked for the password to be put into effect.

Chapter 3 3-8

Activate Development Features.

Displays additional tabs and options on the various dialog boxes that allow you to perform development level tasks such as adding your own programs to DT Trainer. This option should only be used by very advanced administrators. Development features are not documented in this manual. For more information, visit www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.

Trend.

Displays the System Trend Report that shows a number of summaries by student and class. This report shows trends across training weeks and is useful for seeing how the class is doing and which students may have training issues.

Weekly.

Displays the System Training Weekly Report that shows a number of summaries for training results for each student and the class. The reports are in the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing a student’s progress with their program content.

If

Activate Development Features

is selected, the Advanced / Development group box is displayed as shown in the following figure.

Praise Management.

Displays the Praise

Manager dialog box for editing existing praises and creating new praises. In general, it is not necessary to administer praises since

DT Trainer installs the praises appropriate for each program. This is an advanced feature.

Information Tab

The

Information

tab allows you to enter user and DT Trainer location information, view registration and company information, and register the product.

Information such as the teacher’s name, the class or location, the school or building, and the school district is used for support purposes.

Information

has the following main sections and buttons.

User and DT Trainer Location Information.

Contains the following text boxes for entering user and location information.

• Teacher’s Name

• Class or Location

• School or Bldg.

• Sch. Dist. or Inst.

AES Contact Information.

Displays relevant contact information for Accelerations

Educational Software such as product related URLs, email addresses, phone numbers, phone numbers and mailing address.

Registration Information.

Displays information such as the type of license, expiration date, authorized program count, and the number of created students. It also contains a

License / Registration

button for displaying the Registration dialog box.

License / Registration.

Displays the Registration dialog box for registering DT

Trainer.

Chapter 3 3-10

Tips Tab

Additional information on topics such as new features and suggestions for frequently encountered problems are displayed in a scrollable window on this tab.

If checked, the

Show Tips first on DT Trainer Administration startup

check box shows the

Tips

tab instead of the

Student Administration

tab when DT Trainer is started.

Chapter

4

Getting Started

Step 1: Start DT Trainer...........................................................4-2

Step 2: Review the Content Programs .....................................4-2

Step 3: Review the Reinforcers................................................4-3

Step 4: Setup a Practice Student ..............................................4-4

Step 5: Train Like a Student ....................................................4-8

Step 6: Practice Administration ...............................................4-9

Step 7: Setup the Training Environment................................4-10

Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer ..............................................4-10

The purpose of this chapter is to help you become familiar with DT Trainer so that you’ll be better prepared to manage the programs within DT Trainer and your students.

Step 1: Start DT Trainer

If you have installed DT Trainer, there should be a

DT Trainer Administration

icon on your desktop.

• Double-click the

DT Trainer Administration

icon on your desktop.

Step 2: Review the Content Programs

DT Trainer is installed with over 120 programs. As new content programs become available, they may be downloaded from

http://www.dttrainer/support/update/.

Before you can appropriately select programs for a student, you need to have some knowledge about the content of the programs. The best way to do this is to preview the programs.

1. Click the

Common Administration

tab.

2. Click

Programs

to display the DT Trainer Programs dialog box that lists all the programs. A short description appears to the right of each program name in the

Description

column. By default, all programs are listed and content is sorted by topic which can be identified by the prefix to the left of the program name. For example, Identification programs have the prefix

“Ident” placed before the program named Colors (e.g.,Ident-Colors). A complete list of topics and their prefixes can be found at

http://www.dttrainer.com/pi/content/. The DT Trainer Programs dialog box is described on page 5-38.

You can filter the list of programs to view only those programs that meet the Level, Skill, and Subject criteria you specify. This can substantially reduce the number of programs you will need to preview.

3. To filter the list, click the

Program Filters

tab and then click

Edit Criteria

to display the Edit

Programs Criteria dialog box. Click the plus (+) icon to expand the Level, Skill, or Subject list.

Check the levels, skills, and subjects you’re interested in to display only programs that meet the criteria checked and then click

Select

.

Filter the list so that it lists only programs suitable for 1st graders, ± one year as shown.

Chapter 4 4-2

Tip: Set filters for the target development age range plus or minus one year.

4. Click a program name to select (highlight) it.

5. Click

Preview

on the

Actions

tab to preview (demo) a trial of the program.

6. Click

Items

to view the items in the program in the Program Items dialog box. Click

Done

to close the dialog box. The Program Items dialog box is described on page 5-18.

7. Click

Options

to view additional information and the options that can be set for the program in the Program Options dialog box. These options vary from program to program. Click

Done

to close the dialog box. The Program

Options dialog box is described on page 5-24.

8. Click the

Program Info

tab to display detailed information about the program such as skills trained by the program, age/education appropriate levels, options, training method used, prerequisites, and related programs. Other information such as credits and next steps may also be provided.

9. Repeat steps 4 through 8 for each program that you want to review.

10. Click

Done

to close the DT Trainer Programs dialog box and return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Step 3: Review the Reinforcers

DT Trainer is installed with hundreds of reinforcers and they are grouped into these major categories: Activities, Non-Interactive, Sounds, User, and Videos.

As new reinforcers become available, they may be downloaded from

http://www.dttrainer.com/support/updates/.

Before you can appropriately select reinforcers for a student, you need to know what the student likes and determine which reinforcers would appeal to the student. The best way to do this is to test the reinforcers to see what they do and then prior to assigning reinforcers to a student, test the reinforcers with the student and observe his reaction.

Testing (previewing) the reinforcers allows you to verify that the reinforcers work properly on the system.

1. Click the

Common Administration

tab.

2. Click

Reinforcers

to display the Reinforcer Manager dialog box that lists all the reinforcers under the appropriate category.

3. To view the reinforcers in a category or sub-category, click the plus (+) icon to the left of a category to expand its list.

4. Click a reinforcer name to select (highlight) it.

5. Click

Preview

to preview the reinforcer.

6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for several reinforcers in each category and subcategory.

7. Click

Done

to close the Reinforcer Manager and return to the

Common

Administration

tab.

For more information on the Reinforcer Manager dialog box, see page 5-42.

Basic reinforcer management tasks are covered in Chapter 6.

Step 4: Setup a Practice Student

This section walks you through the creation of a practice student.

1. Click the

Student Administration

tab.

2. Click

Create

. The following prompt is displayed.

3. Type “Practice Student” and then click

Done

. The Student Options prompt is displayed.

4. Click

OK

. The Student Options dialog box is displayed. Only the

Basic

tab is displayed when creating a new student. For more information on the

Student Options dialog box, see page 5-6.

Chapter 4 4-4

5. Click

Select New Profile

to display the Select Training Profile dialog box.

For more information on the Select Training Profile dialog box, see page

5-12.

6. Select “Early Learner 2” from the

Select Profile

list and then click

Select

.

The Student Options dialog box is displayed.

7. Click

Done

on the Student Options dialog box. The Student Setup prompt is displayed.

8. Click

OK

. The Select Content Programs dialog box is displayed. For more information on the Select Content Programs dialog box, see page 5-17.

9. Select the programs you want to add to the student and then click

Select

.

For the Practice Student, highlight the “Sequence-Days...”, “Sequence-

Months...”, and “Sequence-Nums...” programs as shown in the following figure and then click

Select

. To select multiple programs, press and hold the

CTRL

key as you click on the names of the programs you want to add.

Note: You can also edit the filter criteria by clicking

Edit Criteria

and changing the criteria if the global filter criteria are not appropriate for the new student. The filter criteria shown in the following figure was set earlier in “Step 2: Review the Content Programs.”

Chapter 4 4-6

10. The Programs dialog box and the Question prompt are displayed.

11. Click

Yes

. The Reinforcement Setup prompt is displayed.

12. Click

OK

. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. For more information on the Add Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-30.

13. Expand the Activities category and then the BasicCauseEffect sub-category by clicking the plus (+) icon to the left of these category names.

14. Click

DancingBees.ref

and then click

Add

to add the reinforcer to the

Student’s Reinforcers list. Add the reinforcers Animal Noises and

DrawBots. As each reinforcer is added, it is moved from the

Available

Reinforcers

list to the

Student’s Reinforcers

list.

15. Click

Done

. The following prompt is displayed.

16. Click

Done

. A training icon named “Practice Student” is created in the DT

Trainer Students folder and the following prompt is displayed.

17. Click

OK

. The setup for the new student is complete and the

Student

Administration

tab is displayed.

18. Click

Exit

to close DT Trainer Administration.

Step 5: Train Like a Student

As you train like the Practice Student, trials for the items in the selected programs are presented randomly. The default trial timeout is 10 seconds. If you don’t respond to the SD within 10 seconds, the program goes into Wait Mode and displays the GO screen. When the session times out, the program tells you it is closing and then automatically closes. The default session time is 10 minutes.

Note: The trial timeout can be changed for each student and for each student’s program.

The following information shows the selections made during the creation of the

Practice Student.

Training Profile:

Early Learner 2 with an Initial Train Step of 4.

Programs:

Sequence-DaysOfWeek-After

Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before

Sequence-Months-After

Sequence-Months-Before

Sequence-Numbers0to9-After

Sequence-Numbers1to10-Before

Chapter 4 4-8

Reinforcers

Animal Noises

DrawBots

DancingBees

1. Double-click the

DT Trainer Students

icon on the desktop to open the folder containing the student training icons.

2. Double-click the

Practice Student

training icon.

Note: If you prefer to have the student’s icon on the desktop, you can place a copy of it on the desktop by dragging and dropping the icon in the folder onto the desktop while pressing the

Ctrl

key.

3. Click inside the green oval containing “GO” to start the training.

4. Respond to each trial.

A reinforcer token is earned for each correct response. These tokens appear in the lower-right corner of the screen. Earned tokens are solid green; when all tokens are green, a reinforcer is run. For the Practice Student, the default number of earned tokens required to run a reinforcer is three.

5. While being the “Practice Student” observe the student’s training environment. Note any problems that could interfere with a student’s learning.

6. To exit the training at any time, press

D

.

Step 6: Practice Administration

After a student has been created, the student’s name appears in the

Currently

Selected Student

list on the

Student Administration

tab. Programs, options, and reinforcers can be changed at any time for a student in the list. The following steps walk you through several changes to the training program and options for the Practice Student.

1. Start DT Trainer Administration.

2. Click the

Student Administration

tab.

3. Select “Practice Student” from the

Currently Selected Student

list.

4. Change the training profile to “Pre-Trainer”.

Select

Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile

to display the Select Training

Profile dialog box. Click the

Select Profile

arrow and select “Intermediate

Learner 1” from the list. Click

Select

to close the dialog box and return to the

Basic

tab within Student Options.

5. Change the session duration to five (5) minutes.

On the

Basic

tab in the Limit Session Duration group box, type “5” in the

Minutes

box and then click

Done

.

6. Delete the following programs from the student’s training program:

• Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before

• Sequence-Months-Before

• Sequence-Numbers1to10-Before

Select

Programs

to display the Programs dialog box. Highlight “Sequence-

DaysOfWeek-Before” and then click

Delete

. When prompted, click

Yes

to confirm that you want to delete the program. Delete the other two programs.

7. Add the “Ident-Colors” program to the student’s training program and then preview the program.

Select

Programs > Add

, highlight “Ident-Colors” in the

Available Programs

list and then click

Select

. Click

Yes

in response to the question. Highlight

“Ident-Colors” and then click

Preview

. Click

Done

to close the Programs dialog box.

8. Explore the other features available from the

Student Administration

tab.

9. Explore the features available from the

Common Administration

tab.

Step 7: Setup the Training Environment

If the training environment has not been evaluated and adapted to improve physical access to the computer system and reduce distractions while using the computer, please do so now. Any problems that were noticed while “being a student” should be corrected before you begin training students. For more suggestions on ways to make the training area better for your sudents, see

“Training Environment Issues” on page 1-10.

Step 8: Start Using DT Trainer

1. Prior to creating new students, make any desired global changes using the

Common Administration

tab. For example, if the majority of your students will be using a touch screen, select

Student Options > Basic

tab and then check the

Touch Screen

option. This change is made to the default template and affects all new students created from this point forward.

2. Create the students.

3. If necessary, make any necessary changes to the training program of the individual students (student options, programs, program items, reinforcers, etc.) prior to starting training.

Chapter 4 4-10

4. Start training your students.

• Teaching strategies are dependent on the student or students being trained and their environment. Administrators can use the DT Trainer in a variety of ways. For additional information on teaching strategies see page 1-13.

• Student strategies are dependent on the student’s or students’ degree of functioning and interest. The administrator needs to observe each student during training to identify possible issues. For additional information on student strategies and issues see pages 1-13 through

1-16.

Chapter

5

The DT Trainer Interface

How to Access a Specific Dialog Box .....................................5-3

Dialog Box Path................................................................5-3

Hover Help...............................................................................5-4

Student Administration ............................................................5-4

Student Options........................................................................5-6

Basic Tab ..........................................................................5-7

Other Tab..........................................................................5-8

Intermediate Tab...............................................................5-9

Advanced Tab.................................................................5-11

Select Training Profile ...........................................................5-12

Programs ................................................................................5-14

Actions Tab.....................................................................5-15

Program Info Tab............................................................5-16

Select Content Programs........................................................5-17

Edit Programs Criteria ...........................................................5-18

Program Items........................................................................5-18

Basic Tab ........................................................................5-20

Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-20

Program Item Graph ..............................................................5-21

Program Item Training Log ...................................................5-22

Program Order Items..............................................................5-22

Program Options ....................................................................5-24

Intermediate Tab.............................................................5-25

Advanced Tab.................................................................5-26

Praise Activation....................................................................5-27

Training Sequence .................................................................5-28

Reinforcers.............................................................................5-29

Add Reinforcers.....................................................................5-30

Program Trend Report ...........................................................5-31

Train States Report ................................................................5-32

Weekly Trial Results Report..................................................5-33

Weekly Training Log.............................................................5-34

Weekly Notes.........................................................................5-35

Training Selection..................................................................5-36

Common Administration Tab ................................................5-36

DT Trainer Programs .............................................................5-38

Action Tab ......................................................................5-40

5-1 The DT Trainer Interface

Program Info Tab............................................................5-41

Program Filters Tab ........................................................5-41

Selection Keywords Tab.................................................5-41

Reinforcer Manager ...............................................................5-42

Edit Reinforcer.......................................................................5-44

Set Password..........................................................................5-46

System Trend Report .............................................................5-47

System Training Weekly Report............................................5-48

Praise Manager ......................................................................5-49

Chapter 5 5-2

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the dialog boxes displayed by DT

Trainer and their options. Several dialog boxes utilize tabs; generally, these tabs are labeled

Basic

,

Intermediate

, or

Advanced

. These tab names indicate the task level of the features and options available from the tab. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 cover the administrative tasks that are considered to be basic, intermediate, or advanced.

In many cases, common dialog boxes are accessed when performing common and student administration. In these cases, the dialog box is described only once.

If a tab or an option is not available or hidden during common or student administration, it is noted in the description.

How to Access a Specific Dialog Box

Some dialog boxes are used in the administration of specific students and common settings, programs, and reinforcers. Because there may be more than one way to access a dialog box and the path to a dialog box may involve clicking options on other dialog boxes, the complete sequence of “clicks” required to access each dialog box is provided. This sequence is referred to in this manual as the dialog box path.

Dialog Box Path

The following example shows the dialog box path to the Select Training Profile dialog box.

Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile

For example, to access the Select Training Profile dialog box using this path, perform these steps:

1. Click the

Student Administration

tab in the DT Trainer Administration window.

2. Click the

Options

button.

3. Click the

Basic

tab on the Student Options dialog box.

4. Click the

Select New Profile

button.

The path is provided at the beginning of each dialog box section in this chapter.

Dialog boxes that are common to both

Common Administration

and

Student

Administration

features have two paths.

5-3 The DT Trainer Interface

Hover Help

DT Trainer displays hover help when you position the cursor over a button or over an

INFO

or

TIP

icon as shown in the following figures. It should be noted that not all buttons display hover help. Hover help for buttons explains the function of the button. The

INFO

icon displays related information for the option to the left of the icon;

TIP

icons display information such as suggestions and recommendations.

Student Administration

The administrator utilizes the

Student Administration

tab to accomplish tasks that are specific to the selected student. Using features available on this tab, you can create and manage each student’s training.

Administration of a specific student is initiated from the

Student Administration

tab. Once students have been created, their names are listed in the drop down list in the

Currently Selected Student

section. The selected student is the student currently displayed in the list box; changes made to student options, programs and reinforcers are applied only to the selected student.

The

Student Administration

tab has the following main sections.

Currently Selected Students.

Contains options for selecting the current student, creating and deleting students.

Student Configuration.

Contains options for changing the selected student’s options, programs, and reinforcers.

Student Reports.

Contains options for displaying various progress reports for the selected student.

Special Training Tool.

Contains an option for starting a student’s training program in a specific mode.

Chapter 5 5-4

A description of the buttons and boxes follows.

Student List.

Name displayed indicates the currently selected student.

Create.

Creates or adds students to the DT Trainer program. The create student process walks you through a series of dialogs. These dialogs also may be accessed at any later time to adjust the students training.

