model 500 - Controls and Instrumentation Company, Inc

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
MICRO-EMISSIONS ANALYZER
MODEL 500
ENERAC, INC.
67 BOND STREET
WESTBURY, NY 11590
(800) 695-3637
FAX (516) 997-2129
Revision 3.0
1
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................................3
OPTIONS...................................................................................................................4
CHAPTER 1
FUNDAMENTALS ...................................................................................................6
CHAPTER 2
THE INSTRUMENT KEYBOARD..........................................................................9
CHAPTER 3
BASIC INSTRUMENT OPERATION ...................................................................11
THE SMOKE TEST.............................................................................................14
CHAPTER 4
ANALYZER DESCRIPTION .................................................................................15
A. POWER REQUIREMENTS .........................................................................15
B. SAMPLE FLOW DESCRIPTION ................................................................16
C. THERMOELECTRICALLY COOLED CONDENSATION TRAP ...........17
D. SENSORS DESCRIPTION...........................................................................20
CHAPTER 5
ANALYZER SETUP...............................................................................................23
A. SYSTEM MENU...........................................................................................23
B. SPAN MENU ................................................................................................26
C. STORAGE MENU ........................................................................................27
D. PRINTER SETUP MENU.............................................................................28
E. SENSOR SETUP MENU..............................................................................29
CHAPTER 6
COMMUNICATIONS ............................................................................................30
A. ENERCOM SOFTWARE .............................................................................30
B. SERIAL COMMANDS.................................................................................33
THE ENERAC 500 COMMAND SET................................................................34
CHAPTER 7
CALIBRATION.......................................................................................................37
A. AUTOZEROING THE INSTRUMENT.......................................................37
B. SPAN CALIBRATION .................................................................................38
CHAPTER 8
MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................43
APPENDIX A
MODEL 500 SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................48
APPENDIX B
FIRMWARE PROGRAMMING.............................................................................52
APPENDIX C
REPLACMENT PARTS .........................................................................................53
2
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
PARAMETERS
AMB T
CO
CO2
COMBUST
EFFIC
EX AIR
NO
NO2
NOX
OXYGEN REF
SO2
STACK T
THERMAL EFF
Ambient (room) temperature
Carbon monoxide (a toxic gas)
Carbon dioxide
Combustible gases
Combustion efficiency (for boilers and furnaces, does not
apply to engines)
Excess air
Nitric oxide (a toxic gas)
Nitrogen dioxide (a toxic gas)
Oxides of nitrogen (a toxic mixture of nitric oxide and
nitrogen dioxide gases)
Oxygen reference basis for correction of toxic gas
Concentration
Sulfur dioxide (a toxic gas)
Stack temperature
Engine thermal efficiency (heat loss method of
calculation, not the same as combustion efficiency)
UNITS
PPM
MGM
GBH
#/B
"
%
Parts (of pollutant) per million (volume basis-dry)
Milligrams (of pollutant) per cubic meter
Grams (of pollutant) per (engine) brake horsepower-hour
Lbs. (of pollutant) per million BTU (of fuel)
Inches of water (draft measurement)
Percent by volume dry basis
3
OPTIONS
The ENERAC Model 500 has been designed as a modular system, permitting the
installation in the field of most of the various available options. This manual
describes the complete instruments equipped with all the options. The available
options on the Model 500 are as follows:
a. 2" ENERAC Printer.
b. Nitric oxide (NO) measurement capability.
c. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) measurement capability.
d. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurement capability.
e. Combustible gas measurement capability.
f. Stack draft measurement capability.
g. Smoke test (ASTM method D2156) capability.
h. Bluetooth wireless communication option.
i. Thermoelectric cooler option (Peltier drier).
j. Extra-long 36" or 48" inconel probe option.
k. Emissions units option (Lbs / millionBTU & Grams / brake-HP-hour).
l. Custom fuel option. (Either at the factory, or programmable using the
ENERCOMTM for WINDOWSTM option.
m. CD-ROM with custom software:
• EnercomTM for WINDOWSTM95/98/ME/NT/XP,
• EnercomCE for WINDOWS CE (Pocket PC),
• EnerPalm for PALM OS.
Any combination of these options are available to meet the customer's
requirements.
4
Various cables and attachments are available for special connections to the Micro
Emissions Analyzer.
In addition, high resolution 0-200 PPM and extended range 0-4000 PPM versions
are available on request. (For carbon monoxide only, 0-10,000 PPM and 0-20,000
PPM ranges are also available).
5
CHAPTER 1
FUNDAMENTALS
The ENERAC Model 500 Micro Emissions Analyzers are hand held state of the art
analyzers designed for the following tasks:
• To measure the emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur
dioxide and oxygen from stationary and mobile combustion sources.
• To assist the operator of a combustion source with the task of optimizing its
performance and saving fuel.
• To be used as a management tool to assist the plant manager with keeping
records and controlling costs.
The ENERAC Model 500s are easy to carry and utilize the latest technology;
reliable flue type electrochemical sensors manufactured by the largest sensor
manufacturer to measure emissions.
The ENERAC use sophisticated electronics and programming designed for
increased accuracy and flexibility. It measures 2 temperatures and 5 different stack
gases. It computes efficiency of combustion, as well as excess air and carbon
dioxide. It communicates with a variety of other computers via its serial ports. It
has a library of 15 fuels, diagnostic/help messages, and can operate either on its
rechargeable batteries, AC power, or from a set of four AA alkaline cells.
ENERAC has years of experience in the manufacture and marketing of portable
combustion and emission analyzers. The Model 500 is based on this experience,
together with the latest innovations in electronic and sensor technology. They also
express our basic conviction that communications and artificial intelligence are the
basic ingredients of the instrument of the future.
The instrument operates basically as follows:
Connect the probe and water trap to the analyzer. Turn the unit on and then insert
the probe in the stack of an operating combustion source such as a boiler, furnace
or combustion engine. A pump located inside the instrument draws a small sample
of the stack gas. The sample is conditioned before entering the analyzer by passing
6
through a condensation trap and particulate filter. A number of sensors analyze the
contents of the stack gas and its temperature and calculate and display the results.
The results can also be printed, stored or sent to a computer. The source operator
makes the required adjustments based on the analysis of the stack conditions to
optimize performance.
A. UNPACKING THE INSTRUMENT
Every ENERAC Model 500 includes as standard equipment:
1. One Emissions Analyzer Model 500.
2. One stack probe with 10 ft. Viton hose (non-adsorbent, flexible).
3. One condensation trap with filter.
4. One disposable fiber filter.
5. One wall-mounted AC battery charger.
6. One instruction manual.
Every ENERAC sold has stored in its memory information regarding
manufacturing and sensor dates, as well as product identification, serial number of
unit, version and original customer.
B. IMPORTANT ADVICE
Most stack gases are hot, full of moisture, corrosive and laden with soot particles.
To make sure that your instrument will give you a long time of trouble-free
performance, please observe the following recommendations.
1. Follow the instructions in your manual.
2. Never use the instrument without the fiber filter located inside the water
trap. Operating the instrument without the filter will damage the pump and
sensors. (This is a costly replacement!)
3. Do not expose the probe tip to open flame.
7
4. Do not rest the stack probe’s hose on a hot boiler surface.
5. Allow the probe tip to cool off and the instrument aspirate air before packing
the probe.
6. Always be sure to use single-gas blends when calibrating the sensors.
7. Charge the battery at least every two weeks to maintain proper bias on the
sensors.
8
CHAPTER 2
THE INSTRUMENT KEYBOARD
The Model 500 can be operated by using either:
• The 12 button keyboard located on the face of the analyzer, or
• By the use of commands through its serial port, USB port or Bluetooth
interface.
A brief explanation of the instrument’s buttons follows.
ON/OFF
PUMP
LIGHT
DISPLAY
DATA
ZERO
STORE
STATUS
PRINT
SHIFT
ENTER
ON/OFF
Turns the instrument on or off.
PUMP
Toggles the instrument’s sample pump on or off. If you hold it
down for 3 seconds it will start a smoke test.
LIGHT
Toggles the LCD display’s backlight illumination on or off.
DATA
Toggles four LCD display screens. Each screen presents an
instantaneous group of data of four measurement or computation
parameters. The fourth screen displays all parameters
simultaneously. This is the most often used button.
ZERO
Executes an instrument autozero (sets oxygen to 20.9%).
STORE
This button is used to store data in the instrument’s internal buffers.
STATUS
Toggles three LCD screens. The first screen displays the customer
name, time, and date. The second screen displays the current
9
software version, unit serial number, battery voltage and selected
fuel. The third screen displays the ambient temperature, units of
temperature, emission units, and selected oxygen reference.
PRINT
Sends data to the printer.
The buttons of the last row are used to customize the analyzer and execute all
changes in stored parameters, such as time, fuel, calibration data, etc.
SHIFT
Displays the Setup Menu.
▲
Increments the entry marked by the cursor to the next higher entry.
(This may be a digit or another parameter).
