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DynaCADD® Reference Manual Ditek International Infunnation in this document is subject to change without notice and
does not represent a commitment on the part of vendor or Ditek
International. The software described in this document is furnished
under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software
may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of this
agreement. It is against the law to copy the DynaCADJ:)® Reference
Manual on magnetic tape, disk, or any other medium fbr any purpose
whatsoever.
Copyright © Ditek Intemational1989 - 1992
All Rights ReseIVed
Head of DynaCADD Dereiopment David Fletcher Cross P1atfonn Development Julius Oklamcak Edited by Alex David Julius Oklamcak Frank Staples Special 'Ibaoks to Mario Perdue Joey Sherman Gary Gibbs DyPaCADI)'ID is a regisllered trademarlc of Ditdc Inlematioo.al. GBMI3 is a registered trademarlc of
Digital Researeh Inc.. 0Iher company and product names an: InIdcmarb or registered tnldemarb
of Cbeir respectiw holderll.
DiU:Ic International, Thronto, Canada
Printed in Canada
Thble of Contents
Table of Contents
20 Tutorial Complete 2-D TutoriaLI
30 llItorial Complete 3-D Tutorial . .l
Chapter 1
Introduction to OynaCADO® •• 1 Han! Drive Installation .. 1 About This Manual •• 3 Keyboard Conventions .• 4 Mouse Conventions •• 5 Editing Dialog Box Text •• 6 Text Ediblr •• 7 Translations .. 9 Loading DynaCADD .. 10 Chapter 2
System Level Introduction •• 11 Setting Current Drawing Parameters .. 12 Activate a Part .. 13 Activate a Drawing •. 13 Setting Drawing Units .. 13 Setting Drawing Scale .. 14 Setting Drawing Size •• 15 Entering CADD Level •. 16 Contents I
Table of Contents
Chapter 3
Basic Theory •• 17 Entity •• 17 2-D Entities vs. 3-D Entities •. 18 Views •• 19 Coordinate Systems •. 21 Page Origin •• 22 Geometric Coordinate Planes (0CPs) •• 22 Free Digitizing •• 24 Layers •• 25 Chapter 4
The User Interface •• 27 Command and Dam Entry .. 27 Keyboard Command Entry •. 30 Function Key Macros .. 32 Value Calculator .. 33 Dynamic Calculator .• 34 Drop Down Menus •• 34 Infurmation Retrieval .• 34 Command History .. 35 Online Documentation •• 36 Screen and Display Control •. 37 Drawing Modifiers •• 37 Corrections and Restoration .. 40 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus •• 41 DynaCADD Menu .. 41 File Menu .. 42 Set Menu .. 48 Tools Menu .• 59 Contents
n
Thble of Contents
Images Menu •• 62 GCPMenu •• 63 Chapter 6
Location and Entity Selection •• 65 Location Selection •• 65 Entity Selection •. 73 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities •• 85 Inserting Points •• 86 Inserting Lines •• 87 Inserting Cireles .. f:ll Inserting Arcs .• 104 Inserting Fillets •• 111 Inserting Ellipses .. 111 Inserting Elliptical Arcs •. 119 Inserting Boxes •• 122 Inserting Polygons •• 123 Inserting Text .• 125 Inserting Subfigures .• 133 Inserting Polyfigures .. 135 Inserting Sections •• 131 Inserting Hatches .. 139 Inserting Solid 2-D Entity •. 142 Insert 3-D Face Entity •. 144 Deleting Entities •• 145 ChapterS
Curves •• 147 Insert a B-spline Curve •• 148 Insert a Bezier Curve •. 149 Contents ill
'Thble of Contents
Change Curve Type •• ISO Break a Curve into Two e' 1S2 Join Two Curves •• 1S3 Modify a Curve •. 154 Chapter 9 Dimensioning •• 161 Dimensioning Locations •. 176 Dimensioning Lines •. 177 Dimensioning Horizontal Distances .. 178 Dimensioning Vertical Distances •• 179 Dimensioning Radii • 180 Dimensioning Diametem 181 Horizontal Chain Dimensioning .e 182 Vertical Chain Dimensioning •. 184 Constant Horizontal Chain Dimensioning e' 186 Constant vertical Chain Dimensioning e e 188 Horizontal Baseline Dimensioning .. 1.90 Vertical Baseline Dimensioning .. 192 Insert Center Lines •• 194 Center lines on Base Cirole Diametem .. 195 Dimensioning Angles .. 196 !..eadem •• 197 e
e.
Chapter 10 Transformation •• 199 Deleting Entities .. 200 Trimming Entities .. 201 Dividing Entities .. 208 Translating Entities •• 211 Rotating Entities •• 216 Mirroring Entities .. 218 Contents IV Thble of Contents
Modifying Entities •• 219 Stretching Entities .• 234 Scaling Entities •. 236 Creating Entity Offsets .• m
Oenemting Points Along a Path •• 243 Projecting Entities •• 244 Revolving Entities .. 246 Sweeping Entities •• 248 Unear Arrays of Entities •• 250 Masking Entities •• 252 Unmasking Entities .. 253 Transforming 3~D Entities to 2-D Entities .• 2S4
Chapter 11
View Manipulation .. 257 Deleting a View •• 258 Creating a View •• 259 Changing a View to a GCP Rotation •• 261 Rocate a View •• 263 Revising a View Clip •. 264 Revising a View Origin •• 265 Revising a View Scale •• 266 Resetting a View •• 267 Dynamic Rotation of a View •• 268 Zooming In on an Active View •• 271 Zooming Out from an Active View .• TTl
Zooming an Active View to Database Extent .• m
Scrolling an Active View .. Tl4
Hiding Entities in an Active View .. Tl5
Redisplay Hidden Entities in an Active View .. Tl6
Contents V
Thble of Contents
Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection .. 277 Loading Font Definitions •• 278 Selecting the Current Font •• Z19 Grouping Entities into Subfigures •• 280 Releasing Subfigures •• 281 Removing a GCP Definition •. 282 Defining a GCP Definition •• 283 Removing an Image Definition •• 288 Creating an Image Definition .. 289 Creating a Figure •. 290 Creating Macro Definitions •• 291 Defining the Page Origin .. 293 Move the Current GCP Origin •• 294 Chapter 13
Output .. 297 Background Plotting and Printing •• 298 Output to a Plotter •• 300 Output to a Printer •• 308 Output to a Postscript Device •• 313 Output a Point Ftle •• 318 Chapter 14
Information Commands •• 319 Listing Infurmation .. 321 Counting Entities •• 330 Verifying Entities •• 331 Measure .. 333 Contents VI
'Thble of Contents
Chapter 15
layers •. 339 Select Layer .• 342 Select Layer Transparent .. 343 Select VISible Layers •. 344 Select Invisible Layers •• 345 Lock Layers .. 346 Unlock Layers •• 346 Name Layers .. 346 Copy Entities to another Layer •• 347 Chapter 16 Vector Font Editor •• 349 Introduction •. 349 Fonts •• Characters and Vectors •• 351 Butlers .. 353 creating and Editing a ChaIacter •• 355 Selecting a ChaIacter •• 355 Font Status .. 357 The Drawing Window •• 357 The Drawing Tools •• 361 ZoomNiew •. 362 The Grid and Snap .• 363 Vector Tools .. 365 Control Point Tools •• 367 Kerning Tools •. 368 Shape and Curve Tools •. 369 Character Tools •. m File Commands .. 375 Hatch Patterns .. 376 Design Suggestions .. 378 Suggested Reading .. 380 Font Editor Error Messages .. 381 Contents
vn
1Bble of Contents
Appendix A File Transfers
00
383 Drawing Interchange Files (DXF) •• 383 DXF Conversion Process •• 383 DynaCADD· Exchange Fotmat (DBF) •• 385 DEF 3.0 Fde Fonnat Specification •• 385 Entity Definitions .. 399 Appendix B ASCII Codes
00
405 Appendix C DynaCADO® Command List
Appendix D Printer and Plotter Support
00
00
409 427 Appendix E DynaCADO® Flies and Folders o. 429 Appendix F DynaCADD® Error Information •• 431 Appendix G Item Selector
'0
435 Appendix H AGFA COMPUGRAPHlce Fonts
Appendix I Glossary of Terms
00
00
451 Appendix J Particulars to the Amiga Version
Appendix K Particulars to the STrrT Version
Index
Contents VIII
437 00
00
465 475 DynaCADO® Reference Manual Index
00
483 DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADD 2-D Tutorial
This tutorial takes you through the construction ofa simple two
dimensional part. It is meant to show you how to enter commands in
DynaCADD, not to teach professional drawing and drafting practices. In
many cases, extra steps were used in order to demonstrate the operation of
a greater number of DynaCADD commands. The finished part is provided
on disk, in file TUroR2D.PRT, so that you can compare your results with
the actual drawing. The part itself represents a special adjusting screw,
with both the front and right orthographic view.
The adjusting screw consists of a shank and a head. Inside the hexagonal
head is a cylindrical well that narrows to a smaller diameter. The shank
consists of three parts: an upper, middle and lower shank section. To
indicate this, without drawing the entire screw, a cutaway area is drawn.
HEAD
fig. (1) Fully Labelled Adjusting Screw Drawing
Each step along the way is accompanied by a drawing. Try to replicate the
drawing as accurately as possible when following this tutorial.
As you progress, some of the explanations and instructions become more
concise where the material was explained in a previous step.
As you will soon discover, because the screw is a symmetrical item, you
do not need to create the entire right view, only the top half. This is then
mirrored to create the bottom.
2-D Tutorial Page 1
DynaCAD))® 2-D Tutorial
Experiment with the window resizing and zoom commands befure
starting, because these are useful for examining }'Our drawing in detail as
}'Ou work:. These commands are described in detail in Chapter 4.
In this tutorial, you must select (click on) several icons in the proper older
of their command sequence. The names of the commands appear at the
upper left of the drawing area window when you move the pointer over the
icon. When the proper command appears, click the left mouse button.
In this tutorial we use the term "select" meaning "to activate an option or
to choose an entity." To activate an option, either move the mouse pointer
to a button in a dialog clicking the left mouse button or pull down a menu
and click on an option. When a dialog button is selected (activated), it
appears in reverse type (highlighted). When a menu option such as
Inheritance is selected, a check mark: appears beside its name in the Tools
pull down menu.
Since most commands are formed of several parts. when you activate an
icon, additional icon pads reveal the subcommands. You must then find
the next icon in the sequence and click on it. Do this until all commands
(shown in uppercase) are entered.
When you see the semicolon ("; to), you can either click the right mouse
button, or press [;] on the keyboanl.
In the command descriptions and screen shots, we use abbreviations to
reLer to entities and selections:
loe #1, loe /fl, etc., refur to locations
ent #1, ent /fl, etc., refur to entities.
When you are told to select a location (i.e., loe #1, indicated by a small
.. + to), look at the illustration and find each location. Move the cross hair
to the same location on }'Our screen and click the left mouse button. If you
inadvertantly select the wrong location, press the delete key to go back a
single step and try again. Some locations are actually situated on an
entity, and it is important to select a location as close to the indicated end
of the entity as possible.
An entity is the basic element within DynaCADD. Entities include such
elements as points, lines, circles and arcs. When}'Ou are told to select an
Page 2 2-D Tutorial
"'-j
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
entity (Le., ent 111, indicated by a small "+"), the DyoaCADD screen
cross hair shows two small boxes (called "traps"). Move the boxes over
the desired entity and click the left mouse
button. If you inadvertantly select the wrong
entity, press the DELETE key to go back a
single step and try again. Note that, in some
commands, you are told to select the same
entity more than once.
Some commands produce a pop up scientific
calculator where you enter values fur
specific parameters such as radius or
distance. Type in the value or click the
pointer over the number icons. Press
[Return] or click the Return icon, located in
the bottom right hand comer of the valne
calculator, to enter the valne in the
calculator window. In the instructions
below, the exact values to enter are listed
immediately after the icon (command)
name.
After you successfully perfurm each step in
fig. (2) Value
Calculator
this tutorial, you should pull down the File
menu and select SAVE PARr. This way you
can experiment with each finished step, then
use the Restore option in the File menu to
return to the last saved situation.
For more infurmation on the commands,
refer to the main DyoaCADD manual. It is
particularly useful to read chapters 1 to 4
before starting this tutorial.
2-D Tutorial Page 3
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Installing DynaCADD - DOS Version
DynaCADD requires MS-DOS version 2.0 or later, 80286180386/80486, PS/2 or 100% compatible computers, 640K RAM and 1 Mb of EMS memory (EMS 3.2 or 4.0), one 5 114" or 3.5" floppy disk: drive, a
gmphics can:l operating in minimum of 640 X 350 and a mouse. However, we recommend a hard disk: drive, math co-processor, VGA high resolution graphics can:l and at least 2 Mb of EMS memory. On 80386 and 80486 based systems, expanded memory managers such as QBMM from Quarterdeck Office Systems work well with DynaCADD. The fullowing are the steps taken to install the DOS version of DynaCADD into your system. In the installation progmm use the up and down arrow keys to move the selection bar. The [Esc] key can be used to back up to the previous dialog. 1. Insert Disk: 1 into drive A.
2. Type A: and press [Enter].
3. Type INSfALL and press [Enter].
4. Press [Enter] with the selection bar over the "'Install OEMI3 into
System" option.
5. Highlight the source drive letter and press [Enter].
6. Highlight the drive on which you wish OEMl3 to be installed and
press [Enter].
7. Highlight the appropriate gmphics can:l with the selection bar and
press [Enter].
8. Highlight the mouse or tablet type with the selection bar and press
[Enter].
9. A menu may pop up asking which serial port the mouse or tablet is
hooked up to. Highlight the appropriate port and press [Enter].
The installation progmm will now proceed to copy the OEMI3
run-time and the suitable screen driver to your hanl disk. When it
is completed a message will appear.
10. Move the selection bar to "'Install DynaCADD into System" and
press [Enter].
Page 4 2-D Tutorial
.~/
DynaCADJ)® 2--D Tutorial
11. Type in your name and address pressing [Enter] at the end of every
line. Press [Enter] through all five lines.
12. IHghlight the source drive letter and press [Enter].
13. IHghlight the drive on which you wish DynaCADD to be installed
and press [Enter].
14. INSl'ALL will now copy the contents of Disk: 1 to your hard disk.
15. When INSl'ALL is finished with Disk 1. it will ask for Disk 2.
Insert Disk: 2 into drive A and press [Enter]. INSl'ALL will now
copy the contents of Disk 2 to your hard disk.
DynaCADD is now installed on your system.
Loading DynaCADD • DOS Version
To load DynaCADD:
At the DOS prompt enter the following commands:
Note: 1.
C: and press [Enter].
2.
CD \ and press [Enter].
3.
DYNACADD and press [Enter].
During installation. the INSl'ALL progmm created three files
called DYNACADD.BAT, FONTEDIT.BAT and
MAKEPLOf.BAT in the root directory of drive C. These batch
files can be moved into any directory that is contained in the
system PATH.
Installing DynaCADD. AMIGA Version
DynaCADD requires at minimum an Amiga with 2 Mb of RAM and a
hard disk to operate properly. If your system contains a 68020168030
microprocessor and either a 68881 or 68882 math co-processor, the
InstallHD progmm will copy a version of DynaCADD to your system that
takes full advantage of these processors.
2-D Tutorial Page 5
DynaCADJ)® 2... 0 Tutorial
Since a screen resolution of at least 640 by 400 is required, we strongly
recommend the Commodore 2320 de-inter1acer or the MicroWay Flicker
Fixer fur use with OynaCADO on machines that do not have these
capabilities built in.
To install DynaCADO:
1. With your computer off, insert the OynaCADO key into the
joystick port and then turn your computer on.
2. Insert the OynaCADO 1 disk into any drive.
3. Double-click on the DynaCADO 1 icon.
4. Double-click on the InstallHD icon.
5. The Insta1lHD program will ask fur the name of the destination
hard drive or partition. After having entered a valid name. press
RETURN or click on OK.
loading DynaCADD - AMIGA Version
1. If your computer is turned off, make sure the OynaCADO program
key is inserted. If it is not, shut your system off now and insert the
key. then turn your system back on.
2. Locate the DynaCADO drawer on your hard disk and open it.
3. Click on the DynaCADO icon. This will run OynaCADO and
bring you to the DynaCADO System level.
Installing DynaCADD - STITT Version
OynaCADO requires at minimum a ST or TT system with 1Mb of RAM
and a hard disk to operate properly. A math co-processor and 2 Mb of
RAM is highly recommended. DynaCADO includes two specific
versions:
1. ST with or without a math co-processor.
2. IT or ST with a 68030 accelerator card with a 68881 math
co-processor.
Page 6 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Depending on your system configuration, choose the appropriate
DynaCADD version during installation. The Sf version of DynaCADD
will automatically detect a math co-processor and take full advantage of
it. A screen resolution of at least 640 by 400 is required.
To install DynaCADD:
1. With your computer off, insert the DynaCADD key into the
joystick port and then turn your computer on.
2. Insert Disk 1 into your computer.
3. Double-click on the Drive icon.
4. Double-click on the HINSfALL.PRG icon.
S. When asked source drive A or B, type the appropriate letter.
6. When asked which version you require, type "8" for Sf, "T" fur
IT or "B" for both.
1. When asked which partition you require, type the appropriate
letter.
When asked fur a specific disk, insert the appropriate disk and
8. press REIURN. The contents of each disk will now be copied to
your bard disk.
Loading DynaCAOO - STm Version
To load DynaCADD:
1. Double click on (open) the disk drive icon where the Program is
located.
2. If DynaCADD is installed in a fulder, double click on (open) the
folder within which the Program is located.
3. Double click on the DynaCADD program icon. This brings you to
the System level.
2-D Tutorial Page 1
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 1: Establish the Drawing Parameters
Befure starting this tutorial, DynaCADD must be properly installed into
your system. Ifyou have not already done so, please refer to "Installing
DynaCADD" fuund within the first few pages of this Tutorial.
This step creates the appropriate files and establishes the basic drawing
parameters.
I.A:
Load the DynaCADD program. For instructions on how
to load DynaCADD, refer to "Loading DynaCADD"
fuund within the first few pages of this Tutorial.
I.B: 'The first time that you ron DynaCADD, you enter the
program at the System level. After that, DynaCADD
keeps track of where you left off the last time a drawing
was saved. When DynaCADD is ron again, a dialog
appears. Ifthis is the case and the Auto Start dialog
appears, select the "No" button to not continue with a
previous session and enter the System level.
Do you "ish to continue Hith the previous session?
The Part and Drawing previously under Hork Here:
C:\DYHACADD\PRRTS\TUTOR2D.PRT
C:\DYHACADD\PARTS\TUTOR2D\2D.DN6
fig. (3) Auto Start Dialog
Page 8 2-D Thtorial
DynaCADJ>® 2-D Tutorial
t.C: Activate/Create the Part
Description:
Move the pointer over the "Activate Part" button and
press the left mouse button. When the file selector
appears, select the parts directOlY and type the name of a
new part, "TUTORIAL" then press the [Return] key.
Result:
This creates the part file. This is where the 2-D entities
will be saved.
fig. (4) System Level Dialog
t.D: Activate Drawing
Description:
Move the pointer over the "Activate Drawing" button and
press the left mouse button. When the file selector
appears, type the name of the new drawing, "2D" then
press the [Return] key.
Result:
This creates the drawing file associated with the part file.
Note:
From now on, "Select" means move the pointer over the
appropriate item and press then release the left mouse
button.
2-D Tutorial Page 9
DynaCADJJ® 2-D Thtorial
I.E: Set the Drawing Unit
Description:
Within the dialog, selectthe "Inch" button to select the
drnwing units to inches.
Result:
This sets the basic units used in the drnwing to be
inches. Numbers will be entered and displayed in
inches.
1.F: Set the Page Size
Description: Within the dialog. select the "A" button to select a "11.0"
by "8.5" inch sheet.
Result: This sets the size of the drnwing to be an A sized sheet.
This limits the physical size of the paper to be 11 by 8.5
inches. However, since the drnwing may be scaled, the
entities in the drnwing can represent any size in the
"real" world.
1.G: Set the Drawing Scale
Description:
Within the dialog, select the text box beside the "D",
type "I" and select inches. Select the text box beside the
"A", type "I" and select inches.
Result:
This sets the scaling of the drnwing to be 1.0. This
means that one inch in the drnwing equals one inch in
the physical world.
1.B: Accept the Settings for the Drawing
Description: Select the button labeled "OK" in the dialog.
Result: Page 10 2-D Tutorial
This sets the drnwing parameters to those just specified
in the dialog. The dialog disappears and you now enter
the CADD level.
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Menu Bar 1'---·~ -----'1
I
Help Line:
1
1
i
i
I!
TRANOOPY
II
Icon Pads
j
!
I
l
__J
Note: The position on the screen of the Help Line and the X-Y coooJiruttes display
may vmy between p1a1funns.
fig. (5) Entering the CADD Level
Enter the command sequence:
@]
OZALL Result:
This zooms the entire drawing in the drawing area. 2-D Tutorial Page 11
DynaCADI)® 2-D Thtorial
Step 2: Creating the First Entity
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu.
In the dialog. select line weight 2 fur a medium thick line. Move the
pointer to the arrows beside the style names. Click the arrows to scroll the
names until the line style CONTINUOUS appears. This is a solid line.
Press [Return] to return to the CADD leveL
..
Weight :
¢
CONTINUOUS
fig. (6) Set Menu, Pen Indexes
Page 12 2-D Tutorial
DynaCAD])® 2-D Tutorial
Enter the command sequence:
~[Q]~
INSERT CIRCLE CIRRAD 0.15 [Return] [Return] 5.15 [Return] [;]
Move the pointer to the INSERT icon in the top left icon pad. The help
line will show "INSERT". Press and release the left mouse button to
select the icon.
Move the pointer to the CIRCLE icon in the second from the top icon
pad. The help line will show "CIRCLE". Press and release the left mouse
button to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the CIRRAD icon in the second from the bottom icon
pad. The help line will show "CIRRAD". When the CIRRAD command
is selected. the calculator will appear so that it can accept the radius of
the cirele.
Enter "0.15". This sets the radius of the cirele to 0.15 inches.
Note: The calculator numbers and math operations can be
entered using the key board or using the buttons on the
calculator dialog.
Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator dialog and accept the
value.
Press the return key [Return] a second time. This will bring up the
absolute coonlinates dialog.
Enter "5.15". This will anchor the center of the cirele at 5.1.5.
Press the return key [Return]. This will end the absolute coonlinates
dialog. accepting the values entered.
Note: The "OK'" button in the absolute coordinates dialog can
be used instead of the [Return] key.
Press the semi-colon key [;] to end the command. The semi-colon key is
equivalent to pressing the right mouse button.
2-D Tutorial Page 13
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Result: This inserts a circle, of radius 0.15 units, at location
.5,1.5. TIris circle defines the circumference of the
innermost well of the screw.
The process of creating a part involves inserting and
modifying entities. An entity is the basic drawing
primitive in DynaCADD and includes such objects as
points, lines, circles and arcs. INSERf commands are
described in Chapter 7.
fig. (7) Inserting a Cirele
Page 14 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 3: Inserting a Line
Enter the command sequence:
I/rnl INJ
INI 101
~
INSERr LINE UNELOC ORO ent #l LOC [IJ[Y] 5 [,][;]
Move the pointer to the INSERr icon in the top left icon pad. The help
line will show "INSERr". Press and release the left mouse button to
select the icon.
Move the pointer to the LINE icon in the second from the top icon pad.
The help line will show "LINE". Press and release the left mouse button
to select the icon.
Note: The LINELOC is the default command. It will
automatically be started.
Move the pointer to the ORO icon in the bottom icon pad. The help line
will show "ORO". Press and release the left mouse button to select the
icon.
Note: An alternate method of selecting the "ORO" command is
by pressing the [F2] function key.
Move the pointer to the outline of the circle. Press and release the left
mouse button. This anchors the beginning of the line at the center of the
circle.
Move the pointer to the LOC icon in the bottom icon pad. The help line
will show "LOC". Press and release the left mouse button to select the
icon.
Note:
An alternate method of selecting the "LOC" command is
through the [Fl] function key.
Note:
The LOC command must be active befure any of the
absolute or relative commands (X, Y, Z, IX, IY, IZ,
PRAD, PANO) can be used.
2-D Tutorial Page 15
J)ynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Press the "I" and the "Y" keys ([I][Y]). This executes the IV command,
and brings up the calculator dialog. The IV command increments from the
previous location (in this case, the center of the cirele) along the Y axis
defining the new location,
Enter ",5". This sets the length of the line segment along the Y axis to
half an inch.
Note:
The calculator numbers and math operations can be
entered using the key board or using the buttons on the
calculator dialog.
Press the comma key [,]. This closes the calculator dialog, accepting the
value entered. The new line segment is drawn.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to end the
command.
Result: This creates a line segment from the center of the cirele
towards the top part of the drawing. The line is 0.5 of an
inch in length.
Note: When selecting either absolute or relative coordinates
using the calculator, the point can be anchored by closing
the calculator with a comma [,]. Until the comma key
([,]) is pressed, the coordinates specified by one of the
location commands (X, Y, Z, IX, IV, IZ, PRAD, PANG)
will not be selected. To change the specific component of
a location, such as the X component, simply close the
calculator by pressing the [Return] key rather than the
comma key ([,]).
Note: IV-o.s·l entfl:i .....~
Page 16 2-D Tutorial
Some commands, like the INSERf LINE LINELOC,
will continue until the right mouse button or the
semi-colon key {[;D is pressed. With INSERI' LINE, the
end of the first line will be the beginning of the next. By
ending the command with a semi--colon or the right
mouse button, the action is equivalent to "cutting" the
continuous line at the current location.
fig. (8) Inserting a Verticalline
DynaCADJ)I!l 2-D Tutorial
Step 4: Inserting a Horizontal Guide Line.
Enter the command sequence:
~IZS{]B[illJ~[OO
INSERI' LINE HORIZONT ORO ent #1 LOC [lUX] 3.00 [,] [;]
Result: This inserts a long horizontal guide line from the center
of the circle (the origin of entity #1) to the right side of
the cirele. This is a guide fur locating the center of the
screw. The length of the line is set fur compatibility with
future steps in this tutorial.
~#I
L,X
=
3. 00 in.
fig. (9) insening a Horizontal Guide Line
2-D Tutorial Page U
DynaCADl)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 5: Copy the Horizontal Line.
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANCOPY ent #1 [;] END ent #1 INT eDt 112 eDt #3[;] This copies the horizontal guide line from its original
Result: location and places the copy at the top of the circle. The
original line is entity #1. The selected line is copied from
the end of that line (entity #1) to the intersection of the
circle (entity 112) and the vertical guideline (entity #3).
This new line is a guide fur the lower shank of the screw,
and aligns with the inner circle (well).
TRANSFORM commands are described in Chapter 10.
W.t§M'~
~
------- ------ ------ -----­
•
-fl----- ------ - - - - - - - - ­
ent ill
fig. (10) Copying a Horizontal Line
Page 18 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADIJi!> 2-D Tutorial
Step 6: Change the Line Style
Enter the command sequence:
101 I.;&~I
IfL..1
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHAPEN [line weight I and line style
SflTCH] [Return] ent III [;]
Select line weight 1 and line style SITfCH in the "Select Current Pen
Pammeters" dialog.
Press [Return].
Result: This changes the current line style and weight of the last
horizontal line. Note that this does not affect the current
pen weight and style, it only changes the selected
entities. This change is made so that the subsequent line
does not appear as a center line.
~--~~~-------------------------------------. fig. (11) Changing the Line Style
2-D Tutorial Page 19
DynaCADJ>® 2-D Thtorial
Step 7: Insert a Horizontal Line
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight 2, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence: INSElU LINE HORIZONT LlNLEN 0.357 [Return] END ent #1 eDt 112 [;]
Result: This draws a horizontal line 0.357 inches long from the
end of entity #1, towards entity 112. This is the bottom
segment of the shank.
&~-------~---------------------~!'
fig. (l2) InseTting a Horizontal Line
Page 20 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 8: Hide the Line.
Enter the command sequence:
6:.'
101
TRANSFORM MASK eDt #1 [;]
Result: This hides the horizontal guide line. It still exists but
returned to view (unmasked).
This is done because we can not snap to the necessary
line if another line is attached to it at that location. Later,
we will unmask the line, when we need to reference it.
cannot be modified until
cnt III
t
fig. (13) Hiding the Line
Step 9: Insert a New Line.
Enter the command sequence:
INSERT LINE LINELOC LINANG 120 [Return]
END ent #1 LOC loe #1 [;]
Result: ~
This inserts another short line, at an angle of 120 degrees
from the end of entity #1. Note that, in DynaCADD. the
01360 degree mark is at the eastern position on the
compass, and 90 degrees is at the north. This is the
angled line that connects the lower and middle shanks.
\
enl#tl
lac III +--\'-+1_1'-_ _
- - - fig. (14) Inserting a New Line
2-D Tutorial Page 21
DynaCADJJ® 2-D Tutorial
Step 10: Insert Another Circle.
Enter the command sequence:
+
INSERf CIRCLE CIRDIA 0.374 [Return] ORO ent #1 [;]
Result:
This draws a second circle with a diameter of 0.374
inches around the origin of the first (entity #1).
You could also use TRANSFORM OFFSET command
to draw·a second circle around the first. See Chapter 10.
This circle is the outer edge of the sunken well.
~
\~---
~---fig. (15) Inserting Another Circle
Step 11: Reveal Hidden Entities.
Enter the command sequence:
1~1
leI
TRANSFORM UNMASK
Result: This reveals previously maslred entities in the drawing.
We need to reveal the maslred line because we are going
to copy this line to create the middle shank.
G------------- - ­
fig. (16) Revealing Hidden Entities
Page 22 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 12: Insert a LIne Tangent to a Circle
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANCOPY ent #1 [;] END ent #1
INT ent III ent If3 [;]
This copies the horizootalline (entity #1), to the
intersection of the vertical line (entity Ill) and the outer
circle (entity 1f3). We need this line fur the trim
Rmdt: command, to fullow.
ent'~~~:~~~__________________________________\c=
__~~~_
__ __
'I
-----~-------------------------------
~ent
-­
fig. (17) Inserting a Line 1/mgent to a Circle
Step 13: Trimming Entities
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMMULTI ent #1 ent III [;] ORO ent #1 [;]
Result: TRIM guides lines (entity #1 and entity Ill) away from
other entities. We needed the height of the trimmed
horizontal line as a reference to determine the length of
the angled line (connecting the shanks).
TRIM is a powerful fuature that lets you lengthen or
shorten an entity.
I
\
---
-~
~====================:===:=====:=:::+!:=::=::=:~_uu
______
11
g-
<
entg2
jig. (18) Trimming Entities
2-D Tutorial Page 23
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 14: Add More Horizontal Lines
Enter the command sequence:
INSElU LINE HORIZONT INT ent #1 ent Ifl LOC loe #1 [;]
Result: This draws a horizontal line from the point where entity
#1 and entity Ifl intersect. Since the lines do not
physically intersect, DynaCADD calculates the point
where they would intersect, if they were trimmed
appropriately, and uses that point as the reference for the
start of the new line.
The intersection of the guide line and the angled line is
used as the reference for creating the middle shank.
en. /II
~=============.=====' ___
J
Ioe #1 . .
;nt #2 ~
fig. (19) Adding Additional Horizontal Lines
Page 24 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 15: Trim Two Lines
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMINTOF eDt #1 eDt Ifl [;]
Result: This trims the angled line (entity #1) to the intersection
of itself and entity Ifl. It also establishes the correct
length of the connection between the two shank: sections.
~==================='---------
ent /II
. ,~
eot
--;r.­
112
fig. (20) 1Jimming 7Wo Lines
Step 16: Insert A Vertical Line
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu.
Select line weight I, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return].
Enter the command sequence:
INSERf LINE VERTICAL END ent #1 eDt Ifl [;]
Result: This draws a vertical line from the left end of entity #1 to
the center line (entity Ifl). This is a guide line for
creating the cutaway section marks.
ent #1
t
C
•
ent 1#2
fig. (20) Inserting a Vertical Line
2-D Tutorial Page 25
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 17: Rotate a Vertical Line
Activate the TRANCOPY flag. This icon is fuund in the icon strip at the
top of the drawing area.
When the TRANCOPY flag is selected, two images are
displayed in the icon. Any transfunnation command·applied to
the selected entities will leave the original entities unchanged.
When the TRANCOPY flag is deselected, a single image is
displayed in the icon. The selected entities will be deleted when
a transfurmation command is applied to them.
Note: The only transfonnation commands not affucted by this flag are
the TRANSFORM TRANSLATE commands.
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM ROTATE ROTANO 90 [Return] ent #1 [;] ORO ent #1 [;]
Result: This rotates a copy of the vertical line (entity #1) about
its center by 90 degrees. This is the second guide line fur
creating the section lines.
fig. (Zl) Rotating a Vertical Line
Page 26 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 18: Insert an Arc
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight 2, line sytle CONTINUOUS and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence: ~
8]
[2]
INSERI' ARC END ent #1 ent /fl ent #3 [;]
Result: This inserts an arc with its center at the end of the
previously rotated line (entity #1) and its ends at the
endpoints of the small vertical line (entit;y /fl). This is the
k~----~~~::~""·
ent
t
~-------------------.
#2
BenlNI
... #3
fig. Inserting an Arc
ent
(22)
Step 19: Mirror the Arc
Activate TRANCOPY, as in Step 17, so that the transfurmation command,
TRANSFORM MIRROR, applied to the selected entities will leave the
original entities unchanged.
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MIRROR ent #1 [;] END ent /fl ent #3 [;]
Result: I
The arc is mirrored (copied across a defining line). This
encloses the top part of the cutaway area.
~===::.=:=::::::m-A-rc--
~~
ent
/II
t
!=-­
2-D Tutorial Page Zl
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 20: Move the Vertical Line
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANMOVE eDt 111 [;] ORO ent Ifl
END ent Ifl [;]
Result: This moves the small vertical line (entity 111) from the
center to the left band end of the small horizontal line
(entity Ifl). This vertical line will be used as a mirror
line in an upcoming step.
G===================' __
IIOt_t12 ....
fig. (24) Moving the Vertical Line
Page 28 2-D Tutorial
~nt 'I
DynaCAD])® 2-D Tutorial
Step 21: Delete Entities
Enter the command sequence:
I~I
I~I
TRANSFORM DELETE ent #1 [;]
Result: This deletes the horizontal guide line, no longer
necessary to our dJawing. It is a good idea to
periodically delete any guide lines which have no more
use, in otder to keep your dJawing uncluttered.
The DELETE command in the INSERI' icon pad is the
same as this command (see Step 23).
tEent_
tl _'_
fig. (25) Deleting Entities
2-D Tutorial Page 29
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 22: Mirror Several Entities at Once
Activate TRANCOPY so that the transfurmation command,
TRANSFORM MIRROR, applied to the selected entities will leave the
original entities unchanged.
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MIRROR ent #1 ent If}. ent 113 [;] END ent #4 ORO ent #4 [;] Result: This mirrors the horizontal line (entity #1) and the two
arcs (entity If}., entity 113) across the vertical line
detennined by entity #4. This creates the middle shank
arcs fur the other side of the cut away.
rum
fig. (26) Mirroring Multiple Entities at Once
Page 30 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 23: Delete Entities
Enter the command sequence:
~[jJ
INSERf DELETE eDt #1 [;]
RemIt: This deletes the nnnecessary vertical guide line. It does
not matter which delete command you select; either
work equally well.
~~========~========='---------~t~
fig. (27) Deleting Entities
Step 24: Insert a Line
Enter the command sequence:
~~lU]QJ[2]
INSERf UNE UNELOC LINANO 160 [Return]
END eDt #1 LOC loe #1 [;]
RemIt: This draws a line at an angle of 160 degrees from the end
of entity #1. This is the angled connection between the
middle and upper shanks of the screw.
I
~=-------------------.
loe /II
~
~-------------------.
ent til
t
~ ~
fig. (28) InseTting a line
2-D Tutorial Page 31
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 25: Insert Orthographic Lines
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu.
Select line weight 1, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return].
Enter the command sequence:
~~~[8][2][1j
INSERr LINE ORrHO LINLEN 0.222 [Return] ON ent #1
LOC loe #11oe /fl [;]
This draws a guide line 0.222 inches from the center line
(entity #1) and 0.222 inches from location #1 to location
/fl. These are used to detennine the upper shank
diameter.
Rault: When selecting ON entity #1, choose a point closer to
the left end of entity #1 (towards the circle) as opposed to
the right end.
Note: Ortho lines are either horizontal or vertical.
- - - - - -. - - - - 0t
/12
Ioc
I
+
roc til
+
---------------------I
ent #1
fig. (29) InseTting Ortlwgraphic Lines
Page 32 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 26: Insert a Horizontal Line
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight 2, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence: INSERf LINE HORIZONT L1NLEN 0.473 [Return] INT ent III ent 112
END ent 112 [;]
Result: This draws a horizontal line, length 0.473 inches, from
the center line fur the upper shank. The line is 0.222
inches from the center line, because you select the end of
entity 112 and its exact size was entered in the previous
step.
~==-===~~---------.
,
enf
1/1
~-~-----------
fig. (30) Inserting a Horizontal Line
2-D Tutorial Page 33
DynaCAD])® 2-D Tutorial
Step 27: Trim the Angled Line
Enter the command sequence:
lONE
...-\---
I
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMONE ent 111 [;] INT ent 111 ent III [;]
Result: This trims the angled line to the intersection of the upper
shank. This shows how trim can be used to match two
lines to one another.
Step 28: Divide a Line
Enter the command sequence:
\SETII"""I
TRANSFORM DIVIDE DIVLOC ent 111[;] SET END ent 111
LOC IX 0.18 [,] [;]
Result: This divides the line 0.18 inches along the X axis from
the left endpoint, so that a smaller section of exact size
can be moved later.
Divide breaks entities into smaller pieces except for
curves (see Chapter 8). You cannot join entities together,
only divide them.
~====9=======-':r_O (C
fig. (32) Dividing a Line
Page 34 2-D Tutorial
DynaCAD])® 2-D Tutorial
Step 29: Trim Several Lines
Enter the command sequence:
-\...
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMMULTI eat #1 ent Ifl ent #3 [;] END ent #4 [;]
Result:
This trims the selected lines to the endpoint of a given line
(entity #4). The guide lines and the center line are trimmed
away from the front view of rolt, toward the right view.
This command permits you to trim multiple lines at once.
fig. (33) 1HmnUng Multiple Lines
Step 30: Move a Horizontal Line
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANMOVE ent 111 [;] END ent III
SET END ent Ifl LOC IY 0.25 [,] [;]
Result: This moves the previously divided horizontal line a
vertical distance of 0.25 inches above the center line.
IY detennines the relative distance along the Yaxis.
fig. (34) Moving a Horizontal Line
2-D Tutorial Page 35
DynaCAD~
2-D Tutorial
Step 31: Delete Entities
Enter the command sequence:
~
00
TRANSFORM DELETE ent #1 eDt ff2 ent #3 [;]
Result: o
Clean up the drawing area by deleting unnecessary guide
lines.
fig. (35) Deleting Entities
Step 32: Trim a Line to a Specified Distance
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMDIST 0.222 [Return] eDt #1 [;]
Result: This trims the horizontal line to exactly 0.222 inches.
This makes sure the guide line matches the depth of the
outer part of the sunken well. This command trims an
entity to an exact length.
o
fig. (36) Trittuning a Line
Page 36 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJJ® 2-D Tutorial
Step 33: Trim a Line to a Specified Distance
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMDISr 0.36 [Return] ent #1 [;]
Result: This trims the horizonta1line to an absolute distance of
0.36 inches. The line is trimmed to the depth of inner
part of the sunken well.
o
fig. (37) 1Hmming a Line
Step 34: Trim a Line to an Endpoint
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMONE ent #1 [;] END ent III [;]
Result: This trims the bottom line to the endpoint of the top line.
The inner sunken well now matches the outer sunken
well.
o
fig. (38) 1Hmming a Line to an Endpoint
2-D Tutorial Page 37
DynaCAD])® 2-D Thtorial
Step 35: Change Pen Style
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHAPEN [\\eight 1, Style HIDDEN] eDt #1 eDt III [;]
Result: Change the pen weight and style of the selected entities
to hidden lines. These entities would nonnally not be
seen, so they are shown as hidden.
JI­ent
_
o
'2
- T - ­
--~(f"-
--~
fig. (39) Changing the Pen Style
Step 36: Mirror the Right View
Activate TRANCOPY so that the transfunnation command,
TRANSFORM MIRROR, applied to the selected entities will leave the
original entities unchanged.
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MIRROR BYW1N loe #1loe III [;] END ent #1 ORO eot #1 [;]
Result: o
Mirror the right view across the axis to create the whole
right view. This time a window is used to detennine the
entities to mirror.
Joc 112
,r-----------------------------------------------t
,
3
lent 1/1
---
1_-
loclll
1 ~-
fig. (40) Mirroring the Front Vrew
Page 38 2-D Tutorial
-E'
--
:
!
DynaCAD))® 2-D Tutorial
Step 37: Delete Arcs
Enter the command sequence:
[Q]
00
TRANSFORM DELETE ent 11 ent Ifl [;]
Result: This cleans up the unnecessary arcs away from the
cutaway section.
o
ftg. (41) Deleting Arcs
Step 38: Insert Polygon
Enter the command sequence:
INSERf POLYGON POLYSIDES 6 [Return] POLYAFLAT 0.5 [Return]
ORO ent 11 END ent 11 [;]
Result: This inserts a hexagon (six sides) with a measurement of
0.5 inches across the flats. This polygon is used fur the
outside of the screw head. The reason END is chosen is
to make the polygon start at zero degrees. thus aligning
correctly with the view.
--3-E
--
--
---
ftg. (42) Inserting a Polygon
2-D Tutorial Page 39
DynaCADJ)® 2--D Tutorial
Step 39: Insert Section Lines
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu.
Select line weight 1, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return].
Enter the command sequence:
INSERI' SECTION SECTDISf 0.01 [Return] SECTANGLE 4S [Return]
ent 11 ent Ifl ent 113 ent #4 [;]
Result: This inserts section lines betweeen the selected arcs, 0.01
inches apart and placed at a 4S degree angle. These
section lines are used in the cutaway view.
jig. (43) Inserting Section Lines
Page 40 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 40: Insert Vertical Lines
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight 1, line style HIDDEN and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence; INSEKf LINE VERTICAL END eDt 111 eDt #2 [;] ent #3 ent #4 [;]
Result: This inserts vertical Jines to indicate the ends of the
sunken well.
fig. (44) Inserting U!rtical Lines
2-D Tutorial Page 41
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 41: Insert Vertical Lines
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight 2, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence: INSERI' UNE VElUICAL END ent III ent Ifl [;] ent If3 ent #4 [;] ent 115
-~m_n_~m-~_mm_m­
IIl2 [;] ent #l3 ent 1114 [;]
Result: This inserts vertical lines to define the various parts of
the screw.
fig. (45) Inserting Vertical Lines
Page 42 2-D Thtorial
DynaCADJJ® 2-D Tutorial
Step 42: Insert Parallel Line
Select Pen Indexes from the Set menu. Select line weight I, line style CONTINUOUS and press [Return]. Enter the command sequence: lWEaw
INSERT LINE PARAILEL eDt #1 END ent #2 LOC loe #1 [;]
Result: These refurence lines are added to later correcdy
dimension the angles of the connections between shanks
(see steps 54 and 55, below).
Step 43: Insert Parallel Line
Enter the command sequence:
lW Ea W
[1j
[2]
INSERf LINE PARALLEL eDt #1 END ent #2 LOC loe #1 [;]
Result: This inserts angled refurence lines fur dimensioning (see
Step 42, above).
~
~ ~
eot 112.,( i
,
+
Icc
ent 1#1
III
fig. (47) Inserting a Pamllel Line
2-D Tutorial Page 43
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Dimensioning
You have now completed the basic drawing of the part. It should look like
this:
fig. (48) Completed Adjusted Screw Drawing willwul Dimensioning
The subsequent steps are all concerned with inserting dimensions into the
drawing.
Dimensions provide measurements of specific details. DynaCADD
automatically displays the specified distance (linear dimension) or angle
(angular dimension) in the correct units (in this case. inches) or degrees,
respectively.
Most technical drawings require accurate dimensions 1br every detail, in
order to reproduce the part correctly. To replicate this process, the tutorial
shows which type of dimension is required fur each measurement.
Dimensions are one of the most imp:n1ant feature8 of DynaC'ADD, and the
commands are described in detail in Chapter 9. It isn't necessary to add every
dimension descn'bed below, except to complete the drawing. However, it's a
good opportunity to learn how to insert dimensions and to experiment with
them.
There are many different types of dimensions, all of which cannot be covered
here.
Page 44 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 44: Dimension Parameters
Select Dimension from the Set menu.
Select from the ARROWHEAD TYPE area: ARROWHEAD, ARROWS IN and ARROWS FILL. Select from the DIMENSION TEXT FORMAT area: DECIMAL, IN LINE and UNIDIRECT. Select from the AUIO TOLERANCING area: TOL. OFF. Select as Precision: 3. fig. (49) Dimension Parameters Dialog
2-D Tutorial Page 45
DynaCADJ>® 2-D Thtorial
Select SET OLOBALS and select the VERIFY TEXT option. Click
OK. This furces DynaCADD to display the dimension text fur
verification before it is inserted. The text can then be modified in the
dialog box.
When you return to the main dimension parameter dialog box, click
OK.
0.1200000~
0.06990000
0.250BBBBO
B.25999BB9
I
FLIPPED DIMENSIONS
Open
.ili¥~4.
~
Snap leader
Verify Text
jig. (SO) Global Dimension Parameter Dialog
Page 46 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJJ® 2-D Tutorial
Enter the command sequence:
CREATE LOADFONT LEROY-.R.FNT
Load the funt LEROY-.R.FNT from disk. You must have a funt loaded in
order to dimension.
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMHORI TEXTWID oms [Return] TEXTHEI 0J17S x
1.25 [Return] END ent III ent 12 LOC loe III [;]
(Replace the number with 0.578)
Result: This sets up the default dimension parameters in the
dialog box: and the width and height ofthe dimension
text. The:first dimension is inserted where indicated.
fig. (51) Dimension Wulth ofPolygon
2-D Tutorial Page 47
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Thtorial
Step 45: Place Center Lines In a Circle
Enter the command sequence:
~
B
DIMENSION DIMCLINE ent 111
Result: This inserts a center line on the selected circle.
DIMCLINE requires only that you select the correct type
of entity.
0.578
fig. (52) Placing Ceruer Lines in a Circle
Page 48 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 46: Dimension Radius of an Inner Circle
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMRAD ent #1100 #1 [;]
Result: This dimensions the radius of the outer hidden circle.
The location tells DynaCADD where to place the
dimension line and text, relative to the origin of the
selected entity.
O. !iTa
R .150
loe II
fig. (53) Dimensioning the Radius ofan Inner Circle
2-D Tutorial Page 49
DynaCADJ.l® 2-D Tutorial
Step 47: Dimension Diameter of an Outer Circle
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMDIA eDt #lloc #1 [;]
Result: This dimensions the diameter of the inner bidden circle.
This is similar to DIMRAD. in Step 46, except that it
displays the diameter, rather than the radius.
R .150
fig. (54) Dimensioning the Diameter ofQIl. Outer Circle
Page 50 2-D Tutorial
DynaCAD])® 2-D Tutorial
Step 48: Dimension the Hidden Section
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMHBASE END ent #1 INT ent #2 ent If3 INT ent If3
ent #4 LOC loe #1 [;]
Result: This inserts the dimension of the hidden section, using
horizontal baseline dimensioning. This inserts
dimensions for successive distances (location i. 2 and
3). The last selected location (#1) detennines how far
away to place the dimension text.
0.222
R • 150
+-+-t-
Ioe
1/1
fig. (55) Dimensioning the Hidden Section
2-D Tutorial Page 51
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 49: Dimension Line Segments
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMLINB ent #1loe #1 [;] ent Ifltoe Ifl [;] ent #3 toe #3 [;]
This inserts dimensions fur the selected line segments.
The location detennines how fur away to place the
dimension text.
Result: loe 1#2
-t--~.
H3
loe 3
0.351 +;----1'­
0.578
ent 1/3
t
'_.J
0.222
--+-+­
0.360
--t--t­
R .150
fig. (56) Dimensioning Line Segments
Page 52 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 50: Dimension Length of the Part
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMHORI END eDt #1 eDt III LOC loe #1
[Replace the number with 3.000]
Result: This dimensions the true length of the screw by
measuring from the ends of the entities.
loe II
1 - - - - 1 1 - - - 3.000 - - - - - - I
O. 180
ent
R .150
-1--1­
/I'"
.... ent t#2
O.Z22-!=l r O'3eo~
fig. (57) Dimensioning the Length ofthe Part
2-D Tutorial Page 53
DynaCADI)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 51: Dimension Radius of the Upper Section
Select Dimension from the Set menu.
Select the fullowing from the DIMENSION TEXT FORMAT area:
ANOLED, ABB'R and LEAD ZERO (S).
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMVERT ORO eot #1 END ent #1 LOC loe #1 [;]
When the text display appears, move the cursor with the arrow keys befure
the dimension value. Type: R [space] and press [Return]. This indicates a
radius, although the actual command only dimensions a vertical distance.
Result: This changes the initial dimension parnmerers as
indicated. Then it inserts the dimension fur the first
section, or shank.
1-----5.000-----1
o.
R .150
t80
::
«I
0.222-0 I~
o.360J-J
fig. (58) Dimensioning the Radius ofthe Upper Section
Page 54 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJl® 2-D Tutorial
Step 52: Dimension Radius of the Middle Section
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMVERT ORO ent #l END ent #l LOC loe #l [;]
When the text display appears, move the cursor with the arrow keys before
the dimension value. 'JYpe: R [space] and press [Return]. This indicates a
radius, although the actual command only dimensions a vertical distance.
Result: This inserts the dimension of the middle section or
shank.
1 - - - - - ~.OOO - - - - - - 1
-1--\-0. an
N
O. 180
--1--1-
'"
N
o. ~5T - I - - - \ ­
....
ent
R .150
III
0.222n r
O''3!1ol-J
fig. (59) Dimensioning the Radius ufthe Middle Section
2-D Tutorial Page 55
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 53: Dimension Radius of the Lower Section
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMVERr ORO ent 111 END ent 111 LOC loc 111
When the text dispJay appears. move the cursor with the arrow keys before
the dimension value. Type: R [space] and press [Return]. This indicates a
radius, although the actual command only dimensions a vertical distance.
Result:
This inserts the dimension fur the end section or shank.
/-----3.000 - - - - - I
-1--1- o. l!WlI
0.578
0.1&0-+-1­
0.357 -t-----11­
.....
o
on
loc,l
.,~
;. ent
:.:fJ
fig. (60) Dimensioning the Radius of the Lower Section
Page 56 2-D Tutorial
II!
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Thtorial
Step 54: Slope between Lower and Middle Sections
Select Dimension from the Set menu.
Select from the DIMENSION TEXT FORMAT area: UNIDIRBCT, and DEG. Select 0 places as the precision. Enter the command sequence: DIMENSION DIMANGLE ent III ent If1. END ent If1. [;] This inserts the dimension of the first slope, between the
upper and middle shanks.
Result: 1------:1.000-----1
0.576
o. lao - f . - I ­
R.ISO
0.222-0
r
0.:l80-U­
fig. (61) Insening the Dimension ofa Slope
2-D Tutorial Page 57
DynaCADJ)® 2-D Tutorial
Step 55: Slope between Middle and Upper Section
Enter the command sequence:
DIMENSION DIMANGLE eDt #l ent III END eDt III [;]
Result: This dimensions the angle of the second slope, between
the middle and lower shanks.
1-----3.000 - - - - - - I
o.
-+--1- O.2n
l:l
180
--t-I­
..
o. 3tH
0:
R
.I~O
fig. (62) Inserting the Dimension of a Slope
Page 58 2-D Tutorial
..
-I--~f-
DynaCADJJ!!I 2-D Tutorial
Step 56: Create Gap on Sloped Lines
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMINC -0.02 [Return] ent #l [;] eDt Ifl [;]
Result: This trims the extended lines away from the main body
of the part.
1 - - - - - - 3• 000 - - - - - I
-/--1- 0.211S
O. 110
--+-t-
O. SST
-;-----ir-
..
"
0.222
--I--t-
0.3150
--1---;­
R .150
fig. (63) Creating a Gap on Sloped lines
2-D Tutorial Page 59
DynaCADIJ® 2-D Tutorial
This completes our 2-D.tutorial. Although only a few of the many
DynaCADD commands were covered, it should give )'Du the confidence
to go on and try other 2-D commands.
Spend some time experimenting and exploring the 2-D commands befure~/
attempting to do the 3-D tutorial. The vast majority of CADD
applications are in 2-D and this area should be mastered befure you
continue. In particular, examine how the different location and entity
selection options affect the results of a command.
You should also try to print or plot your drawing. Chapter 13 discusses
output in detail.
Now that )'Du have created your first part and drawing, you should also
read Chapters 1 through 5, if)'Du have not already done so. These give
you an ovelView of the program, the basic theory and pmctice of CADD,
as well as providing specific infurmation about DynaCADD itself.
Chapters 6 through 15 describe the DynaCADD menus and commands in
detail. You should browse through this material in order to get a geneml
idea of how the progmm is organized and what type of features and
functions are available.
I----~.ooo
-I--I-O.2Q3
0.578
O. 180
--I--\­
-----I
0.11:17 -1-----11­
....
R .150
fig. (64) Completed and Dimensioned Adjusting Screw Drawing
Page 60 2-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADD 3-D 1\IIoriai
This tutorial shows you how to construct a simple 3-D part with
DynaCADD.
3-D mode has several differences from 2-D mode. 3-D mode has 3
dimensions, X, Yand Z, which correspond to width, height and depth,
while 2~D mode has only width and height. AB well, JD.aIW of the
DynaCADD commands are slightly different, and some additional
commands are available.
One basic dilemma with 3-D is representing an object with 3 dimensions
on 2 dimensional media (the screen or printer). This is handled by
"viewing" the object from one direction. More than one view can be used
at a time, but each view only shows the object from one direction. For
example, when you look at a coffee cup from the top, you see a different
"view" than when you look at the cup from the side.
Another dilemma is dealing with details that are "inside" the object, or
behind other details in a particular view. DynaCADD shows these inside
details as well as the overlaying ones.
For example, a drawing of a coffee cup will have all features visible,
including the &r side which would be hidden fur a real cup.
Introduction
This tutorial creates a 3-D drawing of a caster wheel assembly. There are
4 elements to this assembly, and the finished assembly is shown in fig. (1).
Although the figure may look daunting at first, this tutorial will
demonstIate how DynaCADD can be used to create this drawing in 27
easy steps.
Disclaimer:
Since this is a tutorial intended to teach the use of DynaCADD, it
does not create the drawing to industry standards. For example,
3-D Tutorial Page 1
DynaCAD])® 3-D Tutorial
this tutorial includes the added stage of drawing faces. However,
using DynaCADD to create industry standard drawings is no
more difficult than this tutorial.
Note: This tutorial has been optimized to show many "tricks" of the
trade as well as demonstrating the basic 3-D part creation. Thus,
it may be advantageous to review this tutorial after completing a
few of your own drawings.
Note: Many of the commands in this tutorial use absolute numbers for
commands which could be entered free hand using the mouse and
pointer (for example, the zoom commands). However, the use of
absolute numbers means that the display will consistently follow
the tutorial.
fig. (1) Completed 3-D Caster Assembly
Page 2 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 1: Establish the Drawing Parameters
BefOre starting this tutorial, DynaCADD must be properly installed into
your system. If you have not already done so, please refer to "Installing
DynaCADD" found within the first few pages of the DynaCADD 2-D
Tutorial.
This step creates the appropriate files and establishes the basic drawing
parameters.
l.A:
Load the DynaCADD program.. For instructions on how
to load DynaCADD, refer to "Loading DynaCADD"
found within the first few pages of the DynaCADD 2-D
Tutorial.
l.B: The first time that you run DynaCADD, you enter the
program. at the System level. After that, DynaCADD
keeps track of where you left off the last time a drawing
was saved. When DynaCADD is run again, a dialog
appears. If this is the case and the Auto Start dialog
appears, select the "No" button to not continue with a
previous session and enter the System level.
Do you wish to continue with the previous session?
The Part and Drawing previously under work were:
C:\DYNACADD\PARTS\TUTOR2D,PRT
C:\DYNACADD\PARTS\TUTOR2D\2D,DW6
fig (2) Auto Start Dialog
3-D Thtorial Page 3
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
t.C:
ActiwdelCreate the Part
Description: Move the pointer over the "Activate Part" button and
press the left mouse button. When the file selector
appears, select the parts directory and type the name of a
new part, "eASIER" then press the [Return] key.
Result: This creates the part file. This is where the 3-D entities
will be saved.
fig. (3) System Level Dialog
t.D: Activate Drawing
Description:
Move the pointer over the "Activate Drawing" button and
press the left mouse button. When the file selector
appears, type the name of the new drawing, "WHEEL"
then press the [Return] key.
Result:
This creates the drawing file associated with the part file.
Note:
From now on, "Select" means move the pointer over the
appropriate item and press then release the left mouse
button.
Page 4 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ:)® 3-D Tutorial
I.E: Set the Drawing Unit
Description:
Within the dialog, select the "Inch" button to select the
drawing units to inches.
Result:
This sets the basic units used in the drawing to be inches.
Numbers will be entered and displayed in inches.
I.F:
Set the Page Size
Description: Within the dialog, select the "A" button to select a "11.0"
by "8.5" inch sheet.
Result: This sets the size of the drawing to be an A sized sheet.
This limits the physical size of the paper to be 11 by 8.5
inches. However, since the drawing may be scaled, the
entities in the drawing can represent any size in the
"real" world.
1.G: Set the Drawing Scale
Description: Within the dialog, select the text box beside the "D", type
"I" and select inches. Select the text box beside the "A",
type "1" and select inches.
Result: Note: This sets the scaling of the drawing to be 1.0. This means
that one inch in the drawing equals one inch in the
physical world.
Each 3-D view has an additional scaling factor for that
view.
I.B: Accept the Settings for the Drawing
Description: Select the button labeled "OK" in the dialog.
Result: This sets the drawing parameters to those just specified in
the dialog. The dialog disappears and you now enter the
CADDlevel.
3-D Tutorial Page 5
DynaCADJ>® 3-D Tutorial
Step 2: Create a View
2.A: Zoom the Drawing
Enter the command sequence:
@]
DZALL
Description: Move the pointer to the DZALL command in the top
right icon pad mnning along the top of the display. The
help line will show "DZALL". Press then release the left
mouse button to select the icon.
Result: This zooms the drawing so that only the drawing page is
visible in the drawing area.
Note: An alternative method of selecting the
"DZALL" command is through the [F8]
function key.
2.B: Cbange to 3D Mode
Enter the command sequence:
1301
lNIT3D
Description: Move the pointer to the INIT3D icon in the top left icon
pad. The help line will show "INIT3D". Press and
release the left mouse button to select the icon.
Result: Page 6 3-D Tutorial
This sets DynaCADD into 3-D mode. All operations
will now be done in 3-D mode. Refur to fig. (4).
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Menu Bar HelpLine
I
I
TopleftJoonPad ~ (primary COIt1DIIIIIds) Seoond from Top
I
(secondary oommaitds.)
I/ '
Seoond from Bottom
(modifiers)
:
Bottom left Joon Pad
,
(lo<:ateIseJect commands)
Note: The position on the screen of the Help Line ami the X-V cooJdinates display may
vary between plattbrms.
fig. (4) Entering the CADD Level
3-D Tutorial Page 7
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Thtorial
2.C: Select Current GCP as Thp
Enter the command sequence:
Menu "GCP", select "Top"
Description:
Select the item labeled "Top" from the menu labeled
"GCP".
Result:
This sets the current GCP to Top. Any drawing
modifications will be perfurmed looking at the drawing
from the top. Thus the view will be created so that the
view looks at the part from the "Top",
Note: The actual GCP of the view may be different, but
the modification will be perfunned in the current
GCP.
Note: The current GCP is indicated in the GCP menu
by a check mark beside the appropriate menu
item.
Note: The current GCP may already be set to Top,
Reselecting the already current GCP has no
effect.
J Top
front
Right
BottOA
Rear
Left
Iso
[!'Jpty
El'lpty
EMpty
EMpty
EApty
EMpty
EMpty
f!'Jpty
EAt
Page 8 3-D Tutorial
fig. (5) GCP Menu,
1bp Selected
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
2.D: Create the View
Enter the command sequence:
:····l
tl..
[]I]
t ••• J
EDITVIEW DEFVIEW [Return] 3,5 [Return] [;]
Description: Move the pointer to the EDITVIEW icon in the top left
icon pad. The help line at the top middle left of the
display will show the command name "EDITVIEW" as
the pointer moves over the icon. Press and release the
left mouse button to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the DEFVIEW icon in the second
from the top icon pad. The help line will show
"DEFVIEW". Press and release the left mouse button to
select the icon.
Press (and release) the return key ([Return]). This will
bring up the absolute coordinates dialog as shown in fig.
(6).
Enter "3,5" (without the quotes). This sets the origin of
the view to a convenient position.
Press (and release) the return key ([Return]). This will
end the absolute coordinates dialog, accepting the values
entered in the last step.
Press the right mouse button, OR press the semi-colon [;]
key. This defines the bounds of the view to the full
extents of the physical page. (The view fills the entire
drawing page.)
Input Absolute [ X ] I
[
Y]I
[
Z ] Co-ordinates
~------------------------------------------------------fig. (6) Absolute Coordinates DUliog
3-D Tutorial Page 9
DynaCAD])® 3-D Tutorial
Result: This creates a 3-D view with the view origin at 3,5 and
the area of the view at the full drawing page. fig. (7)
shows the resulting display.
Note: The GCP indicator will become visible. It is the
outlined double arrow at the center of the
drawing.
Note: The GCP of the view will be set to Top (the
current GCP). The scale of the view is the
default value of 1.0.
Aside: Many of modifiers associated to the commands
are initially set to a value. This va1ue is known as
a default value. If the modifier is selected, it may
retain the value it is set to. Other modifiers,
however. will always retain the default value
unless otherwise set.
fig (7) 3-D View Created
P'dge 10 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 3 : Draw the Bottom Lines of the First Piece
Enter the command sequence:
~[2S2Jb5ZJ
INSERT LINE LINELOC [Return] 0,0,0 [Return] [I] [X] 19/32 [,J [I] [X]
5/16 [,] [Return] i2 [Return] [;]
Description: Move the pointer to the INSERT icon in the top left icon
pad. The help line will show "INSERT". Press and
release the left mouse button to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the LINE icon in the second from the
top icon pad. The help line will show "LINE". Press and
release the left mouse button to select the icon.
Note: The LINELOC is the default command. It will
be automatically started.
Press the return key ([Return]). This will bring up the
absolute coordinates dialog.
Enter "0,0,0". This will anchor the start of the line to the
origin at 0,0,0.
Press the return key ([Return]). This will end the
absolute coordinates dialog. accepting the values entered
in the last step.
Note: The "OK" button in the absolute coordinates
dialog can be used instead of the [Return] key.
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([I] [X]). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog
shown in fig. (8). The IX command increments from the
previous location (in this case 0,0.0) along the X axis,
defining the new location.
Aside: The IX command can also be selected using the
IX icon in the bottom icon pad.
3-D Tutorial P'age 11
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
1+
or
Enter "19/32". This sets the length of the line segment
along the X axis to 19/32 of an inch.
Aside: The calculator numbers and math operations can
be entered using the key board or using the
buttons on the calculator dialog.
Press the comma key ([,]). This closes the calculator
dialog, accepting the value entered. The new line
segment is drawn. The INSERT LINE LINELOC
command is ready for a new line segment, starting at the
end ofthe previous line.
Note: Closing the calculator dialog with a comma ([,])
indicates that the point being entered is fully
specified.
Closing the calculator using the [Return] key
indicates that the point is not fully specified yet.
fig· (8) M:,llle Calculator
Press the "T" and the "X" keys ([I] [X]). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog
again.
Enter «5/16". This sets the length of the line segment
along the X direction to 5116 of an inch.
Press the comma key ([,]). This closes the calculator
dialog, accepting the value entered. The new line
segment is drawn from the end of the previous line.
The INSERT LINE LINELOC command is again ready
for a new line segment, starting at the end of this last
line.
Aside: This line is drawn in three segments (one still to
be entered) for reasons which will become
apparent in future steps.
Page 12 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the retUrn key ([Return]). This will bring up the
absolute coordinates dialog.
Enter "i2". This specifies a location 2 inches further
along in the X direction from the immediately preceding
location (end of the last line).
Note: The "i2" means add 2 to the previous X
cootdinate to get the new location X value.
Aside: The IX command could have been used here with
the same effuct as "i2".
Press the return key ([Return]). This will end the
absolute coordinates dialog, accepting the values entered
in the last step. This enters a tbiniline segment, from the
end of the previous segment, two inches long.
Rf.sult: This creates 3 line segments, all in the same line. The
first line segment is 19/32 inches long, the second is 5116
inches long, and the third is 2 inches long.
Note: Since the endpoints of the line segments are
connected, the three lines will appear as a single
line.
Note: When selecting either absolute or relative
coordinates using the ca1cnlator, the point can be
anchored by closing the calculator with a comma
[,]. Until a comma key ([,]) is pressed, the
cootdinates specified by one of the location
commands (X, Y, Z, IX, IY, IZ, PRAD, PANG)
will not be selected. To change the a specific
component of a location, such as the X
cootdinate. simply close the calculator by
pressing the [Return] key.
3-D Tutorial Page 13
DynaCADJl® 3-D Tutorial
Some commands, like the INSBIU LINE LINELOC,
will continue until the right mouse button or the
semicolon key ([;]) is pressed. With INSERI' LINE, the
end of the first line will be the beginning of the next. By
ending the command with a semicolor or the right mouse
button, the action is equivalent to "cutting" the
continuous line off at the current location.
/I
~
-l
211
0 5/16"
o
I
fig. (9) Three Line Segments Created
Page 14 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 4: Draw the Arc at the End of the Une Segments
Enter the command sequence:
17ml 1:11 Inl
1/1
~
INSERT ARC ABEIWEEN END ent #1 LOC [I] [Y] 7n6*2 [;]
Description: Move the pointer to the INSERf icon in the top left icon
pad. The help line will show "INSERf". Press and
release the left mouse button to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the ARC icon in the second from the
top icon pad. The help line will show "ARC". Press and
release the left mouse button to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the ABETWEEN icon in the second
from the bottom icon pad. The help line will show
"ABETWEEN". Press and release the left mouse button
to select the icon.
Move the pointer to the END icon in the bottom icon
pad. The help line will show "END". Press and release
the left mouse button to select the icon.
Aside: An alternate method of selecting the "END"
command is through the [F2] function key.
Move the pointer to the right end of the last line. Press
and release the left mouse button. This anchors the
beginning of the arc at the end of the line.
Move the pointer to the LOC icon in the bottom icon
pad. The help line will show "LOC".Press and release
the left mouse button to select the icon.
Aside: An alternate method of selecting the "LOC"
command is through the LFl] function key. Press
the "I" and the "Y" keys ([I] [Y]). This executes
the IY command, and brings up the calculator
dialog again.
3-D Tutorial Page 15
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Thtorial
Note: The LOC command must be active befure any of
the absolute or relative location commands (X, Y,
Z, IX, IY, IZ) can be used.
Enter "'7116*2". This sets the radius of the arc to 7116
inches, or equivalently. the diameter to 7/8 inches.
Note: The ABETWEEN command uses the diameter of
the arc.
Aside: The "'I" and the "'*" are the divide and multiply
commands. These can be entered using the "r
and "*" keys on the keyboard, or using the divide
and multiply buttons on the calculator.