Delete.

Deletes the name of the selected student from the list and removes the student’s settings from the program.

Options.

Displays the Student Options dialog box for configuring settings for the selected student’s training. Once set, these options rarely change. For a description of the Student Options dialog box, see page 5-6.

Programs.

Displays the Programs dialog box for viewing a list of programs and tailoring the selected student’s educational content and training flow. For a description of the Programs dialog box, see page 5-14.

Reinforcers.

Displays the Reinforcers dialog box for adding, removing, and editing the reinforcers and reinforcer run times. For a description of the

Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-29.

5-5 The DT Trainer Interface

Program Trends.

Displays the Program Trend Report that shows a weekly history of all programs or just active programs. For a description of the Program Trend

Report, see page 5-31.

Train States.

Displays the Train States Report that shows a snapshot of the training states of each program item. For a description of the Train States Report, see page 5-32.

Trial Results.

Displays the Weekly Trial Results Report that shows a summary of the overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level.

For a description of the Weekly Trial Results Report, see page 5-33.

Training Log.

Displays the Weekly Training Log that shows a student’s training log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks. For a description of the Weekly Training Log, see page 5-34.

Notes.

Displays the Weekly Notes dialog box that provides the means for documenting information specific to the student on a weekly basis. For a description of the Weekly Notes dialog box , see page 5-35.

Train.

Displays the Training Selection dialog box for use in special situations where you want to train a student on only one program and in a specific training mode. The dialog box allows you to select the student, the program, and the mode. For a description of the Training Selection dialog box , see page 5-36.

Student Options

Student Administration Tab > Options

Common Administration Tab > Student Options

Using the Student Options dialog box, you can configure the settings for a student’s training. Once set, many of the options will rarely change. This dialog box has four tabbed panes:

Basic

,

Other

,

Intermediate

, and

Advanced

. The

Basic

tab is the default tab.

Chapter 5 5-6

Basic Tab

Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab

Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Basic Tab

The options displayed on this tab must be set for each student. When a student is created, this tab is displayed.

Select New Profile.

Displays the Select Training Profile dialog box for choosing a different profile and setting training options such as the Initial Train Step, the

Reinforcer Tokens, and the Trial Timeout. This option is not available for the

Default Template. For a description of the Select Training Profile dialog box, see page 5-12.

Limit Session Duration to ___ Minutes.

Allows you to set a time limit on the student’s training session. This setting overrides the normal session duration and limits it to the number of minutes specified in the box. If selected, at the end of the session the DT Trainer tells the student “All Done, Bye Bye” and then ends the session. This is the recommended setting for classroom use.

Touch Screen.

Specifies whether or not the student will be using a touch screen.

When this option is checked, the pointer is not displayed during the student’s training since his finger is the pointer.

Male / Female.

Specifies the gender of the student.

5-7 The DT Trainer Interface

Other Tab

Student Administration Tab > Options > Other Tab

This tab has five main sections of options that allow you to specify student information, set the number of consecutive trials, specify DT Trainer’s reponse to incorrect responses, and specify the use of SDs.

Full Name.

Displays the student’s full name that the software uses on the screens and in reports. The full name should be in the form “John Doe” with capitalized first letters and a space between the first and last names.

Student Id.

Displays the identification number of the student. This field may be left blank if desired. It may be useful for institutional uses of the software.

Spoken.

Sets the name that the software uses to speak the student’s name in praises. There must be a corresponding <name>^.wav file for the DT Trainer to actually say the name.

User Name.

Specifies how often the student’s name is spoken in praises.

Train (#)

. Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the Train mode before training another program or mode. For example, lower the Train mode trials to limit the repeated trials of the same item.

Chapter 5 5-8

Random (#)

. Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the Random mode before training another program or mode

Maintenance (#).

Sets the number of trials performed consecutively in the

Maintenance mode before training another program or mode.

Verbal Response.

Specifies the spoken word for an incorrect response.

Display Correction

. If checked, displays only the target item in response to an incorrect response.

Blank Screen for ___ seconds.

Displays a blank screen before the next trial for the specified number of seconds.

Response Cost.

Removes previously earned reinforcement tokens when incorrect and no responses are given. This setting is generally not set for lower level students but is recommended for higher level students or if a student is intentionally responding incorrectly.

Randomize SDs / Use Default SD Only.

Allows you to vary the SDs where appropriate or use the default SD.

Randomize Images / Use Default Image Only.

Allows you to use randomized images (multiple exampliers) to promote generalization or to use only the default image.

Intermediate Tab

Student Administration Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab

Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Intermediate Tab

This tab has five main sections of options that allow you to override certain training profile parameters, set training screen options, specify the default speaker, select special reinforcer options, and create a new student training icon.

5-9 The DT Trainer Interface

Initial Training Step.

Specifies the starting step (0-12) for items in the Train mode.

For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.

Reinforcer Tokens.

Specifies the number of reinforcement tokens that must be earned (one token is earned for each correct response) in order for a reinforcer to be played. Tokens can be taken away for incorrect responses.

Trial Timeout.

Specifies the number of seconds allowed for each trial.

Screen Color.

Allows you to specify the color of the training screen by varying the amounts of Red, Green, and Blue using the sliding bars.

Display Buttons.

If checked, displays

Done

and

Pause

buttons on the training screen. If not checked, you will need to press

D

if you need to stop the program early.

Hide Tokens.

If checked, removes the visual display of earned tokens from the screen. It is recommended that you select this option only if the tokens are interfering with the student’s training.

Disable Escape Key.

If checked, prevents the student from being able to end the problem by pressing

Esc

. Generally, this is not necessary since you can remove the keyboard from the reach of the student.

Speaker.

Specifies the voice to be used for commands and praises.

Chapter 5 5-10

Only Reinforce at End of Training.

If checked, turns off the token based reinforcement and plays one reinforcer at the end of the training session.

Reinforcers Only.

If checked, the student’s training program skips trials and cycles only through the reinforcers. Use this option for very low functioning students who are not ready for trials or for special purposes such as building interest or teaching mouse skills.

Create Icon.

Displays a dialog box for recreating a deleted training icon for the selected student.

Advanced Tab

Student Administration Tab > Options > Advanced Tab

Common Administration Tab > Student Options > Advanced Tab

This tab has three main sections of options that allow you to adjust the distracter prompt levels, adjust the advancement and fallback criteria, and change student response options. The distracter prompt level settings allows you to set the distance and size of the distracters as compared to the target item.

PL3 Y Offset.

Specifies the vertical distance between rows 3 and 2.

PL3 Scaling.

Specifies the size of the distracters in row 3 in comparison to the training item.

5-11 The DT Trainer Interface

PL2 Y Offset.

Specifies the vertical distance between rows 2 and 1.

PL2 Scaling.

Specifies the size of the distracters in row 2 in comparison to the training item.

Advancement / Fallback Criteria.

Advancement is based on the number of

Correct

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level. Fallback is based on the number of

Incorrect

responses within a set number of

Trials

that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level. In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to respond correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the

Maintenance mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the item to fall back to Train PL1.

You can only view the Advancement / Fallback Criteria for the Default

Template.

Hide Target and Distracters until after SD.

Displays the stimulus images, text, or item questioned while the student is hearing the SD and then displays the target and distracters after the SD.

# of no reponses before Wait Mode.

Specifies the number of times the SD may be given before going into Wait Mode if there is no response by the student. This option is generally set to 1. This option may be useful if you have a student that needs to hear an instruction more than once. It should be noted that the student’s statistics are impacted by no responses to the trials. Repeating the SD can sometimes become reinforcing.

Block Early Responses.

Prevents the system from recording a response before the

SD is done.

Select Training Profile

Student Administration Tab > Options > Basic Tab > Select New Profile

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab >

Select New Profile

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab >

Select New Profile

The Select Training Profile dialog box allows you to view the description and parameters of the available student profiles and select a profile for the currently selected student.

Chapter 5 5-12

Clicking the

Select Profile

arrow displays a list of profiles from which to choose.

A general description for the selected profile is displayed in the field to the right of the drop down list. AES can easily customize profiles to conform to customer preferences. A brief description of each profile follows.

The Pre-Trainer (PT) profile displays only the target item during training and never advances beyond that. This is useful for a very low functioning student not yet ready for distracters. The student only has to touch the target item to receive reinforcement. The

Initial Train Step

is set to zero. The

Reinforcer Tokens

is set to reinforce after each trial.

The Early Learner 1 (EL1) profile is descriptive of a student that is very young or very low functioning, and is ready to use distracters. This student needs a lot of repetition and frequent reinforcement. The

Initial Train Step

is set to zero to provide a high amount of repetitive drilling. The

Reinforcer Tokens

is set to reinforce after one successful trial. This reinforcement schedule will help the student associate a correct response with the reinforcement.

The Early Learner 2 (EL2) and Intermediate Learner 1 (IL1) profiles are descriptive of a student that may be developmentally between three and five years old. The student is a slow learner and needs a moderate amount of reinforcement. The

Initial Train Step

is set to four or seven respectively to provide a moderate amount of repetitive drilling. The

Reinforcer Tokens

is set to reinforce after three or five successful trials respectively.

The Advanced Learner 1 and 2 (AL1 and AL2) profiles are descriptive of a student that is developmentally an elementary student. The student is a good learner, self-motivated, and only needs reinforcement occasionally. The

Initial

Train Step

is set to 10 or 11 to provide little repetitive drilling. The

Reinforcer

Tokens

is set to reinforce after 25, 50, or 100 successful trials respectively.

Advancement/Fallback Criteria.

This section shows the number of

Correct

and

Incorrect

responses within a set number of trials that either advances a student to

5-13 The DT Trainer Interface

the next training level for the training item or goes back to a lower training level.

Advancement is based on the number of

Correct

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level.

Fallback

is based on the number of

Incorrect

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.

Initial Train Step.

Displays the Step (0-12) at which Untrained Items begin training for the selected profile. For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.

Reinforcer Tokens.

Displays the number of earned tokens required for the DT

Trainer to activate a reinforcer for the selected profile.

Trial Timeout.

Displays the number of seconds that the DT Trainer waits after starting a trial before recording a “No Response” from the student. The default time for all profiles is 10 seconds.

Note: Clear the check boxes if you do not want to use the settings for

Initial

Train Step

,

Reinforcer Tokens

, or

Trial Timeout

. Overrides can be made to these settings in the Student Options - Intermediate tab.

Programs

Student Administration Tab > Programs

The Programs dialog box is used to view and tailor a student’s educational content and training flow. This dialog box has two tabs and a pane in which information about each program in the student’s training program is displayed in columnar format. The columns of information displayed for each content program in the student’s training program are as follows:

Program Name

,

Status

,

Profile

,

UnTrained

,

Train

,

Rand

,

Maint

,

Prof

, and

DNT

.

Chapter 5 5-14

Program Name.

Names of the programs selected for the student.

Status.

Displays Active or Inactive as the status for the program.

Profile.

Displays the student training profile for the program.

UnTrained.

The number of untrained items in the program.

Train.

The number of trained items in the program.

Rand.

The number of program items in the Random mode.

Maint.

The number of programs items in the Maintenance mode.

Prof.

The number of programs items in which the student is proficient.

DNT.

The number of program items which are not to be trained. DNT is an acronym for “Do Not Train.”

Actions Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab

This tab has two sections,

Basic

and

Advanced

that contain buttons for performing basic and advanced management tasks.

5-15 The DT Trainer Interface

Add.

Displays the Select Content Programs dialog box that allows you to select and add programs not yet in the current student’s program list. For a description of the Select Content Programs dialog box, see page 5-17.

Print.

Displays the Print dialog box that allows you to print the program information displayed.

Preview.

Demonstrates the selected training program.

Items.

Displays the Program Items dialog box, allowing you to edit, view, and order items within the selected program. For a description of the Program Items dialog box, see page 5-18.

Options.

Displays the Program Options dialog box, allowing you to set options that are common to the items in the selected program for a student such as the training profile. For a description of the Program Options dialog box, see page

5-24.

Toggle Active.

Toggles the active status of the selected program between

“Active” and “Inactive” to deactivate or reactivate a program in the student’s list.

Delete.

Removes the selected program from the student’s list of programs.

Praise.

Displays the Program Praise Activation dialog box for viewing and managing the status of each praise script. For a description of the Program

Praise Activation dialog box, see page 5-27.

Sequence.

Displays the Training Sequence dialog box for changing the order in which programs in the various training modes are presented during training. For a description of the Training Sequence dialog box, see page 5-28.

Program Info Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Program Info Tab

The Program Information tab displays detailed information about the selected program. Information displayed includes a general description of the program, skills that are taught using the program, and information such as skills taught and the education level such as preschool.

Chapter 5 5-16

Select Content Programs

Student Administration > Programs > Action Tab > Add

The Select Contents Programs dialog box allows you add content programs to a student’s training. The dialog box has a list of

Available Programs

on the left from which you can select programs. Programs already in the student’s list are not shown.

Multiple programs can be selected by holding down

Ctrl

as you click on the programs you want to add. After highlighting the programs you want to add, click

Select

.

You can also filter the list of programs displayed by specifying program criteria such as levels, skills, and subjects. The

Type

and

Value

of the current criteria are shown in the box on the right.

Edit Criteria.

Displays the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box for selecting the criteria for programs that you want to view in the

Available Programs

list. For a description of the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, see page 5-18.

Program Description.

Displays a brief description of a selected program.

Select.

Closes the dialog box and adds the programs highlighted in the

Available

Programs

list to the student’s list in the Programs dialog box.

5-17 The DT Trainer Interface

Edit Programs Criteria

Student Administration > Programs > Action Tab > Add

> Edit Criteria

The Edit Programs Criteria dialog box displays a hierarchical tree-like structure for selecting the criteria for filtering the list of available programs shown in Select Content Programs dialog box.

Click the plus button to expand a type and show the values in it. Check the values you want to use.

The type (e.g., Level) is automatically checked if one of its values is checked; the type check box is automatically cleared if no values are checked. To collapse a type, click the minus button to the left of the type.

Program Items

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab> Items

The Program Items dialog box allows you to view and manage the items within a specific program. The name of items within the program (selected in the

Programs dialog box) and information about the items such as their order number, train state, and train step are displayed in columnar format in a pane on the left of the dialog box. A graphic of the selected item appears in a pane to the right of the list. Below the graphic on the right are three tabs containing options for editing and managing the selected item, and below the tabs are options for setting the initial train step and train state of the selected item.

Chapter 5 5-18

Set Initial Train Step of:

Sets the initial train step of “All” items or the “Selected” item to the value specified in the

to

box. Click

Apply

to save the changes. The list options are shown in the following figure on the left. For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.

Set Train State of:

Sets the train state of the item(s) specified by the option selected in the list box to that specified in the

to

box. Click

Apply

to save the changes. The list options are shown in the following figure on the right.

5-19 The DT Trainer Interface

Basic Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab

Options on this tab allow you to preview the selected item in the program, view a

“trial response” graph for the selected item, and view a chronological list of the completed trials for the selected item.

Preview.

Demos the selected item in the program.

View Graph.

Displays the Program Item Graph dialog box for the selected item.

The Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.

For a description of the Program Item Graph dialog box, see page 5-21.

View Log.

Displays the Program Item Training Log dialog box for the selected item. The Item Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the selected item. For a description of the Program Item Graph dialog box, see page 5-22.

Intermediate Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Intermediate Tab (Program

Items)

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Intermediate Tab

(Program Items)

Order Items.

Displays the Program Order

Items dialog box that allows you to change the order of the training in the selected program. For a description of the Program

Order Items dialog box, see page 5-22.

Add Items.

Allows you to add additional items to a content program when AES enhances existing content programs already in use. If there are no unused items, the message “Did not find any more program items to add.” is displayed. If there are items that can be added, the Select Program Items dialog box is displayed.

Chapter 5 5-20

Program Item Graph

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Graph

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Graph

The Program Item Graph dialog box displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item. The

Levels

column represents the trial “Steps” starting at 0 where there is nothing on the screen except the Target Item, to Proficient where the item no longer is actively trialed.

The numbers 0 to 12 are the steps in the Train mode. Mnemonics are given to aid in understanding what the user sees at each step. For example, at Train step 1 the

1N3

means 1 Non-familiar distracter at prompt level 3. At Train Step 11 the

2F2

means 2 Familiar distracters at prompt level 2.

The three prompt levels are color coded on the graph. Prompt level 3 is blue, 2 is green, and 1 is red. This is useful when identifying specific item problems by prompt level. Trial results are represented across the bottom of the graph starting with the first trial to the left and subsequent trials moving to the right.

C

is for

Correct,

I

is for Incorrect, and

N

is for No Response.

5-21 The DT Trainer Interface

Program Item Training Log

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Log

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items> Basic Tab > View Log

The Program Item Training Log dialog box displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the selected item. Generally, this level of detail is not needed except in the case where a summary report reveals an issue with the item.

This dialog gives information useful for determining if there are training problems for the item caused by certain distracters or reinforcers, or problems associated with the length of time the student was using the DT Trainer.