▼
Decrements the entry marked by the cursor to the next lower entry.
(This may be a digit or another parameter).
ENTER
Executes and stores all the changes.
10
CHAPTER 3
BASIC INSTRUMENT OPERATION
It is possible to master the basic operation of the instrument in a few minutes by
following the procedure outlined below. Please refer to the other sections of this
manual for a description of the more advanced features.
The Model 500 micro-emissions analyzers consist of two major components, the
probe (whose function is to extract, clean, and dry the sample) and the main unit,
which does the stack analysis and computations.
To operate the instrument follow the steps outlined below.
1. Remove the instrument from its case, attach the sampling probe and water
trap or thermoelectric cooler to the analyzer section, and press the ON/OFF
button.
2. The instrument pump will immediately turn on. If it does not, check the
batteries. If you are using rechargeable batteries, plug in the AC charger. If
the unit will not respond, reset the unit. To reset the unit, press the reset
switch, located on the left side of the unit next to the USB port.
3. Press the STATUS button to obtain information about the analyzer as shown
below by the three screens displayed by toggling the STATUS button:
ENERAC M500
Company Name
Time: 12:00:00
Date: 01/01/01
STATUS SCREEN 1
Version: 5.0+
Serial #: 12345
Battery: 5.65 V
Fuel: #2 OIL
STATUS SCREEN 2
Amb Temp 80 F
Temper. Units:F
Meas. Units:PPM
Oxygen Ref:TRUE
STATUS SCREEN 3
The first screen shows the model name, customer name, current time & date.
The second screen displays the firmware version of the unit, serial number of the
unit, current battery voltage, and currently selected fuel. The third screen shows the
current ambient temperature, units of temperature and emission measurement, and
the oxygen reference. The selected fuel affects the efficiency and CO2 calculations.
The selected oxygen reference affects the CO, NO, NO2, & SO2 measurements in
PPM or MGM mode. The fuel and oxygen reference, as well as the time, date, and
measurement units can be changed using the SHIFT menu as described in
11
CHAPTER 5: ANALYZER CUSTOMIZATION. It is a good idea to use the
STATUS button to check the battery voltage before you begin a test. The unit will
display a warning and shut down when the battery voltage drops to 4.0 volts.
4. If the instrument temperature is below 40°F. Allow a few minutes for the
unit to warm up.
5. With the probe connected to the unit, the probe tip at room temperature, and
the instrument aspirating clean air, press the ZERO button to execute an
AUTOZERO.
6. If at the end of the autozero period there are no warning or error messages,
insert the probe into the stack. Wait approximately two minutes before
taking data.
7. Press the DATA button to display the first group of measurements. By
depressing this button again you display the second group of data, and by
depressing it again you will display the third group of data. The data are
grouped as follows:
Effic: 85.7
Oxygen: 5.8
CO:
146
Stack T: 460
CO2:
7.8
Ex.Air: 35.0
Combust: 3.0
Draft:
5.5
%
%
PPM
F
%
%
%
"
DATA SCREEN 2
DATA SCREEN 1
NOX: 163 PPM
NO:
37 PPM
NO2: 126 PPM
SO2: 250 PPM
OX: 5.8 DFT: 5.5
ST: 460 CMB: 3.0
CO: 146 NO2: 126
NO: 37 SO2: 250
DATA SCREEN 3
DATA SCREEN 4
Toggle the DATA button to view the measurement data in sequence.
NOTE: Depending on the options enabled for your analyzer some of the entries
in one or more of the displays shown above will display “N.A.” if that option is
not available. When the O2 level is above 20% the efficiency will read “OVER”.
8. If you want a printed record of the current data, press the PRINT button on
the analyzer. You will get a complete printout of all data, including time and
date, fuel and customer information.
12
ENERAC 500
Serial #: 000000
TEST RECORD
CUSTOMER NAME
Time: 10:25:00
Date: 07/11/00
Fuel: #2 OIL
Effic: 89.9 %
Amb Temp: 83 F
Stack T: 241 F
Oxygen: 0.2 %
CO:
43 PPM
CO2:
15.5 %
Combust: 1.5 %
Draft: -2.0 "
Ex.Air:
1 %
NO:
523 PPM
NO2:
25 PPM
NOX:
548 PPM
SO2:
35 PPM
Oxygen Ref:TRUE
9. If you wish to store your data into one of the 100
storage buffers of the analyzer, press the STORE
button.
10. When you are finished with the measurements,
remove the probe from the stack and allow it to reach
ambient temperature before storing it. Remove any
condensation from the water trap and replace the
fiber filter, if it is dirty.
TEST PRINTOUT
13
THE SMOKE TEST
(ASTM METHOD D2156)
The smoke test accessory, shown below, is required to perform smoke tests. If you
wish to take a measurement of the smoke using the smoke spot method, press and
hold the PUMP button for 3 seconds. The pump will stop and the first screen
SMOKE TEST
Enter to Begin
Shift to Abort
SMOKE TEST
Running 1:26
Shift to Abort
SMOKE TEST
Completed!
Remove Paper
shown below will appear on the display.
The instrument is waiting for you to take out a piece of the smoke paper and insert
it in the cut out provided in the probe handle. To do this you must first loosen the
thumbscrew to make room for the paper and then screw it back tightly so that there
is no leak. When you are ready, push the ENTER key.
The smoke test will begin and the display will read “Running 1:26” and will count
down. The pump will be on and drawing a sample at 750 cc/min. At the end of the
test the pump will stop again and the message “Completed!” will appear. Remove
the smoke paper as instructed. Tighten the thumbscrew to avoid any leaks and push
any button to continue with your measurements. Take out the smoke chart that
comes with the instrument and compare the paper's discoloration with the standard
shades of grey on the chart. The number corresponding to the closest match is the
smoke number.
0
1
2
3
4
5
14
6
7
8
9
CHAPTER 4
ANALYZER DESCRIPTION
A. POWER REQUIREMENTS
The Model 500 is designed to operate from 4 AA cells supplying a voltage of 4.0
to 6.5 Volts.
The flexible design allows for the use of either 4 AA alkaline primary (non
rechargeable) batteries, or 4 nickel-metal-hydride rechargeable cells. Rechargeable
batteries are recommended and are supplied with the analyzer. If you want to use
non-rechargeable batteries, use the battery holder supplied. Be sure to turn off the
DC charge switch located inside the unit.
A wall-mounted 110/220 volt AC charger is supplied with the high performance
(2500 mAH cells) Ni-MH cells and can be used to charge the batteries or operate
the unit continuously from an AC power source.
NOTE: Non-rechargeable batteries may explode or leak if the AC adapter or
another battery charger is accidentally connected. If you are using alkaline
(non-rechargeable) batteries, be sure to disable the AC charger connection by
toggling the DC CHARGE SWITCH, located next to the batteries, to the down
position marked ‘Alkaline’. See figure 4, page 48.
Battery life is approximately 6-8 hours of continuous operation. If you are using
the thermoelectric cooler, battery life is two hours.
You can check the condition of the batteries at any time by pressing the STATUS
button twice to display the second status screen. The following screen will appear
on the display:
Version: 5.0+
Serial #: 12345
Battery: 5.65 V
Fuel: #2 OIL
STATUS SCREEN 2
15
When the battery voltage indicated drops to 4.6 Volts for alkaline or 4.2 Volts for
rechargeables, you have only a few more minutes of battery life remaining. Using
the printer will further reduce battery power. Always check the battery voltage
with the pump turned on.
If you are using non rechargeable batteries the voltage will drop slowly and
gradually from 6 Volts to 4 Volts. If you are using rechargeable batteries the
voltage will stay fixed for several hours at 4.8 Volts before starting to drop rapidly.
In addition to the battery condition indication, there will be a warning during
instrument operation and also at start up, if the batteries are low.
If you are using the thermoelectric cooler assembly, reduce the cooler duty cycle to
extend the battery life. To further prolong battery life, you can turn off the
display’s back light illumination.
B. SAMPLE FLOW DESCRIPTION
During operation, the metal tube of the probe (see figure 1) is inserted into the
stack. A small pump located inside the unit draws a sample of the stack gases into
the instrument for analysis. The probe assembly and sensor housing are described
below.
FIGURE 1
16
The probe assembly consists of the following components:
• A 9" long 3/8" OD piece of inconel tubing and an inconel-sheathed type K
thermocouple located inside the inconel tube for protection. Both probe and
thermocouple are mounted on an aluminum head that includes a support handle.
• A 10 ft. long 1/4/” OD Viton sampling hose and thermocouple extension cable
equipped with quick disconnects on both sides for easy storage. Viton tubing is
used to prevent adsorption of NO2 and SO2 gases from the sample.
• A condensation trap and particulate filter assembly to remove the excess water
and clean the sample. The condensation trap is mounted for convenience to the
side of the hand-held analyzer. Figure 1 shows the probe assembly. The
optional thermoelectric cooler assembly replaces the condensation trap.
