TLIF2010 Apply fatigue management strategies

Contents
Before you begin
v
Introduction Prepare and serve espresso coffee
1
Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
2
1A Types and characteristics of coffee
3
Activity 1: Types and characteristics of coffee
8
1B Types and characteristics of milk
9
Activity 2: Types and characteristics of milk
11
1C Advising the customer
12
Activity 3: Advise the customer
15
Workplace example for Topic 1
16
Summary of Topic 1
17
Topic 2 Prepare equipment
18
2A Mise en place
19
Activity 4: Mise en place
22
2B Storage and shelf life of ingredients
23
Activity 5: Storage and shelf life of ingredients
26
2C Espresso machines and grinders
27
Activity 6: Espresso machines and grinders
34
Workplace example for Topic 2
36
Summary of Topic 2
37
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Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
1A
Types and characteristics of
coffee
A good barista has a solid understanding
and knowledgebase of every aspect of
the coffee-making process.
This includes how different beans, blends and
roasts can alter the flavour and characteristics of
coffee. With this information, you can confidently
provide expert advice and suggestions to
customers.
The customer should leave feeling like they were
offered choices in determining the style and
characteristic of their coffee. Customers are more
likely to return if they received this type of service
from a barista.
History of coffee
Coffee is one of the most consumed
beverages in the world.
Coffee is said to have first been discovered in
Ethiopia, on the African continent during the 9th
century.
Coffee crops are found in many countries
around the world including Indonesia, Vietnam,
Mexico, India and the West Indies, and coffee is
farmed extensively throughout South America,
particularly in Brazil.
Coffee has a strong history in Europe. The first
coffee shop was opened in Venice, Italy in the early
1600s. From here the popularity of coffee spread
to the rest of Europe.
Coffee arrived in Australia from Europe largely
as a result of Italian immigration. Italians wanted
to continue their coffee culture and enjoy their
favourite beverage.
Part of the appeal of coffee has always been the
effects of caffeine and its stimulating effect on the
human body.
Watch this video [00m:51s] to learn about the
history of coffee.
V1954
Characteristics of beans, blends and roasts
As a barista, it’s important to know
about the characteristics of beans,
blends and roasts.
Theo is an apprentice. Fiona is a barista. Today
she is teaching Theo about the characteristics
of beans, blends and roasts. Theo has some
questions for Fiona.
Read Theo’s questions about the characteristics of
beans, blends and roasts and Fiona’s responses.
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Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
You mentioned blended coffee before. What does that mean?
Blending coffee beans is done to create a coffee with an improved or more complex
flavour. For example, a blend could be done by adding a low percentage (20–30 per
cent) Robusta beans from India (which produce a strong flavour without bitterness)
to a better quality Arabica bean. This will boost the overall character and flavour of
the coffee.
The blending process may occur before or after the roasting process. A common
blend is a mixture of four different bean types. The percentage of each bean in the blend will create
different flavours and complexities.
What about roasting the beans?
After processing, the beans need to be roasted to bring out the characteristics of the
coffee bean flavour.
Roasting coffee is a skill. It requires the correct amount of heat for a specific period of
time. The temperatures are very high, so the beans are roasted in a short amount of
time. The beans move and stir in the machine as they are roasted to allow the hot air
to roast them evenly.
The length of time and temperature used will determine if the beans are light, medium or dark
roast. To an expert roaster, the smell, cracking noises and colour changes all indicate the stage of the
roasting process.
A roast profile is a graph that shows bean temperature during a roast cycle. It is best if both the bean
and air temperature are measured and logged.
A roast profile is used to adjust for faster, higher temperature roasts or a slower roast on a lower
temperature. This will alter the characteristics of the coffee. For example, it may bring out the body of
the coffee bean, but reduce the flavour.
The beans are cooled quickly to stop the roasting process.
Here are the characteristics of three roasting types:
• a light roast emphasises the acidity of the coffee
• a medium roast develops sweetness
• a dark roast brings the intensity of the aroma or flavour.
Watch this video [04m:49s] about roasting beans.
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Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
1B
Types and characteristics of
milk
Cow’s milk is the most popular choice
for customers. However, there are now
different variations of cow’s milk and
alternatives to cow’s milk, including
almond and soy milk.
Each type of milk has a noticeable difference in
taste and texture, which affects the body of the
coffee.
Some customers will have a specific request for a
type of milk, while others may want some advice
on the options. You will need be able to provide
information so the customer can make their
decision. You also need to take several factors into
consideration on how the choice of milk can affect
the coffee beverage.
Choice of milk can affect:
•
•
•
•
the taste of the coffee beverage
the texture of the foam
the consistency of the foam
the amount of foam required for the type of
coffee.
Characteristics of milk types
Each type of milk will have different
characteristics. You need to be aware of
these when making coffee beverages.
Here are the characteristics of some common
types of milk used in coffee.
Whole or full-cream milk
• Whole/full-cream milk is the most common
type of milk used for coffee beverages. It
usually contains 3.5–4 per cent fat.