Program Order Items

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Intermediate Tab > Order

Items

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Intermediate Tab >

Order Items

The Program Order Items dialog allows you to modify the system’s default order of the training item and the distracter, and determine if an item is active or inactive as a distracter. This allows customization of the training to suit the student needs or the teaching philosophies of the teacher.

Chapter 5 5-22

A columnar table is displayed in the dialog box that shows for each item in the program the following columns of information:

Item.

The name of the item.

Training.

The training order of the item.

Distracter.

The distracter order of the item.

Active Distracter.

Indicates if the item is to be used as a distracter. If a distracter is causing problems for a student while he is training, the distracter may be deactivated. The distracters may be reactivated if desired.

Training

,

Distracter

, and

Both.

If the

Training

radio button is selected, only the training order is reordered when you move items up and down in the

Item

list. If

Distracter

is selected, only the distracter order is reordered when you moved items up and down in the list. The order of the distracters may be set to have more or less interference with the target items as is appropriate. If

Both

is selected, then both training and distracter orders are changed when moving items up and down in the list.

The

Arrows

move the selected item either up or down in the list order.

These buttons control the offset of the presentation of the distracters in relation to the target item. The less than (<) button offsets the distracter by one place back. The equal (=) button makes the distracters and target equal. The greater than (>) button offsets the distracter by one place forward. This is an advanced feature.

5-23 The DT Trainer Interface

Toggle Active.

Toggles the active status of an item between “Yes” and “No” to activate or deactivate an item as a distracter.

Program Options

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options

The Program Options dialog box allows you to manage parameters of a specific program. Many parameters are advanced features that are only set when a program is created. Most administrators will not need to change these parameters.

This dialog box has tabs for managing intermediate and advanced features.

Chapter 5 5-24

Intermediate Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Intermediate Tab

Training Profile.

Displays the training profile for the selected program.

Select New Profile.

Displays the Select Training Profile dialog box that allows you to change the training profile for the student’s program. For a description of the Select Training Profile dialog box, see page 5-12.

Initial Training Step.

Specifies the Step (0-12) at which untrained items will begin training for the selected profile. For more information, see “DT Trainer Modes” on page 2-5.

Trial Timeout.

Specifies the number of seconds that the DT Trainer waits after starting a trial before recording a

No Response

from the student. The default time for all profiles is 10 seconds.

Extra Processing Time.

Specifies the time added to the default response time for a trial. This is set for programs that take a longer time for the student to process the trials. For example, it takes longer to process textually-based problems and math problems than simple recognition trials. The longer response time gives the student the time necessary to process and respond to the trial.

SD Mode.

Specifies the mode in which SDs (commands) are given.

Display Item Name.

If selected, displays the textual name beneath the item. This option is not available for all programs.

Display Trial Cue.

If selected, displays a cue at the top of the screen. For example, the cue for the program “Sequence-DaysOfWeek-Before” is the days of the weeks listed in order from left to right. This option is not available for all programs.

Verbal SD Tab.

Allows you to view a list of the verbal commands and to activate, test, and set the default verbal SD for the program.

The * sets the selected SD as the default command. The check activates the SD, the minus deactivates the SD, and

Preview

demos the SD.

Target Image Criteria Tab.

Allows you to specify criteria for filtering target images. This tab is not displayed for programs that don’t use target images. In cases where program items have one active image, there will be no criteria.

5-25 The DT Trainer Interface

Advanced Tab

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Advanced Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Options > Advanced Tab

Using this tab, you can select the active train steps for the selected program and customize the student’s advancement and fallback criteria for the program.

The Active Train Steps correspond to 13 steps of Train mode that are described in “13 Steps of Train Mode” on page 2-5. You can select the steps that you want to train.

Check All.

Selects all train steps. All steps are used during training.

Uncheck All.

Clears all train steps. You can then individually select the steps you want to use during training.

Advancement / Fallback Criteria.

Advancement is based on the number of

Correct

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level. Fallback is based on the number of

Incorrect

responses within a set number of

Trials

that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.

In the following example, the Random mode requires the student to respond correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the Maintenance

Chapter 5 5-26

mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the item to fall back to Train PL1.

Praise Activation

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Praise

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Praise

The Program Praise Activation dialog box allows you to specify which scripts should be active for a program. The dialog box displays a list of the Praise

Scripts for the program and the

ID

and

Active

status of each script. This is an advanced feature and does not generally need to be used.

Toggle Active.

Toggles the

Active

status for the selected

Praise Script

between

“Yes” and “No”.

Clear All.

Sets the

Active

status of all praise scripts to “No.” After performing this action, you must reactivate at least one praise script.

Restore Defaults.

Sets the

Active

status of all praise scripts to the program’s default settings. This option is available only if performing student administration.

5-27 The DT Trainer Interface

Update All.

Resets the

Active

status of all praise scripts for the program as shown in the

Active

column for all students using the program. This option is available only if performing common administration.

Training Sequence

Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Sequence

The Training Sequence dialog box allows you to change the order in which the programs and training modes are presented to the student. You can also change the number of trials for each program and mode.

These arrows move the selected program/mode up or down in the list.

Specifies the number of trials to be presented to the student during training for the selected program/mode.

Toggle Active.

Toggles the

Active

status for the selected program/mode between

“Yes” and “No”.

Random.

Presents the programs in random order.

Sequential.

Presents the programs in the order listed.

Chapter 5 5-28

Reinforcers

Student Administration Tab > Reinforcers

The Reinforcers dialog box allows you to add, remove, and edit reinforcer run times for the selected student.

Add/Remove.

Displays the Add Reinforcers dialog box that allows you to add and remove reinforcers for the current student. For a description of the Add

Reinforcers dialog box, see page 5-30.

Preview.

Demos the selected reinforcer.

Preview All.

Demos all the reinforcers.

Configure.

Allows you to configure special settings for the selected smart reinforcer. This option is enabled only for “smart” reinforcers; the names of these reinforcers are prefixed with “Super”.

Common Defaults / Run Time.

Indicates that the default run time should be used and displays the default run time.

Student Overrides / Run Time.

Indicates that the run time specified will be used for the selected reinforcer, overriding the default run time.

5-29 The DT Trainer Interface

Add Reinforcers

Student Administration Tab > Reinforcers > Add / Remove

The Add Reinforcers dialog box allows you to add, remove, and test reinforcers for the current student.

Available Reinforcers.

Lists by category the names of reinforcers that are available for the current student.

Student’s Reinforcers.

Lists the names of reinforcers selected for the student. Add and remove reinforcers until the list is what you want for the student.

Path.

Identifies the associated category path of each reinforcer.

Add.

Moves the selected reinforcer from the

Available Reinforcers

list to the

Student’s Reinforcers

list.

Remove.

Moves the selected reinforcer from the

Student’s Reinforcers

list to the

Available Reinforcers

list.

Preview.

Demos the selected reinforcer from either list of reinforcers.

Chapter 5 5-30

Program Trend Report

Student Administration Tab > Program Trends

The student’s Program Trend Report shows a weekly history of all programs or just active programs. Using this report, areas warranting a more detailed review can be quickly identified. Two of the most useful summaries of this report are the Total Summary and the Percentage Correct Summary that are described later in Chapter 10, “Reports.”

Programs are displayed alphabetically in the left-most column. Data for each program is displayed by the reporting year, month, and weekly start day as indicated by the headings shown in the figure that follows.

Active.

Displays data for Active programs only.

All

. Displays data for All programs.

Train Mode Buttons.

The trial totals of all modes or for each training mode can be displayed individually by clicking one of four trial mode buttons. Only one mode can be selected at any one time. The buttons are as follows:

Trials

(all modes),

Train

,

Random

, and

Maintenance

.

Trial Response Buttons.

The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect, or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are as follows:

Total

,

Correct

,

Incorrect

, and

No Response

.

Data Display Buttons.

By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If

Total

is not selected, three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a

5-31 The DT Trainer Interface

percentage or a raw value. The data display buttons and a description of each follows:

%X/T.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as percentages of total trials.

%X/(C+I).

Displays

Correct

or

Incorrect

responses as percentages of when the student responded (excludes

No Responses

).

Raw.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as an actual number of trials with each result.

Train States Report

Student Administration Tab > Train States

The Train States Reports shows a snapshot of the training states of each program item.

Program.

Specifies the programs that are to be included in the report. Options include “All”, “Active”, and each student program name.

States:

Specifies the states of the selected programs to be included in the report.

Select one or more of the following states:

Untrained

,

Train

,

Random

,

Maintenance

,

Proficient

, and

Do Not Train

.

Chapter 5 5-32

Weekly Trial Results Report

Student Administration Tab > Trial Results

The Trial Results Report gives a summary of the overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level to help pinpoint problems. The report gives a weekly summary for the student's training program and specific items listing by mode levels.

Week:

Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view. The date format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a two character month, and DD is a two character day.

Final Report/Partial:

Indicates if the week has been completed.

Report Component Check Boxes:

Check the boxes for the report components that you want to see.

Time Period Radio Buttons:

Click on the button to display data for the week or for a specific day within the training week selected.

%X/T:

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

or

No Response

data as percentages of total trials.

%X/(C+I):

Displays

Correct

or

Incorrect

responses as percentage of when the student responded (excluding

No Responses

).

Raw:

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as an actual number of

Trials with each result.

5-33 The DT Trainer Interface

The data labels are defined as follows:

T

= Trial,

C

= Correct Response,

I

=

Incorrect Response

, N

= No Response, and

RT

= Response Time.

Data Category.

Identifies the individual programs and All Programs.

Sub Category 1.

Identifies the training mode or level.

Sub Category 2

. Identifies the summary mode or the program item being summarized.

Weekly Training Log

Student Administration Tab > Training Log

The Weekly Training Log displays a student’s training log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks. Here you can determine if the student is getting access to the system when expected, or if he is having performance issues due to the length of time on the system.

Training Logs:

Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view.

The date format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a two character month, and DD is a two character day.

Final Report/Partial Week:

This indicates if the week has been completed.

Time Stamp:

Displays when the trial occurred.

Program:

The program that was trialed.

Chapter 5 5-34

Item:

The target item trialed.

State:

The item state during the trial.

Step:

The train step of the item during the trial. The step refers to the Train mode only.

Result:

The trial result is

C

orrect,

I

ncorrect,

N

o Response.

RT(s):

The student's reaction time for the response in seconds.

ST:

The session time in minutes and seconds. This is how long the student has been actively using the system.

Distracter1, 2:

The name of one or both distracters if used.

Last Reinforcer:

Displays the last reinforcer used.

Weekly Notes

Student Administration Tab > Notes

The Weekly Notes dialog box provides an area for you to document information specific to the student. For example you may want to document program or reinforcer changes, student illness, and other system use issues.

5-35 The DT Trainer Interface

Training Selection

Student Administration Tab > Train

The Training Selection dialog box allows you to start training for the selected student for a specified program and training mode.

Student.

Specifies the student whose training you want to start.

Program.

Specifies the program to be used during training.

Mode.

Specifies the train mode for the program.

Start.

Starts the training program for the selected student.

Common Administration Tab

The administration of content programs and program items, reinforcers for all students, administration password, and global student options such as session duration and screen options, is initiated from the

Common Administration

tab.

Class level reports are also accessed from this tab. Changes to programs, reinforcers, and student options affect only those students created later. Existing students are not affected by the changes.

This dialog box has the following main sections.

Programs.

Contains an option for viewing and managing content programs and program items.

StudentOptions.

Contains an option for changing the options in the student template.

Reinforcers.

Contains an option for managing reinforcers for all students.

Maintenance.

Contains an option for managing DT Trainer data by allowing you to backup and restore data for one or more students.

Administrative Control.

Contains options for assigning and requiring a password to perform DT Trainer administration and an option for activating development level features.

Chapter 5 5-36

Class Level Reports.

Contains options for displaying weekly and trend reports for all students as a whole and as individual students.

Advanced / Development.

Contains an option for managing praise scripts. This section is displayed only if the

Activate Development Features

option is checked.

A description of the buttons and checkboxes follows.

Programs.

Displays the DT Trainer Programs dialog box for managing content programs and program items.

Student Options.

Displays the Student Options dialog box for the “Default

Template”. Changes made to this template affect only students created after the changes. Some of the options that can be set include whether a touch screen is used for training, the session duration, and training screen color.

Reinforcers.

Displays the Reinforcer Manager dialog box for performing management tasks such as editing, removing, activating, and testing an existing reinforcer and adding new reinforcers. For a description of the Reinforcer

Manager dialog box, see page 5-42.

Maintenance Tools.

Displays the DT Trainer Maintenance dialog box for performing backup and restore procedures on student and DT Trainer data.

5-37 The DT Trainer Interface

Password.

Activates the password access feature. If checked, the next time DT

Trainer is opened, the Enter Password dialog box is displayed and the user must enter the appropriate password to access the DT Trainer Administration window.

Set Password.

Displays the Set Password dialog box for specifying the password that must be used when opening DT Trainer.

Password

must be checked for the password to be put into effect. For a description of the Set Password dialog box, see page 5-46.

Activate Development Features.

If checked, displays additional tabs and options on the various dialog boxes that allow you to perform development level tasks such as adding your own programs to DT Trainer. This option should only be used by very advanced administrators. Development features are not documented in this manual. For more information, visit

http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.

Trend.

Displays the System Trend Report that shows a number of summaries by student and class. This report shows trends across training weeks and is useful for seeing how the class is doing and which students may have training issues.

For a description of the System Trend Report, see page 5-47.

Weekly.

Displays the System Training Weekly Report that shows a number of summaries for training results for each student and the class. The reports are in the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing the students’ progress with their program content. For a description of the

System Training Weekly Report, see page 5-48.

Praise Management.

This option is displayed only if the

Activate Development

Features

option is checked. Praise Management displays the Praise Manager dialog box for editing existing praises and creating new praises. In general, it is not necessary to administer praises since DT Trainer installs the praises appropriate for each program. This is an advanced feature. For a description of the Praise Manager dialog box, see page 5-49.

DT Trainer Programs

Common Administration Tab > Programs

The DT Trainer Programs dialog box is used to manage content programs and program items. A list of all content programs and descriptions of the programs are displayed. Content programs are sorted by topic, which can be identified by the prefix to the left of the program name. A program is managed by selecting the program name in the list and selecting the appropriate button on one of the available tabs. The most often used management features are available on the

Actions

tab.

Chapter 5 5-38

A summary of the features available on each of the tabs follows:

Actions.

Contains buttons for printing a list of programs, previewing a program, managing the items in a program, and changing program options. Some advanced features are also available for development and special purposes.

Program Info.

Displays information about the selected program. Information displayed usually includes a description, the skills taught, and the education level for which the program is appropriate.

Program Filters.

Allows you to filter the list of programs by specifying program criteria such as skills and levels.

Selection Keywords.

Lists the keywords for the selected program. These keywords should not be modified or program filtering may not work.

* Program Keywords.

Lists the keywords for all programs. These keywords should not be modified or program filtering may not work. This is an advanced feature and is displayed only if the

Activate Development Features

option is checked on the

Common Administration

tab.

5-39 The DT Trainer Interface

Action Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Action Tab

Print.

Displays the Print dialog box for printing the list of programs displayed and their descriptions.

Preview.

Demos the selected program.

Items.

Displays the selected program’s Program Items dialog box for the Default

Template. Changes made to program items affect all students created afterwards.

Current students are not affected. For a description of the Program Item dialog box, see page 5-18.

Options.

Displays the selected program’s Program Options dialog box for the

Default Template. Changes made to the program options affect all students created afterwards. Current students are not affected. For a description of the

Program Options dialog box, see page 5-24.

Praise.

Displays the Program Praise Activation dialog box for the selected program for the Default Template. Changes made to the praise scripts affect all student created afterwards. Current students are not affected. For a description of the Program Praise Activation dialog box, see page 5-27.

Sequence.

This option is not available for common administration. Training sequences can only be administered for a selected student.

New.

Allows you to add a new content program to DT Trainer. As with the create a new student process, you are prompted for information such as the name of the new program and dialog boxes are displayed for entering information required for the new program. This is a development feature that is displayed only when the

Activate Development Features

option is checked on the

Common

Administration

tab.

Chapter 5 5-40

Program Info Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Program Info Tab

This tab displays information about the selected program such as the skills trained by the program, grade level, and options.

Program Filters Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Program Filters Tab

The current filter criteria are used to filter the list of programs displayed. The criteria can be changed by clicking

Edit Criteria

and specifying the new criteria.

Edit Criteria.

Displays the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box that allows you to specify program types and levels to be used in filtering the list of programs displayed. For a description of the Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, see page

5-18.

Selection Keywords Tab

Common Administration Tab > Programs > Selection Keywords Tab

Lists the keywords for the selected program. These keywords should not be modified or program filtering may not work.

5-41 The DT Trainer Interface

Reinforcer Manager

Common Administration Tab > Reinforcers

The Reinforcer Manager dialog box allows you to view, test, and edit reinforcers for all students. Most administrators will generally just use the

Preview

feature to view reinforcers, and sometimes the

Edit

feature to change the run time of reinforcers. The scrollable list displays reinforcers categorically. When you initially open the Reinforcer Manager you see the top level reinforcer categories.