C. THERMOELECTRICALLY COOLED CONDENSATION TRAP
The thermoelectrically cooled condensation trap, better known as “Peltier Drier” is
an optional accessory device for the model 500 emissions analyzer.
Its purpose is to replace the standard condensation trap of the Model 500 for those
critical applications, that demand higher accuracy for the measurement of nitrogen
dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
NO2 and SO2 are gases that are highly soluble in water. The exhaust sample
contains typically between 5% and 20% of water vapor, most of which will
condense in the probe and sample line.
To prevent significant loss of NO2 and SO2 during transport of the sample from the
probe to the analyzer, the following conditions must be satisfied:
1. Rapid sample transport. This is accomplished by maintaining a high flow
rate using a relatively small diameter sampling line.
2. Use of a sample line made from a highly hydrophobic material. A Teflon
sample line limited to 15 ft. long is used.
3. Minimum contact of the gas sample with the water collection mechanism
and also no additional condensation occurring following the Peltier drier.
17
This is accomplished by using a specially designed Peltier cooled manifold
to separate the gas from the water.
The following outline drawing illustrates the drier’s operation.
FIGURE 2
Mount the Peltier drier to the side of the ENERAC using the two thumbscrews.
Make a tight connection so that the heatsink makes good contact with the
ENERAC case.
The sample consisting of gas and partially condensed water vapor enters the drier
through the “SAMPLE INLET”. It flows through multiple narrow
thermoelectrically cooled passages, where total separation of gas and vapor occurs.
The dried sample makes a 180 degree turn, flowing upwards and goes through an
optional membrane filter exiting through the “SAMPLE OUTLET”. To maintain
proper operation the analyzer should be mounted either in a horizontal or vertical
position.
Check the disposable filter inside the Peltier drier filter holder. Make sure that the
filter is clean and dry. Secure the cover and check that the condensation trap is
also screwed tightly to prevent air leaks.
The condensation trap will probably fill with water after 2 to 4 hours depending on
the fuel used. To empty the condensation trap simply disconnect it from the
manifold by unscrewing it. When replacing it, be careful to seat the O-ring
properly.
18
The Peltier drier requires electrical power for operation. This is available from the
analyzer through the drier’s electrical connector. When operating the Peltier drier,
the analyzer’s battery life is limited to 2 hours, approximately. It is therefore
recommended, but not necessary, to use the battery charger for longer operation.
The Peltier drier will maintain the sample at a certain temperature below ambient
temperature to ensure no further condensation inside the analyzer. You can control
this temperature differential by adjusting the “COOLER DUTY CYCLE”, if
necessary.
The following table shows the approximate relation between duty cycle and
temperature differential:
DUTY CYCLE
50%
75%
100%
SAMPLE TEMP AMBIENT TEMP (°F)*
-9
-13
-16
*At 75°F ambient.
Battery life for the analyzer with the Drier in operation is approximately 2.5 hours
for 50% duty cycle to 1.5 hours for 100% duty cycle, assuming freshly charged
batteries, or new alkaline batteries.
This temperature differential between sample temperature and ambient temperature
is set at the factory to 70% but can be adjusted as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press the SHIFT key. SETUP MENU will be displayed.
Press the ENTER key to select SYSTEM SETUP.
Press the UP/DOWN keys until the cursor points to COOLER DUTY.
Press the ENTER key.
Use the UP/DOWN keys to set the Peltier duty cycle. A minimum of 50% is
recommended.
6. Press the ENTER key.
19
D. SENSORS DESCRIPTION
A small diaphragm pump located inside the analyzer draws a small sample (1200 1600 cc/min.) of the stack gas. The pump is powered by a high quality DC motor
rated at 4000 hours. The pump’s discharge is connected to the polycarbonate
sensor manifold. In the manifold, the sample passes over the oxygen sensor and the
four gas sensors (carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide),
before exiting the back of the unit at the combustibles sensor. The manifold
includes a small damper to dampen the flow pulsations caused by the diaphragm
type pump. Units equipped with a combustibles sensor use a special doublebellows pump. One side of the pump draws the sample from the stack, while the
other side supplies air for the combustibles sensor.
The sensors
1) Temperature sensing. The instrument uses two temperature sensors. One
measures the stack temperature and the other monitors the ambient temperature.
a) THERMOCOUPLE. The thermocouple is located at the tip of the probe. It
measures the stack temperature minus the ambient temperature. The
thermocouple junction is a shielded, ungrounded, inconel sheathed, type K
thermocouple with the capability of measuring temperatures from 0 to
2000°F. The instrument software linearizes the thermocouple output to
improve the accuracy.
b) AMBIENT TEMPERATURE SENSOR. This is an integrated circuit type
temperature sensor. It is located inside the analyzer. It is used to measure the
ambient temperature inside the instrument.
2) Pressure sensing. The pressure sensor is mounted inside the unit and is located
on the right-hand side of the sensor housing. It is a highly sensitive
piezoresistive sensor intended for pressures from +10" to -40" of water. It uses
the probe as a gas conduit to monitor stack draft. A separate hose is not used for
draft measurement unless the customer specifically requests it.
3) Gas sensing. All gas sensors are mounted on the printed circuit board. Gas is
introduced by the sensor manifold housing. The sensors can be accessed by
opening the bottom part of the analyzer’s back cover. All toxic gas sensors used
in the Model 500 are large electrode area emission type sensors especially
designed for use in the hostile exhaust gas environment.
20
a) CARBON MONOXIDE SENSOR. This is a sealed electrochemical cell
incorporating a long-life inboard filter. It consists of three or four platinum
electrodes in an electrolyte. Carbon monoxide gas diffuses through a tiny
hole on the face of the sensor. It reacts with oxygen present inside the cell to
form carbon dioxide. The reaction produces an electric current proportional
to the concentration of the gas. Sensor life is estimated at two years. Its
inboard disposable filter has an estimated life in excess of 200,000 PPMhours. An optional sensor includes an auxiliary electrode to remove cross
interference to hydrogen gas.
b) OXYGEN SENSOR. This is a two electrode electrochemical cell. It has a
silver cathode and a lead anode. Oxygen diffuses through a tiny hole and
reacts with the lead anode. The reaction produces an electric current. The
unit software linearizes the current vs. oxygen response. The cell becomes
exhausted when all the lead is consumed. It takes about two years for this to
happen.
c) NITRIC OXIDE SENSOR. This is a sealed electrochemical cell
incorporating a disposable long-life inboard filter. It consists of three
exclusively noble metal electrodes in an electrolyte. Nitric oxide gas diffuses
through the tiny capillaries located on the face of the sensor. It reacts with
oxygen present inside the cell to form nitrogen dioxide. The reaction
produces an electric current proportional to the concentration of the gas.
Sensor life is estimated at two years. Its inboard disposable filter has an
estimated life in excess of 20,000 PPM-hours for NO2 and 100,000 PPMhours for SO2. This sensor requires a constant bias voltage for proper
operation. This voltage is supplied to the sensor, even when the instrument
is turned off. It draws a small amount of current and will drain the batteries
completely in about 10 months. For this reason the unit should always be
given a fresh charge once every 2-3 months.
d) SULFUR DIOXIDE SENSOR. This is an electrochemical cell similar to the
nitric oxide sensor. It has a range of 0 to 2000 PPM. Its life is estimated at
two years.
e) NITROGEN DIOXIDE SENSOR. This is an electrochemical cell similar to
the nitric oxide sensor. It has a range of 0 to 500 PPM. Its life is estimated at
two years.
21
NOTE: In addition to the sensor long-life filters, the Model 500 emission
analyzer uses mathematical compensation techniques to minimize any
residual cross-sensitivities that its toxic sensors may have to any gases other
than those they are intended to measure. For this reason, never use span
gases that are blends of two or more toxic gases.
f) COMBUSTIBLES SENSOR. This is a two element catalytic type sensor.
Any flammable gas in the vicinity of the active element will be combusted
with oxygen present and cause a rise in the temperature of the detector
element, which is essentially proportional to the heating value of the gas.
The rise in temperature causes an increase in the electrical resistance of the
element, which in turn is converted to a signal proportional to the gas
concentration. For proper operation it is necessary to supply a sufficient
amount of oxygen. This is achieved by mixing an equal amount of air to the
sample gas.
The combustibles sensor will, in principle, detect any hydrocarbon or
organic vapor, hydrogen gas and ammonia. The calibration gas used to span
calibrate this sensor is 1% methane balance nitrogen. Of course any other
gas, such as propane, may be used to calibrate the unit.
The minimum amount of oxygen available to the sensor is about 10%
(assuming no oxygen in the sample). Consequently, the maximum
concentration of methane that can be measured is 5%. For propane the
maximum concentration is 2-3%, and for octane 1%. The type of sensor
used is not dependent on oxygen concentration, as long as there is sufficient
oxygen for the reaction.
NOTE: This catalytic-type sensor is intended to be used as a detector of
dangerous concentrations of unburned gases and is of limited accuracy for
the measurements of hydrocarbons. It will also respond to the presence of
hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which are combustible gases. For accurate
measurements of low levels of hydrocarbons, one must use an NDIR
analyzer.