Note: The numbers and mathematical operations can be
entered using the numeric key pad or the numeric
keys at the top of the keyboard.
Press the semi-colon key [;] to end calculator dialog.
accept the value and create the arc.
Result:
This creates a arc, or half circle in this case, from the end
ofthe line. The arc bas a radius of 7116 inches.
eO 7/8" ­
ent
fig. (10) Arc Drawn at End ofLine Segments
Page 16 3-D Tutorial
.~.
DynaCADJJ!lI 3-D Tutorial
Step 5: Offset a Una
Enter the command sequence:
~
~
TRANSFORM OFFSET DISfANCE 3/4+1 [Return] ent 111 [;] lac 111 [;]
Description: Select the "TRANSFORM", "OFFSET" and
"DISfANCE" commands in sequence using the mouse
and pointer. They are in the top, second from the top,
and second from the bottom icon pads respectively.
When the DISfANCE command is selected, the
calculator dialog will appear to accept the offset distance
value.
Enter "3/4+1". This setB the offset distance to 1.75
inches.
Note: The above number cannot be entered as "1+3/4".
That would be interpreted as (1+3)/4, which
gives 414 or 1.
Note: The value could also be entered as "1.75".
Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator dialog
and accept the value.
Move the pointer to the middle of the middle line
segment. Press and release the left mouse button. This
selects the middle segment. The segment should appear
greyed to indicate that it is selected.
Note: The middle line segment is ooly 5/16 of an inch
long, so care must be taken to select the correct
segment.
Note: The delete key [Del] may be used to deselect the
last selected entity.
Note: Holding the shift key down while selecting an
entity will toggle that entity's selection status.
3-D Tutorial Page 17
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to end entity selection, and begin location selection. Move the pointer to a point about 1 inch above the selected entity and press the left mouse button. A new
line segment will appear 1 3/4 inches directly above the selected one. Aside: Clicking above the entity specified which
direction the copy was to be perfurmed in. If the
click had been below the selected entity, the new
entity would have been put 13/4 inches below.
Result:
This draws a temporary construction line which will be
used in the next step. This construction line will be
deleted later.
ent
fig. (11) Line Offset
Page 18 3-D Tutorial
~
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 6: Draw the Slanted Une
Enter the command sequence:
INSERT LINE TANPOINT ent #1 END ent#2
Description: Select the "INSERT", "LINE" and "TANPOINT"
commands in sequence using the mouse and pointer.
They are in the top, second from the top, and second
from the bottom icon pads respectively.
Move the pointer to the top of the arc, press and release
the left mouse button. This selects the top of the arc was
the tangent entity.
Press the [F2] function key to select the END command.
Move the pointer to the right end of the small line that
was created in Step 5, and press and release the left
mouse button. This selects the right end of small line
entity as the end of the line. A new sloped line segment
is created.
Result: This creates a line segment which will be the sloping
edge of the bracket. This line is tangent to the arc added
in Step 4, and angled up to the constmction line created
in the previous step.
3-D Tutorial Page 19
DynaCADJ>® 3-D Tutorial
ent
en t
fig. (12) Slanted Line Drawn
Page 20 3-D Tutorial
#I DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 7: Erase the Construction Une
Enter the command sequence:
~
00
INSERf DELETE ent #l [;]
Description:
Select the "INSmrr" and "DELETE" commands in
sequence using the mouse and JX>inter. They are in the
top and second from the top icon pads respectively.
Move the JX>inter to the right end of the small1ine that
was created in Step 5, and press and release the left
mouse button. This selects the srna1lline entity.
Press the semi~lon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end entity selection and execute the command. This
deletes the construction line.
Result:
This deletes the small construction line created in Step 5
from the drawing.
fig. (13) Construction Line Erased
3-D Tutorial Page 21
DynaCADJl® 3-D Tutorial
Step 8: TrIm the Arc
Enter the command sequence:
[Q] GJ
00
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMIN10F eDt #l ent Ifl [;]
Description: Select the "TRANSFORM". "TRIM" and
"TRIMIN1OF" commands in sequence using the mouse
and pointer. They are in the top. second from the top,
and second from the bottom icon pads respectively.
Note: This command shortens or lengthens an entity to
its intersection with another entity.
Move the pointer to the upper side of the arc, press and
release the left mouse button. This selects the arc as one
of the entities to be trimmed.
Note: If the arc is not selected on its upper side. the
trim opemtion will use the lower end of the arc.
Move the pointer to the bottom of the sloped line, press
and release the left mouse button. This selects the sloped
line as the second entity to be trimmed.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the command and trim the two entities.
Note: If the lower end of the arc is trimmed instead of
the upper end, the UNDO command may be used
to remove the incorrect change. Simply restart
this step after performing the UNDO.
Page 22 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Result: This trims the upper end of the arc to the intersection of
the arc and the sloped line.
No1e: The sloped line already had one end point at the
intersection of the two entities. so it is
unchanged.
No1e: The sloped line was created tangent to the arc.
Thus there is a single intersection point between
the sloped line and the arc.
ent
#2
ent
#1
fig. (14) Arc 1Hm1ned
3-D Tutorial Page 23
DynaCADJ>® 3-D Tutorial
Step 9: Draw the Circle for the Axle
Enter the command sequence:
INSERT CIRCLE CIRDIA 21/64 [Return] ORG ent #1
Description: Select the "INSERT", "CIRCLE" and "CIRDIA"
commands in sequence using the mouse and pointer.
They are in the top, second from the top, and second
from the bottom icon pads respectively.
When the ClRDIA command is selected, the calculator
dialog will appc:ar so that it can accept the diameter of
the circle.
Note: This command creates a circle with a specific
diameter. It needs a diameter, and a location fur
the center of the cirle,
Enter "21/64". This sets the diameter of the circle to
21/64 inches,
Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator dialog
and accept the value.
Move the pointer to the ORG icon in the bottom icon
pad. The help line will show "ORG", Press and release
the left mouse button to select the icon.
Aside: An alternate method of selecting the "ORG"
command is through the [F3] function key.
Move the pointer to the arc, press and release the left
mouse button. This selects the arc as the entity to used
the origin of, and creates the new circle.
Page 24 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Note: This selects the location of the center (or origin)
of the arc as the center of the new circle.
Result: This creates a circle 2U64 inches in diameter, with it's
center at the same location as the center of the arc. This
circle is the bole fur the axle of the wheel.
ent
#1
",0 21/64"
fig. (15) CircleJor the Axle Drawn
3-D Tutorial Page 25
DynaCAD[)® 3-D lutorial
Step 10: Draw the Circle for the Pivot
Enter the command sequence:
INSERT CIRCLE CTRDTA 29/64 [Return] [y] 718 [.]
Description: Select the "INSERT", "CIRCLE" and "CIRDTA"
commands in sequence using the mouse and pointer.
They are in the top. second from the top. and second
from the bottom icon pads respectively.
When the CTRDIA command is selected. the calculator
dialog will appear and accept the diameter of the circle.
Enter "29/64". This sets the diameter of the circle to
29164 inches.
Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator dialog
and accept the value.
Press the [Y] key. This brings up the calculator dialog
again. This specifies an absolute location along the Y
axis fur the center of the circle.
Enter "7/8". This sets the Y coordinate of the circle
center to 7/8 inches. Press the comma key [.] to end the
calculator dialog, accept the value and create the circle.
Note: The value 0 is the default fur the X and Z value in
this case.
Result:
P'dge 26 3-D Tutorial
This creates a 29/64 inch circle for the pivot hole.
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
en
.......
t­
o
jig. (16) Cirr::1e for the Pivot Dmwn
3-D Tutorial Page Z7
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 11: Change the Plane of the View
Enter the command sequence:
~
~
EDITVIEW VIEWGCP Iso view #l
Description: Select the "EDlTVlEW" and "VIEWGCP" commands
in sequence using the mouse and pointer. They are in the
top and second from the top icon pads respectively.
When the VIEWGCP command is selected, the GCP
dialog will appear to select the GCP fur the view.
Note: This command changes the GCP of a view to a
new value.
Move the pointer to the "Iso" button within the dialog.
Press and release the left mouse button. The GCP dialog
will end, accepting Isometric as the GCP to use.
fig. (17) GCP Dialog
Page 28 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJJiJ 3-D Tutorial
Move the pointer to the center of the drawing area. Press
and release the left mouse button. This selects the view
to be modified. The view immediately rotates to reflect
the change in GCP.
Result: This changes the GCP of the view we are working with
from Top to Isometric.
Description of the View:
Up until now, the drawing bas looked the same (except
for the GCP indicator) as a 2-D drawing. However, we
now can see the 3-D efrect:s.
The drawing entities that we have created are now viewed
from a diflbrent direction. Thus, the view reflects the
change in direction by showing the entities from the new
perspective.
The GCP indicator now shows all 3 arms. The Z axis
arm goes straight up and out of the page. The Y axis arm
goes up, to the right and into the page. The X axis arm
goes down, to the right, and out of the page.
The GCP indicator shows the current GCP, which is Top
at this point. (Remember that the current GCP is also
shown in the GCP menu by the check marked menu
item.)
Since all the entities were created in the Top GCp, they
are on the same plane as the GCP X and Y arms.
Note: The current GCP (Top) and the direction of the
view (Iso) are not the same. The current GCP is
the plane or viewing direction in which the
modifications to the drawing are made.
3-D Tutorial Page 29
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
fig. (18) Plane of the Vrew Changed
Step 12: Hide the GCP Indicator
Enter the command sequence:
Menu "Tools", select "GCP" REPAINT
Description: Move the mouse pointer to the Tools menu, press and
hold the left mouse button, slide the pointer down to the
"GCP" item in the menu so that the item is highlighted,
and release the mouse button. This hides the GCP
indicator from the drawing display.
Move the pointer to the REPAINT icon in the top right
comer of the display. This is the icon second from the
right. Press and release the left mouse button. This
causes the display to repaint, updating any
inconsistencies in the display from the now hidden GCP
indicator.
Page 30 3-D Tutorial
~
DynaCADl)® 3-D Thtorial
Result:
This hides the GCP indicator, and repaints the display to
fix the small inconsistencies caused by hiding the GCP
indicator.
Note: Deleting or hiding entities usually creates small
:4F
J Dra~ing Origin ~ WO
lirtd
Axis
:'1Ii
:'lA
liraphics
J Tracking
J Help Messages
:n
Close Curve
J View Clipping
OOW
Printer Echo
..; Screen Buffer
" Inheritance
~lf
~y
roH
~v
"Rubber Band
:':R
" Full Crosshairs WC
Text Boxed
WB
'-/ display inconsistencies. This is normal, and is
simply a display effect.
Note: The REPAINT command can be used at any
time and has no effect other than to clean up the
display.
Note: An alternate method of selecting the REPAINT
command is through the [FlO] function key.
~I
fig. (19) 7bols Menu,
Hide GCP
fig. (20) GCP Indicator Hidden
3-D Tutorial Page 31
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 13: Extrude the Entities
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM PROJECT PROJFACE PROJDEPTH 3/32 [Return]
BYALL [;]
Description: Select the "TRANSFORM" and "PROJECT" commands
in sequence using the mouse and pointer. They are in the
top and second from the top icon pads respectively.
If the "PROJFACE" icon in the second from the bottom
icon pad is highlighted, deselect the icon so that it is not
highlighted.
Note: Deselecting this icon means that we do not want
to create 3D Face entities.
Select the "PROJDEPTH" command from the second
from the bottom icon pad. This brings up the calculator
dialog, specifying the distance to project the entities
along the positive Z axis.
Enter "3/32". This sets the extrusion distance to 3132
inches. Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator
dialog and accept the value.
Select the "BYALL" command from the bottom icon pad.
This selects all the entities in the drawing.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end entity selection and extrude the entites.
Result: P-dge 32 3-D Tutorial
This makes a copy of all the entities in the drawing. and
places those copies 3/32 inches above the originals.
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
jig. (21) Entities Extruded
3-D Thtorial Page 33 DynaCADJ.l® 3-D Tutorial
Step 14: Bend the Sheet
14.A: Change Current GCP to Front Enter the command sequence: Menu "OCP", select "Front" Description:
Select the item labeled "Front" from the menu labeled
"GCP".
Result:
This changes the current GCP to Front. This is critical
to the correct opemtion ofthe final part ofthis step.
The current GCP is now set to Front. All future
opemtions, coordinates and functions will be drawn in
this orientation.
Note: The view has its orientation set to Isometric
which is different than the current GCP. This is to
make selecting the necessary points easier.
Botton
Rear
Left
Iso
Eflilty
Eflilty
Er'Ipty
Er'Ipty
EMllty
Eflpty
Er'Ipty
Eflpty
EM
Page 34 3-D Tutorial
fig. (22) GCP Changed to Front
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Thtorial
14.B: Disable TRANCOPY
Enter the command sequence:
TRANCOPY
Description:
H the TRANCOPY icon (the first icon on the left in the
icon pad along the top of the display) shows two images
in the icon, toggle the icon so that it only shows one
image. The help message will read "Activate
Transfurmation Copy" when TRANCOPY is disabled.
Result:
This disables the copying of entities. The entities are
moved in the TRANSFORM commands rather than
being copied.
Note: H this command is enabled, the final part of this
step will create new entities rather than moving
existing ones.
14.C: Zoom Wmdow
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZWINDOW [Return] 2.75,2.5 [Return] [Return] i3.25,4.25 [Return]
Description: Select the DZWINDOW command from the top right
icon pad running along the top of the display.
Note: The [F9] function key is an alternate method of
activating DZWINDOW.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "2.75,205" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets one comer of the zoom
window to 2.75,2.5.
3-D Tutorial Page 35
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
cooniinates dialog. Enter "i3.25,4.25" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the second comer of the
zoom window to 8.5,6.75. The display will zoom to show
a larger view of the drawing.
Note: The "i3.25,4.25" means add 3.25 to 2.75 to get
the new location X value and add 4.25 to 2.5 to
get the new Y value.
Result: Zoom the display so that the selected window area is
completely visible.
Note: The entities in the display are much larger, as the
"point of view" that we are using is now closer to
the drawing.
Note: The entire page of the dtawing is no longer all
visible. The zoom has no effect on the actual
drawing, but allows us to see features in larger
detail.
14.D: Rotate
Enter the command sequence:
[J2] [ZJ
[Z]
TRANSFORM ROTATE ROTANG -90 [Return] BYPWIN [Return]
3.25,4.75 [Return] [Return] 5,5.75 [Return] [Return] 6,4
[Return] [Return] 5.5,3.5 [Return] [;] [;] END ent 1/1 [;]
Description: Select the commands "TRANSFORM", "ROTATE" and
"ROTANG" from the icon pads to the left of the
dtawing. The "ROfANG" command will bring up the
calculator dialog to accept the angle to rotate.
Page 36 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Enter "-90". This sets the rotation angle to -90 degrees.
Note: Pressing the "=" key will display the value -90
once the "-90" has been entered.
Press the return key ([Returnl). This will end the
calculator dialog. accepting the value') entered in the last
step.
Press the [F7] key to select the "BYPWTN" command.
Note: This command selects entities within a
polywindow. A poly window is an irregular
polygon defined with three or more points. Only
those entities which are totally enclosed within
the polywindow will be seleeted.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "'3.25,4.75" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets one corner of the poly
window to 3.25,4.75.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5,5.75" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the next comer of the poly window
to 5,5.75.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "6,4" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the next comer of the poly window
to 6,4.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5.5,3.5" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the next comer of the poly
window to 5.5,3.5.
Press the semi-colon key [;J or the right mouse button to
end the polywindow definition and select the entites.
Press the semi-colon key [;] again to end the entity
selection process and begin the rotation point selection.
3-D Tutorial P'dge 37
DynaCADl)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the [P2J function key to select the END command.
Select the right end of the line which is furthest to the left:
and on the bottom.
Note: This sets the point ahout which the rotation will
take place.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the location selection and perform the rotation. The
selected entities will be rotated downwards.
Result: The entities selected with a polywindow are rotated in
the current GCP, Front. The effect is to bend the sheet
along one of its lines.
5,5.75
en I
#I
3.25,4.75 fig. (23) 711e Sheet Bent
P't1ge 38 3-D Tutorial
6,4
DynaCADJl® 3-D Tutorial
Step 15: Zoom and Erase the ProjecUon Unea
15.A: Zoom Window
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZWINDOW [Return] 3.25,4.5 [Return] [Return] 5,5.25 [Return] [;]
Description: Select the DZWINDOW command from the top right
icon pad running along the top of the display.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "3.25,4.5" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the first comer for the zoom
window.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5,5.25" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the second comer for the
zoom window, and zooms the window.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
execute the DZWINDOW command.
Result: The display will zoom to show a larger view of the
dmwing. Zooming the dmwing will make the entities we
wish to work: on much larger and more accessible.
3-D Tutorial Page 39
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
15.B: Erase the Projection IJnes
Enter the command sequence:
1t?11
I@ I
TRANSFORM DELETE em 111 em Ifl [;]
Description:
Select the commands "TRANSFORM" and "DELETE"
from the icon pads to the left of the drawing.
Select the entities indicated by the drawing.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the entity selection and perfurm the entity deletion.
The selected entities will be removed from the drawing.
Result:
This deletes two of the small projection lines created in
Step 13. These two lines would get in the way of the next
step.
en t
#J
fig. (24) Projection Lines Zoomed and Erased
Page 40 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 16: Fillet the TWo Edges
Enter the command sequence:
~8J@]
INSERf FTI...LET FTI...RAD 118 [Return] ent #1 ent#2 [;] ent #3 ent #4 [;]
Description: Select the commands "INSERr", "FTI...LET" and
"FILRAD" from the icon pads to the left of the dmwing.
The "FTI...RAD" command will bring up the calculator
dialog to accept the radius of the fillets.
Enter "U8". This sets the fillet radius to U8 inches.
Press the return key [Return] to end the calculator dialog
and accept the value.
Select the inner two lines, ent #1 and ent 112.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the entity selection and create the fillet. The two
selected line entities will be shortened, and the curve of
the fillet will join them.
Select the outer two lines, ent #3 and ent #4.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the entity selection and create the fillet. The two
selected line entities will be shortened, and the curve of
the fillet will join them.
Result: This creates 2 fillets at the upper and lower sides of the
comer ofthe bracket part.
Select the right side of the inner top line and the top side
of the inner left line and press the [;] or right mouse
button to insert the fillet. Repeat this step fur the outer
lines.
3-D Tutorial Page 41
DynaCADD® 3-D Tutorial
#3
ent #4
~--
ent
ent
#2
fig. (25) Edges FUleted
Step 17: Draw the Connecting Unes
Enter the command sequence:
~~f&J[2]
INSERf LINE LINELOC END eDt #1 entlfl [;] ent #3 ent #4 [;]
Description: Select the commands "INSERf", "LINE" and
"LINELOC" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Note: The LINELOC is the defimlt command. It will
be automatically started.
Press the [F2] function key to select the END command.
Page 42 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 3-D Thtorial
Select the two horizontal lines. eDt 111 and eDt ffl.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to end the continuous line entry. Select the two vertica1lines, eDt #3 and eDt #4. Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to end the continuous line entry.
Result:
This step draws two lines across the ends of this fillets.
- ­ ent
#2 ent
en t
#4 #3
fig. (26) Connecting Lines Drawn
3-D Tutorial Page 43
DynaCADJ>® 3-D Tutorial
Step 18: Zoom back, Copy Outline to the Other Side
18.A: Zoom Back to the PrevIous Zoom
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZLASf
Description: Select the DZLAST command from the top right icon
pad running along the top of the display. This zooms the
display to the most previous zoom setting befure the
current one.
Aside: The display will zoom out to the zoom settings of
Step l4.A, which were overridden in Step 15.A.
Note: It is possible that the display will not zoom to the
desired view. This can occur if this tutorial has
not been fullowed exactly. If this is the case,
simply perform the commands specified in Step
14.A. Result: Zoom the display so that the entities we wish to work on
are much larger and more accessible.
18.B: Copy the OutUne to the Other Side
Enter the command sequence:
10.01
1 1
0 •0
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANCOPY TRANFACE BYWIN
[Return] 2.75,4.25 [Return] [Return] il,l [Return] [;]
END ent Hi ent 112 [;]
Description: Select the commands "TRANSFORM",
"TRANSLATE" and "TRANCOPY" from the icon pads
to the left of the drawing.
Page 44 3-D Tutorial
~/
DynaCAD])® 3-D Thtorial
Note: There are two TRANCOPY icons, one in the top
right icon pad and one in the second from the
bottom icon pad. For this command we want the
one in the second from the bottom icon pad.
If the TRANFACB icon in the second from the bottom
icon pad is highlighted, deselect the icon so that it is not
highlighted.
Press the [F6] key to select the "BYW1N" command.
Note: This command selects entities within a window.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "2.75,4.25" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the first corner of the
window to 2.75,4.25.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "ii, I" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the first comer of the window to
3.75,5.25.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the entity selection.
Press the [F2] function key to select the END command.
Select the outside corners of the indicated lines, ent #l
and ent#2.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the location selection and complete the command.
The selected entities are copied to the new location.
Result:
This copies the filleted entities from the front to the back
ofthe bracket. By detailing only the front section of the
bracket then copying it to the back, a step has been
saved. The other way to achieve this is to detail both the
front and the back sections.
3-D Tutorial Page 45
DynaCADJ>® 3-D Tutorial
2. TI.. 4.2$
fig. (27) Outline Copied to the Other Side
Page 46 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
STEP 19: Mirror the TWo Sides
If" Top
Front
Right
BottOA
Rear
Left
Iso
19.A: Set current GCP to 'Thp Enter the command sequence: Menu "GCP". select "Top" Description:
Select the item labeled "Top" from the menu labeled "GCP".
&lpty
&lpty
&lpty
&lllty
&lpty
&lpty
&lpty
wpty
19.8: Enable TRANCOPY
&It
Enter the command sequence:
~
TRANCOPY
Description: If the TRANCOPY icon (the first icon on the left in the
top right icon pad along the top of the display) shows one
image in the icon, select the icon so that the icon shows
two images. The help message will read "Deactivate
Transfonnation Copy" when TRANCOPY is enabled.
Result: This enables the copying of entities. The entities are
copied in the TRANSFORM commands rather than just
being moved.
Note: If this command is disabled. the finaI part of this
step willjust move the existing entities rather
than creating new ones.
Note: This is the opposite of Step 14.B.
3-D Tutorial Page 47
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
19.C: Mirror the Sides
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MIRROR BYWOUT [Return] 3.25,5 [Return] [Return]
i.75,.75 [Return] [;] END ent #l ent Ifl [;]
Description: Select the commands "TRANSFORM", "MIRROR" and
"BYWOUT" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "3.25,5" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the first comer of the
selection window to 3.25,5.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "i.75, .75" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the second comer of the
selection window to 4,5.75, and selects the entites outside
of the window..
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the entity selection.
Press the [F2] function key to select the END command.
Select the ends of the two indicated entities, ent #l and
entlfl.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the location selection and complete the command.
The selected entities are copied and mirrored to the other
side of the bracket.
Page 48 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Begin selecting the locations at the end of two entities.
Select the END command in the locate icon pad or press
the [F2] key. Select the top ofthe indicated entities.
Result: This mirrors the details from one side to another. This
takes advantage ofthe symmetry between the two sides
rather than taking the extra stepS to detail each side
separately.
fig. (28) 1Wo Sides Mirrored
3-D Tutorial Page 49
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 20: Zoom and Draw a Construction Une
2O.A: Zoom Wmdow
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZWINDOW [Return] 2.5,3.75 [Return] [Return] 4,2.75 [Return]
Description: Select the DZWINDOW command from the top right
icon pad running along the top of the display.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
cooIdinates dialog. Enter "2.5,3.75" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the first comer of the zoom
window to 2.5,3.75.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
cooIdinates dialog. Enter "4,2.75" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the second comer for the zoom
window to 4,2.75. The display will zoom to show a
larger view of the drawing.
Zoom the display so that the entities we wish to work on
Result: are larger and more accessible.
2O.B: Draw the Construction Line
Enter the command sequence:
~
I!S2J IU] [ill]
INSERT LINE LINELOC ORG ent #l ent Ifl [;]
Description: Select the commands "INSERT", "LINE" and
"LINELOC" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Note: The L1NELOC is the default command. It will
be automatically started. Press the [F3] function
key to select the ORG command.
Page 50 3-D Tutorial
~.
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Thtorlal
Select the two inside circles, eDt #l and eDt 112.
Press the semi--colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end the continuous line entry.
To snap to the origin or center of an entity, select the
ORO command from the locate icon pad or press the
[F3] key.
Result: The construction line will be used to properly position
the entities in their new location.
en t
#I
en t
#2
fig. (29) Wmdow Zoomed, ConstIUCtion Line Drawn
3-D Tutorial Page 51
DynaCADJ.)® 3-D Thtorial
Step 21: Zoom and Move the Entities
21.A: Zoom to Drawing Umi1s
Enter the command sequence:
IE]
DZALL
Description:
Select the DZALL command from the top right icon pad
ronning along the top of the display.
Result:
This zooms the drawing so that the entire drawing page is
visible in the drawing area. This makes the efrects of the
next part of this step more visible.
21.B: Move the Entities
Enter the command sequence:
I0 I /OtOI
10tOI
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANMOVE BYALL [;] ORO ent #1
LOC [Return] 0,0,0 [Return] [;]
Description: Select the commands "TRANSFORM",
"TRANSLATE" and "TRANMOVE" from the icon
pads to the left of the drawing.
Select the "BYALL" command from the bottom icon
pad. This selects all the entities in the drawing.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end entity selection.
Press the [F3] function key to select the ORO command.
Select the center line, ent #1.
Page 52 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the [Fl] function key to select the LOC command.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
cooniinates dialog. Enter "0,0,0" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the destination offSet location to
0,0.0.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
complete the command and move the entities.
Result: The bracket part is now positioned for use in the later
steps.
The first piece of the caster is now complete.
fig. (30) Drawing Zoomed and Entities Moved
3-D Tutorial Page 53
DynaCADI)® 3-D Thtorial
Step 22: Select a New Layer
22.A: Select Front GCP Enter the command sequence: Menu "GCP", select "Front" Description:
Select the item labeled "Front" from the menu labeled "GCP".
22.B: Select a New Layer
I
Right
BottOfll
Rear
Left
Iso
EMpty
Etlptu
EMptU
EMpty
EMpty
EMpty
EMptU
EMpty
EM t
Enter the command sequence:
~
~
EDITLAYER SELLAYER 10 [Return]
Description:
Select the commands "EDITLAYER" and
"SELLAYER" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
The "SELLAYER" command will bring up the select
layer dialog to accept the layer name or layer number of
the layer to be selected.
Enter "10" and press the [Return] key again. This
specifies the layer number to be 10.
Note: All the entities in the drawing will become
invisible as they are not on the new layer.
Page 54 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Result: This selects a new layer (layer number 10) as the current
layer. All new entities created in the drawing will be on
layer 10. All entities not on layer 10 will be hidden until
Step Zl, where we turn all the layers on.
Note: The default layer is layer number O. Thus, all of
the previous entities are on layer O.
Note: We are switching layers to simplify the last few
steps of the tutorial.
fig. (31) A New Layer Selected
3-D Tutorial Page 55
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 23: Zoom, Draw Horizontal Unes for the Radius
23.A: Zoom Window
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZWINDOW [Return] 4,6 [Return] [Return] 5.5,3.5 [Return]
Description: Select the DZWINDOW cominand from the top right
icon pad nmning along the top of the display.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "4,6" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the first comer of the zoom window
to 4,6.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5.5,3.5" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the second comer fur the
zoom window to 5.5,3.5. The display will zoom to show
a larger view of the drawing.
Result: Zoom the display so that the area where we are going to
add entities in the next step is more visible.
23.B: Draw the Horizontal Lines for the Radius
Enter the command sequence:
~
INSERT LINE LINELOC [X.] 2 [Return] [Y] 7fl612 [,] [I] [X.] U8+1 [,]
[Y] U4+112 [,l [1] [X.] -U8 [,] [Y] 3/4+212 [,l [I] [X.] U8
[,l [Y] 412 [,] [Xl 2 [,] [;]
Description: Select the commands "INSERT", "LINE" and
"LINELOC" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Page 56 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADIJ!l 3-D Tutorial
Note: The LINELOC is the defuult command. It will
be automatically started.
Press the [X] key, which brings up the calculator dialog.
This specifies au absolute location along the X axis fur
the start: of the line segment.
Enter "2" and press the [Return] key. This sets the X
value of the location to 2.0.
Press the [Y] key. which brings up the calculator. This
specifies an absolute location along the Y axis fur the
start: of the line segment.
Enter "7116n." and press the [,] key. This sets the Y
value of the location to 7/32, and the comma finishes the
line start: location entry. The start: point ofthe line is at
2.0, 0.21875.
Note: The Y coordinate value is the diameter ofthe
axle hole, 7/16 inches divided by 2 to get the
radius.
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([I] [X]). This executes
the IX command and brings up the calculator.
Enter "lJ8+1" and press the [,J key. This sets the length
of the line segment along the X direction to 1.125 inches,
and creates another line segment. This line represents the
width of the caster wheel.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator.
Enter "U4+ tn." and press the [,J key. This sets the Y
value of the location to 0.625, and creates another line
segment. This line represents the lower right side of the
wheel.
3-D Tutorial Page 57
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([I] [Xl). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog.
Enter" -U8" and press the [.] key. This sets the length of
the line segment along the X direction to -0.125 inches,
and creates another line segment. This line insets the
middle section of the wheel.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator.
Enter "3/4+2fl" and press the [,] key. This sets the Y
value of the location to 1.375, and creates another line
segment. This line represents the lower right side of the
wheel.
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([1] [Xl). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog.
Enter "US" and press the [,] key. This sets the length of
the line segment along the X direction to 0.125 inches,
and creates another line segment. This moves the current
location once again to the left side of the wheel.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator.
Enter "412" and press the [,] key. This sets the Y value
ofthe location to 2.0, and creates another line segment.
This line represents the upper right side of the wheeL
Press the [Xl key. which brings up the calculator dialog.
Enter "2" and press the [.] key. This sets the X value of
the location to 2.0. and the comma finishes the line start
location entry.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
complete the command.
Result:
Page 58 3-D Tutorial
Dmw the outline of the wheel. The first line is offSet
from the x axis by the mdius of the cut out through the
wheel.
DynaCADJ)®
3~D 1U.torial
fig. (32) Display Zoomed, Horizontal
Lines for the Radius Drawn
3-D Tutorial Page 59
DynaCAD))® 3-D Thtorial
Step 24: Mirror the Wheel Outline
24.A: Enable TRANCOPY
Enter the command sequence:
~
TRANCOPY
Descrfption: If the TRANCOPY icon (the first icon on the left in the
top right icon pad along the top of the display) shows one
image in the icon, select the icon so that it shows two
images. The help message will read "Deactivate
Transfbnnation Copy" when TRANCOPY is enabled.
Result: This enables the copying of entities. The entities are
copied in the TRANSFORM commands mtherthanjust
being moved.
Note: TRANCOPY should already be enabled, as it
was enabled in Step 19.B.
24.B: Mirror the Wheel Outline
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM MIRROR BYW1N [Return] 5,3.75 [Return] [Return]
55,5.75 [Return] [;] ORG em #1 ent #2 [;]
Descrfption: Select the commands "TRANSFORM" and "MIRROR"
from the icon pads to the left of the drawing.
Press the [F6] key to select the "BYWIN" command.
Note; This command selects entities withiu a window.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5,3.75" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the first corner of the window to
5,3.75.
Page 60 3-D Tutorial
",-../
DynaCAD.I)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5.5,5.75" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets the second corner of the
window to 5.5,5.75. This selects all the visible entities
within the window.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button 0
end the entity selection. Press the [P3] function key to
select the ORG command.
Select the two indicated entities, ent #1 and ent #2.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
complete the command and copy the entities.
Result: Mirror the entities from one side to another. This takes
advantage of the symetry along the center of the wheel of
the two sides.
5,5,5.75 - - - . . .
en!
#12
fig. (33) Wheel Omline Mirrored
3-D Tutorial Page 61
DynaCADI)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 25: Zoom, Create Outline for the Metal Sleeve
25.A: Zoom Window
Enter the command sequence:
~
DZWlNDOW [Return] 5.5,1.75 [Return] [Return] i3,2 [Return]
Description: Select the DZWlNDOW command from the top right
icon pad running along the top of the display.
Press the [Retum] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "5.5,1.75" and press the
[Return] key again. This sets.the first comer ofthe zoom
window to 5.5,1.75.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "i3,2" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the second comer for the zoom
window to 8.5,3.75 from the first comer. The display will
zoom to show a larger view of the drawing.
Result: Zoom the display so that the area where we are going to
add entities in the next step is more visible.
25.8: Create the Outline for the Metal Sleeve
Enter the command sequence:
~
INSERT BOX [X] 4 [Return] [Y] 21/64/2 [,] [I] [X] 118+1 [Return] [Y]
7116/2 [;]
Description: Select the commands "INSERT" and "BOX" from the
icon pads to the left of the drawing.
Press the [X] key, which brings up the calculator dialog.
This specifies an absolute location along the X axis for
the first comer of the box.
Page 62 3-D Tutorial
DynaCAD])® 3-D Tutorial
Enter "4" and press the [Return] key. This sets the X
value of the location to 4.0.
Note: This is 2 units away from the center of the
previous piece.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator. This
specifies an absolute location along the Yaxis fur the
first corner of the box.
Enter "2V6412" and press the [,] key. This sets the Y
value of the location to 2V128, and the comma finishes
the entry of the location fur the first comer. 1be first
comer of the box is at 4.0. 0.1640625.
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([I] [Xl). This executes
the IX command. and brings up the calculator dialog.
Enter "1/8+1" and press the [Return] key. This sets the
X coordinate of the second comer of the box to S.125
inches.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator. This
specifies an absolute location along the Y axis fur the
second comer of the box.
Enter "7/16/l" and press the [;] key. This sets the Y
value of the location to 7/32. 1be semi-colon finishes the
entry of the location fur the second comer, and creates
the box. The second comer of the box is at S.125, 0.21875.
Result: This draws the outline of the metal sleeve. The outline is
a rectangle.
3-D Tutorial Page 63
DynaCAD])® 3-D Thtorial
fig. (34) Display Zoomed, Outline for
the Metal Sleeve Created
Page 64 3-D Thtorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 26: Create the Outline for the Joining Bolt
Enter the command sequence:
~l2S2JlUJ
INSERT LINE LTNELOC [Return] 6,0,0 [Return] [y] 5116(2 [,] [I] [X]
3/32= [MI] 5/8+1- [Rl] [,] [Y] 5/8/2 [,] [I] [X] [Rl] [,]
M
[X] 6 [;] [;]
°[,]
Description: Select the commands "INSERT", "LINE" and
"LINELOC" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "6,0,0" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the line start location to 6,0,0.
Press the [Y] key, which brings up the calculator. Enter
"5/16(2" and press the [,] key. This sets the Y value of
the location to 5/32, and uses the previous X and Z
coordinates.
Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([I] [X]). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog .
. Enter "3/32=" and press the [MI] button in the
calculator. This stores 0.094 in Memory I in the
calculator.
Enter "5/8+1-", press the {Rl] button in the calculator
and press the [,] key. This subtracts the value in
Memory1 (0.094) from 1.625 to get 1.531. Press the [Y]
key, which brings up the calculator. Enter "5/8(2" and
press the [,] key. This sets the Y value of the location to
5116, and uses the previous X and Z coordinates .
. Press the "I" and the "X" keys ([fJ [X]). This executes
the IX command, and brings up the calculator dialog.
3-D Tutorial Page 65
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Press the [Rl] button in the calculator. and press the [.]
key. This uses the value in Memoryt for the X delta.
Press the M key. which brings up the calculator. Enter
"0" and press the [.] key.
Press the [X] key. which brings up the calculator. Enter
"6" and press the [;] key twice.
Result:
This draws the outline of the metal bolt.
fig. (35) Outlme for the Joining Boll Created
Page 66 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Tutorial
Step 27: Zoom, Revolve the Entities
27.A: Zoom the Drawing
Enter the command sequence:
@]
DZALL
Description:
Select the DZALL command from the top right icon pad
running along the top of the display.
Result:
This zooms the drawing so that only the drawing page is
visible in the drawing area.
27.B: Revolve the Entities
Enter the command sequence:
TRANSFORM REVOLVE REVFACE REVANG -270 [Return]
REVNCOPY 27 [Return] BYALL [;] [Return] 0,0,0
[Return] [Return] 6,0,0 [Return] [;]
Description: Select the commands "TRANSFORM'" and
"REVOLVE" from the icon pads to the left of the
drawing.
Enable the REVFACE icon in the second from the
bottom icon pad. It is enabled when it is highlighted.
Select the "REVANG" icon in the second from the
bottom icon pad. This brings up the calculator, and it
wants the number of degrees to rotate.
Enter" -270" and press the [Return] key. This sets the
angle of rotation to -270 degrees.
3-D Tutorial Page 67
DynaCADJ)® 3-D Thtorial
Select the "REVNCOPY" icon in the second from the
bottom icon pad. This brings up the calculator, and it
wants the number of degrees to rotate.
Enter "27" and press the [Return] key. This sets the
number of copies to create to 27.
Select the "BYALL" command from the bottom icon
pad. This selects all the entities in the drawing.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
end entity selection. Press the [Return] key to bring up
the absolute coordinates dialog. Enter "0,0,0" and press
the [Return] key again. This sets the line of rotation start
location to 0,0,0.
Press the [Return] key to bring up the absolute
coordinates dialog. Enter "6,0,0" and press the [Return]
key again. This sets the line of rotation end location to
6,0,0.
Press the semi-colon key [;] or the right mouse button to
perform the revolution.
fig. (36) Entities Revolved
Page 68 3-D Tutorial
DynaCADJl® 3-D Tutorial
27.C: Display the Entities on Layer 0
Enter the command sequence:
~
IW6-1
EDITLAYER LAYERON 0 [Return]
Description: Select the commands "EDITLAYER" and
"LAYERON". The "LAYERON" command will bring
up the select layer dialog to accept the layer name or
layer number of the layer to be selected.
Enter "0" and press the [Return] key again. This will
make the specfied layer "0" to be on.
Result: All the entities are now displayed. This ends the
DynaCADD 3-D Tutorial.
fig. (37) AU Entities Displayed
3-D Tutorial Page 69
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
~
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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''-.--/
1
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1
Introduction to DynaCADJ>®
Introduction to Dyn8CADD ••• Chapter 1
DynaCADD is a comprehensive. integrated CADD package. It is very
powerful and complex, however. its graphical interfilce makes it much
easier to use than many other CADD progmms.
All owners should read the manual thoroughly befure attempting to use
this package. Even if you have a strong background in CADD, you will
bendit greatly from reading through this documentation. For further
assistance feel free to contact our Technical Support Department.
Telephone (416) 479-20'51 or Fax (416) 479-1882. This service is for
registered OWDem only. so please send in your Registration Card today.
We ask that you have your manllal, qnestions and progtam serial number
handy when you call.
This manual assumes that you have a woddng knowledge of your
computer system and mouse. If you have any questions relating to these,
please refer to the respective manual supplied with your computer or
mouse. It is also important that you undemtand the use of foldem
(sub-directories), paths and drives.
Backing up DynaCADD
For your convenience, we have not copy-protected the DynaCADD disks.
We allow our registered ownem to backup DynaCADD under the tenns
and conditions specified in the License Agreement, located at the back of
the manual. Please backup the DynaCADD disks now and place the
originals in a safe place. Refer to your operating system manual for exact
instructions on how to format and copy disks.
README File
Before you continue, please ~heck: DynaCADD Disk 1 for a file called
README. This text file contains any new information and update
material relevant to the program.
Installing DynaCADD
In order to run DynaCADD, your 80286/80386180486 based MS-DOS!
PC-DOS system reqnires a standard graphics card with a minimum
resolution of 640 by 350, 640k of RAM. a minimum of 1 megabyte of
Chapter 1 Page 1
Introduction to DynaCAD))®
expanded memory (EMS 3.2 or 4.0), a bani drive, and a two, or more,
button mouse. A math coprocessor is also strongly recommended.
On 80286 based systems, expanded memory needs to be supported via
hardware. Strictly software based expanded memory emulators will not
work properly with DynaCADD. Consult your computer supplier or
manumcturer for details on your 80286 based machine and its expanded
memory support.
On 80386 and 80486 based systems, expanded memory managers such as
QEMM from Quartenieck Office Systems work well with DynaCADD.
Please consult the respective memory manager manual for installation
instructions.
DynaCADD is available in two fonnats: two S 114- 1.2 Mb or two 31/l­
1.44 Mb disks:
• Disk 1 contains the INSfAIL u.tility, GBM/3 run-time and
DynaCADD.
• Disk 2 contains the Font Editor, Make Plot, fonts, drivers and
tutorial drawing tiles.
To Install DynaCADD
In the installation progr.un use the up and down arrow keys to move the
selection bar. The [Esc] key can be used to back up to the previous
dialog.
1. Insert Disk 1 into drive A.
2. Type A: and press [Enter].
3. Type INSfALL and press [Enter].
4. Press [Enter] with the selection bar over the "Install GEMI3 into
System" option.
S. Highlight the source drive letter and press [Enter].
6. Highlight the drive on which you wish GEM/3 to be instaI1ed and
press [Enter].
7. Highlight the appropriate graphics cani with the selection bar and
press [Enter].
Page 2 Chapter 1
Introduction to DyoaCADI)®
8. Highlight the mouse or tablet type with the selection bar and press
[Enter].
9. A menu may pop up asking which serial port the mouse or tablet is
hooked up to. Highlight the appropriate port and press [Enter].
The installation program will now proceed to copy the GEMI3
run4ime and the suitable screen driver to your bani disk. When it
is completed a message will appear.
10. Move the selection bar to "Install DynaCADD into System.. and
press [Enter].
ll. 1)rpe in your name and address pressing [Enter] at the end of every
line. Press [Enter] through all five lines.
12. Highlight the source drive letter and press [Enter].
13. Highlight the drive on which you wish DynaCADD to be installed
and press [Enter].
14. INSTAlL will now copy the contents of Disk 1 to your bani disk.
15. When INSTAlL is finished with Disk 4 it will ask fur Disk 2.
Insert Disk 2 into drive A and press [Enter]. INSTALL will now
copy the contents of Disk 2 to your hard disk.
DynaCADD is now installed on your system. About This Manual This manual is divided into three basic parts: • General Information and Basic Theory (chapters 1 to 5)
• Command and Technical Reference (chapters 6 to 16)
• Appendices and Glossary
We recommend that you read chapters 1 through 5 before attempting to
use DynaCADD. If you have no previous experience with CADD, we
also recommend that you read and fullow the 2-D tutorial.
The reterence section fullows the basic order of the pull down menus and
ioon pads as they appear on the screen. Each command is individually
described with infurmation given on all relevant modes, flags and
modifiers. Actual commands and modifiers are shown in uppercase.
Chapter 1 Page 3
Introduction to DynaCAD])®
In the command descriptions we use abbreviations to refur to entities and
selections. As an example: loe #1, loe 112, etc., rerer to locations and ent
#1, ent 112, etc., rerer to entities.
Flags are a fonn of optional modifier such as an angle or distance. The
flag value is entered through the pop up calculator. Flags also have
defilult settings that are used if)'Ou do not change them. If you do enter a
value, it becomes the new defitult and is used with that command from
then on. Look for flags at the Primary Command description.
If)'Ou forget what entities are valid for a particular command, click on the
entity FILTER icon on the bottom icon pad. All valid entities for the
current command are displayed in the dialog. Any invalid entries are
disabled.
Keyboard Conventions
Throughout the manual you will see rererences to [Return], [Help] and
[Undo]. [Return] and [Enter] are interchangeable. [Help] refers to [Fll]
or [Page Down]. [Undo] refers to [Fl2] or [Page Up].
In this manual, keys are noted in square brackets. For example:
[Enter] [Thb] [,] [;] [Space] [Esc] [Ctrl-A]
When)'Ou see any of the above it means to press the particular key. or, the
combination of keys together.
Semicolon [;]:
Used frequently in DynaCADD commands to indicate
where a selection is complete and command execution
should continue. Pressing [;] is equivalent to pressing
the right mouse button.
Comma [,]:
Shown on the lower icon pad, the comma command is
used to separate data in a command. Do not confuse it
with the semicolon.
Alternate [A1t]: Most menu commands can be activated by pressing the
[Alt] key together with another key. The key is shown
beside the menu option with a diamond symbol. For
example: [Alt-8] will save the current part and drawing.
Page 4 Chapter 1
Introduction to DynaCAD])®
Control [Ctrq: You can create your own keyboani macro commands and assign them to Control key combinations. See Chapter 6 fur details. Function keys: The function keys have several commonly used [FI] to [FI.o]
commands pre-assigned to them. These assignments cannot be changed. See Chapter 4 fur details. Case is unimportant when)'Ou enter commands or layer names.
EveIything typed as a command is automatically converted to uppercase.
Mouse Conventions
There are several basic mouse functions referred to in this manual:
Click: Press the mouse button once. Unless otherwise noted, this
command refers to the left mouse button. Clicking the right
mouse button is equivalent to pressing [;], which is mostly used to
indicate that the selection process is complete.
Click is often used to enter a command and to select an entitjr or
location.
Double click: Click the left mouse button twice in quick succession.
Drag: Press and hold the left mouse button while)'On move the mouse.
This "gmbs" an object which is moved with the pointer. Release
the mouse button to let go of the object at the new location.
Select: Choosing an option or clicking on a button to tum the feature on.
Many dialog buttons are toggles; that is if)'Ou click them once
(select them) they are turned on. A second click turns them off.
In the File Selector)'Ou can click on a file name and then click on OK to
select it, or, you can double click on the file name to achieve the same
result.
The mouse CUISOr is usually referred to as the "pointer". Normally it is in
the furm of an arrow. However it may also be a pointing hand, an open
hand, or another symbol. In the dIawing area the cursor is a crosshair.
Chapter 1 Page 5
Introduction to DynaCAD])®
Do not confuse instructions intended for "buttons" displayed in dialogs
with those intended for the mouse buttons. The intent should be clear in
the context of the documentation.
Editing Dialog Text
In DynaCADD there are several dialogs where you enter or edit text. Use
the fullowing keys for editing:
[Esc]
Clears the entry. [Backspace]
Erases the character to the left of the .cursor. [Delete]
Erases the chamcter to the right of the cursor. [Anow keys]
Move the cursor in the indicated direction. [Enter]
Aooepcs the entry and closes the dialog. fig. (1) Editing Dialog Text
Page 6 Chapter 1
Introduction to DynaCADJ>®
The Text Editor
The text editor is a basic utility in which JOu can enter and edit text fur
several commands. The maximum size of text allowed is 800 characters
or one window. The keys used in the text editor fur editi.Dg are:
[Backspace] BIases the cbaracter to the left of the cursor.
[Delete] BIases the character to the right of the cursor.
[Up 8lTOW] Moves the cursor to the end of the previous line.
[Down arrow] Moves the cursor to the start of the next line.
[Left 8lTOW] Moves the cursor one character to the left.
[RIght arrow] Moves the cursor one character to the right.
[Home] The fust press moves the cursor to the start of the line.
The second press, or if the cursor was already at the
start of the line, moves the cursor to the start of the text.
[End] The fust press moves the cursor to the end of the line.
The second press, or if the cursor was already at the end
of the line, moves the cursor to the end of the text.
[Enter] Inserts a carriage return. ends the line and moves the
cursor to the start of the line below.
[Undo] Cancels the editing and returns to the dIawing.
[Iosert] Accepts the entry and closes the text editor.
[Fll] or [Page Down] Displays help and information about the text editor.
%%nnn This allows you to enter special characters which cannot
be typed directly or easily through the keyboard. 1)rpe
%% wllowed by the three digit number of the special
character. The character number must be padded with
zeros and have a value between 1 and 255. For example:
the hundered and thirty-wurth chm:acter of a funt is
inserted by typing %%134.
Chapter 1 Page 7
Introduction to DynaCADJ)'Ill
The fullowing special chamctelS used in dimensioning can be entered
using a short band funn:
diameter sign
%%c
degree sign
%%d
plus/minus sign %%p
For more infurmation and a list of special chamcters see Appendix H.
XXc. Is the dlatuter SUNbol0
lid Is the deslree SUllbolO
XXp Is the plusll'lllllS $lIOIbal<:­
IZ1l4 Is chlrlcter 1IC Iriii- of the c.hlrac:ter set
fig. (2) 7ext Editor
Page 8 Chapter 1
Introduction to DyuaCADI)®
Translations
DynaCADD bas the ability to tIanslate other CADD formats into
DynaCADD:
DXF: DXF files, used in AntoCAD and sevetal other CAD programs,
can be read in and written out using the File Transfer menu
selection. OXF file conversions are discussed in Appendix A of
this manual.
DEF: DBF is DynaCADO's own ASCll file format for use with other
programs. DBF files can be read and written out by using the Fde
Transfer menu selection. The DBF file format is described in
detail in Appendix A of this manual.
Fonts
DynaCADO comes with asopbisticated vector font editor described in
Chapter 16. WIth this editor you can create and modify your own fonts.
Sevetal high quality Compugraphie® fonts are also provided with
DynaCADO. These can be loaded into DynaCADD but cannot be edited
in the vector font editor.
Chapter I Page 9
Introduction to DynaCAD~
Loading DynaCADD
Befure loading, DynaCADD must be fully installed. Please see Installing
DynaCADD if DynaCADD has not yet been installed on)'Our system.
To load DynaCADD:
1. From the command prompt type C: and press [Enter].
2. Type DYNACADD and press [Enter]. 'Ibis will bring)'Ou to the
DynaCADD system level.
3. Select Activate Part. Choose a part (.PRI') in the parts folder.
4. Select Activate Drawing. Choose a drawing (.DWG).
S. Click. on OK. 'Ibis will now bring )'Ou to the CADD level.
The first time that)'Ou run DynaCADD. )'Ou enter the program at the
System level (see the next chapter). Afterthat. DynaCADD keeps track.
of where )'Ou left off the last time a drawing was saved. When
DynaCADD is run again, a dialog appears. You can choose to return to
the previous session by clicking on AUW. start at the System level by
clicking on NO, or quit the program by clicking on EXIT.
Do you Nish to continue Nith the previous session?
The Part and DraNing previously under NOrk Nere :
C:\DYNACADD\PARTS\TUTOR2D.PRT
C:\DYNACADD\PARTS\TUTDR2D\2D.DW6
fig. (3) DynaCADDe Auw Start Dialog
Page 10 Chapter I
System Level Introduction
System Lavellntroductlon ••• Chapter 2
DynaCADD is divided into two distinct levels:
System level: The level at which you first enter into DynaCADD. Here
you perfunn the initial set up of parts and dmwings as
well as specification of panunetel'S such as scale, units
and page size. Whenever you want to change these
pammeters in a design session, you return here.
Systan level consists of a lalge dialog with the options
placed in the approximate oIder in which you would
normally use them.
CADD level: You enter the CADD level after the first time you load
DynaCADD and set the System level parameters. The
CADD level is used fur all design work, geometry
creation and modification. This is where you create your
dmwings and send them to various output devices.
Before continuing with the explanation of the Systan
level dialog, let us look at the terminology used in this
chapter.
Part: A three dimensional database that defines the basic
elements (an entity or a group ofentities; see below) in
your dmwing. Think of a part as an actual object held
within the memory of the computer. A part can be
manipulated. copied. moved or modified in almost an,y
way you desire.
Drawing: The actual page or sheet ofpaper on which you are
working. You specify the size and scale fur the dmwing
page in the System level. A part can have more than one
dmwing associated with it.
Chapter 2 Page
n
System Level Introduction
fig. (4) System Level Dialog
Setting Current Drawing Parameters
The nonnal procedure fur setting up the part and drawing is as fullows:
1.
Activate a part.
2.
Activate a drawing.
3.
Set the drawing size (optional).
4.
Set the drawing units (optional).
5.
Set the drawing scale (optional).
6.
Enter the CADD level.
You seldom need to return to this dialog, only to change the defiw.lt set up
parameters or switch to a difrerent part or drawing. Every time you load
DynaCADD, you are asked if you want to return to the (X)int at which the
previous session was last saved with all the par.uneters intact. If you select
no, you enter the System level.
Page 12 Chapter 2
System Level Introduction
Whenever you want to load a DeW part or dJ:awing, or change scale or
units, you must select dJ:awing from the Set menu to go back to the
System level and perfurm the appropriate actions.
Activating a Part
This loads a part from disk into the dJ:awing. Use the mouse to move the
pointer over the Activate Part butcDn on the screen. Click the left mouse
button. A standard File Selector dialog appears on the screen. Type in the
name of the part you wish to activate or select a part file from the Iist. You
can place a part file in any directory on any drive. The .PRr extension is
automatically added to the part filename should you forget.
Activating a Drawing
This loads a dJ:awing from. disk. Move the pointer over the Activate
Drawing butcDn and click. You must place the dJ:awing filename in the
same directory at which the FIle Selector dialog opened. DynaCADD
does not accept a dJ:awing in any other directory. The .DWG extension is
automatical1y added to the drawing filename should )'Ou forget.
Setting Drawing Units
This determines the units of measurement used in the dJ:awing.
The computer needs to relate the values and size ofyour drawing to the
real world. For example, if you tell the computer to draw a circle with a
diameter of 4.0, the computer must know how large to dJ:aw the circle
when it comes time to plot or print the drawing. There are eight
predd'ined units available for use in the DynaCADD package:
English:
Inches (In)
Metric:
MillimetelS (rom)
Feet (Ft)
CentimetelS (cm)
Yards (Yd)
MeteIS (m)
Miles (Mi)
KilometelS (Jan)
Chapter 2 Page 13
System level Introduction
Setting the Drawing Scale
This sets the relationship between the screen units and the real world the
drawing represents.
There are times when it is not practical to plot out a dmwing at its actual
size. If. fur example, a civil engineer has designed a bridge and wants to
plot the dmwing. it is neither practical nor possible to plot the whole
drawing out at a constant 1:1 ratio.
In order to fit latge designs onto a womble sheet of paper. a dmwing
scale is used. OynaCADO uses a scaling relationship as a means of sizing
a drawing up or down. There are two buttons, each with eight unit
buttons, used to set the drawing scale: one labelled "0" fur drawing size,
the other labelled "A" fur actual size. A few examples should clarify the
nse of these buttons:
Setting a Orawing at 112 scale:
1. Click on the "0" button.
2. Press [Esc] to clear the existing value and type "I".
3. Click on the "A" button.
4. Press [Esc] to clear the existing value and type "2".
S. Ensure the unit type buttons beside the "A" and
"0" button are equivalent.
Setting US inches equal to 1 foot:
1. Click on the "0" button.
2. Press [Esc] to clear the existing value and type "I".
3. Click the "In" (Inches) button to the right of the
"0" button.
4. Click on the "A" button.
S. Press [Esc] to clear the existing value and type "8".
6. Click the "Ft" (Feet) button to the right of the "0"
button.
The drawing scale is interpreted to read: 1 inch on the drawing represents 8 actual teet. Page 14 Chapter 2
System U'vel Introduction
Setting the Drawing Size
This determines the physical limits of the drawing fur both design and
printing.
There are two methods fur setting the size of the page:
Method!
This is the simplest of the two methods. Simply click: on any one of the
fifteen predefined size buttons, labeled A to E, A4 to AD and AA to AB to
reflect the English, Metric or Architectw:al standard sizes, te$pCCtively.
The new drawing size appears beside the width and height labels in the
main dialog. The predefined sizes, widths and heights are:
English: A.
11.0 in. by 8.5 in.
B.
17JJ in. by 11JJ in.
C.
22JJ in. by 17JJ in.
D.
34JJ in. by 22JJ in.
E.
44.0 in. by 34.0 in.
ArchitectuI"Ql: AA.
12JJ in. by 9.0 in.
AB.
18JJ in. by 12.0 in.
AC.
24JJ in. by 18.0 in.
AD.
36.0 in. by 24.0 in.
AB.
48JJ in. by 36.0 in.
A4.
21JJ em. by 29.7 em.
A3.
29.7 cm. by 42.0 em.
A2.
42JJ cm. by 59.4 em.
AI.
59.4 em. by 84.1 em.
Nl.
84.1 em. by 118.9 em.
Metric: Chapter 2 Page 15
System level Introduction
Method 2
H the drawing size )'Ou want is not among the above selectioDS, you may
specify 8D¥ width and height combination you prefer. To specify a new
width, click on the Width button. A small text CUISOr appealS at the end of
the current width value. Use [Backspace] or [Esc] to clear the eotIy and
type a new width. Keep in mind that the width you specify is always in
the current units selected (see below). Use the identical procedure to
specify the height of the drawing.
Entering CADD Level
This is whem you enter the design level of DynaCADD. The OK button is enabled provided the following conditions have been met: •
•
a part is active
a drawing is active
•
•
a valid scale has been specified
a valid widthlheight ratio has been specified
To enter CADD level, click on the OK button or press [Return].
H)'Ou selected a part and/or drawing on the ~ the files are now
loaded. The system level dialog disappears and the selected part and
drawing is displayed. You may return to the system level dialog at 8D¥
time by pulliog down the Set menu and selecting the Drawing option.
Page 16 Chapter 2
Basic Theory
r:
Basic Theory •.• Chapter 3
It is very importaot that all owners of DynaCADD. regardless of previous
experience, read and understand this chapter. Some of the terms described
here are unique to DynaCADD. although the ooncepts they represent are
universal to professional level CADD.
Connected to any specialized field are numerous terms or buzzwords
familiar only to those who wode in that particular field. CAnD is no
exception. Since DynaCADD allows both two and three dimensional
drafting and design. there are even more of these terms to learn. ne
purpose of this chapter is to give you an undemanding of the terms used
throughout this manual.
Entity
An entity is the basic geometric object in DynaCADD. It is created or
modified when you use the INSERT or TRANSFORM oommands.
INSHRr is used to create new entities, TRANSFORM lets you modify
existing entities. Once inserted or placed, you can modify and manipulate
an entity in numerous ways, including grouping it with other entities to
create huger, oomplex parts. In their basic furm, an entity is any of these
primitives:
•
Point
•
Line
•
Circle
•
Arc
•
Fillet (see below)
•
Ellipse
•
Elliptical arc
•
•
Text
B-spline curve
•
B6zier curve
•
2-D filled solid
•
3-Dface
Chapter 3 Page 17
Basic Theory
By combining these entities, )'Ou can create and modify complex parts and
drawings quickly and easily. Entities can be broken into pieces, each one
an individual entity. Most entities cannot be joined together to create
single entities, except as a group (curves can be joined; see Chapter 8). In
some commands, several entities may be selected at once and acted upon
in concert.
Not all entities are valid fur every command. For example, you cannot
stretch a point. The entity FILTER dialog lists all entities valid fur every
command (see Chapter 5).
Remember that although you can build an object out of several entities,
unless furmed into a group, the entities remain as individual components
that can be moved, deleted or modified separately, without atrecting the
position or attributes of any other entities in the dmwing.
A FllLET has its own INSBRr commands and is referred to throughout
the manual as a separate entity type fur clarity. However, it is in all
aspects an ARC and where an ARC is a valid entity, so is a FllLET.
2-D Entitles vs. 3-D Entities
DynaCADD has two main design modes, 2-D and 3-D. You can switch~/
between them at any time by clicking the mode (INlT2DIINIT3D) toggle
icon. 2-D and 3-D entities can exist on a drawing simultaneously but
some commands are only relevant to one mode, not both. For example,
VIEW and GCP commands affect 3-D entities only.
There are times when it is not convenient to work in three dimensional
space. To simplify the design process, )'Ou can specify if)'OU wish the
entities )'Ou are creating as either three dimensional or two dimensional.
Both can be seen on the dmwing at the same time but)'OU can only work
on or create 2-D entities in 2-D mode and 3-D entities in 3-D mode.
Two dimensional entities are "flat" and lie on the plane of the screen; the
process is similar to dmwing on paper with a pencil. They are defined by
a simple X-Y coordinate system that extends from the page origin (see
coordinate systems, below). When)'Ou switch to 3-D mode, 2-D entities
remain in their same orientation, parallel to the dmwing screen, no matter
what viewing plane the 3-D view is using.
Page 18 Chapter 3
Basic Theory
1'b.ree dimensional entities are placed in space and defined by an X-Y-Z
coordinate system (see coordinate systems, below). You can rotate these
objects in space, from within the design process. or rotate your view
about them to see them from different locations. Unlike 2-D entities. 3-D
entities are much more than pencil marks on paper. Think of them as
actual objects that exist in depth behind the dmwing on which you are
worldng.
In order to see and manipulate 3-D entities. you must open a "View" on
the d:mwing (see below). With different views on the same dmwing, you
can see the full scope ofa 3-D part.
3-D entities do not automatically have three dimensions when they are
creared. They are inserted into the current view Iike 2-D entities. In order
to add depth. you must "project" them into the third dimension by using
the TRANSFORM commands (see Chapter 10).
Views
VIeWS are a means to see your dmwing from different pempectives when
designing a three dimeosional part. As nored previously, 3-D entities have
depth behind the d:mwing on which you are worldng. You can open a
"window" to the d:mwing and usc that window, a view in DynaCADD
terminology, to look into the three dimensional space that exists behind
your dmwing.
Views are, however, much more than just regular windows. You can
specify how fur they should step back when looking at the part and what
rotation and scale they usc. You can scroll views in oIder ro see various
sections of the part. In addition to all this, DynaCADD allows you ro have
up ro fuur of these views on any one dmwing, each looking at a different
part of your database.
2 Dimensional Box
3 Dimensional Cube
fig. (5) 2-D Entities VS. 3-D Entities
Chapter 3 Page 19
Basic Theory
In 3-D mode, )'Ou must have at least one view open.
During the design process, )'Ou can work in any combination ofviews at
any time. This means that )'OU can see )'Our part rotated at four different
angles and zoomed on four different areas simultaneously.
Keep in mind that although )'Ou can see four ditl.erent views ofone part. it
is still only a single part. Any changes )'Ou make in one view are instantly
reflected in all views.
Another common use ofviews is the automatic genemdon of orthographic
views. With traditional drafting, a part is represented by showing
numerous two dimensional orthographic representations of the object
(ie. Top view, Front view and Right side view). By combining the
infunnation contained in each individual view, }'Ou can mentally piece
together what the actual object looks like. DynaCADD has the ability to
create these 2-D representations automatically. anywhere on the drawing.
at any scale. One of the nugor advantages of 3-D design work is the
ability to modify a part once and have all orthographic views instantly
updated.
[]j]
'Top View'
Scaled 'Iso View'
'Front View'
Jig.
Page 20 Chapter 3
'Right View'
(6) Four
V~ Active
Basic Theory
The most important points to remember about views are:
• Views are a means of looking at the 3-D part you are creating.
• You can open up to fuur views on the drawing at any one time.
• You may work: in all views simultaneously.
• Multiple views show a single part from diffurent angles.
• Each view has its own zoom fitctor. scale, 3-D rotatio~ scroll
factor and drawing orienlation (position on the drawing).
• Views are a simple means ofgenerating multiple orthographic
views.
Coordinate Systems
Since DynaCADD allows the creation of 2-D and 3-D entities, each type
must have its own coordinate system. The 2-D coordinate system works
from the "page origin", initially located in the lower left comer of the
drawing. The 3-D system is much more complex and uses what we refer to
as Geometric Coordinate Planes (GCPs).
XO Y7
X-7 YO
XO YO : Page Origin
X7 YO
XO Y-7
fig. (l) 2-D Coordinate System
Chapter 3 Page 21
Basic Theory
Page Origin
The page origin is the 0, 0 position on a 2-D drawing, graphically
displayed as a small box with a point in the center. The drawing axis runs
through this location with the positive X axis increasing to the right of the
page origin and the positive Y axis increasing above the page origin.
Although it is initially placed in the lower left comer of the drawing. you
can position the page origin anywhere on the drawing.
Geometric Coordinate Planes (GCPs)
DynaCADD's three dimensional coordinate planes are gmphicaUy
displayed as three arrows pointing along the axes +X, +Yand + Z
(positive X, Y and Z). The arrow pointing along the current X axis has an
X marked on the tip.
DynaCADD contains seven predefined 0CPs, with the option fur you to
create as many as nine more custom 0CPs. The predefined coordinate
systems are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Top
Front
Right
Bottom
Rear
",--..,./
Left
Isometric (Iso)
TOP
fi
~
RIGHT
~
rl;
REAR
(=--J
BOTTOM
~
LEFT
fig. (8) The Predefined GCPs
Page 22 Chapter 3
ISO
T
Basic Theory
fig. (9) GCP Plane
GCPs are more than just a coordinate system defining the X. Y and Z
axes; you can use them to specify on which plane yon are working. The
current plane in DynaCADD is an imaginary sheet positioned nonnal
(perpendicuJar) to the Z axis at locations Xo, YO, ZOo
For example, consider inserting a ciIcle into space. Although DyuaCADD
knows the origin and radins ofthe ciIcle, there is no way of knowing the
circle's 3-D orienmtion~ To overcome this problem. DynaCADD places
the ciIcle in such a way that the ciIcle lies parallel to the current X-Y axis.
By changing GCPs when)'Ou insert arcs. you can insert the arcs on
d.ifferent sides of a cube without having toent the command.
GCPs are a very powerful feature that require patience and perseverance
to use properly. Like aqy good tool. once learned, GCPs can provide you
with the means ofcreating complex objects quickly and efficiently.
FR NT
fig. (10) Multiple Planes
Chapter 3 Page 23
Basic Theory
GCP Aligned with View
GCP Skewed to View
fig. (11) Aligned and Non-Aligned GCP
Free Digitizing
When a view and the current GCP are aligned. the positive X axis points
to the right and the positive Y axis points up. The Z axis is DOt visible.
Digitizing is a means of specifying locations by positioning the crosshair
and clicking the left mouse button. When digitizing. DynaCADD places
the location on the current plane. Howeve~ if)'Ou select a location in a
view where the GCP is not aligned with that view, DynaCADD has no
way ofknowing where, along the imaginary line travelling into the
screen, )'Ou wish CD place the location. DynaCADD can only guess as CD
where )'Ou wanted the point CD be. You are infunned of this uncertainty by
the display:
"Warning: GCP Skewed CD View"
If unexpected results occur in 3-D mode, check fur this message on the
command history screen.
To overcome this problem, )'Ou must ensure that the view and the GCP
are aligned. You can tell this by looking at the GCP symbol. If the X-Y
arrows are flat against the screen, then the GCP and the view are aligned.
To fix an unaligned GCP and view. execute the command vmwGCP and
select the current GCP. nus can save considerable frustration.
Free digitizing does not occur when entity snap is turned on. Entity snap
makes the selection of a location absolute and is covered in detail in
Chapter 5.
Page 24 Chapter 3
Basic Theory
Layers
Each drawing in DynaCADD is actually made up of separate sheets Of
"clear paper", one on top of the other, each referred to as a layer. When
)'Ou create a drawing using DynaCADD, )'Ou can specify on whicb of the
individual sheets )'OU would 1iIre the new entities placed. You also have
the ability to tum on or off any combination of layers. One common use
of layers is to have all groups of related entities on their own layer. By
turning the individual layers on or off, it is possible to keep the visible
dIawing area uncluttered even when you create complex drawings.
In 3-D mode, layers also have depth perpendicular to the viewing plane.
In DynaCADD, )'Ou can use up to 256 layers, numbered 0 to 2SS. Layers
can also be named. When the pointer is not (Ner an icon, the layer
number or name is displayed at the upper left corner of the dmwing area.
To reiterate two important definitions:
Part: A part is a three dimensional database that defines an entity
or a group of entities. Think of it as an actual Object held
within the memory ofthe computer. There are a large number
of commands available, in on:fer to manipulate the part in any
way )'Ou desire.