To navigate the Reinforcer Manager dialog box click on the plus or minus signs in the list to open (expand) or close (collapse) reinforcer categories.

Edit.

Displays a dialog that enables the administrator to make changes to the selected reinforcer.

Chapter 5 5-42

Configure

. This option is only enabled for smart reinforcers. If the selected reinforcer is a smart reinforcer, this option can be selected and you can change settings specific to the reinforcer. Smart reinforcers can be recognized by their name; the names of smart reinforcers are prefixed with “Super.” The reinforcer

SuperBlinky in the Activities\Games category is a smart reinforcer; its configuration screen is shown in the following figure.

Smart reinforcers have a student configuration screen that is similar to the one shown for SuperBlinky. The configuration options for each smart reinforcer are specific to the reinforcer and independent of other reinforcers. Some common configurations employed throughout smart reinforcers are the Advancement and

Fallback criteria. The Advancement criteria gives the administrator the option to choose between Fast-Track and Skill-Builder. The Fast-Track option quickly determines the user’s level of competency by advancing automatically after each success. Skill-Builder allows for more practice at each level. The amount of time spent at each level is determined by the administrator. TheFallback criteria allows the administrator to choose the number of times that a user can fail at a level before it reverts back to the previous level.

Info.

This option displays information about the reinforcer.

Deactivate/Activate.

This button toggles between the two actions. If the selected reinforcer is not active as indicated by a red X icon, the button label reads

5-43 The DT Trainer Interface

Activate

and lets you active the reinforcer. If the selected reinforcer is active as indicated by the green check mark icon, the button label reads

Deactivate

and lets you deactivate the reinforcer.

Preview.

Runs the selected reinforcer for a short period of time, allowing you to view the reinforcer.

New.

Asks for a new name, adds the associated reinforcer, and opens the Edit

Reinforcer dialog box to complete the reinforcer definition for any new reinforcers created. When adding new reinforcers, you should place them in the

User category or one of its sub-categories. If you place your reinforcer anywhere else, there is a possibility that it could be overwritten. Third party reinforcers are not supported by AES. For a description of the Edit Reinforcer dialog box, see page 5-44. How to add new reinforcer to DT Trainer is described on page 7-2.

New Directory.

Prompts you to enter the name of a new directory. A directory

(reinforcer category) is added under the selected category.

Delete.

Deletes the reinforcer definition within the software; it does not actually remove associated resources like bitmaps, html files, avi files, or executable files from the hard drive.

Edit Reinforcer

Common Administration Tab > Reinforcers > Edit

The Edit Reinforcer dialog box allows you to edit certain aspects of a reinforcer, but not the reinforcer itself. This dialog box is displayed when you click

Edit

or

New

in the Reinforcer Manager dialog box. If you are creating a new reinforcer, you’ll be asked to enter a name before the Edit Reinforcer dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is available only when the

Activate Development

Feature

option is checked.

If you are editing an AES reinforcer, only the

Run Time

,

First Load Delay

, and

Inactive

options can be edited. All other options are disabled.

Chapter 5 5-44

Name.

The name of the reinforcer.

Directory.

Directory containing the reinforcer.

Web.

Indicates that the reinforcer is web-based. Check this option if you are adding a new reinforcer that is web-based;

File

is replaced with

Web URL

, allowing you specify the web URL for the reinforcer.

Configurable.

Indicates that the reinforcer itself has configurable options. For example, as with video games, some smart reinforcers may have different playing levels and automatically adjust themselves to the student’s ability.

Inactive.

If checked, prevents the reinforcer from being used. This option is useful when you have a reinforcer that can’t be played on the system or doesn’t work properly.

File.

The reinforcer file name. This box is shown if

Web

is not checked. If creating a new reinforcer, click the button with the three dots to display the

Open dialog box that allows you to find and select the new reinforcer. A User directory is already setup and the file structure should follow the current file structure in place for other Reinforcer categories. Video clips of a student engaged in a favorite activity or a game on the system are examples of possible reinforcers that you could add. If you add other games you must also verify that they do not cause problems such as lock ups for other DT Trainer reinforcers.

Once a new reinforcer is created, the navigation button is disabled and you can not make changes to the file name.

Web URL.

The web address of the reinforcer. This box is shown if

Web

is checked. If adding a new reinforcer, click the button with the three dots; you are then prompted to enter the URL of the reinforcer. A User directory is already setup and the file structure should follow the current file structure in place for other Reinforcer categories. You should verify that you can access the webbased reinforcer and that it works and does not cause problems such as lock ups for other DT Trainer reinforcers.

5-45 The DT Trainer Interface

Run Time.

Reinforcers are installed with a default run time, however, you can change the run time of a reinforcer for all students from this dialog. Some reinforcers can be set for a shorter or longer time period if they are not time dependent reinforcers such as videos or sound clips. These reinforcers have specific durations and are already set appropriately.

First Load Delay.

The

First Load Delay

edit box lets you give the computer the time required to load and display a reinforcer without robbing the student of runtime. Some reinforcers can be slow to load on old computers. This parameter is adjusted to give a cushion of extra time to compensate for the first time that the system loads the slower loading reinforcer. Subsequent uses of the reinforcer usually load considerably quicker because the reinforcer is already loaded in the computer’s memory. If subsequent plays of a Reinforcer are taking as long to display on the screen as the first time it was used, the computer needs an upgrade of the system’s RAM. Adding an additional 64 or more megabytes of

RAM generally solves the problem.

Type.

Indicates the file type of the reinforcer.

Info.

Optional information about the reinforcer.

Set Password

Common Administration Tab > Set Password

The Set Password dialog box allows you specify the password that is to be used when accessing DT Trainer Administration.

Chapter 5 5-46

Enter Password.

Type the password.

Renter Password.

Re-type the password to verify that you typed it correctly the first time.

Enter Hint.

Type a hint that will help you remember the password. For example, if you used your favorite color as the password, an appropriate hint would be

“favorite color”.

System Trend Report

Common Administration Tab > Trend

The System Trend Report generates a number of summaries by student and class.

This report shows trends across training weeks. It is generally the first report that should be looked when you want to see how the class as a whole is doing and to find out which students may have training issues.

For more information, see “Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports” on page

6-6 and Chapter 10.

Train Mode Buttons.

The trial totals of all modes or for each training mode can be displayed individually by clicking one of four trial mode buttons. Only one mode can be selected at any one time. The buttons are as follows:

Trials

(all modes),

Train

,

Random

, and

Maintenance

.

Trial Response Buttons.

The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect, or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial

5-47 The DT Trainer Interface

response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are as follows:

Total

,

Correct

,

Incorrect

, and

No Response

.

Data Display Buttons.

By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If

Total

is not selected, three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a percentage or a raw value. The data displays buttons and a description of each follows:

%X/T.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as percentages of total trials.

%X/(C+I).

Displays

Correct

or

Incorrect

responses as percentages of when the student responded (excludes

No Responses

).

Raw.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as an actual number of trials with each result.

System Training Weekly Report

Common Administration Tab > Weekly

The System Training Weekly Report provides a summary by response results and mode. This report can be scanned to review a student’s progress with the program content.

For more information, see “Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports” on page

6-6 and Chapter 10.

Chapter 5 5-48

Week:

Click on the arrow to select the desired training week to view. The date format is YYYYMMDD where YYYY is a four character year, MM is a two character month, and DD is a two character day.

Final Report/Partial Week Report:

Indicates if the week has been completed.

Report.

The selected option, “Response” or “Train Mode”, determines if the summary is by response results or by mode. If by “Response”, the column headings are

Trials

,

Train

,

Random

, and

Maintenance

. If by “Train Mode”, the column headings are

Trials

,

Correct

,

Incorrect

, and

No Response

.

Trial Response Buttons.

The trial totals for all responses or for correct, incorrect, or no responses can be displayed individually by clicking of the four trial response buttons. Only one button can be select at any one time. The buttons are as follows:

Total

,

Correct

,

Incorrect

, and

No Response

.

Data Display Buttons.

By default the data is displayed as the total number of trials for the selected train mode and selected trial response. If

Total

is not selected, three data display buttons are enabled that allow you view the data as a percentage or a raw value. The data displays buttons and a description of each follows:

%X/T.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as percentages of total trials.

%X/(C+I).

Displays

Correct

or

Incorrect

responses as percentages of when the student responded (excludes

No Responses

).

Raw.

Displays

Correct

,

Incorrect

, or

No Response

data as an actual number of trials with each result.

Praise Manager

Common Administration Tab > Praise Management

Praise is the positive verbal feedback given to a student after a correct response.

This option is available only if the

Activate Development Features

option is checked on the

Common Administration

tab. The Praise Manager dialog box provides for complete administration of praises including editing existing praises and creating new praises. Most administrators will not need to use the

Praise Manager dialog box because the DT Trainer installs the praises appropriate with each program. This is an advanced feature.

5-49 The DT Trainer Interface

Available Word Files.

List of praise word audio files. These words are recognized in scripts. When adding new praise scripts, your scripts should be limited to words found in this list. The caret (^) implies an inflected version of the word sound.

ID.

Identification number associated with a specific praise script.

Good.

Indicates that the script has been parsed and that the word files are available.

Praise Script.

The script associated with the ID number.

View.

Displays the script for the selected Praise Script in an editable text box.

Play.

Plays the audio file associated with the selected Praise Script.

New.

Allows you add a new script to the list. A new ID is automatically assigned to the script and the

Good

status is set to “No” in the list of praise scripts. In the

View

box, enter the new script.

Delete.

Deletes the selected Praise Script from the list.

Chapter 5 5-50

Chapter

6

Basic Administrative Tasks

Common Administration .........................................................6-2

Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs ...6-2

Managing Program Items Globally...................................6-2

Setting Student Options in the Student Template .............6-3

Viewing and Managing Reinforcers .................................6-4

Setting/Changing an Administration Password ................6-5

Activating Development Features.....................................6-6

Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports.......................6-6

Setting User and Location Information.............................6-6

Registering DT Trainer.....................................................6-7

Viewing DT Trainer Tips .................................................6-7

Student Administration ............................................................6-7

Creating a New Student ....................................................6-7

Selecting a Student .........................................................6-10

Deleting a Student...........................................................6-10

Setting Student Options ..................................................6-10

Managing Student Reinforcers .......................................6-11

Managing Student Programs...........................................6-12

Managing Program Items................................................6-13

Viewing and Printing Student Reports ...........................6-14

6-1 Basic Administrative Tasks

Common Administration

Changes that are made through the

Common Administration

tab affect all students created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the changes to each student through the

Student Administration

tab.

Viewing, Filtering, Printing, and Previewing Programs

The DT Trainer Programs dialog box is used for viewing and managing programs within DT Trainer. Basic tasks that can be performed from this dialog box include the following:

• Viewing program information

• Filtering the list of programs

• Printing the list of programs

• Previewing a program

The following procedure describes how to perform these tasks.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs

to display the DT Trainer

Programs dialog box.

The list of programs and descriptions (if available) are displayed in a scrollable pane.

2. To filter the list, select

Program Filters > Edit Criteria

to display the Edit

Programs Criteria dialog box. Check the appropriate criteria values and then click

Select

. The list of programs displayed is updated based on the criteria.

3. To print the list, select

Actions > Print

to display the Print dialog box. Select the appropriate printer and then click

OK

.

4. To preview or see a demonstration of a program, highlight the program and then select

Actions > Preview

.

5. Click

Done

to return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Managing Program Items Globally

Items within a program can be managed and customized in the Program Items dialog box. Basic program items management tasks include the following:

• Viewing and printing the program items list

• Previewing items

• Viewing a graph of trials by program item

• Viewing a log of trials by program item

• Changing the step or state of an item

Chapter 6 6-2

To perform these basic management tasks, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Commont Administration > Programs

to display the DT Trainer

Programs dialog box. Click the

Actions

tab.

2. To view and perform management tasks on a program’s items, highlight the program and then click

Items

to display the Program Items dialog box. Click the

Basic

tab if it is not the active tab.

The following information is displayed for each item in the program:

• item name

• training order

• current train state

• current train step

3. To print the list of item information, click

Print

. Select the appropriate printer in the Print dialog box and then click

OK

.

4. To view the image of an item, highlight the item in the list. The image is displayed to the right of the list.

5. To preview or see a demonstration of the item in the program, highlight the item and then click

Preview

.

6. To view a graph of trials by program item, click

View Graph

. The Program

Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.

Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box.

7. To view a log of trials by program item, click

View Log

. The Program Item

Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the selected item. Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box

8. To change the step an item or specified items: a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the

Set Initial Train Step of

list. b. In the

to

box, type the new initial train step (0-12). c. Click

Apply

.

9. To change the state of an item or specified items: a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the

Set Train State of

list. b. In the

to

box, select the new train state. c. Click

Apply

.

10. Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box.

Setting Student Options in the Student Template

Default student options are specified in the Default Template. When configuring global student options and programs, “Default Template” appears in the title bar of the various dialog boxes. When a new student is created, he has the same options as the Default Template. Existing students are not affected by changes to the Default Template.

6-3 Basic Administrative Tasks

Default student options are set in the Default Template: Student Options dialog box. Basic customization tasks that can be performed from this dialog box include the following:

• Limiting the session duration

• Specifying whether or not a touch screen is used

• Specifying the student’s gender

The following procedure describes the steps to change basic default student options.

1. Select

Common Administration > Student Options

to display the Default

Template: Student Options dialog box.

2. Click the

Basic

tab.

3. To limit the session duration for students created later, check

Limit Session

Duration to:

and type the number of minutes in the

Minutes

box.

4. If most students will use a touch screen, check the

Touch Screen

box; otherwise clear the check box.

5. If most students are males, select

Male

; otherwise select

Female

.

6. Click

Done

to save the changes and return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Viewing and Managing Reinforcers

The Reinforcer Manager dialog box is used to view, test, and edit reinforcers for all students. Generally, you’ll use the

Preview

feature to view and test a reinforcer, and the

Edit

feature to change the run time of reinforcers. Basic tasks that can be performed from the Reinforcer Manager dialog box include the following:

• Viewing a list of reinforcers by category

• Deleting a reinforcer

• Activating or deactivating a reinforcer

• Previewing a reinforcer

• Changing the run time of a reinforcer

• Specifying a delay period the first time a reinforcer is loaded

The following procedure describes the steps to view and manage reinforcers.

1. Select

Common Administration > Reinforcers

to display the Reinforcer

Manager dialog box.

Categories of reinforcers are displayed in the dialog box.

2. To view sub-categories and their reinforcers, click the

plus

button to expand the list. To collapse a category list, click the

minus

button.

Chapter 6 6-4

A a beside a reinforcer indicates that the reinforcer is active; an r indicates that the reinforcer is inactive.

3. To delete a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Delete

.

4. To activate or deactivate a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Activate

or

Deactivate

. The label of the

Activate/Deactivate

button changes depending upon the state of the selected reinforcer.

5. To view or test a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Preview

.

6. To change the default run time of a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Edit

to display the Edit Reinforcer dialog box. In the

Run Time

box, type the number of seconds that the reinforcer is to run and then click

Done

.

7. To specify a first load delay time for a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Edit

to display the Edit Reinforcer dialog box. In the

First Load

Delay

box, type the number of seconds for the delay and then click

Done

.

By specifying a delay time, you give the computer the time required to load and display a reinforcer without robbing the student of run time. Some reinforcers can be slow to load on old computers. This parameter is adjusted to give a cushion of extra time to compensate for the first time that the system loads the reinforcer. Subsequent uses of the reinforcer usually load considerably quicker. If subsequent uses of the reinforcer are taking as long to display on the screen as the first time it was used, the computer will need an upgrade of the system RAM (memory). An additional 64 megabytes

(MB) or more of RAM will generally solve the problem.

8. Click

Done

to return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Setting/Changing an Administration Password

If a number of people have access to the computer running DT Trainer and you want to limit the people who can make changes in DT Trainer, you can set an administration password and have DT Trainer prompt the user for the password.

To set the password, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Set Password

to display the Set Password dialog box.

2. Type the new password in the

Enter Password

and

Reenter Password

boxes.

3. Type a hint to help you remember the password in the

Enter Hint

box.

4. Click

Done

.

5. Check the

Password

check box on the

Common Administration

tab to activate the password feature. The next time DT Trainer is accessed, the user will be prompted for the password.

6-5 Basic Administrative Tasks

Activating Development Features

DT Trainer has a number of development features that require an expert understanding of DT Trainer features and how to manage and configure the system and students. If not used correctly, some development features can corrupt DT Trainer. Development features are not normally displayed. These features are activated by checking the

Activate Development Feature

option on the

Common Administration

tab. The default for this option is clear. When checked, additional tabs (named

Development

) and options are displayed within DT

Trainer Administration dialog boxes. This manual does not cover development tasks in detail. For detailed information on development tasks, visit

http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.

Viewing and Printing Class Level Reports

Class level reports, System Trend Report and System Training Weekly Report, are accessed from the

Common Administration

tab. For more information on using reports, see Chapter 10.

1. Select

Common Administration > Trend

to generate the System Trend report.

This report is described on page 5-47.