WARNING: Do not use the Model 500's combustible sensor as a safety-type
instrument in potentially hazardous atmospheres. The Model 500 is NOT
“intrinsically safe” and is only intended to measure the presence of small
amounts of gaseous fuel in stacks.
22
CHAPTER 5
ANALYZER SETUP
The SETUP MENU allows the operator to change system parameters, perform
sensor calibrations, and manage the internal storage of the ENERAC. Pressing the
SHIFT key displays the SETUP MENU. The SETUP MENU contains five
submenus:
** SETUP MENU **
►System Setup
Zero/Span Setup
Storage Setup
Printer Setup
Sensor Setup
SETUP MENU
Use the UP & DOWN keys to move the arrow (→) between the submenus, and
press ENTER to select. Press SHIFT to return to a previous, higher-level menu.
A. SYSTEM MENU
**SYSTEM MENU **
Time: XX:XX:XX
Date: XX/XX/XX
Pump: ON Duty:50
Smoke Duty: 65
Cooler Duty: 75
Fuel: #2 OIL
Temper. Units:F
Meas. Units:PPM
Oxygen Ref:TRUE
Thermal Eff:0.30
Amb T Offset: 0
Display Volt: NO
To change certain parameters, such as time, date, fuel, and
measurement units, select the SYSTEM MENU. Every
parameter listed on the SYSTEM MENU screen can be
changed as follows.
a. Use the UP & DOWN keys to move the arrow (→)
to the parameter you wish to change.
b. Press ENTER to edit the value. The arrow will
disappear as the current line shifts to the left by one
character and a cursor appears over the value. This
indicates that you are in edit mode.
SYSTEM MENU
c. Use the UP & DOWN keys (buttons displaying the triangles) until the
desired value of the selected parameter appears on the display.
d. Press the ENTER key to execute the change. If you do not wish to make a
change, press SHIFT to stop editing the current parameter.
23
A more detailed explanation of each parameter follows:
1) TIME: To set the time of the analyzer’s internal clock (24 hour clock) you
operate the SHIFT, UP, DOWN, & ENTER buttons as follows:
a) Press the ENTER key to edit the TIME parameter.
b) Press the UP or DOWN keys as required until the correct number
corresponding to the hour (24-hour clock) appears on the display.
c) Press the ENTER key to shift the cursor to the minute indication.
d) Repeat the procedure using the UP & DOWN keys to set the minutes, then
press the ENTER key.
e) Repeat the procedure for the seconds indication.
2) DATE: To set the date for the analyzer’s clock repeat the procedure outlined
above for setting the time. Keep in mind that the date format is mm/dd/yy.
3) PUMP: Pump status, on or off, is displayed, followed by the duty cycle of the
pump. The duty cycle can be set with the UP, DOWN & ENTER keys.
4) SMOKE DUTY: For an accurate smoke test this duty cycle is set at the factory
for a flow-rate of 750 cc/min.
5) COOLER DUTY: This setting is for the optional thermoelectric cooler. See
Appendix C.
6) FUEL: The analyzer has the following fifteen fuels stored in its memory
(1) #2 OIL
(2) #6 OIL
(3) NATURAL GAS
(4) ANTHRACITE (COAL)
(5) BITUMINOUS (COAL)
(6) LIGNITE (COAL)
(7) WOOD, 50% MOISTURE
(8) WOOD, 0% MOISTURE
(9) #4 OIL
(10) KEROSENE
(11) PROPANE
(12) BUTANE
(13) COKE OVEN GAS
(14) BLAST FURNACE
(15) SEWER GAS
24
To select the desired fuel, press the UP or DOWN keys until the desired fuel
appears on the top of the display and then press ENTER. The fuel selection
affects the following parameters: combustion efficiency, carbon dioxide
calculation and display of toxic gases in units other than PPM.
7) TEMPER. UNITS: The UP or DOWN keys toggle between °F (Fahrenheit) and
°C (Celsius). Stack temperature and ambient temperature will be displayed,
printed, and saved in the selected units.
8) MEAS. UNITS: When the cursor is blinking on this line, you can select any of
the following units of measurement for the toxic gases (CO, NO, NO2 & SO2):
• PPM : Parts per million (volumetric)
• MGM : Milligams per cubic meter
• #/B : Lbs. (of pollutant) per million BTU of fuel
• GBH: Grams (of pollutant) per break horsepower-hour
To choose the desired emission units, toggle the UP & DOWN buttons until the
proper units are displayed. Then press the ENTER key. If you select GBH
(grams/brake horsepower-hour) as the desired units, you must not forget to set
the value of the (engine) thermal efficiency also! You can obtain this figure
from the engine's manufacturer specifications. It differs somewhat as a function
of engine type and load factor. (Typically, it is a number between 0.25 and
0.35). The ENERAC's default value is 0.30. If the thermal efficiency is not
known, it may be computed by using the engine's BSFC (brake-specific fuel
consumption-BTU/BHP-HR) as follows:
ENGINE EFFICIENCY = 2547/BSFC
NOTE: Emission units measurements in PPM, MGM, #/B and GBH are carried
out on a dry basis as required by the EPA’s 40CFR75 . (The ENERAC is an
extractive analyzer, whose conditioning system removes most of the water
vapor before the sample reaches the sensors).
NOTE: Values of emissions in #/B and GBH are fuel and CO2 dependent.
The fuel parameters for certain typical fuels (i.e. the F- factors for anthracite,
etc.) used in the analyzer have been modified to be identical to those specified
in 40CFR60 Appendix A method 19 of the code of federal regulations. Consult
ENERAC, Inc., for details and correction factors.
NOTE: NO and NOX emissions in #/B or GBH are computed as NO2!
25
9) OXYGEN REF: Many environmental regulations require that the
concentrations of pollutants measured, be corrected to some reference value of
oxygen other than the actual concentration at the time of the measurement.
Typical oxygen reference values are 0% (air free), 3%, 7% or 15%. To select
the desired oxygen reference value, press the SHIFT key repeatedly until the
blinking cursor is located on the OXYG REF line on the display, as described
above. Toggle the UP or DOWN button, until the desired value of the reference
oxygen is displayed. (Range is 0-20% in 1% increments). Then press the
ENTER key. To return to uncorrected measurements, press the UP button until
the display reads:
OXYGEN REF: TRUE
NOTE: Setting the OXYGEN REF to a value other than TRUE affects
values of emissions concentrations in PPM and MGM. It does not affect
values in #/B or GBH!
10) THERMAL EFF: Selects the thermal efficiency of the engine. See MEAS.
UNITS above.
11) AMB T OFFSET: Sets the value, in °C, to add or subtract to the measured
ambient temperature.
12) DISPLAY VOLT: Selects for maintenance and troubleshooting purposes,
whether the sensor amplified output voltages will be displayed or not. Default
setting is NO. If set to YES, voltages will appear on DATA SCREEN 4.
B. SPAN MENU
** SPAN MENU **
CO Span: 200PPM
NO Span: 200PPM
NO2 Span: 200PPM
SO2 Span: 200PPM
Comb Span: 1.0%
Draft Span: 10 "
Zero Time: 60sec
Span Time:120sec
Calib History
SPAN MENU
The SPAN MENU lets you set span calibration values for
each sensor and performs all sensor calibrations. The
SPAN MENU is shown below.
1) ____ SPAN: The first six lines of the SPAN MENU are
used for carrying out span calibrations of the CO, NO,
NO2, SO2, combustibles, and stack draft sensors. For
detailed use of these settings, please refer to the chapter
on calibration.
2) ZERO TIME: If you wish to change the countdown time for autozeroing the
analyzer, press the UP or DOWN keys accordingly, when the cursor is blinking
26
on this line on the display. It is recommended that the autozero countdown
should be at least 20 seconds. However, it need not be more than 120 seconds.
3) SPAN TIME: When carrying out a span calibration, you must introduce the
span gas for an appropriate amount of time before the analyzer executes the
span calibration. This setting, which is the same for all sensors, controls this
time interval. The time is indicated in seconds, but a minimum of 5 minutes of
span gas feeding is required for proper calibration.
*CALIB HISTORY*
Zero12:00 12/01
CO: 03/08/01
@500 PPM Good
NO: 12:23 03/08
@250 PPM Good
NO2:12:28 03/08
@100 PPM Good
SO2:12:35 03/08
@510 PPM Fail
Print History
4) CALIBRATION HISTORY: This displays a record of
calibrations for the analyzer. Use the UP & DOWN
keys to scroll.
a) ZERO: The time and date of the last autozero is
shown on the first line.
b) The date of the last span calibration is shown for
each sensor. The span value used is shown on the
next line, along with a sensor status message.
c) PRINT HISTORY: This will print the analyzer’s
calibration history.
CALIBRATION HISTORY
C. STORAGE MENU
The ENERAC Model 500 has 400 internal storage buffers.
Each buffer stores one complete set of emissions data.