Drawing: This is the actual page or sheet of paper on which )'Ou are
working, with all zoom, view and image definitions. You can
tell the computer the size of the paper and specify a scale
fiI.ctor fur that page.
Chapter 3 Page 25
Basic Theory
Page 26 Chapter 3 The User Interface
The User Interface ••• Chapter 4
There are a seveml methods of communicating with and receiving
infurmation from DynaCADD. including:
Command and data entry:
•
point and click command entty using the icons
•
typing commands
•
entering values into the value calculator
•
the dynamic calculator
•
selecting commands from the drop down menns
Infurmation retrieval:
•
displaying help and status messages
•
displaying the command history and information window
•
displaying online documentation
•
echoing the command history to the printer
Screen and display control:
•
drawing area display
•
2-D/3-D mode select
Corrections and restoration:
•
the undo command
•
command cancel
•
deleting entities
•
clear and restore
Command and Data Entry
Point and Click
The easiest and quickest method of entering commands is to use the
mouse and click on the icons, or to select commands from the menus (see
below and Chapter 5),
Chapter 4 Page Z7
The User Interface
On the left. side of the screen and across the top of the drawing area, small
icons represent commands graphically. Each icon represents a command
or, more commonly, part of a command sequence that you build by
successively clicking on the icons in the correct on:ler. The command
name associated with each icon appears at the top left ofthe drawing area
when you move the pointer over an icon.
Most commands require you to click more than one icon, sometimes as
many as four or five icons must be selected: primary command.
sub-command and modifiers or flags. With some commands, you must
pause and enter specific information. such as angle, distance, or select a
location or entity, betOre continuing.
Due to the large number of commands available, it is impossible to display
all of the commands at the same time. so a tree strocture is implemented
in which related commands and modifielS only appear after a higher level
command is selected. When you click with the pointer over an appropriate
icon, the icon pad below it is drawn with the respective sulH:ommands.
DynaCADD uses four groups of icons on the left. of the screen to display
the available commands and modifielS. They display commands in a
vertical bierarchy, from the top down. Clicking on the top level icon
causes all secondary commands. or sub-commands. to appear in the icon
pad directly below the top level icons. The main, or primary, command
icons. reading left to right, top to bottom. represent these commands:
INSERI'
CURVE
DIMENSION
TRANSFORM
EDITVIEW
CREATE
OUTPUT
INFORM
EDITLAYER
(unused)
MODE TOGGLE UNDO
Additional appropriate sub-commands, modifiers or flags appear in the
third icon pad, depending on which secondary level command you select.
A flag is an optional modifier, such as "LINANO", line angle. In the
reference section flags are described with the primary command and
where applicable to a specific command noted as "(flag)". Other
modifiers may be mandatory, such as entering a value for a circle radius
when using the INSERI' CIRCLE CIRRAD command or entering a text
string fur an INSERI' TEXT command. These modifiers are noted in the
command description with the modifier's name or abbreviation such as
"(string)" or "(rad)".
Page 28 Chapter 4
The User Interface
The bottom icon pad is reserved fur displaying the various entity and
location selection commands. when applicable. These are all described in
Chapter 6.
Most commands have detaults; icons are highlighted to indicate the
detault sub-commands and modifiers fur any defimlt state.
Many commands require exact infurmation to execute: distance, angle, a
selected entity, and so on. Whenever more infurmation is required (not
optional), a message appears at the bottom of the text screen, telling you
what is needed. If one or more locations or existing entities must be
chosen, do so by clicking the pointer at the appropriate locations, then
press the right mouse button to indicate )'Our selection is complete.
Whatever you select in the icon pads is echoed into the command. histoty
and can be examined by pressing [fab] (see below).
r.-..u-...u...-........., Selec.t a 2D Loc.atlon •••
X:
8.21157 Y:
5.nl41 fig. (12) Icon Pads
Chapter 4 Page 29
The User Interface
Keyboard Command Entry
As an alternative to using the mouse, ~u can enter commands on the
keyboard. DynaCADD interprets your commands as you type.
Associated with each icon is a command name, or a part of a command,
that appears at the top of the screen when ~u move the pointer over an
icon. This is the name you type to enact that particular command. Each
command must be entered. fully, starting with the name of the primary
icon, then adding any names fur modifiers, flags, etc. For example:
INSERT LINE LINELOC
is the command fur inserting a line at the locations specified when you click the left mouse button. The command syntax is very simple: verb + noun + (flags and/or additional modifiers)
plus any data entry, entity or location selection as required.
For example:
(verb)
(noun)
(modifier)
INSERT
LINE
LINELOC
(flag)
(location modifier)
LINANG (angle)
loe #I,loe Ifl
Locations can be entered as absolute or relative (J.n.Cremental) values by
pressing [Enter]. For absolute coon:linates, enter the X, Y (and Z in 3-D)
values, separated by a coma. For example:
10,20
X = 10, Y = 20, Z = unchanged
,20
X = unchanged, Y = 20, Z = unchanged
10,,30
X = 10, Y = unchanged, Z = 30
,,30
X = unchanged, Y = unchanged, Z = 30
Input Absolute [ X1, [Y ], [Z ] Co-ordinates
10,,301-1- - - - - - - - - - - - ­
fig. (8) Absolute Coordinates Dialog
Page 30 Chapter 4
0
OK
The User Interface
Relative values are measured as distances from the current (last) entity or
location coordinates. Prefix the coordinate list with "i" to indicate
incremental coordinates. For example:
U0,20 X = increment lO units over from the current
X location, Y = 20 from the current Y,
Z = unchanged
i,20 X = unchanged, Y = 20 from the current Y,
Z = unchanged
i-lo,-20,30 X = increment -10 units over from the current X
location, Y = -20 from the current Y, Z = 30 from
the current Z
Click OK or press [Return].
After )'Ou enter the final line locatiolly press [;] (equivalent to clicking the
right mouse button) to indicate entity selection is complete. For example:
1. Type: INS [Space] LIN [Space] fur the command. LINELOC, fur
line location, is the defilult so it need not be typed.
2. Press [Return] to display the coordinates dialog.
3. Type: 10,10 [Return] to enter an X, Y location.
4. To enter another location, which adds another line segment to the
series, press [Return].
5. Type: Uo,lO [Return] to enter a second location relative to the first.
The crosshair now moves to this location.
6. Re~ steps 5 through
7 with appropriate coordinates, until all
required locations are entered.
7. Press [;] to end the location selection process.
Data entry such as layer name, number or copies, etc., and entity or
location selection can occur anywhere, depending on the command. For
data entty, a dialog or calculator pops up when necessary. An appropriate
message appears at the bottom of the text screen when entity or location
selection is required.
Chapter 4 Page 31
The User Interfa.ce
After typing in the first few characters of each part of the command, press
the space bar. This enters the command into the interpreter and tells
DynaCADD to select the icon represented by the typed command. You do
not need to enter the full command name. only enough of the command to
identify it; DynaCADD perfunns a comparison on whatever bas been
typed and selects the first command name that matches )'Our entry. For
example:
INS [Space]
LIN [Space]
ORr [Space]
LINE
ORrHO
is the same as:
INSERT
You can click icons and type commands interebangeably. or press the function:treys at any appropriate place during comand entry. Commands are stored in a command history. To see the command history.
or any other text and infurmation. press [Tab].
Function Key Macros
The ten function :treys, labelled [Fl] to [FlO], are preset with some of the
most commonly used commands, sub-commands or modifiers. When)'Ou
press the key. the text is inserted into the command line processor and
executed exactly as if)'Ou typed it or clicked on the icon. The keys and
their associated text are:
[Fl]
Location LOC
[F2]
END
ORG
End [F7]
BYWJN
BYPWIN
Origin Intersection By digitizing By window By polywindow [F8]
DZALL
Draw zoom all [F9]
DZWlNDOW
Draw zoom window
[F3]
[F4]
[P5]
[P6]
INT
BYDIG
[FlO]
REPAINT
Redraw the screen
These commands are discussed in more detail in the command Section.
The preset function key definitions cannot be changed.
Page 32 Chapter 4
The User Interface
Value Calculator
Whenever DynaCADD requires )'Ou to enter a numeric value, a pop up
scientific calculator is displayed. This opemres much the same as a band
held calculator. To activate a function, or enter a number, position the
pointer over the appropriate symbol and click. You can also enter the
values through the keyboard. Results are displayed in the calculator
window, at the top.
Like a real calculator, you must click [=] to get a calculated result. With
negative numbers, }'OU must click [-] befure )'Ou enter the value. Th see the
negative sign, click [=].
The symbols on the calculator are mostly self explanatory. Here are a few
nares on the actual operation:
• Precedence of opemtors is strictly in
order of entry.
• The keys M1 to M4 represent tOur
memory storage buffetS. They store the
value currently in the calculator window.
These memories will remain intact
throughout the DynaCADD session.
• The keys Rl to R4 recall the values stored
in memory locations Ml to M4,
respectively.
• Pressing L] on the keyboard or calculator
is equivalent to pressing [Return],
tOllowed by [,]. This key is a shortcut
when entering and activating location
coordinates (see Location Selection,
Cbapte(6).
fig. (14) JWue
Calculator
• The CLR button cleatS the current value
in the window.
• The ACL button cleatS all previous
opemtions.
• The CNL button (or [Undo]) cancels and
closes the calculator.
Chapter 4 Page 33
The User Interface
The Dynamic Calculator
UnliJre the value calculator; the dynamic calculator does not accept
numeric input. It is designed to let you change 3-D view rotation, scale
and zoom levels interactively by clicking arrows that represent increments
and see the effuct as you wode.
The three parts of the dynamic calculator are:
• Rotation
• Scroll
• Zoom
Their functions are described in more detail in Chapter n.
Drop Down Menus
The drop down menns provide access to global commands, utilities and
functions that you need to have available at all times.
To access the menu bar, IDO\'e the pointer to the top of the screen over a
menu title. The appropriate menu will drop down, revealing the options
available under that particular title. 10 execute a command, IDO\'e the
pointer over the option and click. If a menu option is shown in a lighter
text, that entry is disabled and currently unavailable for selection. To
close a menu without making a selection, move the pointer away from the
menu items and click the mouse button.
The actual function of each menu item is covered in Chapter
s.
Information Retrieval
Help and Status Messages
Due to the large number of available commands, it is very difficult for all
but the most dedicated user to remember the name and function of each of
the over 300 icons. To overcome this problem, DynaCADD can optionally
display the command name and a short help message every time the
pointer passes over a command icon. You can also type this command
name directly (see Keyboard Command Entry, above).
Page 34 Chapter 4
The User Interface
The command name is displayed at the upper left comer of the dmwing
area when the poiDrer is positioned over an icon. Otherwise this line
displays the laJer name or number. A briefhelp message is also dispJayed
in the bottom right hand corner of the screen, invaluable to the novice or
occasional user. If the help message stablS is turned off, the command
name and help message are not shown.
1111
Command History
The command history window is a text display that shows the command
history Of the current session, as wen as various dmwing data and the
results of infurmation commands such. as measure area. Press [fab] to
view it. Press [Thb] again to return to the design session. Clicking the
SHOWCOM icon is the equivalent to pressing [fab].
The command history window is a continuous scrolling display. Text that
disappears from the window is not lost, it is merely hidden and can be
viewed by moving the slider bars or clicking on the arrows at the top and
bottom of the window. The command history does use up memory and
during a long design session, a considerable amount,may be consumed.
Press [shift-Delete] to clear the command history and free up memory.
INSERT LINE
ORTHO d,d,d,;
CIRCLE END d,LOC d,
ELLIPSE END d,d,d,
TRANSfORH TRANSLATE HYALL ;d,d,;
EDITVIEN
INSERT TEXT
CREATE LOAD fONT
INSERT TEXT TEXTHEI +1.28888888 TEXTWID +1.88098889
TEXTLOC d,
SECTION·
SECTDIST +8.01080008
SECTRN6LE +45.88988808 ;<Delete>
CREATE DEfIHA6E DEfttACRO
OUTPUT PRINTER
fig. (15) Command History
Chapter 4 Page 35
The User Interface
Online Documentation
If you find the help and status messages are insufficient. press [Help] to
activate the full online documentation feature. A window appealS. with
the appropriate text explaining the currently active command displayed.
'lb pause and adjust the scrolling speed use:
[CtrI-8]
Stop Scrolling
[CtrI-QI
Restart Scrolling
[Ctrl]
Slow Scrolling
[E8c]
Cancel online documentation
[Alt]
Past scrolling
When all of the documentation descn"bing the use of the active command
has been displayed. an "End ofFtle" message appears at the bottom of
the window. Press any Jmy to return to the design session.
IasertlRII fillets •• "Meter
m.Lfr flLIII
(dlllli ••t Ill, eat lit
C-Hdl
DSalJ
node I
%.... lad I ....
dill
"Meter .., the flUet to ilSert.
Itnt al, eat lit:
ra UIeS', lsed to Ilclte tile fillet. These IlleS'
IlUt, theetttlcIIII, I.tersect (see fUrld,
Ibanl.
DucrlptlGlI All ,rt Is IIr_ lilt. its will. aD lbl tllm:.ttan
of tile tIIa illeS' M equal distance ft. die IlleS'.
tile 11_ Ire latersectld I.' pbuslullu trlMed I
dlstnce .f .nrialf .f "GI,- froII Ue
-- End Of fUe. -­
fig. (16) Online Documentation
Printer Echo
You can echo the contents of the command history and text window to the
printer by selecting this option from the Tools menu. This is very useful
when generating reports through the Infonn commands (see Chapter 14).
Page 36 Chapter 4
The User Interface
Screen and Dlsplay'Control
Managing theDntwing Area
There are many ttansfunnation (change) commands in DynaCADD that
are atrected by this command (TRANSLATE, ROTATE, etc.). When
TRANCOPY is on, any tnmsformation commands leave the original
entities being acted upon untouched, and create a copy befure applying
the particular ttansfuDDation. JfTRANCOPV is off, any tnmsformation
commands act upon the original entities selectOO.
To view the command history and text display window, click on the
SHOWCOM icon or press ['lab]. The slider bars and arrow buttons are
fur scrolliDg the display in the appropriate direction, up or down. 10 exit
the command history, click the close button at the upper left of the
window. You can also press ['lab] to display and exit the command history
window.
fig. (17) CommandName ond Help Messages
Drawing Modifiers
There are nine drawing modifier icons to control which portion of the
page is contained within the current drawing area. These commands do
not atIect currently active command sequences.
fig. (18) Drawing Modifiers
Chapter 4 Page '57
The User Interface
~
View Drawing Extents (DZEXTENTS)
Show the full database in the drawing area. The display is sized so that all
visible entities are displayed. This works best in 2- 0 mode; in 3-D mode
it also includes all of the active view windows. For 3-D drawing extents,
it is better to use the VIBWZBXT icon from the EDITVIBW icon pad.
, [fi!:Y
I
Zoom Last (DZLAST)
This command displays the previons drawing extent.
~
Zoom In (DZIN)
This command requires the selection of a 2-D location. Once )'Ou select
the location, the drawing area is zoomed in (magnified) by a factor of
two. The center of the drawing area is the selected location.
~
Zoom Out (DZOUT)
This command requires the selection of a 2-D location. Once )'Ou select
the location, the drawing area is zoomed out (reduced) by a fitctor of two.
The center of the drawing area is the selected location.
,0
I
Zoom All (DZALL) [F8]
This command zooms the full drawing into the drawing area. As with
most of the drawing modifier commands, the previonsly active command
continues uninterrupted.
~
Zoom Window (DZWINDOW) [F9]
This command requires the selection of a window. Once )'Ou select the
two locations that define the window (diagonally opposite corners), the
portion of the drawing defined by the window is zoomed in and displayed.
,GEl
I
ScroD Drawing (SCROLL)
This command requires the selection of two 2-D locations. After you
select the first location. a dotted rectangle representing the current
drawing area is displayed and moves with the full screen crosshair. After
you select the second location, the drawing moves from the tmt location
to the second. at the same zoom fuctor.
Note: Page 38 Chapter 4
To exit the Zoom In. Zoom Out, Zoom Window and Scroll
commands. click the right mouse button or press [;].
The User Interface
~
Center Drawing (CENTER)
This command requires the selection of a 2-D location. Once }'Ou select
it, the drawing is centered on the location, at the current zoom factor.
Repaint (REPAINT) [FlO]
Sometimes when }'Ou edit a drawing, particularly when }'Ou delete
entities, the graphics are partially erased. This is simply a screen effect;
the entities are not actually changed. Select REPAINT to refresh all
entities visible in the current drawing area.
~
Regenerate Graphics (REGEN)
Use this command to regenerate the entire drawing and all existing views
from the information contained in the database. If, fur any reason, the
graphics displayed do not accurately represent the database, use this
command to restore the drawing.
Mode Select (INI'ODIINfl3D)
There are two basic modes of operation: 2-D and 3-~. Entities created in
one mode are not available fur modification in the other, although all
entities are visible in either mode.
To switch modes between 2-D and 3-D at any time during the design
process, click on the 2-013-0 mode toggle icon on the main icon pad.
The currently active command is cancelled and the mode is toggled.
Note: You must open a view in 3-D mode in order to manipulate
entities in 3-~. See Chapter 11.
Chapter 4 Page 39
The User Interface
IUNOOI
Corrections and Restoration
With a few exceptions, you can undo the last nugor command by clicking
on the Undo icon in the main icon pad, or by pressing [Undo]. After
verifying your request, DynaCADD restores the drawing to its status
befure the last command was executed. Any currently active command is
cancelled.
If you do not want to execute a command in progress, you have seveml
options:
• select another command or click another icon
• click Cancel in a dialog, file selector or calculator
When inserting entities, press [Delete] to el3Se the last entity drawn. If
the entity is a "chained" entity, such as continuous lines or filled solids,
[Delete] etaSeS the last entity. one at a time, in reverse order. [Delete] also
takes back multiple locations in the reverse order in which they were
selected.
You can clear the entire database by selecting Clear from the File menu,
or restore the database to the most recent save by selecting Restore. These
are described in Chapter 5. Use these commands with caution; since they
cannot be reversed with UNDO•
•
I'
UNDO Mill reverse ALL changes
"ade to the database during
the last "ajar connand. Do
you Mish to continue.
I UNDO I I Cancel I
fig. (19) UNDO Dialog
Page 40 Chapter 4
The Drop Down Menus
Drop Down Menus ••• Chapter 5
To aid in the drawing and design process, numerous commands are
gronped under the appropriate headings in the drop down menus. In
addition to the menus, there are additional screen modifier icons that are
grouped together above the drawing area, descnOed at the end of this
chapCer.
On the menu bar. across the top of the screen., are six menu tides:
File Set Tools !Rages 6CP
DYHACADD
Under each tide are numerous related entries called options. To access a
menu, move the pointer up to the appropriate tide. The menu drops down
onto the screen., displaying its list of options. Move the pointer onto the
required entry and click the left button. DynaCADD now executes the
command indicated by the selected menu option. To close a menu without
making a selection., move the pointer away from the menu items and click
the mouse button.
Some of the menu entries have an inverse diamond symbol and a letter
beside them. This means you can activate that command by pressing [Alt]
plus the indicated letter. For example [Alt-X] brings up the File Transfer
dialog.
DynaCADD Menu
DynaCADD® Information Dialog
Under the DYNACADD menu there is an Information entry. Clicking on
this item brings up a dialog with the following infonnation:
• The~CADDv~~n~
• The name and address of the licensee.
•
The serial number.
• The system's processor and math oo-processor types.
You will need this information whenever you call Technical Support with
questions on DynaCADD or Customer Service for an update.
Click anywhere in the dialog to erase it.
Chapter 5 Page 41
The Drop Down Menus
File Menu
The File menu contains all the various stornge and retrieval commands. in
addition to some auxiliary commands related to database manipulation.
When DynaCADD completes the Save Part, Save J:>efiJ.ult. Save Macro.
Mm:ge Drawing. Clear. Restore and Database Sort commands. it clears
the icon pads and cancels any previously active command. Only Memory
Status and Quit do not do this.
Save Part
[Alt-Sj:
This command saves both the current part and drawing
to the filenames specified at the time they were
activated. The entire session is saved. with all
parameters such as view definitions. images. and
coordinate systems being saved for later recall. When a
drawing is loaded later on, you are returned to the state
of the most recent save.
We recommend that you use this command at intervals
no greater than 30 m.inu1es apart. In the event of a power
fidlure. this practice minimius the amount of work lost.
In the event of a disk en:or. you are notified of the
problem. We also recommend that you keep backups of
your work on floppies. in case anything goes wrong.
Save Part As:
This is the same as Save Part. except that you can specify
a different filename. DynaCADD adds the correct
extensions to the filenames. if you forget to enter them.
Save Default:
Whenever a new drawing has been activated.
DynaCADD needs to know how to initially set the
drawing parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Page 42 Chapter 5
page width. height and scale
GCP, view and image definitions
dimension status
tool values
layer names
line style definitions
The Drop Down Menus
In order not to reset these parameters e:very time a new
drawing is created. )'Ou can determine the initial setup by
a defimlt drawing that)'Ou create. To save the defilult
drawing parameters:
1. Set all pammeters to their desired state.
2. Use the Save Defimlt command.
Once a defilult drawing has been saved. every new
drawing activated is initially set to the predefined
defilults.
Save Macro: You can assign multiple keystrokes to a keystroke
combination such as [Ctrl-A). The Save Macro
command saves these macro definitions in a file. You
cannot change the Function key macros.. For more
information on defining and using macros, see Chapter
12. For information on listing macros. see Chapter 14.
Merge Drawing This command allows you to combine other drawings
[AIt-M]: with the cun:ent drawing. When combining drawings,
only 2-D entities are loaded. The drawing parameters of
the current drawing. such as page width and height, are
left unchanged. When)'OU select this command, the F'de
Selector dialog appears. You can load the drawing to
merge from any drive and directory. providing it is a
valid DynaCADD file.
File Transfer
[AIt-X]:
This is DynaCADD's file conversion dialog.
You can import the following files:
• DXF (AutoCAD)
• DEF (DynaCADD)
and export these file formats:
• DXF (AutoCAD)
• DEF (DynaCADD)
See Appendix A for futher information on DXF and
DEF file transfers.
Chapter 5 Page 43
The Drop Down Menus
Clear: This command clears the database (all entities) from
memoIY. All loaded funt definitions are also cleared.
freeing all tnemOIY. Wmdng: You cannot UNDO this
command. Any changes to the current part and drawing
are irretrievably lost.
Restore: This command reloads the current part and drawing
from disk. This is normally used after some design error
has made it impractical to tIY and rebuild the part using
the nonnal editing commands. Save and Restore are also
a part of rebuilding contiguous memoIY blocks (see
MemoIY Status, nett page fullowing). WamiDg: You
cannot UNDO this command. Any changes to the
current part and drawing are irretrievably lost.
Database Sort: During the design process, a certain amount of
"garbage" is built up in the database as a result of
deleting and modifying entities. This command cleans
up all the garbage. It also releases all inactive memoIY
not being used by the database. It is a good idea to use
dUs command at regular intervals. This command also
displays the MemoIY Status dialog after it bas
completed..
Page 44 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Memory Status
~~
This command displays the Memory Status dialog telling you the amounts
used and free of expanded and system memory. Click: anywhere inside the
dialog to remove it.
Total
-
Used
1"148
Used
7"68
Free
28'3588
Free
131688
(62X)
,,!X)
fig. (20) Memory Status Dialog
Expanded:
This panel shows the toea1 amount of expanded, or
EMS, memory that DynaCADD bas for data storage.
The amount currently used by DynaCADD for screen
buffer, font and drawing storage, and the amount of
expanded memory currently free along with a
percentage.
System:
This panel shows the amount of conventional, or
system, memory that DynaCADD bas available to it.
The amount used by DynaCADD, and the amount of
system memory currently free along with a percentage.
For proper and speedy operation during printing and
file t:rnnsrers, the free amount should be at least 64000
bytes and not go below 32000 bytes.
Chapter 5 Page 45
The Drop Down Menus
Select Output Device Priority
Lo" >
rn II rn IT] mrn < High
Parallel
Serial
fig. (1.1) Background Output Dialog
Background
Output:
Background output allows you to continue to work. in
DynaCADD concurrently with a drawing's output on
your plotter or printer.
The dialog lets you select the priority of processing time
used for plotting. A low priority means the output takes
longer, but you will not notice much. if any. slow down
in DynaCADD. A high priority means faster output, but
some slow down in DynaCADD.
You must also select the correct output port. serial or
parallel.
When you click OK., enter a filename in the File Selector
dialog. This must be the name of a valid .PFL file,
previously saved to disk (see Chapter 12). The drawing
on disk is redirected to the plotter or printer while you
continue to work. in DynaCADD.
To cancel the output, click on Background Plot again.
Plotting and printing are described in detail in Chapter
12 and in Appendix D.
Page 46 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Quit [AIt..Q)
This command e:rlts the current session. After you select Quit, a dialog
appears otrerlng three options:
Quit: Click here to e:rlt the current session, without saving any
of the chaDges that may have occurred since the last time
the part and dIawing were saved.
Save: Click here to save the part and dIawing before exiting the
current session. Define you e:rlt, a :fi1e is saved to disk
infurming DynaCADD which part and dIawing to load
the next time the program is run. The normal procedure
of part and dIawing setup at the System level is bypassed,
and at the start of the next session, yon are given the
opportnniIJ to automatically restore to the cnnent status.
Cancel: Click here to cancel the Quit command and return to the
current session.
DUIT
Dult the current session Mlthaut
saving.
ALL CHANGES SINCE THE LAST SAVE
WILL BE LOST !
SAVE
Save the current Part and DraMlng
and end the current session.
fig. (22) Quit Dialog
Chapter 5 Page 47
1lie Drop Down Menus
Set Menu
The Set menu contains ten entries, seven of which control the parameters
fur the fullowing functions:
Drawing [Alt-N]:
EN
rtlD
Track/6rld/Axls •••
Pen Indexes...
IP
Pen Style •••
Layers...
ilL
Hatch Pattern •••
Preferences •••
CDIDr Palette •••
Pa er Color...
rtlZ
This command displays the System level dialog.
You can load a new part or dmwiog, chaDge
units and scale here. For a complete discussion
on the System level. see Chapler 2.
DbneusIon [A1t-D):
This is the dimension panuneter definition
dialog. Such elements as the anowhead type,
text furmat and precision are established here.
For a complete discussion of the dimensioning
capabilities of DynaCADD, see Chapter 9. '
TracklGridl Select this command to edit the parameters associated
with the dynamic tracking, grid and axis drawing aids.
Axis: After)'Ou select the desired values, click on the OK
button to insta1l the changes and return to the previously
active command.
Pen Indexes
[Alt-p]:
Pen Style: This is where you deteIJDine the current pen
par.uneters: pen number, color. weight and line style.
Select this to create or edit, and name, line style
dclinitions fur usc with the pens (see above).
This command displays the Layer Attribntes dialog
where layer infurmation can be manipulated directly.
Layer attribntes govern layer names, color, pen weight
and style and layer status. For a complete discussion of
layers. sec Chapter 15.
Hatch Pattern: This is where you choose the current pattern fur use in
all subsequent hatch commands.
Page 48 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Tracking
This refers to the ability of DynaCADD to display the current 2-D
position of the full screen crossbair on the drawing. The coonlinates are
displayed in the top right hand comer of the screen. In the Tool dialog,
you can specify the format ofthe displayed coon:linates:
fig. (23) 'lbol Parameters Dialog
Absolute
Cartesian:
The coon:Jinates displayed are the absolute X and Y
coordinate using the page origin as 0, 0.
Relative
Cartesian:
The coon:Jinates displayed are the X and Y
coordinate values, using the current location of the
current command as the origin 0, O.
Absolute Polar: This displays the angle and rndius (distance) of the cross
hair, relative to the page origin.
Relative Polar: This displays the angle and radius (distance) of the cross
hair, relative to current location of the current command.
Chapter 5 Page 49
The Drop Down Menus
Grid Values
Here you define the grid spacing. in the current units. There are two types
ofgrid markings: major and minor. Major ma.r::kB appear as darker points.
You can. fur example, mark feet as major ma.r::kB, and inches as minor
marks.
Entities and locations are automatically snapped to the closest grid point
when the grid is on. To edit a grid increment:
1. Click the pointer on the Grid X button. This is the X axis
increment.
2. Press [Esc] to clear the cnrrcnt value.
3. 1)pc the desired X increment.
4. Click the pointer on the Grid Y button. This is the Yaxis
increment. It does not have to be the same as the X axis increment.
Press [Esc] to clear the cnrrcnt value.
6. 1)pc the desired Y increment.
To set the major marking values. click on the Major button and then click
on the X and Y buttons and enter the increment. The major markers are
not measurements lilre the grid. but integers which divide the grid by the
numbers entered. For example, to have a major .lll8Ik: every fuurth grid
point. enter 4 in the X and Y buttons.
S. 81 ;II : ffi ::
:··········~-I··~··
:0·
. . . : : : : : :
~
. .
. . . . . .. . LJ
- .. .......
"
..
fig. (24) Grid On
Page 50 Chapter 5
..... .
............. . The Drop Down Menus
Axis Values
The axis provides a n."ierence dmwing outline, perpendicular to the
screen. As with the grid, you can define both the X and Y increment,
major and minor markings, in both axes. The axis appears as lines, rather
than points. There is no snap associated with the axis. To edit the axis
increment, follow the steps outlined in grid, above.
jig. (25) A:ds On
Pen Indexes (Alt-P)
This dialog is where you determine the current pen parameters: pen
number, color, weight, and line style.
There are 15 pens, numbered 1 to 9, and A to E. Each of these relates to a
pen on your plotter. Select the pen by clicking on the label. Colors
associated with each pen depend on your plotter. The current pen is
highlighted.
There are three line weights available, numbered 1 to 3, in oIder of
increasing thickness. Click: the thickness value for each pen.
The line style is represented by a name such as "CONTINUOUS",
"DASHED", "CENTER", and so on. These names are either system
assigned or those which you enter yourself when you define the line style
(see Pen Style, below). Each entity can have its own line style. Click on
the right and left arrows to scroll through the list of line style names.
All entities and dimensions are drawn in the current pen color, weight and
style. The default line style is continuous.
Chapter 5 Page 51
The Drop Down Menus
Weight :
1
CONTINUOUS
-
fig. (26) Pen Parameters Dialog
Pen Style
This is where you create or edit, and name line (pen) style definitions fur
use with the pens (see above). There are furty nine user definable line
styles. numbered 1 to 49. Do not edit line styles numbered 50 and up;
these are reserved fur system use and file translations. Also. do not
change any styles with a "SYL." prefix in their name. These are used by
the system fur many commands.
The top line is the line style name. Below it is an ASCII representation of
the line. Below that are the global and local scales.
Page 52 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
¢
I
Style Nane : CONTINUDU"'l-~_ _ _ _ _ __
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Global Line Stale : 1.99999990
Lotal Line Stale : 1.99990009
Line Index: 0
Load
Cantel
Save
OK
fig· (27) Pen Style Definition Dialog
To create a line style:
1. Select either an unused style (named "undefined"), or one of the
existing styles. Click on the right and left arrows to find a style.
2. Press [Esc] to clear the name and enter your own style name.
3. Click the cursor on the definition line below the name. This 64
cbaIacter line is where )'Ou create the line itself by typing any .
character (see below).
4. Set the scale (If necessary).
5. Click OK.
Each character in a line definition represents a solid part of the line; a
space represents a blank part. DynaCADD treats each character and space
as a ratio of the whole. Remember that the beginning and end of the
definition are joined when the line is drawn on the screen. For example, if
you type:
** **
this creates a line where two thirds is solid and one third blank, like this:
And if instead you type:
* ** *
Chapter 5 Page 53
The Drop Down Menus
you end up with a line divided into even dashes:
...... Since each part is examined as part of the whole, this:
............. ,
is the same as: **
because each segment is the same proportion of the entire length (one
thitd). You should design your lines so that each end has a solid, so that
blanks do not appear in comers or angles.
Global Scale: This changes the scale of all lines in the drawing,
immediately. Think of it as the "zoom" fi1ctor fur the
line. The size.of the solid and blank segments of all lines
on the screen are sized according to this value. The
larger the value, the latger the segmems.
Local Scale: This changes the scale of only those lines with the
displayed name. Ifthe local scale is changed, all lines
drawn with this style automatically update.
LoadISave: You can load and save line style definitions as .SfY
files. The File Selector dialog appears when you select
one ofthese options. Note that line style definitions are
also saved with each drawing.
Layers [AIt..L]
This dialog displays all the infurmation associated to seveIallayers. There
are two methods of scrolling through the layers. The small arrows scroll
one page at a time. The larger arrows scroll in three page jumps. To
modify a layer attribute, simply select the attribute and the dialog
associated with that attribute will appear. The attributes govern the names
and pen color, weight and style ofa layer. This is the only means of
changing .a layer's pen color, pen weight and pen style. There are three
status flags that can also be selected or deselected. These flags display
whether or not the layer is visible, active or locked.
Page 54 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
HIRe
000
DB!
ooz
on
004
DDS
006
001
aDa
on
010
011
Ste act Lck Col Nut Stile
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CDIITIIIUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
1 CONTINUOUS
I
­
I-
fig. (28) 14yers Dialog
The column titles and descriptions are as fullows:
Layer Layer Number
This can not be cbaDged.
Name Layer Name
Change this with a Layer Name dialog.
Ste
Layer State
This is the visible status flag.
Only one layer can be active at one time.
Act
Layer Active
Lck
Layer Locked
This is the locked status flag.
Change this with a Pen Color dialog.
Col
Layer Color
Change this with a Pen Weight dialog.
Layer Weight
Wgt
Style
Layer Style
Change this with a Pen Style dialog.
Chapter 5 Page 55
The Drop Down Menus
Hatch Pattern
The current pattern used in all hatch commands is shown in the window.
Click on the right and left arrows to scroll the display ofavailable hatch
patterns.
The hatch patterns are derived from a ront file called "HA'ICH.FNT",
These patterns can be modified in the vector funt Editor,
ftg. (29) Hatch Pattern Dialog
Page 56 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Preferences
The Preferences dialog allows the choice of which serial (COM) port
DynaCADD will use fur its serial output to plotters or printers, and
whether or not the system shall beep audibly on errors.
Serial Port: Bell: Any one of fuur serial ports, COMl, COM2, COM3 or
COM4 can be chosen. Only those available on your
system are selectable. Unavailable ports are grayed out.
Be careful if your system has a serial mouse hooked up
to it. If you choose the port that the mouse is plugged
into, and click: on OK, you will lose use of the mouse.
Two speeds, or baud rates, are available. 9600 and
19200. All plotters and printers support 9600 baud.
Some high-end plotters also support 19200 band. Initial
testing and hookup fur output should be attanpted at
9600 baud.
After making your selections and clicking on OK, the
COM port will be configured fur 8 bits, no parity and 1
stop bit, along with the requested band rate and
haIdware handshake protocol.
Note: DynaCADD runs with XONIXOFF conscantJ.y
enabled. Calcomp plotters require RI'Slcrs
handshaking to be turned on, otherwise leave RI'SI
crs off (unless your plotter documentation states
otherwise).
If you work in a crowded environment, or find the
beep of your machine annoying, you can shut it off by
cliCking on the respective button beside Bell.
To save settings so that they are retained from session
to session, click: on the Save Settings button.
CluqXer 5 Page 57
The Drop Down Menus
'II
u:.IlIIIlIII [ [ I I
~
Red
<lo
Blue : 1888
[[ll1III [[II [[II
[[II [[II rIll
u::.
: 1880 ~
~ ireen : 1880'
¢'
¢'
Set
~::;;.:......I ICancel I
fig. (30) Color Palette Dialog
Color Palette
The Color Palette dialog enables you. on a color system. to change the
color of the 15 available pens and the background.
To change a pen color; click: on the letter beside the color you wish to
modify. The level of the red, green and blue fur that color will be
displayed in number from 0 ro a 1000. You can now click: on the arrows
beside the respective primaIy color to increase or decrease the value by
tens. Hold down the shift key while clicking on the arrows to increase or
decrease the value by ones. You can also directly enter in the amount
from the keyboard and then click on the Set button.
If you wish to restore a color after it has been changed, but before OK is
selected, press the shift key and click on the color to restore. To restore
all colors, click on CanceL
Color changes are saved with each drawing, this enables every drawing to
have its own set of colors.
Paper Color [AIt-Z]
The Paper Color dialog enables you ro change the color of the paper, or
drawing area on the screen.
To change the color, click: on the letter beside the color. The drawing area
will change to that color and the drawing will repaint.
The paper color is saved with each drawing, this enables every drawing to
have its own set of colors.
Page 58 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Tools Menu
The Tools menu contains various drawing aids and global editing
parameters. Note that several tool commands act: as toggle switches and,
when turned on, are indicated by a check. mark on the menu. You do not
define the tool parameters here (see the Set menu, above), rnther you
simply indicate whether or not the tool is active.
Frame [Alt-FJ: Click here to turn the frame display on or off. "ibu can
have as many as five drawing frames visible on a
DynaCADD drawing. The fust drawing frame borders
the actual page, and is used as a visible representation of
the drawing size. The additional fuur frames are the
borders of any active 3-D views.
GCP [Alt-J]: Click here to turn the GCP display on or off. As
discussed earlier, the Geometric Coordinate Plane
(GCP) shows the current 3-D coordinate planes as a set
of three arrows pointing along the positive X, Yand Z
axes with its center at the part origin.
For a visible GCP, the fullowing conditions are
necessary:
• the selected mode is 3-D
• one or more views are active
• the GCP command has a checkmar:k
There are GCP related commands under the EDITVIEW
and CREATE icons.
Drawing Click here to turn the 2-D page origin display on or off.
Origin [Alt-O]: This command is similar to GCP, but fur 2-D mode. The
drawing (page) origin appears as a small box centered on
the current 0. 0 location of the page.
Chapter 5 Page 59
The Drop Down Menus
Grld [AIt-G]: Click here to tum on both the grid display and the grid
snap. Unlike some CADD packages, the snap mode and
grid visibility are not separate chamcrerlstics in
DynaCADD. When the Grid is visible, snap mode is
automatically activated. Snap causes all locations to
appear at the nearest grid intersection. The major grid
points appear darker than the minor grid points. Change
the grid values in the Thol parameter dialog.
Axis [Alt-A]: Click here to turn on or off the display ofaxis reference
lines. The axis lines are similar to the grid, but have no
associate snap. The lines are spaced a definable 2-D
distance from each other, starting at the page origin. The
major axis lines appear darker than the minor axis lines.
There is no snap associated with the axis. Change the
axis values in the Tool pammeter dialog.
[Alt-Y]: This displays the control points and direction of
B-splines and BcSzier curves.
Tracking [Alt-TJ: This command displays the current 2-D location of the
full screen cross hair, in any of fuur definable furmats
Graphics (see Dynamic Tracking, above). The X,Y coonlinates
appear at the right, above the drawing area.
Help Messages This turns on or off the display of command names
[AIt-B]: and help messages at the top of the screen. Help
messages are an inyaluable aid to the novice or
occasional user. When the pointer passes over an icon, a
short help message describes that particular function.
Close Curve
[Alt-W):
This command detennines if the last point of a curve
.automatically joins with the first point (closes the curve)
when a new curve is inserted.
View CUpping This restricts the display to the area defined by the
[Alt-V]: current views. H Vtew Clipping is turned on, only the
portions of the 3-D part that are visible within the
defined view areas are displayed. Otherwise the drawing
page is used to limit the graphics.
Page 60 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
Rubber Band When Rubber Band is on, a line is drawn from the
(Alt-R): CUIrent location to the center of the full screen cross hair
in such commands as JNSBRI' LINE and
POLYWlNDOW. This robber band line is only
displayed in 2-D mode.
Full CrossbaIrs When Full Crosshairs is on, the crosshairs are Jarge,
[Alt-C]:
occupying the full screen. When Full Crosshairs is off,
the crossbairs appearing on the screen are small in size.
'I'enBaxed (Alt-B]: When Text Boxed is on, all text entities are displayed
as a crossed box representing the physical exteDt of the
text. If Text Boxed is off, the actual text string is
displayed if the size of the text on the screen is large
enough to read. This command is not applicable to au;y
devices other than the screen. Output to pl~ printem
and files always displays the actual text entity.
The time it takes to regenerate the screen gmphics is
greatly reduced when Text Boxed is on.
Printer Echo During a design session, all commands and
(Alt-E]: parameter responses are echoed to the command histoty.
Infurmation commands also use this window for their
output. Printer Echo also sends the output to a printer
connected to the computer's parallel port.
Screen Buffer: lf}'Ou have a system with more than 1megabyte of
memoty, you can buf:fer the screen, so that it does not
need to be regenerated after a dialog is displayed. This
buttering speeds up screen redrawing considerably.
However, if}'Ou need the additional memoty the butter
uses, activate Screen Buffer. When Screen Buffer is off,
the memory is available fur your drawings.
Chapter 5 Page 61
The Drop Down Menus
Inheritance [A1t-l]: As with TRANCOPY. inheritance is a
tmnsfunnation modifier. Whenever a ttansfunnation
command is applied 10 an entity. inheritance controls the
status of the new entity. If inheritance is on. the new
entities receives the following attributes from the
original entities:
• pen color and weight
• linestyle
• layer
• view status
If inheritance is off. the above characteristics are
obtained from the current panuneCers (the selected
attributes). Inheritance is nonnally left on.
Images Menu
An image is simply a stored definition of the zoom and scroll filc10rs on
the drawing.
Each image has its own name entered into the Images menu which can
contain as many as sixteen images. You can retrieve them at any time.
After an image is selected. the drawing area clears and redtaws, using the
extent supplied by the individual image definition. For a complete
discussion of Images see Chapter 11.
Page 62 Chapter 5
The Drop Down Menus
GCPMenu
The GCP indicates the 3-D coordinate plane in a view. GCPs do not
appear in 2-D mode. There are seven system defined Geometric
Coordinate Planes (GCPs) available:
•
Top
•
Front
•
Right
•
Bottom
•
Rear
•
Left
• Isometric
Them is aJso room fur nine user definM GCPs (see Chapter lS). All
available GCPs are shown in the GCP menu. The currently active GCP is
preceded by a check: made in the menu. Creating and changing the GCP is
described in Chapter 11.
-,---/
To select a GCP fur the active view, click on the name in the menu.
Chapter 5 Page 63
The Drop Down Menus
Page 64 Chapter 5 Location and Entity Selection
location and Entity Selection ..• Chapter 6
Vutually all entity insertion and modification (transfurm) commands
require you to pass information to OynaCADO. The six basic types of
infurmation required are:
•
location
•
•
•
entity
window
view
• mode
• data and text
The various methods of selecting each type are covered in this chapter.
Note: There are default states for selection, indicated on the screen by the
highlighted icons.
Location Selection
Whenever a location is required by DynaCADO, the bottom icon pad area
automatically updates to display the location selection modifiers. With
these modifiers, it is possible to specify locations using any or all of the
following:
LOC
X, Y, Z
IX, IY, IZ
•
pointing
•
absolute Cartesian coordinates
•
relative Cartesian coordinates
•
polar coordinates
•
snap to an entity attribute
PANG, PRAD
END, ORO, INT, ON
•
setting the current location
SET
•
snap to grid
Grid on (fools menu)
• entity filter
Fll..TER
Note: When selecting multiple locations, press [Delete] to take back the
locations in the reverse order in which they were selected. In Insert mode,
[Delete] also erases the last entity drawn.
Chapter 6 Page 65
Location and Entity Selection
Any time }'Ou want to eIder euct (absolute) axis coontinates, press
[Return] and enter the coordinales in the dialog. Sepande each axis value
with a comma. Por example: lO,l()(),6. (See Chapter 4: Keyboard
Command Entry.)
If}'Ou are entering commands by typing. mther thaD. through the icon
interface, press [;] after the coordinales are accepted. Press [;] to indicate
that the selection process is complete.
It + I
location by Pointing
Command: LOC [FJ.]
'Ibis is the easiest location selection technique to use. 1b select a location.
place the full screen crosshair at the desired position. and click dIe mouse
button. As with all location selection techniques, a bell sounds if dIe
selected location is invalid. A few points to keep in mind while selecting
locations are:
• The location must be within the drawing boundaries.
• The LOC icon must be active to use the X, Y. z, PRAD, IX, IY,
lZ and PANG icons.
• In 3-D mode, the crosshair must be within a defined view.
• Avoid free digitizing in 3-D mode. (see Free Digitizing, located in
Chaprer3)
• Click the right mouse button to indicate that}'Our selection is
complete.
• Unless tracking is turned off, the current X-V 2-D coonlinates of
the crosshair are displayed in the upper right of the screen, above
the drawing area.
Page 66 Chapter 6
LocationandEotitySdection
XO Y7
X-7 YO
XO YO
I
PO<;le Origin
X7 YO
fig. (31) Absolute 2-D
Cartesian Coorrlinates
XOY-7
W
Absolute cartesian Coordinates (2-D)
[YJ
Command: X, Y
You may reterencc any 2-D location on the current drawing page by an X
and Y location. The xu, YO intersection (zero point) is referred to as the
page origin and is graphically displayed as a smaIl square with its center at
the 0, 0 location:
All locations to the right of this origin are considered positive X locations,
and alllocatioDs to the left are negative X locations.
All locations above the origin are considered positive Y locations, and all
locations below the origin are negative Y locations.
When you request 2~D locations, DynaCADDdispJays the required icons
in the lower menu pad.
To specify an absolute 2-D location:
1.
Click the X icon or press [x].
2.
Enter the X coordinate in10 the calculator that pops up.
3.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
4.
Click the Y icon or press fy].
5.
Enter the Y coordinate into the calculator.
6.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
7.
Press [;] or click the equivalent icon.
Chapter 6 Page 67
I..Dcation and Entity Selection
Absolute Cartesian Coordinates (3-D)
Command: X, Y, Z
You can reference any 3-D location in the current design space by an X, Y
and Z location. The Xo, YO and 7JJ intersection is refurred to as the part
origin and is graphically displayed as the center of the Geometric
Cooniinate Plane (GCP). The three arrows of the GCP always point in the
positive X, Y and Z directions.
Note:
The actual axis directions are defined by the active GCP. You
can change and select the wrious cootdinate planes at any time,
even change coonlinate systems from within a command.
When you request 3-D locations, DynaCADD displays the required icons
in the lower menu pad. To specify an absolute 3-D location:
1.
Click the X icon or press [x].
Enter the X coonlinate into the calculator that pops up.
2.
3.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
4.
Click the Y icon or press [y].
S.
Enter the Y coonlinate into the calculator.
6.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
7.
Click the Z icon or press [z].
8.
Enter the Z cootdinate into the calculator.
9.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
10. Press [;] or click the equivalent icon. XOY7 ZO XOYO Z-7
fig. (32) 3-D Coordinate System
Page 68 Chapter 6
location and Entity Selection
Relative cartesian Coordinates (2-D)
Command: IX, IY
When you select 2-D locations, the last location of the current command
is remembered and reterenced as the current location. As an alternative to
using strictly absolute coordinates, you can specify relative or
incremental coordinates. To specify a relative 2-D location:
1.
Click the IX (Increment X) icon or press [i][x].
2.
Enter the X discance to move from the current location.
3.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
4.
Click the IY (Increment Y) icon or press [i][y].
5.
Enter the Y distance to move from the current location.
6.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
7.
Press [;] or click the equivalent icon.
XOY7
X-3 Y6\
It f")
X-5Y3~/.1 t~ ~+.J X-7 YO
IX 2
XO YO
I
Page Or/gin
X7 YO
XOY-7
fig. (33) Relative Cartesian Coordinates 2-D
Chapter 6 Page 69
Location and Entity Selection
Relative cartesian Coordinates (3-D)
Command: IX, IT. IZ
As with 2-D relative locations, the last location of the current command is
remembered and referenced to as the current location. 1b specify a
relative 3-D location:
1.
Click the IX (Increment X) icon or press [i][x].
2.
Enter the X diSWlce to move from the current location.
3.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
4.
Click the IY (Increment y) icon or press [i]£1].
S.
Enter the Y diSWlce to move from the current location.
6.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
7.
Click the JZ (Increment Z) icon or press [i][z].
8.
Enter the z distance to move from the current location.
9.
Press [Return] or click the equivalent icon.
10.
Press [;] or click the equivalent icon.
X-2 Y-3 _Z==-~ll2
~
I
.::.
X-6 Y-6 Z3
I
-
+.....
·IX 4
X7 YO ZO
'
'(
II
fig. (34) Relative Cartesian Coordinates 3-D
Page 70 Chapter 6
Location and Entity Selection
Polar Coordinates (2-D)
Command: PANG, PRAD
Polar cool'dinate8 are always considered relative, never absolute. The
actual location selected is incremented from the current location.
The pllar coo1'dinate system uses both an angle and a radius to determine
the location. You must supply the angle in degrees; zero degrees is to the
right of the entit¥ origin. The positive angle increases in the counter
clockwise direction (0 to 360), negative in the clockwise direction (0 to
-360). The radius determines how tar from the current location to
increment the new location.
To specify a 2..1) pllar cooroiDate:
1.
Click the Radius icon (pRAD).
2.
Enter the distance to move from the current location.
3.
Press [Retnm] or click the equivalent icon.
4.
Click the Angle icon (pANG).
5.
Enter the angle in degrees (-360 to 360).
6.
Press [Retnm] or click the equivalent icon.
7.
Press [;] or click the equivalent icon.
90 Degrees
o Degrees
180 Degrees
270 Degrees
fig. (35) Polar Coordinates (2-D)
Chapter 6 Page 71
Location and Entity Selection
Polar Coordinates (3-D)
Command: PANG, PRAD
3-D polar coordinates operate similar to their 2-D counterparts. The
current X-V plane defined by the active OCP is used to determine the
angle. The location is selected using the current Z depth, and rotating
about the X-V plane. As with 2-D polar coordinates, the current location
is used as the origin.
1b specify a 3-D polar coordinate:
1.
Click the Radius icon (pRAD).
2.
Enter the distance to move from the current location.
3.
Press [Return] or click the equiwlent icon.
4.
Click the Angle icon (pANG).
S.
Enter the angle in degrees (-360 to 360).
6.
Press [Return] or click the equiwlent icon.
7.
Press [;] or click the equivalent icon.
fig. (36) 3-D Polar Coordinates at Z Depth
Page
n
Chapter 6
lDcation and Entity Selection
location Selection by Entity
Whenever you need to select an entity for a location rererence POint. the
bottom icon pad changes to show the entity selection icons and the
drawing crossbair shows two small boxes. These are the eutit¥ "traps";
the extent used to determine which entity to select if more than one is near
the selection point. The small trap is first checked and, if an entity is
found within its boundaries, then it is used. If no entity exists within the
small trap, the larger tIap is examined. When two or more entities are
within a trap, the first eutit¥ found is chosen. Use INFORM usr
LsrDRAW to show the trap pam.merers.
Choosing an entity as a selection point is necessary to align entities
properly for technical drawings. For example, if you insert a polygon at
the origin of a cirele, the first vertex of the polJ8on begins at the 0 degree
location of the cirele and the origin of the polygon is the same as the
origin of the cirele.
If entities overlap, click: the left mouse button to select the first (topmost),
then again to select the next below that, and so on.
WIth these modifie.m, you can select locations via entities by the following
methods:
• snap
• endpoints
• on or near entities
•
• eutit¥ filtem
origins
• intersections
Entity Snap
Entity snap is a very powerful reature that allows locations to reference
the attributes of existing geometry. This makes it possible to create veI)'
accurate arrangements of entities or parts, without the need to constantly
enter the coordinates of each new location. You can rererence the
following characteristics:
• entity end points
• entity intersections
• entity origins
• on or near entities
With entity snap on, you do not have to worry about free digitizing in 3-D
mode (see Chapter 3).
Chapter 6 Page 13
Location and Entity Selection
Entity End Points
I.. . . . . ' Command: END [Fl] Snap a new entity to existing entity end points. All entity types are allowed with this location modifier. 'lb find the end point of any entity type: 1.
Click the End icon (END) or press [Fl].
2.
Select the entity whose end point is required.
When selecting lines, an::s or elliptical ares, the end closest to
the point at which the entity was selected is chosen as the
location.
Note: Entity Origins
ffi2] Command: ORO [F3]
Snap a new entity to existing entity origin or scart point. All entity types,
except B-spline and B6zier curves, are allowed with this location
modifier. 'lb find the origin of any entity type:
1.
Click the Origin icon (ORO) or press [F3].
2.
Select the entity whose origin is required.
Note: The origin of a line is considered as the midpoint between the
two end points.
Entity Intersections
00 Command: !NT [F4]
Snap an entity to the intersection of two existing entities. Lines, an::s and
circles are pennitted with this modifier. To find the intersection of two
entities:
1.
Click: the Intersection icon (]NT) or press [F4].
2.
Select the two lines whose intersection point is required.
In 3-D mode, DynaCADD perfurms a true 3-D intersection. Lines
appearing to intersect on the screen may not physically intersect.
DynaCADD infurms you, should this occur.
Page 74 Chapter 6
Location and Entity Selection
Remember when you are selecting entities that the intersection closest to
the selection point of the second entity is round. This may appear
confusing at first. Examine the example pictures and experiment.
'-Int
Jig.
(37) Entity Snap Modes
Entity On
Command: ON
All entity types, except text. B-spIines and Bezier curves, are allowed
with this location modifier. The location is selected on the chosen entity
at the point closest to where the entity was selected. To select a location
near an entity:
1.
Click the On icon (ON).
2.
Select the entity at the point where the location is required.
Setting the Current Location
ISETI
Command: SET
There are times when you must reference a location without actually
selecting that position. For instance, you may need to insert a point three
Chapter 6 Page 75
Location and Entity Selection
units to the right ofthe origin of a cirele. To select a location as the
current location:
1.
Click the Set icon (SE'I).
2.
Click the Origin icon (ORO) or press [F3].
3.
Select the cirele by clicking the cross hairs at ent #1.
4.
Click the location icon (LOC) or press [Fl].
5.
Click the increment X icon (lX).
6.
Enter the value of 3.0.
7.
Press the comma £OJ or press the right mouse button.
The selected location is maiked with a small cross.
Reference
Loeotlon fig· (38)
Set Location
Entity Filters
Command: FlLTER
Only certain entities are valid for location and selection commands. All
selection techniques allow the selection of "valid" entities. An entity must
meet the following conditions to be valid:
• If in 2-D mode, the entity is a 2-D entity.
• If in 3-D mode, the entity is a 3-D entity.
• The layer on which the entity exists is turned "on" and is not
locked.
• The appropriate entity filter is "on" (see Entity FilteIS, below).
Page 76 Chapter 6
JAcation and Eotity Selection
You can further enhance all selection techniques by using the entity filter
modifier to limit actions to one or more entities based on their type. For
example. you can select all line type entities on layer five. To activate
entity filteR:
1. Click the Entity Fdter icon (FILTER).
2. Deselect all entity types on the filter dialog. that you do not want
available fur selection.
3. Click the OK button.
The Reset button restores the status of all valid entity type buttons to their
defilult condition. The Off button deselects all entity type buttons.
Another use of the entity filter is fur infutmation. Since DOt all commands
work on all entities (fur example. )'Ou cannot fillet a solid), when you
select the entity filter icon from the bottom icon pad. the dialog
automatically shows which entities are valid fur that command. If an
entity type is shown as disabled, that specific entity type is DOt valid in
the current command.
fig. (39) Entity Filter Dialog
Chapter 6 Page 77
Location and Entity Selection
Grid Snap
You can snap all locations, both 2-D and 3-D, to a ddinable grid. A grid
is very similar to graph paper and only allows you to select locations at
one of the grid points (mtersectioos). If a location is selected that is not on
one of the grid points, the location is snapped to the nearest point. The
grid is always considered as 2-D. with the initial grid point oro. YO) at the
current page origin.
To tum on the grid display and snap, select grid from the Tools menu.
Grid is explained in Chapter S.
Entity Selection
Whenever one or more entities are reqnired. DynaCADD displays the
entity selection icons in the bottom icon pad. Many commands permit an
nnIimited number of entities fur transfi>nnation, i.e; deleted. copied,
mirrored, etc. n is extremely tedions to select the entities you wish the
command to act on, not to mention prone to errors, ifyou were reqnired
to manually point and click: on every entity. DynaCADD provides the
fullowing methods fur entity selection:
BYDIG
pointing
BYAlL
select all
window
BYWIN
BYWOUT
window out
BYVWIN
view window
BYPWIN
polywindow
BYLAST
repetitive last
BYLAYER
• by layer
• by pen color
BYCOLOR
•
by pen (line) style
BYSfYLE
• by line weight
BYWEIGIIT
• directional chaining BYCHAIN
• by entity type
Fn.TBR
As with all entity selection techniques, the wlid entities become "dotted",
to indicate which have been selected.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The crosshair changes to show the two entity trap boxes. as described
above under Location Selection by Entity.
Page 78 Chapter 6
Location and Entity Seledion
Note: Once selected, an entity may be deselected by clicking the left
mouse button while the entity selection cmsor is positioned on the
entity and the [Shift] key is held down. This applies to all the
fullowing entity selection commands.
I/ I Selecting Entities by Pointing
Command: BYDIG [FS]
This is the most common entity selection technique. Pointing is also
called "digitizing".
To select the entity. point the full screen crosshair at any position near the
desired entity and click the mouse button. If a ben sounds and no entity is
selected, DynaCADD was unable to find a valid entity close enough to
the selection point. Try again, closer to the desired entity.
Note: IfIL1..l Whenever a specific number of entities is required, this is the
oo1y valid method of entity selection.
Selecting All Entities
Command: BYAIL
There are times when it is easier to simply select all valid entities. Click:
the BYAIL icon.
I[!] I Selecting Entities Inside a Window
Command: BYWIN [F6]
Click the Wmdow modifier to select entities based on whether they are
completely contained within a definable window. To select entities using
the window modifier.
1.
Click the Wmdow (BYWIN) icon or press [F6].
2.
Define the entity window (see Wmdows, below).
To cancel the window modifier, click the right mouse button or press [;].
Sometimes you are prompted by DynaCADD fur a window. A window is
a rectangular frame defined by two points diagonally opposite one
another. This defines an area within which certain commands are
executed or are limited. After you enter the first point, a box fullows the
cmsor. making the actual window visible at all times. Notice the
Chapter 6 Page 79
I..ocation and Entity Selection
difrerence between a window and a polywindow.
1.01 A rew important points to remember about windows are:
• All windows are 2-D locations. That is, they exist on the same
plane as the screen.
• No part of a window may be offthe dmwing.
• When you select the two locations. you can use entity snap.
Entities Outside a Window
Command: BYWOUT
Click the Window Out modifier to select entities based on whether they
are completely outside a definable window. Th select entities using the
Window Out modifier:
1.
Click the Wmdow Out icon (BYWOUf).
2.
Define the entity window (see Wmdows. below).
Note: t. •
To cancel the window out modifier. click the right mouse button
or press [;].
Selecting Entities Using View Windows
Command: BYVWlN
Click the View Wmdow modifier to select entities based on whether they
are entirely enclosed within a current view definition. This modifier
works very similar to the window modifier, with the exception of how the
window is defined. Th select entities using the View Wmdow modifier:
1.
Click the View Wmdow icon (BYVWIN).
2.
Select a view (see View Selection. below).
Note: To cancel the view window modifier. click the right mouse
button or press [;].
A view is simply a section of a 3-D drawing where you can see parts and
entities from a defined angle or petSpeCti:ve. A view clip restricts activity
within a selected view (otherwise the drawing page restricts the activity).
However. even though on a portion of an entity may be visible in a view.
another portion may exist outside the view boundaries. You can change
the scale and angle of each view.
Page 80 Chapter 6
~.
Location and Entity Selection
If two or more views overlap, DynaCADD chooses the view covering the
smallest page area. For example, if you select a segment of overlapping
views to delete, then the smallest view is deleted. This insures that all
views are selectable at aU times.
Up to four views are available on the screen at any time, each with its own
angle, zoom, and direction of view. Remember that each view still loob
in upon the same drawing and that whatever cbaoges occur in one view
occur simultaneously in the others.
Selecting Entities by Polywindows
SI1
Command: BYPWIN [F7]
Polywindows are different from regular reccangular windows (see above)
in that they permit a definition of an irregular, non reccangular space. To
select entities using the Polywindows modifier, click the BYPWIN icon or
press [F7].
You create a polywindow by positioning the pointer and clicking the
button at any point you wish. A "rubber band- line follows the pointer to
indicate the outline of the polywindow (see Rubber Band, Tools·Menn,
Chapter 5). This line also connects the pointer with the first selected
location. The outline can overlap and cross itself. Click the right mouse
button when you have aU points ddined.. This "sets" the polywindow.
AU entities contained within the polywindoware selected.
Before
After
fig. (40) Polywindow
ChaptCr 6 Page 81
Location and Entity Selection
SelectIng the Last Entity
Command: BYLASr
Click the Last modifier to select the last valid eDtity currently visible on
the screen. This is a repetitive modifier, allowing you to select successive
eDti.ties. based on their position in the database. Click the BYLAST icon
to select the last eDtity.
Selecting Entities by Layer
I t§J I Command: BYLAYER
Click the Layer modifier to select all eDti.ties existing on a specified layer.
To select entities by layer:
1.
Click the By Layer icon (BYLAYER).
2.
Input the required layer number into the pop up calculator.
All eDtities that are dmwn in the requested layer will be selected.
Selecting Entitles by Pen Color
[id Command: BYCOLOR
Click this modifier to select all eDti.ties dmwn in a specified pen number
(which in tum relates to a specific pen color on a plotter). To select
eDti.ties by pen color:
1.
Click the By Pen Color icon (BYCOLOR).
2.
Click the required pen number from the dialog.
All eDtities that are dmwn in the requested color will be selected.
Selecting Entities by Style
I I Command: BYSTYLE
Click this modifier to select all entities dmwn in a specified line style. To
select entities by style:
1.
Click the By Style icon (BYS1YLE).
2.
Click the required style named in the dialog window. Use the
right and left anow buttons to scroll the display until the style name
appears in the window. All entities that are dmwn in the requested line style will be selected. Page 82 Chapter 6
l.A:ation and Entity Selection
Selecting Entitles by Weight
Command: BYWBIGHT
Click the By Weight icon (BYWBIGHT) to select entities by their pen
weight. Select the weight from the dialog, from 1 (lightest) to 3 (heaviest).
All entities that are visible and have the requested pen weight will be
selected.
Selecting Entities by Chaining
I Jb I
Command: BYCHAIN
Click entity chaining to select entities. based on their connections with
other entities. To select entities by chaining:
Click the By Chain icon (BYCHAIN).
Select the initial entity at the end where the chaining should
start.
All entities that share a common end point are selected. H more than two
entities share an end point, the direction taken by the chain is undefined.
Note: To cancel the chain modifier. click the right mouse button or
press [;].
1.
2.
ent
#1'"
,
,(
ent
112
,
ent
/13
•115
ent
Entities are selected in successive order. Selecting the first
line (ent 111) with the BYCHAIN option causes the arc (ent
112) to be selected, then the horizontal line (ent 113). Entity
selection continues in this manner until all the entities
chained to the first line (ent 111) are selected.
fig. (41) Selecting Entities by Chaining
Chapter 6 Page 83
I..ocation and Entity Selection
Entity Filters
Command: FILTER
This is the same as described in location selection. above.
Data and Text Entry
Often. a command requires the input of other infunnation in order to
execute, including:
• a value fur rotation, angle, copies
•
a range fur layers
•
a name fur layers
•
text fur text, dimensions or leaders
• a filename to save or load
When this sort of entry is required, the appropriate dialog, calculator or
editor is displayed on the screen.
Page 84 Chapter 6
IDsertiug Entities
Inserting Entities ..• Chapter 7
'The fullowing cbapteIs document the commands and matures in
DynaCADD in the onier in which they appear on the icon pads.
This chapter details the various entity types and insertion teclmiques
available. All Insert Entity commands are combined under the INSERI'
icon.
Drawings are created primarily by inserting these entities:
•
point
•
text
•
line
•
b-spline curve
•
circle
•
B&:ier curve
•
•
are
fillet (are)
•
2-D filled (solid) polygon
•
batch symbols
•
ellipse
•
section lines
• elliptical are
• 3-D f8ce
'The combination of entities gives you parts and drawings (see Chapter 3),
Some of the commands described in this chapter are a1rected by the
settings in the Tools menu (see Chapter 5).
In DynaCADD you create various entities by using the laJ:ge array of
commands and modifiers. These modifiers give you. increased flexibility
and control over how and where the new entities are created and
. positioned.
Entities can be modified by using the appropriate transfurm commands. However, entities on locked or invisible layers cannot be modified u.ntil the layer status is changed (see Chapter 15)• .
"
'The bottom icon pad contains all the in-stream modifiers by which you. select entities and locations fur the various commands and enter cooIdinate infunnation (see Chapter 6). chapter 7 Page 85
Inserting Entities
Inserting Points
Primary
Command:
INSBRf POINT
Modifiers:
None
Command:
INSBRf POINT loe #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
foe #1:
Selected location defining the point origin.
Description:
Points are created and displayed at all selected locations.
A point is a discrete (specific, single) location on the
dmwing page, represented l:!Y a small cross hair.
centel'ed on the location. Points are typically used as
references for important locations on a drawing. such as
the origin ofa circle or arc.
be/l3
+
be/l2
+
00/14
+
be/ll
+
00/15
+
jig. (42) Points
Page 86 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Lines
Primary
Command:
INSBRfLINB
Modifiers:
LINBLOC
~
~
ORrHO
VERI1CAL
[[]
HORIZONT
5J
PERPEND
[K]
PARALLEL
W
TANTO
TANPOINT
L1NANO (flag)
LlNLBN (flag)
Flags:
~
~
g]
§
These two flags override other line insertion
considerations. For example, if you insert a vertical line.
but enter a 4S degree angle, the line appears at 4S
degrees. regardless of the vertical line icon.
LlNANG
The angle of the line (-360 to +360
degrees).
LINLEN
The absolute length of the line, in the
current units.
chapter 1 Page ffl
Ioserting Entities
Description:
A line is defined by two locations, which)'Ou can select
and revise by using any one of the numerous modifiem
available. Lines are used to define, dimension or as
references to various objects on the drawing.
AlllNSBRr LINE commands generate continuous lines,
using the end point of the last line as the start point of
the next line. A "rubber band" line connects the
previous point with the pointer as )'OU move the mouse
(see Rubber Band, Tools Menu, Chapter 5). Click the
left mouse button to insert a line end point.
The semicolon (;) is used in alllNSBIIT LINE
commands to signify that }'Ou wish to start a new line
without exiting the command. You can also click the
right mouse button instead of pressing [;].
Page 88 Chapter 7
Iosertiog Entities
Inserting Lines by Location
'---
~
lZS{J
[U]
Command:
INSERT LINE L1NBLOC (flags) loe 111, loe #2
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary INSERT LINE command.
loe Ill:.
The first (start) point of a line.
loell2:
The second (end) point. 'I\w locations are required to
define a line.
Description:
A line is created and displayed between locations one
and two. You can create a continuous series of lines by
selecting additional locations.
fig. (43) Inserting Lines by Location
Chapter 7 Page 89
Inserting Entities
Inserting Orthogonal Lines
~
Command:
INSERI'LINE ORrHO (flags) loe til. loe If).
INI
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
I!Jj
Flags:
See primary INSERI' LINE command.
loe #1:
The first (start) point of a line.
loe 112:
The second (end) point. Two locations are required to
define a line.
Description:
A vertical or horizontal line is created between the
selected locations. The deviation along either the X or Y
axis is reduced to zero. depending on the individual
deviations between the selected locations. If the distance
along the X axis between loe til and loe If). is less than
that of the Y distance, the deviation along the X axis is
reduced to zero. In 3-D mode. the line is still permitted
to tIavel along the Z axis.
oc#t
oc#4
oc#5
+..-----'+
+
1......-_ _ _ _
bc#2
--1+
tx#3
fig. (44) line, Oltho
Page 90 Chapter 7
Insertiug Entities
Inserting Vertical Lines
'~
I/C!} I
Command:
INSERT LINE VBRI1CAL (flags) loe #1, loe #2
~
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary INSERT LJNH command.