2. To view the total number of trials performed by students by week, select

Trials

and

Total

. This summary is the default report.

3. To view the percent correct data, select

Trials

and

Correct

.

4. Click

Done

to return to the

Common Administration

tab.

5. Select

Common Administration > Weekly

to generate the System Training

Weekly report. This report provides a summary by response results and by mode. Use this report to review students’ progress with their program content. The System Training Weekly report is described on page 5-48.

6. Select the week that you want to check from the

Week

list.

7. Select “Response” or “Train Mode” from the

Report

list.

8. Click

Done

to return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Setting User and Location Information

The

Information

tab is used to enter user and DT Trainer location information, to view registration information, register DT Trainer, and view Accelerations

Educational Software company information. This information is used for support purposes.

1. From the DT Training Administration window, click the

Information

tab.

This tab is described on page 3-9.

2. Type the appropriate information into the text boxes in the

User and DT

Trainer Location Informatio

n group box.

Chapter 6 6-6

Registering DT Trainer

The first time you access DT Trainer, you are asked to register the software.

You are prompted to register the product each time you open DT Trainer until it is registered. DT Trainer will not run after 30 days if it is not registered.

To register the program at any time, perform the following steps.

1. From the DT Trainer Administration window, click the

Information

tab.

2. Click

License/Registration

to display the Registration dialog box. Follow the instructions in the dialog box. For more information, see “Registering Your

Software” on page 3-3.

3. Enter the appropriate registration information from Accelerations

Educational Software into the

Activation Key

and

Customer ID

boxes and then click

Process Registration

.

Viewing DT Trainer Tips

Tips on topics such as new features and improving performance are displayed in the

Tips

tab. From the DT Trainer Administration window, click the

Tips

tab.

The

Tips

tab is shown on page 3-11.

Student Administration

Creating a New Student

DT Trainer guides you through the creation of a new student. After creating the student, you can select the student and then view and manage the student’s programs, program items, options, reinforcers, and praise scripts.

To create a new student, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Create

to begin the process. The prompt

Enter unique full name of the new student. (Like John Doe) Then click

Done.” is displayed.

2. Type the unique full name of the new student and then click

Done

. The prompt “Now select the appropriate “Training Profile” and other options

and then click Done.” is displayed.

3. Click

OK

. The Student Options dialog box is displayed. Click

Select New

Profile

to display the Select Training Profile dialog box. The Select Training

Profile dialog box is described on page 5-12.

6-7 Basic Administrative Tasks

4. Select a profile from the

Select Profile

list and then click

Select

. Click

Done

on the Student Options dialog box. The prompt “Next add one or more

programs for trials. Then click Select, and follow the instructions.” is displayed.

5. Click

OK

. The Select Content Programs dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is described on page 5-17.

6. Highlight the programs you want to add to the student and then click

Select

.

Chapter 6 6-8

To select multiple programs, press and hold the

CTRL

key while you select the programs. The Programs dialog box and the prompt “Are all of the

programs you are now adding for the student to learn from the beginning?

(Not for practice, generalization, or maintenance).”are displayed.

Note: If the program filter criteria are not appropriate for the student, click Edit Criteria and edit the criteria to update the list of programs.

7. Click

Yes

. The Reinforcement Setup prompt, “Now select reinforcers from

the “Available Reinforcers” list clicking the “Add” button to add

reinforcers to the “Student’s Reinforcers” list. Then click Done.” is displayed.

8. Click

OK

. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is described on page 5-30.

9. Add reinforcers to the

Student Reinforcers

list and then click

Done

. The prompt, “Edit name of Student Training Icon, and then press Done. The

student’s icon will appear in the DT Trainer Students training folder. You

will normally use that icon to start student training.” is displayed.

6-9 Basic Administrative Tasks

10. Edit the name of the student’s training icon if necessary and then click

Done

.

The Basic Student Setup Complete prompt is displayed.

11. Click

OK

. The setup for the new student is complete.

Selecting a Student

Before you can make changes to a student, you must first the select the student.

To select the student that you want to manage, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration

.

2. In the

Currently Selected Student

group box, click the down arrow of the list box to display the list of students.

3. Select the student that you want administer.

Tasks performed from the

Student Administration

tab are performed on the student displayed in the student name box.

Deleting a Student

When you delete a student, all training configuration information for the student is deleted.

1. Select

Student Administration

.

2. In the

Currently Selected Student

group box, click the down arrow of the list box to display the list of students.

3. Select the student that you want to delete.

4. Click

Delete

.

Setting Student Options

Student options are configured using the Student Options dialog box. Once set, the options rarely need to be changed. Basic tasks that can be performed from the Student Options dialog box include the following:

• Setting the student’s training profile

• Setting the touch screen option

• Limiting the training session duration

• Specifying the student’s gender

• Setting student information

• Setting the number of consecutive trials

• Setting the DT Trainer’s action to incorrect responses

• Setting verbal SDs (commands)

Chapter 6 6-10

To configure the settings for the currently selected student, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Options

to display the Student Options dialog box and then click the

Basic

tab.

2. To change the student’s training profile, click

Select New Profile

to display the Select Training Profile dialog box. Select the appropriate profile from the

Select Profile

list. Uncheck the

Initial Train Step

,

Reinforcer Tokens

, and

Trial Timeout

check boxes if you do not want to use their settings. Click

Select

to return to the Training Options dialog box.

3. To set the touch screen option, check the

Touch Screen

check box to configure the system to accept student responses from a touch screen. Clear the check box if the student is going to use a mouse.

4. To override the default session duration, check the

Limit Session Duration to

check box and enter the session time in minutes in the

Minutes

box.

5. To set the gender, select

Male

or

Female

.

6. To change student information, click the

Other

tab and make the appropriate changes to the options in the

Student Information

group box. a. Edit the text in the

Full Name

,

Student ID

, and

Spoken

boxes. The

Full

Name

is used in reports. The name specified in the

Spoken

box is used in SDs and praise scripts. b. To change the frequency of the usage of the student’s name in SDs, change the percentage in the

Use Name

box.

7. To set the number of trials performed consecutively before training another program or mode, make the appropriate changes to the options in the

Consecutive Trials

group box.

8. To change the way DT Trainer responds to incorrect student responses, make the appropriate changes to options in the

Incorrect Response Action

group box.

9. To vary the SDs (commands) or use the default SD, select

Randomize SDs

or

Use Default SD Only

.

10. Click

Done

to save the settings and return to the

Student Administration

tab.

Managing Student Reinforcers

Student reinforcers are configured using the Reinforcers dialog box. Basic tasks that can be performed from the Reinforcers dialog box include the following:

• Viewing student reinforcers

• Adding and removing reinforcers

• Testing reinforcers

• Configuring reinforcers

• Overriding the default run time of a reinforcer

6-11 Basic Administrative Tasks

To configure the currently selected student’s reinforcers, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Reinforcers

to display the Reinforcers dialog box.

The current list of reinforcers for the student is displayed in the dialog box.

Name

includes the reinforcer category, sub-category, and the name of the reinforcer.

2. To add or remove a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and click

Add /

Remove

. The Add Reinforcers dialog box is displayed. This dialog box is described on page 5-30. a. To add a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer in the

Available Reinforcers

list and then click

Add

. b. To remove a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer in the

Student’s

Reinforcers

list and then click

Remove

. c. Click

Done

to return to the Reinforcers dialog box.

3. To preview or test a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer and then click

Preview

. To test all reinforcers, click

Preview All

.

4. To configure a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer, and then click

Configure

.

This option is not available for all reinforcers. Configuration options vary.

5. To override the default run time of a reinforcer, highlight the reinforcer, select

Student Overrides

, and in the

Run Time

box, type the number of seconds the reinforcer is to run.

6. Click

Done

to save changes and return to the

Student Administration

tab.

Managing Student Programs

Student programs are configured using the Programs dialog box described on page 5-14. Basic tasks that can be performed from the Programs dialog box include the following:

• Viewing and printing the student programs list

• Viewing information about a program

• Adding and removing programs

• Previewing program

• Changing a program’s status

• Customizing program items

To configure the currently selected student’s programs, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Programs

to display the Programs dialog box and the list of student programs.

The current list of programs and training activity for the student is displayed in the dialog box. Information displayed for each program includes the

Chapter 6 6-12

following: program name, status, and the number of items in the untrained, trained, random, maintenance, and proficient mode or state.

2. To print the student programs list, click

Print

. Select the appropriate printer in the Print dialog box and then click

OK

.

3. To add a program, click

Add

to display the Select Content Programs dialog box. Highlight the programs you want to add in the

Available Programs

list and then click

Select

. The dialog box closes and the added programs appear in the student program list.

4. To remove a program, highlight the program and then click

Delete

.

5. To preview or see a demonstration of a program, highlight the program and then click

Preview

.

6. To change the status of a program, highlight the program and then click

Toggle Status

to toggle the status between “Active” and “Inactive”.

7. To customize the items in a program, highlight the program and then click

Items

to display the Program Items dialog box. A list of programs items is displayed along with each item’s train state and train step. For more information on managing program items, see “Managing Program Items”.

Click

Done

to return to the Programs dialog box.

8. Click

Done

to return to the

Student Administration

tab.

Managing Program Items

Items within a program can be managed and customized in the Program Items dialog box, described on page 5-18. Basic program items management tasks include the following:

• Viewing and printing the program items list

• Previewing items

• Viewing a graph of trials by program item

• Viewing a log of trials by program item

• Changing the step or state of an item

To perform these basic management tasks, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Programs

to display the Programs dialog box.

2. To view and perform management tasks on a program’s items, highlight the program and then click

Items

to display the Program Items dialog box. Click the

Basic

tab if it is not the active tab.

6-13 Basic Administrative Tasks

The following information is displayed for each item in the program:

• item name

• training order

• current train state

• current train step

To print the list of item information, click

Print

. Select the appropriate printer in the Print dialog box and then click

OK

.

3. To view the image of an item, highlight the item in the list. The image is displayed to the right of the list.

4. To preview or see a demonstration of the item in the program, highlight the item and then click

Preview

.

5. To view a graph of trials by program item, click

View Graph

. The Program

Item Graph displays a visual “trial response” graph for the selected item.

Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box.

6. To view a log of trials by program item, click

View Log

. The Program Item

Training Log displays a chronological list of the completed trials for the selected item. Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box

7. To change the initial train step for an item or specified items: a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the

Set Initial Train Step of

list. b. In the

to

box, type the new initial train step (0-12). c. Click

Apply

.

8. To change the train state of an item or specified items: a. Select the appropriate item(s) in the

Set Train State of

list. b. In the

to

box, select the new train state. c. Click

Apply

.

9. Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box.

Viewing and Printing Student Reports

Reports for a specific student are generated from the

Student Administration

tab.

Four types of reports can be generated for the currently selected student. Click

Program Trends

,

Train States

,

Trial Results

, or

Training Log

to display the corresponding report:

• Program Trend Report

• Train States Report

• Weekly Trial Results Report

• Weekly Training Log

For more information on using student reports, see Chapter 10.

Chapter 6 6-14

Chapter

7

Intermediate Administrative Tasks

Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer...........................................7-2

Ordering Program Items ..........................................................7-3

Adding Items to a Program ......................................................7-4

Setting Intermediate Program Options.....................................7-4

Setting Intermediate Student Options ......................................7-5

Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers ..........7-6

7-1 Intermediate Administrative Tasks

Intermediate level tasks require that the administrator have a good understanding the DT Trainer program and be an experienced user. This chapter covers tasks that are considered to be intermediate level or are performed from

Intermediate

tabs. In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform common and student administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In these cases, the procedure is written for both global and student only changes.

Changes that are made through the

Common Administration

tab affect all students created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the changes to each student through the

Student Administration

tab.

Adding Reinforcers to DT Trainer

1. Select

Common Administration > Reinforcers

to display the Reinforcer

Manager dialog box.

2. Highlight the

User

category and then click

New

.

A prompt appears with the name of the selected category and instructs you to enter the name of a new reinforcer (e.g., Freecell).

3. Type a name for the reinforcer and then click

Done

. The Edit Reinforcer dialog box is displayed. The Edit Reinforcer dialog box is described on page 5-44.

4. Set the

Web

,

Configurable

, and

Inactive

options if appropriate.

If

Web

is checked, the

File

option is replaced with

Web URL

and you are prompted to enter a URL when click the navigation button (...).

Chapter 7 7-2

5. Click the navigation button (...) located to the right of

File

. The Open dialog box is displayed.

6. Find and select the file that plays the reinforcer and then click Open.

The following fields have been updated in the Edit Reinforcer dialog box:

File

,

Directory

, and

Type

.

7. Modify the

Run Time

and

First Load Delay

if necessary.

8. Click

Done

to save the settings and add the reinforcer to DT Trainer.

Ordering Program Items

To change the training order of program items, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs

to display the DT Trainer

Programs dialog box.

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs

to display the Programs dialog box.

The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.

2. Select the program in the list that you want to manage.

3. Select

Actions tab > Items > Intermediate tab

.

7-3 Intermediate Administrative Tasks

4. Click

Order Items

to display the Program Order Items dialog box. For more information on the Order Items dialog box, see page 5-22.

5. Adjust the training order of the items, which is indicated by the number in the Training column, by selecting an item and then clicking the arrows to move the item up or down in the list.

The order of distracters and the status of an item as a distracter can also be adjusted in this dialog box.

6. Click

Done

to return to the Program Items dialog box.

Adding Items to a Program

To add program items, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs

to display the DT Trainer

Programs dialog box.

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs

to display the Programs dialog box.

The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.

2. Select the program in the list that you want to manage.

3. Select

Actions tab > Items > Intermediate tab

.

4. Click

Add Item

. The Select Program Items dialog box is displayed containing a list of unused items.

5. Highlight the item(s) to be added to the program

6. Click Select to return to the Program Items dialog box.

Setting Intermediate Program Options

Intermediate level tasks that can be performed on program options are performed from the

Intermediate

tab of the Program Options dialog box. Tasks that can be performed from this tab include the following:

• Setting the default student training profile and profile options for a program

• Setting the SD (command) mode and verbal SDs

• Setting the target image criteria

The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs

to display the DT Programs dialog box.

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs

to display the Programs dialog box.

The Programs dialog box is described on page 5-14.

2. Select the program in the list that you want to manage.

Chapter 7 7-4

3. Select

Actions tab > Options > Intermediate tab

.

4. To set the default training profile for the selected program, click

Select New

Profile

to display the Select Training Profile dialog box, described on page

5-12. Select a profile from the

Select Profile

list and then click

Select

to return to the Program Options dialog box described on page 5-24. Change the

Initial Training Step

and

Trial Timeout

values if necessary.

5. To change the command or SD Mode, select the appropriate mode from the

SD Mode

list box

6. To change the activation status of verbal SD associated with the program or to test SD, click the

Verbal SD

tab, select an SD, and then click the appropriate button (* to set as the default SD, ato activate, qto deactivate, and

Preview

to review the SD).

7. To change the target image criteria associated with images in a program, click the

Target Image Criteria

tab. If a program does not have item images, this tab is not available. You can specify whether only the default image is displayed for an item or if selected images are randomly displayed for the item.

If you click

Edit Criteria

, the Edit Image Criteria dialog box is displayed, allowing you to specify criteria for filtering the images. For example, images for a program may be categorized by skin tone, age, or by the type of picture (photo icon, photo, or drawing).

Setting Intermediate Student Options

Intermediate student options are set on the

Intermediate

tab of the Student

Options dialog box. Tasks that can be performed from this tab include the following:

• Overriding training profile parameters

• Setting training screen options

• Setting the default speaker

• Setting special reinforcer options

• Recreating a student training icon

The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.

1. Select

Common Administration > Student Options > Intermediate tab

to set the options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Options > Intermediate tab

to set the options for the currently selected student.

The Student Options - Intermediate tab is described on page 5-9.

7-5 Intermediate Administrative Tasks

2. To override training profile parameters, enter the appropriate values in the

Initial Training Step

,

Reinforcer Tokens

, and

Trial Timeout

boxes.

3. To change training screen options: a. Adjust the

Red

,

Green

, and

Blue

slider bars until the color you want is displayed to change the screen color. b. Check or clear the appropriate check boxes in the

Training Screen

Options

group box to show the

Done

and

Pause

buttons on the training screen, remove the visual display of earned tokens from the screen, and disable the

Esc

key.

4. To change the default speaker, select a speaker from the

Speaker

box.

5. To turn off the token based reinforcement and play one reinforcer at the end of the training session, check the

Only Reinforce at End of Training

check box.

6. To skip trials and cycle only through the reinforcers, check the

Reinforcers

Only

check box. This option cannot be set for the Default Template.

7. To recreate a student training icon, click

Create Icon

. A dialog box is displayed that prompts you to edit the name of the student training icon that will go in the DT Trainer Students folder on the desktop. The default name is the full name of the currently selected student.

Configuring a Student for Using Only Reinforcers

For students with behavioral problems, you may need to start with only the reinforcer programs and add content programs later. To configure a student’s training to use only reinforcers, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Options > Intermediate tab

to set the options for the currently selected student. The Student Options - Intermediate tab is described on page 5-9.