There are two ways to store emissions data to the
ENERAC’s buffer. You can either store data by selecting
the option to store every time you press the STORE key,
STORAGE MENU
or alternatively you can make use of the ENERAC’s
capability of storing data automatically on a periodic basis. You can set the time
period between data storage. The STORAGE MENU shows the relevant display
lines for the storage options.
**STORAGE MENU**
Timed Store:OFF
Set Next Buffer
Print Buffer
Erase Buffer
1. TIMED STORE: Selects the method for storing data. When timed store is
OFF, the ENERAC will store one set of data into the next available buffer
only when the STORE key is pressed. Any other value will turn on the
periodic store function. In this mode, pressing STORE will begin the
sequence and the unit will continuously store data. To stop the sequence,
press STORE again. The time, in minutes, between each store is set here.
This can range from 1 to 60 minutes.
27
2. SET NEXT BUFFER: Selecting this item will display an index of the
ENERAC’s 100 internal storage buffers. Data is automatically stored in the
first available buffer. An asterisk (*) denotes the next storage buffer. If you
want to store data in a different location, use the UP, DOWN, & ENTER
keys to select a new buffer.
3. PRINT BUFFER: This option is used to print data ** PRINT MODE **
stored in the analyzer’s memory. Each line
01: 3/31 12:00
corresponds to one storage buffer. Buffers
02: 4/01 15:30
03:*empty
containing data show the date (mm/dd) and time
04: empty
(hh/mm) at which the data was stored. Empty
................
buffers show the word “empty”. An asterisk (*)
99: empty
denotes the next storage buffer. To print the
ALL BUFFERS
contents of a specific buffer, use the UP &
PRINT BUFFER MENU
DOWN keys to move the arrow to select the
desired buffer and press ENTER. If you wish to print all of the ENERAC’s
stored data in sequence, move the arrow to the entry ALL BUFFERS and
press ENTER.
4. ERASE BUFFER: This option is used to erase stored data and is similar to
the PRINT BUFFER MENU. Data that have been stored in the analyzer’s
memory will be retained even after the instrument has been shut off and its
batteries removed. To erase the contents of a specific buffer, use the UP &
DOWN keys to move the arrow to the desired buffer and press ENTER. The
contents of that buffer will be permanently erased. If you wish to erase all
100 of the ENERAC’s stored data, move the arrow to the entry ALL
BUFFERS and press ENTER.
D. PRINTER SETUP MENU
The Enerac 500 has two modes of
printing. In the first mode, the Enerac
will print a record of all parameters as
shown on page 12. In the second mode,
pressing the PRINT key starts a log of
PRINTER MENU
five parameter`s, as shown at right.
Print mode selection (RECORD or LOG), log interval (5 - 240
seconds) and log parameters (COLUMNS 1 - 5) are set in the
PRINTER SETUP MENU.
**PRINTER MENU**
Print: LOG
Interval: 10s
Column #1: ST
ENERAC 500
Serial #:000000
TEST LOG
CUSTOMER NAME
Time: 10:25:00
Date: 07/11/00
Fuel: #2 OIL
ST OXY CO AIR EFF
450 6.0 505 37 80.3
440 6.5 485 43 80.5
425 7.0 460 48 81.0
F % PPM % %
Oxygen Ref:TRUE
PRINTER LOG
28
E. SENSOR SETUP MENU
The SENSOR SETUP MENU displays the span factor (software gain factor) and
offset voltages for each sensor, which is useful for monitoring sensor performance
and troubleshooting purposes. The SENSOR SETUP MENU also allows the
operator to enter the pre-calibrated factor when installing a pre-calibrated sensor.
**SENSOR SETUP**
CO: 2000 PPM
Factor: 123.4
Offset: 1.234
SENSOR SETUP
CO: 2000 PPM
NO: 2000 PPM
NO2: 500 PPM
SO2: 1000 PPM
CMB: 5 %
DFT: 10 "
ST: 2000 F
O2: 21 %
M500 SENSORS
Adjusting a factor
1. The first line shows the currently selected sensor
and its measurement range. To change the currently
displayed sensor, press ENTER to enter edit mode,
and use the UP & DOWN keys to scroll through the
analyzer’s sensors. A list of the ENERAC 500's
sensors are shown here.
2. Press ENTER to leave edit mode. Press DOWN to
move to the next line, where the factor is displayed.
3. Press ENTER to edit the factor, starting with the
hundreds digit. Press ENTER to advance to the next
digit. The SHIFT key will move the cursor back one
decimal place.
4. When you have finished entering a factor for O2,
**SENSOR DATE **
CO, NO, NO2 or SO2, the display will prompt you to CO: 01/01/01
Reset Date
reset the corresponding sensor’s date. It is useful to
Cancel
keep track of when a new sensor is installed, as
electrochemical sensors have a limited life. The
SENSOR DATE
current date will be displayed as the sensor date.
Select RESET DATE and press ENTER to accept this date. If you do not
wish to reset the sensor date, select CANCEL.
29
CHAPTER 6
COMMUNICATIONS
The analyzer communicates with a computer through its RS-232 port or its USB
port. The analyzer can also communicate wirelessly through its Bluetooth port, if it
is equipped. Only one port can be active at a time. The communication protocol is
as follows:
BAUD RATE: 9600 baud
DATA: 8 bits, 1 stop bit, no parity
HANDSHAKE: None
Communication is by ASCII characters only. Use a USB cable or 9-pin serial cable
to connect the analyzer’s serial port to the computer. The USB drivers must be
installed first. They are located on the ENERAC CD, and the ENERAC website:
www.enerac.com.
The analyzer’s RS-232 port is a DTE-type. Only three wires are necessary: pin 2 is
TxD, pin 3 is RxD, and pin 5 is ground.
A. ENERCOM SOFTWARE
You can retrieve current data and stored data from the ENERAC with any
communications program such as Windows Terminal. You can, however,
considerably enhance the performance of the ENERAC by using the special
EnercomTM for Windows software. This software allows you to:
1. Monitor all emissions parameters simultaneously.
2. Record maximum, minimum, average and standard deviation for all
emissions parameters.
3. Set alarms for every emissions parameter including recording the time
duration that alarms have been exceeded.
4. Plot bar graphs and time plots of all parameters.
30
5. Select a variety of saving and printing options.
6. Enter custom fuel information.
7. Retrieve and save stored data.
Visit out website, www.enerac.com, for the latest software packages.
Consult the manual for Enercom for Windows for installation instructions and
details on the available software.
Connection Configuration
• Turn on your Enerac and connect using a USB cable or RS-232 cable or
Bluetooth.
• An RS-232 connection is the 9-pin, male DB-9 connector on your computer.
It is usually COM1 or COM2. Modern computers are often without an RS232 connection.
• For USB and Bluetooth connections, you must connect your Enerac
BEFORE starting the Enercom software. This is because the port does not
appear until the device is connected.
• If your Enerac analyzer does not have an integrated USB port, you can use a
USB-to-Serial adapter.
• For USB connections, enter the assigned COM port number in Enercom.
Use the Windows Device Manager, to find the COM port number. The
Device Manager can be launched by running devmgmt.msc from the
Windows’ Start, Run menu. The USB COM port will be listed under the
PORTS section.
31
• Start Enercom. Click on Add Port under the Connections menu and enter
the COM port number.
•
Your Enerac icon should appear on the screen. Click on the Enerac icon to
display the analyzer menu.
Monitor
Opens the Monitor window. All real-time
testing, data logging, graphing, and charting is
done here.
Setup
Opens the Setup window. Set the time & date,
temperature & emission units, fuel, and oxygen
reference here.
Storage
Opens the Storage window. The analyzer’s stored data is displayed, in a list.
Terminal
Opens a Terminal window for direct communication with the Enerac. A
complete list of serial port commands is provided in the next section.
Wireless Options
Connect a Bluetooth USB adapter or use your computer’s internal Bluetooth
capability. First, connect to the Enerac in your Bluetooth adapter’s software
package. Then add the assigned COM port by clicking Add Port on the
Connections menu in Enercom.
PDA Options
EnercomCE software is available for PocketPCs running WindowsCE. EnerPlam
software is available for PalmOS devices. These devices connect to the
ENERAC’s serial port and offset similar functionality as the desktop software,
including real-time monitoring of data, additional storage, and remote control.
32
B. SERIAL COMMANDS
Start any of the available communications programs, such as PROCOMM or
TERMINAL on your computer. Make sure the communications program is set to
match the ENERAC’s protocol listed above. You may need to use a null modem if
you have trouble communicating.
The ENERAC is capable of responding to commands and requests for data sent
from the remote computer. For this purpose, it has a vocabulary of commands that
the computer can send and to which the ENERAC will respond. There are two
types of commands: those designed for general use, and those reserved for
technical purposes in order to determine from remote locations the performance of
the instrument.