LocI1:
The first (start) point of a line.
[]] loc#2:
The second (end) point. Two locations are required to
define a line.
Description:
A verCicalline is created and displayed between the
selected locations. The line starts at location #1 and ends
at location #2, with any deviation along the X axis
reduced to zero. In 3-D IIlOde. a vertica11ine is still
pel'lDitted to travel along the Z axis.
00#2
+
fig. (45) Line, Vertical
Chapter 7 Page 91
Iuserting Entities
Inserting Horizontal LInes
~
Command:
INSERf LINE HORlZONr (flags) loe 111. loe Ifl
INI
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
loe #1:
See primary INSERf LINE command.
I.~I
The first (start) point of a line.
loe In:
The second (end) point. Two locations are requiJ:ed to
define a line.
Description:
A horizontal line is created and displayed between the
selected locations. The line starts at location 111 and ends
at location Ifl with any deviation along the Y axis
reduced to zero. In 3-D JDOde, a horizomalline is still
permit1ed to travel along the Z axis.
tx#2
+
fig. (46) line, Horizontal
Page 92 Chapter 7
InsertiDg Entities
Inserting Perpendicular Lines
~
'---/ IN I
[gJ
Command:
INSERI' LINE PERPBND (flags) eDt #1, lac #1. loc /fl
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary INSBRf LINE command.
ent 11: The existing line, used as a reference to define the angle
of the new line.
loe 11: The start point of the new line.
loe #2: The end point. Two locations are required to define the
line.
DescrIption: A line is created perpendicular to the selected line,
starting at location #1 and ending at location /fl. If
location /fl does not fall emctJ.y on the line, the end of
the new line is trimmed normal (peIpendicular) to the
second location.
tx;#1
fig. (47) line, Perpendicular
Chapter 7 Page 93
Inserting Entities
Inserting Parallel Lines
~
IZS{]
I~I
Command:
INSERI'LINE PARALLEL (flags) ent #1, loc #1, loc III
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary INSERI' LINE command.
entll:
The existing line, used as a reference to define the angle
of the new line.
locll:
The start point of a line.
loc#2:
The end point. Two locations are required to define the
line.
Description:
A line is created parallel to the selected line, starting at
location #1 and ending at location /fl. If location III does
not full exactly on the line, the end of the new line is
trimmed normal (perpendicular) to the second location.
~
oc#2
ert#r
+
/
oc#r
fig. (48) Line, Parallel
Page 94 Chapter 7
/
Inserting Entities
Inserting Tangent Lines Between Arcs
Command:
INSBRr LINE TANTO (flags) eDt Ill, ent 112 Mode:
2-D only Mags:
See primary INSBRI' LINE command. ent #1, ent 12: Any two 2-D ares, ciroles or fillets. Description:
A line is inserted tangent to the two selected entities. The selection point for each.of the entities determines to
which side ofthe are the line is drawn.
Note:
A continuous series of lines are not available when you
use the TANTO modifier.
eri#1
fig. (49) Line. 'Rmgent
Chapter 7 Page 95
Inserting Entities
Inserting Lines Tangent from locations
Command:
INSERI' L1NB TANPOINT (flags) loe HI. ent HI Mode:
2-D and 3-D Flags:
See primaty INSERr L1NB command. locH1:
The start point of the line. entH1:
Any an:,
Descripdon:
A line is inserted starting at location 11. tangent to the selected entity. The selection point on the entity
determines to which side of the arc the line is drawn.
Note:
A continuous series oflines are not awiIable when you
use the TANPOINT modifier.
circle or fillet. fig. (50) Line, 11mpoint
Page 96 Chapter 1
Iosertiug Entities
Inserting Circles
Primary
Command:
INSERf CIRCLE
Modifiers:
C2POINT
181
ClRRAD
~
ClRCIRCUM
101
101
CBETWEEN
[Q]
ClRRADLOC
lBI
CIRDIA
Description: A circle consists of an origin (center) and a radius. In
3-D mode, all circles are inserred parallel to the current
plane ddined by the active GCP.
chapter 7 Page CJl
Inserting Entities
Inserting Circles By Origin and Radius
~
~
~
Command:
INSERT CIRCLE C2POINT loe #I, loe 112
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
loclt:
The origin, or center. of the cirele. This location also
defines the Z depth of the circle in 3-D mode.
locll2: The distance between location #I and location 112 defines
the radius of the circle. This location may be any point
on the cireumference.
Description: A cirele is drawn with its origin at location #I and a
radius large enough so that the circumference passes
through location 112.
Note: In 3-D mode, any deviation along the Z axis between the
selected locations is ignored.
00#1
+
fig. (51) Circle, 2 Point
Page 98 Chapter 7
Ioserting Entities
Inserting Circles by Radius
~
181
1BI
Command:
INSERT CIRCLE CJRRAD (tad) 100 11
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
rad:
loe #1:
Numeric value fur the radius of the cirele.
Description:
The origin of the cirele.
A cirele is drawn with its origin at location 11. and a
radius of "rad",
fig. (52) Circle, Radius
Chapter 7 Page 99
Iosertiog Entities
Inserting Circles by Diameter
~
181
HZlI
Command:
INSERT CntCLB CIRDIA (dia) loe 11
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
dla:
loe #1:
Numeric value fur the diam.eter of the circle.
DescrIption:
The origin of the circle.
A cirele is drawn with its origin at location 11, and a
diameter of "dia",
oc.,#1
fig. (53) Circle, Diameter
Page 100 Chapter 7
Ioserting Entities
Inserting Circles Using Three Points
Command:
INSBIrr ClRCLB ClRClRCUM 100 Ill. 100 112. 100 13
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
loe 11, loe #2,
loe#3:
Any three locations on the cireum1.erence of the cirole.
Description:
A cirole is drawn with the circumference ofthe cirole
passing through all three locations.
Note:
In 3-D mode, the Z depth ofthe cirole is defined by
using the Z depth of location Ill. Any deviation along the
Z axis between the three locations is ignored.
Slight errors may occur if all three locations are
positioned close to each other on the cireumference. For
best results. space the locations as fur apart on the cirole
as possible.
fig. (54) Qrcle. Ciraunference
Chapter 7 Page 101
Inserting Entities
Inserting Circles Between 1\vo Points
Command: INSBKr CIRCLE CBE1WBEN 100 #1, 100 #2
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
loe #1, loe #2: Any two locations, placed on the circumfurence of the
circle on opposing sides ofthe origin.
Description: A circle is drawn with its origin at the midpoint between
location #1 and location #2. The radius is one half the
distance between the two locations.
Note: In 3-D mode, the Z depth ofthe circle is defined by
using the Z depth oflocation #1. Any deviation along the
Z axis between the two locations is ignored.
be#1
fig. (55) Circle, Between
Page 102 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Circles of a Specified Radius Between Two Points
Command:
INSERI' CIRCLE CIRRADLOC (rad) loe #I. loe /fl
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
rad:
Numeric value fur the radius of the circle.
loc 11, loc #2:
Any two locations placed on the circumference of the circle.
Description:
A circle of radius "md" is drawn between the two locations.
loe #I and loe /fl. If the distance between the two locations
is greater than twice the radius "md". then no circle is
drawn.
Note:
In 3-D mode. the Z depth of the circle is defined by using
the Z depth of location #I. Any deviation along the Z axis
between the two locations is ignored.
R I. 000
fig. (56) Circle, Radius, Between
Chapter 7 Page 103
IDserting Entities
Inserting Arcs
PrImary
Command:
INSERT ARC
Modifiers:
ARC3POINT
[5]
ARCRAD
0
ARCDIA
ARCCIRCUM
ARCSTARTA (flag)
ARCENDA (flag)
ABBTWBEN
ARCRADLOC
Flags: l2iJ
l3J
lZj
[2J
~
~
Where noted, the two angle flags can be used instead of
selecting an arc start and end location with the mouse.
In both cases, you enter the angle (-360 to 360 degrees)
in the pop up calculator. Then you draw the arc as
described. The flags are alternatives to locations as
described. You must still click at "dummy" locations to
fulfill the command, but the values entered into the
calculator override any locations selected by clicking the
mouse.
ARCSTAKrA
The arc start angle.
ARCENDA
The arc end angle.
Description: An arc consists of a partial cirole defined by an origin,
radius, start angle and end angle. The first location is
the origin, fullowed by start and end points.
Note: All arcs are drawn in a counter clockwise direction,
beginning at the start angle and tenninating at the end
angle. In 3-D mode, all arcs inserted panillel to the
current plane defined by the active GCP.
Page 104 Chapter 7
Ioserting Entities
Inserting Arcs Using Three Points
Command: INSERI' ARC (flags) ARC3POlNT loe ~ loe Ifl.
loe#3
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primaIy INSERr ARC command.
loe#l: The origin of the are.
10012: Location H2 defioes both the mdius and the start angle of
the are.
loe #3: Location #3 defioes the end angle of the are.
Description: An are is drawn with Us origin at location Ill. The are
begins at location H2 and is drawn counter clockwise
until the end point of the are is at the same angle to the
a:re origin as location #3.
Note: The flag setting option of DynaCADD allows increased
flexibility in deJjning arcs. Any flags that are set
override the wIues defined by the selected locatioDS.
+
+
'oc#!
tx#3
tx#2
fig. (57) An:, 3 Point
Chapter 7 Page 105
Inserting Entities
Inserting Arcs by Radius
Command: INSElU ARC (flags) ARCRAD loe II. loe#2t loe #3 Mode: 2-D and 3-D Flags: See primary INSERr ARC command. loefl: The origin (center) of the are. loe #2, loe #3: The start and end points ofthe arc. Description: An arc is drawn with a radius equal to the specified value. no mat.1er where you select fur the locations. Enter the radius value into the pop up calculator after you select ARCRAD. then select the three locations that define the arc. +
+
ocUI
oc#3
fig. (58) An:, Radius
Page 106· Chapter 7
Ioserting Entities
Inserting Arcs by Diameter
Command:
INSERT ARC (flags) ARCOlA loe #1. loe#2, loe 113 Mode:
2-0 and 3-0 Flags:
See primary INSBRr ARC command. loe 11:
The origin (center) of the arc. loe 12, loe #3:
The start and end points of the arc. Description:
An arc is drawn with the diametec is equal to the specified value, no matter where )'Ou select for the
locations. Bnter the diameter value in10 the pop up calculator after )'Ou select ARCRAD. Then select the three locations that define the arc. oc#2
fig. (59) Arc. Diameter
Chapter 7 Page lID
Iusertiog Entities
Inserting Arcs Using Three Points on Circumference
Command:
INSERf ARC (flags) ARCCIRCUM loe Ill. loe 112,
loe #3
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primaty INSERf ARC command.
loe Ifl, loe #2,
loe #3:
Three locations on the circumference of the required
are. Location 111 also defines the start angle, and
location 113 defines the end angle.
Description:
An arc is drawn with its ciroumference passing through
aU three locations. The arc starts at the angle defined by
location 111 and is drawn counter clockwise to the angle
defined by location 113.
Note:
In 3-D mode, the Z depth of the arc is defined by using
the Z depth of location 111. Any deviation along the Z
axis between the three locations is ignored. AriJ flags
that have been set override the values defined by the
selected locations.
be#1
be#2
be#3
() be#3
fig. (60) An:: Cin::uniference
Page 108 Chapter 7
be#1
Inserting Entities
Inserting Arcs Between Two Points
Command:
INSERI' ARC (flags) ABBTWBEN 10e #1, loe til
[BJ
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
~
Flags: See primary INSERI' ARC command.
~
Joe fIlt Joe 12: Two locations placed on the circumference of the 8IC.
Location #1 is placed at the start of the are and location
/f2 is placed at the end point.
Description: An are is drawn with ill origin at the midpoint between
the two selected locations. The radius is one ba1f the
distance between the two selected poinls.
Note: The difference between the end angle and the start angle
is always J80 degrees when you use this modifier.
fig. (61) Arc Between 7Wo Points
Chapter 7 Page 109
Inserting Entities
Inserting Arcs of a Specified Radius Between Two Points
Command:
INSBRr ARC ARCRADLOC (00) loe #1, loe ffl
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
rad:
Numeric value for the radius of the are.
loe #l, loe #2:
Any two locations placed on the end points of the are.
Description:
An are of radius ·00· is drawn between the two
locations, loe #1 and loe ffl. If the distance between the
two locations is greater than twice the radius ·00", then
no are is drawn.
IocI1
fig. (62) AIC, Radius, Between
Page 110 Chapter 7
IDserting Entities
Inserting Fillets
PrImary
Command: INSERI' FILLET
Modifiers: FILRAD
FHDIA
CFILRAD
CFILDIA
Description: A fillet is an are placed between two lines or arcs, with
the are's origin equidistant from those entities. The end
points are attached to the start point and end point of the
fillet.
INSERI' FILLET automatically trims the line ends to
meet the ends of the inserted fillet. The selection point
on the entity is taken into account when)'Ou insert a fillet
(see examples, below).
valid 2-D entities are lines and arcs. In 3-D, the only
valid entity is a line.
These commands trim the selected lines or arcs when
inserting a fillet. Never select an entity for trimming that
is shorter than the radius of the resulting fillet. The
results will probably not be what)'Ou want.
Note: Unique to the Insert Fillet command is the ability to
bypass the nonnal insertion of arcs on the plane defined
by the current GCP. DynaCADD uses the two selected
lines and logically place the fillet's 3-D orientation
parallel to the plane defined by these two lines.
A common error message that appears when you use this
command in 3-D mode is "No intersection found". The
possible causes are:
• no 3-D intersection exists, or
• one of the lines has no deviation along either the
current X or Y axis.
Chapter 7 Page ill
Inserting Entities
To solve this problem, select a diflerent GCP and repeat
the INSERT FILLET command. In 3-D mode, the
entities must also lie on the same plane in a view,
parallel to the current GCP, in order fur the intersection
to work .
.~/~
~~~
~/~
nt#I~~ ~~'
,
ent #1
ent #2
~
ent #2
,
,
ent #2
,
,
ent #2
1
,
1
ent #1 fig. (63) Inserting Fillets by Entity Selection
~ent ~
ent #2./
~t ##1
i
~I
7
ent
#2
en~
ent #2
Before
fillet
After
fig. (64) Fdlets between 1ines and Al'rs
Page 112 Chapter 7
~/
Insertiog Entities
Inserting Fillets by Radius
1711
[!!]
Command: INSBRf FILLEI' FILRAD (md) eDt 111. eDt If}.
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
r&d:
The radius of the fillet to insert.
eDt 111, ent #2: Two lines used to locate the fillet. These lines must,
theoretically. intersect. That is. if they do not intersect,
DynaCADD trims them to make them do so.
Desatption: An am is dmwn with its origin on the intersection of the
two lines, an equal d.istaDce from the lines themselves.
The lines are intersected and. physically trimmed a
d.istaDce of "md" from the intersection point. If the lines
do not physically intemeet, DynaCADD projects the
position where they intersect (see TRANSFORM TRIM.
Chapter 10).
ert#2
R 0.800
fig. (65) FrJlet Radius
Chapter 7 Page 113
Inserting Entities
Inserting Fillets by Diameter
IJ'11
Command: INSERT FILLET FllDIA (dia) ent 111. ent If}.
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
dla:
Diameter of the fillet to insert.
ent #1, ent #2: Two lines, used to locate the fillet. These lines must.
theoretically. intemect (see FlLRAD. above).
Description: An are is drawn with its origin on the bisection of the
two lines an equal distance from the lines. The lines are
intersected and physically trimmed a distance of one half
of "dia" from the intersection point.
Before
After
fig. (66) Fillet Diameter
Page 114 Chapter 7
InsertiDg Entities
Inserting Corner Fillets by Radius
Command: JNsmu FnLET CFILRAD (rad) eDt 111. eDt 112, eDt #3
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
rad: Radius of the fillets 10 insert.
eot 111, ent 112,
ent #3:
Three lines on which 10 perfonn three successive fillet
operations.
Description: JNsmu FII...I...ET CFILRAD defines and draws three
successive fillets between the three selected lines. The
steps DynaCADD follows in order 10 complete the
command are as follows:
1. Fillet and trim lines #1 and /12.
2. Fillet and trim lines #1 and 113.
3. Fillet and trim lines /12 and #3.
fig. (67) Comer Ftllet Radius
Chapter 7 Page 115
Inserting Entities
Inserting Comer Fillets by Diameter
~
Command:
INSBRf FILLET CFILDIA (dia) eDt II, eDt /fl, eDt #3
I:, I
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
(2]
dia:
Diameter of the fillets to insert.
entlll,entll2,
ent #3:
Three lines on which to perfuan three successive fillet
opetations.
Descripdon: INSERT FnLET CFILDIA defines and chaws three
successive fillets between the three selected lines. The
steps DynaCADD fullows in order to complete the
command are as fullows:
1. Fillet and trim lines II and /fl.
2. Fillet and trim lines II and #3.
3. Fillet and trim lines /fl and #3.
fig. (68) Comer Fdlet Diameter
Page ll6 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Ellipses
Primary
Command: 1NSERr ELLIPSE
Modifiers: EU.MAJRAD (flag) ~
ELLMINRAD (flag) ~
EILMAJDIA (flag)
I§
ELLMINDIA (flag) ~
LZ1
ELLROT (flag)
.Flags: Like the INSERr ARC command, you can enter the
values fur the flags into the pop up calculator, instead of
selecting locations with the mouse. Then draw the
ellipse as described. 'YOu must still click: at "dummy"
locations to fulfill the command, but the values entered
into the calculaCor override 8Df locations selected by
clicking the mouse.
Description: ELLMAJRAD
The rwYor ellipse radius.
ELLMINRAD
The minor radius.
ELlMAJDIA
The major diameter.
EILMINDIA
The minor diameter.
EU.ROf
The ellipse rotation.
The ellipse is very similar to a cirele, the difference
being that the ellipse has been stretched along one of the
axes. The ellipse consists of an origin, a rwYor axis or X
radius, a minor axis or Y radius and a rotation about the
XYaxes.
In 3-D mode, all ellipses are inserted parallel CO the
current plane defined by the active GCP.
Chapter 7 Page 117
Inserting Entities
Inserting Ellipses Using Three Points
Command: INSBRf ELLIPSE (flags) lac 11. lac /fl. lac 113
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primaJ:y INSERr ELLJPSE command.
loc#1: locn: Location 11 defines the origin of the ellipse.
Location /fl defines both the semi major axis and the
rotation about the X Y axes. As an alternative to lac /fl.
define the semi major axis through the EILMAJRAD or
BlLMAJDIA flag and the rotation (--360 to +360
degrees) through the BlLROf flag.
locl3: Location 113 defines the semi minor axis. The semi
minor axis is the nonnal (perpendicular) distance of
location 113 to an imaginary line between location 11 and
location /fl. As an alternative to lac #3, define the minor
axis by using either the ELLMINRAD or EILMINDIA
flag.
Description: An ellipse is dmwn with its origin at location 11. The"---/
semi major axis is the distance between location 11 and
location /fl. The rotation of the ellipse is equal to the
angle between location 11 and location /fl. The
semi-minor axis is the nonnal (perpendicular) distance
of location 113 to the imaginaty line defined by
location 11 and location /fl.
fig. (69) Ellipse
Page ll8 Chapter 7
Insertiug Entities
Inserting Elliptical Arcs
Primary
Command:
INSERI' ELLARC
Modifiers:
BLAMAJRAD (flag) ~
BLAMINRAD (flag)
HLAMAJDIA (flag)
ID I
BLAMINDIA (flag) ~
L2J
ELAROT (flag)
ELASfARrA (flag)
ELAENDA (flag)
Flags: 171
CZJ
Like the INSERr BLLIPSE command, you can enter
the values fur the flags into the pop up calcuJacor,
instead of selecting locations with the mouse. Then draw
the elliptical arc as descn"bed. You must still click: at
"dummy" locations CO fuIfill the command, but the
valnes entered into the calculator override any locations
selected by clicking the mouse.
ELAMAJRAD The major ellipse .radius.
Description: ELAMINRAD
The minor .radius.
ELAMAJDIA
The major diameter.
ELAMINDIA
The minor diameter.
ELAROr
The ellipse rotation.
ELASTARTA
The start angle of the arc.
ELAENDA
The' end angle of the arc.
An elliptical arc consists of an origin. a major axis or X
mdius, a minor axis or Y.radius, a start angle and an end
angle. The elliptical arc may also have a rotation about
the X Y axes applied to it.
In 3-D mode, all elliptical arcs are inserted parallel to
the current plane defined by the active GCP.
Chapter 7 Page 119
lDserting Entities
Inserting Elliptical Arcs Using Five Points
Command:
INSBRf BLLARC (flags) loe #1, loe /fl, loe 113, loe 114,
10e lIS
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Ftags:
See primary INSBRf BLLARC command.
10011:
Location #1 defines the origin of the elliptical are.
100#2:
Location /fl defines both the semi major axis and the
rotation about the X Y coordinate &xes. An alternative to
10e Ifl, define the semi major axis by using either the
ELAMAJRAD or ELAMAJDIA flags. Define the
rotation about the X Y coordinates &xes (-360 to +360
degrees) by using the ELAROf flag.
100#3:
Location 113 defines the semi minor axis. The semi
minor axis is the nonnal (perpeDdicular) distance of
location 113 to an imaginary fine between location #1 and
location /fl. AS an alternative to loe 113, define the minor
axis by using either the BLAM1NRAD or ELAMINDIA
flag.
fig. (iU) Elliptical Arcs
Page 120 Chapter 7
IDsertiog Entities
IFZI
loe 114: [Z] loeNS:
Location 114 defines the scart angle ofthe elliptical arc.
As an alternative to loe 1/4, define the scart angle by
using the ELASTARI'A flag.
Location lIS defines the end angle of the elliptical arc.
As an alternative to loc lIS, define the end angle by using
the ELAENDA flag.
Description: An elliptical are is drawn with its origin at location 111.
The semi-major axis is the distance between location 111
and location Ill. The rotation of the ellipse is equal to
the angle between location 111 and location Ill. The
semi-minor axis is the noIIDal (perpendicular) distance
of location 113 to the imaginary line defined by location
III and location Ill. The elliptical are is dmwn in a
counter-clockwise direction until the end point is at the
same angle to the origin as that of location IS.
Chapter 7 Page 121
Inserting Entities
Inserting Boxes
Primary
Command:
lNSBJrrBOX
Command:
None
lNSBJrr BOX loe 11, loe If}.
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
loe Ill, loe #2:
Selected locations defining the two diagonally opposing
comers of the box.
lNSBJrr BOX creates four individualllnes, defined by
two diagonally opposite locations. The lines are not
grouped. and )'OIl can reference them individually,
during the design process.
Modifiers:
Description:
Four lines are inserted in the form of a rectangle,
defined by the selected, diagonally opposite locations.
,...----------+ 00#2
fig· (71) Box
Page 122 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Polygons
Primary
Command: Modifiers: INSERf POLYGON
POLYSIDES (tlag)
POLYRaI' (tlag)
POLYRAD (flag)
POLYDIA (flag)
Flags: ~
0
101
1s1
POLYAFLAT (flag)
POLYSIDFS The number of sides to the polygon.
POLYROT
The rotation about the X Y axis
(-360 to 360 degrees).
POLYRAD The adius of the polygon.
POLYDIA The diameter of the polygon.
POLYAFLAT The distance between 2 opposing flat
sides of the polygon.
'---.-"
Note:
The defil.ult numberofPOLYSIDES is set at six.
Whenever the distance across flats of the polygon is set,
using the POLYAFLAT modifier, the number of sides
should be an even number.
Description:
A polygon consists of a definable number of sides,
grouped a common distance from the origin (the lines
Conn a group). In 3-D mode, all polygons are inserted
par.illel to the current plane defined by the active GCP.
Chapter 7 Page 123
IDserting Entities
Inserting Polygons Using Two Points
~
~
Command:
INSERT POLYOON (tlags) loe #1, loe /fl
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary INSERT POLYOON command.
loe#l:
Location #1 defines the origin of the polygon.
Joe#'].:
Location /fl defines both the radius and the rotation
about the X Y coonlinate axes.
Description:
A Polygon is drawn with its origin at location #1. The
radius is the distance between location #1 and location
/fl. The rotation ofthe polygon is equal to the angle
between location 11 and location /fl. You enter the
number of sides of the polygon by using the
POLYSIDES modifier, initially set to six.
+
b:;111
fig· (72) Polygons
Page 124 Chapter 7
IDserting Entities
Inserting Text
Primary
Command:
INSBRrTEXT
Modifiers: THXTWID (flag)
[IT]
TEXTROf (flag)
14:1
TEXTSLANT (flag)
B
SETPSPACE (flag)
1'LA 1
TEXTI.EFf (flag)
B
TEXTRIGHT (flag)
§
TEXTCENT (flag)
~
~
~
~
TEXTLOC
TEXTDIGI
TEXTASSUM
TEXT2ROT
Flags: BIB
TEXTHEI (flag)
You can change the defimIt parameters - width, height.
sJant and rotation - at any time from within the INSBRr
TEXT command. Once new text definitions have been
selected. the new definitions become the defuult
parameters.
To change the parameters of existing text, including the
text itself, select the appropriate commaDdc; from the
TRANSFORM MODIFY icon pad.
THXTWID and TEXTHEI settings also affect
Dimension text (see Chapter 9).
Note: When seuiog the text width and height in the drawing,
DynaCADD assumes that the value given is either in
inches or millimeters exclusively, depending on the
currently selected unit type, English or Metric,
Chapter 7 Page 125
Inserting Entities
respectively. The selected value is automatically
readjusted to the drawing scale.
TEXTWID Defines the width of a single character box.
TEXTBEI Defines the height of a single character box. This
determines the funt height and is based on the distance
from the baseline to the top of the uppercase "A".
TEXTROf Defines the rotation of the text about the current X Y
coordinate axes (-360 to +360 degrees).
TEXTSLANf Defines the slant (-60 to +60 degrees) applied to each
character in the text. A positive value slants the
characters to the left (backward). Normally, slanted text
such as italic, slants to the right 10 to 12 degrees, entered
as negative value.
SETPSPACE Defines the character spacing of the text. This is the
same as in the TRANSFORM MODIFY command.
After you select the SETPSPACE icon, a small dialog
box appears with the fullowing options:
Constant Click here fur constant, unifonn character spacing.
ChaIacters are measured according to their full box size,
as defined in the Vector Font Editor, taken from the letter
"A". Manual spacing affects this value (see below).
Char. Space
lij.t&",,11 IProportional I I
Manual Spacing
¢
AdJus~ent
10000
I
( 1/720 inch )
~
fig. (73) SETSPACE Dialog
Page 126 Chapter 7
Kerned
Inserting Entities
Proportional
Click here fur proportional spacing. This uses the
rightmost and leftmost locatioDS ddined in each
character, and adds a constant space between chaIacters.
Manual spacing atrects this value (see below).
This fits cbamcters acooIding to the kerning lines and
infurmation defined in the vector Font Editor. The space
between characters can be manually adjusted fur the
current string only (see below).
Manually
Use the arrows pointing to the right and left to increase
and decrease the cbamcter spacing, in teoths of a point
(lI720 inch). The range is -999 to +99917lOths inch.
This amount is added to or subtracted from the cbamcter
spacing determined by the type of spacing chosen
(above).
TEX.TLEFf
Activates left justification of the text relative to location
#1. Text aligns with the leftmost location selected.
TEXTRIGBT Activates right justification of the text relative to location
#1. Text aligns with the rightmost location selected.
,----/
TEXTCENT
Activates center justification of the text relative to
location 11. Text is centered evenly between the leftmost
and rightmost locatioDS.
Left
+ Justification
Right
Justification
+
Center
Justification
+
fig. (74) 1i:xt Justification
Chapter 7 Page lZ7
Inserting Entities
Note: Text Justification (lrft, right, center) is retained when
you use the TRANSFORM MODIFY TXTORIBNT
command. See Chapcer 10.
When inserting text with multiple lines (sepamted by
pressing [Return] in the text editor), each line is broken
into a separate entity.
Default Setup:
Description: WIDTH
0.100 Inches
HBIGIIT
0.125 Inches
ROfATION
0.0 degrees
SLANT
0.0 degrees
LEFr
justification
Text consists of an origin, width, height, chamcter
spacing, rotation and slant. In addition to this, each text
string has its own type style and fuot assigned to it. In
3-D mode, all text is inserted on the current plane
defined by the active OCP.
The maximum length of the text string is 800 characters.
You can create multiple lines by pressing [Return] to end
the current line and begin a new lioe. Press [Enter] on
the keypad to finish, [Esc] or [Undo] to cancel.
All text is entered through the text editor. See Chapter 1
fur more infurmation.
Note: You must select a funt bdOre inserting text. Each new
text string is assigned the currently active font style.
Character spacing is normally proportional, but can be
changed by selecting the TRANSFORM MODWY
CHATSPACE command.
See Chapter 1fur a description of bow CD use the text
editor.
Page 128 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Text by Location
~
[]]
~
Command:
lNsmrr TEXT (flags) TBX'I1.OC (string) loe #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
string: This is the actual text to insert, as a string (or strings, if
multiple lines are entered).
locll: This location defines where the text is placed. How the
text is placed in relation to this location depends on the
currently active justification.
Description: You create and edit the text in the text editor. This text is
dmwn with the currently active font style.
+1~~1
~l~IIffi@L ..
txl#l
fig. (15) 1l!:xt Location
Chapter 7 Page 129
Inserting Entities Inserting Text Using Three Points (DIgitize) Command:
INSBRr TEXT TBXTDIGI (string) loc /11, loc Ill. loc 13
Mode:
2-D and 3 - D - /
string:
This is the actual text to insert, as a string (or strings, if
multiple lines are entered).
loe 11:
Location /11 defines the lower left comer of the text
block.
loe 112:
Location III defines both the width of the text block and
the rotation of the text block.
loe 13:
Location 13 defines the height of the text block. This
height is the normal (perpendicular) distance from
location 13 to an imaginary line between location /11 and
location Ill.
Description:
Text consisting of the chamcters defined by "string",
inserted to fit into an imaginary box defined by the three
locations. This method is extremely useful when fitting
text blocks into a defined area. The current text slant is
applied to the inserted text.
fig. (76) Text Digitize
Page 130 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Assuming Existing Text Attributes
~
Command:
INSERr TEXT TEXTASSUM (string) ent #I, loc #I
[!]
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
~
string:
This the actual text CD insert, as a string (or strings if
multiple lines are entered).
ent #I:
Existing text used CD define the width. height, rotation
and slant of the text CD insert.
Joe 11:
Location #I is the lower left comer of the text block CD
insert.
Description:
The text is drawn with the lower left comer of the text
block at location #I. The width. height, rotation and
slant assume those of entity #I.
Note:
The cmmndy active justification is used CD position the
text relative to location #I.
+
bc#1
fig. (Tl) Text Assume
Chapter 7 Page l3l
IDserting Entities
Inserting Text In 2-D Rotation
Command: INSERr TEXT TEXT2RaI' loe #lloe III
Mode: 2-D and 3-D .
loe 11, loe #2: The start and end point of the baseline on which the text
appears.
Description: The text appears at the angle dictated by the rotation
angle between location /11 and location Ill. The cm:rent
justification, c:haracter height, width and slant are
unchanged.
fig. (78) Text in 2-D Rotation
Page 132 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Subfigures
Primary
~d:
INSERT SUBFIO
Modifiers:
SFiOROf (flag)
SFIOXSCA (flag)
SFIOYSCA (flag)
171
1+0+1
[]]
SFIOZSCA (flag)
~
Flags: The seale atrects the size of the subfigure when inserted.
A seale of as is inteIpreted as one half the original size,
and a seale of2.0 is interpreted as twice the original size.
All scaling filctors are applied before any rotation.
A negative value entered fur a scaling flag mirrors the
subfigures around the appropriate axis, at that seale
factor. For e.u.mple, SFIOXSCA -2 means that the
figure will be twice the scale on the X axis, and mirrored
about that axis.
The fullowing factors will be applied to the original
entity definition :
SFIGROI' The rotation (-360 to 360 degrees) about
the insertion point.
SFIGXSCA A scaling factor applied to the X axis.
SFIGYSCA A scaling filctor applied to the Y axis.
SFIGZSCA A scaling factor applied to the Z axis.
Description: Subligures are groups of entities that were previously
created and saved in a special figure file (see CREATE
DEPFIO, Chapter 12). They can be saved and loaded to
disk. Upon insertion, all entities are grouped and acted
upon as a single entity.
Note: You cannot insert figures created from 3-D entities into
the drawing as 2-D entities or figures created from 2-D
entities into the drawing as 3-D entities.
The Inheritance Option affects this command. (See
Chapter S, page 62.)
Chapter 7 Page 133
Inserting Entities
Inserting Subfigures by Location
Command: INSEIU SUBFIO name (flags) loe III
Mode: Name: 2-0 and 3-0
After you select the SUBFIO icon, a File Selector box
appea11l. The file extensions fur valid figure types fur
insertion are:
.FIO
.PRJ:
.OPT
loe It: Location III is the insertion point on the current
drawing. A matching insertion point on the figure is
selected when you create the figure.
Description: A previously created figure (see CREATE OEFFlO,
Chapter 12) is inserted with its origin (the insertion point
selected when created) at location Ill.
The fi.gure"s size is scaled along the individual axes
nsing the scaling flags SFlOXSCA. SFlOYSCA and
SFlOZSCA. If a negative scaling fitctor is entered, then
the subfigure is flipped on that axis when inserted.
The figure is rotated SFlOROf degrees abont the
insertion point. All entities are grouped upon insertion
and treated as ifthey were a single complex. entity
(polyfigures, below, are broken iDto their component
entities).
fig· (79) Subftgures
Page 134 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Polyfigures
Primary
Command:
INSBRr POLYFIG
Modifiers:
PFIGROT (flag)
PFIOXSCA (flag)
PFIGYSCA (flag)
PFIGZSCA (flag)
Flags: LZJ
BE
~
~
A scale of 0.5 is interpreted as one half the original size.
and a scale of 2.0 is intetpreted as twice the original
size. All scaliog factors are applied before any rotation.
PFIGR<Jr The rotation (-360 to 360 degrees) about
the insertion point, applied to the figure.
PFIGXSCA A scaling fuctor applied to the X axis of
the original entity definitions.
PFIGYSCA A scaling fuctor applied to the Yaxis of
the original entity definitions.
PFIGZSCA A scaling fuctor applied to the Z axis of
the original entity definitions.
Description: Polyfigures are groups of entities that were previously
created and saved in a special figure file. Upon
insertion, all entities have their individual status restored
(subfigures, above, remain as one single, complex
entity).
Note: You cannot insert figures created from 3-D entities into
the drawing as 2-D entities or figures created from 2-D
entities into the drawing as 3-D entities.
The Inheritance Option a.trects this command. (See
Chapter 5, Page 62)
Chapter 7 Page 135
Inserting Entities
Inserting Polyflgures by location
~
11.71
Command:
INSERr POLYFIG Dame (flags) loe 11
Mode:
Name:
2-D and 3-D
After you select the POLYFIG icon, a File Selector box
appears. The file extensions fur valid figure types fur
insertion are:
.FIG
.PI«
.DPr
loe #1:
Location 11 is the insertion point on the drawing. The
matching insertion point on the figure was previously
defined when you create the figure.
Description:
A previously created figure is inserted with its origin at
location 11. The figure's size is scaled along the
individual axes, by using the scaling flags PFI(1XSCA.
PFIGYSCA and PFIGZSCA. The figure is rotated
PFIGROT degrees about the insertion point. All entities
are released to their individual status.
fig. (80) Polyfigures
Page 136 Chapter 7
Inserting Entities
Inserting Sections
Primary
Command:
INSERI'SBCI10N
Modifiers: SBCTDISr (flag)
Ix<dl
SECTANGLE (flag)
~
Flags:
SECTDISr The absolute distance between section
lines, in the current units.
SECTANGLE The angle (-360 to +360 degrees) ror
the section lines.
Description: Dmws section lines at the specified distance and at the
specified angle, between all selecced entities. All entities
must be connected and roon an enclosed area. The
section lines are treated as one entity. In 3-D mode,
section lines are drawn on the current plane.
The section lines are drawn in the current pen, weight
and style. Usually section lines are thin and drawn at 45
degrees to the major outline.
The overlap of two entities is an "island" and does not
receive sections lines, but the inteIsection of three does.
Even numbered intersections (two entities, rour entities,
etc.) are not sectioned, but odd numbered are sectioned.
Sections are not unique entities; they are groups of lines.
To remove ormodify individual section lines, use the
CREATE UNGROUP command.
Chapter 7 Page 137
Inserting Entities
Inserting Section Lines
Command:
INSERr SECTION (flags) eDt #L.ent In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
cot 11•• .ent In: Entities selected to receive section lines. All entities
must be made of contiguous lines that fonn a
completely enclosed area.
Description:
Click: the right mouse button or press [;] to activate this
command. See above. Press the right mouse button to halt the sectioning process. billa
Before
fig. (81) 2 Section Line. Examples
Page 138 Chapter 7
After
IusertiDg Entities
Inserting Hatches
Primary
Command:
INSERf HATCH
Modifiers:
HATCHX (flag)
EQ3
HATCHY (flag)
~
Flags:
DescrIption:
BATCBX
The scale filctDr for the hatch pattern, in
the X axis.
BATCHY
The scale fuctor for the hatch pattern, in
the Yaxis.
Draws hatch patterns on the current pl.aoe, at the
specified X and Y scales, inside all selecced entities. All
entities must be connected as contiguous lines and foDn
an enclosed area. The hatch marla; are treated. as one
entity.
The hatch marks are drawn in the current pen, weight
and style.
~
DDDDDDDD
~ 00000000
o ~ 0DDD~G
0
0
0
00000
0
DO
00000 I[]'b
DOD
00000 \;;)
DOD
00000
00000
000000000000 fig. (82) Overlapping Hatch Marks
Chapter 7 Page 139
Inserting Entities
The overlap of two entities does not receive batch lines,
but the intersection of three does. Even numbered
intersections (two entities, fuur entities, etc.) are not
hatched. but odd numbered are hatched.
Choose the current hatch pattern by selecting Hatch
Pattern from the Set menu. See Chapter 5 fur more
infurmation.
Hatch m.m:ks are not unique entities; they are groups of
lines. To remove or modify individuailines, use the
CREATE UNGROUP command.
See the notes on creating a hatch pattern in Chapter 16.
Page 140 Chapter 7
Iuserting Entities
Inserting Hatch Marks
I
1m I
17~
Command:
INSERT HATCH (flags) ent #I•••ent #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent Il•• .ent In: Entities selected to recebe batch marts. All entities
must be made of continuous lines and form a completely
eoclosed area.
Description: Click: the right mouse button or press [;] to activate this
command•.
Hatch marks are created from the patterns in the
HATCH.FNT ibnt file. These patterns can be modified
in the ~ Font 'Editor. Hatch symbols are commonly
used to identify tenain or material type.
Press the right mouse button to halt the hatching
process.
@
Of> Before
After
fig. (83) Hatch Marks
Chapter 7 Page 141
Inserting Entities
Inserting Solid 2..D Entities
Primary
Command: INSERT SOLID
Modifiers: None
Command: INSERT SOLID loe 111. loe 112, loe #3, loe 114
Mode: 2-D
loe 1I1•••loe 114: Locations that define the polygon comem. The fourth
location is automatically joined to the first and the area
tilled in.
The fourth location is optional. If you click: the right
mouse button after the tbhd location is selected, it is
joined to the first.
Description: Insert a solid (tilled) four sided polygon. This is a
continuous process. similar to inserting lines, with
subsequent polygons inserted from locations defined for
the previous polygon. Filled polygons are often used for
solid arrowhead symbols.
fig. (84) Solids
Page 142 Chapter 7
lnsertiDg Entities
The 2...J) solid is drawn when the fourth location is
selected. The two last locations then become the first
and second locations, respectively. for another solid
polygon which requires only two more locations. The
second location of the nen polygon is automatically
connected to the tbitd location of the previous polygon
and filled.
Press [Delete] to delete the last filled polygon(s). one at
a time.
Chapter 7 Page 143
IDserting Entities
Inserting 3-D Face Entities
Primary
Command:
INSERT FACE
Modifiers:
None
Command:
INSERT FACE loc#l, locl2, loc#3, 100#4;
Mode:
3-D
locIl•••loc#4:
Locations that define the face comers. The fourth
location is automatically joined to the first and the area
filled in. The fourth location is optional. If:you click the
right mouse button after the third location is selected, it
is joined to the first.
Description:
Insert a four sided face. This is a continuous process,
similar to inserting lines, with subsequent &ces inserted
from locations defined for the previous face.
The 3-D face is drawn when the fourth location is
selected. The two last locations then become the first
and second locations, respectively, for another 3-D face .
which requires only two more locations. The second
location of the next face is automatically connected to
the third location of the previous face.
Press [Delete] to delete the last fi.1led filce(s). one at a
time.
IocIt
L
Page 144 Chapter 7
fig. (85) 3-D Rzce
Inserting Entities
Deleting Entitles
~
,~
00
Primary
Command: INSBRr DELETE
Modifiers: None
Command: INSERT DELETE eDt 1Il•••eDt lin
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #1•• .ent In: Selected entities to delete. All entity types work with
this command.
Description: Just as important as inserting entities is the ability to
delete them. Click on the Delete icon and use one of the
entity selection methods described in Chapter S, to
choose the entity or entities to delete.
You can "Undo" a delete command.
Click the right mouse button or press [;] to acti:Yate this
command.
Note: You can also press [Delete] to delete the last entity
dmwn. If the entity is a "chained" entity such as
continuous lines or filled solids, [Delete] emses the last
entity, one at a time, in reverse order.
Chapter 7 Page 145
Inserting Entities
Page 146 Chapter 7 Curves
rn
Curves ••• Chapter 8
B-spline and B6zier curves are special entities in DynaCADD. They are
created by first drawing "control points" on the screen, then calculating
the curve to fit those points.
B-spline and B6zier curves are built using different algorithms and thus
generate di.fferent curve plots. Essentially, B-spline curves provide a
closer curve fit along the path diccated by the control points, while B6zier
curves are a smoother relationship between the individual control and end
points.
Two options in the Tools menu affect curves:
Graphics This detemlioes whether the display of the curve
construction lines and direction arrows appear on screen.
If you are having trouble selecting curves, tum on
Graphics and click on the construction lines.
Close Curve If active. this allows the last location selected to be
joined to the first when )'Ou click the right mouse button.
Curves are created in the flow direction from the first to
last control point.
All curve commands are grouped under the CURVE
icon.
B-Spllne
Bezler
fig. (86) B-spline and Bezier Olrves based on Identical Control Points
Chapter 8 Page 147
Inserting 8-spllne Curves
Primary
Command:
CURVE BSPLINB loc #1••• loe lin
Mode:
2-D and. 3-0
loe 1l..loc #0: The location fur the curve control points. At least three
control points are necessru:y to make a B-spline curve.
The maximum. is 49.
Description:
Draws a B-spline curve based on the location of the
control points. Curve coustruction lines can overlap each
other.
\
\ I
\ I
1/
'I
\t
tot
fig. (87) B-spline Curve
Page 148 Chapter 8
,7
Curves
Inserting Bazler Curves
Primary
Command:
CURVE BEZIBR loe 11... loe In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Joe 1t•••Joe In: The location fur the curve control points. At least fuur
control points are necessaIy to make a B6zier curve. The
maximum is 12. The more control points inserted. the
longer it takes to plot the curve.
Description:
Draws a Dezier curve based on the location of the
control points. Curve coostroction lines can overlap each
other.
CURYI! IEZIBI ... fU.. It ;
1
\ 1
\ 1
\ I
\I
\1
J t/7
fig. (88) Bezier Curve
chapter 8 Page 149
Changing CUlVe Type
Primary Command:
CURVE CONVERI' Modifiers: TOBEZIER
Id';LI
TOBSPLINE
~
Description: Changes the selected CU1'¥e from one type to the other,
depending on the conversion flag.
Changing B-Spllne CUrves to Bezler CulVes
I:L:LI
Command:
CURVE CONVERI' TOBBZIBR ent #I•••ent lin
Mode:
2·Dand3-D
ent N1.. .ent In: Curves to convert.
Description: Changes the selected Jkpline curve(s) to B6zier
curve(s). Click the right mouse button, or press [;] to
activate this command.
Before
After
fig. (89) B-spline to Btfzier CUrve
Page 150 Chapter 8
Changing Bezier Curves to B-Spline Curves
Command:
CURVE CONYERI' TOBSPLINE eDt #l•••eDt lin
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent #1•• .ent #0: Curves to convert.
Descriptioo:
Changes the selected B6zier curve(s) to B-spline
curve(s). Click the right mouse buttoOy or press [;] to
activate this command.
Before
After
fig. (90) Bkier to B-spline Ouve
Chapter 8 Page 151
Curves
Breaking Curves
Primary
Command: CURVE BREAK
Modifiers: None
Command: CURVE BREAK ent #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent 11: The control point on the curve to break. DynaCADD
chooses the closest control point, if one is not selected.
Description: Breaks the selected curve at the indicated control point.
The curve is broken into two curves at the selected
control point. The control point is duplicated, one fur
each curve. Both new curves share the same direction of
flow as the parent curve. The two curves must both have
the requisite number of control points when broken, else
the break does not occur.
CURVE
BREAK
Before
After
fig. (91) Curve Break
Page 152 Chapter 8
Curves
Joining Two Curves
rn
[1J Primary
Command:
Modifiers:
CURVE JOIN
Command: CURVE JOIN eDt #1, eDt III
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
None
cot Ill, eot #2: The two curves to join.
DescriptloD: Joins two curves. The resulting curve has the same
type as the last curve selected. Ifthe resulting curve is
a B6zier curve, the total number ofcontrol points must
be less than 12.
If the curves beingjoined are closed, then the end of
the first curve selected is joined to the end of the first
and the resulting curve is no longer closed when the
two are joined. Close Curve in the Tools menu has no
effect on Curve Join.
Cnrve Join is the exception to the mle that entities may
not be joined.
The end point of ent #1 is joined to the start point of
eDt Ill, regaaIless of which control point is selected. If
the curves have different types, then the resultant type
is the same as ent #1.
-
~
-- -- ...
.....
fig· (92) Join Curve
-­
~,
--":>jo
Before
After
Chapter 8 Page 153
Cunes
Modlfing Curves
Primary
Command: CURVE MODCURVE
Modifiers: MOVECP
DBLETECP
INSCPB
INSCPA
REVERSE
Description: Change a selected curve by altering control points or
direction of flow. In oIder to use this command
properly, make sure GRAPHICS are turned on in the
Tools menu.
These commands are similar to the control point
commands in the Vector Font Editor.
Page 154 Chapter 8
Curves
Moving Control Points
Command: CURVE MODCURVE MOVECP ent #1, loe #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
entll: 1be control point on the curve to move.
locll: The location ofthe control point when moved.
Description: Select the control point to move and cI.ick. the right
mouse button. If no control point is selected.
DynaCADD chooses the closest one. Select the new
location fur the control point and click the left mouse
button. The control point is moved and the curve
redrawn to suit the new location.
Before
After
fig. (93) Move Control Point
Chapter 8 Page 155
Curves
Deleting Control Points
Command: CURVE MODCURVE DBLETECP ent #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent#!: The control point to be deleted from the curve.
DynaCADD selects the closes control point. if none is
selected.
Description: The location selected should be a control point.
DynaCADD chooses the closest control point. if one is
not selected. The curve is redrawn to suit the new
nnmber of control points.
You cannot delete a control point if it reduces the
nnmber below the required minimum fur that curve
type.
Before
After
fig. (94) Delete Control Point
Page 156 Chapter 8
Curves
Inserting Control Points Before
Command:
CURVE MODCURVE INSCPB eDt II, loe II
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
entlll:
The control point on the curve, before which a new
control point is to be inserted.
loe Ill:
The location of the inserted control point.
Description:
A new control point is inserted at loe II. This is treated
as the point directly before the control point selected by
eDt II. DynaCADO chooses the closest control point, if
eDt II is not selected at a rontrol point. The curve is
redmwn with the new rontrol point added.
elll'l
Before
After
fig. (95) Insert a Control Point Before
Chapter 8 Page 157
Curves
Inserting Control Points After
Command:
CURVE MODCURVE 1NSCPA ent #1, loe #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
entlI:
The control point on the curve, after which a new
control point is to be inserted.
locl/l:
The location of the inserted control point.
Description:
A new control point is inserted at 100 #1. This is treated
as the point directly after the control point selected by
ent #1. DynaCADD chooses the closest control point, if
ent #1 is not selected at a control point. The curve is
redrawn with the DeW control point added.
enl 'I
Before
\ ...._____~
After
fig. (96) Insert a Control Point After
Page 158 Chapter 8
Reversing a Curve's Direction
I~:t1, I
Command:
CURVE MODCURVE REVERSE eDt #I•..eDt In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent #I.. .ent In: Curves selected to change flow directions.
Description:
This reverses the direction of flow in all selected curves.
1be curve is redrawn in the new direction.
Before
After
fig. (97) Reverse a Curve
Chapter 8 Page 159
Curves
Page 160 Chapter 8 Dimensioning
Dimensioning •.• Chapter 9
Dimensioning means m~uring. and displaying. the desired dimension
between locations. For example. )'Ou can measure the length of a line. the
radius of a circle. or the distance between two points.
In DynaCADD. you can automatically dimension a drawing in both 2-D
and 3-D modes. You can also dimension a 3-D part in 2-D. thereby
removing some of the problems and complexity associated with 3-D
dimensioning. There are numerous dimensioning furmats and types
available fur use in a drawing. All dimension commands are combined
under the DIMENSION icon.
_OUT
"""il­
-­
-t>
-_
.'/
........
-lWL­
......
.......
~
..
_II()O(_
"..,
_.-­
...........
1...... _···1 &
1__" _'''1 1 .......
­
T1IXT
fig. (98) Dimension Parameters Dialog
All Dimension Pammeters are set by selecting the Dimension option from
the Set menu. This displays the Define Dimension Parameters dialog
where )'Ou edit the pammeters. Click the OK button to close the dialog
and return to the current session.
A dimension consists of several configurable parts. including:
• arrowhead
• text
• extension
• gap
• dimension line
as explained in the fOllowing chapter.
Chapter 9 Page 161
Dimensioning
For all dimension commands, there are several general notes to take into
considemtion:
•
You may select a font before using these commands.
•
The dimension arrowheads are one third the current t e x t , - - .
height high and are equal to the current text height in length.
•
The dimension text is positioned in the current font style,
slant. The current cban1cter size, slant, spacing, etc. is used,
but this can be changed by first using CREATE RELEASE,
and then using the TRANSFORM MODIFY commands.
Although it is not a recommended practice, dimension lines and text can
be altered by first releasing the dimension (CREATE RELEASE), and
then selecting the appropriate transform command.
If)'Ou do not set the text width and height flags here, the values are taken
from those previously entered, either here or in the INSBRT TEXT
command (see Chapter 7).
Commands to measure discance, perimeter and area, without generating a
dimension. are found under the INFORM icon (see Chapter 14).
-
1
Dillouloa
LillO
"AUOW 1
Auowhad
T ext
1­
AUOW 2 "
I- BXTNSN 1
BUHSN 2 ....
~ ............... 1
aap
fig. (99) Dimension Line Indicating Arrowhead. Extension Lines, etc.
Page 162 Chapter 9
Dimmsioning
Arrowheads
The arrowhead is the marker used at the end of the dimension lines to
indicate the dimension being measured.
Ar rowhead
C ire I e
Slash
fig. (100) Sample line Ends
Arrowhead Type
In the Arrowhead Type box are eight selectable buttons which control
how the dimension line ends are displayed. The first three buttons control
the type of line end used:
Arrowhead:
Click this button to select the arrowhead as the current
line end style. This style is used by most technical
disciplines.
Circle:
Click this button to select the circle as the current line
end style. This is normally used in mechanical detailing
to reference surmces.
Slash:
Click this button to select the slash as the current line
end style. This is occasionally used in architectuIal
drawings.
Chapter 9 Page 163
Dimensioning
Flipping Arrowheads
Whenever you insert a dimension, OynaCADO checb to insure that the
associated text fits inside the space you provide. If the space is not large
enough to accommodate the text, OynaCADO automatically flips the text
outside the dimension field, to insure readability. You can also Coree this
flipping by selecting the Arrows In and Arrows Out buttons.
Arrows In:
Click this button to place all dimension arrows and
associated text within the dimension field provided
sufficient space is available.
Arrows Out:
Click this button to place all dimension arrows and
associated text outside the dimension field regardless of
available space.
Out fig. (101) Arrowheads
Page 164 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Arrowheads Filled
You can specify whether or not the line end style currently selected is
hollow or filled. These buttons have no effect on the Slash line end. In
2-D. the anowheads are 2-D solids. In 3-D the arrowheads are filled with
grouped lines to make them appear filled.
Arrow Fill: Click this button fur filled (solid) arrowheads and
circles in dimensions.
Arrow Open: Click this button fur hollow arrowheads and circles in
dimensions.
Ar row F i l i i
A r row Open - ,
F
fig. (102) FUled and Open Arrowheads
Chapter 9 Page 165
Dimensioning
Auto Tolerance
In addition to automatically dimensioning a drawing. yon can also instruct
DynaCADD to perfurm auto-tolemnce. That is, provide the upper and
lower angular or linear tolerance values used when manufilcturing a part.
DynaCADD automatically determines the correct type of value (angular
or linear) and inserts the values into the dimension, using the selected
style (see below).
fig. (103) Set 1blerances Dialog
Thlemnce On Click: this button to enable auto tolerance. All
subsequent dimensions display the tolerances in the
specified style.
Thlemnce Off Click this button to disable auto-tolerance.
Page 166 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Setting limits
Click this button to display the Set Tolerances dialog. In this dialog you
edit the current tolerance limits. Click the pointer on the existing wue to
change the text. using the normal editing keys. After you edit the existing
wuest click on the OK button to return to the Modify Global Dimension
Parameters dialog.
Upper LInear
Thlen.nce
This wue is always considered positive. This is the
amount of variation above the basic dimension, which,
when added to the basic dimension gives the largest
value that is acceptable when manufilcturi.ng the part.
I.AJwer Linear
This value is always considered negative. This is the
amount of variation below the basic dimension, which.
when subtmcted from the basic dimension, gives the
lowest value that is acceptable when manufacturing the
part.
Thlen.nce
Upper Angular This woo is always considered positive. and must be
Thlen.nce
entered. in decimal degrees. This is the upper deviation
permitted in an angular measurement.
I.AJwer Angular This wue is always considered negative. and must be
Thlen.nce entered. in decimal degrees. The basic dimension, minus
the lower angular tolerance, is the lowest limit that is
acceptable when manufacturing the part.
Chapter 9 Page 167
Dimensioning
Selecting Tolerance Style
Choose one of the three available styles fur the display of tolerance
values:
Limits
Click this button to choose the limits style of tolerance
as the current style. This adds the upper tolerance value
to the basic dimension and subtracts the lower tolerance
value from the basic dimension, to give the tolerance
limits at the top and bottom. respectively.
Vitriation 1
With this variation as the current tolerance style. only
one value is shown with the basic dimension, so the
upper and lower tolerance values must be the same.
Vitriation 2
With this variation as the current tolerance style, both
the upper and lower tolerance values are displayed, one
above the other.
Limits
.27 ............ 1• 48
1.48.2.
H
•••••••••
Variation 1
1.48828
to.
00001
Variation 2
1
•
4. 8 2 8 +0. 0000 1
-0. 000 0 1
fig. (104) Examples of1blerrmce Style
Page 168 Chapter 9
....
,
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Precision
Dimensioning Precision refers to the number of chamctem disp1ayed
following the decimal point in dimension text. In DyuaCADD you have
the option to select between zero and nine cbaracrem after the decimal. To
select the precision desired, click the pointer over the appropriate buttons
labeled 0 to 9. Intemally. DynaCADD uses 16 digits of precision.
Dimension Text Format
You can format the text associated with a dimension in numerous ways. to
tailor the text to your particular needs:
1.ext Style
Architectural An:bitectural dimensioning may involve the use of
fractions and the separation of the text into feet and
inches. Click this button to separate all dimension text
into feet, inches and fractions of inches. DynaCADD
automatically rounds numbem to the nearest U64th inch,
and selects the lowest denominator for the fractional
part of the text.
Decimal Click this button to display all dimension text as a
floating point numbet; with the number of chamctem
following the decimal point defined by the current
precision.
Text Placement
Text placement refem to the position the text occupies in the dimension:
Inline Click this button to insert all text inside the actual
dimension. The dimension line is divided and trimmed a
sufficient distance in orner to insure readability.
Above Click this button to place all text above the dimension
line.
Below Click this button to place all text below the dimension
line.
Chapter 9 Page 169
Dimensioning
'Thxt Rotation
Text rotation refers to the rotation of the text relative to the dimension
line. There are three styles available:
Unfdirect
Click this button to place all text along the X-axis with
no rotation applied.
Angled
Click this button to place all text at a rotation equal to
that of the dimension line.
Aligned
Click this button to place all text at either 0 or 90
degrees rotation, depending on which provides the least
deviation from the dimension line.
Note:
These changes do not affect existing dimension text,
only new text inserted after the button is clicked.
'Thxt Abbreviations
You can further furmat text by antomatically adding the current unit
abbreviation and stripping leading and/or trailing zeros from the text.
Strip Leading Click this button to strip all leading zeros from the
Zero(s) dimension text.
Strip Trailing Click this button to strip all ttailing zeros from the
Zero(s) dimension text.
Click this button to add the abbreviation of the current
Abbreviation unit type to the text.
Add DeglD.M.s. Click one of these buttons to determine whether the
angular dimensions will be shown in degrees and
decimal places, or degreeslminuteslseconds furmat.
Decimal Conventions
There are two decimal conventions supported by DynaCADD that specify
which character represents the decimal point:
000,00 Click this button to use the comma to represent the
decimal position (European style).
000.00 Cliok this button to use the period to represent the
decimal position (North American style).
Page 170 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Partial Suppression of Dimensions
There are five buttons provided to suppress individual portions of a
dimension:
Arrowl:
Any inserted dimension does not display the arrowhead
of the first selecred location.
Arrow 2:
Any inserted dimension does not display the arrowhead
of the second selected location.
Extosnl:
Any inserted dimension does not display the extension
line of the first selecred location.
Extosn2:
Any inserted dimension does not display the extension
line of the second selected location.
Any inserted dimension does not display the associated
text.
Echoing Dimensions In Active Views
Normally, all inserted 3-D dimensions are displayed in all active views.
. Since this is rarely required, you can specify in which view(s) to echo the
dimension. This way. you can use 3-D dimensioning without crowding all
active views with unnecessaIY infurmation. The fuur buttons labeled 1 to
4 represent the fuur available views, respectively. VJeWS are numbered in
the order of their creation. If you click a numbered button, the
corresponding view echoes any 3-D dimension inserted.
Chapter 9 Page VI
Dimensioning
Setting Globals
Click here to set the global parameters for dimension entities. These
parameters affect all dimensions.
I Open
I"UPI"IID DIHIlINSIOHS . .
A:
B:
C:
D:
8.128808881
8.8600000S
8.25008808
8.25808000
.,I¥R.
Snap Leader
Verify Text
fig. (105) GWbal Dimension Pammeters Diaklg
Page
rn
A
This determines the upper extension, the distance
between the dimension line and the top of the
perpendicular extension line.
B
This is the gaP. the distance between the extension and
the entity or location being measured.
C
This is the distance between successive (parallel)
vertical or horizontal dimensions when using
DIMHBASE and DIMVBA.SE commands.
D
This is length of the extension line. from the dimension
line to the bottom of the extension, when using
CHCHAIN and CVCHA1N commands. Parameter A
(above) is used for the upper extension.
Chapter 9
DimensioDiog
Flipped Dimensions
This determines if the dimension is displayed in flipped dimensions
(dimensions that are displayed outside the dimension area) appear open
(no line across the dimension) or closed (line extending across the
dimension).
Open
Closed
:~IF
fig. (106) Opened and Closed Flipped Dimensions
Snap Leader
This detennines if the last line of the leader is automatically snapped to
the horizontal grid. The leader text is always aligned with the horizontal
grid.
Verify Text
WIth this on, the dimension text must be verified for each dimension (but
not leaders). You can edit the dimension text in the dialog. Press [Return]
to accept the text on the line.
This gives you the opportunity to edit the text and, if necessary, change
the dimension value.
Chapter 9 Page 173
Dimensioning
Dimensions
~
Primary
Command:
DIMENSION
Modifiers:
DIMLOC
[ill
DIMLINB
~
DIMHORI
DIMVElU
B
[i3
DIMRAD
DIMDIA
DIMHCHAIN
DIMVCHAIN
CHCHAIN
CVCHAIN
DIMHBASE
DIMVBASE
~
rn [J§] rn rm ru ~
DIMCLINE
[ml
DIMCCLINB
~
IlJ
El
TEX1WID (flag) 8I8
DIMANGLE
DIMLEADER
TEXTHEI (flag)
TEXTSLA (flag)
Flags:
Page 174 Chapter 9
ITI I
B
DynaCADD assumes that the value given is either in
inches or millimeters exclusively, depending on the
currently selected unit type, English or Metric,
respectively.
Dimensioning
TEXTWID Ddines the width of a single character
box.
TEXTBEI Ddines the height of a single character
box, based on the distance from the
baseline 10 the 10p of the Uppe1l3C filA".
1EX'ISLA Defines the slant (-60 10 +60 degrees)
applied 10 each character in the at.
Slanted at such as italic, slants to the
right 10 to 12 degrees, entered as
negative wIue.
Description: Insert dimension lines and text at the selected locations
or entities.
Chapter 9 Page 175
Dimensioning
Dimensioning locations
Command: DIMENSION DIMLOC (flags) loe #1, loe Ill, loe #3
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primary DIMENSION command.
loc Ill, loc 111.: Locations which specify the discance to dimension. The
dimension is inserted at a angle equal to that of a vector
defined by the two locations.
loc #3: Specifies the distance fIOm the dimensioned locations to
place the dimension line and text. This distance is the
nonnal distance to an imaginary line defined by location
#1 and location Ill.
Description: The distance between location #1 and location III is
dimensioned. The dimension text is positioned at
location #3.
Note: If the Anuws Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the dimension
closest to location #3.
1.530
oc#1
fig. (107) Dimension Locations
Page 176 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Unes
Command:
DIMENSION DIMLINB (flags) ent #1, loe 111
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
FI~:
See primary DIMENSION command.
ent #1:
The line to dimension. In 2-D mode, you can select a
3-D line to dimension, but the 3-D line ends are
automatically converted to 2...1) locations and are
dimensioned accordingly. The dimension are inserted at
a angle equal to that of a vector defined by the two line
end points.
loe #1:
The distance from the dimensioned locations to place the
dimension line and text. This distance is the normal
distance to the line.
Description:
The distance between the line end points is dimensioned
and the dimension text is positioned at location 111.
Note:
Ifthe Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the dimension
closest to location 111.
ftg. (lOB) Dimensioning a line
Chapter 9 Page 177
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Horizontal Distances
Command:
DIMENSION DIMHORI (flags) loe #1. loe /fl. loe #3
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primary DIMENSION command.
Joe Ill. Joe #2: Locations that specify the horizontal distance to
dimension. The dimension is inserted horizontally
between location #1 and location /fl.
Joe 113: The location where the dimension line and text are
placed.
Description: The horizontal distance between location #1 and
location /fl is dimensioned. The dimension text is
positioned at location #3.
Note: If the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field. the text is flipped outside the dimension
closest to location #3.
"-~
~--+---+-
O. 297
tx#3
tx#2
tx#3
+.r- 452l
I.
tx#1
txll2
fig. (109) Dimension Horizontal Distance
Page 178 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Vertical Distances
Command:
DIMENSION DIMVERI' (flags) loe #I, loe /fl, loe 113
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary DIMENSION command.
toe #l, toe #2:
Locations that specify the vertical distance to
dimension. The dimension is inserted vertically between
location #I and location /fl.
toe #3:
The location where the dimension line and text are
p1aced.
Description:
The vertical distance between location #I and
location /fl is dimensioned. The dimension text is
positioned at location 113.
Note:
If the Arrows Out buUon is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is tlipped outside the dimension
closest to location 113.
b::#1
b::#2
O. 365
b::#1
'oc#3
t~#3 1.381
~
fig. (110) Dimension Vel1ical Distance
Chapter 9 Page 179
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Radii
Ir~1
101
Command:
DIMENSION DIMRAD (flags) ent #1, loe #1
Mode:
Flags:
2-D and 3-D
See prim.aty DIMENSION command.
ent #1:
Cirele, are or fillet to dimension. In 2-D mode, you can
select a 3-D entity to dimension, provided that the
cirele, are or fillet image conversion from 3-D to 2-D
does not result in an elliptically shaped entity.
loe #1:
The location where the dimension line and text are
placed, relative to the origin of the selected entity.
Description:
The mdius of the selected entity is dimensioned. The
dimension text is positioned inside the circle radius if
location #1 is inside and there is sufficient 100m fur the
text, otherwise the text and arrowhead are automatically
flipped outside the cirele.
Note:
If the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the dimension
closest to location #1.
R 0.150
oc#1
ert#1
fig. (lll) Dimension Radius
Page 180 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Diameters
Command:
DIMENSION DIMDIA (flags) ent #1, loe #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary DIMENSION command.
ent #1:
Circle, arc or fillet to dimension. In 2-D mode, }'OU can
select a 3-D entity to dimension, provided that the
circle, arc or fillet image conversion from 3-D to 2-D
does not result in an elliptically shaped entity.
loe #1:
The location where the dimension line and text are
placed, relative to the origin ofthe selected entity.
Descrlption:
The diameter of the selected entity is dimensioned. The
dimension text is positioned inside the circle radius if
location #1 is inside and there is sufficient room fur the
text, otherwise the text and arrowhead are automatically
flipped outside the circle.
Note:
If the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the dimension
closest to location #1.
00. 300
fig. (il2) Dimensioning Diameters
Chapter 9 Page 181
Dimensioning
Horizontal Chain Dimensioning
Command:
DIMENSION DIMHCHAIN (flags) loe 1Il•. .loe lin
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primary DIMENSION command.
toe It, toe Un-I: Locations specifying the horizontal distance(s) to
dimension. The dimension is inserted horizontally
between location III and location 12. If more than three
locations are selected, the horizontal distances between
all selected locations are dimensioned in older of their
selection.
toe Un: The last location selecC:ed.. where the dimension line
and text are placed ror all dimensions.
toe
0.510
#5
To.516 1°.
tx#3
474
1
tx#4
i--------;tx#2
tx#1
fig. (ID) Horizontal Chain Dimensioning
Page 182 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Description:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The horizontal distance between location #1 and
location Ifl is dimensioned. If more than three
locations are selected, the horizontal discance between
location Ifl and location #3 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the horizontal distance between
location /In-2 and location /In-I has been dimensioned.
The dimension text is positioned at the last selected
location.
The extension lines extend from the baseline of the
dimension text to the locations specified from loe #1 to
loe , n-l. See CHCHAIN, below.
Note:
If the Anows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the
dimension closest to location In.
Chapter 9 Page 183
Dimensioning
Vertical Chain Dimensioning
Command:
DIMENSION DIMVCHAIN (flags) loe #1.. .loe #n
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primary DIMENSION command.
Joe Ill, Joe #0-1: Locations specifying the vertical distance(s) to
dimension. The dimension is inserted vertically
between location #1 and location Ill. If more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distances between
all selected locations are dimensioned in order of their
selection.