2. Check the option

Reinforcers Only

.

3. Click

Done

.

Chapter 7 7-6

Chapter

8

Advanced Administrative Tasks

Advanced Program Management Tasks...................................8-2

Customizing Praise Scripts ...............................................8-2

Changing the Training Sequence of Programs .................8-3

Adding a New Program to DT Trainer .............................8-3

Setting Advanced Program Options.........................................8-4

Setting the Active Train Steps ..........................................8-4

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs ....8-4

Setting Student Options ...........................................................8-5

Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options..........................8-5

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students......8-5

Setting Student Response Options....................................8-6

Advanced level tasks require that the administrator have an excellent understanding the DT Trainer program and be an expert user. This chapter covers tasks that are considered to be advanced level or are performed from

Advanced

tabs. In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform common and student administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In these cases, the procedure is written for both global and student only changes.

Changes that are made through the

Common Administration

tab affect all students created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the changes to each student through the

Student Administration

tab.

Advanced Program Management Tasks

Advanced program management tasks are performed from the

Advanced

group box on the

Active

tab of the DT Trainer Programs dialog box (if managing programs for all students) and the Programs dialog box (for an individual student). The advance management tasks for programs include the following:

• Customizing praise scripts

• Changing the training sequence (Student Administration only)

• Adding new programs (Common Administration only)

Customizing Praise Scripts

To customize praise scripts for a program, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer Programs) to manage programs globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab (Programs) to programs for the currently selected student.

2. Select a program.

3. To customize praise scripts for the selected program, click

Praise

to display the Program Praise Activation dialog box, described on page 5-27.

• To change the

Active

value of a script in the list, highlight the script and click

Toggle Active

.

• To deactivate all scripts, click

Clear All

.

• To apply praise script changes to the program for all students using the program, click

Update All

(Common Administration only).

• To reset the

Active

values to the DT Trainer defaults, click

Restore

Defaults

(Student Administration only).

4. Click

Done

to close the dialog box.

Chapter 8 8-2

Changing the Training Sequence of Programs

To change the training sequence of programs, the number of trials, and the active state of training modes for the currently selected student, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab to programs for the currently selected student.

2. Click

Sequence

to display the Training Sequence dialog box. This dialog box lists all the student’s training programs, their modes, number of trials, and current status. The Training Sequence dialog box is described on page

5-28.

3. To change the training order click the arrow buttons to move the highlighted program up or down in the list.

4. To change the number of Trials for highlighted the program, change the value in the box to the left of

Toggle Active

.

5. To change the Active state for highlighted the program, click

Toggle Active

.

6. Click

Random

to train the programs in random order or click

Sequential

to train them in the order shown in the list.

7. Click

Done

to close the dialog box.

Adding a New Program to DT Trainer

To add a new program to DT Trainer, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer

Programs).

2. Click

New

. You’re prompted to enter name of new program and then click

Done

. The new program name appears in the DT Trainer Programs list.

Highlight the new program and then configure its items, options, and praises.

3. Click

Done

to return to DT Trainer Administration.

Setting Advanced Program Options

Advanced program options are set from the

Advanced

tab of the Program

Options dialog box. The advanced program settings include the following:

• Active train steps

• Advancement/fallback criteria

Setting the Active Train Steps

To change the active train steps for a program, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer Programs) to set program options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab (Programs) to set program options for the currently selected student.

2. Select a program.

3. Select

Options > Advanced

to display the

Advanced

tab on the Program

Options dialog box.

4. To set the

Active Train Steps

, check the steps that you want to train. The

Active Train Steps

correspond to the 13 steps of Train Mode that are described in “13 Steps of Train Mode”.

• Click

Check All

to select all train steps.

• Click

Uncheck All

to clear all train steps so that none are used during training.

5. Click

Done

to save the changes and close the dialog box.

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Programs

To change the advancement and fallback criteria for a program, perform the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer Programs) to set program options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab (Programs) to set program options for the currently selected student.

2. Select a program.

3. Select

Options > Advanced

to display the

Advanced

tab on the Program

Options dialog box.

4. Change the values in the

Trials

,

Correct

, and

Incorrect

boxes for the various training levels and modes.

Advancement is based on the number of

Correct

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level.

Chapter 8 8-4

Fallback is based on the number of

Incorrect

responses within a set number of

Trials

that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.

In the following example, the

Random

mode requires the student to respond correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the

Maintenance

mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the item to fall back to Train PL1.

5. Click

Done

to save the changes and close the dialog box.

Setting Student Options

Advanced student options are set from the

Advanced

tab of the Student Options dialog box. The advanced student settings include the following:

• Distracter Prompt Level (PL) placement and size

• Advancement/fallback criteria (Student Administration only)

• Student response options

Setting Distracter Prompt Level Options

The placement of distractor prompt levels and the size of the distractors can be setting by performing the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Options > Advanced

tab (Student Options) to set student options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced

tab (Student

Options) to set student options for the currently selected student.

2. To change the vertical distance between distracters for

PL3

(row 3) and

PL2

(row 2), edit the value in the appropriate

Y Offset

box. This value must be between 0 and 40.

3. To change the size of the distracters for

PL3

(row 3) and

PL2

(row 2) in comparison to the target item (which is 100%), edit the value in the appropriate

Scaling

box. This value must be between 50 and 100.

Setting Advancement / Fallback Criteria for Students

The advancement and fallback criteria can be set globally for all students or for the currently selected student by performing the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Options > Advanced

tab (Student Options) to set student options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced

tab (Student

Options) to set student options for the currently selected student.

2. Change the values in the

Trials

,

Correct

, and

Incorrect

boxes for the various training levels and modes.

Advancement is based on the number of

Correct

responses within the set number of

Trials

that will advance a student’s training to a higher train level.

Fallback is based on the number of

Incorrect

responses within a set number of

Trials

that will set a student’s training back to a lower train level.

In the following example, the

Random

mode requires the student to respond correctly to five out of five trials to advance the training item to the

Maintenance

mode. Three incorrect reponses out of five trials will cause the item to fall back to Train PL1.

3. Click

Done

to save the changes and close the dialog box.

Setting Student Response Options

You can change the way the system responds to student responses (or lack of responses) by performing the following steps.

1. Select

Common Administration > Options > Advanced

tab (Student Options) to set student options globally (Default Template)

-OR-

Select

Student Administration > Student Options > Advanced

tab (Student

Options) to set student options for the currently selected student

2. To instruct the system to wait for X number of responses before going into

Wait Mode, change the number in the

No Responses before Wait Mode

box.

3. To ignore responses made before the SD (command) is given, check

Block

Early Responses

.

4. Click

Done

to save the changes and close the dialog box.

Chapter 8 8-6

Chapter

9

Development Administrative Tasks

Global Praise Management ......................................................9-2

Managing Programs Items .......................................................9-3

Setting Program Options..........................................................9-4

9-1 Development Administrative Tasks

Development level tasks require that the administrator have an excellent understanding of the DT Trainer program and be an expert user. This chapter briefly outlines the tasks that are considered to be development level or are performed from

Development

tabs. These tabs and development level options are not displayed unless the

Activate Development Functions

option is checked on the

Common Administration

tab.

In many cases, common dialog boxes are used to perform common and student administrative tasks, such as managing program items. In these cases, the procedure is written for both global and student only changes.

Changes that are made through the

Common Administration

tab affect all students created thereafter. Changes do not impact existing students. If you want the same changes to be applied to existing students, you will need to make the changes to each student through the

Student Administration

tab.

This chapter provides an overview of development tasks. For more information, visit http://www.dttrainer.com/support/development/.

Global Praise Management

Praise is the positive verbal feedback given to a student after a correct response.

The Praise Manager dialog box provides for complete administration of praises including editing existing praises and creating new praises. Generally, it is not necessary to use the Praise Manager because DT Trainer installs the praises that are appropriate for each program. Tasks that can be performed from the Praise

Manager dialog box, include the following:

• Viewing the list of praise scripts

• Playing a praise script

• Editing a praise script

• Deleting a praise script

• Creating a praise script

The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.

1. Select

Common Administration > Praise Management

to display the Praise

Manager dialog box, described on page 5-49.

A list is displayed showing the ID, active status, and name of each praise script.

2. To play a script, highlight it and then click

Play

.

3. To edit a script, highlight it and then edit it in the

View

box.

4. To delete a script, highlight it and then click

Delete

.

Chapter 9 9-2

5. To create a new script, click

New

. A new ID is added to the list and given the status “No”. In the

View

box, type the script. Click

View

to see how the script is parsed in the View Praise Parse dialog box; click

Done

. Click

Play

to verify that the praise script works as expected.

6. Click

Done

to return to the

Common Administration

tab.

Managing Programs Items

Development level program items management tasks are performed from the

Development

tab of the Programs Items dialog box. The development management tasks for program items include the following:

• Editing

• Renaming

• Deleting

• Adding new program items

The following procedure describes the steps to perform these tasks.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer Programs) to manage programs globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab (Programs) to programs for the currently selected student.

2. Select a program.

3. Select

Items > Development

to display the

Development

tab on the Program

Items dialog box.

4. Select an item.

5. To edit the highlighted item, click

Edit Item

to display the Program Edit Item dialog box.

9-3 Development Administrative Tasks

6. To rename the highlighted item, click

Rename Item

. When prompted, enter the new name and then click

Done

.

7. To delete the highlighted item, click

Delete Item

. When prompted, confirm whether or not you want to delete the item.

8. To add a new program item, click

New Item

. When prompted, enter the name of the new item and then click

Done

. The new item is added to the items list. a. Select the new item. b. Click

Edit

to configure the new item. Click

Done

to close the Program

Edit Item dialog box when finished.

9. Click

Done

to close the Program Items dialog box.

Setting Program Options

Development program options are set in from the

Development

tab of the

Program Options dialog box. The advanced program settings include the following:

• Trial functions

• Item audio files

• General settings

• Verbal SD

• Image keywords

The following procedure describes the steps to change these settings.

1. Select

Common Administration > Programs >Active

tab (DT Trainer Programs) to set program options globally (Default Template).

- OR -

Select

Student Administration > Programs > Active

tab (Programs) to set program options for the currently selected student.

2. Select a program.

3. Select

Options > Development

to display the

Development

tab on the Program

Options dialog box.

4. Check the appropriate check boxes in the

Trial Functions

group box.

5. Check the appropriate check boxes in the

Item Audio Files

group box.

6. Click the

Settings

tab and make the appropriate changes.

7. Click the

Verbal SD

tab and make the appropriate changes.

8. Click the

Image Keywords

tab and make the appropriate changes.

9. Click

Done

to return to the DT Trainer Program or Programs dialog box.

Chapter 9 9-4

Chapter

10

Analyzing Reports

System Reports ......................................................................10-2

System Trend Report ......................................................10-2

System Training Weekly Report.....................................10-2

Student Reports......................................................................10-3

Program Trend Report ....................................................10-3

Total Summary ........................................................10-3

Percentage Correct Summary ..................................10-4

Train States Report .........................................................10-4

Using the Train States Report..................................10-5

The Untrained Summary .........................................10-5

The Maintenance Summary.....................................10-5

Weekly Trial Results Report...........................................10-6

Using the Weekly Trial Results Report ...................10-7

Data Guidelines ..............................................................10-7

Weekly Training Log......................................................10-8

Using the Weekly Training Log ..............................10-8

Weekly Notes .................................................................10-8

Evaluating Student Usage ......................................................10-9

Reviewing the System Trend Report ..............................10-9

Reviewing the Student’s Training Log .........................10-10

Evaluating Student Performance..........................................10-10

Reviewing Class Level Reports....................................10-10

System Trend Report .............................................10-10

System Training Weekly Report ...........................10-11

Reviewing Student Level Reports ................................10-11

Program Trend Report ...........................................10-11

Weekly Trial Results Report .................................10-12

Reviewing the Program Item Graph .............................10-12

Reviewing the Item Training Log.................................10-13

Evaluating and Adjusting Programs ....................................10-14

Evaluating Progress ......................................................10-14

Adjusting Program Content ..........................................10-15

Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings ...........10-15

Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers .................................10-18

Reinforcer Influences on Performance .........................10-18

Adjusting Reinforcers...................................................10-19

This chapter contains a description of the various system (class level) reports and the student reports and then discusses the usage of the reports in the management and adjustment of programs. Program management and adjustment topics include the student’s use of the DT Trainer, analysis of a student’s performance, how to adjust a student’s training, and how to adjust reinforcement and a student’s program content.

System Reports

There are two system reports that can be accessed from the

Common

Administration

tab, the System Trend Report and the System Training Weekly

Report.

System Trend Report

The System Trend Report generates a number of summaries by student and class.

This report shows trends across training weeks. It is generally the first report that should be looked when you want to see how the class as a whole is doing and to find out which students may have training issues.

System Training Weekly Report

The System Training Weekly Report shows a number of summaries of the training results for each student and for the class as a whole. The reports are in the form of a snapshot for the selected week. This report is useful in reviewing a student’s progress with their program content. Students having most of their

Chapter 10 10-2

trials in the Train mode after significant training may not be progressing program items. Students having most of their trials in the Random and

Maintenance modes and few trials in the Train mode have progressed program items to the point that the student needs content programs added to their training.

Student Reports

You can view training logs, trial reports, trend reports, train states, and create notes for the selected student in the

Student Administration

tab. Generally, student reports are used to investigate specific students that have been identified as needing a program assessment or monitoring.

Program Trend Report

The student’s Program Trend Report shows a weekly history of all programs or only active programs. Using this report, areas warranting a more detailed review can be quickly identified. Two of the most useful summaries of this report are the Total Summary and the Percentage Correct Summary.

Programs are displayed alphabetically in the left-most column. Data for each program is displayed by the reporting year, month, and weekly start day.

Total Summary

The Total Summary shows DT Trainer usage for the selected student. The summary provides the total number of weekly trials for each program and overall total trials. Usage data is helpful in determining if the student has enough access to training sessions, and is helpful in determining if enough trials were

performed to provide meaningful data. To view the Total Summary, select

Active

,

Trials

, and

Totals

.

Percentage Correct Summary

The Percentage Correct Summary provides the weekly percentage of correct trials for each program and for the student. This dialog helps the administrator identify problem areas specific to programs and determine if a student’s profile settings are appropriate or need adjusting. To view the Percentage Correct

Summary, select

Active

,

Trials

, and

Correct

.

Train States Report

The Train States Reports shows a snapshot of the training states of each program item.

Chapter 10 10-4

Program: Active

or

All

programs may be displayed.

States: Untrained

,

Train

,

Random

,

Maintenance

,

Proficient

, and

Do Not Train

Using the Train States Report

• Check all check boxes to capture snapshots at different times, making this a useful report to quickly determine the overall progress of the student. For example you may want to create a snapshot at the beginning or early in the school term, and then at different points through the term.

• Check only

Maintenance

for a "hit list" for generalization activities at home or in the classroom.

• Check only

Train

to view items actually being trained.

• Check only

Untrained

for an item list of upcoming items that will be trialed.

This list is useful to determine when to add more programs. More programs should be added when there are few untrained items.

The Train States Report has two very useful summaries which are the Untrained and the Maintenance Summary.

The Untrained Summary

To view the Untrained Summary Report, check the

Untrained

check box; all the check boxes should be clear. The Untrained Summary provides a list of items that the student has not trained yet but will be trialed in the future. This list is useful to determine when to add more programs. More programs should be added when there are few untrained items.

The Maintenance Summary

To view the Maintenance Summary Report, check the

Maintenance

check box; all other check boxes should be clear. The maintenance summary provides a hit-

list of items the student has completed training on and is now ready for articulation and generalization in the classroom or at home.

Weekly Trial Results Report

The Weekly Trial Results Report gives a summary of the overall progress of the student and also gives details down to the item level to help pinpoint problems.

The report gives a weekly summary for the student's program and specific items listing by mode levels.

Chapter 10 10-6

Using the Weekly Trial Results Report

• The Trial Results Report should be reviewed prior to making adjustments to a student’s program. The specificity of this weekly report will assist the administrator with the information needed to adjust the student’s profile

(Advancement/Fallback) and/or the step of programs in the Train Level.

• Identify specific areas (i.e., program, item, mode level) in which the student is experiencing problems or success.

• Identify problem or success rates within each mode level (i.e., a student performs well in the Train mode, but not the Random mode. This student may need more practice for knowledge retention).

• Print this report to show the “step by step” successes to a parent, therapist, or administrator.

Data Guidelines

When evaluating a student’s progress, always take into consideration the total number of trials before adjusting a student’s program. The more trials a student has completed, the more significant the data. Two hundred to three hundred or more trials per week for each student produce significant data to use in program assessment and monitoring.

When assessing a program, consider the following:

• Consistent low or high percentage correct is an indicator that a student’s training is either too low or too high.

• Consistency in the eighty to ninety percent range is the target for a student’s training.

The following table provides guidelines based on the percent correct.

91 - 100%

Consistent high percentages mean training is too easy or the student may already know the active programs.

80 - 90%

Student is experiencing a good level of success without trials being too easy.