All commands consist of a four-letter word (these are usually abbreviations of the
complete word). If the command is followed by a question mark it means that it is
a request for information (i.e. it will cause the ENERAC to respond to the
command by sending to its output port the specific information requested). If a
command doesn’t contain a quotation mark it will cause the ENERAC to store the
data sent with the command, or take some other action, such as erasing a specific
data buffer. This is the way to reprogram the instrument from a remote location.
This feature makes remote control possible, as well as the introduction of new
fuels or parameters, or even the introduction of additional features and
improvements without requiring the return of the instrument to the factory.
A list of the available commands intended for general use follows.
33
THE ENERAC 500 COMMAND SET
DATA COMMANDS
COMMAND
ATEM?
BATT?
CDOX?
CMNX?
COMB?
DRAF?
EFFI?
EXAR?
NOXY?
NO2Y?
NOXX?
OXYG?
SO2X?
STEM?
TEXT?
FUNCTION
ENERAC returns present value of ambient temperature.
ENERAC returns the battery voltage.
ENERAC returns present value of carbon dioxide.
ENERAC returns present value of carbon monoxide.
ENERAC returns present value of combustible gases.
ENERAC returns present value of stack draft.
ENERAC returns present value of combustion efficiency.
ENERAC returns present value of excess air.
ENERAC returns present value of nitric oxide (NO).
ENERAC returns present value of nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
ENERAC returns present value of oxides of nitrogen (NOX).
ENERAC returns the present value of oxygen.
ENERAC returns present value of sulfur dioxide.
ENERAC returns present value of the stack temperature
ENERAC returns a complete record of all current stack
parameters.
SETUP COMMANDS
COMMAND
ATOF?
ATOF XX
COOL?
COOL XX
CORF?
CORF X
CUST?
CUST XXXX
DATE?
DATE XX/XX/XX
FUNCTION
ENERAC returns the ambient temperature offset in °C.
ENERAC sets the ambient temperature offset to XX°C.
ENERAC returns the thermoelectric cooler duty cycle.
ENERAC sets the thermoelectric cooler duty cycle:
XX=50 50% power
XX=100 100% power
ENERAC returns the temperature units.
ENERAC sets the temperature units:
X=F
Fahrenheit
X=C
Celsius
ENERAC returns the customer name. This name appears on the
display and all printouts.
ENERAC sets the customer name, up to 21 characters long.
ENERAC returns the present date.
ENERAC sets the present date.
34
FUEL?
FUEL NN?
FUEL NN
MODE?
MODE X
OXRF?
OXRF XX
PUMP?
PUMP0
PUMP XX
TIME?
TIME XX:XX:XX
ENERAC returns the current fuel used.
ENERAC returns the fuel currently stored in location #NN.
ENERAC changes its current fuel to fuel #NN (1-15).
ENERAC returns the current emissions units.
(Emissions option). Causes ENERAC to switch units of
emissions gas measurements (CO, NO, NO2, NOX, SO2) as
follows:
X=P
PPM (volumetric)
X=M
MGM (milligrams/cubic meter)
X=#
#/B (Lbs./million BTU)
X=G
GBH (grams/brake hp-hour)
ENERAC returns the oxygen reference.
(Emissions option). Causes ENERAC to set the oxygen correction
factor to any number as follows:
XX=0-20
Percent, in 1% steps
XX=21
TRUE (No correction for oxygen)
ENERAC returns pump status: ON, or OFF, and pump dutycycle: 0-100%
Turns the sample pump off & turns the purge pump on.
Sets the sample pump duty cycle. (10 < XX < 100)
ENERAC returns the current time.
ENERAC sets the current time. (24-hour format)
MEMORY COMMANDS
COMMAND
BUFF?
BUFF NNN?
BUFF NNN XXXX
NBUF?
PRNT XXXX
PRNT TEXT
DUMP?
DUMP NNN?
ERAS NN
ERAS ALL
FUNCTION
ENERAC returns the names of each of the storage buffers.
ENERAC returns the name of buffer #NN.
Sets the name of buffer #NNN to XXXX. Buffer Name can be up
to 11characters.
ENERAC returns the total number of storage buffers.
Sends to the ENERAC printer the message "XXXX" up to 40
characters long. To send more characters, repeat the command.
Commands the ENERAC to print on its printer all the current
stack parameters including time, date, fuel and oxygen reference.
ENERAC returns results of all tests stored in its memory.
ENERAC returns results of test #NNN.
ENERAC erases the contents of buffer #NNN.
ENERAC erases the contents of all buffers.
35
CALIBRATION COMMANDS
COMMAND
OFFS?
FACT?
SPAN XX NNN
ZERO
FUNCTION
ENERAC returns a list of voltage offsets for each sensor.
ENERAC returns a list of calibration factors for each sensor.
ENERAC span calibrates sensor XX at a span value of NNN
PPM or percent. Be sure to feed the correct span gas and wait for
the sensor to stabilize before the analyzer receives this command,
as it will execute a span calibration immediately.
Span Range (NNN)
XX=CO
Carbon Monoxide
10
2000
XX=NO
Nitric Oxide
10
2000
XX=NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide
10
500
XX=SO2
Sulfur Dioxide
10
1000
XX=CMB Combustible Gases
0.1
5.0
XX=DFT Stack Draft (Inches
-20
+20
H2O)
XX=COIR NDIR Carbon
1.125
15.0
Monoxide
XX=CO2 NDIR Carbon Dioxide
9.0
20.0
XX=HC
NDIR Hydrocarbons
450
20000
ENERAC will perform an autozero of all its sensors.
MASTER COMMANDS
COMMAND
LOGO?
HELP?
SRAL?
TURN OFF
TURN ON
VERS?
VOLT?
FUNCTION
ENERAC returns its current model name (ENERAC M500).
ENERAC returns a list of all four-letter commands.
ENERAC returns its serial number.
ENERAC powers down.
ENERAC powers up. This command is not available via a
Bluetooth connection.
ENERAC returns its current firmware version.
ENERAC returns a list of all system and sensor voltages
36
CHAPTER 7
CALIBRATION
Every instrument must occasionally be calibrated against some known value of a
parameter in order to make sure that its accuracy has not deteriorated.
The instrument software makes sure that the display readout is always a linear
function of the source excitation (i.e. gas concentration or temperature, etc.). You
therefore need only two points on the straight line to calibrate a parameter over its
entire range. Usually, the first point chosen is the zero value (called zeroing the
instrument). The second point has to be set by using some known value of the
parameter being calibrated (for example, using 200 PPM certified carbon
monoxide gas to set the display to read 200). Sometimes the second point is not
needed: if the slope of the parameter is known and is always the same. For
example, for the stack temperature the slope of the curve is well known and you
don't need a span calibration.
A. AUTOZEROING THE INSTRUMENT
Every time you turn the instrument on, wait for two minutes to allow the ENERAC
to warm up. You can then press the ZERO button to start the autozero procedure.
At the end of the autozero period the ENERAC reads the output of all sensors and
sets them all to zero, with the exception of the oxygen that it sets to 20.9%. (The
ambient temperature is read directly). Consequently, it is very important that at the
moment of "zeroing" the probe tip is at room temperature and the environment is
clean from traces of carbon monoxide or other gases.
You can set the countdown time for autozeroing the analyzer by first pressing the
SHIFT button to enter the SETUP MENU, and then choosing the ZERO/SPAN
SETUP submenu. Scroll down until the arrow appears beside the message “ZERO
TIME: XX SEC”. Press ENTER to edit, use the UP/DOWN keys to set the desired
auto zero period, then press the ENTER key.
NOTE: In practice AUTOZEROING is only needed once at the beginning of a day
of measurements. The ENERAC will not have sufficient zero drift during the next
24 hours to require additional autozeroing procedures.
To carry out the autozero procedure, follow these steps:
37
1. Connect the probe and water trap to the unit. Make sure the probe tip is at
room temperature.
2. Turn the analyzer on. Make sure that the “battery low” message does not
appear on the display.
3. Make sure that the analyzer pump is on. (Always zero the instrument
with the pump on, for flue stack measurements!)
4. Press the ZERO button. Press ENTER to confirm. Wait for the
countdown to end.
5. If no error messages appear at the end of the countdown proceed with
your measurements.
B. SPAN CALIBRATION
You must always span calibrate the instrument every time you replace a sensor. At
a minimum, once every 3-4 months you should perform a span calibration of the
instrument. For greater accuracy you should check the calibration of the instrument
before and after each emissions test. The parameters that require a span calibration
are, depending on the available options: carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen
dioxide, sulfur dioxide, combustibles and draft.
You can carry out all span calibrations in sequence or just one, if you wish.
You can use your own span gas, or if you need to calibrate the ENERAC in the
field, you can use the convenient gas calibration kit supplied by ENERAC.
FIGURE 2
38
(A) Span calibration using the ENERAC kit
The gas calibration system supplied by ENERAC is shown in Figure 2. The kit
comes with a regulator and probe adaptor. For CO, NO, NO2, SO2 & combustibles
calibrations you must order gas cylinders containing the desired type of span gas.
Span calibration using the ENERAC calibration kit is easy.