Joe #0: The location where the dimension line and text are
placed,fur all dimensions. This is the last location
selected.
be#I'
+""#4
O. 583
be#2
0.625
~_#~3~
___________
fig. (114) Wmical Chain Dimensioning
Page 184 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Description:
Activate the command by clickiog the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The vertical distance between location #l and
location 112 is dimensioned. H more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distance between
location 112 and location 113 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the vertical distance between
location 1In-2 and location lin-I bas been dimensioned.
The dimension text is positioned at the last selected
location.
The extension lines extend from the baseline of the
dimension text to the locations specified from loe #l to
loe # n-I. See CVCHAIN, located on the previous
page.
Note:
H the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the
dimension closest to location lin.
Chapter 9 Page 185
Dimensioning
Constant Horizontal Chain Dimensioning
Command:
DIMENSION CHCHAIN (flags) loe #I••.loe lin
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary DIMENSION command.
loe #1, loe #n-I: Locations specifying the horizontal distance(s) to
dimension. The dimension is inserted horizoncally
between location lin-I and location lin. If more than
three locations are selected, the horizontal distances
between all selected locations are dimensioned in
order of their selection.
loe In:
The location where the dimension line and the baseline
of the dimension text are placed. fur all dimensions.
This is the last location selected.
fig. (115) Constant Horizontal Chain Dimensioning
Page 186 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
DescriptioD:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
The horizontal distance between location #1 and
location Ifl is dimensioned. If more than three
locations are selected. the horizontal distance between
location Ifl and location #3 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the horizontal distance between
location 1In-2 and location lin-I has been dimensioned.
The baseline of the dimension text is positioned at the
last selected location.
The difference between this command and
DIMHCHAIN is that the extension lines are always a
constant length. as set in the global parcunetem of the
Dimension Patameters dialog.
Note:
Ifthe Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field. the text is flipped outside the
dimension closest to location lin.
Chapter 9 Page 187
Dimensioning
Constant Vertical Chain Dimensioning
Command:
DIMENSION CVCHAIN (flags) loe 11•• Joe Un
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary DIMENSION command.
loe 111, loe #n-l: Locations specifying the vertical distance(s) to
dimension. The dimension is inserted vertically
between location 11 and location /fl. If more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distances between
all selected locations are dimensioned in older of their
selection.
toe Ito:
The location where the dimension line and text are
placed, for all dimensions. This is the last location
selected.
-
jig. (116) Constant Vel1lcal Chain Dimensioning
Page 188 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The vertical distance between location 111 and
location III is dimensioned. H more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distance between
location III and location 113 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the vertical distance between
location Un-2 and location Un-I has been dimensioned.
The dimension text is positioned at the last selected
location.
The di.fference between this command and
DIMVCHAIN is that the extension lines are always a
constant length, as set in the global pa.auneteD of the
Dimension Pammetem dialog.
Note: H the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the
dimension closest to location In.
Chapter 9 Page 189
Dimensioning
Horizontal Baseline DimensIoning
Command:
DIMENSION DIMHBASE (flags) loe #I••.loe Nn
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primary DIMENSION command.
lac #1, 100 #0-1: Locations specifying the horizontal distance(s) to
dimension. 1be dimension is inserted horizontally
between location #I and location #2. If more than three
locations are selected. the horizontal distances between
an selected locations are dimensioned in older of their
selection.
100 In: 1be location where the dimension line and text are
placed, for the initial dimension. This is the last
location selected.
1.375
1 000
0
t:x;1f 5
+ r--- o. 5 4 2 1
1
tx:1f3
tx:#1
tx:#4
ttx:#2
fig. (117) Horizontal Baseline Dimensioning
Page 190 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Description: Activate the command by clickiog the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The horizontal distance between location #1 and
location In is dimensioned. If more than three
locations are selected, the horizontal distance between
location In and location 113 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the horizontal distance between
location /In-2 and location /In-I has been dimensioned.
The dimension text is positioned at the lase: selected
location.
Note: If the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the
dimension closest to location lin.
Chapter 9 Page 191
Dimensioning
Vertical Baseline Dimensioning
I~.::!II
lIB
Command:
DIMENSION DIMVBASB (flags) loe #1•• .1oe Un
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See prinwy DIMENSION command.
loe 111, lac #0-1: Locations specifying the vertical disCance(s) to
dimension. The dimension is inserted vertically
between location #1 and location #2. If more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distances between
all selected locations are dimensioned in order of their
selection.
lac #0:
The location where the dimension line and text are
placed, for the initial dimension. This is the last
location selected.
bc#4
be#1
O.bOO
bc#2~ I. I 25
bc#3
fig. (DB) Vertical Baseline Dimensioning
Page 192 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Description:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The vertical distance between location #l and
location 112 is dimensioned. H more than three
locations are selected, the vertical distance between
location 112 and location #3 is then dimensioned. This
process continues until the vertical distance between
location /In-2 and location /In-I has been dimensioned.
The dimension text is positioned at the last selected
location.
Note:
H the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to pJace the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is flipped outside the
dimension dosest to location /In.
Chapter 9 Page 193
Dimensioning
Inserting Center Lines
Command:
DIMENSION DIMCIJNE: ent 111
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent #1:
Circle, are. fillet, ellipse or elliptical arc. In 2-D mode,
you can select a 3-D entity to dimension, however, each
center line is inserted on the J..D plane on which the
corresponding entity lies.
Description:
A cenrer line is inserted at the origin, and extends 118
inch past the circumference of the selected entity. The
line style is defined as SYS_CEN'I'HR, consistent with
the sta.ndaJ:d center line. See Chapter 6.
+
ftg. (119) Cenler lines
Page 194 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Inserting Center Lines on Base Circle Diameters
Command:
DIMENSION DlMCCLINE: loe #1. ent #1•••ent In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
100 111:
The location defining the origin of the base cin::le.
ent 1I1•• .eat #0: One or more circles, arcs. or fillets. situated on the
circlUllfurence of the base circle. In 2-D mode. you can
select a 3-D entity to dimension.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
bntton. or by pressing [;].
A cirou1ar center line is placed with its origin at
location #1. The mdius of the circnlar center line is the
distance from location #1 to the origin of the first
selected location. At each of the selected entities, a
center line is inserted through the origin, at an angle
equal to that between location #1 and the origin of the
corresponding entity.
ent #3
ent
foc
#1
ent
#1
#4
fig. (120) Cirallar Center Lines
Chapter 9 Page 195
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Angles
Command:
DIMENSION DIMANOLE (flags) ent HI. ent Ill. loe HI
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary DIMENSION command.
ent 111, eDt #2: Two lines fur which the aogle is measured. In 2-D
mode, you can select 3-D lines to dimension. in which
case an image of the 3-D line is automatically converted
to a corresponding 2..0 tine.
loe 111:
The location of the dimension are and text.
Description:
The aogle between the two selected lines is
dimensioned. Iflocation #1 is between the two lines,
and there is sufficient room to insure readability. the text
is placed within the aogle, otherwise the text is placed
outside the line, closest to location #1.
DynaCADD automatically dimensions the inside, or
smaller. aogle.
.
Note:
If the Arrows Out button is selected or there is
insufficient space to place the dimension text inside the
dimension field, the text is tlipped outside the
dimension closest to location #1.
OC#I
36.::;~
2.+
eri#1
fig. (121) Dimensioning Angles
Page 196 Chapter 9
Dimensioning
Leaders
Command: DIMENSION DIMLEADER (flags) str: 10e #i.• .loe lin
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Mags: See primary DIMENSION command.
str: After you select the LEADER icon, type the required
text into the text editor and press [Enter]. If a leader line
is required with no text, simply press [Enter] without
entering any text.
foe 111, foe #0: Locations specifying the leader line ends. The last line
of the leader is inserted horizontally.
Description: A leader is a user defined text description or label,
connected between loe #i and loe lin with an arrow and
a series of lines. If Snap Leader is on in the Dimension
Parameters dialog, then the last line in the leader bas
any vertical deviation reduced to zero and is snapped to
the horizontal axis. The leader text, if any, is inserted at
location Un, always along the horizontal axis.
~.
In order to modify leader text, you must first release it
(CREATE RELEASE, see Chapter 12). Then you can
use the Transfunn commands to alter the text or text
attributes (see TRANSFORM. Chapter 10).
1x#2
~
LEADER
1x#3
Ix #I
fig. (122) Leaders
Chapter 9 Page WI
Dimensioning
Page 198 Chapter 9 'Ii:ansfonnation
'D'ansformatlon ••• Chapter 10
Transfurmation commands modifY, move, rotate, scale, or delete entities.
DynaCADD has a large array of commands specifically designed to allow
you to modifY entities. You can also use some of these commands to
create new entities by copying the original entities to new locations.
Mastering these commands greatly decreases design time.
The TRANCOPY (tmosfbrm copy) icon, located on the left: side of the
top icon strip, affects how many of these commands act upon the selected
entities. Which commands are affucted is noted in the descriptions. If
TRANCOPY is on, the command affects an image of the original entities
and the original entities are left: undisturbed. JfTRANCOPY is off, the
command affects the original entities.
To show what entities are valid fur a particular command, click on the
Entity Ftlter icon (FILTER). All valid entities fur the command are
displayed in the dialog. Any invalid entities are disabled.
All transfurmation commands are combined under the TRANSFORM
icon.
Chapter 10 Page 199
Transformation
Deleting Entities
Primary Command:
TRANSFORM DELETE Modifiers: None
Command: TRANSFORM DELETE: eDt #I••.eDt #n
Mode: 2-D & 3-D
ent It.. .ent #0: Arrj number of entities to delete.
Description: DELETE removes all selected entities from the drawing.
As with all transformation commands, you may only
select those entities created in the current mode (2-D or
3-D), fur deletion.
This is the same delete command as in the INSERT icon
pad.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are pennanently removed from the
drawing. This command can be undone, as long as no
other command is activated befure [Undo] is pressed.
Before
After
fig. (123) Deleting Entities
Page 200 Chapter 10
Transformation
Trimming Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM TRIM
Modifiers:
TRlMONB
TRlMCORNR
TRlMINTOF
TRlMMULTI
ITI LX]
~
~
TRlMINC
TRlMDISr
Description:
~
§
TRIM shortens or lengthens an entity, depending on
where, in relation to the current length, you select as a
new entity end. Trim wOIb on lines, ares, fillets and
elliptical ares. You can only trim circles and ellipses
after dividing them into two or more ares (see Dividing Entities. below). There are six types of trim: ONE
Trim one selected entity. CORNR Trim two entities to their intersection. INTOF
Trim one entity to an intersection. MULTI
Trim several entities at once. INC
Trim an entity by a specified increment. DISf
Trim an entity to an absolute distance. Trim responds to the location and entity ends selected, according to the type of trim being perfurmed. The entity
end closest to the location selected is used in a trim. Be
precise when selecting locations and entities to trim.
Chapter 10 Page 201
Transformation
Trimming One Entity
(Q]
Command:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMONE: ent #1, loe #1
B:J
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent#!:
The entity to trim.
loe#!:
The location of the trim. The trim is applied to the entity
end, closest to location #1, according to the distance
between the end and loe #1.
Description:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
~
Select the end to trim and a new location. DynaCADD
intersects the line or are perpendicular to the point
chosen and pertbIIDS the trim. The end point of the
selected entity closest to location #1 is appropriately
lengthened or shortened to that location.
(
t
8t#1
'/
/
Before
After
fig. (lU) Trim One Entity
Page 202 Chapter 10
Traosfomtation
Trimming at the Corner of Two Entities
Command: TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMCORNR: eDt 111. eDt # 2
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent 11, ent #2: 1be two entities to trim. The entities should intersect or
be located in such a vnry that they will intersect when
trimmed. Parallel entities cannot intersect.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
The trim is perfurmed accolding to the same rules as
when inserting fillets. The selection point closest to the
intersection is used. 1be end points of the selected
entities closest to the selection point are appropriately
lengthened or shortened to the intersection location.
enty~
\
,...t ' l
Before
After
fig. (125) 1Hm at the Comer of TWo Entities
Chapter 10 Page 203
Trausfonnation
Trimming One Entity to an Intersection
[QJ
Command: TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMINTOF: ent 11, ent If2
EJ
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent#1: Entity to be trimmed.
ent#2: Entity to trim to. The first entity should intersect the
second entity or be located in such a way that will
intersect when trimmed. Parallel entities cannot
intersect.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
~
The trim is perfurmed according to the same rules as
when inserting fillets. The selection point closest to the
intersection is used. The end points ofthe selected
entities closest to the selection point are appropriately
lengthened or shortened to the intersection location.
Before
After
fig. (126) 1Hm One Entity to its Intersection with Another
Page 204 Chapter 10
Traosformation
Trimming Several Entities
Command:
TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMMULTI ent #I•••ent In.
loc #I
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
eDt #1•• .ent #0: The entities to trim. The ends closest to the selected
entities are trimmed to location #I.
loe #1: The location ofthe trim. All entities are trimmed
perpendicular to the line being trimmed, from the
trimming point (location #I). The trimming is applied to
the selected end ofthe entity end.
DescrIption: .Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
The end points of the selected entitles closest to location
#I are appropriately lengthened or shortened to a
position perpendicular to location #I.
If the entity being trimmed is angled to the axes. then the
trim is perpendicular to the entity. not the axes.
This is useful for aligning entity ends with a particular
location.
~I
ent fit el\t
'3
I
I
112 l
entfll
--+­
ent 112
l
ent
Before
After
fig. (127) 1Hm Several Entities to a Specific Location
Chapter 10 Page 205
Transfonnatioo
Trimming One Entity by an Increment
Command: TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMINC (mc) eDt HI
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
inc: Absolute amount to trim entity; enter a positive value to
lengthen. a negative value to shorten.
ent#1: The entity to trim.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
Enter the amount to trim into the pop up calculator. The
end point ofthe selected entity closest to the selection
point is lengthened by that amount if the value is
positive. or shortened if the value is negative.
Distances fOr ares are calculated along their
circumference.
tnt
11
------~f ,'2
tnt
I I'
INCREMENT
I I'
I
INCREMENT
I
I
Before
fig. (128) 7Hm by an Increment
Page 206 Chapter 10
Traosfonnafion
Trimming One Entity to an Absolute Distance
Command: TRANSFORM TRIM TRIMDISr (dist) ent #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
dist: The absolute length of the entity. Must be a positive
number.
ent 111: The entity to trim.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
Enter the absolute length of the entity into the pop up
calculator. The value can only be positive. The end point
of the selected entity closest to location #1 is
appropriately lengthened or shortened so that the entity
is the entered length, when trimmed.
Distances fur arcs are calculated along their
c.i.reumference.
,
wI!
I
...,,2
r
I- 0 I STANCE -i
I
I- 0 I STANCE -i
I
COISTANCE
Before
After
fig. (129) THm 10 an Absolute Distance
Chapter 10 Page 'lJJ7
1hmsformation
Dividing Entities
PrImary
Command:
TRANSFORM DIVIDE
Modifiers: DNLOC
DIVNDIV
[2]
[±]
Description: DIVIDE breaks an entity into two or more separate
entities. Dividing a cirole creates two or more ares.
Dividing an ellipse creates two or more elliptical ares.
To divide Bezier and B-spline curves, use the CURVE
commands described in Chapter 8.
Page 208 Chapter 10
Transformation
Dividing Entities by Location
Command:
TRANSFORM DIVIDB DIVLOC: eDt 1/1, loe 1/1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
oot#1:
Line, cirele, arc, fillet, ellipse or elliptical arc to divide. The location where the entity is to divide. Activate the command by clicking the right mouse button, or by pressing [;]. The selected entity is divided at location 1/1 and broken into two sepamte entities. loc#1:
Description:
Before
After
Jig. (130) Dividing an Entity by l.LJcation
Chapter 10 Page 209
Transfonnation
Dividing Entitles Into Equal Divisions
CoDllll8lJ():
Mode:
numdlv:
ent #1:
Description:
TRANSFORM DIVIDE DIVNDIV (numdiv): ent #l
2-D and 3-D
The number of equal divisions into which the selected
entity is broken.
Line, ciIcle, arc, fillet, ellipse or elliptical arc to divide.
Activate the command by clicking the right monse
button, or by pressing [;].
The selected entity is divided into "numdiv" divisions of
equal size, which creates the same number of separate
entities. Une divisions are based on equal lengths. and
all other entities are broken into entities of equal angular
deviations.
Before
After
fig. (131) Divide an Entity into Equal Divisions
Page 210 Chapter 10
TnmsfonnatioD
Translating Entities
Primary
Command:
Modifiers:
Flag:
Description:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE
TRANMOVB
10 • 0 1
TRANCOPY
TRANMCOPY
~
TRANSFACE (flag) 1 @ 1
TRANSFACE Generate 3-D mces from the original
entities to their copies. This only
applies to 3-D entities.
Move, copy or create multiple copies of the selecced
entities.
There are three types of ttanslate:
MOVE
Moves the selected entities.
COpy
Copies the selected entities.
MCOPY
Creates more than one copy of the
selected entities.
+
be#2
be#1
+
en/l3
~
~ert#2
Before
+
D
D
+
After
fig. (132) Translating Entilies
Chapter 10 Page 211
Tnmsfonnation
Moving Entities
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANMOVE:
ent #1•••ent #n, [;] loe #1, loe 1/2
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent 1L•.ent In: One or more entities to move. You may select all entity
Command:
types.
loe Ill, loe 12: These two locations define a vector along which the
entities are translated. Imagine the first location as the .
"from" position and the second location as the "to"
position.
Description: Activate the command by cUcking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;]. The TRANMOVE command moves a single entity or group of selected entities along the vector defined by location #1 and location 1/2, from the furmer to the latter. Note: The TRANCOPY icon fuund above the drawing area
does not a:fIect this command.
o
o
Before fig. (133) Moving Entities
Page 212 Chapter 10
After
Transfonnation
Copying Entl~les
Command:
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANCOPY (flag):
Mode:
eDt #1•••eDt In, [;] loe #1, loe If].
2-D and 3-D
Flag:
See Primary TRANSFORM TRANSLATE command.
ent #1•• .ent In: One or more entities to copy. You may select all entity
types.
loe ~ loe 12: These two locations define a vector along which the
entities are tmnslated. Imagine the first location as the
"from" position and the second location as the "to"
position.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The TRANCOPY command copies a single entity or
group of selected entities along the vector defined by
location #1 and location If]., from the fonner to the
latter.
Note:
The TRANCOPY icon found above the drawing area
0
len
OM.
enll2
Ie II
After
Before
fig. (134) Copying Entities
Chapter 10 Page 213
Transformation
Copying Entities to Multiple locations
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE TRANMCOPY (flag):
ent 1Il...eot lin. [;] loe Ill, loe If}. [;]•• Joe Un [;]
2-D and 3-D
Mode: See Primary TRANSFORM TRANSLATE command.
Flag: ent 11•• .ent #0: One or more entities to copy. You may select all entity
Command: types.
loc 11:
A location relative to the selected entities.
loc #2•••1oc #0: These locations define a vector along which the entities
are tmnslated. Imagine the location III as the "from"
position and all other locations as the "to" position.
Dacrlption: The TRANMCOPY command copies a single entity or
group of selected entities along the vector defined by
location III and all other locations, from the fonner to
the latter.
Note: Page 214 Chapter D
Begin this command by first selecting the entities to be
copied and clicking the right mouse button, or by
pressing [;] to end entity selection. Now select the
original location on the drawing page with the left
mouse button.
Activate this command by selecting the new location on
the drawing page and clicking the right mouse button, or
pressing [;] to make a copy of the selected entities.
Create another copy by selecting another new location
and clicking the right mouse button. Repeat this process
for all successive copies.
The TRANCOPY icon found at the top of the drawing
page does not affect this command.
Transformation
ertl3
ertl2
_fl
0
Before
ertl1
0
0
0
ladl
"'12
"'11
After
fig. (135) Copying Enlilies to Multiple Locations
Chapter 10 Page 215
Transformation
Rotating Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM ROTATE
Modifiers:
ROTANG (flag)
[ZJ
ROTNCOPY (flag)
Ic:.vl
Flags:
RorANG
The angle of rotation (-360 10 +360
degrees) by which the selected entities
are rotated. The de6:mlt is 90 degrees.
ROI'NCOPY
The number of repetitions 10 perfurm
by the ROfATE command. The entities
are incremented by ROfANG degrees.
fur each repetition. The defimlt is one.
A copy is made fur each rotation if the
value is greater than one.
Description: This command rotates a selected group of entities about a
definable origin. YOu can also create ciroular arrays
using this command (fur other anays. see TRANSFORM
ARR.A.Y. located on the previous page).
Page 216 Chapter 10
Transfonnation
Rotating Entitles About a Selected location
~
Command: [b]
Mode:
TRANSFORM ROTATE (flags) eDt #1••.eDt In, [;]
loe#1
2-D and 3-D
Mags:
See primary TRANSFORM ROTATE command.
ent #1•• .ent In: One or more entities to rotate. You may select an entity
types.
loe #1: The origin about which an the selected entities are
rotated. Imagine this as the center of a circle about which
the entities rotate.
DescrIption: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are rotated by, ROTANG degrees
about location #1. The command repeats the rotation
ROTNCOPY times. incrementing the angle with each
repetition and making a copy each time. In 3-D mode,
the entities are rotated on the curreDt plane defined by
the active GCp.
Note: The TRANCOPY modifier in the Tools menu affects
this command. However, if the number of repetitions
specified by ROTNCOPY is greater than one,
DynaCADD automatically applies a Copy regatdless of
the state ofTRANCOPY.
bC#1
+
frt#3
e:t#1
f>
ert#2
Before
After
fig. (136) Rotating Entities
Chapter 10 Page 217
Transformation
Mirroring Entities
Primary
TRANSFORM MIRROR
None
TRANSFORM MIRROR: eDt #1...eDt #n, [;], loe #1,
loe#2
2-D and 3-D
Mode:
eot #l.. .ent In: One or more entities to mirror. You may mirror all entity
types except 2-D text.
loe 11, loe Ill: These two locations define the end points of the mirror
line. .
Command:
Modifiers:
Command:
Description: This command mirrors a selected group of entities across
a definable rdlection line. The opposite image of the
selected entities is created on the other side of the line.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are mirrored across the line defined
by location #1 and location #2. A mirrored image of the
selected entities is created on the opposing side of the
line. In 3-D mode, location #1 and location #2 define a
plane that travels infinitely along the current Z axis, as
defined by the active OCP.
Note: The TRANCOPY modifier in the Tools menu affucts
this command.
lx,l
en 112
Before
After
fig. (137) Mirroring Entities
Page 218 Chapter 10
Transformation
Modifying Entities
I~I
~
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY Modifiers:
CHARAD
CHALOC
CHAPEN
CHATWID*
CHATHEI*
~
/
IIJ 8I8 CHATROf*
CHATSLA*
CHATFONT*
CHALAYBR
CHATSPACE*
EDITfEXT*
TXTORIENT*
Description:
B
IA. ,F! I ~
M
I~I
~
Modify changes a specified attribute of entities. Changes
marked with an asterisk ("*") apply only to text entities
and dimension text. lbu must release a dimension befure
it can be modified (see CREATE RELEASE, Chapter
12).
To cbaoge an entity's diameter, use the CHARAD
(change radius) command.
Warning:
You cannot undo a TRANSFORM MODIFY
command!
Chapter 10 Page 219
Transformation
Changing Entity Radius
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHARAD (rad): eDt #I•••ent #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
rad:
Radius used fur all selected entities.
ent #l•• .ent #0: One or more circles. ~ or fillets (0 have their radius
modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities have their radius chaoged to that of
"lad".
o
Before
After
fig. (138) Entity Radius
Page 220 Chapter 10
'I'ransfonnation
Changing Entity Location
I~ I
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHALOC: ent 1Il...ent lin, [;]
loe III
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #l•• .eot In: One or more entities to have their location modified. All
entity types are permitted.
loe #l: Location which the selected entities reterence. The effuct
this location has on the selected entity depends on the
entity type. All entities are valid except b-spline and
Bezier curves, and 2-D solids.
DescrIption: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities, except lines, are moved to this new
location. If the selected entity is a line, the end of the
line closest to location III is moved to location #1.
be#1
+
en#1
en#2 en#3
Before
After
fig. (139) Entity Location
Chapter 10 Page 221
Transformation
Changing Entity Pen
[Q]
I:h]
lId Command:
TRANSPORM MODIPY CHAPEN (pen) (weight)
(line style): ent #1•••ent In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
pen:
Pen number (1 to 9, A to p), used fur all selected entities.
weight:
Line weight (1 to 3) fur all selected entities.
Unestyle:
The line style fur all selected entities. Click on the right
and left arrows to scroll the style names. DefiningJine
styles is described in Chapter S.
ent ft•• .ent In: One or more entities to have their pen, weight and line
style modified.
Description:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;]. All selected entities have their attributes changed to that shown in the dialog box. Before
After
fig. (140) Entity Pen
Page 222 Chapter 10
TransfonnatioIi
Changing Entity Layer
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHALAYER (lay):
ent #1•..eDt #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
lay:
Layer (0 to 255. or name). to which the selected entities
are moved.
ent #1•• .ent #0: One or more entities to move to the selected layer. All
entity types are permitted.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
All selected entities have their layer changed to that of
"Iay-. EssentiallY. they are moved to that layer. To copy
an entity.to another layer. use EDITLAYER.
COPYLAYER (see Chapter 15).
Chapter 10 Page 223
Transfonnation
Changing Text Width
Command: TRANSFORM MODIFY CHATWID (wid):
cot 111•••ent #n
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
wid: Width of a single text character box, used fur all selected
entities. DynaCADD assumes that the value is either in
inches or millimeters depending on the currently selected
unit type, BngJisb or Metric, respectively. The selected
value is automatically readjusted to the c:hawing scale.
ent It.. .ent In: One or more text entities to have their character width
modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
Enter the new width value in the pop up calculator. AIl
selected text entities have their character width changed
to that of "wid".
A~C
ABC ~ 2 3)
1~3 #$@ #$@ Before
After
fig. (141) Text Wulth
Page 224 Chapter 10
Transformation
Changing Text Height
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHATHEI (hei):
ent #1...ent #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
bel:
Height of a single text character box, used for all selected
entities. DynaCADD assumes that the value is either in
inches or millimeters depending on the currently selected
unit type, English or Metric, respectively. The selected
value is automatically readjusted to the drawing scale.
ent 11•• .ent #0.: One or more text entities to have their character height
modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
Enter the new height value in the pop up calculator. All
selected text entities have their character height changed
to that of "hei".
Before
Alter
fig. (142) Text Height
Chapter 10 Page 225
Transfonnation
Changing Text Rotation
Command:
TRANSFORM MOD1FY CHATROT (rot):
eDt #1•••ent #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
rot:
Rotation (-360 to 360 degrees). used fur all selected text
entities.
ent #l•• .ent #0: One or more text entities to have their rotation modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [j].
Enter the rotation angle into the pop up calculator. All
selected text entities have their rotation changed to that of
"rot". In 3-D mode, the rotation is applied about the X-Y
axes. defined by the coordinate plane on which the 3-D
text entity lies.
Before
After
fig. (143) Text Rotation
Page 226 Chapter 10
Transformation
Changing Text Slant
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHATSLA (sJa):
eDt 11...ent #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
hei:
Slant (-00 to 60 degrees), used fur all selected rext
entities.
ent 1L•.ent #0: One or more rext entities to have their slant modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
Enter the slant in degrees. into the pop up calculator. All
selected rext entities have their slant changed to that of
"sIa".
TEXT TEXT aeforo
After
fig. (144) Text Slant
Chapter 10 Page 2Zl
Transformation
Page 228 Chapter 10 Transformation
Changing Text Spacing
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHATSPACB (spc)
ent #1•..ent In
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
spc: The type of spacing (constant, proportional or kerned)
used fur all selected text entities. At the bottom of the
dialog you can manually adjust the increment fur
character spacing. Click on the right and left anows to
increase and decrease the chamcter spacing in tenths of a
point (J.I71.0 inch).
ent #1•• .ent In: One or more text entities to have their character spacing
modified.
Description: Activate the command by clicking-the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
"--./ All selected text entities have their funt style changed to
that of the selected funt style. Manually adjusted
character spacing affects all text strings.
The dialog is the same one described in Chapter 7, nuder
INSBRf TEXT SBTSPACB.
Before
After
fig. (145) 7ext Spacing
Chapter 10 Page 229
Transfonnation
Char. Space
lij.'MII"" IProportional I I Kerned
Manual Spacing AdJustAent ( 1/720 inch )
¢
10000 I
~
fig. (146) Chamcler Spacing Dialog
fig. (147) rom Selection Dialog
Page 230 Chapter 10
Transfonnation
Changing Text Font
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY CHATFONT (funt)
ent 11•••ent In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
font:
After you click on the CHATFONT icon, select one of
the available funts from the dialog. The currently active
funt is shown with a check maIk prec«1ing its name. To
select a funt. click the pointer at the appropriate funt
name.
ent #1•• .ent In: One or IDOIe text entities 10 have their funt style
modified.
Description:'. Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by.pressing [;].
All selected text entities have their funt style changed to
that of the selected funt style.
Triumvira te
Before
Park Avenue
After
fig. (148) 1kxt R:Jnt
Chapter 10 Page 231
Transformation
Editing Text
Command:
TRANSFORM MODIFY BDrrrnxT ent #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent #1:
The text to edit.
Description:
After)Uu select the entity, the text editor appears. Use
the editing keys to change the text as required. Press
[Insert] to accept the text and aI\Y changes. See Chapter 1 for a description of the text editot; or press [Help]. XXe is the diaAeter synbol¢
XXd Is the degree sYAbol¢
XXp 15 the plus/Ainus synbol¢
XX134 is character 134 "111 of the character setl
ftg. (149) 11!xt Editing
Page 232 Chapter 10
Transfonnatioo
Changing Text Orientation
Command: TRANSFORM MODIFY TXTORIBNT ent #It loe # It
100#2
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #1: The text entity to cbange.
loe ~ loe #2: Start and end points of the new text baseline.
Description: Select a text entity to reorient. Then select two 2-D
locations as the start and end points fur the new text
baseline. CHck the right mouse button to change the text.
The current funt, slant, height, etc. are Irept. The actual
text size does not cbange size; it ooly changes orientation
and/or moves its position.
TXTORIBNT uses the current syScemjustification (see
Insert Text, Chapter 7) and the reoriented text is given
whatever is C1lIreDt no matter what it had originally.
t
Press [Undo] to restore the text to its original baseline.
ttgl
Before
After
fig. (150) Text Orientation
Chapter 10 Page 233
Transformation
Stretching Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM STRETCH
Modifiers:
None
Command:
TRANSFORM STRETCH em 1I1•••em #no [;]loe 111.
loe 112
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent 11•• .ent In: One or more entities to st:retcl1.
toe Ill, loe 112: These two locations define a stretch ratio along each
axis. The first location is considered the "from" point,
and the second location is the "to" point.
Description:
This command stretches a group of selected entities
along aD:Y or all axes, by a definable ratio.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
+ be#1
Before
After
fig. (151) Stretching Entities
Page 234 Chapter 10
Transformation
All selected entities have their aspect modified. The
amount of stretch applied to the entities is controlled by
location #l and location /fl, which define a ratio along
each axis of the amount of stretch applied in each
direction. Circles, Arcs and Fillets that are stretched
have their base entity type changed to Ellipses and
Elliptical Arcs. Although this command may prove
invaluable at times, it does require some experience. We
recommend that you experiment on a non-crltical
drawing, before using it on a part or drawing of any
importance.
Note:
The TRANCOPY icon affects this command.
Chapter 10 Page 235
1hmsfonnation
Scaling Entities
Primary
Command:
Modifiers:
Command:
Mode:
TRANSFORM SCALE
None
TRANSFORM SCALE ent Hl.. •ent No, [;] loe Hl,
loe 1/2
.
2-D and 3-D
ent Il.. .ent #0: One or more entities to scale. You can scale all entity
types. except points.
loe 11, loc #2: These two locations define a scaling ratio. The first
location is the "from" point, and the second location is
the "to" point.
Description: Scaling resizes selected entities by a defined ratio.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are resized by an ratio determined by
location Hl and location 1/2. The center point of all
selected entities is used as a rererence point. The ratio is
determined by the distance of location Hl and location If}.
to that reference point.
Note:
The TRANCOPY icon affects this command.
1::1:;#2
ertlf3
+
tx:#l
t:.:I
~ert#2
Before
o
After
fig· (152) &aling Entities
Page 236 Chapter 10
Transformation
Creating Entity Offsets
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM OFFSET
Modifiers:
THROUGH
DISTANCB
SOLIDPATII
TRACBPATII
TRACEBNDS
Description: OffSet duplicates the entity at a specific location or
distance from the original. The offi;et can also tmce the
entity on both sides.
Chapter 10 Page 137
1hmsfonnation
Offsetting Entities at a location
Eel
~
[£]
Command: TRANSFORM OPFSEI' TIIROUGH eDt #1, loe #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent#1: The entity to offset. Only line, arc, circle. ellipse and
elliptical are are valid entity types.
(oclt: The location of the duplicate (offset) entity. This also
determines on which side of the entity the offset is
placed.
Description: This creates a duplicate of the selected entity parallel to
the original, on the same side and distance as that of
location #1.
+
tc#1
Before
After
fig. (153) Tnmsfonn Offset 1hrough
Page 238 Chapter 10
Transfonnation
Offsetting Entities at a Distance
Command: TRANSFORM OFFSET DISTANCE (dist) ent Hl,
loeHl
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
dfst: The distance from the original where the ofiSet is placed.
This must be a positive number.
entll: The entity to offset. Only line, are, circle, ellipse and
elliptical are are valid entity types.
locll: The side at which the duplicate (offset) entity appears.
Description: This creates a duplicate ofthe selected entity parallel to
the original, at distance (dist), on the side of the original
indicated by location Hl.
+
tx/fl
Before
After
jig. (154) Transfonn Offset Distance
Chapter 10 Page 239
1hmsformation
TracIng a Solid Path Around EntIties
Command: TRANSFORM OFFSEf SOLIDPArn (thick)
ent #1•••ent In
Mode: 2-D
thick: The thickness of the offset path traced around the
entities, measured from the original entity outward.
ent #1•• .ent #0: The entities to tmce. H more than one entity is selected,
they must all be connected in a contiguous chain.
DescrIption: A solid path is traced around both sides of the selected
entities, at thickness (thick) from and parallel to the
original entities.
r - - - ___ J!;.L2-t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
oi-
ti.1I
-
- - -
Before
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
J
After
fig. (155) Titmsfonn Offset Solidpath
Page 240 Chapter 10
Transformation
Tracing a Path Around Entities
Command:
TRANSFORM OFFSET TRACBPATH (<list)
ent #1•••eDt Un
Mode:
2-D
size:
The distance of the omet path tmced aroUnd the entities,
measured from the original entity outwanl.
ent #1•• .ent In: The entities to trace. If more than one entity is selected,
they must all be connected in a contiguous chain.
Description: A path is traced around both sides of the selected
entities, at distance (<list) from and parallel to the
original entities.
b: I 2...
I
1
1
I
I
I
... tiCliI-- - - __ J
Before
I
I
I
I
I
After
fig. (156) 1hmsform OjJSet Tracepath
Chapter 10 Page 241
Transformation
TracIng a Path Around Entities and Enclose the Ends
Command:
TRANSFORM OFFSEI' TRACEBNDS (dist)
ent #1...ent #n
Mode:
2-D
size:
The distance of the path traced around the entities,
measured from the original entity outwanf.
ent Il.. .ent In: The entities to trace. If more than one entity is selected,
they must all be connected in a contiguous chain.
Description: A path is traced around both sides of the selected
entities, at distance (dist) from and patallel to the
original entities. This is the same as TRACEPATH.
above, except that the ends of each entity are enclosed.
....
_
_ __ Jgclt..2""
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
+-iiiil
-
-
Before
­
After
fig. (157) 'lhmsfonn Offset 7htce &ds
Page 242 Chapter 10
Transfonnatioo
Generating Points Along a Path
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM EQUIDISf
Modifiers:
None
Command:
TRANSFORM EQUIDISf (numpoi) ent #l...ent In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
numpoi:
The number of points to generate along the entity path.
eot #I•• .ent Un: One or more lines. ciroles. ares or fillets. used to define
the path along which the points are placed.
Description:
EQUIDISf equally spaces a specified number of points
along a path as defined by a selected group of entities.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
"nnmpoi" points are equally spaced along a vector
defined by one or more selected entities. If more than
one entity is selected. each entity must share a common
end point with the entity chosen previously. thereby
creating an attached "chain" of entities.
Before
AIter
fig. (158) TTansform Equidist
Chapter 10 Page 243
Transformation
Projecting Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM PROJECT
Modifiers:
PROJDEPTH (flag)
l11J
PROJSCALE (flag)
PROJFACB (flag)
Flags:
PROJDEPrH
The depth to which the entities are to
extrude along the Z axis. The default
is 1.0.
Description:
Page
244
Chapter 10
PROJSCALE
A ratio defining the constantly
changing scale to apply to the entities
as they are being extruded. The defilu1t
is 1.0.
PROJFACE
Generate 3-D filces along the extruded
entities.
Project extrudes a selected group of entities along the
Z axis a defined depth and at a defined scale.
1ransformation
Projecting Entities Along the Z-AxIs.
Command:
TRANSFORM PROJECT (flags) ent #I.•••ent Un
Mode:
3-D only
Flags:
See primary TRANSFORM PROmer command.
ent 11•• .eot #0: One or more entities selected to project. All 3-D entity
types are allowed.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are extruded along the current Z axis
(defined by the acti'ye OCP) to a depth of PROIDEPrH.
The entities also have a constant scaling filcCor applied;
so that they are PROJSCALB times their original size,
upon completion ofthe extrusion. Projection lines are
generated at each entity end point.
Before
After
fig. (159) Project Entities along a Z Axis
Chapter 10 Page 245
TransfonnatloD
Revolving Entities
[Q]
~
PrImary
Command:
TRANSFORM RE\uLVB
Modifiers:
RBVANG
(flag)
W
REVNCOPY
(flag)
Ie:....I
REVNMESH
(flag) ~
REVFACE
(flag)
Flags:
Description:
Page 246 Chapter' 10
I@J I
The total angle (-360 to +360
degrees). that the entities are revolved.
REVNCOPY The number of additional profiles the
entities create as they are being
revolved. This value must be greater
REVANG tbanzero.
REVNMESH The number of supporting arcs that are
placed perpendicular to the revolve
vector. A value of one places mesh at
every end point of each selected entity.
REVFACE Generate 3-D f3ces along the revolved
entities.
RE\uLVE rotates selected entities about a definable
revolution vector. You can also specify an optional
supporting mesh (a series of ciroular rings created
around the revolved entities. perpendicular to the axis of
revolution, figure diplayed below).
'fraDsformation
Revolving Entities about a Vector
Command: TRANSFORM REVOLVE (flags) ent 11•••ent IIa.
loe 11. loe Ifl [;] Mode: 3-D only
Flags: See primary TRANSFORM REVOLVE command.
ent 11•• .ent In: One or more entities to revolve.
Joe ~ Joe #2: These two locations define a 3-D vector. which can be
thought of as a pole that the selected entities spin about.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities revolve about the vector defined by
location 11 and location Ifl. a totalofREVANG degrees.
Duplicae profiles of the selected entities are genemted
REVNCOPY times and are equally spaced between the
total angle. You can genemte an optional supporting
mesh, placed perpendicular to the revolution vector.
Bach entiCJ bas REVNMESH number of ares placed
along its length. If a value of one is selected. the
supporting mesh is placed at each entity end point.
y
J=x
~
fig· (160)
--
'­
,.­
Revolving Entities
........ r­
I-­
-
.::::::.
'-.....<:':....c::::" '\.
ert#5
Before
After
-"""
.....,
V
-....",
y
-....",
----
Chapter 10 Page 247
Transfonnation
Sweeping Entitles
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM SWEEP
Modifiers:
SWEEPFACE (flag)
I@ I
Command:
TRANSFORM SWEEP ncopy (flag) ent 1Il••.ent #n [;]
Mode:
3-D only
Flag:
SWEEPFACE
Generate 3-D faces along the projected
sweeppatb.
ncopy:
The number of entity profiles to generate on each entity
in the path. If a value of one is selected, profiles are
generated at the end ofeach entity in the path.
ent #1••.ent Un: One or more 3-D entities to sweep along a path. Ent III
and up define the path the previously selected entities
follow. If more than one entity is selected, each entity
must share a common end point with the entity
previously chosen, thereby creating an atCached chain of
entities. All entity types, except text and points, are
permitted to fonn the chain.
Description: Sweep generates entities along the Z axis, at a scale
defined by a selected group of entities.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
A selected group of entities are projected along a path
defined by a secondary group of entities. The scale and
direction is defined by the path as it travels along the Z
axis. The initial scaling fuctor is set at one, at the end
Page 248 Chapter 10
Transformation
point of the first entity in the path. This scaling filctor
varies as the path deviates from the calculated center of
the initial group of selected entities. NCOPY number of
profiles are generated by the command. If NCOPY is
equal to one. profiles ofthe selected entities are
generated at the end points of every entity in the path.
You can also genemre the 3-D taces along the sweep
surtace by activating SWEBPFACB.
~Y
x
Be fore
After
fig. (161) Sweeping Entities
Chapter 10 Page 249
'fransfonnation
LI near Arrays of Entities
IQJ
Iluul
Primary
Command: TRANSFORM ARRAY
Modifiers: INCX (flag)
NX
(flag)
INCY (flag)
NY
Flags:
Note:
(flag)
I1KJ ~
em
I~aol
INCZ (flag)
[ill
NZ
I~I
(flag)
INCX "~
The distance to increment along the X axis
fur each repetition ofthe command. The
default is 1.0. ,
The total number of columns required along
NX the X axis. The default is 1.0 unit.
INCY The distance to increment along the Y axis
fur each repetition ofthe command. The
default is 1.0.
The total number of columns required along
NY the Y axis. The defitult is 1.0 unit.
INCZ The distance to increment along the Z axis .
fur each repetition of the command. The
default is 1.0.
The total number of columns required along
NZ
the Z axis. The default is 1.0 unit.
The INCZ and NZ flags are only applicable in 3-D
mode.
~/
Description: ARRAY moves and copies a group of entities from one
location to another, along each of the axes a definable
number of times.
An array is a group of entities copied along an axis. A
circular array is a group of entities copied in a circular
pattern.
Page 250 Chapter 10
'---,'
Transfonnation
Creating Arrays of Entities
I~I
IHil
E!J
Command:
TRANSFORM ARRAY (flags) ent 1Il.•.ent Un
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Flags:
See primary TRANSFORM ARRAY command.
ent #l•• .ent #0: One or more entities fur creating the linear army. You
can select all entity types.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
The army entity command creates a one, two. or three
dimensional linear army of the selected entities.
The entities are incremente(hlong the X. Yand Z axes, ­
by andistancedefiiled bytlie·INCX.INCY andlNCZ
flags. The total number ofcolumns along each ofthe
axes, is defined by the NX, NY and NZ flags. A wiue
greater than one fur the NX, NY or NZ flags is required
to create new entities, since the selected entities
themselves are considered as the first column.
000 000 000
000
eri#1
o
Before
After
fig. (162) Creating Arrays
Chapter 10 Page 251
Transformation
Masking Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM MASK
Modifiers:
None
Command:
TRANSFORM MASK eDt #I••.eDt Un
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent 11•• .ent #0: One or more entities to mask. All entity types are
allowed.
Description: MASK tempomrily hides a selected group of entities. By
biding a portion of the drawing that is currently not being
accessed. the drawing is simplified. This technique also
has the added benefit of speeding up the repaint and
access t:ime, since rower entities require updating.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are bidden. The entities are
unavailable for reference until restored using the
UNMASK command.
Page 252 Chapter 10
'Ihmsfonnation
Unmasking Entities
Primary
Command:
TRANSFORM UNMASK
Modifiers:
None
Command:
TRANSFORM UNMASK
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
UNMASK is the counterpart of the MASK command. It"
restores all previously masked entities in oIder that you
can selected them again, fur reference.
In 2-D m.ocJe. only 2-D entities are restored, and in 3-D
mode, only 3-D entities are restored.
Chapter 10 Page 253
Transfonnation
Transforming 3-D Entities to 2-D Entities
PrImary
Command:
TRANSFORM BURNVIBW
Modifiers:
None
Command:
TRANSFORM BURNVIBW view, ent m...ent In
Mode:
3-D only
view:
Selected view which defines the 2-D representation of
the 3-D entities.
ent #1•• .ent In: One or more entities to transfunn to 2-D. You can select
all entity types, except text.
Description: BURNVIBW tnmsf.Orms a selected group of 3-D entities
into a corresponding group of2-D entities.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
The 2-D representation of all selected 3-D entities is
created. The selected view's rotation and scale are used
to project the 3-D entities onto the drawing. The selected
3-D entities remain unmodified. The transfurmation
actually creates a 2-D image of the selected entities.
Be careful when selecting entities fur BURNVIBW. If
you choose entities BYALL, )'OU may be overlapping
entities as entities hidden in behind those you can see are
also converted. Select entities by clicking to be sure you
get what you want.
Page 254 Chapter 10
Transfonnation
Adjusting Alignment of Entities
Primary
Command: Command: TRANSFORM ALIGN
TRANSFORM ALIGN ent #1..ent Un, [;]
loe #I, loe Ill, loe #3, loe #4
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #1•.oot #0: Entities to be aligned. This is equivalent to a
TRANSFORM TRANSLATE and ROTATE Command.
Joe #1: Location #I defines the initial translation point~
loe It, loe #2: The deviation between location III and location #I
defines the baseline of the rotation to be performed.
loe It, loe #3: The selected entities willbe.translated along a vector
defined by the deviation between location #3 and
location #I.
loe 113, loe #4: The deviation between location #4 and location #3
defines the angular deviation at which the selected
entities will be rotated.
Description: The selected entities will be moved or copied along a
vector from location #I to location #3.
The selected entities are then J.lltlted about location #3,
an angular deviation equal to the angle between the
vectors (location #I-location Ill) and (location #3 ­
location #4).
Chapter 10 Page 255
Transfonnation
Page 256 Chapter 10 View Maoipulation
View Manipulation •.. Chapter 11
As we discussed previously. 3-D entities actually exist in the space behind
the drawing page. If no views are active. you are unable to see the full 3-D
entities. Views provide an X-ray type ability to look beyond the surfilce of
the drawing.
Keep in mind that all views look in on the same part and that an entity
transfonned in one view is changed in all others simultaneously.
DynaCADD supports np to rour active. simultaneous views. The more
views that are active, the longer it takes to regenerate the screen. Ifs a
good idea to only use one or two views in a design session, then, if
necessaty, create the extra views ror output.
Views are necessary in 3-D. You cannot view 3-D entities without at least
one view open. When you change to 2-D mode, the views remain but the
GCP indicator disappears. While the commands below work: in 2-D
mode, most are really only relevant to 3-D. since views do not affect 2-D
entities that co exist on the drawing. Reterences in this chapter to 2-D
locations are to the 2-D plane, not 2-D mode.
All commands reJated to view manipuJation are combined under the
EDrrvIEW icon. There are also several OCP re1ated commands under
the CREATE icon.
Chapter 11 Page 257
View Manipulation
Deleting a View
~
Primary
Command:
~
Modifiers:
I'!'R1l
Command:
EDlTVIEW DBLVIEW
None
EDlTVIEW DELVIEW view III
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
view 11:
The active view to remove from the drawing.
Description:
DBLVIEW removes a selected view from the drawing.
This bas no effect on the entities.
The selected view is removed (deleted) from the
drawing. Any entities visible at the rotation defined by
the selected"view, arenolongerdiSphljed.<~;:';;
L ILl
L.________
L____
~ ~)I
Before
After
fig. (163) Deleting a Vrew
Page 258 Chapter 11
--1
View Manipulation
Creating a View
Primary
Command: EDlTVIEW DEFVIEW
Modifiers: CVIBWGCP (flag)
CVIEWSCL (flag)
Flags:
I1tJ
I[Q] I
CVIEWGCP Defines the three axis primary rotation.
Select a 3-D rotation, by clicking the
pointer on the required GCP name. The
de6luIt GCP fur the DEFVIEW
command is Top.
CVlEWSCL Defines the vieWs scale. This mtio is
appliedtQ4:heview after the drawing
scale is applied. If a scale of o.s is
selected. the view shows the part at one
half the original size, and a scale of two
shows the part at twice the original size.
The default scale is 1.0.
Description: DBFVIEW creates a new view at a specified scale and
three axis rotation. Use this command to automatically
create orthographic views.
Chapter U Page 259
View Manipulation
Defining a View
Command: EDITVIBW DEFVIEW (flags) loe Ill, loe /12, loe If3
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Flags: See primaIy EDITVIEW DEFVIEW command.
loe #1: This is the page origin ofthe view, a 2-D location on the
drawing where the origin ofthe 3-D part is placed.
loe 12,lac 1f3: These locations define a rectangular viewing clip,
gmpbically displayed as a dotted rectangle. If View
Clipping in the Tools menu is On, the entities in the
view are clipped inside this fnune. Click the right
mouse button or press [;] after you select location III to
automatically define the view clip as the full size of the
drawing page.
Description: A view is created and all 3-D entities are displayed at
the rotation defined by CVlEWGCP. The origin of the
view is placed at location Ill. The viewing clip is a
rectangle defined by location /12 and location 1f3. All
3-D entities are clipped to this view, providing the View
Clipping option in the Tools menu is On. The scale of
the new view is defined by CvmwSCL.
.~
You can change the view's rotation and scale by using
additional commands under the EDlTVlEW icon (see
below); you do not need to create new views fur this
purpose.
,----------
fig. (164)
Defining a View
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
t
L
OC#I
--+ tx#3
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I
I
I
+I ______________ .1I
oc#2
Page 260 Chapter 11
.~
View Manipulation
Changing a View to a GCP Rotation
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW vmWGCP
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIEW vmwGCP gcp view #l
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
gcp:
Use the pointer to choose the required GCP from the
Select GCP dialog box. All available GCPs are listed.
view #1:
The active view to have its rotation changed to that of the
selected GCP.
Description:
VlBWGCP rotates a view,~Si:rotation to that defined by a
selected GCp.
The selected view is redispJayed. with its rotation
changed to that of "gcp". This command makes it
possible to change a top view to a front or side view
without creating another view.
fig. (165) Selectmg a GCP
Chapter 11 Page 261
View Manipulation
Changing a View to Absolute Rotation
ll!lJ
L2J
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW ROfVIEW
Modifiers: AXROT (flag)
~"
AYROT (flag)
AZROr (flag)
Flags:
illKJ [BYJ
[@
AXROf The absolute rotation (-360 to 360 degrees)
about the X axis. The defuult is 0 degrees.
AYROf The absolute rotation (-360 to 360 degrees)
about the Y axis. The default is 0 degrees.
AZROr The absolute rotation (-360 to 360 degrees)
about the Z-axis. The default is 0 degrees.
Description: ROTVIEW rotates a view's rotation to that defined by
the available flags. These specify an absolute rotation
about each of the three axes.
'-,--"
Page 262 Chapter 11
View Manipulation
Rotating a View
lIED
W
Command:
EOITVIEW ROTVIEW (flags) view #l
Mode:
2-0 and 3-0
Flags: See primary EDITVlEW ROTVIEW command.
view #1: The active view bas its rotation changed to that defined
by the A.XROr, AYROT and AZROT flags.
Description: The selected view is redisplayed with its rotation
changed to that defined by AXROT, AYROT and
AZROT. The default rotation fur all flags is zero
degrees.
This command rocates th~.view, not the entities
displayed in that view,tlieasnaps .the view perpendicular
to the screen after. Becausecof this view snap, effects
appear mveme. For exampl~ applying a rocation of4S
degrees about the Z axis makes the entities appear to
have been rocated -4S degrees, because you rotate the
view, not the actual entities.
I
·------l r
!i
~
I @ II~
I ~#I II L--:::--::_____ j L
Before
II
II
j
_ _-.-J
After
fig. (166) Rotate a VIeW
Chapter 11 Page 263
View Manipulation
Revising a View Clip
Primary
Command:
EDlTVlEW REVCLIP
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIEW REVCLIP view 11. loe 11, loe Ifl
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
vlewfl1:
The active view to modify.
loc fI1, loc 12:
Two diagonally opposing 2-D locations which define a
window to replace the current view clipping area.
Description:
REVCLIP modifies a viewing clip.
The selected view is'redisplayed with icsviewing'clip: ..
changed to the.window:defined. by.location·#J. and.:.'
location /fl. Providing the View Clipping option under
the Tools menu is on, the entities currently displayed in
the selected view are redispIayed, contained within the
new clipping area.
Ir-------
_~#2
I
j:
I:
• I
,J
Ij ~#I
j~------- ---
I
L~_#':___---~
Befor.
-
I'----~x>--..>
After
fig. (167) Revising a View Clip
Page 264 Chapter 11
'---./
View Manipulation
Revising a View Origin
Primary
Command:
BOITVIEW RB\QRG Modifiers:
None Command:
BDITVIEW RB\QRG view #1, 100 #1, Mode:
2-0 and 3-0 view#!:
The active view to modify. loe#!:
A 2-0 location where the new page origin of the view is> placed. Description:
RB\QRG modifies the page origin of a view. The selected view.iS;rediSpIayed, with its origin at location #1. The origin:::ofJJie view is the location the OCP uses as its Xo. YO. 'ZIJ point in that particular view. Before
After
fig. (168) Revising a V'.ew Origin
Chapter II Page 265
View Manipulation
Revising a View Scale
PrImary
Command:
EDITVIBW RBVSCALE
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIBW RBVSCALE scI view #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
scl:
Enter the viewing scale into the pop up calculator when
you click REVSCALE.
view #1:
The active view to modify.
Description:
REVSCALE modifies the scale ofa view.
The sel~ view is RHiispJayed. with its'sCale set to
"scl".
Do not confuse the view scale with that of the dIawing
scale. The dIawing scale applies to all 2-D and 3-D
entities and alllocatioDS selected during the design
session. A view's scale is used to modify only the 3-D
entities being displayed in that particular view. The
actual entities are not modified or scaled in any way.
I­
I
I
@
I
!
Vef#1
1
I
•
l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~
Before
After
fig. (169) Revising a V'rew Scale
Page 266 Chapter 11
View Manipolation
Resetting a View
Primary
Command:
EDITVIBW RBSETVIEW
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIBW RBSETVIEW view #l
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
view 111:
The active view to reset.
Description:
RESErVIEW resets a view's rotation, zoom fi1ctot;
scale and scroll fi1ctor to the initial definitions used when
creating the view.
The selected view is ~layed at its initial rotation and
scale. The view's zoom fifCti>r is set to 1.0. scroll is
reduced and the originalview settings restored. The
view is displayed using the same parameters as at the
time it was created.
------- -------­
Yew #1
+
Before
After
fig. (170) Reset View to Original Settings
Chapter 11 Page 267
View Manipulation
Dynamic Rotation of a View
Primary
Command:
BOrrvIBW DYNAMIC
Modifiers:
None
Command:
BDlTVIEW DYNAMIC view #1
Mode:
2-0 and 3-D
view #1:
The view to change.
Description:
Dynamic view rotates, zooms and scrolls a view in real
time, as you click the increment arrows in the dynamic
calculator.
Use the. dynamic calculator to interactively cbaDge the
rotation, zoom and scroll fictor or the view. All
rotations use the origin of the part as the center of the
rotation.
r ,,0
I
b
1
I
11
II
I
i
t t
Before
After
fig. (171) DynamicaJJy change a View
Page 268 Chapter 11
View Manipulation
Using the Dynamic calculator
The center RESET button in each of the three areas cancels all actions in
that area. and resets the view to the state active when the dynamic
calculator appeared. The small arrows at the top of each box change the
factor by which the view is changed. Click on the triple arrow buttons to
execute the change in that direction.
Rotation: Use the upper left and upper right
buttons to raise and lower the angular
rotation in single degree increments.
The four outside buttons rotate the
view on the X or the Y axes, by the
angle.shown in the center, in the
direction of the individual arrows.
The lett and right arrows at the bottom
are for clockwise and counter
clockwise rotation about the Z axis.
respectively.
ScroUing: Use the upper left and upper right
buttons to raise and lower the view
scroll factor. A scrolling factor of one
is approximately two inches on the
display. Use the four outside buttons
to scroll the view in the various
directions by the factor displayed in
the center button. The view is scrolled
in the direction indicated by the four
arrows.
fig· (172) Dynamic
CalcuJmor
Zooming: Use the upper left and upper right
buttons to raise and lower the zoom
factor of the view. The current zoom
factor is multiplied by this value. Use
the top center button to zoom the view
in by the factor displayed in the center
Chapter 11 Page 269
View Manipulation
button. Use the lower center button to zoom
the view out by the factor displayed in the
center button.
Cancel: Click CNL to cancel all changes to the view
and exit the Dynamic calculator.
1AK1t: Page 1:10 Chapter 11
Click LCK to lock an changes to the view
and exit the Dynamic calculator. Depending
on the number and type of entities in the
view. this may take some time to complete.
View Manipulation
Zooming In on an Active View
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW V1EWZ1N
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIEW VIBWZJN view #1
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
view #1:
The view to zoom closer.
Description:
VIBWZIN zooms in (down) on a selected view by a
&ctor of two. The origin of the view is used as the
center of the zoom.
Do not confuse the view'zoom commands with the
drawing zoom commands. The drawing zoom
commands bring the actual page closer. The view zoom
commands only modify the appearance of the 3-D
entities being displayed in the view. The selected view is
zoomed closer, by a fi1ctor of two. The origin of the part
is used as the center of the zoom.
r
1 -
1
I
I
I
I
I
-----­
I
~ I
IL______
Vef#1
Ij __________
Before
After
fig. (173) Zooming in on a V"rew
Chapter II Page VI
View Manipulation
Zooming Out from an Active View
Primary
Command: EDITVIHW VIEWZOUT
Modifier'S: None
Command: EDITVIHW VIEWZOUT view #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
view 11: The view to zoom out.
Description: VIBWZOUT zooms out (up) from a selected view, by a
fiu:tor of two. The origin of the view is used as the
center of the zoom.
Do not confuse the view zoom commands with the
dmwing zoom commands. The dmwing zoom
commands bring the actual page closer. 'The view zoom
commands only modify the appearance of the 3-D
entities being displayed in the view.
The selected view is zoomed out from, by a factor of
two. The origin of the part is used as the center of the
zoom.
I
-~
r-
III I
II
i
~II~
~
I! ~
IT-~-.#-,--(. I I
L-_---!.,.
L _____.__~ L __.__._ _......
Before
After
fig. (174) Zooming out on a View
Page
m
Chapter
n
View Manipulation
Zooming an Active View to Database Extent
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW VIBWZEXT
Modifiers: None
Command: EDITVIEW VIBWZEXT view #1
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
view 11: The view to zoom to the database extent.
Description: VIBWZBXT zooms the extent of the 3-D entities to fit
into a selected view. The extent of the database is an
imaginary cube that encloses all entities within it. The
size of the cube depends on position of the most distant
entity.
An imaginary cube is constmctOO around the space
occupied by all 3-D entities. This imaginary box is then
be zoomed in or out by an amount required to fit all
entities into the selected view.
l
~ I
r
I
I
I
~#I
I
I
L________J
Before
After
jig. (175) Zooming 10 Database Extent
Chapter 11 Page Z13
View Manipulation
Scrolling an Active View
Primary
Command:
EDrrvmw SCRVlEW
Modifiers: None
Command: EDrrvmw SCRVlEW view #1, loe #1, loe If],
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
view 111: The view to scroll.
toe 111, toe 112: Two 2-D locations which define the vector along which
the view is scrolled.
Description: SCRVlEW scrolls, or paDS. an active view from one
location to another.
The selected view is scrolledfrom location 111 to . location If2, a 2-D scroll along the plane of the screen. The entities are not moved. SCRVlEW acts only on the position that the view assumes is showing the 3-D part. The 3-D part itself does not change, only the view,---/ changes. I
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fig. (176) Scrolling a VIeW
Page 274 Chapter 11
View Manipulation
Hiding Entitles In an Active View
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW HIDE
Modifiers: None
Command: EDITVIEW HIDE view #1. ent #1•••ent Un
Mode: 3-D only
view#l: The view in which to remove the entities.
eDt #l•• .ent In: One or more entities to hide in the selected view. All::
entities types are pennitted.
Description: HIDE temporarily removes selected. 3-D entities from a
view. They are displayed in all other active views.
Activate the connnandl~cking the right mouse
button. or by pressing [;].
The entity is not deleted or modified in any way and is
only affucted in the selected view. It is. however;
possible to select the entities in any ofthe other active
views. Use this command to remove entities that are
usually hidden in a particular view but are still required
to define the part in one or more of the other
orthographic views.
[----
fig· (177) Hide
Entities from a VIeW
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Before
After
Chapter 11 Page Z75
View Manipulation
Redlsplaylng Hidden Entities In an Active View
Primary
Command:
EDITVIEW SEEK
Modifiers:
None
Command:
EDITVIEW SEEK view #1. ent #1•••eDt Un
Mode:
3-D only
view 111:
The view in which to restore the entities.
ent 1I1••.ent #0: One or more entities to restore in the selected view.
Description:
SEEK restores previously hidden entities in a selected
view. The entities must be visible in at least one view.
If you only have one view active, then you cannot select
hidden entities (they are not visible to selectl). To fix
this, open another view and select the entities there.
Activate the command ~ clicking the right mouse
button, or ~ pressing [;].
This is the counterpart of the IHDB command (above).
After you select the view in which to view the entities.
you must select the hidden entities in a view in which
they are still currently active. Once the command is
activated, all selected entities are redispJayed in the
selected view.
fig. (178)
Restore
Hidden
Entities in a
J'iew
Before
Page Zl6 Chapter 11
After
Tool Creation and Selection
Tool Creation and Selection ••• Chapter 12
In DynaCADD }'OIl have the ability to construct several tools to suit your
individual needs. Th.is chapter deals with the construction and selection of
tools, fonts and figures, including commands to create macros, images
and to move the OCP. Other OCP commands are found under the
EDITVIEW icon (see Chapter ll).
All creation and related selection commands are combined under the
CREATE icon.
Chapter 12 Page Zl1
'Thol Creation and Selection
LDadlng Font Definitions
Primary
Command:
CREATE LOADFONT
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREATE LOADFONT font
Mode:
2-D & 3-D
font:
Use the pointer to select the required font from the File
Selector dialog.
Description:
This command loads a font file from the disk.
After you select the desired font, DynaCADD loads the
font definition file. The font is then listed in the Select
Font dialog.
Page 278 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Selecting the Current Font
Primary
Command: CREATE SEIPONT
Modifiers: None
Command: CREATE SELFONT font
Mode: 2-D & 3-D
font: The Select Font dialog displays all fonts that are
installed in memory. Use the pointer to select a new
current font.
Description: Use SELFONT to select an installed font from the
dialog as the current font. All installed fonts are
displayed. with the currentJ:yactiye font indicated by a
check mark. Any text entities or dimensions you insert
after this choice appear in the active font. Text
previously defined in another font remains in that font.
The selected font becomes the current font. All new text
entities created are drawn using the selected font
definition. The current font is always displayed preceded
by a check mark in the Select Font dialog.
fig. (liYJ Font Selection
Chapter 12 Page Zl9
1001 Creation and Selection
Grouping Entities Into SubfJgures
PrImary
Command: CREATE GROUP
Modifiers: None
Command: CREATE GROUP ent #l .•.ent #n
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #t•• .ent In: One or more selected entities, grouped into a Subfigure.
All entity types, including existing subfigures, are
allowed.
Description: GROUP dynamically creates a Subfigure from all
selected entities. The selected entities are then treated as
a single complex entity. To break: a group, use
RELEASE.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are grouped into a subfigure and
treated as if they were all a single complex entity. When
any single entity in the group is selected, all others are
automatically selected.
Page 280 Chapter 12
~
Tool Creation and Selection
Releasing Subfigures
Primary
Command:
CREATE RELEASE
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREATE RELEASE ent 111•• •eDt #n
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent #1•• .ent In: One or more selected subfigures to release.
Description: RELEASE breaks all selected subfigures (see GROup)
into their individual entity types.
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
or by pressing [;]:.
bntto~
This is the counterpart of the GROUP command. All
selected Subfigures are broken down into their original
singular emit)' types. Whether the Subfigure was created
using the GROUP command, or inserted from a disk
file, bas no bearing on the RELEASE command. They
are both released.
Although the GROUP command allows the selection of
smaller Subfigures to create a single larger Subfigure,
releasing the larger Subfigure still breaks the entire
structure into its individual parts. The smaller groups
are not restored.
Chapter 12 Page 281
ThoI Creation and Selection
Removing a GCP Definition
Primary
Command:
CREATE RBMOCP
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREATE RBMOCP OCP
Mode:
2-D & 3-D
GCP:
After you select the RBMOCP icon, use the pointer to
select the OCP to remove from the Select GCP dialog.
Description:
REMOCP removes a OCP definition from memory.
The selected OCP is removed from memory and is no
longer displayed in the GCP menu. You are not able to
remove the current OCp, or any of the primary GCPs.
The primaIy 0CPs are system. defined and are resident
at all times. These include:
Top
Rear
Left
Front
Right
Iso (Isometric)
Bottom
fig. (180) Selecting a GCP
Page 282 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Creating a GCP Definition
Primary
Command:
CREATH DEFGCP
Modifiers:
GCPPLANE
[];J
[R]
GCPNORMAL
~
~
GCPVIBW
GCPARC
Description:
DEFGCP creates a Geometric Coordinate Plane. H you
select the defined GCP as the current OCP. it is possible
to create not only custom coordinate syst:ems, but to
define any plane in 3·,0 space.
New GCP definitions are:iDsta1led in the GCP menu fur
later selection. In order to' see the view with the defined
GCP. either select the GCP from the menu or use
BDITVIBW VIBWGCP.
I
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Before
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After
fig. (181) GCP Plane
Chapter 12 Page 283
1001 Creation and Selection
Defining a GCP Using a Three Point Plane
~
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[Q
Command: Mode: CREATE DBFGCP (name) GCPPLANB loe 11. loe #2,
loe#3
3-D only
oame: After you select the GCP plane icon., a small dialog
prompts fur an eight character name fur the GCP you
create. If you click on the Cancel button., or filil to enter
a name with one or more characters, DynaCADD
cancels the command.
loe#!: The location defining the origin (XO, YO, ZO) ofthe
GCP you create. The fullowing two locations (loe #2
and loe #3) use loe 11 as a reference.
loell2: A location lying on the X axis of the GCP you are
defining.
loe#3: A location lying on the Yaxis of the GCP you are
defining.
Description: A GCP is created and stored under the label "name".
The three locations (figure on preceding page) define the
origin., X axis, Y axis and plane of the new GCp.
Location 11 is defined as the origin and the GCP moves
to the origin defined by this location. The newly defined
GCP is displayed with its origin coincident with the Part
origin.
fig. (182) GCPName Input
Page 284 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Defining GCP Normal to Plane
Command: CREATE DBFGCP (name) OCPNORMAL loc #I,
loc (fl
Mode: 3-D only
name: After you select the OCP normal icon, a small dialog
prompts ror an eight character name ror the GCP you
created. If you click: on the Cancel button, or fail to
enter a name with one or more cbaractem, DynaCADD
cancels the command.
loe If1, loe #2: These locations define the vector along the Z axis of the
OCP you are creating.
Description: A GCP is created and stoIedunder the label "name".
Location #I and location #2 'define the new OCP's
Z axis. The OCP nonnal command creates a plane that
lies nonnal (perpendicular) to the vector defined by the
two locations. This command is normally used to create
a plane whenever the orientation of the X and Y axes
directions are of no importance.