• The amount of fat supports a good balance
of flavour, micro-foam texture and strong
consistency of the foam.
• Whole milk will take slightly longer to steam
and froth than other milk products because of
its higher fat content. Coffee mixed with fullcream milk tends to have a fuller body and a
sweeter taste.
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Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
Activity 2: Types and
characteristics of milk
Check your understanding of types and characteristics of milk.
Read each statement about types and characteristics of milk and circle true or false.
Question 1
The best temperature for milk to be heated is 40 degrees and under.
**True
Question 2
A customer who is lactose-intolerant orders a takeaway cappuccino. She could
have either enhanced milk or skinny milk.
**True
Question 3
**False
The choice of milk can affect the taste and texture of the foam.
**True
Question 5
**False
Whole or full-cream milk is the most commonly used milk in coffee beverages.
**True
Question 4
**False
**False
Skim milk and low-fat milk are the same. They just have different names.
**True
**False
Click to
complete
Activity 2
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Topic 1 Make coffee for customers
Identify customer preferences
There are many ways you can help
customers to identify their preferences.
In order to identify a customer’s preference for
their coffee beverage order, there are several
questions that the barista can ask the customer.
Julie is a trainee. She has some questions for her
trainer, Bill, who is a barista.
Julie
Bill, if a customer says they want a strong or weak coffee, what do I do?
Bill
Well, coffee can be made strong or weak by adjusting the shot of espresso. A coffee
extracted correctly to standard (30–35ml in 27–32 seconds) will automatically be a
strong coffee.
But if your customer wants a weak coffee, then the extraction should be 15–20ml
over the same amount of time. Then milk and/or hot water can be added to taste.
I started my training in a cafe that had in-house and takeaway services. But I wasn’t
ever clear about how to serve the coffee orders – especially for takeaway coffees.
If the coffee will be consumed in house, the serviceware will be determined by the
type of coffee order. For example, a latte is usually served in a glass and a cappuccino
is usually served in a cup with a saucer.
If a takeaway coffee is ordered, you should ask them what size of coffee they want
(for example, small, medium or large). This will determine which takeaway cup you
will use. You should also ask whether they want sugar in their coffee.
I have noticed that customers have pretty clear preferences when it comes to milk
and sugar!
That is true! Sugar comes in various forms and packaging. It can be brown, raw,
white, cube, crystal, table and even liquid. There are also artificial sweeteners (such
as saccharine), which is suitable for customers with diabetes. Not all venues offer a
complete range of sugar varieties, but most offer white or brown and artificial
sweeteners.
With milk, there is more variety. Most venues stock full-cream milk, low-fat milk and
lactose-free alternatives, such as soy. In addition to selecting milk, a customer may request for their
milk to be extra hot or cold, or for a small jug of milk on the side of their coffee order. These are all
common customer requests.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Workplace example for Topic 1
Read the
following
workplace
example to
see how the
concepts you
have learned
are applied
in a real-life
situation.
Cody has been a barista at Maples Café for a year, a busy coffee shop near the railway
station. They have a shaded courtyard seating area outside and several tables inside
the coffee shop where customers can sit and enjoy their coffee. As they are located
near the railway station, they have a busy passing trade on takeaway coffees, which
is often busiest in the mornings with customers purchasing coffee on their way to the
station.
Cody prides himself on his excellent knowledge of ‘all things coffee’. He has a good
understanding of the coffee beverage selections and feels well placed to advise his
customers on the products available.
Maria is a customer, and approaches Cody while he is at the espresso coffee machine.
Maria says she feels like a different sort of coffee today instead of his usual cappuccino.
However, Maria says he thinks a black coffee would be too strong. She asks Cody what
he could recommend. Rather than just suggest another type of coffee, Cody asks Maria
the following questions:
• Does she enjoy his coffee strong or weak?
• Would he like his milk to be full-cream or skinny?
At this point, Maria explains that milk has been upsetting her stomach lately, so Cody
suggests using an alternative, such as soy. Cody suggests a soy latte and asks if Maria
would like sugar in the coffee before he puts the takeaway lid on for her.
Cody makes Maria’s coffee quickly as he knows he is on his way to work and needs to
catch the train. Cody ensures that he does not overfill the latte and places a clean lid
on the coffee to ensure there are no drips or spills. Cody wishes Maria a good day and
makes a mental note to ask her how she enjoyed this alternative coffee next time he
sees her.
Watch the workplace example video
[01m:44s] here.
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Topic 2 Prepare equipment
Preparing and checking
equipment is performed
before service to ensure the
safe and smooth running
of the coffee station.
Setting up the equipment,
ingredients and serviceware
ahead of time means that
all the items required are
accounted for and checked.
As a barista, you should be familiar with the
workings and features of the equipment you use,
and should always check the machines operation
before service. To do this, you should make several
test extractions to determine the quality of the
coffee and make the required adjustments.