You don’t need to worry about gas flow rates and there is no wasting of calibration
gas. Follow the instructions supplied with the calibration kit.
(B) Span calibration using your own gas
If you do not have the calibration kit, you can use your own gas to perform span
calibrations you must take certain precautions, in order to calibrate the sensors
properly.
Notice that you need a number of certified gas cylinders. Make sure that you use a
bypass flow meter as shown in order to supply an adequate flow of span gas
without developing excessive pressure on the sensors. The accessory ensures
proper gas flow to the ENERAC.
For greatest accuracy it is recommended that you use a span gas value close to the
emission concentration you expect to measure.
Set up your calibration apparatus as shown in Figure 3.
FIGURE 3
39
You must not feed gas to the ENERAC under pressure and you must not starve the
ENERAC's pump for gas. When feeding the gas to the ENERAC you must maintain
a reasonably constant pressure. This is a requirement of all diffusion-type sensors.
Connect the calibration accessory to the ENERAC probe. Make sure the
rubber bulb is inserted past the square grooves located at the probe tip.
Connect the other end of the calibration accessory to the gas cylinder.
Make sure the concentration of the calibration gas is within the range of each
sensor. Do not under any circumstances, use gas that will over-range the sensor.
The CO span gas can be in the range of 30 - 2000 PPM, 2% accuracy with balance
nitrogen, preferably.
The NO span gas can be in the range of 10 - 2000 PPM, 2% accuracy with balance
nitrogen, required.
The NO2 span gas can be in the range of 10 - 500 PPM, 2% accuracy with balance
nitrogen, preferably.
The SO2 span gas can be in the range of 30 - 2000 PPM, 2% accuracy, with balance
nitrogen, preferably.
The combustibles span gas can be in the range of 0.5 - 3 %, with balance nitrogen,
preferably.
(C) Calibration procedure
The following page illustrates the sequence of key strokes to carry out a span
calibration of the analyzer. It is assumed that the instrument has been autozeroed
and there have been no error messages.
1. Autozero the instrument with ambient air.
2. Connect the calibration apparatus and cylinder to the instrument.
3. Press the DATA key and observe the appropriate reading as you open the
calibration cylinder valve. (If you are using the bypass flow meter, adjust the
cylinder valve for a bypass flow rate of approximately 500 cc/min.
4. When the display reading for the desired gas has stabilized press the SHIFT
key to enter the SETUP MENU, and select the SPAN MENU.
40
** SPAN MENU **
CO Span: 200PPM
NO Span: 200PPM
NO2 Span: 200PPM
SO2 Span: 200PPM
Comb Span: 1.0%
Draft Span: 10 "
Zero Time: 60sec
Span Time:120sec
Calib History
** SETUP MENU **
System Setup
►Zero/Span Setup
Storage Setup
Printer Setup
Sensor Setup
SETUP MENU
SPAN MENU
Before pressing the SHIFT key you may wish to observe the readings of the
other gas parameters for evidence of cross sensitivity and also the oxygen
reading for confirmation that there is no instrument leak!
As an example, if you wish to span calibrate the NO sensor using 300 PPM
certified gas proceed as follows:
1. Set the time that you must feed the span gas before executing the span
adjustment. To do this use the UP, DOWN & ENTER keys to change the
SPAN TIME parameter.
NOTE: For NO and CO calibrations a minimum of 4 minutes is adequate.
For NO2 and SO2 calibrations a minimum of 8 minutes is required.
2. Enter the NO span value. Use the UP, DOWN & ENTER keys to change the
NO SPAN value. First set the hundreds digit, then press ENTER to advance
the cursor to the tens digit, and repeat for the units digit.
3. Pressing ENTER again will bring up the following confirmation box on the
display:
Press
Enter to Span
Shift to Abort
Press the ENTER key to begin the calibration. The unit will wait for the
amount of time set in step 5. The display will show the time remaining and
the span gas value.
41
3:59
Feed 300ppmNO
Shift to Abort
4. When the calibration is finished, press the DATA key to make sure that the
display is reading correctly.
(D) Stack Draft Calibration
To obtain a span calibration of the draft sensor, connect a manometer to the end of
the probe through a T fitting. Leave one side of the T open. Restrict the open side
of the T with a suitable plug or valve. In the SPAN MENU, use the UP & DOWN
keys to select a suitable draft calibration span between 5" and 10". Press the
ENTER key. The pump will be on and the display will read:
Press
Enter @10" H2O
Shift to Abort
Very slowly start closing the intake valve of the apparatus and observe the
manometer reading climbing. Set the valve opening as soon as the manometer is
reading the same pressure as that selected on the display. Press the ENTER key
again. The draft sensor will be calibrated to the value shown on the display.
42
CHAPTER 8
MAINTENANCE
The ENERAC micro-emissions analyzers are a sophisticated piece of analytical
instrumentation designed to perform accurate emissions measurements. However,
because they are hand-held instruments that find uses in many environments, care
must be taken to prevent physical and environmental abuse. This will help
maintain trouble-free operation.
There are five components that will require periodic inspection or replacement.
These are:
1. The non-rechargeable batteries (if you don’t use rechargeable batteries).
2. The disposable fiber filter.
3. Removal of condensate from the water trap.
4. Sensor replacement.
5. Printer paper replacement.
A. Battery replacement
The analyzer requires 4 AA cells for operation. If you use disposable batteries,
select alkaline MnO2 cells for longer life. You should get at least six hours of
operation from a set of batteries depending on the use of the back light
illumination.
The battery charger can not be used if you are using non-rechargeable batteries!
Be sure to toggle the charger switch, located to the left of the paper roll, to the
‘Alkaline’ position to prevent accidental misuse.
The instrument is designed to warn you, if the batteries become weak. You can
also check the condition of the batteries at any time by pressing the STATUS
button. The battery voltage is displayed on the screen. A minimum of 4 volts is
required to operate the analyzer.
43
For fresh alkaline batteries the voltage displayed will be approximately 6 Volts.
It will gradually drop with use until at 3.9 volts a “BATTERY LOW” warning will
appear. You can estimate the remaining time by observing the battery voltage.
For NiMH rechargeable batteries the battery voltage will stay at approximately 4.8
volts for a long time and then drop rapidly.
To replace the batteries, remove the two screws that secure the top section of the
analyzer’s back plate. The batteries are housed inside a battery holder that is
mounted on the back of a pc board. Remove the depleted batteries and replace
them with fresh ones observing carefully the polarity indicated. Replace the top
section of the back plate.
NOTE: Remember that the NO sensor needs a tiny amount of electrical power,
even when the analyzer is off. Do not allow the batteries to discharge completely.
Consequently, you must not leave the analyzer without battery power for any
length of time. When replacing the batteries you can use the analyzer within five
minutes, if you don’t take longer than two minutes to replace the batteries. If the
analyzer has been without power for a long time, you may need to wait for a few
hours after installing fresh batteries before the NO sensor is fully conditioned.
This warning is for the NO sensor only.
B. Filter replacement
If you use the standard condensation trap, there is a disposable 1-micron fiber filter
located in the bottom section of the trap assembly. Its function is to prevent soot
particles from reaching the analyzer pump and sensors.
To replace the filter, disconnect the condensation trap from the probe. Unscrew the
bottom section of the condensation trap and replace the filter with a new one.
Make sure the O-ring is seated properly when you screw back the bottom section.
If you use the thermoelectric cooler, the disposable fiber filter is located inline with
the cooler outlet hose.
You must replace the filter when it becomes discolored. Never operate the
analyzer without the filter. Frequency of filter replacement depends on the type
of fuel used. For natural gas fuel you will probably need to replace the filter once a
month. For coal fuel you will need to replace the filter every few days.
44
C. Condensation removal
At the end of a measurement, shake the probe vigorously to drain it of any
condensation. Remove any condensation that has been trapped in the top section of
the condensation trap and allow it to dry thoroughly before storing it.
D. Sensor replacement
To access the gas sensors you must carefully remove the bottom section of the
back plate on which the sensor manifold housing is mounted. This will expose the
four gas sensors, the combustibles sensor and the oxygen sensor (see figure 4). All
gas sensors are mounted directly on the printed circuit board.
Make sure the unit is off before attempting to disconnect one of the sensors.
If you receive an error message for one of the sensors during instrument operation,
do not attempt to replace the sensor immediately. Instead, wait a few minutes and
then autozero the analyzer again. If you get an error message again, investigate and
determine if moisture has entered the sensor area. If so, wait a few hours for the
moisture to evaporate and autozero the sensor again. If you get a sensor failure
then you must replace the sensor.
To replace the sensor, remove the back plate as explained previously. Pull the
malfunctioning sensor out of the printed circuit board. Be careful not to bend the
mounting pins.
Replace the sensor with a new one. If the sensor to be replaced is a CO, NO2 or
SO2 sensor, first remove the shorting spring from the two sensor pins.
Each sensor has a different pin arrangement to prevent it from being
accidentally inserted in the wrong socket pin configuration! Be careful not to
bend the sensor pins when mounting the new sensor.