11
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Before
After
fig. (183) Normal GCP
Chapter 12 Page 285
1.bol Creation and Selection
Defining a GCP Using a View Definition
Command:
CREATE DEFGCP (name) GCPVIEW view It
Mode:
3-D only
name:
After you select the GCP plane icon, a small dialog
prompts fur an eight character name fur the GCP you
create. If you click on the Cancel button, or fiill to enter
a name with one or more charncters, DynaCADD
cancels the command.
view 11:
'The view used as reference to ddine the 3-D rotation of
the GCP you are creating.
Deseriptioo:
A GCP is created and stored under the label "name".
The new GCP_ uses- the current rotation of the selected.
view to define the X amt Y axes. The plane is parallel to
the current view. Once selected, the defined OCP is
aligned with the view definition. After JOu dynamically
rotate a view, it is sometimes useful to store the current
rotation of that same view. By defining a GCP to match
the current rotation ofa view, you can rotate any view
back to that same state by using the EDITVIEW
VlEWGCP command.
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L_____._____ j Before
After fig. (184) GCP Definition using a VIeW
Page 286 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Defining a GCP Using an Arc Definition
Command: CREATE DEFGCP (name) GCPARC eDt 11
Mode: 3-D only
name: After you select the GCP plane icon. a small dialog
fur an eight character name fur the
GCP you create. If you click on the Cancel button, or
fiill to enter a name with one or more characters.
DynaCADD cancels the command.
appealS prompts
ent#l: Cirele, are, fillet. ellipse or elliptical arc,used as
reference to define the 3-D rotation of the OCP you are
creating.
Description: A OCP is created and stored under the label "name",
The new OCP uses the-3,.D:rotation of the selected
entity to define the X andY axes in addition to the
coordinate plane.
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JL After
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jig. (185) GCP Definition using an Arc
Chapter 12 Page 1%1
1001 Creation and Selection
Removing an Image Definition
Primary
Command:
CREATE REMIMAGE
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREATE REMIMAGE image
Mode:
2-D & 3-D
Image:
After you select the REMlMAGE icon, the Select Image
dialog shows all awilable image definitions. Use the
pointer to select the image to remove.
Description:
REMIMAGE removes a defined image from memory.
The selected image definition is removed from memory
and the image name is no longer displayed in the Image
menu. Use this command to remove obsolete image
definitions, allowing the creation of new, more pertinent
images. The maximum number of stored images allowed
at a time is 16.
fig. (186) Selecting an Image to Delete
Page 288 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Sclection
Creating an Image Definition
Primary
Command:
CREATE DEFIMAGE
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CRMfE DEFIMAGE name
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
name:
After you select the DEFIMAGE icon, a small dialog
prompts for an eight character name of the image you
are creating. If you click on the Cancel button, or fiill. to
enter a name with one or more characters, DynaCADD
cancels the command.
Description:
DEPIMAGE creates and~stores the current page zoom
and scroll fiIctors in an image. You may recall this image
at any time, from the list iti the Image menu.
The current zoom factor and scrolling filctors of the
current drawing are stored in an image definition under
the label "name". The new image name is inserted into
the Image menu for later selection. When you select this
image name, the screen is instantly restored to the
corresponding zoom and scroll filctors.
fig. 087) Input Image Name
Chapter 12 Page 289
Tool Creation and Selection
Creating a Figure
Primary
Command:
CREATE DBFFlG
Moditien:
None
Command:
CREATE DBFFIG eDt #I•••ent In, loe #I, file
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent Il.. .ent In: One or more entities, grouped and copied to a disk file.
All entity types are permitted.
locll:
The insertion point of the selected entities. When a
figure is defined and saved in a disk file, you can insert
it any where on the drawing by selecting an insertion
point. The two-insertion points are matched when
inserting the-figure (the original insertion point and the
point chosen when using INSERI' SUBFIG or INSERf
POLYFIG).
me:
Once you select the insertion point, a File Selector is
displayed. Enter the filename and path for the figure. If
the figure already exists, you are asked if you wish to
overwrite the original file. All figure files automatically
receive a .FIG extension.
Description:
DBFFIG creates and stores a group of selected entities.
The figure is stored in a disk file and you may inserted it
into any drawing, at a defined scale and rotation.
When you insert a figure (see Chapter 1), you have the
choice of inserting it as a subfigure (all entities in the
figure are grouped together and treated as one entity) or
a polyfigure (all entities are separate).
All selected entities are saved to disk in the file name
"file", for later recall. Location #I is used to match with
the insertion point when you insert the figure into a
drawing (see Chapter 1). Once created, you can insert
figures into any drawing, at any scale and rotation.
Page 290 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Creating Macro Definitions
Primary
Command:
CREAm DEFMACRO
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREAm DEFMACRO
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
Use DEFMACRO to create and edit as many as 26
macro definitions. Macros are simple key stroke
combinations that enable you to execute bu:ger, more
complex commands. Each macro is assigned to a single
letter of the alphabet and is recalled by pressing [CtrI]
with that letter. For exampfe [CtrI-A].
To view all existing macros; use INFORM usr
LSTMACRO. See Chapter 14.
After you select the DEFMACRO icon, the Define
Macro dialog is displayed. There are 26 key
combinations available for macro assignment. To create
or edit a macro:
fig. (188) Defining a Macro
Chapter 12 Page 291
1:001 Creation and Selection
1. Select the appropriate button from the dialog. The
26 available keys are labelled A to Z. The current
macro being edited is displayed in reverse color.
2. Once :you have selected the key, the current
corresponding macro definition, if any. is displayed.
Use the editing keys tD change or create the macro tD
show the desired command. For example:
INSERr LINE ORTIIO [space]
is a valid entry. The entry must be a DynaCADD
command, written in the proper command ~,
including punctuation.
3. Click the OK button to lock any changes made to the
current macro deJinitions._
4. Click the Cancel button tD undo any changes made .
in the current editing session.
You can activate a macro at any time by holding down
[Ctrl] and pressing the corresponding key. The text
coruained in the macro definition is repeated on the
command line and acted upon, exactly as if the
definition was typed. To make the macro definitions
permanent, use the Save Macro option in the File menu.
Note: Many commands have defiudt attributes, visible as
highlighted icons, such as LINBLOC fur INSERI'
LINE. When writing the macro. )'OU don't need to enter
the defiudt if)'Ou want to execute.that setting.
Macros cannot be chained or call each other. You cannot
select entities in a macro except through BYAlL [space]
and BYWIN [space].
Page 292 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Sdection
Defining the Page Origin
Primary
Command: CREATH DHFORIGIN
Modifiers: None
Command: CREATH DBFORIGIN: loe #I
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
loe 11: Selected location of the new page origin.
Description: With DBFORIGIN you can redefine the current page
(2-D) origin.
As noted previously, DynaCADD has both a 2-D, or
page origin, and a 3-D origin (defined by the current
Geometric Coordinate Plane}., DBFORIGIN defines the
location of the 2-D origin only. The page origin (XO, YO)
is moved to location #I. If the Page Origin option in the
Tools menu is On, the new page origin is visible,
graphically represented by a small box centered on the
location.
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Before
II Ii
i
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After
fig. (189) Defining a Page Origin
Chapter 12 Page 293
1001 Creation and Selection
Moving the Current GCP Origin
Primary
Command:
CREATE TRANGCP
Modifiers:
None
Command:
CREATE TRANGCP loe #1
Mode:
3-D
loc 111:
3-D location to which to move the origin of the current
GCP.
fig:
CREATE TRANGCP
Description:
Translate (move) the current GCP.
Moves the origin of the current GCP definition. The
GCP does not otherwise change attitude. See Chapter 11
fur other GCP related commands.
1------- ,------l I
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L_______ L_____J Before
After
fig. (190) Moving the 04rrent GCP Origin
Page 294 Chapter 12
Tool Creation and Selection
Caution: Do not translate a primaIy GCP. Instead. malre a copy of
the GCP and translate it. Follow these steps:
1. Make a view with a primaIy GCP or change an
existing view to a primaIy GCP.
2. Create a new GCP in that view with CREATE
GCPVIEW and name the GCP accordingly. For
example: Front2.
3. Change the current GCP to the newly created GCP
by selecting that name from the GCP menu.
4. Use TRANGCP to translate the new (current) GCP.
Chapter 12 Page 295
Tho1 Creation and Selection
Page 296 Chapter 12 Output
Output ..• Chapter 13
With DynaCADD )'Ou can output a full or partial drawing to a wide range
of devices including plotters, printers. laser printers, PostScript devices
and disk files. All output commands ar:e combined under the OUTPUT
icon. Do not confuse plotters and printers. Printers are very diffurent
devices and the drivers for one will not work for the other.
Background plot wodes for printing as well (see below and Chapter 5).
Chapter 13 Page 2CJ1
Output
Background Plotting and Printing
As described in Chapter 5, DynaCADD also provides background plotting
and printing; that is, you can output your drawing while continuing to
work within the program, without having to wait or leave the drawing
session. In order to do this, you must:
1. Click the OUTPUT icon, then click on the Plotter or Printer icon.
2. Select the plot parameters: extent, scale, paper size, pen speeds,
serial or parallel port (see below).
3. Click on Disk in the Global Modifiers area. This tells
DynaCADD to save the plot/print as a disk file, rather than
sending it to the plotter/printer.
4. Click on Plot or Print.
5. Enter the filename into the File Selector dialog. The plot file
(.PFL) is saved to disk.
6. Select Background Plot from the File menu. If you have not done
so, set the device priority level (see Chapter 5) and the output
port.
7. The file is output to the plotter/printer while you continue to
work in DynaCADD.
Selett Output Devlte Priority
tOM>
DwWlIJrnW< High
MilitiA_
Serial
fig. (191) Background PlotlPrlnt
Pammeters Dialog
Page 298 Chapter 13
Output
Outputting to an External Device
rId
Primary
Command: OUTPUT
Secondary Commands:
PLOITER ~
PRINTER
[i]
POSTSCRPT
lEJ
\HI
POINTFILB
Description: Output sends the current drawing to a device connected
to the computer through either the serial or the parallel
port, or to a disk file. The plot scale, speed. extent and
size are all easily controlle(hs described below.
Chapter13 Page 299
Output
Outputting to a Plotter
Command:
OUTPUT PLOTTER.
Mode:
Descripdoo:
2-D and 3-D
OUTPUT PLOITBR sends the current drawing to a
plotrer connected to the computer through either the
serial or panillel port. The plot scale, speed, extent and
size are all easily controlled. as described below.
The RS-232 panuneten; should be set as fullows:
Parity:
9600
None
XONIXOFF:
On
RI'SlCfS:
Off
Bits:
8
Baud:
Note:
Page 300 Chapter 13
Calcomp plotter users should set RfSICTS to On.
Output
Setting Plot Parameters
After )'Ou select the Plotter icon, the Plotter Pammeters dialog appears. If
you alter the current plot parametets. you can send various portions of the
drawing to the plotter, at any definable scale.
ftg. (192) Plotter Parameters Dialog
Chapter 13 Page 301
Output
Selecting the Paper Sim
There are 15 buttons tOr predefined paper size selection which .refur to the
plotter paper size, not the drawing size. When)'Ou select a paper size, it is
advisable not to select a size larger than the mechanical limits ofyour
particular plotter. The paper sizes are:
English sizes:
A.U.o in.
by 8.5 in.
B.17.oin.
by U.o in.
C.22.oin.
by 17.0 in.
D.34.oin.
by 22.0 in.
B. 44.0 in.
by 34.0 in.
ArdIifedural sizes: .
AA. a.oin.
by 9.oin.
AD. l8.Oin.
by a.oin.
AC.24.oin.
by Is.o in.
AD. 36.0in.
by 24.0 in.
AB. 48.D in.
by 360 in.
Metric sizes:
A4. 21.ocm.
by 29.7 cm.
A3. 29.7 cm.
by 42.ocm.
A2. 42.0cm.
by 59.4cm.
AI. 59.4cm.
by 84.1cm.
AO. 84.1cm.
by US.9cm.
Other:
Max uses the plotter's maximum available size. This
intOrmation is part of the plotter driver data. IfInquire is
turned on and the plotter is hooked up to the serial POrt.
DynaCADD requests the current maximum extents fur
the drawing size. Caution! See Inquire. below.
Page 302 Chapter 13
Output
Selecting the Plot Scale
You can set the plot scale independent of the current drawing scale. This
scale controls the size of the plot in relation to the actual size of the
drawing. There are four buttons to aid in scale selection. If the drawing
limits exceed the size of the selected paper or of the mecbanica1limits of
the plotter. the drawing is clipped.
None: All scaling is removed and the drawing is plotted at
actual size.
Drawing: The current scale ofthe drawing is used as the plot scale.
User: After you click this button, a small dialog appears, with
space to enter a definable plot scale. The plot scale is
represented as a ratio of the actual drawing size. If a
scale of 0.5 is selected, the.drawing is plotted at one half
the actual size, and a scale of2.o plots the drawing at
twice its actual size.
Best Fit: This adjusts the drawing to fit the paper size selected and
plots the drawing as large as possible, insuring it does
not exceed the selected paper size.
Chapter 13 Page 303
Output
Selecting the Plot Extents
In addition to controlling the scale at which the drawing is sent to the
plottert you can send all t or only a portion oft the current drawing to the
plotter. There are fuur buttons fur manipulating the section of drawing
you wish to output:
Drawing:
View:
This plots the full drawing ddined by the current width
and height of the drawing.
This plots the extent of the currently visible drawing
area.
WIndow:
When you click this but1Dn, DynaCADD prompts fur a
window to define the portion of the drawing to plot. The
request fur the window does not occur until after you exit
the Plotter Parametel'S dialog.
Dbase:
This plots the extent of the current database. This button
is usually used in conjunction with the Best Fit scale
modifier.
Selecting the Plotter Port
You can attach the plotter to either the parallel or serial interface port of
your computer. DynaCADD sends the plotter output to the selected port:
Parallel: Click this button if your plotter is currently attached to
the parallel port of your computer.
Serial: Click this button if your plotter is currently attached to
the RS-232 (serial) port of your computer. For HPGL
output devices DynaCADD sends and receives data
using XONIXOFF handshaking. For CalComp, and
other plottel'S that require it, use RfS/CTS bandshaking.
Page 304 Chapter 13
Output
Global Modifiers These options a.trect the entire drawing or the plot parameters. Save:
This option saves the current parameters to disk: as the
default plottter parameters.
Config:
. Mirror:
Rotate:
Select the appropriate device driver fur your plotter from
the Fde Selector dialog. If your plotter or a compatible
plotter is not listed, call our Technical Support fur help.
You can also customize your own plotter driver by using
the MAKBPLOf program. supplied with DynaCADD.
The current plotter is listed at the top of the dialog.
Flips the drawing on the X axis befure plotting. The
drawing comes out backward,. useful when plotting on
the bottom of mylar overlays to be used fur overhead
projection. Plotting on the underside of the overlay
reduces light refraction when projecting the display.
Rotaces the drawing 90 degrees, counter clockwise,
befure plotting.
Inquire:
Requests the maximum extents from the plotter. Not all
plotters support Inquire. Ifyou use this command, make
sure that your plotter is turned on befure you select this
button; otherwise, the program waits fur a response from
the plotter. Use the right mouse button to abort.
Disk:
You can send all plotter output to a disk .PFL file fur
later reference and background plotting. When you exit
the Plotter Parameters dialog, DynaCADD displays the
File Selector dialog where you enter the desired plot
filename. All output is then redirected to this file.
You can output the .PFL to the plotter while working in
DynaCADD by using Background Plotting. See above
and Chapter 5. The current plotter device driver must be
the same as the plotter chosen fur background plotting.
Chapter 13 Page 305
Output
Selecting Pens and Pen Speed
You can control which of the pens used in the drawing are sent to the
plotter and assign each pen its own individual speed, as the various pen
widths available may not all plot properly at the same speed. There are
sixteen pens, labelled 1 to 9 and A to F.
Selecting a Pen for Plotting
When you insert entities into a drawing, OynaCADO assigns the current
pen to that particular entigr. This pen number matches the plotter pen
number and is synonymous with the pen color. DynaCADD only plots the
entities whose pen number is selected in the Plotter Parametem dialog.
Click on the pen number to turn the pen on or off.
Selecting Pen Speed
The current speed in centimetem per second is displayed beside each of
the corresponding pen numbers. To change the speed of a particular pen,
click on the value and press [&c] to clear the existing value. Enter the
new speed. If you enter a value out of the zange of your plotter's
capabilities, the plotter selects the highest value that it can handle.
Page 306 Chapter 13
Output
Saving the Current Configuration
Once you have selected all parameteIS, you can store them on disk by
clicking the Save button. The saved parameters become the defu.ult
parameteIS for each new session.
Activating the Plot
There are two buttoDS available for exiting the Plotter ParameteIS dialog:
Plot: Click here ID send the current dmwing to the plotter.
The plotter's progress is displayed in a dialog. You can
cancel the plot at any time by holding down the right
mouse button.
If you have Disk selected; tileD. click on this butlDn to
see the File Selector dialog•.
Abort: Click this button to exit the dialog without activating the
plotter. Any changes made to the plot parameteIS are
retained.
Chapter13 Page 307
Output
Outputting to a Printer
Command: OUTPUT PRINTER
Modes: 2-D and 3-D
Description: OUTPUT PRINTER sends the current drawing to a
printer connected to the computer through either the
serial or patallel port. The print extent, orientation and
size are all easily controlled, as described below.
Setting Print Parameters
After )'Ou select the PRINTER icon, the Printer Patameters dialog
appears.
fig. (193) Printer Parameters Dialog
Page 308 Chapter 13
Output
Selecting the Print Extents
With DynaCADD. you can send all of, or oo1y a portion of, the current
drawing to the printer. There are three buttons to manipulate the section
of the drawing:
Drawing:
This prints the full drawing defined by the current width
and height of the drawing.
View:
This prints current view in the drawing area.
Dbase:
This prints the extent of the current database.
Selecting the Print Orientation
There are three buttons to control how thedmwing appears on the printed
page:
Horizontal: The X axis of the drawing is printed along the height of
the printer paper. This is also known as "landscape
mode".
Vertical: The X axis of the drawing is printed along the width of
the printer paper. This is also known as "poIttait mode".
Multi Sheet: The defined extent of the dmwing to send to the printer
.is used to detennine the number of sheets required. The
dmwing .is then printed in horizontal strips. until the
defined extent has been completely printed. Use this
button to get full sized dmwings nonnally oo1y available
with a plotter.
This option is not available for use with the laser printer
drivers or with the GEM .IMG drivers.
Chapter J3 Page 309
Output
Selecting the Printer Scale
DynaCADD has three buttons to modify how it reacts to the printer's
paper size. Use these buttons to scale a drawing onto the printer paper by
use of a best fit:
Best Fit:
DynaCADD scales the drawing to fit onto the printer
paper.
Drawing:
DynaCADD prints the drawing at actual size regm:dless
of paper length. This button is al~ used fur multi
sheet prints.
Maximum:
DynaCADD fits the width of the drawing to the width of
the printer page. The height of the drawing is allowed to
flow onto multiple sheets. if necessary.
Selecting the Printer Port
You can attach the printer to either the parallel or serial i..nterfi.we of your
computer:
Parallel: Click this button if your printer is currently attached to
the parallel port of your computer.
Serial: Click this button if your printer is currently attached to
the RS-232 port of your computer. DynaCADD sends
and receives data using either XONIXOFF or RfS/CTS
handshaking. depending on the setting in the Prererences
dialog.
Disk: You can send. all printer output to a disk .PFL file fur
later reference. When you exit the Printer PaIameters
dialog. DynaCADD displays the File Selector where you
enter the desired print filename. All output is then
redirected to this file.
GEM .IMG files al~ assume output to disk.
You can output this file while working in DynaCADD by
using Background PlotlPrint. See above and Chapter 5.
The current printer device must be the same as the
printer chosen fur background. printing.
Page 310 Chapter 13
Output
Selecting the Printer Sheet Size
This pamm.eter is only considered when the Best Fit button is selected.
DynaCADD insures that printing does not occur past this sheet length.
There are 61engtbs available. ranging from 9 inches to 14 inches. in linch
increments. For paper that is 11 inches long. we recommend the 10 inch
setting to prevent printing past the bottom of the page.
Final Form Feed
When printing is completed. DynaCADD sends a funn feed command to
your printer if the "Fonnfeed" button is selected. 1bis ejects the last page.
Number of Copies
You can print multiple copies of the same drawing by entering an
appropriate value into the number field. This-option is available for laser
printers only.
Saving the Current Configuration
Once you have selected all parameters. you can store them on disk by
clicking on the Save button. The saved parameters become the default
parameters fur each new session.
Configuring the Printer
Select the Coofig button to display the list of all available printer drivers.
The current printer is listed at the top of the dialog.
Chapter 13 Page 311
Output
Activating the Print
There are two buttons available fur exiting· the Printer Parameters dialog:
PrInt: Click this button to send the current drawing to the
printer. The printer's progress is displayed in a dialog.
You can cancel the print any time by holding down the
right mouse button.
Abort: Click this button to exit the dialog without activating the
printer. Any changes made to the print panuneters are
retained.
Page 312 Chapter 13
'--'-/
Output
Outputting to a PostScript Device
Command:
OUTPUT POSTSCRPT
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
Output drawing to a PostScript compatible device such
as a laser printer or an imagesetter. The parametel's are
described on the following pages.
Setting PostScript Parameters
These parameters are the same as those described in plotting and printing.
with the exception ofmirror and page size.
fig. (194) PostScript Dialog
Chapter13 Page 313
Output
Selecting the Print Extent
You can send all, or only a portion of, the current drawing to the printer
by clicking on one of the three buttons below:
Drawing:
This prints the full drawing defined by the current width
and height of the drawing.
VIew:
The extent ofthe current view is printed.
Dbase:
The extent of the current database is printed. This button
is usually used in conjunction with the Best Fit scale
modifier.
Selecting the Print Scale
This controls the size of the output in relation to the actual size of the
drawing. If the drawing limits exceed the size of the selected. paper, or of
the mechanical limits ofthe postscript device. the drawing is clipped.
Drawing: The current scale of the drawing is used as the print
scale.
None: All scaling is removed and the drawing is printed at
actual size.
Best Fit: This adjusts the drawing to fit the paper size and prints
the drawing as huge as possible, insuring it does not
exceed the selected. "paper size.
Page 314 Chapter 13
Output
Selecting the Printer Port
You can attach the PostScript device to either the parallel or serial
interface port of your computer:
Parallel:
Click this button if your PostScript device is currently
attached to the pat:aIlel port of your con1pUter.
Serial:
Click this button if your PostScript device is currently
attached to theRS-232 (serial) port of your computer.
Global Modifiers
These options affect the entire drawing or the print parameters.
Mirror X: Flips the drawing on theX axis betOre printing. The
drawing comes out backwaId.
Mirror Y: FIips the drawing on the Yaxis betOre printing. The
drawing comes out upside down.
.
Rotate: Rotates the drawing 90 degrees, counter clockwise,
betOre printing.
Chapter 13 Page 315
Output
Selecting Pens
You can control which pens used in the drawing are printed by clicking
on the 15 pen buttons, labelled 1 to 9 and A to F. When)'Ou insert entities
into a drawing. DynaCADD assigns the current pen to that particular
entity. DynaCADD only plots the entities whose pen number is selected
in the panuneter dialog box.
Setting Page Parameters
Size: Click here to set the output page size. The range is from
0.5 inch wide and high. to 99.5 inches wide and high, in
l!l inch increments. Click the right and left arrows to
increase and decrease the size, respectively.
No. Click here and enter the number of copies.
Color: When this button is activated. all pen colors will be
used. Ifthis button is deactivated. all entities will be
drawn in black.
Setup Parameters
PS: Click here to output in PostScript.
EPS: Click here to output in Encapsulated PostScript.
Weigbts: Click here to bring up a dialog to set each pen's weight.
71 units equals one point size. The default values fur
weights I, 2 and 3 are 71, 144 and 216 respectively. To
set a new value, select the appropriate pen number and
enter the new value.
Page 316 Chapter 13
Output
Outputting a PostScript File
There are three buttons available fur exiting the Output PostScript dialog:
Save:
Once you have selected all parameters, you can store
them on disk: by clicking the "Save" button. The saved
parameters become the defiw1t parameters fur each new
session.
Print:
Click here to send the current drawing to the PostScript
device. The progress is displayed on screen in a dialog.
You can cancel the plot at any time by holding down the
right mouse button.
If you have selected Disk, then click on this button to see
the File Selector dialog.
Abort:
Click: this button to exit the dialog without activating the
PostScript output. Any chang~ made to the plot
parameters are recained.
Chapter 13 Page 317
Output
Outputting 8 Point File
Command:
OUTPUT POINTFILE (file) eDt #1•••ent lin
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
me:
Name of point file.
ent #1••.ent In: ]\:)int entities to be output.
Description: Page 318 Chapter 13
POINTFILE outputs the coonfinates, X and Y (and Z in
3-D), of the selected points into a specified file. Each
componeDt of the cootdinate (Xx,Z) is sepamted by a
comma [.1. Each cootdinate is terminated by a carriage
return, line reed combination (CRlLF).
Infonnation Commands
Information Commands ••• Chapter 14
In DynaCADD, you can query the status of virtually every aspect of your
part and dIawing, including:
• Detailed infurmation on entities such as:
line style, weight, color, mode and type of entity, layer and
entity count, X, Y, and Z point of origin, X and Y radius,
rotation about the X Y plane at the point of origin, start and
end angle, length along the circumference of a circle or 8lC, X,
Yand Z rotation about the axes of the plane, types of entities
in a group.
• Text height, width, slant, rotation and font
• Layers which contain entities
• Distance between two locations
• Measurements of angles, perimeters and areas
• Grid and Axis settings
• Drawing. part, GCP, layer and image names
• Drawing units, width, height and scale
•
Current font
•
Hatch X and Y scale
• Section angle and distance
• Image window size and corner locations
•
OCP rotation and translation
• View number, scale and 2-D origin
• Current view zoom fuctor
• 2-D and 3-D database extents
• Current layer number, name, lock and visibility status
Chapter 14 Page 319
Infonnation Commands
[IIJ
Ie?.!! I
These commands are particularly usefol when importing files from other
funnats. Also, if you are resuming a previous session, you can use InfOrm
to examine entities such as text to make sure subsequent entities of that
type are inserted with the same pen parameters.
Inform command results are displayed in the command history screen or
on the printer and do not generate entities.
To display the command history and text session at any time click on the
SHOWCOM icon or press [Thb].
Th return to the design session you can click the windows close button or
press fThb].
The commands to measure distances or entities are similar to the
Dimension commands, except that they only output the result to the text
screen, not onto the drawing area.
All infurmation commands are combined under the INFORM icon.
SHOWCOH SHOWCot1
INSERT
CREATE LOADfONT
INSERT CIRCLE d,d,
BOX d,d,
LINE d,d,d,d,d,]
ARC
ARCOlA +3.80000000 ;
ARC3POIHT d,d,d,
BOX
SECTION
SECTDIST +0.18008000
SECTRH6LE +45.00000000 ;
POLYGON d,d,
POLYRAD +0.60000000 d,d,SHOWCOH
fig. (195) Command History W'mdow
Page 320 Chapter 14
Information Commands
listing Information
Primary
Command:
INFORMUST
Modifien:
LSIDRAW
LSTIMAGB
LSTGCP
LSTVIBW
LSTLAYER
LSTBX.TBNT
LSTMACRO
Description:
~
~
[!;]
~
~
[SJ
em List displays infunnation about the selected modifier, as
described below.
Chapter 14 Page 321
Infonnatioo Commands
Listing the Current Drawing
Command:
INFORM UST LSTDRAW
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Descrlpdon:
Listing the dmwing displays an infurmation related to
the current dmwing. including:
• dmwing name
• partname
• dmwing width. height and scale
• absolute Cartesian position of the 2-D origin relative
to the lower left comer of the page
• dmwing units
INfORM LIST LSTDRRW
Drawing : E:\DYNACADD\PARTS\NEW\HEW.DN6
Attached to Part : E:\DYNACADD\PRRTS\NEW.PRT
WDT : 11.800000
H6T I 8.508000
SCL I 1.000000
X-Org. : 0.000000
Units : Inches
SnaIl Entitu Trap
Y-Org.: 0.800000
I
0.077508
Large Entity Trap : 0.155015
6rid-X: 0.250000 6rid-Y: 0.250000
Axis-X: 0.250000 Axis-Y: 8.250000
Currently Active font : Leroy Rough
Txt.Wdt
I
0.850088 Txt.Hgt: 0.862500
fig. (196) Listing Olrrent Drowing Parameters (a)
Page 322 Chapter 14
Infonnation Commands
• small and huge trap (maximum distance the selection
point may be from an entity when that entity is being
selected)
• grid X and Y increments
• axis X and Y increments
• current funt
• text width. height, slant and rotation
• hatch X and Y scale
• section angle and distance
Large Entity Trap : 8.155815
6rid-X: 8.258888 6rid-Y: 8.258888
Axis-X: 8.258888 Axls-Y: 8.259998
Currently Attive Font : Leroy Rough
Txt.Wdt : 0.850000 Txt.Hgt: 0.062500
Txt.Rot : 0.888888 Txt.Slt: 0.000000
Hatch XStale
: 18.008880
Hatth YStale
: 18.888888
Section Angle
: 0.088888
Sectlon Distance : 8.188989
fig. (l97) listing Current Drawing Parameters (b)
Chapter 14 Page 323
Infonnation Commands
Listing All Defined Images
Command:
INFORM UST LSTIMAOB
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
LIST LSTlMAOB dispJays infoonation relating to all
previously defined images, including:
• image name, given when created
• Xl, Y1 and X2, Y2: two diagonally opposing
locations that ddine the image window.
INFORM LIST LSTIHAfiE
IMAGE HaNe : Overview
Xl :-0.080000
X2 : 12.'4376'
IMAGE HaNe : FraNe
Xl : 2.750000
X2 : ',221884
IHADE HaNe : 3d ent
Xl : 3.228042
X2 : 8.224572
Yl :-0.090990
Y2 : 8.598880
Yl : 2.125900
Y2 : 6.375890
Yl : 2.689471
Y2 : 5.'61626
fig. (198) Listing AU Defined Images
Page 324 Chapter 14
Information Commands
listing All Geometric Coordinate Planes
Command:
INFORM UST LSTGCP
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
UST LS'IOCP displays information relating to all
previously defined GCPs, including:
• GCP name, given when created
• the rotation about the X, Y and Z axes, in degrees
• the X, Yand Z axis translation (the distance of the
GCP from the absolute origin YO, ZO)
xo.
:[HfORl1 LIST LST6CP
6CP Harle I Top
AX I 0.008000
AY : 0.000000
AZ I 0.000000
X-Axis Translation : 0.353553
Y-Axis Translation : 0.353553
Z-Axis Translation I -0.353553
fig. (199) Listing All Geometric Coordinate Planes
Chapter 14 Page 325
Infonnation Commands
listing All Active Views
Command:
INFORM UST LSTVIBW
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
UST LSTVIBW displays all intOunation related to the
all active views, including:
• view number
• 2-D origin of the view
• the lower left and upper right hand 2-D locations of
the view clip
• X and Y distances the view has been scrolled from
the view origin
• view scale
• current view zoom factor
• rotation in degrees about the X, Yand Z axes
• primary GCP
VieM : 1
pg.X : 5.000000
Xl
I 2.750000
X2
I 8.750000
Pg.Y I 4.000000
'11
: 2.125000
'12
: 6.375000
X-Sc:r :-1.463322
Stale : 0.785000
Y-Sc:r :-1.16'535
ZOOA
: 0.~38348
Axis XRotation : 12.~52540
Axis YRotation : 3Z'.13257Z
Axis Z Rotation: 7.630740
Prlnary 6CP : front
fig. (200) Listing AU Active VIeWS
Page 326 Chapter 14
Information Commands
listing Working Layers
Command:
INFORM UST LSTLAYER
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
UST LSTLAYER displays all layers that contain at least
Description:
a single entity, as wen as:
• layer number
• number of each entity type in the layer
• layer name (If any)
• current state (visibility) of the layer - on or off
• if the layer is locked or unlocked
See also Inform Count, tielow.
INfORH LIST LSTLAYER
LAY POI LIN CIR ARC ELL ElA TXT BSP BEl SOL
8
8
3
8
1
a
2 0
!1 8
4
8
8
255 8
8 ••
2 : ARTIFICAL6CP
255 : 8
8
8
8
8
D
8
B
B
0
0
0
8
8
B
a
a
8
: ON : UNLOCKED : ON : LOCKED
: ON : UNLOCKED
fig. (201) Listing Ubrlcing Layers
Chapter 14 Page 3Zl
Infonnation Commands
Listing Database Extents
Command:
INFORM LIST LSTHXTHNT
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
Desttfptlon: LIST EXTENT displays the 2-D and 3-D extents of the
current part and dIawing. The extents are defined as the
maximum cootdinates used by the entities in the
database, displayed as the most distant locations on the
X and Y or X. Yand Z axes.
INFORM LIST LSTEXTENT
20 Extents Xl : 2.750000
X2 : 8.250989
Y1 : 2.125000 Y2 : 6.375000
3D Extents
Xl : 1. 276170
X2 : 4.855236
Zl :-8.088888
Z2 : 1.1528'7
fig. (202) Listing Database Extents
Page 328 Chapter 14
Infonnation Commands
Listing Macro Definitions
Command:
INFORM UST LSI'MACRO
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Description:
UST LSI'MACRO displays all defined macros, with the
key combination fullowed by the actual macro definition.
For example:
Control +A:
lNSERT L1NE LJNELOC
IHFORH LIST LSTHACRO
Contol+A :
BYALL
Contol+C :
BYCOLOR
Contol+F :
FILTER
Contol+L :
BYlAST
Contol+lt :
CRE DEFHA
Contol+O :
ON
Contol+S :
SET
Contol""" :
BYWEI6HT
fig. (203) listing Macro Definitions
Chapter 14 Page 329
Infonnation Commands
Counting Entities
Primary
Command:
INFORM COUNT
Modifiers:
None
Command:
INFORM COUNT
Mode:
2~Dand3-D
Description:
COUNT displays the cuaent number of entities.
COUNT displays the individual entity counts as wen as
the total entity count, for all layers. See also INFORM
LISr LSTLAYER, above.
INfORM COUNT
Total nUAber of entities : 2'
Point
: 0
Line
: 28
Cirtle : 0
flrc
I 1
Ellipse : 0 Ell. Art : 0 Text
: 0
Solid
: 0
Dspline : 0 Dezler
Groups
I
0
: 0
jig. (204) Counting Entities
Page 330 Chapter 14
Information Commands
Verifying Entities
Primary
Modifiers:
INFORM VERIFY
None
Command:
INFORM VERIFY: ent #1•••ent lin
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
Command:
ent Hl••.ent In: One or more selected entities to have their individual
statistics listed.
Description: VERIFY displays statistics relating to the selected
entities. depending on the entity t:ype,including:
• entity type and mode
• Pen number (color)
• line style name
• line weight
• layer
ent # I~
INfORM VERIfY ;
Entitu Tupe : 3D Line
Color : 1
Style : CONTINUOUS
Weight : 3
Layer : 0
Xl : 2.1"678
VI :-0.032851
X2 : 3.'31728
Y2 :-0.032851
Line Length: 1.732051
Z1 :-0.008880
Z2 :-0.008800
fig. (2ll5) Verifying Enlities (a)
Chapter 14 Page 331
Information Commands
• the Xl. Yl (and Zl in 3-D) point of origin
• the X and Y radius
• rotation about the X-Y plane at the point of origin
• start angle
• end angle
• length along the circum.terence ofthe circle or arc
(not ellipse or elliptical arc)
• X and Y and Z (3-0 only) rotation about the axes of
the plane on which the entity sits.
Entity Type : 3D Art
Color : 1
Style : CONTINUOUS
Weight : 3
Layer : 0
Xl : 3.865103
Vl
X-Rad : 1.802776
I
Z.46114'
V-Rad: 1.802776
Z1
I
0.000000
Rot: 0.899008
S-Ang :-16.182114 E-Ang: 256.10Z114
Rrt Length : 10.4525'7
XR : 0.080000
VR
I
0.880009
ZA : 9.000088
fig. (206) U!rifying Entities (b)
Page 332 Chapter 14
Infonnation Commands
Measuring
Primary
Command:
INFORM MEASURE
Modifiers: MEASANGLB
MEASDIST
I£..1
MEASPERIM
MEASAREA
Description: Measure calculates and displays the selected parameter.
Chapter 14 Page 333
Information Commands
Measuring Angles
Command: INFORM MEASUREMEASANGLB: ent fII. ent /fl
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #1, ent #2: Two selected lines used as references fur the
measurement. The angles between the two entities are
displayed.
ent #2 ...."----+-'
ent # I~
INFORM MERSURE HERSRHGLE
Line 1 : 60.00080000 Degrees
1.0471'155 Radians
60-8 10.00000"
Line 2 : 0.00000900 Degrees
0.00000008 Radians
0-0 1 0.00000"
Rngle 1 60.00000000 Degrees
1.0471'155 Radians
5'-5"68.00000"
Rngle
iOO.OOOOOOOO Degrees
5.235'8176
Radians
300-0 1 0.00000"
:z fig. (207) Measuring Angles
Page 334 Chapter 14
Infonnation Commands
Description: The angle and the angle of each of the two selected lines
are displayed. in decimal degrees. radians and degrees!
minutes/seconds. In 3-D mode, the current GCP is used
to define the X-Y coordinate plane. The two lines are
projected on to this plane, and the angle is measu.red
relative to that plane.
The angle of each line is displayed, fullowed by the two
angles created on each side oftheir intersection. If the
two lines do not actually meet, DynaCADD projects
their ends to a point where they could meet, if trimri:ted.
and figures the angles at that point.
Chapter 14 Page 335
Information Commands
Measuring Distances
Command:
INFORM MEASURE MEASDIST: loe #l. loe If2
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
loe 111, loe 112:
Two selected locations defining the distance to measure.
Description:
The location of each of the two points and the distance
between the two locations are displayed. In 3-D mode.
the 3-D distance is displayed.
• loe #1: Xl andYl points (Zl in 3-D)
• loe 1f2: X2 and Y2 points (Z2 in 3-D)
• distance between each point in each axis
• 2-D distance between locations
INFORM MEASURE MEASDIST DRS d,d,
Xl : 5.110618
Yl : 3.873'85
X2 l 5.'3'2'6
Y2 l 3.873'85
dX : 8.828678
dY :-8.888888
20 Distance : 0.8286783'
fig. (208) Measuring Distances
Page 336 Chapter 14
Infonnation Commands
Measuring Perimeters
Command:
JNFORM MEASURE MBASPERIM: ent #I.••eOl In
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
ent 11•• .eDt #0: One or more lines, cireles, aros or fillets.
Description:
Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;]. The tocal perimeter of all selected entities is displayed. If all entities are contiguous, and are selected in that .order, DynaCADD displays this information, otherwise it displays a "Non;::ontiguous perimeter" message. The perimeter is displayed in the text screen. ent #3
~
ent #2 ~----+--'
ent # I~
INFORH HEASURE HEASPERIH ;
3D Contiguous Perineter : 13.91669853
fig. (209) Measuring Perimeters
Chapter 14 Page 3'57
Infonnation Commands
Measuring Areas
Command:
INFORM MEASURE MEASAREA ent #l•••ent Un
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
ent #1•• .ent #0: The contiguous entities which enclose the area to
measure.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
Measures the area. of any enclosed entities (composed of
lines, ares or ciIcles including irregular polygons).
Multiple entities must be contiguous and completely
enclose the area to be measured.
The area. is displayed on the text screen in units squared.
ent #3
...
ent #2 ....
ent # 1"'­
L---t-~
INFORM MEASURE HEASAREA ;
3D Area : ',63834'88 unitsA2.
fig. (210) Measuring Areas
Page 338 Chapter 14
Layers
Layers •.• Chapter 15
A drawing is made up of256 layers. In 2-D mode, layers are like sheets of
paper stacked one on top of another. In 3-D mode, the sheet also extends
into the Z axis, like a wrapper rather than a flat sheet. Each of which may
have its transpareney turned on or off, or be locked from modification.
Each layer is numbered in sequence, from 0 to 255. You can also name a
layer and refer to it inteJ.'Changeably by its name or by its number.
When entering a range of layers, )'Ou can enter single numbers or names,
a range of layers. or a combination of both. Names and numbers can be
combined inteJ.'Changeably. For example, these are all valid range entries:
32-65, 85, 96-102
all layers from 32 to 65 inclusive, plus
layer 85, plus all layers from 96 to 102
inclusive.
test-12
aU layers from layer test to layer 12,
inclusive.
I, 2, 5, 7, 255
the indicated layers only.
0-255
aU layers.
testl, test2, test3, 7, 9, 11
the indicated named and numbered
layers.
61-argus, test2-test9, partl-12
layers 61 to layer argus inclusive, plus
layers test2 to test9, inclusive, plus layers
part1 to layer 12, inclusive.
The name or number of the current layer appears at the upper left corner
of the drawing area when the pointer is not over an icon. A layer name
can have up to 17 chamcters fur DXF file compatibility with only 15
characters displayed.
When a DXF file is imported into DynaCADD, all layer infunnation is
retained from the tra.nsfurred file.
All layer editing and modification commands are combined under the
EDITLAYER icon.
Chapter IS Page 339
Layers
Editing Layers
Primary
Command:
BDrn.AYBR
Modifters:
SBLLAYER
~
~
[w.rJ
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
SELLAYERr'
LAYERON
LAYEROFF
LAYLOCK
LAYUNLOCK
LAYERNAME
COPYLAYER
COLLAYER (flag)
COLSTYLE (flag)
COLWEIGHT (flag)
Flags:
Description:
Page 340 Chapter 15
rruJ
The flags control how the entities are displayed. Every
layer has a set ofattributes assigned to it. When the
appropriate flag is enabled. the entities will be displayed
according (0 the attribute controlled by that flag. When
it is disabled. the entities will be displayed with their
original attributes. The attributes can be set using the
Layers Dialog in the Set menu. For more infuDDation,
see Chapter 5.
COLLAYER
The pen color.
COLSTYLE
The pen style.
COLWEIGHT
The pen weight.
Manipulate the layers through a variety of commands as
described below.
Layers
".7i,-ri
60'Y
fig. (211) Layer Sample Names and Numbers
Chapter 15 Page 341
Layers
Selecting Layers
IQ I
Command:
EDllLAYBR SELLAYBR lay
~
Mode:
2~Dand3-D
lay:
After}'Ou click the SELLAYER icon. enter a layer
number (0 to 255) or a layer name in the dialog box. to
select that layer. Only one layer can be entered here. not
a range.
Description: The selected layer becomes the active (current) layer.
Any new entities are created on this layer. SELLAYER
also turns off all other layers (see LAYEROFF. below).
regardless of their on/off status. Only entities on the
selected layer are visible.
If}'Ou select alocked layer as the current. layer. it is
automatically unlocked (see LAYLOCK and
LAYUNLOCK, below).
EDITI..A.YHR SEU..AYER (CIRCLE)
fig. (212) &lect Active Layer
Page 342 Chapter 15
Layers
Selecting Layer Transparent
Command: BDlTLAYER SELLAYBRr lay
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
lay: After you click the SELLAYBRT icon, enter a l~r
number (0 to 255) or a layer name in the dialog box, to
select that layer. Only one layer can be entered here, not
a range.
Description: The selected layer becomes the active layer. Any new
entities created are automatically installed on this layer.
Unlike SELLAYER (above), SmLAYHRf does not
affect the transparency of any other layers. The on/off
status of other layers is unchanged.
If you select a locked layeras the current layer; it is
automatically unlocked (seeI.AYLOCK and
LAYUNLOCK, below).
fig. (2B) Select Layer Transparent
Chapter 15 Page 343
Layers
Selecting Visible Layers
Command:
EDITLAYBR LAYERON lay
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
lay:
A selection or range of layers to make visible.
Description:
LAYERON makes the selected layers visible. This is the
opposite of LAYEROFF, below. The current layer is
always on. Entities on all layers turned on are visible
and entities on layers not turned on are invisible.
Unless they are on a locked layer (see LAYLOCK,
below), )'Ou can modify (transfoIID) all visible entities.
R
In
fig. (214) 1Um Layers On
Page 344 Chapter 15
Layers
Selecting Invisible Layers
Command: BDlTLAYBR. LAYEROFF lay
Mode: 2-D and 3-D
lay: A selection or range of layers to make invisible.
Description: LAYHROFF makes the selected layers invisible. This is
the opposite of LAYERON. above. The current layer is
always on and cannot be turned off. Entities on all layers
turned on are visible and entities on layers not tomed on
are invisible.
You cannot modify (trnnsfonn) entities on invisible
layers.
R
I"
fig. (215) 7km Layers Off
Chapter 15 Page 345
layers
locking Layers
Command:
Mode:
lay:
Description: BDITLAYBR LAYLOCK lay
2-D and 3-D
A selection or range of layen to lock.
You cannot edit or delete entities on locked layers, even
if visible. You cannot lock the current layer.
Locked layel'S remain visible but cannot be modified. If
you copy entities from an unlocked layer to a locked
layer. they become locked (see COPYLAYBR, above).
Unlocking Layers
Command:
Mode:
lay:
Description:
BDITLAYBR LAYUNLOCK lay 2-D and 3-D A selection or range of layel'S to unlock. This unlocks laym so that the entities can be modified. The current layer is always unlocked.
Naming Layers
Command:
Mode:
lay:
Description:
EDITLAYBR LAYERNAME lay 2-D and 3-D Name assigned to the current layer.
Every layer has a number (0 to 255), and can also have
a name. To enter or edit a name, press [Esc] to clear any
existing entry and type a new name. Click: OK. To clear
an existing name. press [Esc] and click OK without
entering a new name.
fig. (216) Layer Name
Dialog
Page 346 Chapter 15
Layers
Copying Entities to Another Layer
IbJI
Command:
EDflLAYER COPYLAYER lay ent I/l...ent Un
~
Mode:
2-D and 3-D
lay: After you click the COPYLAYER icon, enter a layer
number (0 to 255) or name to which to copy the selected
entities.
eot #1•• .eot In: One or more entities to copy from the current layer to
the selected layer. All entity types are pennitted.
Description: Activate the command by clicking the right mouse
button, or by pressing [;].
All selected entities are copied from the current layer
onto the selected layer.· TIie'original entities are not
modified. The copies assume all attributes of the
originals. except fur the layer number.
The TRANCOPY icon does not affect COPYLAYBR; a
duplicate of the entities is always made.
If you copy entities to a locked layer. the copies are also
locked from modification (see LAYLOCK, below).
COPYLAYER stays active while using other layer
commands. For example, you can tum one layer on,
select entities, then tum that layer off and tum another
on, and so on.
fig. (217) Layer Range Enlry Dialog
Chapter 15 Page 347
Layers
Page 348 Chapter 15 DynaCADI)® Vector Font Editor
Vector Font Editor ••• Chapter 16
Introduction
Most computer software uses "bit-mapped" fonts. Typically these are
drnwn to suit one fixed size, then expanded or reduced acconling to the
display commands of the software. With a fi.Ired size font, the individual
pixels are drnwn in a fixed mster, the size of which determines the size of
the character on the screen. H ~ want to expand or reduce a fi.Ired size
character, you can only do so by inserting or deleting complete sets of
points. which often mins the look of the cbamcter.
fig. (218) Bil Mapped versus
~ctor
Because DynaCADD uses vector fonts, it can perfomJ. fast, smooth
tmnsfomt.ations to fonts or, by entering new values, wholly recast them.
The major benefit of vector fonts is obvious: you can show every character
as originally defined, at any size.
In a vector font a character is defined by a series of cooIdinate, or control
points. connected by lines. Only a few points need be defined to create a
character. The actual number of points you need depends on the
complexic;y of the character imolved: DynaCADD vector fonts can have
up to 64000 points on a side. DynaCADD vector fonts are not filled. or
solid.
The Vector Font Editor was created to let you easily develop new,
personal fonts or characters. as well as editing existing character sets.
Chapter 16 Page 349
DynaCADJ)1II
vector Font Editor
fig. (219) DynaCADD
~ctor Rmt Editor
The editor uses several drawing tools, including circle, arc, ellipse, B6zier curves
and B-spIine curves, which create smoothly curved vectors.
Vector ronts are most commonly used ror output with plotters. In order to output a
vector ront character, DynaCADD calculates the location of all the points, then
draws the Jines to connect them. The result is that you can recalculate a character
and display it to almost any size and shape. In DynaCADD, since the internal
resolution is high. the output quality depends solely on what output device you use.
While it is easy to design characters and symbols, creating an entire ront takes
considerable time and effort. It is sometimes easier to edit an existing ront than to
create a new one from scratch. This manual can only teach you how to use the ront
editor, but typography is an old art, and many books are available to learn about
ronts and ront design criteria.
To run the vector font editor, type FONTEDIT at the command prompt.
Page 350 Chapter 16
DynaCADI)® Vector Foot Editor
Fonts, Characters and Vectors
A funt. or chal'acter set, is a single group. consisting of up to 255
charactem. in a particular typefuce. A typical funt contains all of the
lettem, numbem, punctuation marks, special characters, ligatures. etc•.• in
one version of a typefilce. Nonnally. when one talks of a particular fOnt, a
specific size is intended. Since DyDaCADD funts are scaled within the
program. size is not an issue.
In DynaCADD. a funt can also be any collection of special characters,
such as electrical or electronic symbols. mathematical symbols. etc.
However, each symbol or chaIacrer corresponds directly to a chal'acter in
the system cbaracter set. For mample. if)'Ou replace the letter [A] with a
symbol of a transistor, when)'Ou load the symbol funt and press [A] on the
keyboatd. the transistor symbol appears on the screen instead.
When)'Ou create a new funt, )'Ou have a "palette" of255 positions or slots
in which )'Ou can define characters. You can define as many or as few as
you wish, or even add new characters to or remove characters from a funt,
as long as the 255 cbaIacter limit is not exceeded.
A funt can combine symbols and special charactem with regular letters,
numbers and so on. Characters outside the regular numbeIs. letteIS and
punctuation marks can be displayed in DynaCADD by pressing
combinations of keys, such as [Alt] and [Ctrl].
gw m@~~g«DO {? fJ = oD®'fJ ~~cB@®{l©
®g9(3 §S f) 'f? (§) & [ID@) @:I?@ IX] 0cD ~ [S[i'!iJ ~ @
[;J@rn1@lJl1DWW~Y1~[1\\Jfffi~@@]@ff@OiJ
~n~OwuDD®[p~[f@i]l]JWW~W~~ ~ ~=@®~
ttl~ttl~~®~(?)liTITI~tA~§~®®~®®r;
@@ @~® t7 &)crc2)ctnrrul~]f~l0(b~Wffiw5(33Ul~®
@@~&&@a7lJqr
~ LlfjOdJ
fig. (220) Character Set with Symbols
Chapter 16 Page 351
DynaCADI)® Vector Font Editor
A character consists of one or more vectors. A vector is any group of
control points (up to 127 control points maximum in a single vector)
connected by lines. A character can be as complex as )'Ou wish, within
the limits of the drawing window (64000 points on a side).
The vector is the key element in creating a character. Imagine a vector as
a piece of string and the control points as knots in it. The knots determine
the complexity of the character and the smoothness of the curves. There
must be a specific start and end point (knot) fur eAch piece of string. A
character can be built from any number ofpieces of this "string". And,
liIre string, vectors can be cut into smaller pieces. Vectors, howeve~
cannot be joined together.
When)'Ou create a new chamcter, )'Ou do so by drawing each vector:
positioning the control points (the "knots"), one at a time. As)'Ou add
points (by clicking the mouse button), a line appears, connecting the
pointer with the last control poiJit~TfiiS nne·sttettIies with the pointer and
is anchored in place when)'Ou set another control poiJit.
i
I
I
i
i
I
.
!
I
i-'-'l~'--'---'--4'----r-4r--T---~--~I
1
Control
Poma
I
i
i
I
,--"'-1----"'-
I
!I
•
-"'--i-­
!
I
I i i
!
I
j
i
I i i
~----1-·-·-·f·-·"'i-·1·-·-·-·-·r·-·-·6
fig. (221) Drawing Wuulow with JUton and Control Poma LabeUed
Page 352 Chapter 16
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
When you press [Return], that vector is "set" with all the control points
you entered at their current locati.oDB. H you do not press [Return] when
you select another tool, the vector does not remain on the screen and is
lost fur future use. Control points can be added to, deleted from or
moved to a new location in a vector, or the entiie vector can be moved,
copied or deleted.
Complexity is a considemtion when creating a funt. especially when the
output device is a plotter which outputs a character a.vector at a time.
The more, separate vectors a chamcter uses, the longer it takes to dmw.
H possible, use fewer vectors and m.alce continuons COnnectiODB.
Buffers
Buffers are reserved memory storage areas. Their use is very important
in the funt editor. You can save entire cbamcters with the copy command,
or save individual vectors with the copy vector command. Once saved,
characters or vectors can be copied into the same or other characters with
a few simple commands,
There is only one character buffer. Anything copied into it overwrites the
current contents. Bdore editing a chamcter, it is a smart idea to copy the
character into the character buffer, so that you can restore the original if
you m.alce mistakes. Click: on Copy or press [Ctd-C]. To restore the
contents of the buffer, press [Ctrl-V]. Be careful: if you change to a
different character from that stored in the buffer, pressing [Ctd-¥]
overwrites the current character with the buffer contents.
The Cut ([Ctd-X]), Copy ([Ctd-C]) and Paste
([Ctd-V]) commands listed in the Edit menu are
full character commands, not single vector
Cut
Copy
Paste
IX
tlC
IV
commands. Vector commands are listed on the
control panel. Use [Ctd-X] to clear a cbaracter
completely from the dmwing window.
Note: The character buffer cannot be saved to
disk.
Chapter 16 Page 353
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
lil!lli~li1 IBuffer f
Cut
IBuffer BI IBuffer 6
COPy
Paste
IBuffer
cl IBuffer H
IBuffer DI IBuffer
I
IBuffer EI IBuffer JI
I Cancel I
fig.· (222) ~ctor Buffer Dialog
Vector buffers are somewhat different from the character buffer. There are
ten separate buffers (A to J), which can each store a single vector. The
entire group of ten buffers can be saved on disk, or loaded into memory.
using the load and save boffurs commands. in the File menu.
When you click on Vector Buffers. you see a dialog with the buffer names
(A to J). The selected buffer is highlighted. Click on the letter button to
select another buffer. 'The three vector buffer operations. cut. copy and
paste, are listed on the right of the dialog. Select one operation such as
copy. When you return to the drawing window. click on any control point
of the vector to cut or copy. Cut vectors are removed from the drawing
window. copied vectors are not. Both commands retain the vector in the
selected buffer.
Paste brings the vector from the buffer to the drawing window. Move the
vector with the mouse to the desired location and press the left mouse
button. A vector in a buffer can be pasted any number of times into the
drawing window by pressing the mouse button fur each paste. To leave
the paste mode, select another vector operation command.
You can use the vector boffurs to move vectors between characters or
make multiple copies of vectors. Like characters, it is a good idea to copy
a vector into a buffer before you start changing it, so you can restore it
later, in case you change your mind or make a mistake.
Page 354 Chapter 16
~~
DynaCADJJI!> Vector Font Editor
Creating and Editing a Character
lf}'Ou are creating a new funt, then you should fullow these basic steps:
• Make sure no funtis currently in memory.
• Choose Select Character from the File menu.
• Choose the character 10 create.
• Select the vector oommand and start drawing. A new funthas a "palette.. of2SS positions or slots in which you can define cbamcters. You can define as mao,y or as few as }'OU wish, or even add new cbamcters 10 a funt, as long as the 2SS character limit is not
exceeded.
lf}'Ou are editing an existing funt, then your first step is:
• Open a funt file from the disk and then fullow the steps
mentioned above, from choosing'"Select Character" to selecting
the vector command.
In both cases, save }'Our font after each character you design or edit.
Selecting a Character
Befure }'Ou create or edit a character, }'Ou must select on which one }'Ou
want to wad:. The Select Cbaracter option, in the File menu, displays
the system character set. This display represents the character slot to edit
and shows how the system displays that particular character. You do not
select a system character 10 edit, oo1y the slot that character occupies.
Since oo1y a few characters can be displayed at a time, click on the page
Left and Page Right buttons to move 10 the appropriate part of the display.
To select a cbamcter slot to edit or to create, click on the system character
you want to replace.
The character currently in the drawing window is highlighted. The
buttons fur character slots with chatacters in them are shadowed.
To display another character in the funt, use the Select Character option
in the File menu. You can also press [+] to move up one character. e.g.
from A 10 B, or press [-] 10 move down a character, e.g., from M to L.
If you press [-] when at character slot I, you go backwanl to character
slot 255.
Chapter 16 Page 355
DynaCAD))® Vector Font Editor
fig- (223) OIaracter Selection Dialog
The chaIacters are numbered according to the widely used American
Standards Code ror InfonnaCion Intereha.oge - ASCn system. Although
the ASCII chamcter set includes a character numbered zero (not the
character "0", which is actually ASCII number 48), )'Ou cannot change it
in this tOnt editor. The character numbers that can be changed mnge from .
1to 255. "A"', ror example, is number 65, "B" is 66, "a" is tJI, "b" is 98,
and so on. In the ASCll numbering system, every chaIacter has its own
number. See the appendix ror a chart of ASCll characters.
Characters 32 to 121 are standard in all ASCn based systems and relate
directly to the characters on )'Out keyboatd. ASCll numbers 1 to 31 are
usually used ror both control codes and various non-standard characters.
Characters 128 to 255 are not standard, and are often unique to )'Out
computer system or ront, sometimes including international characters,
mathematical symbols. graphic symbols, etc.
Note: DynaCADD can access these special characters through the
Text Editor by pressing, in order, the % character twice,
immediately rollowed by a three digit number, ie; %%233.
For more details, including the character look up table, refer
to Appendix H.
Page 356 Chapter 16
DynaCADJ>® Vector Font Editor
Pattern~I--_ __
Font Hallie
Hatch
Created by
DynaCADD Vector Font Creator_
He..ory
1222
Characters
16
fig. (224) Font Status Dialog
Font Status
Each ront can have its own uame. aside from the filename under which it
is saved. Select Font Status from the File menu to see or change the ront
name. This dialog also tells you the name of the ront's creator, the
amount of memory the ront uses, and the total number of characters
defined.
To change the roDt's name or the creator's name, use [Up arrow] or
[Down arrow] to move the cursor to that line. Press [Esc] to clear the
entry or use [Backspace] to erase single characters. Enter the new
infonnation, up to 29 charncteIS, and press [Return].
The Drawing Window
All cbaracteIS are created and modified in this area of the screen, one
character at a time. Commands to create and edit ch.aracteIS and vectoIS
are located either in the menus or as one of the command buttons, to the
left of the drawing window.
There are several boundary (dashed) Hnes displayed in the drawing
window, which indicate the horizontal and vertica11imits of a character:
Chapter 16 Page 357
DynaCADJ:)® Vector Font Editor
/ ' Yenical Dashed lines ............. .
Ascent line - -......
I
-----j------­
.
--fi~_-_
I
---------r----­
I
t
Solid
"'---+----+staircase
Help lines
Baseline
•
Descent line
•
Help lines
fig. (225) tbe Drawing Area
Baseline is the second horizontal line from the bottom. It is the line on
which all uppercase 1ettel'S (capitals) and any lowercase 1ettel'S without
descenders (Ie; "a", "b", "r, "m", etc.) are placed.
Descent line represents the lower limit to which the descenders of such
letters as "g" or "y" can extend below the baseline_
Ascent line, is the height to which the ascenders of characters such as
"b", "d" and "f", may rise above the x-height. These two lines represent
the lower and upper limits, respectively, all characters in a font_
Baseline, ascent and descent lines are the same for every character in a
funt. If you change one in any character, it is changed fur every character_
Page 358 Chapter 16
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
Note: DynaCADD uses the position of these lines in the character
"A" to determine text entity attributes and spacing.
1b move any ofthese lines, drag the small box beside a line.
on any side ofthe drawing window, and move it to the
preferred location.
The vertical dashed lines are the left and right botmdaries of the funt,
used by DynaCADD fur correctly positioning characters in proportional
spacing. They define the widest section of the character. These lines are
unique fur each character in a funt. They, along with the vertical center
line, are positioned automatically by the funt editor when }'Ou click on
Calc Kerning. You can also move the left and right bonlers manually, to
define the vertical fuut bonters, the same way you move the asceut and
descent lines.
The solid "staircase" lines on both sides ate the kemiDg guides.
Kerning is a method of reducing the space between printed or displayed
chatacters to bring them together fur a morenatural appearance and to
reduce the whitespace between them. DynaCADD uses these guides to
fit kemed characters together. Kerning is discussed further, below.
Helplines are user set guides fur character construction. Initially, none
appear in the drawing window, but they can be positioned by dragging one
ofthe small boxes at the corners ofthe window to the desired position.
You can have up to ten vertical and ten horizontal helplines. He1plines are
global. that is, once set in one character, they remain in place fur all
characters in a funt. They are saved with the characters when you save
thefunt.
A character set can be measured vertically by its x-height, ascender and·
descender sizes. The x-beight, or body size, is the vertical size-of the
10WCICaSC letter "x", measured from the baseline. This is the most
important area of any letterfunn fur 90% of the lowerease characters,
since it conveys the impression ofthe size of a letter. There is no preset
x-line in the drawing window, since it can be arbitrarily set fur each funt.
Instead, to define an x-line, drag a horizontal helpline (see below) to the
appropriate location.
Chapter 16 Page 359
DynaCADI)® Vector Font Editor
-'-'-'-+-'-'-'-'-1-._._._.- 1-._._._.
I
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
-·-·-t-·-·-·~·-·
_·_·-t-·_·_·tI·~~~.-.-.-.-.-.-.
i
i
i
i
-·-·-~-·-·-·~·-·-i-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-·
Capline
X-height
fig. (226) Charaaers with X-1ieighl and Capline Marked·
The horizontal Hoe not preset in the window is the capline. This line is
usually spaced a little lower than the ascender line and marks the
maximum height of capital letters. Ascenders normally extend a small
amount above the height of uppercase chaIacters. Again, this line has 00
predetennined size and should be set with a helpline.
The display of all 'lines in the drawing window can be turned on and off by
selecting that type of line in the edit menu.
The X and Y coordinates of the pointer are displayed at the upper right
comer of the screen. These change as you move the pointer on the
drawing window. Position 0, 0 is located in the upper left comer of the
drawing window. Also, when performing rotations, 0 degrees is to the
right (east), not at the top of the drawing window.
The current character number (character slot) and the font name are also
displayed, to the left of the drawing window.
Desk f 11 e Ed t t
utew
~Ti!i00!!1~s!!II!I!'!lI!I!!!I!!!!!!I!I!~!II!II1!!!!!I
fig. (227) OJamcter Number and Font Name
Page 360 Chapter 16
X: 1747 Y: 38886
DynaCADJ>® Vector Font Editor
fig. (228) the Dmwing 1001 Panel
The Drawing Tools
creating a chamcter is done by dIawiDg an outline in the dIawiDg
window. The process is similar to using the "rubber band" continuous
line mode used in many paint or dIawing programs.
There are seveml groups of related dIawiDg tools in the ront editor: those
dealing with vectors. those dealing with control points, those dealing with
shapes or curves and those dealing with entire cbatacters. These groups
are otganized in vertical columns of buttons to the left of the dIawiDg
window. There are also related commands in some of the menus,
including grid and snap, and zoom levels.
Undo is very important. It reverses the last action in the dIawiDg
window, unless a new tool was selected since the action was taken. In
some cases, Undo also deletes the last vector or shape dIawn.
Note:
When selecting a vector ror an operation. you must click on
a control POint. not a connecting line. The control points
define the character, the lines simply connect these points.
Chapter 16 Page 361
DynaCADJ.>® Vector Font Editor
Zoom/View
ZOOR In 4x
Often. when working with the tools. you need more detail.
ZOOR Out 2x
'The funt editor allows you to magnify the work area in the
_.Z.O_,o_R_ _ O_,_Ut___4'_X ___'-I drawing window up to 32 times. in increments of two or
ZOOR Previous
fuur. All tools and functions work in every zoom level.
Th magnify an area, select Zoom In 2x or Zoom In 4x. A
box appears, and the pointer changes to a hand. This box
represents the portion of the drawing area to magnify.
Position the box and press the led mouse button. The area
inside the box is magnified to fill the drawing area.
i
.-.-.- ---·t-_·_·
i
i
iI
iI
----i----­
Ll-t:::.:::t=\~
I
i
-t----­
fig. (229) Zoom in on the Original Ouuacter
You can zoom in several times. increasing the magnification of an area
until you reach the maximum. zoom level. When you can use a zoom
increment no further, the command appears grey in the menu.
The section of the drawing window under magnification can be changed
by moving the sliders at the bottom and right sides of the window.
To reduce magnification one step, select Zoom Out 2x or Zoom Out 4x.
Zoom All returns thedrawiog window to its original (normal) level.
Zoom Previous goes back to the last level of magnification.
Page 362 Chapter 16
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
D
I:l · . . .!. . . .. ". .\. . . . . . '!' ,
c
1a
---·-t----- ------1-----------1-.--J-~
· , , 'i ' . . , . . .i' . . . . , .i' . .
· , . 'j' . . . . . . i' , . , . , .i' . .
, , • . . ' • , , , • ... • . . . . ••. • .! I
1
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"
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·
·
'I
.
,I
"
'I
,
'I
'j
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.!
.!
.,
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,
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,
'I 1
a
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.'
1
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.1,
a
fig. (130) Drowing Area with Grid Displayed
The Grid and Snap
I I
Snap
Orld
Set Values
The grid is simply an optical guide fur designing characters.
A dot appears at the intersection of points to indicate the grid
location. The grid can be turned on and off by selecting the
Grid option from the Tools menu.
Snap furces a newly placed or a moved control point to jump to the closest
intersection that matches the snap intersection value. Existing control
points not currently located on snap intersections are not affected until
they are moves. If you move a vedor with snap on, only the selected
control point snaps into place. the Others retain their relative positions to
each other regardless of the snap. Snap is turned on and off by selecting
the Snap option from the Tools menu.
Chapter 16 Page 363
_
DyuaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
fig. (231) Set Grid and Snap Jfdues
The size of the grid and snap intemection is set by selecdng Set values
from the Tools menu. The grid and snap values always furm a square,
with X and Y values been equal distances. Press [Return] or click the
pointer in<the dialog to set the values. The minimum value fur the snap
and the grid is 500 points.
The grid is not displayed if the setting is too low fur the current zoom
level and the output would be too dense fur use.
Grid and Snap sizes can be set to different values, although it makes more
sense to make them the same. since snap intemections are not visible.
However, on a normal monitor, you may find some grid values are simply
too small to display properly at normal magnification. Since the drawing
window is 64000 points on a side. a low grid value cannot be properly
distinguished on the screen. This is why we permit c.:fif:lbrent snap and
grid values: you can set the snap value lower and use a suitably higher
grid value, fur example, a grid of 100 but a snap of 50.
Another suggestion fur dealing with low grid values is to turn the grid off
in low or normal magnification, and only display it in the higher zoom
levels.
Page 364 Chapter 16
DyDaCADJ>® Vector Font Editor
Vector Tools
A veclor is a contiguous group of control points, joined by lines that define the character outline. The leftmost column beside the drawing window contains the vector tools. These tools affect entire vectors. Note: Vectors cannot be joined together.
New Vector: Select 10 begin drawing a new vector. Move the pointer
to the drawing window, where you want the vector to
begin. Click the left mouse button. This sets the first
control point. Move the pointer to where you want the
next control point and click the mouse button and
continue 10 add points. When you have all the control
points established, press [Return].
Delete Vector: Click here, then on any control point of a vector you
want deleted. Caution:'deleted vectors cannot be
restored. To copy or cut.vectors, use the vector bu:fI.ers.