70 - 79%

Training might be too challenging for the student. Not enough success might hamper the student’s progress and interest.

Below 70%

Training is set too hard or the student may not be cooperating.

Weekly Training Log

The Weekly Training Log displays a student’s training log of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks. Here you can determine if the student is getting access to the system when expected, or if he is having performance issues due to length of time on the system.

Using the Weekly Training Log

The main purpose of this report is for accountability. Here you can determine when the student used the DT Trainer and for how long.

Some other uses include determining if the student is having performance issues due to length of training, or to get a feel for the students overall use pattern.

Weekly Notes

The Weekly Notes dialog box provides an area for the administrator to document information specific to the student. For example you may want to document program or reinforcer changes, student illness, and other system use issue.

Chapter 10 10-8

Evaluating Student Usage

The administrator should review student use of the DT Trainer to determine level of use and when to add programs. The System Trend Report and the student’s training log provide “use” information.

Reviewing the System Trend Report

The System Trend Report provides “use” information at both the student and class levels. From the System Trend Report, select the radio buttons for

Trials

and

Total

to view the total number of trials performed by the student. This summary is the default report and shows the number of trials performed by a student by week.

Look for a minimum of 200 to 300 trials per week for independent students; 100 trials per week or more for assisted students. More than 1000 trials per week may cause students to burn out on the program. In addition to the number of trials in a week, several weeks of data are more significant than a single week because you can see “training trends”. For students with low usage, reviewing several weeks of data may be necessary.

The System Trend Report assists the administrator in determining if a student is on the DT Trainer enough to warrant adjusting the training or if the student needs to establish a more routine pattern of training before making a change to a student’s training.

Reviewing the Student’s Training Log

The student’s Weekly Training Log is a detailed report of all program items trialed for the current or previous weeks, and provides information on more specific usage issues for a specific student. A teacher is able to determine if a student is “using” the system when intended by reviewing the date time stamp of trials. Establishing a routine, or a specific time of day for a student to train may be a factor for some students who perform better at a certain time of day or who need a routine in their schedule.

The

Session Duration Time (ST)

column displays in minutes and seconds how long the student has been training. The Result column and Session Time column can be reviewed to determine if a student’s session duration is set too long or too short. An increase in incorrect or no responses towards the end of sessions indicates that training sessions are set too long for a student.

Based on findings, adjustments can be made to assist in student use and access issues. Change the session duration minutes from the Student Options dialog if a student needs a longer or shorter training session. Increase the minutes if you are building the student’s use, or decrease the minutes if a student’s performance is dropping toward the end of his session.

Change the student’s physical access to the system to change the number of accesses per day. Establish a daily routine for lower functioning students or students who perform better with a routine or use at a certain time of day.

Evaluating Student Performance

A student’s performance review begins with the big picture and drills down into specific training issues. A good place to start is by identifying students whose training is off target (percent corrects are either too high or too low), and then analyze performance scores within reports that provide more program and item specific data. Remember that the “on target” range is eighty to ninety percent.

Above or below that range is “off target”.

Reviewing Class Level Reports

The System Trend Report and System Training Weekly Report are class level reports that provide a variety of summaries.

System Trend Report

Generally the first report to look at to see how the overall class is doing and which students may have training issues is the System Trend Report’s percent correct summary.

Chapter 10 10-10

Select

Trials

and

Correct

to view percent correct data. Determine which students are too low or too high. The greater the difference from the eighty to ninety percent correct the more we should be concerned. In this report Bill Jones’s data is now on target range, but Brad Smith’s data shows his performance “off target” on the low side.

System Training Weekly Report

The System Training Weekly Report provides a summary by response results and mode. Scan this report to review a student’s progress with their program content.

Students having most of their trials in the Train mode after significant training may not be progressing program items. Students having most of their trials in the Random and Maintenance mode and few trials in the Train mode have progressed program items to the point the students need content programs added to their training.

Reviewing Student Level Reports

Once specific students are identified whose training is “off target”, the teacher can begin to narrow down possible problem areas by reviewing several student level reports. Those reports are: Student Trend Report, Student Weekly Trial

Results Report, Student Program Item Graph and Logs, and Student Train States

Report.

Program Trend Report

The student’s Program Trend Report assists in pinpointing specific programs needing a more detailed look.

Select

Trials

and

Correct

to view the Percent Correct Summary. Determine if a student is scoring too high or low in all programs or just some of the programs.

Check significance of specific percentages by selecting the

Totals

or

Raw

radio buttons. Selecting

Totals

or

Raw

displays actual data, not percentages. To view responses versus when the student responded select

%X/(C+I)

. This view includes

Correct

and

Incorrect

responses, but does not include

No Response

s. This is the

default view. To view the responses versus total responses select

%X/T

. Total responses include correct, incorrect and no response.

Weekly Trial Results Report

The student’s Weekly Trial Results Report is a good place to look if the student has a performance issue with a training mode, program, program item, or with a specific reinforcer.

The report provides summaries for the week, the programs, the modes, and the items. For example, a teacher may find the student tends to score high correct percentages during the constant drilling of the Train Mode, but once the items are advanced to Random Mode, where they are presented less frequently, the correct percentages are low, indicating the student may not have had sufficient experience during the Train mode.

Reviewing the Program Item Graph

The Program Item Graph displays the pattern of progression or lack of progression for an item. Check several item graphs to get a feel for the program in general.

Check the item progression from the Train mode to the Random mode. Is the item maintaining the Random mode or is it slipping back to the Train mode?

Where the student is not progressing, look for:

• incorrect responses distributed between the prompt levels in the Train mode

• incorrect responses almost strictly on the PL1 lines

• attaining Random mode just to slip back

Check the difference in performance between the prompt levels in the Train mode. PL1 lines will generally show a lower performance than PL2 or PL3 lines because there is no visual clue at PL1. If the student is not able to progress from the PL1 steps and keeps falling back, and if the student is doing almost perfect at

PL2 and PL3, then we have a student that is not attending to the details of the items.

Chapter 10 10-12

Path: Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Basic Tab > View

Graph

Reviewing the Item Training Log

An item’s specific training log is also available from the student’s Program Item dialog. You can review the details of each trial to determine, for example, if a student is having problems with specific distracters or reinforcers.

Note in the following example of Brad Smith’s log for January 6, the number of

No Responses recorded for eight straight trials. Also note that the same reinforcer was repeatedly used for each trial. The administrator has set the scribble reinforcer to repeat 8 times in a row. Brad is probably burned out of the reinforcer. Remove this reinforcer from Brad’s reinforcer or set the repeats to zero.

Path: Student Administration Tab > Programs > Actions Tab > Items > Basic Tab > View

Log

Evaluating and Adjusting Programs

Evaluating Progress

Check the student’s Train States Report. The Train States Report shows overall progress of the student by displaying the state of program items and help to answer the question, “Are items being progressed?” Look for items in the

Random, Maintenance, and Proficient modes to ensure student progress. A student with no items advancing after significant training may not be progressing. Lack of progress may be in all or just specific programs. To determine the cause of poor progression, drill down into the student’s Weekly

Trial Results Report and Program Item Graphs and Logs.

Progression is highly dependent on the level of the student. A high functioning student should progress items quickly. A higher profile provides less drilling, enabling a student to progress items faster between modes. Lower functioning students generally progress items slowly. A lower profile provides more drilling, giving a student more experience with an item. A lower profile student progresses items at a slower rate. Over time as the student becomes a better learner, items will progress more quickly.

Chapter 10 10-14

To determine if there are items in the untrained state, check

Untrained

only (all others should be clear). A student with a few items in the untrained state needs programs added to their training. Consider adding one or more programs.

To view a list of items ready for generalization in the classroom or at home, check

Maintenance

only.

Adjusting Program Content

A student’s active training program is an important issue when monitoring a student’s training. The student’s Program Trend Report and Programs dialog box provide program content and status, and listing of each program.

The Program Trend Report provides a summary of Active programs and All programs. Select the desired view by clicking

Active

or

All

.

A program should be deactivated in the following situations:

• All items are at the proficient level

• Items are incorporated into another higher level or next step program

• You want to put the program on hold

A program can be put on hold if the student is not quite ready for the program, or has too many active programs and his performance is not at an acceptable level. The problem may be that he has too many programs for his level of use.

You can add programs when he does not have enough content in the train mode or if he is doing so well with his programs that he can handle more programs.

Consider the student’s use in trying not to spread the student too thin. You could have too few trials on specific items per week to support advancement.

To add or deactivate programs, go to the student’s Program dialog box and either add additional programs or toggle active or inactive program content for the student’s training. The

Active

column displays “Yes” if the program is being actively trained, and “No” if the program has been deactivated so that it is not being trained.

Examples of Adjusting Training Based on Findings

Finding 1:

A student’s Trend Report shows the student is scoring too low across all programs.

• Try selecting a lower training profile from the Student Options dialog.

• Another option is to try deactivating programs for a student. The student may just be overloaded.

• Increase the use if insufficient use is causing trials to be too infrequent thereby causing poor performance.

Finding 2:

A student’s Trend Report shows that the student is scoring too high across all programs.

• Try selecting a higher training profile from the Student Options dialog.

• Try adding additional programs. The student may be able to handle more.

Finding 3:

A student’s Trend Report shows that most programs are within the target range except for one or more programs with significantly lower percentages.

• Try selecting a lower training profile for just the specific programs.

Changing to a lower profile will automatically decrease the initial train step, and increase the advancement/fallback criteria.

For example, a student’s Trend Report shows sixty-eight percent correct for the Objects 1 program, but all other programs are scoring between eighty and ninety percent. Try selecting a lower profile for the Objects 1 program.

Finding 4:

A student’s Trend Report shows that most programs are within the target range except for one or more programs with significantly higher percentages.

• Try selecting a higher training profile for just the specific programs.

Changing to a higher profile will automatically increase the initial train step, and decrease the advancement/fallback criteria. Also, selecting a higher initial train step which decreases the amount of experience with an item is another possibility.

For example, a student’s Trend Report shows ninety-eight percent correct for the Objects 1 program, but all other programs are scoring between eighty and ninety percent. Try selecting a higher profile for the Objects 1 program.

• Try changing the program mode for the specific program. For example, if the student’s Trend Report shows ninety-eight percent for the Objects 1

Program, but all other programs are scoring between eighty and ninety percent, and the Objects 1 Program is in the Train mode, try changing the mode of the Objects 1 Program from Train to Random, where the items will be presented less frequently.

Finding 5:

The student has few items that are untrained. This may be seen by reviewing the Weekly Trial Results report, and determining that almost all of a student’s trials are in Random or Maintenance modes. You may also view the

Student’s Train States report and observe that for active programs there are few items in the untrained state.

For example, the Weekly Trial Results report shows that a student has performed 25 trials in the Train Mode, 185 trials in the Random Mode, and 103

Chapter 10 10-16

trials in the Maintenance Mode. The student is running out of items in the

Untrained state. The student’s Train States Report should confirm this situation.

• Add or activate programs for the student’s training.

Finding 6:

A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps and incorrect responses are distributed between the Prompt Levels. This finding is for specific program(s).

• Try selecting a lower training profile for just the specific program(s).

• Try selecting a lower initial train step for the specific program(s).

• Try deactivating the program(s) if the student is not ready to train this program(s).

Finding 7

: A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps and incorrect responses are distributed between the Prompt Levels for all of the student’s programs. There may be a number of potential reasons the student has this situation.

• Try selecting a lower training profile for the student.

• Other possibilities are issues with the train step, program readiness, reinforcement, and the student’s interest. Further analysis may be necessary to determine the exact problem.

Finding 8:

A student’s program items are not progressing through PL1 train steps and incorrect responses are strictly on the PL1 steps for specific or all program.

The student is using the prompt but not paying attention to the images or cannot hear the difference in the SD.

• If the student is not paying attention to the images, then decrease the

Distracter/Prompt Level Settings on the Student Options dialog. Try setting the offset to 10 for PL3 and to 1 for PL2, and the scaling to 75 percent for

PL3 and to 90 percent for PL2. This would decrease the distracter vertical displacement and scaling to make it more difficult for the student to determine the correct item based on the prompt alone.

• If the student is having difficulties processing the auditory information then try changing the program SD mode to

Both

from the Program Options dialog. The student will then see and hear the SD.

Note: Not all programs support the

Both

option.

Finding 9

: A student is progressing items to the Random mode only to have them slip back to the Train mode. If the student did not get sufficient experience in the

Train mode then the data may show that items frequently slip back from the

Random mode.

• Move the items back to untrained and lower the student training profile.

• Move the items back to untrained and decrease the initial training step only.

Note: An administrator may want to move items for some programs back if the student had an extended illness, absence, or another setback.

Evaluating and Adjusting Reinforcers

Reinforcer Influences on Performance

Observations of the student during reinforcement will be necessary from time to time to determine if the selected reinforcement is motivating. Other information that can also help is found in the reinforcer section of the Weekly Trial Results

Report. This report will not necessarily indicate reinforcers that are not motivating to a student, but can show this for some students. What this report shows is the trial result following specific reinforcers and trial results following no reinforcement. Some students MAY perform worse or not respond following reinforcers that they do not like. If the performance of a reinforcer is substantially lower than other reinforcers then the student probably is not motivated by the reinforcer. Note that just because the performance is not negatively impacted, does not mean that the student likes or is motivated by the reinforcer. In general, this is a more meaningful report where the student is reinforced frequently, and is using the system a good amount.

Check

Reinforcers

to view the Reinforcers Summary of this report. Are there reinforcers for which trial performance is very low? Review the number of trials for data significance, and check previous weeks to see if the same reinforcers exhibit problems. Look for high incorrect or no responses. In the below report, there is not sufficient frequency of reinforcement to indicate problems with any reinforcer.

Chapter 10 10-18

Adjusting Reinforcers

Changing reinforcers can keep the student motivated to use the system. How often reinforcers are changed for a student is highly dependent on that student.

Some students will enjoy the same reinforcers for long periods of time. They like doing the same thing over and over and tend not to get bored. This is especially true for low functioning students but may apply to higher functioning students also. For low functioning students and students that are difficult to reach we want to start with these stim reinforcers. And then mix in other reinforcers to build familiarity and eventual enjoyment of a broader variety of activities. For example, if a student loves trains, you may first start with trains and then add something like circle pop to start shifting his interest from strictly trains to a broader variety of interests. Higher functioning students tend to get bored of activities more quickly so they need a larger variety of active reinforcers. The fewer active reinforcers, the more frequently you should change their reinforcers. For the most part you should just change a few reinforcers at a time.

Reinforcement frequency can also affect student motivation and use of the DT

Trainer. Start with frequent reinforcement as appropriate for the student. If the student’s performance is good and the student seems to be interested in the program, then decrease the reinforcement frequency. Increase the frequency of reinforcement if the student’s interest seems to drop after a previous decrease in reinforcement. You change the reinforcement frequency by either changing the student’s training profile or changing the reinforcement on the Student Options dialog.

Glossary of Terms

Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA)

The branch of psychology that evolved from the research of B.F. Skinner.

Auto-Run

The normal method of training a student for a session. In Auto Run, the DT

Trainer picks active programs and modes to train randomly but will not repeat any program mode until all programs and modes have been trialed.

Discriminative Stimulus

A command that tells the student what to do.

Verbal, Textual, and Both.

Discrete Trial Methodology

Discrete trial is a behaviorally-based intervention primarily used for teaching children with autism.

Distracter

An item used to provide the student with an incorrect alternative to the

Target Item. A Distracter is used to determine if the student really knows the correct response

Fading the Prompt

The process of decreasing the degree of prompting from PL3 to PL1 during the Train mode.

Familiar Distracter

An Item the student has already trained. Familiar Distracters are more distracting to the student than Non-Familiar Distracters. Trials using

Familiar Distracters are harder than trials using Non-Familiar Distracters.

Labels Function

The function that teaches the label of an image.

Maintenance Mode

A low intensity continuation of training. The item is now “generally known” to the student. An item that is in the “Maintenance Mode” is

Glossary-1 Glossary of Terms

presented to the student very infrequently. The Maintenance mode ensures that the student “remembers” the item.

Non-Familiar Distracter

An Item the student has not yet trained. Non-Familiar Distracters are less distracting to the student than Familiar Distracters. Trials using Nonfamiliar Distracters are easier than trials using Familiar Distracters.

Praise

The positive verbal feedback for a correct answer.

Programs

Educational content such as Objects I, Shapes, and Body Parts.

Prompting

Visual clues of position or size that vary in degree of difficulty. The visual clue is the vertical distance between one or more Distracters and the Target.

Prompt Level 0

The level with no prompting. PL0 is the easiest prompt level because the target item is presented alone so there is only one answer possible.

Prompt Level 1

The level of prompting at row 1. This trial for the student is the hardest because there is no visual clue indicating the correct or incorrect answer.

Since the prompt has been eliminated, the trial is a discrimination task.

Prompt Level 2

The level of prompting at row 2. This trial for the student is harder than

Prompt Level 3 because the vertical distance between one or more

Distracters in row 2.