Replace the bottom section of the back plate that houses the manifold.
Wait the following time periods before autozeroing the analyzer:
OXYGEN SENSOR
CO SENSOR
NO SENSOR
10 MINUTES
30 MINUTES
24 HOURS
45
NO2 SENSOR
SO2 SENSOR
30 MINUTES
30 MINUTES
Span calibrate the sensor as explained in CHAPTER 7: CALIBRATION. If you
are using a pre-calibrated sensor and are unable to perform a span calibration, enter
the pre-calibrated factor as explained in CHAPTER 5: ANALYZER
CUSTOMIZATION, section E.
Sensor replacement should be an infrequent operation (once every two years or
more) unless you allow water to enter the sensor housing by not using the
condensation trap!
NOTE: Optional four-electrode CO sensor (Hydrogen interference adjustment).
There is a hydrogen cross-interference adjustment for the special four-electrode
carbon monoxide sensor. This calibration, intended to remove the interference of
hydrogen from CO measurements, should be rarely done, typically if the sensor is
being replaced.
To null the hydrogen interference, feed hydrogen gas, typically 100 - 1000 PPM,
following the same procedure as for the other toxic gas calibrations. When the
display reading has stabilized, use the “H2 INTERF.” potentiometer (see figure 4)
to obtain a null reading on the display for CO. Since the instrument does not
display negative values, be careful to obtain a true null.
E. Printer paper replacement
The printer uses a high quality 2" thermal paper. To prevent damage to the thermal
heads, please use only factory recommended paper. Keep any spare paper rolls in a
cool dark place to prevent paper discoloration.
To replace the thermal paper, unfasten the two screws that secure the top cover of
the printer. Unroll approximately 6" of a new roll of thermal paper. Orient the roll
so that the paper unrolls from the bottom of the roll. Be sure that the edge of the
paper is cut square. Locate the slot immediately beneath the printer and insert the
paper end as far as it will go. Turn the Enerac on and press the “PAPER FEED”
button while applying forward pressure on the paper. When the paper end appears
exiting printer, replace the roll on the spindle. Replace cover with screws.
The printer uses a lot of battery power when operating. When the battery is fully
charged it should be capable of delivering at least 60 data printouts.
46
47
APPENDIX A
MODEL 500 SPECIFICATIONS
PHYSICAL:
1. CASE
9 ¾" x 4" x 2¾" Aluminum case. Weight: 3 lbs.
2. PROBE
9"L x 3/8" OD Inconel stack probe. Probe housing connects to instrument
via a 10 ft. viton hose and water trap with fiber filter. Max. continuous
temperature: 2000 °F.
ELECTRICAL POWER:
1. BATTERY (DC)
6V interchangeable, rechargeable NiMh (or NiCd) or four disposable AA
alkaline cells. Approximately 6-8 hours operating time.
2. AC
110/220V 50/60 Hz. standard battery charger. (When using rechargeable
batteries only!)
DISPLAY:
Four-line by 16-character, wide-temperature range LCD with backlight
illumination
MEASURED PARAMETERS:
1. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
IC sensor. Degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius.
Range: 0-150°F
Resolution: 1°F or °C
Accuracy: 3°F
2. STACK TEMPERATURE
Type K thermocouple. Degrees F. or C.
Range: 0-2000°F (1100°C)
Resolution: 1°F (1°C)
Accuracy: 5°F
48
3. OXYGEN
Electrochemical cell. Life 2 years.
Range: 0-25 % by volume
Resolution: 0.1 %
Accuracy: 0.2 %
4. NITRIC OXIDE (NO)
Electrochemical cell. Life 2 years.
Range: 0-2000 PPM
Resolution: 1 PPM
Accuracy: 4% of reading (±5 PPM when measuring less then 100 PPM)
5. NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2)
Electrochemical cell. Life 2 years.
Range: 0-1000 PPM
Resolution: 1 PPM
Accuracy: 4% of reading (±5 PPM when measuring less then 100 PPM)
6. CARBON MONOXIDE
Electrochemical cell. Life 2 years.
Range: 0-2000 PPM (Optional ranges available: 10,000 & 20,000 PPM)
Resolution: 1 PPM
Accuracy: 4% of reading (±5 PPM when measuring less then 100 PPM)
7. SULFUR DIOXIDE
Electrochemical cell. Life 2 years.
Range: 0-2000 PPM
Resolution: 1 PPM
Accuracy: 4% of reading (±5 PPM when measuring less then 100 PPM)
8. COMBUSTIBLES
Catalytic sensor. Life indefinite.
Range: 0-5%
Resolution: 0.1%
Accuracy: 10% of reading
9. STACK DRAFT
Piezoresistive sensor. Life Indefinite.
Range: +10 to -40" WC
Resolution: 0.1" WC
49
Accuracy: The larger value, either 5% of reading or 0.3" WC
10. TIME/DATE
Time formatted in hours, minutes, and seconds. Date in month, day, and year
format
COMPUTED PARAMETERS:
1. COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY
Heat loss method.
Range: 0-100%
Resolution: 0.1%
Accuracy: 1%
2. CARBON DIOXIDE
Range: 0-40%
Resolution: 0.1%
Accuracy: 5% of reading
3. EXCESS AIR
Range: 0-1000%
Resolution: 1%
Accuracy: 10% of reading
4. OXIDES OF NITROGEN
Range: 0-3000 PPM
Resolution: 1 PPM
Accuracy: 4% of reading
5. EMISSIONS IN LBS./MILLION BTU (CO, NO, NO2, NOX, SO2)
Range: 0-99.99 Lbs./million BTU
Resolution: 0.01 Lbs./million BTU
Accuracy: 5% of reading
6. EMISSIONS IN GRAMS / BRAKE HP-HOUR (CO, NO, NO2, NOX, SO2)
Range: 0-99.99 grams/brake hp-hr
Resolution: 0.01 grams/brake hp-hr
Accuracy: 10% of reading
(Oxygen correction factor for emissions in units of PPM adjustable 0-20% in
1% steps plus TRUE).
50
PRINTER:
Internal 28 character per line, 2" thermal printer.
INTERNAL STORAGE:
400 individually selectable buffers hold one complete set of measurements each in
non-volatile memory. Buffer contents can be sent to printer or serial ports.
Data storage performed either individually on command or on a preprogrammed
periodic basis.
COMMUNICATIONS:
1. RS-232C port (DTE), 9600 baud, half duplex, 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop
bit, no parity. Over 20 software commands for diagnosis and measurement.
2. USB port (Type B connector)
3. Bluetooth wireless: Class 1 (100m) (optional)
4. SOFTWARE
Software is available for the following platforms: Windows
(95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP), Windows CE, and Palm OS.
MISCELLANEOUS:
1. FUELS
15 fuels, custom fuels available on request or by customer programming
using EnercomTM software.
2. CALIBRATION
Optional autozero. Automatic software span calibration for CO, NO,
NO2, SO2, combustible gases, and stack draft.
51
APPENDIX B
FIRMWARE PROGRAMMING
On occasion it may be necessary to update the internal software of the analyzer,
also known as the firmware. The firmware can be updated in the field with the use
of a computer connected to the ENERAC through the serial port. Firmware updates
can be downloaded from the ENERAC website: www.enerac.com, or requested on
a disk from the factory. The current firmware version is displayed on the second
status screen.
Version: 5.0
Serial #: 12345
Battery: 5.65 V
Fuel: #2 OIL
STATUS SCREEN 2
Updating the firmware
1. Open the battery compartment of the ENERAC and locate the programming
switches behind the batteries on the right side. There are 5 miniature slide
switches on a red block. See figure 4, page 46.
2. Connect the serial port of the computer to the ENERAC. Run the firmware
update. The program will backup the ENERAC’s settings.
3. When prompted, toggle all the switches on. The firmware will now be
reprogrammed. This will take 2-3 minutes.
4. When prompted, toggle all the switches off and replace the batteries and
cover. The ENERAC’s settings will be restored.
5. Autozero the analyzer. Check the span calibration of all sensors.
52
APPENDIX C
REPLACMENT PARTS
PART NUMBER
DESCRIPTION
ASSPAKTHR200
ASSPAKSMKPPR
FILTER-3$$$$
Printer Paper Roll (package of 3)
Smoke Paper (package of 20)
Fiber Filter (package of 10)
(CONDENSATION TRAP)
ASSPAKFLTR1$
Line Filter (package of 3)
(THERMOELECTRIC COOLER)
SNSOXYCTL5FO
SNSCOMEMA3EX
SNS$NOMEM3NX
SNSNO2MEMNDX
SNSSO2MEM3SX
SNSCMBSGS801
BAT-1.2-NMHPK
BATCHGR500D$
OPTP500-DPM$
O2 Sensor
CO Sensor
NO Sensor
NO2 Sensor
SO2 Sensor
Combustibles Sensor
Rechargeable Battery Pack
Battery Charger
Smoke Test Adapter
53