Move Vector: Click here, then on any control point of a vector you
want moved. A "shadow" of the vector moves with the
pointer. Click the left mouse button 10 set the vector in
the new location. To move only a section of the vector;
use Move Cpoint (see below).
Copy Vector: Click here, then on any control point of a vector you
want copied. Move the vector to the new location and
press the left mouse button. This only makes one copy,
un1ike the paste function in the vector bu.trers.
Smooth Vector: Click here, then on any control point of a vector you
want smoothed. This creates gradual cwvesbetween
control points by adding extra points between existing
jig. (232) Original ~aor and
Smoothed ~ctor
Chapter 16 Page 365
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
Break
J&dor
fig. (233) Vector
Modifications
-+-oj-_ _ _
~---r~----+_--~--~
Move
qww
+----1f----- Delete
qwinl
ones. The number of points added depends on the High
Control Select setting. You may want to delete some of
the additional control points after you smooth a vector.
Break Vector: This separates a vector into two or three parts by cutting
it at the selected control points. Click here, thea on the
control point of a vector, where}'OU want it brolmn. The
vector is now broken into two separate VectoIS. at that
control point. The selected control point is duplicated.
to become the end points fur the new vectors.
If you want to break a vector into three sections. click on
a first control point. then click a second time on another
control point of the same vector to define the end of the
middle section. The selected control points are
duplicated, to become the endpoints fur three new
VectDIS.
If you want to shorten a line, use Delete Cpoint.
Vector ButJers: Described above. These store selected vectoIS in ten
b1Jflers that can be saved to or loaded from disk. Note
that vector buffurs are not saved to disk when a funt is saved: they must be saved separately. To close a vector, that is: mak:e the final point join with
the first. press [c] befure you press [Return].
Page 366 Chapter 16
"~
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
Control Point Tools
These tools affect only a single control point (cpoint) at a time. The
display of control points can be turned off and on by selecting that option
from the Edit menu. A single vector can contain as mao;y as lZ1 control
poiJus. A character can contain a very large number of control points.
Add CpointBefore: Click here and then on the control point befure
which you want to add another control point.
BefOre <lq>ends on the direction in which the vector
was created. For example, if you created it from left
to right, the control point appears left of the point
you select.
Add Cpolnt After:
Click here and then on the control point after which
you want to add another control point•. This
command depends on the direction in which the
vector was created~ Fot example, if you created it
from left to right, the control point appears right of
the point you select.
c
Delete Cpoint:
Click here then on the control point you want to
delete. A deleted control point can be restored by
selecting Undo from the Edit menu.
Move Cpoint:
Click here then on the control point you want to
move. A moved control point can be restored by
selecting Undo from the Edit menu.
Original Chamcter
Result
Move Cpoint
fig. (1.34) Control Point Manipulation
Chapter 16 Page 367
DynaCAD])® Vector Font Editor
Kerning Tools
Kerning. as described earlier, affects the relationship between adjacent
chamcters. The kerning guides are recmngles which enclose the outer
edges of a cl:uu:acmr and tell DynaCADD where characters can overlap.
Traditionally, kerning was done only on selected pairs of characters, fur
example Yo, We and WA. Depending on the limits of the equipment, this
could be a list of between 20 and 200 pairs. But with DynaCADD, every
chamcter can be correctly kerned with every other chamcter, accolding to
the Ireming guides.
Although you normally let the funt editor calculate the position of the
kerning guides automatically by clicking Kern All, you also have the
option of setting the guides yourself. Whichever method you select, you
must set the kerning guides fur each character separately.
Un1iIre most desktop publishing systems, letter kerning is done
automatically in DynaCADD,base<i'on the infunnation provided by these
guides. You cannot manually adjust kerning values in DynaCADD,
although you can adjust individual chamcter spacing.
II tl§j If
I I
~
[!E]
III
Calc Kerning: Select this to calculate the kerning guides fur both
sides of the current character automatically. This must
be done fur each character separately. Automatic
Irerniog also adjusts the right and left boundary guides
fur that character.
Right Kerning: Lets you manually set the right hand Ireming guides of
the current chamcter by dragging the various sections
to new locations. It does not affuct the right boundary
lines.
Left Kerning: KemAn:
AV
Page 368 Chapter 16
Lets you manually set the kit hand Irerning guides by
dragging the various sections to new locations. k does
not affi.o;et the left boundary lines.
Click her to automatica1y kern the complete cha.tacter
set.
fig. (235) Kerning, Before and After
DynaCAD))® Vector Font Editor
Shape and Curve Tools
The fOnt editor features several basic shapes and CUl'Ves to
make cbaracter and symbol design easier. The smoothness
oftheir curves depends on whether the High Control is
selected.
Although the cirole and ellipse appear as continuous objects,
the have definite start and end points, at the zero (0) degree
mark. This is the rightmost position in the drawing window.
Shapes and curves are vectors and can be changed, broken
and deleted like any other vector.
Orde:
Select to draw a cirole. Click: the pointer at the position
where )'Ou want the center ci the circle to be, then move the
pointer. The outline of the cirole fOllows. Click: the left
mouse button to generate tliacirole when the appropiate size
is reached.
Select to draw an arc (a portion of a cirole). Click: the
pointer at the position where )'Ou want the center of the
circle to be, then move the pointer. The outline of the circle
fOllows. Move the pointer to the location where )'Ou want
the arc to begin. Click: the left mouse button to establish the
circle's diameter. Move the pointer again: the arc grows or
shrinks. acconling to the direction you move the pointer.
Click the left mouse button to generate the arc.
Ellipse:
Select to draw an ellipse. Click the pointer at the position
where )'Ou want the center of the ellipse to be, then move the
pointer. The outline of a circle fOllows. This determines the
horizontal axis ofthe ellipse. Click: the left mouse button to
establish the axis. Move the pointer again: the ellipse grows
or shrinks vertically, according to the direction you move the
pointer. Click the left mouse button to establish the vertical
axis and generate the ellipse.
Chapter 16 Page 369
DynaCADJ>® Vector Font .Editor
EllIpdcal
Arc:
Select to draw an elliptical arc (portion of an ellipse). Click
the pointer at the position where you want the center of the
ellipse to be, then move the pointer. The outline of a code
fullows. This determines the horizontal axis of the ellipse.
Click the left mouse buUDn to establish the axis~ Move the
pointer again: the ellipse grows or shrinks vertically,
accotdiog to the direction you move the pointer. Click the
left mouse buUDn to establish the vertical axis: a line joins
the pointer and the central point. Move this to the place
where you want the arc to begin. Click the buUDn. Now
move the pointer to define the arc. Click the mouse buUOn
to gCnerate the arc.
This creates a cubic B6zier curv~ based on three control
points. Click the pointer in the drawing area to set the first
control point, then again in difierent locations to set the next
two. The curve is automatically fitted to the points when
you press the buuon.
The last point of the curve becomes the first point of the
next set of curves, so you can continue creating contiguous
B6zier curves until you select another tool. Bach curve is,
however, a separate vector.
B-spUne:
Page 370 Chapter 16
This creates B-spline curves. which are similar to B6zier
curves, except that you can add any number of control points
(not merely three) and the curve fit to the control points is
better than B6zier curves. Create a vector exactly as you
would a new vector, by clicking for every desired control
point. When you press [Return], the B-spline curve is fitted
to those points.
DynaCAD))® Vector Font Editor
High Control
Select:
This detennines the number of control points
generated when smoothing a vector or creating any of
the shape and curve vectors. When highlighted, more
control points are inserted. resulting in a smoother
curve. If this generates more control points than you
want, tum it off and try creating the vector without it.
To create irregular polygons. press [c] bdbre )'Ou press
[Return]. This closes the vector by joining the startpoint
and endpoint with a line.
igh
' - fig· (236) C i r c
leS;V
" " Control Points;
Not Selected and
Selected
Chapter 16 Page 371
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
Character Tools
These tools affix:t the entire cbatacter: every vector and control point visible
in the dmwiug window. Individual e1emems can be manipuJaced with IlI\Y of
the previously described commands.
Rotate: This rotllfes the chamcter IlI\Y number of degrees, around the
center ofthe window. A cimle appears at the center ofthe
cbamcter and a line denoting the angle appears attached to the
poiDler. Move the angle marimr to the correct kx:ation and
press the button. The cbamcter is rocated.
Note: The moo degree position is at the fur right, DOt at the top of the
window as in maps.
F1ip-X:
F1ip-Y:
Click here to flip the cbamcter left to right. Click again to
reveme the flip.
Click here to flip the cbamcter top to bottom. Click: again to
reverse the flip.
FJip-Y
fig· (237)
Original
Character
Page 372 Chapter 16
Using
Charocter
Flip-X
1bols
DynaCADJ)® Vector Font Editor
fig· (238)
Chamcter
Stretching
Original Character
r::l
~
If I
S1rddt X:
S1rddt Y:
Stretched X
This scmdles or shrinks the charncter along the X axis. n
WOJb in mirror mode only, away from or towards the wrtical
center ci the charnccer. That is, if)'OU stretch (or sbrink) a
control poiDt on the led side ci a character further left, the
entire left side of the cbantder moves to the left by a the same
atio as the distance indicated. The right half is also streU::hed
further right an equal amount. To activate, click: on any control
point. A line appealS deootiDgthe-distance to streCdl. ~
(up and down) distance is ignored; only the horizontal distance
is td.evaot. Oick the mouse to':stretch the character.
This ~ or shrinks the character along the Y axis. n
WOJb in mirror mode only, away from or towards the
horizontal center ci the cbaracrer. That is, if)'OU stretch (or
shrink) a control poiDt at the top ci a character further towards
the top, the entire top half of the character is streU::hed by that
amount. The botcom half is also streU::hed further down by an
equal amount. To activate, click on any control poiDt. A line
appears denoting the distmce to streCdl. Horimn1al (left and
right) distmce is ignored; only the vertical distance is relevant.
Click the mouse to stretch the cbarncter.
Because the stretch commands manipulate the entire
character around an axis, )'OU should not drng the stretch
indicator across the relevant mirror axis (vertical fur X,
horizontal fur Y). Also. if}OOI'
character is entirely in one haJf ci
the window and does not cross the
axis. then m:retching in the direction
of the axis generates unexpected (and
often unwanted) results.
Stretched Y
Original Character
Chapter 16 Page
m
DynaCADl)® Vector Foot Editor
r.:J
This ID.OYeS the entire character in the direction and the distance
indicated. Click anywhere in the window to indicare a start
point. Then dmg the move indicator any distance and angle.
When you click the button again. the cbaracter ID.OYeS that ~
along the path detelmined by the angle. MO\'eI1lOOt is
determined from the center r.I the window. Hyou click on a
control POint. then the character move is determined from that
control point, Iathet than the center of the window. This is a
more precise method r.I moving a chamccer.
When a cbaracter oolIides with the holders r.I the window,
using streCdl or IllOYe, oontrol points are not lost. They are,
inscead, heed into a stmigbt line parallel with the edge r.I the
window. Unless this is what)'Ou W8IIt:s select Undo and try
again. but use either a smaDer distance or select a specific
control point to move..
This oommaOO is fimctiona1ly identical to the more command
(above). The only di1J:erence is how the original \'eCtOrs are
0Jpy:
treated. With the move command the original \'edOrs are
shifted. The copy command first produces an image ofthe
character and then moves the image the specified distance.
Cut, Copy: These o¢ons are bmd in the Edit meIUl. They are the same
as \'eCtOr cut and COPY. excqX that they work: on the entire
cbaracte& Cut removes the charader from the window into the
buffur. This is a simple method fur clearing a window
oompletely. The cbaracter remains in the buffur until another
cut or coPy 0YeIWrites it. 0Jpy is the same as cut. excqX that
the cbaracter remains in the window.
This is somewhat diflerent than vector paste. It pastes the
oontents r.I the cut/oopy bufter. but perfunns more like the more
command (above). Click once, anywhere in the window. This
sets the start point fur the paste. Drag the more indicator any
distance and angle. When you click the buUon again. the
Undo
BIZ
character is pasted that file away from the original location,
along the path detennined by the angle.
Cut
[+lX H you paste a copied or cut cbarader into a blank cbaracter slot.
Copy
[4C there
is no movement required. The copy is located at the same
Paste
[+}U
coonli.oares as the original.
~
More:
1···1
Page 374 Chapter 16
DynaCADJl® Vector Font Editor
File Commands
These commands, in the File menu, are fur loading and saving funt files
or vector bu.fIers. All funt files (.FN1j and vector bu.fIer files (.Bup) are
no.nnally stored in the FONTS directory or fulder.
Open Font: Load a funt. This overwrites any funt currently in
memory.
Save FOnt: Saves the current funt under the existing name. If no
name was used, you are presented with the file selector
and must enter a name and extension (.FNT).
Save FOnt As: Saves the current funt under a new name. You are
presented with the file selector and must enter a name
and extension (.FNT).
Load Buffers: This loads a set of ten vector bu.fIers and overwrites any
burters currently in memor:J..:...
.
Save Buffers: Saves the current vector buffers. You are presented with
the file selector and must enter a name and extension
(.BUF).
Select
Character:
Open font... 10
Save Font IS
Save Font As ...
Load Buffers
Save Buffers
Select Character
font Status
Quit
10
Use this command to select a character to display,
create or edit. You are presented with the existing system
character set as a rekrence. Your choice does not change
the system set. The character slot currently on screen on
the drawing window is highlighted. If a slot contains a
chantcter on the funt memory, it is shadowed. To see
other available characters, click on page left or page
right. To select a character, click on its button, then click
OK.
When designing a character, you can also use the [+] and
[-] keys to display other characters in the set.
FOnt Status: This displays the funt name, creator, the amount of
memory used and the number ofcharacters used. See
above fur more infurmation.
Quit: Select this to exit the program and return to the desktop.
Make sure )'Ou save your work befure you quit.
Chapter 16 Page '515
DynaCADIJII> Vector Font Editor
Hatch Patterns
Hatch patterns are contained in the font file HA'ICH.FNT. These are
used for the lNSERr HA'ICH command (see Chapter 7). HA'ICH.FNT
must be in the FONT foldelf otherwise hatch patterns are disabled in the
Set menu.
You can modify the existing patterns or add )'Our own in the empty
cbaIacter slots. New patterns appear in the batch pattern dialog in
DynaCADD.
Hatch patterns do not require kerning.
Hatch patterns should be symmetrical in design in onler to be properly
displayed when inserted into a drawing. \Utors should be evenly spaced
between the borders and fonn regular groups.
Lines (vectors) should align to meet as if they wrapped around right to left
and top to bottom. Diagonal vectors should also wrap across the borders ,
right to left. This is easily seen if)'Ou load HA'ICH.FNT and examine the
existing patterns.
fig. (239) Hatch Patterns Ex:omp/es
Page '576 Chapter 16
DynaCAD])® Vector Font Editor
If your hatch pattern is composed of small groups of vectors, such as those
used in terrain symbols, the groups should align both horizontally and
vertically and be evenly spaced, not randomly created and spaced.
Creating a hatch pattern is easy, but may require some experimentation to
get the pattern to align properly and symmetrically when inserted into a
drawing. It is sometimes easier to use an existing pattern as a template. to
. determine vector placement fur wrap around, then delete unnecessaIy
vectors when finished.
Chapter 16 Page
m
DynaCADI)® Vector Font Editor
Design Suggestions
1. Plan to design a full cbaracrer set, not simply UppeIC8Se cbaracrers.
All uppercase is more difficult to read and ofters a less visually
interesting appearance.
2. The visual aspect of characters is more important than the
mathematical aspect. Design your cbaJ:acters for visual appeal, rather
than trying to make them conform to exact measurements. Por
example, rounded letters like "0", "C" and "0" look smaller than
other letters unless drawn slightly larger.
3. Rounded capital letters such as "C", "0" and "0" are usually
designed to be slightly taller than straight letters such as "I", "T" and
"L", so they are placed sightly below the baseline.
4. Because rL the thin size rL certain cbaracrers. you may want to increase
the kerning space around such cbaracters as "I", "iff, "I" and "I", in
order to improve their appearance when kemed with other wider
characters.
S. Serifs are small lines that extend, usually horizontally. from the free
ends of letter strokes and provide a visual guideline when reading.
Seriftypefilces (such as Baskerville, Bodoni, TImes and Gammond)
are easier to read in large bodies of text than sans serif fonts (such as
Helvetica, Futura, Franklin and Univers). Sans serif fonts should be
reserved for headlines, titles, or single text lines. Serifs themselves
can be any rL several shapes and sizes, including slab (square), wedge,
hairline and bracketed (cupped).
6. Simple fonts are easier to read than decorative, script, or the various
display fonts.
fig. (240) Serifand Sans Serif Characters
Page 378 Chapter 16
DyuaCADJ>® Vector Font Editor
fig. (241) Aligned and Non Aligned Numben
7. Remember that vector funts are outline or line fonts; they are not filled
or solid funts.
S. Numbers can be designed in two styles: aJigning and non aligning.
Aligning numbem are all the same size and align along the baseline.
Non aligning numbeIS are small, with asceodem and descendeIS.
9. Italic funts have cbaracters sJanted to t:li.eJight, usually 10 or 12 degrees
from the vertical. These are banter to read in latge bodies of text than
unsJanted funts, SO use italics fur emphasiS and short pieces of text.
DynaCADD can slant text within the program. Although chis is not
pure italics in a typogIapbic sense, it is sufficient for most uses, so
there is no need to design a separate italic character set.
10. The ratio of space between descent baseline, X-Iine baseline and
ascent baseline is not fixed. Use the visual appearance ofa funt to
guide }'Ou. You should pwcha.se one ofthe many typeface guides
available, published either as books or as commercial type catalogues
from such companies as Compugraphic, and examine the many
samples they offer. Use a pica point ruler, available from any art
supply shop, to measure the various fonts.
11. You can also use vectors as guides fur letter design, especially circles,
ellipses and arcs. Copy them into the vector buffers and save them to
disk: for use later.
12. It is unlikely that you will use aI1255 characters for a font. However, it
is always a good idea to designate at least one character as a blank: (for
example, number 1 or number 255). You can use chis blank: as a
temporary canvas on which to work, experiment, make adjustments to
single vectors and so on.
Chapter 16 Page 'rI9
DynaCADJJ® Vector Foot Editor
13. Undo is a valuable function. It restores any change, deletes vector, shape or curve, unless JOu have switched to another tool. However, Undo only restores the last change. 14. Make sure JOur kerning guides have been set tOr the current character,
either manually or automatically, befure continuing on to another
character.
IS. Save JOur tOnt after each character JOU have created or changed.
Suggested Reading:
Designing With 7)pe: A Basic Coune in 7)pography, by James Craig,
Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, NY,1980. A good general book on
type and how to use it. Many useful ewnples.
The 71uunes tmd Hruison ManUlll qj 7)pography, by Ruari McLean,
Thames and Hudson, London, UK,1980. A good overview of the craft,
including its history, modmt developments and design considerations.
The 1)pBlu:yclopetlia: A User's Guide to Better 7)pography, by Frank J
Romano, R.R Bowker Company, New York, NY,1984. An easy to read
encyclopedia about typography.
Nole8 on Graphic Design mulVisUlll Communication, by Gregg
Berryman, W'dliam Kaufman Inc., Los Altos, CA, 1984. A general
approach to design, with pages on using ~
Roolrkdge's Inte17Udio1Ull1jpe FituIer, by Christopher Pecfuct & Gordon
Rookledge, PBC Internatiooal, New York, NY, 1983. A guide to typefilces
and how to recognize them, with many samples and charts.
The Chicago ManUlll qjStyle, 13th Edition Revised and Expanded, The
University of Chicago Press. Chicago, USA,l982. Not only excellent
material on type and design. but on style, usage and grammar as well.
Page 380 Chapter 16
DyuaCADJl® Vector Font Editor
Font Editor Error Messages
Unable to load resoun::e file FONTEDlT.RSC.
Please iDstaII and retry.
All OynaCADO resource files should be in the same fulder or directory.
Copy the fuot editor resource file to the RESOURCE directory. then load
the program again.
Unable to load Ilbnt me FONTEDlT.FNT.
Please iDstaII and retry.
The default fuot file must be kept in the FONT directory. Copy the file to
the correct directory and load the editor again.
Tho few control pofnCs. Unable to break wctor.
Please reseIect vector.
There are not enough control points to break: the selected vector apart. A
break: requires at least three control points (mcluding endpoints). Either
select another vector CO break: or add extra control points to this one,
befOre trying again.
Unable to break vector at the endpoint.
Please reselect vector.
You cannot select an endpoint as a location to break: a vector. You must
select control points between two endpoints. Try again.
Tho few control points. Unable to delete cpoint.
There are not enough control points on this vector CO remove one. Select
another vector.
Tho many control points. Unable to add cpoint.
The selected vector already bas 127 control points. the maximum allowed
on a single vector. You cannot add any more to it. To add points. you must
first break: the vector into two or more parts.
Chapter 16 Pdge 381
DynaCADl)® Vector Font Editor
The selected filename edsfs. Do you wish to replace Itt
You are trying so save your font or vector bu1Iers under a name that
already exists for another file. If you replace the existing file, everything
in it is overwritten by what is in memory. You can cancel and select
another name for your file.
A file error bas occurred while attempting to save the current font.
This is a general purpose error message which results from any of a
number of problems. Your disk might be write protected, or the file might
be set as write only. Check your disk befure continuing. You might also
try saving the file with a difl:erent name.
A file error bas occurred while attempting to open the selected font.
This is a general purpose error message which results from any of a
number of problems. It usually happens when you enter a name for a file
that does not exist in the directory, or on the disk. Try selecting a name
from the file list.
A file error bas occurred while attempting to save the vector buffers.
This is a general purpose error message which results from any of a
number of problems. Your disk might be write protected, or the file might
be set as write only. Check your disk before continuing. You might also
try saving the file with a difl:erent name.
Quitting without saving will lose any information In the current Font
that has not been saved.
You have made changes to the font in memory but have not saved it. If you
quit now, all changes are lost. You can continue or cancel and save the
file, before quitting.
Unable to load FONTEDIT.ALT
The error message file must be kept in the CONFIG directory. Copy the
file to the correct directory and load the editor again.
Page 382 Chapter 16
'-j
Appendix A, File Transfers
File Transfers ••• Appendix A
Drawing Interchange Files (DXF)
Drawing Interchange Files are the industry standard fur 1:J:ansfurring
drawings between various microcomputer CADD packages. Vu:tually all
major CADD packages can read and write DXF files. DXF files can be
recognized by their ".DXF" extension.
DXF Conversion Process
DynaCADD supports the fullowing DXF entity types:
• points
• lines
• circles
• text
• traces
• solids
• arcs
-"olylines
.""faces
• blocks
As DynaCADD distinguishes between 2D and 3D mod~ be sure to
select the appropriate mode during DXF import and export.
Block definitions from the DXF file are tempoauily stored on the current
disk as DynaCADD compatlole figures. Make sure that you have
sufficient disk space when importing large DXF files.
Named layers and colors are retained and stored in the order in which
they appear in the DXF file. GCP to UCs, UCS to GCP translation is
supported.
When you import a DXF file, all text in the file is set to the Leroy Rough
funt (LEROY-.R.FNT). This funt must be in your FONTS fulder. It is
loaded automatically when you import a DXF file.
When you export a DXF file, funt infunnation is not included. but the
character height and size infunnation is retained. The funts in the
DynaCADD drawing are all changed to the DXF <standard' funt in the
export file. Speciality funts or character sets in DynaCADD are not
retained in the DXF file.
Page 383 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
All currently active entities are converCed. to DXF fOrmat. Entities that
have been Masked are not converted.
Note:
Use DEF to transter files between DynaCADD running on
difIerent systems.
fig. (242) File 1trmsfer Dialog
Page 384 Appendix A
Appendix A, .HIe'Ihmsfers
DynaCADD Exchange Format (DEF)
DynaCADD Exchange Format capabilities are included in all releases of
DynaCADD. DEF files insure traDsfer of dtawings between DyoaCADD
on varioous computer systems and upwatd compatibility to new versions
of DynaCADD. DEF files can be recognized by their ".DEF" extension
DynaCADD writes a112D and 3D entities. including masked entities. to a
DEF file. Drawing infurmation. as well as these parameters are stored in
the DEF file:
• Views
• Units
• Images
• Sizes
• GCPs
• Scales
DEF import and export can be canceled atanyitime by clicking the right
mouse button.
DEF 3.0 File Format Specification
A complete file consists of the following sections:
Header Layer Table Style Thble ViewThble GCPThble Image Table ColorThble Floating Global Variables Entity Definitions The following descriptions will be much clearer if you print a small DEF
file in DynaCADD to follow as an example.
Page 385 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Header
Version
The Major version number multiplied by 100
plus the minor version number. For example the
current OEF version number written by
DynaCADO 2.D4 is 300. This is the one header
variable that is not optional. AIL OEF 3.0 files
must include the version number 300.
Scale
A floating point wne representing the drawing
scale. For example, OS represents one-balf scale.
Units
An integer index to the selected unit base:
1 = inches
2 = feet
3 = yaros
4 = miles
5 = millimeters
6 = centimeters
8 = kilometers
7 = meters
Width
The width of the drawing specified in the currently selected units. Height
Line_Scale
The beight of the drawing specified in the currently selected units. The global line style scale. Origi"--.X
The 20 drawing origin along the X axis.
Origin.-Y
The 20 drawing origin along the Y axis.
Color_By_Layer
A flag determining the state of the
Color-»y-.Layer system variable:
00=0
On =1
Style_Sy_Layer
A flag detennining the state of the
Style-By-.Layer system variable:
Off = 0
On =1
Page 386 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
WelghLBy-.l.ayer A flag detennioing the state of the
WeightJy~c system variable:
00=0
On =1
Comments
Any line preceded by *** is considered to be a
romment and is ignored.
*** Sample DEF 3.0 Header
\ersion
300
Scale
l.0
Units
1
Width
11.0
Height
U.o
~Scale
1.0
0riginJ:
0.0000oo
()rigiR-Y
0.0000oo
ColoL-By-Layer
o
StyleJy...J.ayec
o
WeightJy...J.ayec
o
*** End of Sample Header
Page 381 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Layer Table
The layer table is optional and is used to define all layer parameters. A
layer definition consists of the fullowing structure:
Lay«-Definition
layer index
layer name
layer lock status
1 = locked
o = unlocked
layer visibility
1 = visible
o = invisible
layer color
layer style
layer weight
(integer O•.2SS)
(string)
(integer)
(integer)
(integer 1..15)
(integer O•.63)
(integer O••2)
End
*** Sample Layer Definition
LayeLJ)efinition
o
SAMPLE......LAYHR
o
1
1
o
1
End
*** End of Sample Layer Definition
The preceding sample definition names layer 0 as SAMPI..B...J.AYER,
and declares it to be unlocked and visible. The layer color is 1. using style
ofrom the style table and the layer weight is set to 1.
Page 388 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Style Table
The style table is optiona1811d is used to define all line styles. A style
definition consists of the fullowing structure:
StyltLDefinition
style index
style name
style local scale
style string
End
(mteger 0. .63)
(string)
(floating point)
(string)
*** Sample Style Definition
Style--Definition
o
SAMPLlLSTYLE
150
++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
End
*** End of Sample Style Definition
The preceding sample definition names style 0 as SAMPLIL..STYLE.
with a local scale of 1.50. The style string is the line pattern, constructed
according to the manner explained in Chapter S.
Page 389 Appendix A
Appendix A, File "I.hmsfers
GCPTable
The GCP table is optional and is used to define all Geometric Coordinate Planes. A GCP definition consists of the following structure: GCP-Definition
GCPindex
GCPname
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Y axis
GCP X Translation
GCP Y Translation
GCP Z Translation
End
(integer O••15)
(string)
(angle - degrees)
(angle - degrees)
(angle - degrees)
(floating point)
(t1oating point)
(t1oating point)
*** Sample GCP Definition
GCP-Definition
o
Top
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
1.000000
2.000000
0.000000
End
*** End of Sample GCP Definition
The preceding sample definition names GCP 0 as Top with no rotation
from the absolute 3D plane, and an X- Y- Z translation of 1.0, 2.0, 0.0
from the absolute 3D origin.
Page 390 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
View Table The VieW table is optional and is used to define all active 30 views. A View definition consists of the fullowing structure:
View--'>efinition
View index
View GCP index
X location of lower left corner of View bounds
Y location of lower left corner of View bounds
X location of upper right comer of View bounds
Y location of upper right comer of View bounds
X location of View origin
Y location of View origin
View Zoom factor
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Y axis
View Scale factor
Scroll distance of view origin along the 20 X axis
Scroll distance of view origin along the 20 Y axis
(mteger O••3)
(mteger 0..15)
(integer)
(mteger)
(mteger)
(mteger)
(mteger)
(mteger)
(floating point)
(angle - degrees)
(angle - degrees)
(angle - degrees)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
End
*** Sample View Definition
View-Definition
o
1
0.000000 0.000000 34.000000 22.000000 17.000000 11.000000 1.000000 Page 391 Appendix A
Appendix A, We Transfers
0.0000oo
0.000000
0.0000oo
0.250000 0.000000 0.0000oo
Bod
*** End of Sample View Definition
The ~ing sample defines view 0 as having GCP 1 as it's prime
rotation viewing plane. The bounding area of the view is encompassed by
the coordinates 0.0, 0.0 to 34.0, 22.0 with the origin in the ccnrer at
coon:linatc 17.0, 11.0.
The view zoom factor is 1.0. The current viewing plane has not been
rotated from the absolute 3D plane. The scale fiIctor is set 10 0.25 and the
view has not been scrolled along the 2D X or Yaxis.
Page 392 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Color Table
The Color table is optional and is used to define the full drawing color
pallete. A Color definition consists ofthe tbllowing structure:
ColoLJlefinition
Color index
Red Component of ROB color
Green Component of ROB color
Blue Component of ROB color
Bnd
(integer 0..15)
(integer O••1000)
(integer O••1000)
(integer 0. .1(00)
*** Sample Color Definition
Colo~efinition
o
800
800
800
End
*** End of Sample Color Definition
The preceding sample defines color 0 as having ROB components of
R: 800 0: 800 B: 800 (Light Omy).
Note: Color indicies 0 and 1 are used by the DynaCADD User Jnterfu.ce
and should normally be left undefined in a DEP file. If they are
defined they should be set to the tbllowing ROB values:
Color 0
Color 1
R: 1000 0: 1000 B: 1000
R: 0
0: 0
B: 0
Page 393 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Image Table
The Image cable is optional and is used to define all Images. An Image
definition consists of the mllowing structure:
Image--.Detinition
Image index
Image name
X location of lower left comer of Image
Y location oflower left comer of Image
X location of upper right comer of Image
Y location of upper right comer of Image
End
(integer 0..15)
(string)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
*** Sample Image Definition
Image-Definition
o
TestImg
2.sooooo
3.000000
5.000000
8.000000
End
*** End of Sample Image Definition
The preceding sample definition names Image 0 as TestImg with a
bounding area encompassed by the coordinates 2.5, 3.0 and 5.0, 8.0.
Page 394 Appendix A
Appendix A, File 1i'ansfers
Floating Global Variables
There are nine floatiDg global variables used when defining the attributes
of any entity definitions that fullow in the DEI< file. The variables are:
Layer Color Weight Style Group Groupend Mask Unmask Viewmask Note: Floating variables may be placed anywhere in a DHF file with two
restrictions:
1) They must never be placed in a Table.
2) They must never be placed where an ASCII name is expected.
layer
Layer defines the current layer index assigned to all fullowing
entities. The range ofvalid layer indexes is 0 to 255.
***Example Layer 12 *** End of example The preceding example sets the current layer index to 12.
Page 395 Appendix A
Appendix A, .File Transfers
Color
Color defines the cun:eot color index assigned to all fullowing
entities. The range ofvalid color indexes is 1 to 15.
***Example Color 3
*** End ofexample The precMing example sets the current color to 3.
Weight
Weight defines the current weight index assigned. to all fullowiDg
entities. The range of valid weight indexes is 0 to 2.
***Example Weight 1
*** End of example The preceding example sets the current pen weight to 1.
Style
Style sets the current style index assigned to all fullowing
entities. The range ofvalid style indexes is 0 to 63.
***Example Style 2
*** End of example
The preceding example set the current style index to 2.
Page 396 Appendix A
Appendix A, File 1i:'aosfers
Group and Groupend
All entities that are grouped together as a Dy:oaCADD figure should be
preceded by the global name Group and end with the global name
Groupend. These globals must not be nested. That is no Group label
should appear between another set of Group and Groupend labels.
Note: Hatch patterns and section lines are treated as groups.
*** Example of grouping entities
Group
*** Entity definitions go here
Groupend
*** End of example
Mask and Unmask
All entities defined after a Mask command will not be displayed by
Dy:oaCADD. Unmask: is used to reset the state of the mask flag.
*** Example of masking entities
Mask
*** Entity definitions go here
Unmask ***End of example Page 3fJ7 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
Vlewmask
Viewmask: is a bitwise flag that controls the genemtion of 3D entities in
each active 3D View.
1=
2=
4=
8=
View #1 View #2 View #3 View 14 To mask: a 3D entity in view #1 and view If3. Viewmask would be set to 5
(1+4).
***Example Viewmask: 7
*** End of example The preceding example. sets all 3D entities that fullow to display in view
14, only. To reset the display to all views set Viewmask to O.
Page 398 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Traosfers
Entity Definitions
The fullowing list contains the specification fur currently supported 2D
and 3D entities. If entity types are added to DynaCADD, this list will be
updated. You should t:herefure read entities in a table driven funnat and
skip alI unsupported entities.
All angles are given in degrees with the zero degree mark: towanls the east
and the positive direction increasing in a counter-clock:wise direction. All
entity definitions must start with the entity name, as shown here, and
finish with Bnd.
2D Entities
2D-Point
X location
Ylocation
Bnd
(floating point)
(floating point)
2D-Line
X location of start
Y location of start
X location of end
Y location of end
Bnd
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
2D_Cirele
X location of center
Y location of center
radius
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
End
2D-Arc
X location of center
Y location ofcenter
radius
start angle
end angle
End
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(degrees - floating point)
(degrees - floating point)
Page 399 Appendix A
Appendix A, me Tnmsfers
2D........E1lipse
X location of center
Y location of center
major axis
minor axis
rotation
End
2D Ell Are
X location of center
Y location of center
major axis
minor axis
rotation
start angle
end angle
End
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) 2D_Text
X location, lower left corner of text string (floating point) Y location, lower left corner of text string (floating point) (floating point) character width
(floating point) character height
(degrees - floating point) character slant
(degrees - floating point) character rotation
(integer) text spacing type
o - constant (mono spacing) 1- proportional 2 - kerned (floating point) additional spacing
(string) name of font (i.e., LEROY-R)
(string) text string
End
Page 400 Appendix A
Appendix A, File 1i'ansfers
2D-.Bsp1ine
X location of point #1
Y location of point #1
X location of point Ifl
Y location of point Ifl (to 49 control points)
X location of last point
Y location of last point
End
2D-.Bezier
X location of point #1
Y location of point #1
X location of point Ifl
Y location of point Ifl (to 12 control points)
..
X location of last point
Y location of last point
End
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
2D~lid
location of point #1
location of point #1
location of point Ifl
location of point Ifl
X location of point 113
Y location of point 113
X location of point #4
Y location of point #4
X
Y
X
Y
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
End
3D Entitles
A113D coordinates are given in absolute 3D space'and are Nor considered relative to the current OCR 3D-Yoint X location
Y location
Zlocation
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) End Page 401 Appendix A
Appendix A, File Transfers
3D-Line
X location of start
Y location of start
Z location of start
X location ofend
Y location of end
Z location of end
End
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) 3D_Circle
X location of center
Y location of center
Z location of center radius
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Yaxis
Bnd
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) 3D~
X location ofcenter
Y location of center
Z location ofcenter radius
start angle
end angle
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Y axis
End
3D-Bllipse
X location of center
Y location of center
Z location of center major axis
minor axis
rotation
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Y axis
Bnd
Page 402 Appendix A
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) Appendix A, File Transfers
3D-BlLArc X location of center Y location of center Z location of center ~or axis minor axis robltion
start angle
end angle
plane rotation about the z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Yaxis
End
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) 3D_Text
X location. lower left corner of text string:.:
Y location. lower left corner oftext string>
Z location. lower left comer oftext string
chamcter width
chamcter height
chamcter slant
text rotation
plane rotation about the Z axis
plane rotation about the X axis
plane rotation about the Y axis
text spacing type
(floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) (degrees - floating point) additional spacing
name offunt (Ie; LEROY-R)
text string
(integer) o - constant (mono spacing) 1- proportional 2 -kerned (floating point) (string) (string) End
Page 403 Appendix A
Appendix A, Jrue Transfers
3D-.BspIine
X location of point #1
Y location ofpoint #1
Z location of point #1
X location of point /fl
Y location of point /fl
Z location of point /fl (to 49 control points)
X location of last point
Y location of last point
Z location of last point
End
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
3D-.Bezier
X location of point #1
Y location of point #1
Z location of point #1
X location of point /fl
Y location of point /fl
Z location of point /fl (to 12 control points)
X location of last point
Y location of last point
Z location of last point
End
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)·
(floating point) .
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
3D-Yace
X location of point #1
Y location of point #1
Z location of point #1
X location of point /fl
Y location of point /fl
Z location of point /fl
X location of point #3
Y location of point #3
Z location of point #3
X location of point #4
Y location of point 1/4
Z location of point #4
End
Page 404 Appendix A
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
(floating point)
Appendix B, ASCll Codes
ASCII Codes ••. AppendIx B
ASCll. an acronym for American Standard Code for Information
Interchange., is a commonly accepted system for assigning numbers to
prilllable alphanumeric characters, punctuation and symbols. used in the
English language. Each character in a character set or font has its own
number.
ASCll codes 0 to 127 represent the sante characters across all computer
systems. However, since a chanK:ter set can extend as high as number
2S5. numbers 128 to 2S5 often represent unique characters in a particular
computer system. The higher numbers can represent line dmwing
symbols. international characters or even another international chamcter
set.
Codes 0 to 31 are reserved for system control codes and such non-printing
characters as a carriage return (ASCn 13), line :fued (ASCn 10), escape
(ASCn 21) or form :fued (ASCll 12). They are sometimes used for non­
standard and graphics characters. It is unlikely you will need to change or
alter these characters. ASCll number "0" is the NUL character and
cannot be changed by the vector font editor (note that this is not the
character "0" which is ASCll number 48).
Codes 128 to 2S5 (hex $80 to $FF) are usually unique to each computer
system. font or even to each colnputer ma.nufacturer. Characters
occupying these positions in the system. character set are displayed in the
font editor.
When you alter a font, you change the symbol assigned to that ASCn
number, but not the actual number or the keyboaId assignments which
remain the sante. Pressing a key on the keyboaId prints whatever
character is currently assigned to that number. For example, ifyou
change ASCll number 65"N' to a symbol ofa transistor. then when you
load that font into DynaCADD and press "Aft. a transistor symbol is
displayed instead.
Since programmers also use hexadecimal numbering systems. the
information below is provided with decimal and hexadecimal ASCn
numbers, and the character the numbers represent.
Appendix B Page 405
Appendix B, ASCD Codes
Dec Hex: Character
NUL (cannot be changed)
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
fl
24
25
26
Z1
18
19
28
29
30
31
IC
1D
IE
1F
lA
m
CtrlA
CtrlB
CtrlB
CtrlB
CtrlB
CtrlF
CtrlG
Ctrl H
CtrlI
Ctrl J
CtrlK
Ctrl L
Ctrl M
CtrlN
Ctrl a
CtrlP
CtrlQ
CtrlR
CtrlS
Ctrl T
Ctrl U
Ctrl V
Ctrl W
CtrlX
Ctrl Y
CtrlZ
Ctrl [
Ctrl\
Ctrl]
Ctrl"
Ctrl-
Appendix B Page 406
SOH
STX
ETX
BOT
ENQ
ACK
Dec Hex: Cbaracter
32
33
20
21
34
22
35
36
23
31
Ben
38
39
Backspace
40
HT
41
42
43
Line Feed
VT
Form Feed .
Carriage Return
SO
SI
DLE
DCl
DC2
DC3
DC4
NAK
SYN
ETB
CAN
EM
SUB
Escape
FS
OS
RS
us
44
44
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
24
25
26
Z1
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
31
38
39
3A
38
3C
3D
3E
3F
space
!
..
/I
$
%
&
,
(
)
*
+
.
I
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
<
=
•
'1
Appendix B, ASCll Codes
Dec Bex: Cbaracter
64 40 @
65
,~<
66
67
68
69
70
71
41
42
43
A
B
44
C
80
81
82
83
G
103
104
105
106
107
h
i
j
k
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
H
L
M
N
0
P
Q
R
S
101 65
67
68
69
6A
6B
lOS: 6C
109 6D
110 6E
111 6F
112 70
113 71
114 71.
115 73
g
I
m
n
0
P
q
r
s
116 74
lI7 75
118 76
SA
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
121 79
122 7A
5B
[
123 7B
Y
z
{
124
I
85
86
88
89
90
91
92
5C \
5D ]
5E "
5F
95
d
47
54
94
99
100 64
e
f
55
56
57
58
59
93
a
b
c
102 66
84
87
61
62
63
F
49 I
4A 1
4B K
79
•
45
48
78
98
60
46
73
77
96
t.17
D
E
n
74
75
76
Dee Bex: Character
t
u
v
w
x
119 77
120 78
7C
125 7D
126 7E
lZl 7F
­
}
DEL
Appendix B Page 4{fl
Appendix B, ASCll Codes
Appendix B Page 408 Appendix C, DyoaCADD Command List
DyneCADD Command Ust ••• Appendix C
~[JI]E23~~~~
Ell
+
~B~
Screen Control Commands
1~llqml TRANCOPY
1111 SHOWCOM
E23 DZEXTBNTS
IBf:iJ1 DZLAST
~DZ1N
~DZOUT
101 DZALL
~DZW1NDOW
II:!SI SCROLL
~CENTER
I'·-1 REPAINT
11··8 REGEN
Insertion and Location Commands
X
IX
Y
IV
LOC
END
ON
SET
Z
IZ
ORO
Fll.TER
PANO
PRAD
INT
Entity Selection Commands
BYDIO
BYALL
BYVWIN
BYPWIN
BYCOLOR
Fll.TER
BYSIYLE
BYWIN
BYWOUT
BYLASr
BYLAYER
BYWEIGHf BYCHAlN
Appendix C Page 409
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
ICON PAD COMMANDS
NOUN
[9 INSERr
rn
CURVE
Ir.=.11 DIMENSION
I{J 1TRANSFORM
I1BiEDITVIBW
~CREATE
[tdOUTPUT
rn
INFORM
I~I
EDITLAYER
1201 INIT2D
1301lNIT3D
BUNDO
Page 410 Appendix C
MODIFIERS
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
NOUN
VERB MODIFIERS [±] POlNT
I&JLINB
181 ClRCLB
I:11 ARC
~
FlLLBT
ffi BLUPSB
1--.,1 BLLARC
IDIBOX
101 POLYGON
cru
TEXT
IGillII
HATCH
Ivl SUBFIO
Ivl POLYFIO
1~ I SECl'ION
I_I SOLID
I@;II FACE
00 DBLBTB
Appendix C Page 411
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB NOUN
INSBRr
POINT MODIFIERS
LINELOC
ORrHO
VERTICAL
III HORIZONT
PBRPBND
•
PARALLEL
TANTO
TANPOINT
1.6.. I LlNANG (Flag)
§ L1NLEN (Flag)
ClPOINT
ClRRAD
.CIRDIA
CIRCIRCUM
CBBTWEEN
ClRRADLOC
ARC
[5J0~[3J
w[2J~7l
Page 412 Appendix C
'&II ARC3POINT
ARCRAD
"--_'/
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
NOUN MODIFIERS
INSEKf
ARC ARCOlA
ARCClRCUM
[7] ARCSfARfA (F1ag)
W ARCENDA (Flag)
ABETWEEN
ARCRADLOC
FILLET
@]~[2;J121
lDIlFILRAD
FILDIA
1.11 CFn..RAD
liill CFn..DIA
ELLIPSE
~~l@J~
wOOD
~ ELLMAJRAD (Flag)
ffi ELLMINRAD (F1ag)
~ ELLMAJDIA (Flag)
rn
ELLMINDIA (F1ag)
171 ELLROf (Flag)
13 ELAMAJRAD (Flag)
I b 1ELAMINRAD (Flag)
§
ELAMAJDIA (Flag)
Appendix C Page 413
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
IIIINSERr
MODIFIERS
NOUN ELLARC [2J
ELAMINDIA (Flag)
LZ1
ELAROT (Flag)
IFZI
ELASrARrA (Flag)
ClJ
ELAENDA (Flag)
~
POLYSIDES (Flag)
171
101
POLYROT (Flag)
POLYRAD (Flag)
lei POLYDIA(Flag)
lsi POLYAFLAT (Flag)
B
[§]
~
8I8 TEXTWID (Flag)
III I TEXTHE1 (Flag)
W
B
TEXTROT (Flag)
TEXTSLANT (Flag)
IILAI SETPSPACE (Flag)
1.r==J1 TEXTLEFf (Flag)
1c=J.1 TEXTRIOIIT (Flag)
Icw I TEXTCENT (Flag)
TEX1LOC
TEXTDIOI
Page 414 Appendix C
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB •
INSEJ{f
•
NOUN
MODIFIERS
TEXT
TEXTASSUM
TEXTlROT
SUBFIO
[7]~[[]~
SFIOROT (Flag)
1+0+1 SFIOXSCA (Flag)
[QJ SFIOYSCA (Flag)
~ SFIOZSCA (Flag)
POLYFIO
L2J~[2J~ Llj
PFIOROT (Flag)
1+0+1 PFIOXSCA (Flag)
[QJ PFIOYSCA (Flag)
~"
~ PFIOZSCA (Flag)
SECTION
~~DD
Ix<dl SECTDIST (Flag)
1.6.- I SECTANOLE (Flag)
HATCH
~~DD
~
HATCHX (Flag)
I?I HATCHY (Flag)
SOLID
1.1 FACE
DELETE
Appendix C Page 415
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
NOUN
MODIFIERS BSPLlNE BBZIER eoNVERI'
~~DD
TOBBZIRR
TOBSPLlNE
MOVBCP
DBLBTECP
INSCPB
INSCPA
REVERSE
Page 416 Appendix C
Appendix C, DynaCADD Coounand List
VERB
NOUN
MODIFIERS DIMLOC
BIB[ll][gD
DIMLINB
DIMHORI
DIMVERI'
DIMRAD
.DIMDIA
DIMHCHAIN
l1li DIMVCHAIN
BIB TBXTWID (Flag)
ITI I 'fBXTHBI (Flag)
[g TBXTSLA (Flag)
SeeDIMLOC
"
,
"
"
"
,
CHCHAIN
"
CVCHAIN
"
DIMHBASE
"
DIMVBASE
"
DIMCLlNE
"
DIMCCLINE
"
DIMANGLE
"
"
DIMLEADER
Appendix C Page 417
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
NOUN
VERB
00 DELBTB
t:tJTRIM
~
~
~
ROfATE
[ill]
MlRROR
t:h]
MODIFY
DIVIDE
TRANSLATE
lo:ul STRETCH
IIQIISCALE
~ OFFSET
~ EQUIDISr
~ PROmcr
~ REVOLVE
GSl]
SWEEP
1gEE I ARRAY
101 MASK
1*1 UNMASK
IXI BURNVlEW
~ ALIGN
Page 418 Appendix C
MODIFIERS
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command IJst
VERB
_TRANSFORM
MODIFIERS
NOUN
.DBLBTB
TRlMONE
TRlMCORNR
TRIMINTOF
TRIMMULTI
TRIM1NC
TRlMDISr
DIVIDB
[2]tt1DD
DIVLOC
.DIVNDIV
c~'
_TRANSLATE
Icn[JI~~[i]
TRANMOVE
III]TRANCOPY
TRANMCOPY
TRANSFACB
ROfATE
IZl~DD
I~c I ROfANG (Flag)
Ic~1
ROfNCOPY (Flag)
MIRROR
Appendix C Page 419
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
NOUN
TRANSFORM
MODIFY
0[2]f1d~
8I8IT!]LZJ§
M~~141
MODIFIERS CHARAD
CHALOC CHAPEN CHALAYER .CHATWID
CHATHEI
CHATROf
CHATSLA
CHATSPACB
CHATFONT
EDl'ITBXT
TXTORIBNT
STRBTCH
SCALE
OFFSET
~~I[YJ[MJ
IMJDDD
THROUGH DISfANCE SOLIDPATH TRACBPATH TRACEENDS EQUIDISr
Page 420 Appendix C
'~~
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB NOUN
TRANSFORM PROmcr
MODIFIERS
[11]~~D lTIl PROJDEPTH (Flag)
1·:::·1 PROISCALE (Flag)
I@ IPROJFACE (Flag)
REVOLVE
[7]~~~
lZ] REVANG (Flag)
Ic:.vl REVNCOPY (Flag)
~ REVNMBSH (Flag)
I@ IREVFACE (Flag)
I@ ISWEEPFACE (Flag)
IIX IINCX (Flag)
~NX(Flag)
I IV IINCY (Flag)
~NY(Flag)
INCZ(Flag)
z NZ(Flag)
MASK
UNMASK
BURNVIEW
ALIGN
Appendix C Page 421
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command I.Jst
VERB
MODIFIERS
NOUN
DELVIBW
.DBFVIBW [J;]~]DD
[!;] CVlBWOCP (Flag)
IIQ]I CVJBWSCL (Flag)
VIBWGCP
IAX I AXROf (Flag)
IAV I AYROf (Flag)
[@
REVORG
REVSCALB
RESETVIEW
DYNAMIC
VIBWZIN
VIBWZOUT
VIEWZEXT
SCRVIBW
HIDB
SBEK
Page 422 Appendix C
AZROr (Flag)
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
NOUN
MODIFIERS LOADFONT
SmFONT
GROUP
Rm..BASE
REMOCP
DEFOCP
[Q[KI~~.
OCPPLANE
OCPNORMAL
OCPVIEW
OCD\RC
REMIMAGE
DEF1MAGE
DEFFIG
DEFMACRO
DEFORIGIN
TRANOCP
Appendix C Page 423
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
NOUN
VERB MODIFIERS
OUTPUT
1Id~1EJ1tIl
•
PI..OTrBR
•
PRINTER
,,-----/
POSI'SCRPT
POINTPILE
INFORM
[JJ~rn§
usr
~rnIJ;J[E]]
~[s][§]D
1..ILSmRAW
LSTIMAOE
I...S'lUCP
LSTVJEW
LSTLAYER
LSTEXTENT
11111 LSTMACRO
•
COUNT
II VERIFY
MEASURE
[4J[HJ[£9m
MEASANGLE
1.1.1 MEASDISr
.MEASPER1M
MEASAREA
Page 424 Appendix C
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
VERB
NOUN
MODIFIERS
EDrrLAYER
',,--~,,/
~~~
~
lmI~fjl
SELLAYER
III SBlLAYEKf
III LAYERON
LAYEROFF LAYLOCK II LAYUNLOCK
LAYBRNAME
COPYLAYER
COILAYER (Flag)
COLSTYLE (Flag)
COLWEIGHT (Flag)
12DIINTI2D
1301 INIT3D
UNDO
Appendix C Page 425
Appendix C, DynaCADD Command List
Page 426 Appendix C
Appendix D, Printer and Plotter Support
Printer and Plotter Support ••• Appendix D The fullowing is a list of the printer and plotter driver files provided with DynaCADD. If your output device is not listed, and is not compatible with any of these devices, please call our technical support number fur more infurmation. Or. if your plotter is not listed here, and)'Ou have the proper dOCUIDent~ ation, we provide a utility called MAKEPLOr to enable driver custom­
ization. Simply run the program, load a similar driver and fill in the necessary information in the dialog box in order to cream a driver. Pel Speed
Pen Up
Pen DONA
IUndON Clip
Selett Pen
Ratite Plot
DeUfllter
: _ __
1 _ __
: _ __
I _ __
I _ __
I _ __
: _ __
fig. (243) MakePlot Dialog
Plotters
*
907-1023.PLT
907-1043.PLT
960Xl023.PLT
960Xl043.PLT
CAMM-1.PLT
CPGU023.PLT
DMPlA2.PLT
DMPI.S2.PLT
DMPI.S6.PLT
DMPL61.PLT
DMPL62.PLT
Calcomp 907 1023 Calcomp 907 1043 Calcomp 960 1023 Calcomp 960 1043 Roland CAMM-l sign cutter
Calcomp 1023 CPGL
IllDMP-42
IllDMP-52
IllDMP-56
IllDMP-61
Ill-DMP-62
Appendix D Page 4Z1
Appendix D, Printer and Plotter Support
DPX-2200.PLT
DPX-3300.PLT
DRAFfPRO.PLT
DRFTMASf.PLT
DXY-990.PLT
OEM.PLT
ORX-400.PLT
HP-7580.PLT
HP-7585.PLT
IOLN3700.PLT
IOLN4000.PLT
PCLl023.PLT
PCLJ043.PLT
SP600.PLT
11= Roland 00 DPX-2200
Roland 00 DPX-3300
HPDraftPro
HP DraftMaster
Roland DO DXY-990
OEM Mecafile
Roland ORX-400
HP7580
HP 7585-7586
Ioline LP3700
Ioline LP4000
caIcomp PCI 1023
caIcomp PCI 1043
SweetPea 600/601
The CAMM-l is a desktop vinylcutterfor.use in creating signs, Jahem,
etc. Special CAMM-l foms are available upon reque8t. When using the
CAMM-l make sure that your drawing uses only line weight 1.
Printers
OMNI-:-15D.PNT
IMOO72.PNT
IM015O.PNT
IM0300.PNT
LASRJEID.PNT
LASRJErF.PNT
LQ-looo.PNT
LQ-1OOOS.PNT
LQ-2500.PNT
LQ-2500S.PNT
LQ-500.PNT
LQ-510.PNT
PR-I012D.PNT
PR-I012F.PNT
PR-I012M.PNT
PR-12l5D.PNT
PR-12l5F.PNT
PR-12l5M.PNT
Page 428 Appendix D
Gemini 15 Draft (9 pin) OEM bit-image file 71 DPI OEM bit-image file 150 DPI OEM bit-image file 300 DPI HP Lasedet 150 DPI liP Lasedet 300 DPI Bpson LQ-1OOO 13.6" sheet (24 pin) Bpson LQ-1OOO 8" sheet (24 pin) Bpson LQ-2500 13.6" sheet (24 pin) Bpson LQ-2500 8" sheet (24 pin) Bpson LQ-500 8" sheet (24 pin) Bpson LQ-510 8" sheet (24 pin) Roland DO PR-I012 draft 8" sheet (9 pin) Roland DO PR-1012 final 8" sheet (9 pin) Roland 00 PR-I012 medium 8" sheet (9 pin) Roland 00 PR-12l5 draft 13.6" sheet (9 pin) Roland DO PR-12l5 fioal13.6" sheet (9 pin) Roland DO PR-12l5 medium 13.6" sheet (9 pin) Appendix E, DynaCADD Files And Folders
DynaCADD Flies and Folders ••• Appendix E
This is a list of all the files provided on the DynaCADD disks.
Disk 1:
INSTALL.EXE
READMEl
DynaCADD instaUation utility
Current infO on DynaCADD
\OEMAPPs\OEMSYS
OEMVDI.EXE
OEM.EXE
OEM.RSC
SDPSC9.VOA
SDPSM9.VOA
SDEHF9.BOA
SDEHl9.BOA
SDHRC9.BOA
OBMl3VDI
OBMI3 program file
OBMI3 resoun::e file
OBM13 VOA color driver
OBMI3 VOA monoobrome driver
OBM13 BOA color driver
OBMI3 BOA monochrome driver
OEM13 IJeroules4i> monochrome driver
\DYNACADD
DYNACADD.APP
DynaCADD program file
\DYNACADD\RBSOURCB
DYNACADD.RSC
DynaCADD resoun::e file
\DYNACADD\CONFIO
DYNACADD.ALT
lCON.DAT
ICONS.OAT
HELPMSO.DAT
DBFAULT.DWO
KEYS.DAT
DynaCADD alerts
Icon structure file
Icon bit-image file
On-screen help messages
Default (seed) drawing
Key translation file
Disk 2:
\DYNACADD
FONTEDIT.APP
MAKEPLOT.APP
Font Editor program file Make Plot program file Appendix E Page 429
Appendix E, DynaCADD Files And Folders
\DYNACADD\RESOURCB
FONTBDIT.RSC
MAKBPLOT.RSC
Font Editor resource file Make Plot resource file \DYNACADD\CONFIG
STANDARD.SI'Y
FONTBDIT.ALT
HBLP.IU.P
Default line sf;fles Font Editor alerts Online documentation \DYNACADD\FONfS
HATCH.FNT
LBROY-R.FNT
LBROYJ.FNT
ARCHlRB.FNT
ARCH2BD.FNT
CGrM4RB.FNT
TRIU4RB.FNT
OUTLINB.FNT
BRUSH.FNT
OOMC4RB.FNT
PARKAVEN.FNT
RBVU2LT.FNT
ZCHN5MB.FNT
BNGUSH.FNT
OLD~GL.FNT
FONTBDIT.FNT
Hatchmnt
LeroyRougb
Leroy Smooth
AGFA Compugmphic Arebitecture 1
MFA Compngmpbic Arebitecture 2
MFA Compugrapbic Times
MFA Compugmpbic Triumvirate
Outline (hollow) mnt
MFA Compugrapbic Brush
MFA Compugrapbic Dom Casual
MFA Compugmpbic Park Avenue
MFA Compugmphic Revue Light
MFA Compugrapbic Zapf Chancery
Bnglish mnt
MFA Compugmpbic Old RngIish
Font Editor default mnt'·
\DYNACADD\DRIVBRS
PlotterJPrinter drivers
See Appendix D
\DYNACADD\PARrS
DynaCADD 2D and 3D tutorial files
Page 430 Appendix E
Appendix F, DynaCADD Error Information
DynaCADD Error Information •.• Appendix F
This is not a complete Jist of DynaCADD messages. Most of the messages
are self explanatory and need no further explanation; they are usually
simple requests fur confirmation or warnings about the result of a
continued action. Some messages may require more infunnation; they are
explained below. Others are similar to those described below, fur cumple
non-intersecting entities.
Many messages are file error messages: invalid file name; the file is the
wrong furmat, the disk is fi:ill. Sometimes a DynaCADD file is not fuund
by the program when needed. In these situations you can:
• Select a filename from the File Selector dialog rather than
typing one•.
• Select another file.
• Load an old furmat file into an earlier version of DynaCADD
and save it as a DBF file. Then load it into this version of
DynaCADD through the Fde Tr.msfer option.
• Use your backup copy of the file if the disk is bad.
•
Insert the appropriate backup of your DynaCADD disks into the
drive. If the file still is not fuund, save your part and quit, then
copy the missing file(s) to the backup disks from your original
disks.
•
Use another furmatted disk to save the file(s). Disks-must have
sufficient room fur the files.
If you still do not understand a message. call our technical support line fur
further help and assistance.
Appendix F Page 431
Appendix F, DyoaCADD Error Information
SavIng the current Part will overwrite 8lV' ex:Isting files. Do you wish
to continue with saving the ClJITeDt Part? You are saving the part with a filename already in usc. If)'Ou continue. the file on disk is overwritten. SimiJar warnings are displayed fur other file types. Unable to allocate suftldent memory for another FOnt definition.
Remove one or more funts from memory before trying CD load a new funt.
UNDO will reverse ALL changes made to the database during the last
1W\i0r command. Do you wish to continue?
Undo is a powerful command. Make sure)'Ou want CD Undo the last command befure )'Ou continue. No Font has been selected. Select a Font and retry. A funt must be loaded before you canuseany·functionthat·involves text, including dimensioning. Figure not a DynaCADD file. The file you selected is not a DynaCADD file. If the file loads into an earlier version of DynaCADD. load it into that version, then save it as a DEF file. Use the File Tmnsfer option in the Fde menu to load it into DynaCADD. then save it again as a figure file. Figure and Drawing Mode are mismatched.
You cannot insert 2-D figures into 3-D mode and vice versa. Change mode and try again. Error in database file. We possibly damaged. The file may be corrupted. Try using a backup copy of the file. Ifthe file loads into an earlier version of DynaCADD. load it into that version, then save it as a DEF file. Use the File Transter option in the File menu CD load it inCD DynaCADD. then save it again. Unable to create directory. Part has not been acdwted. Select Dmwing from the Set menu and activate a part before continuing. Page 432 Appendix F
Appendix F, DynaCADD Error Information
A Part must be active before a Drawing may be acti18ted. Select Drawing from the Set menu and activate a part before continuing. Adi18ting a new Drawing wiD abort any cbange; to the current Drawing which haw not been saved.
If)'lu wish to retain)'lur drawing, save the part before activating a new drawing. No Part currently active. Please activate a Part. No Drawing currently active. Please adiwte a Drawing. You cannot enter CADD level until both a part and a drawing have been activated. Resultant zero One length disallowed. The line has no length. Try selecting newJOcations or use the LlNLBN flag.
No Intersection between the selected location and the sugge;ted angle was found. Try selecting either a di.flerent entity or a diffurent location. The origins of the selected Arts or Circle; are too close to calculate a valid tangent.
Either move one of the entities or select at least one different entity and try again. Unable to define the plane the 3D F1IIet orientation requires. No Intersection between the selected entities was found. Fillet insertion aborted.
A fillet cannot be placed between entities which do not intersect. Move the entities and try again, or select other entities. Fillet would result in a selected Hne being trimmed to zero line length. Fillet Insertion aborted. The resulting line cannot be trimmed to zero length after a fillet is inserted. Choose another location and try again. Appendix F Page 433
Appendix F, DynaCADD Error InfonDation
FOnt definition not found. The font bas not been loaded. Select a font filename from the file selector dialog. MEMORY WARNING. The c::un:mt command cannot be completed due to lack of free memory available
Select Database sort from the File menu, then save your part. Select clear to free memory and then restore to bring back the part. The selected entities are non contiguous. Trim. the entities to make sure they intersect and form a contiguous group. Uoable to remove the c::un:mt GCP Definition. Change the current GCP definition. then try again. Error: GCP bible ol'elilow GCP not added to Drawing. Error: Image bible cmriIow Image not added to DrawIng. Error: View definition overflow. View not added to Drawing. There are already the maximum definitions in the tables, delete at least one before trying again. Warning: GCP Skewed to View! The GCP is not aligned with the pJane ofview. Select another GCP and try again. Unable to allocate a command history window. The command history bas been terminated due to lack of free memory. You have run out of memory for a command history window. Perform a database sort. then save the part. Use Clear and then Restore and try again. Page 434 Appendix F
Appendix G, Item Selector
Item Selector ••• Appendix G
The Item Selector dialog appears whenever DynaCADD needs a file name
to be entenxl or selected.
Directory line
The directory line shows the disk and fuldeIB where the items listed in the
directory window are located. To change the infurmation on the directory
line, place the pointer anywhere on the line and click once. The text
ITEff SELECfllR Directory: C:\DYIACADD\If.*_ _ _ _ _ _ __ II
I
Selection:
1f.1f
COlfIL._
IIIRIVEIlS-,_
(I fI6URES_ , _
I fOlfS-,_
1 - 1- - , _
0
r-
a PORTS-._
I
RESDIJRCE._
DYIACaDD.RPp
fOlfEDIT.APP
HRKEPLDT.8PP
~
OK
I Clncel I
fig. (244) Item Selector Dialog
cursor will appear after the last clw:acter on the line, Press the
[Backspace] Irey to erase individual clwacteIB or press [Esc] to clear the
entire line. See Editing Dialog Text in Chapter 1 fur further dialog editing
infurmation.
You can enter an asterisk (*) or question marks (1) in the directory line as
"wildcard" CharacteIB. For example, C:\DYNACADD\PARfS\*.PRI'
means "all DynaCADD part files in a fulder called PARI'S in the
DYNACADD fulder on disk drive C", (See your operating system manual
if you need more infurmation about wildcard CharacteIB).
After you enter the infurmation on the directory line, click inside the
directory window or press [Enter] to update the window with a list of
items in that fulder.
Appendix G Page 435
Appendix G, Item Selector
Selection Une
Infoanation typed on the selection line represents the file name that)'Ou
wish to use fur the subsequent opel3tion. Click: on OK or press [Enter] to
indicate acceptance of the file name.
Directory Wmdow
The directory window lists the fulders and files in the location specified
on the directory line. The window can only show nine items at a time.
Use the scroll bar, arrows, and slider to move up and down in the fulder if
it contains more than nine items.
You can use any of the fullowing methods to select an item from the
directory window:
• Click on the selection line and the text cursor will appear at the
beginning of the line. Type the file name and then click: on the OK
button or press [Enter]. This method is mostly used to enter in an new
file name when saving or writing a file.
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fulder.
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indentifiers fur your computer. Click: on the drive identifier to display the
contents of its main directory in the directory window.
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selections or directory changes.
Page 436 Appendix G
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Page 450 Appendix H
­
ijlJ§A
* '* II
Appendix I, Glossary of'Thrms
Glossary of Terms ••• Appendix I
2--D:
Two dimensional locations without depth or space,
which can be defined using a X-V coordinate system.
Entities with only width and height. See also Page
origin.
3-D:
Three dimensional locations which can be specified
using an X-Y-Z coordinate system. Entities with width.
height and depth. See also GCP.
Absolute
Coordinates:
Used by the coordinate system to detennine the origin of
the current part or drawing.
Acute Angle:
An angle less than 90 degrees. See also Obtuse Angle.
Allowance:
The intemioual difference in the dimensions of mating
parts that determines the class of fit; an intentional
difterence to detennine clearance (POSitive allowance) or
interference (negative allowance). See Tolerance.
Arc:
A segment of a cirele. It has an origin (the center of a
cirele), start and end angles.
Array:
The collection of entities or groups of entities into an
ordered series, either linear or circular. The
TRANSFORM ARRAY command creates linear mays.
CiIcuJar arrays are created with the TRANSFORM
R<YfATB and TRANSFORM REVOLVE commands.
Ascender:
The upper part of lowerease characters such as "b", "d"
and "f" which reach above the x-line to the ascent line.
Ascent Une:
The maximum height to which ascenders may rise above
the baseline. Uppercase letters usually only rise to the
capllne, a small amount lower than the ascent line.
ASCII:
Acronym fur American Standard Code fur Information
Interchange. This is a commonly accepted system fur
assigning numbers to printable alphanumeric characters.
punctuation and symbols, used by the English language.
Each character in a character set has its own number.
Appendix I Page 451
Appendix I, Glossary of Terms
Assembly
Drawing:
Drawing showing a product in its completed state. See
Auxiliary
View:
An additional view of an object. usually of a sur:tace
inclined to the primary surfaces of the object so that the
inclined surfaces can be shown without distortion.
Detail Dmwing.
Automatic display of linear and angular tolerance values
in a dimension. There are three auto tolerance styles
available.
AxIs:
An imaginary line which defines the direction and
magnitude of a series of locations; line about which a
object rotates, thereby defining a plane. In the Set menu.
Axis refers to a series of evenly spaced lines that can be
displayed to aid location and entity alignment, similar to
the grid, but without the soap feature. Axes is the pluml
of axis. There are two axes in 2-D: X and Y,"and three
axes in 3-D: X. Yand Z.
Axonometric
A projected view in which the planes of sight are
perpendicular to the plane of projection, but in which the
three filces of a rectangular object are all inclined to the
plane of projection.
Projection:
Baseline:
The line on which the base or foot of most characters
rests. The baseline is also used to calculate vertical
distances between lines.
Baseline
DImension:
A system of dimensioning whereby as many features as
practically possible are located from a common datum
point. Also called "common point.. or "datum"
dimensioning. The dimension text is aligned with the
defined baseline, either vertically or horizontally.