Prompt Level 3

The level of prompting at row 3. This trial for the student is easy because the vertical distance between the Distracters and the Target is at the highest level or farthest in distance. This is called PL3 because distracters are placed in row 3.

Random Mode

A less intensive continuation of training. The student has advanced the target item from the repetitive drilling of the Train Mode. The item is

“familiar” to a student but not completely learned while in the Random mode.

Glossary Glossary-2

Reinforcement

A student’s reward for one or more correct answers.

SD

See Discriminative Stimulus.

Stim

An abbreviation for any usage of stimulation.

Train

Refers to the usage of repetition and rewards to “teach”. If an item has been

“trained,” the student can identify and associate to some level, information such as a label, function, or sound with an item.

Train Steps

Levels of difficulty that an item progresses while in he Train mode. The number of distracter(s) it uses and at which prompt level (0,3,2,1) defines the level of difficulty. Step 0 is the easiest and Step 12 is the hardest.

Sounds Function

The function that teaches the sound associated with an item

Target Item

An item presented to the student to be trained that is always the correct choice.

Train Mode

A high intensity introduction to program items. An item is repetitively presented to a student through a series of 13 steps or levels of difficulty while in the Train mode.

Trial

A single task given to the student during training.

Glossary-3 Glossary of Terms

Index

1

13 train steps, 2-5, 5-26, 8-4

A accessing a dialog box, 5-3 accessing DT Trainer Administration,

3-3 action to incorrect response, 6-10

Activate Development Features option,

3-9, 5-38 activating development features, 6-6 praise scripts, 8-2 programs, 8-3 reinforcers, 6-4 activation code, 3-5 active train steps, 8-4

Add Reinforcers dialog box, 5-29, 5-30,

6-9, 6-12 adding program items, 7-4, 9-3 programs, 6-12, 6-13 programs items, 5-20 programs to a student, 5-16 programs to DT Trainer, 5-40, 8-2,

8-3 reinforcers, 6-11 reinforcers to a student, 5-29, 5-30 reinforcers to DT Trainer, 5-44, 7-2 administrative tasks performed frequently, 3-3 advancement criteria, 8-4, 8-5 advancement/fallback criteria, 5-12,

5-26

Applied Behavior Analysis, 1-2 authorization code, 3-4 auto run mode, 2-8

B behavioral problems, 1-15

C changing active train steps, 8-4 advancement/fallback criteria, 8-4,

8-5 item’s initial train step, 6-13, 6-14 item’s train state, 6-13, 6-14 number of trials for a program, 8-3 training order of items, 7-4 training sequence, 8-2 class level reports, 5-37, 6-6, 10-2,

10-10

Common Administration tab, 3-7, 5-36,

6-2 configuration screen for smart reinforcers, 2-9 configuring reinforcers, 6-11

SDs, 6-11 smart reinforcers, 5-43 student settings, 5-5 students, 3-3 creating a practice student, 4-4 praise scripts, 9-2, 9-3 student training icons, 7-6 students, 5-5, 6-7 training icons, 7-5 current student, 5-4, 5-5 customer ID, 3-5 customizing program items, 6-12, 6-13

D data guidelines, 10-7 deactivating praise scripts, 8-2 default run time, 6-11

Default Template, 3-2, 5-37, 5-40, 6-3 training profile, 7-4 deleting praise scripts, 9-2 program items, 9-3 programs from a student, 5-16 reinforcer definitions, 5-44 reinforcers, 6-4 students, 5-5, 6-10

Development tabs, 9-2 dialog box path, 5-3 disabling the Esc key, 5-10 discrete trial, 1-2

Discrete Trial Trainer, 1-2 discriminative stimulus, 2-2, See SDs

Discriminative Stimulus (SD) mode,

2-7 displaying item names, 5-25 displaying trial cues, 5-25 distracters, 2-3, 5-11, 5-23 ordering, 7-4 placement and size, 8-5 distractions, 1-15

DT Trainer adding programs to, 8-3 administration overview, 3-2 installing, 1-6 programs, 2-7 removing, 1-16 student training overview, 2-2

DT Trainer Administration dialog box,

3-5

DT Trainer programs, 5-40

DT Trainer Programs dialog box, 5-37,

5-38, 6-2

Action Tab, 5-40

Program Filters Tab, 5-41

Program Info Tab, 5-41

Selection Keywords Tab, 5-41

E

Edit Image Criteria dialog box, 7-5

Edit Programs Criteria dialog box, 5-17,

5-18, 5-41, 6-2

Edit Reinforcer dialog box, 5-44, 6-5,

7-2, 7-3 editing program filtering criteria, 5-41 program items, 9-3 reinforcers, 5-42, 5-44

Esc key, 5-10 evaluating performance, 10-10 progress, 10-7 usage, 10-9 extra processing time, 5-25

F fallback criteria, 8-4, 8-5 familiar distracter, 2-3 filtering images, 7-5 list of DT Trainer programs, 5-41 list of programs, 6-2 program list, 5-17, 5-18 target images, 5-25 first load delay for reinforcers, 5-46,

6-5

G getting started, 4-2 graph of trials by program items, 6-13,

6-14

H headphones, 1-12 hiding tokens, 5-10 hover help, 5-4

I incorrect response action, 5-9

INFO icon, 5-4

Information tab, 3-9, 6-6 initial train step, 5-10, 5-14, 5-25 of items, 5-19 setting, 6-13, 6-14 installation, 1-6

Internet Explorer, 1-7 item images filtering, 7-5 viewing, 6-14

K keyboards, 1-12

L learning functions, 2-7 level of use, 10-9 limiting session duration, 5-7 list of programs printing, 6-12, 6-13 viewing, 6-12, 6-13 log of trials by program items, 6-13,

6-14

Glossary Glossary-2

M

Maintenance mode, 2-6, 5-9

Maintenance Summary Report, 10-5 managing

DT Trainer programs, 5-37 praises, 9-2 program items, 5-16, 5-18 program items globally, 5-40 reinforcers globally, 5-37, 5-42 student praises, 5-16 mouse skills, 1-15 multimedia components, 1-7

N non-familiar distracter, 2-3 number of consecutive trials, 6-10 number of trials, 8-3

O

Open dialog box, 7-3 ordering distracters, 5-23, 7-4 program items, 7-3 programs and training modes, 5-28 training items, 5-20, 5-22, 5-23

P password feature, 5-38 percent correct data, 6-6

Percentage Correct Summary, 5-31,

10-3, 10-4 performance, 10-10 at prompt levels, 10-12 reinforcer influences, 10-18 pointing devices, 1-14

Praise Manager dialog box, 5-38, 5-49,

9-2 praise scripts, 5-27 creating, 9-2, 9-3 customizing, 8-2 deleting, 9-2 editing, 9-2 for a program, 5-40 managing, 5-16, 9-2 playing, 9-2 updating all, 8-2 viewing list of, 9-2 previewing content programs, 4-2 program items, 6-2, 6-13, 6-14 programs, 5-16, 5-40, 6-2, 6-12,

6-13 reinforcers, 4-3, 5-29, 5-30, 5-44,

6-4

Print dialog box, 5-16, 5-40, 6-2 printing class level reports, 6-6 list of DT Trainer programs, 5-40 list of programs, 6-2 list of student’s programs, 5-16 program items list, 6-14 program list, 6-12, 6-13 program content, 10-15

Program Edit Item dialog box, 9-3 program information, 5-41, 6-12

Program Item Graph, 5-20, 5-21, 6-3,

6-14, 10-11, 10-12, 10-14

Program Item Training Log, 5-20, 5-22,

6-3, 6-14, 10-11, 10-13, 10-14 program items, 5-16 active status, 5-24 adding, 7-4, 9-3 changing training order, 7-4 customizing, 6-12, 6-13 deleting, 9-3 displaying item names, 5-25 editing, 9-3 graph of trials, 6-13, 6-14 information, 6-14 initial train step, 5-19 log of trials, 6-13, 6-14 ordering, 7-3 previewing, 6-13, 6-14 printing list of, 6-14 renaming, 9-3

Program Items dialog box, 5-16, 5-18,

5-40, 6-2, 6-3, 6-13, 9-3 program options, 2-7

Program Options dialog box, 5-16,

5-24, 5-40, 7-4, 8-4, 9-4

Advanced Tab, 5-26

Intermediate Tab, 5-25

Program Order Items dialog box, 5-20,

5-22, 7-4

Program Praise Activation dialog box,

5-16, 5-27, 8-2 program status, 6-12, 6-13

Program Trend Report, 5-6, 5-31, 6-14,

10-3, 10-11, 10-15 programs, 2-7 activating, 8-3 active status, 5-16 adding, 6-12, 6-13 adding to a student, 5-16 adding to DT Trainer, 5-40, 8-2, 8-3 available, 5-17 default training profile, 7-5 deleting from a student, 5-16 list of verbal SDs, 5-25 previewing, 5-40, 6-12, 6-13 removing, 6-12, 6-13 reviewing, 4-2 training sequence, 8-3 viewing detailed information, 5-16

Programs dialog box, 5-5, 5-14, 6-12

Action tab, 5-15

Program Info tab, 5-16

Programs Items dialog box, 9-3 progression, 10-14 prompt levels, 2-4 offsets, 5-11 performance at, 10-12

Prompt Levels, 8-5 prompts, 2-4

R

Random mode, 2-6, 5-9 randomize SDs, 5-9 registering DT Trainer, 1-10, 3-3, 6-7

Registration dialog box, 3-4, 6-7 reinforcement frequency, 10-19 reinforcer categories, 2-11 definitions, 5-44 tokens, 5-10

Reinforcer Manager dialog box, 5-37,

5-42, 6-4, 7-2 reinforcer tokens, 5-10, 5-11, 5-14 reinforcers, 2-8 activating/deactiviating, 5-43 adding, 6-11 adding to a student, 5-29

Glossary Glossary-4 adding to DT Trainer, 5-44, 7-2 adjusting, 10-19 assigned to student, 5-30 available, 5-30 configuring, 6-11 default run time, 5-29 deleting from DT Trainer, 6-4 editing, 5-44 file name, 5-45 first load delay, 5-46 influence on performance, 10-18 options, 7-5 previewing, 5-29, 5-44 removing, 6-11 reviewing, 4-3 run time, 5-46, 6-11 testing, 1-8, 6-11 troubleshooting, 1-9 using only, 5-11, 7-6 viewing, 6-11 web address, 5-45 web-based, 5-45, 7-2

Reinforcers dialog box, 5-5, 5-29, 6-11,

6-12

Reinforcers Summary, 10-18 removing

DT Trainer, 1-16 programs, 6-12, 6-13 reinforcers, 6-11 reinforcers from a student, 5-30 renaming program items, 9-3 reports class level, 10-2

Maintenance Summary, 10-5

Percentage Correct Summary, 10-4

Program Item Graph, 10-11

Program Item Training Log, 10-11

Program Trend, 10-3, 10-11 student, 6-14, 10-2, 10-3

Student Program Trend, 10-11

System Training Weekly, 10-2,

10-11

System Trend, 10-2, 10-9

System Trend, 10-10

Total Summary, 10-3

Train States, 10-4, 10-11, 10-14

Untrained Summary, 10-5

Weekly Training Log, 10-8, 10-10

Weekly Trial Results, 10-6, 10-7,

10-11, 10-12 response cost, 5-9 responses before Wait Mode, 5-12 blocking, 5-12 reviewing a student’s progress, 5-48 content programs, 4-2 reinforcers, 4-3 run time, 6-5 for reinforcers, 5-29

S scaling distracters, 5-11 screen color, 5-10, 7-6

SD mode, 5-25, 7-4

SD Mode, 7-5

SDs, 5-9, 5-25

Select Content Programs dialog box,

5-16, 5-17, 5-18, 6-8, 6-13

Select Program Items dialog box, 7-4

Select Training Profile dialog box, 5-7,

5-12, 5-25, 6-7, 6-11 selecting a student, 6-10 selection screens, 2-9

Set Password dialog box, 5-38, 5-46,

6-5 setting active status of programs and modes,

5-28 active train steps, 8-4 advanced program options, 9-4 advancement/fallback criteria for a student, 5-12 blank screen time, 5-9 default run time for a reinforcer,

5-46 default speakers, 7-6 default student options, 5-37, 6-3 default training profile for a program,

7-5 distracter options, 8-5 extra processing time, 5-25 frequency of spoken name in praises,

5-8 initial training step, 5-10 number of consecutive trials, 5-8 number of trials for programs and modes, 5-28 password for DT Trainer

Administration, 5-46, 6-5 program options, 5-24 program options globally, 5-40 reinforcer first load delay, 6-4 reinforcer run time, 5-29, 6-4 reinforcer tokens, 5-10 screen color, 5-10 session duration, 5-7, 6-4 smart reinforcer options, 5-29 step or state of an item, 6-2 student gender, 5-7, 6-4 student ID, 5-8 student name, 5-8 student options, 6-10, 8-5 student response options, 8-6 target image criteria, 7-4 token based reinforcement, 7-6 touch screen, 6-4 training profile, 5-7, 6-10 training profile for a program, 5-25 training profile parameters, 7-6 training screen options, 7-6 training session duration, 6-10 trial timeout, 5-10 user and location information, 6-6 voice for SDs and praises, 5-10 smart reinforcers, 2-9, 5-29, 5-43, 5-45 speakers, 1-12, 7-5 status of verbal SDs, 7-5 student administration, 5-4 identification, 5-8 information, 5-8 progression, 10-14 reports, 10-2, 10-3 response options, 8-6 template, 3-2 training icons, 7-5, 7-6

Student Administration tab, 3-6, 5-4 student information, 6-10 student level reports, 10-11 student options, 6-10 setting, 8-5

Student Options dialog box, 5-5, 5-6,

5-37, 6-7, 6-10, 7-5, 8-5, 8-6

Advanced tab, 5-11

Advanced tab, 5-11

Basic tab, 5-7

Intermediate tab, 5-9

Other tab, 5-8

Student Program Trend Report, 10-11 student reports, 6-14 student training profile, 7-4 students adjusting program content, 10-15 creating, 5-5, 6-7 deleting, 5-5, 6-10 issues, 1-14 selecting, 6-10 setting options, 5-5 training sequence, 5-16 summaries by student and class, 10-2 summaries of the training results, 10-2 summary by mode, 5-48 summary by response results, 5-48, 6-6 system requirements, 1-5

System Training Weekly Report, 5-38,

5-48, 6-6, 10-2, 10-10, 10-11

System Trend Report, 5-38, 5-47, 6-6,

10-2, 10-9, 10-10

T target image criteria, 7-4 images, 5-25 items, 2-3 teaching strategies, 1-13 testing reinforcers, 1-8, 6-11

TIP icon, 5-4

Tips tab, 3-11, 6-7 token based reinforcement, 5-11 token based reinforcement options, 7-6 tokens displaying, 7-6 total number of trials, 6-6

Total Summary, 5-31, 10-3 touch screen, 5-7, 6-10 touch screens, 1-11

Train mode, 2-5, 5-8, 5-21, 5-26 train state setting, 6-13, 6-14

Train States Report, 5-6, 5-32, 6-14,

10-4, 10-11, 10-14 train steps, 8-4 setting, 8-4 training, 6-10 changing sequence, 8-2 environment, 1-10 flow, 2-6 icons, 5-11, 7-5 logs, 10-8 modes, 2-5 profile parameters, 7-5 profiles, 5-13, 5-25 profiles trial timeout, 5-25 screen buttons, 5-10 screen options, 7-5 sequence of programs, 8-3 sessions, 5-7 states for student program items,

5-32 terms, 2-2 training like a student, 4-8 training logs, 10-8 training profile parameters overriding, 7-6 training results, 10-2 training screen options, 7-6

Training Selection dialog box, 5-6,

5-36

Training Sequence dialog box, 5-16,

5-28, 8-3 training sessions, 2-7 trial cues, 5-25

Trial Results Report, 5-6 trial timeout, 5-10, 5-14, 5-25 typography conventions, 1-3

U

Untrained Summary Report, 10-5 updating all praise scrips, 8-2 upgrading

DT Trainer, 1-8

Internet Explorer, 1-7 usage, 10-9 user and location information, 6-6

User reinforcer category, 2-13 using reinforcers only, 7-6

V varying SDs, 5-9

Glossary Glossary-6

verbal SDs, 5-25, 6-10, 7-5

View Praise Parse dialog box, 9-3 viewing class level reports, 6-6 completed trials for an item, 5-20,

5-22 graph of trials, 6-13, 6-14 graph of trials by program item, 6-2 item image, 6-14 list of program items, 6-2 list of reinforcers, 6-4 log of trials, 6-13, 6-14 log of trials by program item, 6-2 praise script list, 9-2 program information, 6-2, 6-12 program item information, 6-14 program items list, 6-14 program list, 6-12, 6-13 reinforcers, 6-11 visual trial response graph, 5-20, 5-21

W web-based reinforcers, 5-45, 7-2

Weekly Notes, 5-6, 5-35, 10-8

Weekly Training Log, 5-6, 5-34, 6-14,

10-8, 10-10

Weekly Trial Results Report, 5-33,

6-14, 10-6, 10-7, 10-11, 10-12,

10-14, 10-18

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