Basic
Dimension:
The theoretical exact size of an object's attribute.
Baud Rate:
The speed at which the computer and output device are
communicating through the serial port. Most plotters
communicate at 9600 baud.
Page 452 Appendix I
Appendix I, Glossary ofThrms
Bhier Curve: A curve generated along dIe padI of fuur or more
locations. The fit to 1he control points is less pronounced
than widI B-spline curves.
Bit Mapped:
Fonts that are mapped to screen pixels and dIns are
dependent on 1he screen resolution fur 1heir smootbness
and clarity. DynaCADD uses vector funts. which are
always 1he same at every resolution.
B-spUne
Curve:
A curve generated along dIe path of 1hree or more
locations. The fit to dIe control points is more
pronounced than widI B6zier curves.
Buffer:
A reserved area of m.emol)' used to temponuily store
iofurmation such as entities to copy, funt vectors, or 1he
screen.
CADD:
Acronym fur ComputerAKJed Design and Drafting.
CADD level:
DynaCADD level where you design and modify parts.
CapUne:
The line to which dIe tallest uppercase letters reach. 'Ibis
is often a little lower than dIe ascent line.
Cartesian
Coordinates:
Method of plotting an exact position along 1he X and Y
(and Z in 3-D mode) axes relative to dIe zero point, in
1he current drawing units. Can be either relative or
absolute.
Center Line:
Line style used to indicate 1he center points of circles,
ares and polygons, axes of cylindrical parts, or axes of
symmetry.
Chain
Dimension:
Successive dimensions that extend from one reature to
another. on a point to point basis.
Chamfer:
A bevel on an external edge or comer. usually
dimensioned by giving dIe angle and length.
Character:
A single element of a funt or character set. This can be
any letter, number, punctuation or symbol.
Appendix I Page 453
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
Character Set: A collection of 255 elements, or characters. Not all of
the 255 elements need be complete; there can be any
number of blanks. A character set is also one part of a
funt fiunily and is often retem:d to by itself as a funt.
Chordal
Dimension:
Used to specify the spacing of points on a circle relative
to a particular datum point or points.
Circular
Surface:
Surfaces, that have diameter or mdius.
CDck:
Pressing the mouse button. This is the left mouse button,
unless otherwise stated.
Command
BJstory:
Display of all user entered commands, infurmation,
in a scrolling text window. Press
['lib] to view and hide this window.
measurement results,
Control Point: A location on a curve or at the ends of funtvectors.
which defines the location of curves and lines. Control
points can be moved, deleted or inserted.
Coordinate:
Each part of a system of magnitudes used to fix a
position of a location or an entity. See X-y axes, X-y-Z
axes. GCp, Page Origin.
Contiguous:
Connected, unbroken; unintermpted in series or
sequence.
Crossbalr:
Set of intersecting lines showing the current position of
the graphics cmsor. Used to position points or locations.
See also Trap.
Database:
The collection of related infurmation, stored in an
predefined, organized furmat.
Default:
Initial setting of a definable parameter. For example,
page size.
Unit of angular measurement defined as l/3OO of the
circumference ofa ci.J:cle. The 01360 location in
DynaCADD is to the right, or east position, with 90
degrees at the top, or north, increasing in a counter
clockwise direction.
Page 454 Appendix I
Appendix I, Glossary of Thnns
DeUmiter:
A terminating clw:acter specifying the end of a set of
characters.
Descender:
The "tail" of lowercase letters such as "g". "j" and "y".
that reaches below the baseline to the descent line.
Descent Line: The lower limit to which a descender can reach.
Detail
Drawing:
Dmwing showing details of each part of an object or
mechanism. See Assembly Dmwing.
DevIation:
The total variance between two points or locations.
Dialog:
Easy to use graphics inted3ce designed to display and
communicate infunnation between the user and the
computer. They appear only when certain commands
call them.
Diameter:
The length of a stmight line;from any point on the
~
through die'origin of a circle, to the
opposite point on the cUcumterence. If the entity is an
arc. then the diameter is measured as if the arc fOrmed a
complete circle.
Digitize:
The selection of a location or entity by means of a light
pen. mouse or other input devices; specifying locations
by positioning the crosshair and clicking the left mouse
button. See Free Digitizing.
Directory:
Part of a pathname nsed to specify which route the
program is to fOl1ow to find a particular file. Convenient
method of grouping related disk files into a single
location.
Drawing:
Two dimensional database created in DynaCADD. This
may also be nsed to reference the physical page on which
all designs are displayed.
Drop Down
Menu:
Also called pull down menu. Easy to use gmphics
interface designed to organize related command options
or fuatures in a minimal amount of space. Menu titles are
displayed on the menu bar. across the top of the screen.
Appendix I Page 455
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
Dynamic
Calculator:
The graphic calcuIacor fur changing the rotation, scale
and zoom f:8ctor of 3-D views, as )'Ou click on the
direction arrows.
Ellipse:
Plane curve made by a point moving so that the sum of
the distances from aDJ point on the curve to two fixed
points (called fuci) is constant.
Enclosed:
Contiguous entities which completely enclose a space,
with no gaps, fur inserting hatching or section lines.
Entity:
Single base geometric figure, combined together to
create larger more complex figures. The basic design
element in DynaCADD.
Extension
LInes:
Lines that extend perpendicular to a dimension line,
indicating the point of the distance or object to which the
dimension applies. Also,called witnesslines..,-,
Extents:
The total area or space used by the drawing or by entity
definitions. The database extents are the furthest limits of
the entities in every direction. In 3-D mode, this is an
imaginary cube that extends along all t:lm!e axes.
Extrude:
Thrust out from; to project a plane along an axis.
F'igure:
A combination of selected entities into a single grouped
entity. Often saved and later inserted into another
drawing. A subfigure remains its identity as a group
when inserted into a drawing. See also I\>lyfigure.
Fillet:
A concave intersection between two lines or planes. In
DynaCADD, a fillet is a special type of arc entity and
where ever an arc is a valid entity, so is a fillet. In
manufa.cturing, a fillet is additional material allowed in
the intersection of two surfilces.
Filter:
Design tool used lO screen selection of entities based on
entity type.
Flag:
An optional modifier that affi:cts the function ofa related
parent command. Angle of rotation, distance, number of
polygon sides are all examples of flags.
Page 456 Appendix I
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
FOlder:
A directory or subdirectory on a disk, used to otgaDize
files. When seen as an icon, it is represented by a small
grapbic of a file fulder.
Font:
A set ofcharacters in a particular style, often. but not
limited to, text. Hatch patterns are an example of a non
text funt.
Free
Digitizing:
This occurs when)lOu select a location in a view where
the GCP is not aligned with the view and DynaCADD
cannot tell where the location should go. With entity
snap on, there is no free digitizing. See Digitize.
GCP:
Acronym fur Geometric Coontinate Plane; the origin of
the 3- D coontinate system; the origin of a 3-D part.
GEM:
Acronym fur GtaphicsEnv:irooment Manager. the
graphic interface created:by.Digital Research.
Grid:
Regularly spaced locations. to wbich entities and
locations can be snapped. The grid locations in
DynaCADD are visible as small dots. See also Axis.
Group:
Entities combined as a single, complex entity. All the
entities in the group are affected by any command
applied to any part (If the group, such as translate or
rotate.
Half Section:
View of an object, usually symmetrical, showing one
half ofthe view in section. See Sectional View.
Hatch:
Character set used to create regular surface textures in
contiguous entities. Often used as terrain or material
type symbols or to indicate knurls.
Helix::
A curve generated by moving a point unifurmly around
and up or down a cylinder. The point must always be
panillel to the axis of the cylinder. Plural is helices.
Helpline:
Helplines are user set guides fur character construction
in the funt editor.
'
Appendix I Page 457
Appendix I, Glossary of 'lenns
mdden Une:
A line coosistiDg of short, evenly spaced dashes, used to
indicate the hidden matures of an object.
IDdden
Surface:
Surtaces which are hidden in one or more rererence
planes.
HigbHght:
To display in reverse text (ie; white on black).
Icon:
Graphic representation of a oommand, displayed on the
left side of the drawing area, or above the dmwing area.
Icons simplify the command entry process.
Icon Pad:
Section of the DynaCADD inted3ce used to group
related icons. Icons are displayed in a vertical hierarchy.
Image:
Stored definition of a area and zoom value on the
drawing page that may be restored when required.
Inclined:
A line or plane at an angle to a horizontal line or plane.
Inclined
Surface:
A flat surfilce inclined in one plane and parallel to the
other two planes.
Initialize:
To reset to the original state.
Integrate:
Combine parts to maJre a complete whole.
Interface:
The portion of a program that acts as an interpreter
between computer and user.
Intersection:
The exact location at which entities pbysica1ly or
theoretically cross or meet.
Isometric:
A plane rotated by equal angles about all three axes.
Usually the angle is 45 degrees, so that the front comer
is toward the viewer.
Justification:
Used to specify how a text block is positioned re1ative to
a selected location; left, right. or centered.
Kerning:
Kerning is a method of reducing the space between
printed or displayed characters to bring them together for
a more "natural" appearance and to reduce the
whitespace between them.
Page 458 Appendix I
Appendix I, Glossary of'Thrms
Laser: Acronym fur Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser printers are a recent form ofhigh quality output devices. layer': Design tool used to organize related entities in a drawing
onto computer controlled imaginary sheets. DynaCADD
supports up to 2S6layers, numbered 0 to 2S5. Layers can
also be named. See Chapter 17.
Leader': Arrows connected by a series of straight lines to direct notes, dimensions, symbols, part or item numbers, and so on, to features on the drawing. Lfmi1s: The hugest and smallest permissible sizes of an object,
ALso called "limits of size", See also Tolemnce.
Line of Intersection:
Line common to two surfiices where both meet.
Macro: The definition of a series-of"kcystrokes assigned to a
single key or key combination. For example, [Ctrl-A].
MlUor Axis: The greatest straight line distance between the origin and
any point on the ~ of the ellipse. Also called
"major diameter".
Mask: To hide entities from view.
Menu: See Drop Down Menu.
Menu Pad: See Icon Pad.
Mesh: A series of ciIcular rings created around the revolved
entities, perpendicular to the axis of revolution.
Minor Axis: The smallest straight line distance between the origin
and any point on the cireul:nference of the ellipse. Also
called "minor diameter".
Mode: Term defining the current state of the DynaCADD design
session. Used to determine if user actions are to be
interpreted to modify and create two dimensional or
three dimensional entities.
Appendix I Page 459
Appendix I, Glossary or Thrms
Normal: See Perpendicular.
Oblique
Surface:
A SU1'fi1ce sloped so that it is not perpendicular to any of the three viewing planes. See Inclined Surfuce. Obtuse Angle: An angle greater than 90 degrees. See Acute Angle.
Origin: Every entity has a point called its origin, located at the center of that entity. The page origin is the 2-D zero point. The 3-D origin is the zero point of the cuaent OCP. Orthograpblc A 2-D picture plane formed by perpendicular projectors
from the object, to the picture plane. An orthographic
Projection: view is what )'Ou get when looking directly at an object's
side or face.
Page Origin: The origin of the 2-D' coordinate system; the XO-YO
position.
Parallel: Having the same direction, such as two lines which, if
extended, would never meet.
Parallel
Flat surfitces which are parallel to the three viewing planes.
Surface:
Parameter: Mathematical teIm; quantity which may vary for
d.iffurent cases.
Part: Three dimensional database created in DynaCADD.
represented on the screen by a particular Object.
Perimeter: Length of the outline or circumference of a closed figure.
Perpendicular: Lines or planes at right angles to a given line or plane.
, Also called "normal".
Phantom line: Line style usually used to indicate hidden or interior
shapes. Also used to show mating parts in an assembly
drawing.
Plane: Page 460 Appendix I
Imaginary su.rtace on which points. lines. or arcs lie.
.~"
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
Polar
Coordinates:
System defining locations as a specified angle and
distance from the origin. Can be either relative or
absolute. DynaCADD defines positive angular
increments to be in the counter clockwise direction.
Indicating the position of an entity by means of a linear
Polar
Coordinate
dimension and an angle other than 90 degrees
. Dimensioning: (implied by vertical and horizontal center lines in the
part).
Polyftgure: A group ofentities saved as a figure file on disk. Unlike
a subfigure, a polyfigure breaks into its component
entities when inserted into a drawing.
Polygon: Multi sided regular geometric figure such as a hexagon
or penCagon. bounded bystmight lines of equal length
and containing anglCS'orequai size.
Polyline: A continnous set of lines. sharing a common endpoint.
Polywindow: An irregularly shaped window created out of polylines.
Pop Up
Calculator:
See Wue Calculator.
Precision: The number of positions fullowing the decimal place in a
floating point number to be displayed or used fur
calculations. DynaCADD works in twenty point
precision, but you can only set dimensions to display up
to nine points.
Primary: First or original; first rank in a series.
Project: To extend from one location to another.
Radian: A unit of angular measurement. 360 degrees equals
6.283185 radians.
Radius: One half the diameter; the distance between the origin of
a cirele or an::, and any point on the circumference.
Plural is radii.
Relative
Coordinates:
Incremental coordinate system which refer to the current
or last specified location as the origin.
Appendix I Page 461
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
Round:
SaosSerlf:
Also called a radius, in manufacturing a round is
material added to the outside of a piece of material to
improve its appearance or to avoid fbnning a sharp edge.
Similar to a fillet on the external side.
A fbnt without serifs. Usually used fbr headlines, titles,
etc..
Scale:
Relative dimensions; the ratio of unifonn reduction or
enlaIgement commonly used in drafting to accurately
represent laIge areas.
SectIon:
Regularly spaced lines generated between contiguous
and completely enclosed entities. Often used to indicate
cylindrical intersections, and to emphasize cross section
displays or sectional views. Usually thin and drawn at 4S
degrees to the major out:J.ine,;·
Sectional
View:
Objects shown with interior detail. Exposed or cut
surfaces are displayed with hatch patterns or section
lines. See Half Section.
Select:
Choosing a menu option, clicking a dialog button.
Serif:
A fbnt with serifs small "feet" that project from the
bottom ofthe chaIacteIS. the serif provides a visual
continuity fbr reading, so serif typefitces are usually used
fbr bodies of text.
Skewed:
Slanted or distorted; not at right angles to the plane.
Snap:
Forced alignment to a grid inteaection.
String:
In DynaCADD, a string is synonymous with a chaIacter
array; any collection of chaIacteIS in a single line.
Subfigure:
See Figure.
System level:
DynaCADD level at which part and drawing
management are done and where system parameteIS are
established.
Thngent:
Meeting of a line or surface at any point but not
intersecting it; straight line CD a curve at any point.
Page 462 Appendix I
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
'ThggIe:
A switch used to change between two states, nonnally on
or off.
1b1eranee:
The total permissible amount of variation from the
design size or location of a part from that shown in a
drawing. There are two types of tolerance: geometric,
which specifies deviation from given dimensions, and
positional, in which the dimensions are exact but the
location ofthe part displays a permissible deviation. See
Auto Tolerance, Limits, Allowance.
Traddng:
Method by which the position of the crosshair is
displayed at the upper right of the drawing area: relative
or absolute, Cartesian or polar.
Trap:
The small boxes around the crosshair when selecting an
entity. used to derennine which entity to choose. If an
entity lies within the small trap, then it is selected.
otherwise DynaCADD'm~to the latger tIap to see if
an entity is within it. The size of the traps are adjusted
automatically to suit the view and drawing scales. The
size of the traps is displayed with the Inform List
Lstdraw command.
Undo:
The ability to restore the drawing to the situation prior to
the last chauge. Available as a command icon or by
pressing [Undo].
Unit:
Individual quantity chosen as a standaId. For example
inches or centimeters; distance defined as a single
component.
Unmask:
To restore to view previously hidden (masked) entities.
Value
Calculator:
The pop up scientific calculator that appears when a
value entry is required.
Vector:
Quantity considered to have length and direction. but no
fixed location in space. The position of one location
relative to another. In the fOnt editor, a vector is any
contiguous collection ofcontrol points used to define the
lines of a character.
Appendix I Page 463
Appendix I, Glossary of Thrms
View CUp: RectaoguIar area used to confine an orthographic projection of the current part. View: RectaoguIar window used to observe three dimensional
entities at a specified scale and rotation. You can have
fuur simultaneous views in DynaCADD. At least one
view must be created to insert and modify 3-D entities.
Window: Rectangular area ddined by a set of diagonally opposing 2-D locations. X-helght: The x-height. or body size, is the vertical size of the
lowercase letter "x". measured from the baseline. This is
the most important area of any Ietterfonn fur 90% of the
lowercase cbaracters. since it conveys the impression of
the size of a letter.
X-llne: The user set helpline line marking the limit of the x
height ofa character.
XY Axes: 2-D system of coordinates. The X axis nonnally runs left
to right in ascending values, the Yaxis nonnally runs
bottom to top in ascending values. The page origin is at
locations Xo. YO.
XYZAxes: 3-D system of COOldinates. The Z axis runs
perpendicular to the X Y axes and defines "depth" of an
object. The GCP indicates the X Y Z orientation ofthe
view.
Zero Point: Position where coonIinate axes cross and all axes values
YO. ZO) in 3-D.
are zero: (XU, YO) in 2~D or
Zoom: Increasing or decreasing the magnification of the
drawing area orjust a part ofthe drawing.
Page 464 Appendix I
oro.
',,----,/
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
Particulars to the Amlga Version ••• Appendix J
Backing up DynaCADD
For your convenience. we have not copy-protected the DynaCADD disks.
However, a program )my is supplied with DynaCADD. This )my is
required to operate the program. You must insert the key BEFORE you
tum on your computer. If you insert the )my while the power is turned on.
you may damage both the key and your computer. We allow our registered
owners to backup DynaCADD under the terms and conditions specified
in the License Agreement located at the back of the manual. Please
backup the DynaCADD disks now and place the originals in a safe place.
Refer to your operating system manual fur exact instructions on bow to
furmat and copy disks.
Installing DynaCADD - AMIGA Version
DynaCADD requires at minimum an Amigawith 2 Mb of RAM and a
bard disk to operate properly. If your system contains a 68020168030
microprocessor and either a 68881 or 68882 math co-processor. the
Insta1lHD program will copy a version of DynaCADD to your system that
takes full advantage of these processors.
Since a screen resolution of at least 640 by 400 is required, we strongly
recommend the Commodore 2320 de-interlacer or the MicroWay Flicker
Fixer fur use with DynaCADD on machines that do not have these
capabilities built in.
insta1l DynaCADD:
1. With your computer off, insert the DynaCADD )my into the
joystick port and then tum)Uur computer on.
2. Insert the DynaCADD 1 disk into any drive.
3. Double-click on the DynaCADD 1 icon.
4. Double-click on the InstalllID icon.
S. . The Insta1llID program will run and ask fur the name of the
destination bard drive or partition. After having entered a valid
name, press REIURN or click on OK.
To
Appendix J Page 465
Appendix J. Particulars to the Amiga Version
6. 7. At this point enter in )')ur name and company into the dialog.
Cliclc on OK to continue.
Install will now proceed to copy DynaCADD to your hanl disk.
Insert the appropriate disks as requested.
Page 466 Appendix J
Appmdix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
Loading DynaCADD
1. Ifyour computer is turned off, make sure the DynaCADD prognun
key is inserted. If it is not. shut your system off now and insert the
key, then turn your system back on.
2. Locate the DynaCADD drawer on your hard disk and open it.
3. Click on the DynaCADD icon. This will ron DynaCADD and
bring you to the DynaCADD system level.
4. Select Activate Part. Choose a part (.PRf) in the parts
sub-directory.
5. Select Activate Drawing. Choose a drawing (.DWG).
6. Click on OK. This will now bring :you to the CADD level.
The first time that you ron DynaCADD, :you·enter the program at the
System level (see the next chapter). After that, DynaCADD keeps track
of where you left off the last time a drawing was saved. When
DynaCADD is loaded again a dialog appears. You can choose to return to
the previous session by clicking on AUTO, start at the System level by
clicking on NO, or quit the program by ckicking on EXIT.
Do you wish to continue with the previous session?
The Part and DraHing previously under HOrk Here :
C:\DYNACADO\PARTS\TUTOR2D.PRT
C:\OYNACAOD\PARTS\TUTOR2D\2D.DW6
fig. (4) DynaCADD® Auto Start Dialog
Appendix J Page 467
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amigo Version
Keyboard Conventions
Keyboard conventions d.ifler according 10 hardware platfurm. Throughout the manual you will see references 10 [Undo]. Press and hold either [ALT] or [Amiga] key and then the [U] key. [Enter] and [Return] are
interchangeable. Editing Dialog Text
In DynaCADD there are several dialog boxes where you enter or edit text. Use the following keys for editing: [Right-Amiga Xl
Clears the entry. (RIght-Amiga Q]
Performs an undo on edited text. [Backspace]
Erases the character 10 the left of the cursor. [Delete]
Erases the chat:acter 10 the right of the cursor. [Anvw ke.YS]
Move the cursor in the indicated direction. [Enter]
Accepts the ~ and closes the dialog box. jig. (5) Editing Dialog 1l!xt
Page 468 Appendix J
'~/ Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
The Text Editor
The text editor is a basic utility in which you can enter and edit text for
several commands. The maximum size of rext allowed is 800 cbaracters
or one window. The keys used in the rext editor for editing are:
[Backspace]
Erases the character to the left of the cursor.
[Delete]
Erases the character to the right of the cursor.
[Up 81TOW]
Moves the cursor to the end of the previous line.
[Down arrow]
Moves the cutSOr to the start of the next line.
[Left arrow]
Moves the cutSOr one character to the left.
[RIght arrow]
Moves the cutSOr one character to the right.
[Enter]
Inserts a carriage retom~ ends the line and moves the
cursor to the start of,the line below.
[Esc]
Cancels the editing and returns to the drawing.
[Ctrl-RETURNJ
Accepts the entry and closes the text editor.
[Help]
Displays help and information about the text editor.
%%non
This allows you to enter special chamcters which
cannot be typed directly or easily through the
keyboard. 1)pe% % followed by the three digit
number of the special chantcter. The chamcter
number must be padded with zeros and have a value
between 1 and 255. For example: the hundered and
thirty-fourth character of a font is inserted by typing
%%134.
Appendix J Page 469
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
The fullowing special chamcteIs used in dimensioning can be entered
using a short band furm.:
diameter sign
%%c
degree sign
%%d
plus/minus sign %%p
For more infOrmation and a list of special characters see Appendix H.
relit flUtor - Press
lfUI
or
[PlGe
XXc Is the dl.eter _o10
XXd Is thl degrea __10
XXII Is the IIlus/lllnus _al O
Dolen] far
XXIJ4 Is charac.ter 114 .p of tile cltlrltter set!
fig. (6) 7ext Editor
Page 470 Appendix J
DeID·
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
Set Menu
The Amiga version of DynaCADD includes additional functionality;
Hidden Line Removal. When Hidden Line is selected from the Set Menu.
a dialog appears allowing you to control the parameters of this function.
Set
Drawing...
DIAension...
IN
ID
-----------------------Track/arid/Axis •••
6enerate Entities
_______________________ M
IP
Pen Indexes •••
Pen Style...
Display All Entities
-----------------------Layersl..
IL
Hatth Pattern,",
Hidden Line.
II
-----------------------Preferentes.l. Color Palette •••
PaDer Color...
IZ
Hidden Line
This dialog controls bow hidden line removal is handled. The 3-D entities
in the drawing will remain unchanged by this operation. Additional 2-D
entities will be created if the Gene.mte Entities option is enabled. The
options to this command include the fullowing:
Generate Entities
Create 2-D lines from the edges of the 3-D faces after the hidden portions
of the edges have been removed. The lines are created with the fullowing
attributes:
Layer:
On the currently active layer.
Weight:
Pen weight 1.
Style:
Continuous.
Color:
If inheritance is active the line is created using the color of
the face, otherwise the currently active color is used.
Appendix J Page 471
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
Show AD Entities
Display all entities after the hidden lines have been genemted.
Blended Planes
If two or more 3-D faces share a common edge and the faces are on the
same plane, the common edge will be removed and. the two faces blended
into one. Only the hidden line is changed. The defining faces remain the
same.
Hide Views 1-2-34
Only the selected views will have the hidden lines removed. A selected
view is highlighted. To change the selection status of a view, move the
pointer over the appropriate view number and click the left mouse button.
The view numbers represent the order at which the views were originally
created. The first view created has a view number of 1.
Remove Hidden Unes
~
Command:
BDrrvIEW HIDEFACB
I@ I
Modifiers:
None
Mode: 3-D only
Description: HIDBFACB removes all hidden lines. This function is
governed by the above mentioned Hidden Line
Parameters dialog.
Page 472 Appendix J
Appendix: J, Particulars to the Amiga Version
Preferences
The Preferences dialog allows the choice of which device name and
number DynaCADD will use when serial or parallel is selected in other
dialogs, the speed and method of handshaking, and the number of colors
that DynaCADD can display. Clicking on Save stores the settings as the
new defaults for future sessions.
Serial Device
The name and unit number of the device that is to be used :for serial output­
can be specified here. This allows the use of multiple serial port cards and
other devices for output. Three speeds are available; 9600, 19200 and
38400 baud. All plotters and printers support 9600 baud, some otter the
higher rates for decreased output times. Depending on the plotter type or
plotter settings. hardware or RI'SlCTS handsbaking must be used. IfRI'Sl
CTS is off, DynaCADD uses software, or X-ONIX-OFF handshaking.
Consult )'OU1' plotter manual :for details on the plotter's requirements.
Parallel Device
The name and unit number of the device that is to be used :for parallel
output can be specified here. This allows output to more devices than just
the Amiga's built-in parallel port. Turning fast mode on can significantly
reduce the time to output a drawing, however, some printers don't support
fast mode and end up printing mndom characters. If this occurs, simply
turn fast mode off.
Screen Setup
Depending on the processor speed and memory configuration of your
Amiga, selecting fewer colors can significantly increase the speed of
redraws and calculations. - For Amiga 2000 based systems we recommend
4 or 8 colors, Amiga 3000 based systems can use 16 colors without too
much speed loss. DynaCADD defaults to 4 colors when first installed.
The color selection becomes active after clicking on Save, exiting and
running DynaCADD.
Appendix J Page 473
Appendix J, Particulars to the Amiga Venion
Page 474 Appendix J
Appendix K, Particulars to the STrrr Version
Particulars to the STITT Version ... Appendix K
Backing up DynaCADD
Por your convenience, we have not copy-protected the DynaCADD disks.
However, a progmm key is supplied with DynaCADD. This key is
required to operate the program. You must insert the key BEFORE you
tum on your computer. H you insert the key whlle the power is turned on,
you may damage boCh the key and )'Our computer. We allow our registered
owners to backup DynaCADD under the terms and conditions specified
in the Ucense Agreement located at the back of the manna]. Please
backup the DynaCADD disks now and p1ace the originals in a safe place.
Refer to your operating system manual fur exact instructions on how to
furmat and copy disks.
Installing DynaCADD - STITT Version
DynaCADD requires at minimum a sr or IT system with 1 Mb of RAM
and a baJ:d disk to operate properly. A math ccrprocessor and 2 Mb of
RAM is highly recommended. DynaCADD fur the Acari includes two
specific versions:
1. sr with or without a math ccrprocessor.
2. IT or sr with a 68030 accelerator card with a 68881 math
co-processor.
Depending on your system configunltion, choose the appropriate
DynaCADD version during installation. The sr version of DynaCADD
will automatically detect a math co-processor and take full advantage of
it. A screen resolution of at least 640 by 400 is required.
To install DynaCADD:
1. With )'Our computer off, insert the DynaCADD key into the
joystick: port and then tum )'Our computer on.
2. Insert Disk 1 into your computer.
3. Double-click on the Drive icon.
4. Double-click on the IllNSI'ALL.PRG icon.
Appendix K
Page 475
Appendix K, Particulars to the STtrr Versioo
5. 6. 7. n.
When asked souree drive A or type the appropriate letter.
When asked which version)'Ou require, type "S" ror sr, "T" ror
'IT or "B" rorboth.
When asked which partition)'Ou require, type the appropriate
letter.
S. When asked ror a specific disk, insert the appropriate disk and
press RETURN. The contents of each disk: will now be copied to
your hard disk.
Page 476 Appendix K
Appendix K, Particulars to the STrrr Version
Loading DynaCADD
Before loading, DynaCADD needs to be fully ins1alled. Please see
Installing DynaCADD if DynaCADD has not yet been ins1alled on your
system.
To load DynaCADD:
1. Double click on (open) the disk drive icon where the Progmm is
located.
2. JfDynaCADD is installed in a fulder, double click: on (open) the
fulder within which the Program is located.
3. Double click on the DynaCADD program icon. This brings you to
the System level.
4. Select Activate Part. Choose a paIt(.PRI') in the parts fulder.
S. Select Activate Drawing. Choose a drawing (.DWO).
6. Click: on OK. This will now bring you to the CADD level.
The first time that you run DynaCADD, you enter the program at the
System level. After that, DynaCADD keeps track of where you left off
the last time a drawing was saved. When DynaCADD is loaded again a
dialog appears. You can choose to return to the previous session by
clicking on AUTO, start at the System level by clicking on NO, or quit the
program by clicking on EXIT.
Do you "ish to continue Mith the previous session?
The Part and DraMing previously under Mork Mere :
C:\OYNACAOD\PARTS\TUTORZO,PRT
C:\DYNACADD\PARTS\TUTORZD\ZD.OW6
fig. (6) DynaCADD® Auto Start Dialog
Appendix K Page 411
Appendix K, Particulars to the Sfrrr Version
The Text Editor
The text editor is a basic utility in which)'OU can enter and edit text fur
several commands. The maximum size of text allowed is 800 characters or
one window. The keys used in the text editor fur editing are:
,~
[Backspace]
BIases the character to the left of the cursor.
[Delete]
Erases the character to the right of the cursor.
[Up arrow]
Moves the cursor to the end of the previous line.
[Down arrow]
Moves the cursor to the start of the next line.
[Left arrow]
Moves the cursor one character to the left.
[Right arrow]
Moves the cursor one character to the right.
[ClrlBome]
The first press moves the cursor to the start of the line.
The second press, or if the cursor was already at the
start of the line, moves the cursor to the start of the text.
[Shift­
[ClrlBome]
The first press moves the cursor to the end of the line.
The second press, or if the cursor was already at the end
of the line, moves the cursor to the end of the text.~/
[Return]
Inserts a carriage return, ends the line and moves the
cursor to the start of the line below.
[Undo]
Cancels the editing and returns to the drawing.
[Enter]
(On the numeric keypad) Accepts the entry and closes
the text editor.
[Help]
Displays help and infunnation about the text editor.
%%nnn
This allows you to enter special characters which cannot
be typed directly or easily through the keyboard. Type
%% fullowed by the three digit number of the special
charncter. The character number must be padded with
zeros and have a value between I and 2SS. For example:
the hundered and thirty-fuurth character of a funt is
inserted by typing %%134.
Page 478 Appendix K
Appendix .It, Particulars to the STfIT Version
The fullowing special cbamcters used in dimensioning can be entered
using a short hand furm:
diameter sign
%%c
degree sign
%%d
plus/minus sign %%p
For more infurmation and a list of special characters see Appendix H.
Text Editor' lelD
keLlor Instructions.,
I
XXc Is the dllfteter slga¢
XXd Is the dearee slaa¢
XXp 1s the piUs/Rinas slgnO
XXU4 is chlracter U4 Ill'" of the thractes:< set
fig. (1) 1ext Editor
Appendix K Page 479
Appendix K, Particulars to the Sfrrr Version
Set-Up Menu
The AIari version of DynaCADD includes additional functionality;
Hidden Line Removal. When Hidden Line is selected from the Set Menu,
a dialog appears allowing you to control the pa.nuneters of this function.
IN
[tlD
Track/Grid/Axis •••
6enerate Entities
Pen Indexes •••
Pen Style•••
IP
Layers...
Hatch Pattern •••
Hidden Line ...
IL
Color Palette•••
Pa er Color...
Displau All Entities
Blended Planes
IZ
Hidden Line
This dialog controls how hidden line removal is bandied. The 3-D entities
in the drawing will remain unchanged by this operation. Additional 2-D
entities will be created if the Genemte Entities option is enabled. The
options to this command include the fuUowing:
Generate Entities
Create 2-D lines from the edges of the 3-D faces after the hidden portions
ofthe edges have been removed. The lines are created with the fuUowing
attributes:
Layer:
On the currently active layer.
Weight:
Pen weight 1.
Style:
Continuous.
Color:
If inheritance is active the line is created using the color of
the face, otherwise the currently active color is used.
Page 480 Appendix K
Appendix K, Particulars to the SffIT Version
Show All Entities
Display all entities after the hidden lines have been generated.
Blended Planes
If two or more 3-D faces share a common edge and the filces are on the
same plane, the common edge will be removed and the two filces blended
into one. Only the hidden line is changed. The deAning filces remain the
same.
Hide Views 1-2--3-4
Only the selected views will have the hidden lines removed. A selected
view is highlighted. To change the selection status of a view, move the
pointer aver the appropriate view number and. click the left mouse button.
The view numbers represent the order at which the views were originally
created. The fust view created has a view number of 1.
Remove Hidden Lines
Command:
EDIrVIEW IDDEFACE
Modifiers:
None
Mode:
3-D only
Description:
H1DBFACE removes all hidden lines. This function is
governed by the above mentioned Hidden line
Parameters dialog.
Appendix K Page 481
Appendix K, Particulars to the STfIT Version
Page 482 Appendix K
Index:
A-8
%% Special Cbamcters •• 7. 356
2-D
Cartesian Coontinates
Absolute •• 67
Relative •• 69
Locations .. 67
fular Coontinates •• 71
Page Origin .. 22, 49
3-D
Cartesian Coontinates
Absolute.. 68
Relative •• 70
Location .. 68
fular Coontinates •• 7l
Abort
Plot .. 300
fustScript .. 317
Print •• 312
Absolute
Cartesian •• 49
Coontinates Dialog •• 30
fuiar •• 49
Activating
Dmwing .. 13
Part .. 13
Plot .. 3C17
Print .. 312
AddCpoint
After .. 367
Before .. 367
Alternate .. 4
Arc •• 104. 369
Diameter •. 1(17
Radius .. 106
Two fuints .. 110
Three fuints •• 105
Cireumference •• 108
Two fuints •• 109
ARCBNDA •• 104
Architectuml
Dimensioning •• 169
Sizes .. 302
ARCSfAlUA •• 104
Arrow'
Fill •• 165
In .. 164
Open •• 165
Out .. 164
Arrowhead
Definition .• 163
Filled •• 165
Type .• 163
Ascenders .. 360
ASCn .. 356
Auto Tolemnce .. 166
Axis •. 48
Display .. 60
Values .. 51
AXROf .. 262
AYROf .. 262
AZROf .. 262
B-spline Curves .• 147. 370
Index Page 483
Index:
B-C
Background output •• 46, 298
Backing up .. 1 Basic Theory •. 17 Baud Rates •• 57 Ben .. 57 Best Fit Scale •• 311 Plot •• 303 Printer •. 310 PS Print •• 314 Bezi.er Curve•. 370 Bit-Mapped Fonts •• 349 Break Vector •. 366 Breaking Curves •• 152 BYALL •• 79 BYCHAIN •• 83 BYCOLOR .• 82 BYDIO •• 32, 79 BYLAST •• 82 BYLAYER •• 82 BYPWlN .. 32, 81 BYSTYLB •• 82 BYVWIN •• 80 BYWEIOJIT •• 83 BYWIN •• 32, 79 BYWOUT .. 80 CADD level •. 11, 16 Calc Kerning " 368 Calcomp plotter •. 57, 300 Calculator .• 33, 82 Capline •• 360 CENTER .• 39 Page 484 Index
Center Drawing •• 39 Changing Be:Qer to B-Spline .• 151 B-8pline to Be:Qer •• 150 Curve Types •• 150 Entity Layer •• 223 Location •• 221 Pen •. 222 Radius •. 22O Text Font •• 231 Height •• 22S . Orientation •• 233 ' Rotation •• 226 Slant •• 2Z1 Spacing •• 229 Width •• 224 View to Absolute Rotation •• 262 OCP Ro1ation •• 261 Character Buf:lbrs •• 353 Number •• 360 Set •• 351 Tools .. m Cireles .. W, 369 Arrowhead .. 163 Diameter .. 100 Origin and Radius .. 98 Radius .. 99 .~
Index:
c
Two Points •• 103 Three Poines •• 101 Two Poines •• 102 Clear •• 44 Database •• 40 Click •• 5 Close Curve •• 60, 147 Vector •• 366 COlLAYER. •• 340 Color Palette Dialog •• 58 COl.SfYLB •• 340 COLWEIGHT •• 340 Comma •• 4 Command Clear •. 35 Data Entry •• Z7 History •• 35 Name •. 60 Syntax •• 30 Config Plotter Driver .• 305 Printer •. 311 Constant
Chain Dimensioning Horizontal •• 186 Vertical •• 188 Spacing •• 126 Control .. 5 Point Tools .. 367 Coordinate Systems •• 21 Copying •• 213, 374 Characters •• 374 Character Buffer •• 374 Entities •• 213 Another Layer •• 347 Multiple Locations •• 214 VectolS •• 365 Vector Buffer •• 354 Corrections and Restoration •• 40 Counting Entities •• 330 Cpoint •• 367 CREATE DEHFIG •• 290 DEEOCP •• 283 OCPARC •• 2Jr1 OCPNORMAL•• 285 OCPPLANE•• 284 OCPVJEW •• 286 DBFIMAGE •• 289 DEFMACRO •• 291 DEFORIGIN •• 293 GROUP •. 280 LOADFONT •• Z78 RELEASE •• 281 REMOCP .• 282 REMIMAGE •• 288 SELFONT .. 279 TRANOCP •• 294 UNGROUP .. 137, 140 Creating Arrays of Entities •• 251 Index Page 485 Index
C-D
Editing a Character •• 355
Entity Offsets .• 237 Figures •• 290 Breaking •• 152 Changing Dezier to B-Spline •. 151 B-8pline to Bezier •• 150 OCP Arc Definitions •• 287 Curve Types •• 150 Definitions •• 283 Close •• 60.147 Normal to Plane •• 285 Joining .• 153 Three Fbint Plane •• 284 Reversing •• 159 View Definitions •• 286 Cut Into Buffer.. 374 Image Definitions •• 289 Character •• 374 Linear Arrays of Bntities •• 250 Vector •• 354 Macro Definitions •• 291 CVIHWGCP •• 259 Views •• 259, 260 CVIBWSCL •• 259~:"'" Data and Text Entry.:~~ 84' Cross Hair Tracking •• 60 Database CURVE BEZIER •• 149 Sort •• 44 BREAK •• 152 Extents BSPLINE .. 148 Plot .• 304 CONVERf •• 150 Print •• 309 TOOOZIER •• 150 PS Print •. 314 TOBSPLINE •• 151 Decimal Dimensioning •• 169 DEF .• 9, 43 JOIN .. 153 MODCURVE .. 154 Default Drawing .. 42 DELETECP •• 156 INSCPA •• 158 States •• 65 INSCPB .• 157 Degree sign •. 8 Deleting MOVECP .. 155 REVERSE .. 159 Control Fbints .. 156 Curves .• 147 Cpoints •• 367 B-spline .. 370 Bntities .• 145, 200 Bezier .. 370 Vectors •• 365 Page 486 Index
Index
D
Views •. 158
DIMVERT •• 179 Dimension Text Format o. 169 Dialogs Dimensioning .. 161 Absolute Cootdinates •• 30 Angles .. 196 Color Palette •• 58 Commands
•• 174 Dimensioning Parameters •• 161 Configurable Parts •• 161 DynaCADD Jnibrmation •• 41 Define Parameters Dialog •. 161 Layers .. 54 Diameters •• 181 Paper Color .. 58 Genetal Notes .. 162 Pen Indexes •• 51 Horizontal Distances •• 178 Pen Style •• 52 Leaders •• JfJ1 Plotter Parameters •• 301 Lines •• 177 Prererences •• 57 Locations .. 176 Set Tolerances •• 167 Precision .. 169 Diameter sign •• 8 Radii •• 180 Digitizing .. 79 SettiDg Globals .. 172 DIMENSION •• 48, 174 Supress CHCHAIN .. 186 Arrowl .. 171 CVCHAIN .. 188 Arrow 2 •• 171 DIMANGLE .. 196 Extnsn
1 .. 171 DIMCCLINB .. 195 Extnsn 2 •• 171 DIMCLINB •• 194 Text .. 171 DIMDIA •• 181 Verifying Text .. 173 DIMHBASB •• 190 Vertical Distances •. 179 DIMHCHAIN •• 182 Disk Printer Port •• 310 DIMHORI .. 178 Displaying
DIMLEADER .0 197 Font Status •• 37S DIMLINE .. 177 Hidden Entities in a VIeW •• 276 DIMLOC .. 176 Dividing Entities •• 208 DIMRAD .. 180 DIMVBASE .. 192 By Location .. 209 Into Equal Divisions •. 210 DIMVCHAIN .. 184 Index Page 487 Index
D-E
Double click •• 5 DPf •. 134, 136 Drag •. 5 Drawing .• 11, 48 Activating .• 13 Aids .. 59 Arcs •• 369 Curves BeUec •• 370 B-spline •• 370 Cireles •• 369 Dclinition .• 25 Ellipses •• 369 Elliptical Arcs •• 370 Modifiers •• Y1 Origin Display •• 59 Parameters •• J2 Plot Extents .• 304 Scale •• 303 Print Extents .. 309 Scale •• 310 PS Print Scale •• 314 Scale •• 14 Size .. 15 Units •• 13 Drop Down Menus .. 34, 41 DXF .. 9, 43 DynaCADD Infunnation Dialog .. 41 Page 488 Index
Menu •• 41 Dynamic Calculator .• 34 Description •• 269 Rocation ofa View •• 268 DZALL •• 32, 38 DZEXTENTS •• 38 DZIN •• 38 DZLASf •• 38 DZOUT •• 38 DZWINDOW •• 32, 38 Echo Oimensions-inViews •• 171 Editing.. Macros •• 292 .... . . Dialog Text •• 6 Layers •• 340 Text •• 232 EDITLAYER •• 340 COPYLAYER •• 347 LAYERNAME •• 346 LAYEROFF •• 345 LAYERON •• 344 LAYLOCK •• 346 LAYUNLOCK •• 346 SELLAYER •• 342 S~
.. 343 EDITVIHW DEPVIEW •• 259 DEFVIEW •. 260 DELVIBW •• 258 DYNAMIC •. 268 Index:
E
HIDE .• 'I/5
RESETVlBW .. 267
REVCLIP .. 264
REVORG •• 265
REVSCALE .. 266
ROfVIEW •• 262
ROfVIEW .. 263
SCRVlEW •• 'I/4
SEEK .• 276
VlEWGCP .. 261
VIEWZEXT •• 273
VIEWZlN •• 271
VlEWWUT •. 272
ELAENDA •• 119, 121
ELAMAIDIA .. 119, 120
ELAMAJRAD •• 119. 120
ELAMlNDIA •• 119,120
ELAMlNRAO .. 119, 120
ELAROf .. 119, 120
ELASrARfA .. 119, 121
Ellipse .. 369
Elliptical Arc .. 370
ELlJdAJiDIA .. ll~118
ELlJdAJRAD .. ll7
ELLMINDIA .. ll7, ll8
ELlJdlNRAD •• ll7, 118
ELLROf .. ll7, 118
END .. 32,74
English sizes .. 302
Entities .. 17
Aligning .. 255
Copying .. 213
Another Layer .. 347
Multiple Locations .. 214
Counting •• 330
Creating Armys .. 251
Deleting •. 145, 200
Dividing .. 208
Grouping .. 280
Hiding from View .. 275
Insertiog .. 8S
Masking .. 252
Mirroring .. 218
Modifying .. 219
Moving .. 212
OftSetting .. 239
P~ecdng •• 244.245
Revolving .. 246
Rotating •. 216
Scaliog .• 236
Selecdng
AlI .• 79
Chaining .. 83
Inside a
View .• 80
Wmdow .. 79
Last .. 82
Layer .. 82
Outside a Wmdow .. 80
Pen Color .. 82
Pointing .. 79
Polywindows .. 81
Index Page 489
Index
E-F­
G
Dimensions •• 173 Font Ascent line •• 358 Stretching •• 234 Sweeping .. 248 Baseline •• 358 Character •• 352 Tracing Paths •• 240, 241, 242 Descent line •• 358 Transfurming 3-D to 2-D •• 254 Design Suggestions •• 378 Translating •• 211 Trimming .. 201, 202 Drawing Wmdow .. 357 Absolute Distance •• 2(TJ Editor Error Messages •• 381 File •• 376 Comer of Two .. 203 Help •• 359 Incremeot •• 206 Intersection •• 204 Name •• 360 Status •. 357, 'J1S Several •• 20S Ungrouping •• 281 Vector •• 352 Unmasking .. 253 Fonts Introduction •• 9 Output an Encapsulated Postcript File .• 316 Characters and '\tlctors •• 351 FIG •• 134, 136, 290 Frame Display •• 59 File Free Digitizing •• 24 Commands .. 'J1S Full Crossbairs •• 61 Menu .• 42 Function Transfer •• 43 Keys •• 5 FILTER .• 76. 84, 199 Macros •. 32 Final Fonn Feed •• 311 GCP Flip-X •• m Display •• 59 Flip-Y •• 3'n Menu •. 63 Flipping Generating Points •. 243 Arrowheads •• 164 Geometric Cooniinate Planes •• 22 Character
GRAPIDCS •• 154 Horizontally •• 3'n Graphics Display •• 60, 147 Vertically .. 3'n Grid •. 48, 363 Page 490 Index
Style •• 82 Weight •• 83 Index
G-HI
Display •• 60
Marks
Major •• 50
Minor •• 50
Snap .. 60, 18
Values •• 50
Grouping Entities •• 280
Handshaking •• 57
Hatch Pattern .. 48, 376
Dialog •• 56
HATCH.PNT •• S6, 141, 376
HATCHX •• 139
HATCHY •• 139
Help
Helpline .. 359
Message •• 35
Status •• 34
Display •• 60
Hiding Entities in an View .. 275
High Control Select •• 371
Horizontal
Dimensioning
Baseline •• 190
Chain .• 182
Print Orientation _. 309
Icon Pads •• 29
Images Menu .. 62
In-Stream Modifiers •• 85
Incremental Cootdinates .. 69
INCX .. 250
INCY .. 250
INCZ •• 250
INFORM
COUNT •• 330
usr .. 321
LSfDRAW .• 322
LSfDRAW .. 73
LSTBXTENT •• 328
LSrGCP •• 325
LSTIMAGB •• 324
LSTI...AYBR .• 327
LSTMACRO •• 329
LSTVIBW •• 326
MEASURE •• 333
MBASANGLB •• 334
M~ •• 338
MBASDIST •• 336
MBASPERIM •• 337
VBRIFY •• 331
Infuonation Commands •• 319
Inheritance •• 62
INITlD .. 39
INIT3D •• 39
Inquire •• 305
INSERT ARC .. 104
ABBTWEEN •. 109
ARC3POINT .. 105
ARCCIRCUM •• 108
ARCDIA .. 100
ARCRAD .• 106
ARCRADLOC .. no
INSERT BOX .. 122
Index Page 491
Index
I
INSERI' CIRCLE •• CJ7 C2POINT .. 98 CBETWEEN .. 102 CIRCIRCUM .. 101 CIRDIA •• 100 CIRRAD •• 99 CIRRADLOC •• 103 INSERT DELETE .• 145 INSERT ELLARC •• 119, 120 INSERT ELLIPSE •• U7, 118 INSERT FACE •• 144 INSERT FILLET •• ill CFILDIA •• U6 CFILRAD •• 115 FILDIA •• U4 FILRAD •• 113 INSERT HATCH •• 139, 141 INSERT LINE •• 87 HORIZONf •• 92 LINELOC •• 89 ORTHO •. 9O PARALLEL .• 94 PERPEND •• 93 TANPOINT •• 96 TANTO .. 95 VERITCAL .. 91 INSERT POINT •. 86 INSERI' POLYFIG •• 135, 136 INSERI' POLYGON .. 123, 124 INSERI' SOLID •• 142 INSERI' SUBFlG .. 133, 134 Page 492 Index
INSERI' TEXT •• 125 TEX12ROT .. 132 TEXTASSUM •• 131 TBX1UIGI •• 130 TEXTLOC •• 129 Inserting 2-D Solids •• 142 3-D Faces •• 144 Arcs •• 104 Diameter •• l(J1 Radius •• 106 Two Points •• l1O Three Points .~·105" Circumference<.~·I08 Two Points •• 109 Curves
B-spline •• 148 Bezier •• 149 Control Points After •• 158 Befure •• 157 Boxes •• 122 Centers •• 194 On Circle Diameters •• 195 Circles •• fJ1 Diameter •. 100 Origin and Radius •• 98 Radius •• 99 Two Points •• 103 Three Points •• 101 Two Points •• 102 .~.
Index:
I-J­
K-L Ellipses •• 117 Three Points .• 118 Elliptical Ares •• 119 Five Points .• 120 Entities •• 85 Fillets •• 111 Diameter •• 114 Radius •• 113 Comer Diameter •• 116 Radius •• 115 Hatches •• 139, 141 Lines •• ffI
Horizontal •• 92 Location •• 89 Orthogonal •• 90 Parallel .• 94 Perpendicular •. 93 Thngeot
Between Ares •• 95 From·Locations •. 96 Vertical •• 91 Points •• 86 Polyfigures .• 135 Location .. 136 Polygons •• 123 Two Points .. 124 Sections •. 137 Lines •• 138 Subfigures .. 133 Location •• 134 Text •• 125 Assuming Attributes .• 131 Location •• 129 2-D Rotation •• 132 Three Points •• 130 Installing •• 1 INT •• 32, 74 IX .. 69, 70 IY •• 69,70 1Z •• 70 Joining Two Curves •• 153 KemAll •• 368 Kemed.spacing •• 127 Kerning: Definition •• 368 Guides •• 368 Tools •• 368 Keyboard Command Entry .. 30 Conventions •• 4 Layers •• 25, 339 Attributes •• 48 DiaIog •• 54 Editing •• 340 Invisible •• 345 Listing •• 327 Locking •• 346 Naming •• 346 Selecting •• 342 Transparent .• 343 Unlocking •. 346 Index Page 493 Index
L-M
VISible •• 344
Left Kerning •• 368 LINANO •• p;J Lines .. p;J Ascent •. 358 Baseline •• 358 Capline •• 360 Helpline .. 359 Descent •• 358 Horizontal .• 92 Location .. 89 Orthogonal .. 90 Parallel •• 94 Perpendicular •• 93 Tangent Between Arcs •• 95 Tangent from Locations .. 96 Vertical •• 91 X-Line .• 359 LINLEN .• p;J
Buffurs .• 375 Pants .• 278 File .. 375 New \\!:ctor Butrers .. m LOC .. 32, 66 Location Entity Selection .. 6S Pointing .. 66 Modifier •• 30 Selection •• 6S Entity Snap •• 73 Locking Layers .. 346 Lower Menu Pad •• 67-­
Manual Space Adjustment •• 127 Masking Entities •• 252 Max •• 302 Maximum Printer Scale •• 310 Measuring Angles •. 334 Listing
Areas •• 338 Characteristics •. 333 All Defined Images •• 324 Distances •. 336 OCPS .. 325 Perimeters .• 337 View Definitions •. 326 Memory Status •• 45 Current Drawing Parameters .. Dialog .• 44, 45 322 Merge Drawing •. 43 Database Extents .. 328 Metric sizes .. 302 Infunnation .. 321 Mirroring Macro Definitions •• 329 Entities .. 218 Working Layers .. 327 Plot .. 305 Load PS Olobal Modifiers Page 494 Index
Index
M-N· X •• 315 Y .. 315 O-p Mode Seloct •• 39 Open Font •• 375 ORG .. 32, 74 OUTPUT •• 299 Commands .. 2fR PLOTIER •• 300 POINTFILE •. 318 POSTSCRPT .• 313 Modifying Curves .• 154 Entities •• 219 Mouse Conventions •• 5 Moving •• 374 PRlNTER •• 308 Characters •• 374 Page Origin •• 22, 49 Control Points •• 155 Palette •• 351 Cpoint •• 367 PANG •• 71. 71 Current OCP Origin •• 294 Paper Entities •• 212 Color Dialog •• 58 Page Origin •. 293 Size •• 302 Primary OCP •• 295 Parallell\ut Vector •• 365 Plotter •• 304 Multi Sheet Print Orientation •• 309 Printer •• 310 NarIling Layers •• 346 PS Printer •• 315 New 'kctor •. 365 Part •• II None Activating •• 13 Plot Scale •• 303 Definition •• 25 PS Print Scale •• 314 Suppression of Dimensions .. 171 Number of Copies .. 311 Paste •. 374 NX .. 25O Character BI1ffi::lr •• 374 NY .. 250 'kctor Buffer •• 354 NZ .• 25O Pen Indexes •• 48 Offsetting Dialog •. 51 Distance •. 239 Pen Style •• 48 Location .• 238 Creation.• 53 ON .. 75 Dialog •• 52 Online Documentation •. 36 PFIGRaf •• 135 Index Page 495 Index
P-Q­
R
PFIGXSCA •• 135
PFIOYSCA •• 135
PFIGZSCA •• 135 PFL .. 46, 305 Plot Dmwing •• 3fJ7
Disk: .. 305 Plotter Parameters Dialog •. 301 PluslMinus sign •• 8 Point and Click •• 27 POLYAFLAT .• 123 POLYDIA •• 123 POLYRAD •• 123 POLYROT .. 123 POLYSIDES .• 123, 124 PRAD .. 71. 71 Preferences Dialog •. 57 Print Dmwing •. 312 PostScript Device •• 317 Printer Echo •• 36, 61 Parameters Dialog •• 308 PROJDEPTH •• 244 Projecting Entities •• 244, 245 PROJFACE .• 244 PROJSCALE .. 244 Proportional Spacing •• 127 PRr •. 134, 136 PS Output a Postcript File .. 316 Quit Page 496 Index
DynaCADD Program •• 47 Font Editor •• '5/S README •• 1 Realigning Entities •• 255 REGEN •• 39 Regenemte Graphics •• 39 Relative Cartesian •• 49 Polar •• 49 values •• 31 Releasing Subfigures •• 281 Removing GCP Definition:~ •.282 • Image Definition •• 288 REPAINT •• 32. 39 Resetting a View •• 267 Restore •• 44 REVANO •• 246 Reversing Direaion of Curves •• 159 REVFACE •• 246 Revising a View Clip •• 264 Origin •• 265 Scale •• 266 REVNCOPY .• 246 REVNMESH •• 246 Revolving Entities .• 246 About a Vector •• 247 Right Mouse Button •• 79 Cancels Command.• 138 ROfANG .. 216 '-._/
Ind~
R-5
Rotating •• m Characters •• m Entities .• 216, 217 Plots .• 305 PS Global Modifiers •• 315 View •• 263 RS-232 parameters •• 300 RfSICfS •• 57, 300 Rubber Band .. 61, 81, 88, 361 Save
Buffers •• 375 Current Configuration •• 307, 311 Pont •• 375 Defilult •• 42 Font .. 375 As .. 375 Macro •• 43 New Ponts .. 375 Part .. 42 As .. 42 Parameters
Plot .. 305 PostScript •• 317 Vector Buffers •. 375 Scaling Entities .. 236 Screen Buffer .• 61 Display Control •• 37 SCROLL .. 38 ScroU Active View •• 274 Drawing .. 38 SECfANGLE .. 137 SECfDISf •• 137 Select .. 5 C~
•• ,355,375 Selecting Characters .. 355 Current Pont •• 279 Entities All .. 79 Chaining •• 83 Inside a View .• 80 Wtndow •• 79 Last .. 82 Layer •• 82 Outside a Wtndow •• 80 Pen Color .. 82 Pointing •• 79 Polywindows .• 81 Style .. 82 Weight •• 83 Layers •• 342 Invisible .. 345 Transparent .. 343 Visible .. 344 Paper Size .. 302 Pen Speed .. 306 Pens .. 316 Pen Speed .. 306 Index Page 4CJ7
Index
S-T
Plotting •• 306
Plot Extents •• 304 Scale .. 303 Port .• 304 Print Extent •• 309, 314 Orientation •• 309 Scale •• 314 Printer Port •• 310, 315 Scale .• 310 Sheet Size •• 311 Tolerance Style •. 168 Semicolon •• 4 Sending Output to Bxtemal Device •• 299 Plotter •. 300 Point File •• 318 PostScript Device •• 313 PostScript File •• 317 Serial
Plotter Port •• 304 Port •. 57 Printer Port•• 310 PS Printer Port •• 315 SET .. 75 Set Menu •. 48 Set Thlerances Dialog •. 167 SETPSPACE •. 125, 126 Setting Page 498 Index
Current Location •• 75 Global Modifiers •• 305, 315 Pammeters
Page •• 316 Plot •• 301 PostScript .. 313 Print .• 308 Setup •• 316 Tolerance Limits •• 167 SFIGROf •• 133 SFIOXSCA •• 133 SFIGYSCA .. 133 SFIGZSCA •• 133 Shape and Curve Tools •• 369 SHOWCOM •. 35, '51 Slash Arrowhead •. 163 Smooth Vector •• 365 Snap •• 363 Leader .• 173 Stretch the Character Horizontally •. 373 Vertically •. 373 Stretch X .• 373 Y .• 373 Stretching Entities •• 234 Suggested Reading •• 380 SWEEPFACE •• 248 Sweeping Entities •• 248 System level •. 11 Text '~
Index
T
Add Abrev:iation •• 170
Boxed .• 61 Decimal Conventions •• 170 European .• 170 North American •• 170 DegID.M.S••. 170 Editor •. 7 Placement Above •• 169 Aligned •• 170 Angled •• 170 Below •• 169 InIine •• 169 Rocation •• 170 Unidirect •• 170 Strip Zero{s) Leading •• 170 Ttailing •• 170 TEXTCENT •• 125, 1Z7
TEXTIffiI •. 125, 126, 175 TEXTLEFI' •• 125, 1Z7
TBXTRIGlIT .. 125, 127 TEXTROT •• 125, 126 TEXTSLA •• 175 TEXTSLANT •• 125, 126 TEXIWID•• 125, 126, 175 Tolerance
Lower
Angular •• 167 Linear •• 167 Off .. 166 On •• 166 Style Limits •• 168 Variation 1 •• 168 2 •• 168 Upper Angular •• 167 Linear •• 167 Tools Menu •• 59 Creation and Selection •• 277 Tracing ~~ an Entity •. 241 EiiClqsing the Ends •• 242 Solid Path Around an Entity .• 240 Track •. 48 Tracking •• 49 Tracking Display •• 60 TRANCOPY •• 199 TRANCOPY F1ag •• "5/ TRANSFACE .. 2ll TRANSFORM ALIGN .. 255 ARRAY •. 250. 251 BURNVIBW •. 2S4 DELETE •• 200 DIVIDE •. 208 DIVLOC .. 209 DIVNDIY •• 210 EQUlDISf •. 243 Index Page 499 Index:
T-U­
V
TRIMCORNR .. 203 TRlMDISr .. 2fJ7 TRIMlNC .. 206 MASK •• 2,52
MIRROR, :.'218
'"".1
MODIFY _,219..
,., ' .. t
~
~
CHAL~~t'!' 223 CHALOC •• 221 TRIMINTOF •• 204 ~11
CHAPEN •• 222 CBARJ\D·.•.220 TRIMONE •• 202 G~~;,.'vl'rF~~ 231 CiIA11W_:,~7t1s: CHATROT .','22(;
CHATSLA •• '1ZI CHATSPAC •• 229 CHATWID
.c ?24
".,,',
~ ',:~;;" '> ~'j
.FDrrmxr •. 232 TXfORIE.Nf .~'233
OFFSEt .. ~37 DISTAN'CI!
..,,' 239
\.
;
o~·
~
~
SOLmPArH'•• 240 , ~.uGk.. 238 rlii.1iENQS •. 242 TRACEPATH .. 241 PROmer •• 244, 245 REVOLVE •• 246, ~47 ROTATE •• 216, ~1 SCALE .. 236, STRETCH .• 234 TRANSLATE .. 2ll TRANCOPY •• 213 TRANMCOPY .. 214 TRANMOVE .. 212 TRIM .. 201 Pa~
500 ~Index
.. 205 UNMASK •• 2S3
TrauslOnnation Commands .. 199 Modifier .. 37, 62 TrauslOrming 3-D Entities to 2-D Entities .. 2S4 TmnslatingEntities •• 2ll Tmnslations .. 9 . Trimming Entities .. 201, 202 Absolute Distance •• 207 Comer of Two Entities .. 203 Increment .• 206 Intersection .. 204 Seveml Entities •• 205 UNDO .. 40, 44, 145, 361 Unlocking Layers •• 346 Unmasking Entities .. 253 User Interfuce •. 27 Plot Scale •• 303 Value Calculator •• 33, 82 Vector Break .• 366 Buffern •• 354, 366 Close .• 366, 37l '-~u/
Index:
.:..~_\.",
v-w­
Control Points •• 352
Copying .. 354,365
X-Y-Z Ddinition •. 365 Deleting .• 36S Font •• 349, 352, 365 Editor •• S6, 141, 154 Load New Buffers ••
Moving ..365 New .. 36S Paste .• 354 Save Buffers ••
Set •• 353 Smooth •• 365 Verify Text •• 173 Entities •. 331 Vertical
Dimensioning Baseline •• 192 m
m
Chain .. 184 Print Orientation •• 309 View Cbangingro Absolute Rotation •• 262 GCP Rotation •• 261 :>1:i
DJaW1ll2:... 38 pr~r:'i04
Pitit ":. 309 ....., "P8Print •. 314 ~\'r'
Hiding Entities .. 275 " " rtUt Poi~~' . 21
Impo
.
tt" '*~#~
)'ybDf.. . ~~
hi
'f?7
~~1§H ;
~r'. Ing . . "Clip "•. 264 "Origin ••~ 26S , Scale •• 266 ~::263
~H:'
Zoo,,?
.
1_~-
rna
.... ".- ~)l . orn ., Dauwse E~~t.•~73 In.:271 .. J"'··.~'L . •. ~&t ::#!It"~L
';~~_' ~ . (~~ Pens •. 316 WmdO~ll~ . ; .- ! •• 304 Wcl8hti
X-Height .~ :J$~'. X-Line :.-35{'·; X •• 67,.68"
',::;' X and YcOOrdinates
.• 360 XONIXOFF" :. 57 y .. 67, 68' Clipping .• 60 Z .• 68 Creating .. 259, 260 Deleting .. 258 Description .. 19 Echo Dimensions .• 171 Extents Zooming All .. 38 In •. 38 2i:.362 On an Active View •• Z1l i' I; _
:.;
"
-
;:!-'
I1ldeil'3ge 5tU
Index
zKey,s /
Last •.l31l
Out .. !<:': '/ :,';.; ~
c:""~vl,36? ~ , ..,'.....
.~1'C~'
.,4§tlT'aY'~W
;,.,
[Alt:N] Set Drawing.. 48
.. 27l I' [Alt-O]
.- PilMous 362")r:~:::!
View .. 362
;-'. .
r
...."''''*',. Tl3
0-
"
[Alt-L] Set Layers .• 48, 54
Merge Drawing .. 43
W~-M]
f"
Drawing Origin Display •. 59
sWt-P] Set Pen Indexes •. 48, 51
[Alt-Q] Quit •• 47
., ..;;"
·~·.1i
[Alt-:R] Rubber Band Display •• 61
I\cA'" . »' .JV;J.. ··:.:~r .. 355 [Alt-S] Save Part•• 42
[,] Anchor Lr',.
.•: 9;;
[.AJt-T] Tracking Display •. 60
[-] ML.. _tl·~ :"':"~racter .• 355. ~ '" It-V] View Clipping •. 60
[;]
.. \ ,SIAlt-W] Close Curve •• 60
Accept Coordinates •. 66
\... ' ..'.'~-X] Flle Transrer .• 43
.1..ctiwte the Command .• 200
[Alt-Y] Graphics Display •. 60
Cancel
~. .
[Alt-Z] Set Paper Color •• 58
Ww"
,\I.. ;:
Command .. 79
rAlt] Description •. 41
Selection Modifier.o 83
lLtlUW
Wmdow Modffier •• 80
[Backspace]
Sel~-mon
keys] Move .. 6
Complete .• 66
Erase Left Character .• 6, 7
Entity e. 30
''::[Ctrl-V] Paste From Buffer •• 353
Location •. 30
[c] Close the Vector •. 366, 371
[Alt-A] Axis Disp~ .• 60
[Delete]
[Alt-B] Text Boxed •. 61
Delete the Previous Entity.• 65
[Alt-C] Full Crossbairs .. 61 . , ,.. ,."Erase.
[Alt-D] Set Dimension .. 48
Last Entity .. 40 [Alt-E] Printer Echo .. 61 .\}
.. ",. Right Character •. 6, 7 [Alt-F] Frame Display •. 59
[Alt-G] Grid Display .. 60
Last Created Entity .. 143, 144, 145 [Alt-H] Help Message Display .. 60 .[Down arrow] [Alt-I] Inheritance .. 62
[Alt-J] GCP Display .. 59
Move to Following Line .. 7
[End] Move to Last Character .. 7 ~.
Index
[Enter]
Absolute Coordinates'~ 30
Accept and Close •• 6
Insert Carriage Return •. 7· \
[Esc]
Dialog
,~~al. j,
_.
Setthe~ .• 3S3
'.
"'1
[Right arrow] M~gbt .'!f.!9.,; ,.
,~~~ Status •• 79
[Space] Compl$Coavnand •• 31
[1ib]
~(.: .. ".,"U'
.~S
~""'~0i'~ .• 29, 35, 320
[Undo] ~" if&Ju
,_';Oi.~~M"'~+, 128
Cancel Text Editor •• W1
Clear
Dialog Entry •• 6
Value .. SO
'11AJ ::~;_.[FlO] Repaint •• 32, 39·1r\]
LJJP.~~·;:"'-·-.I 1, '
[Fl] Location Snap ./3~l>6;;:C€ .. 1~j~'t,~ItU:qVf_ Line •• 7
[Fl] Entity End Snap •• 12!,74
[F3] Entity Origin S~ 32, 74 I)~ • - ....01mitnaoJ Jq:..ooA
[F4]
-1IAJ
WS: .. bil:mucO~:;,tfj ~:.NfJoA
Entity Intersection·Snap•• 32, 74
b::m!!J
[F5]
[lJA]
~\ .. blBillmOJ
Select B y l A l
;:-~ .. -;:,YillJ01.: !lohy-;!~~
Digitizing.• 32
' . ~~ilihoM wobniW
~i} •• ox.,lqmo:) noibsj;)~~
Pointing •. 79 -::y
[F6] Select By Wmdow •U32, 7 9 ' , ; - .. 'Oil:;;.}
[F7] Select By Polywindow •• 32, 81
_.. •10::... i
[F8] Zoom Dmwing All .• 32, 38
. <a,;.A~_
[F9] Zoom Wmdow .. 32, 38
J." .. ~~:1.'r!
r l"!.
[Home] Move to First Character •• 'Jl) .. <:;'l'wn2<!-::- li,,­
[Insert]
.,j ,. ;-"nL.m:.. iO
Accepts Text and Exits .• 7,232 fi} .. / 1'.. !',5
[Left Arrow] Move Left .. 7
[Retum]'~
.:
Absolute Coordinat:eS.l 66 ., !. ,;:0
Close
"
.
Calculator .. 33' Ditek International License Agreement
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OPENING TIllS SBALIID PACKAGE, rou ARB AGRBBING TO BBCOMB BOUND BY
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UMITED WARRANTY and ACKNOWLHDGBMBNT.
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2. COPYRIGIff. The SOFTWARE is oWned by Ditek or its suppliers and is protected by
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