2A Mise en place
In this topic
you will learn
about:
2B Storage and shelf life
of ingredients
2C Espresso machines
and grinders
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
When coffee is roasted, carbon dioxide develops in the beans and is emitted (given
off) for several hours afterwards. Coffee beans are sometimes sealed in aluminium
bags with a one-way valve, which allows the carbon dioxide to get out, but no oxygen
to get in.
George
Exposing the coffee to oxygen speeds up the deterioration process, which makes it go
stale faster. The aluminium bag protects the coffee from ultraviolet light, which also
speeds up deterioration.
Being aware of these factors will help you to optimise the shelf life of your coffee.
How to optimise the shelf life of beans:
• Store in a cool, dry place.
• Remove as much air as possible from containers or bags.
• Seal bags with a clip or elastic band, or use a suitable airtight container.
• Store in aluminium bags with a one-way valve.
• Coffee grinders that hold beans should be kept out of direct sunlight.
When storing dry goods, you must consider other accompaniments such as sugar,
artificial sweeteners, chocolate powder, syrups and marshmallows. These should also
be stored in dry store conditions.
Fiona
Dry store conditions include:
• between 18–21 degrees Celsius
• well-ventilated and dry
• shelving off the floor and away from the walls
• pest-free
• stock rotation principles are applied, such as FIFO
• sealed air-tight containers with labels indicating the use-by date.
Storage conditions for milk
Milk is stored between 0–5 degrees
Celsius away from strong odours, such
as onion or garlic.
The use-by dates on milk labels should be used
to rotate stock so that milk past its use-by date is
discarded and the oldest milk is used first.
Milk must be stored under refrigeration and kept
under 5 degrees Celsius. Any temperature over
this is considered in the ‘danger zone’ and will
result in fast deterioration of milk. Milk will spoil
quickly if it is kept out of the fridge for even short
periods of time, particularly on hot days. A sour
smell indicates the milk has spoiled and should be
discarded.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Heating tray
Selection buttons
Steam valve
Hot water valve
Group head
Pressure gauge
Water level gauge
Group handle
Hot water outlet
Steam wand
Here is some information about parts of espresso machines.
Feature
Function
Group heads
The water outlets are referred to as group heads. Most commercial machines
have a two- or three-group head capacity. Water is pumped under pressure
through a series of screens into the group handle. The water in the group head
is around 92 degrees Celsius at 9 bars of pressure. The pressure gauge tells you
the operating pressure of the machine.
Group handle
The group handle (also called the portafilter) holds the tamped ground coffee.
The high-pressure water flows through the group handle and produces the
espresso. It may have a single spout (for one coffee extraction) or a double
spout (for two coffee extractions).
Filter baskets are round metal baskets that sit firmly inside each group handle.
They allow the espresso liquid to pass through the group handle into the
cup without any coffee grounds. The larger holed filter basket is used for the
double-spout group handle and a finer basket is used for the single-spout
handle. The blind filter (with no holes) is used to clean the group head. This is
called ‘flushing’. During flushing, hot water is forced up into the group head and
any coffee particles are removed.
Selection
buttons
28
These turn the water pump on and off to deliver hot water through the group
head. The controls can be programmed to deliver specific amounts of water
for different coffees. There is also a free pour bottom where the operator can
manually turn the water on and off.
© Aspire Training & Consulting
SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Bean hopper
Grind adjuster
Dosing chamber
Dose lever
Tamper
On/off switch
Waste tray
Here is some information about parts of coffee grinders.
Feature
Function
On/off switch
This is used to turn the grinder on and off.
Bean hopper
This is where the coffee beans are held. Keep clean and dry, and out of direct
sunlight.
Dosing chamber
Once the coffee beans have passed through the grinding blades, the coffee
grounds are stored here.
Grind adjuster
An adjustment lever is used to adjust the size of the grind. This is done to
maintain a consistent quality grind.
Dosing lever
This lever is pulled forward to measure 7–9 grams of ground coffee. Pull once
for a single filter basket and twice for a double filter basket. It is spring-loaded
and clicks in one direction. When you let go, it should return to its starting
position.
Wastage tray
This catches and collects the spilt coffee grounds.
Tamper
Handheld tampers are used to compact (or tamper) the coffee in the group
handle. They are flat and fit the exact diameter of the filter basket. This allows
for an even pressure to be used when tamping the coffee grounds into the
group handle (essential for the quality of the espresso extraction).
Some coffee grinders have a tamper attached to the dosing compartment.
This is called a grinder tamper and is used in the same way as a handheld
tamper. This is fixed to the machine and can be used instead of the handheld
tamper. Pressure is placed upwards towards the fixed tamper. It flattens and
compresses the ground coffee into the filter basket.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Workplace example for Topic 2
Read the
following
workplace
example to
see how the
concepts you
have learned
are applied
in a real-life
situation.
Cody is on the early shift today at Maples Cafe near the railway station. The cafe
opens at 6 am Monday to Friday and opens later on weekends. So that he can ensure
all the mise en place is completed before the cafe opens, Cody needs to start work at
5:30 am. He knows how busy the mornings are with people rushing to catch trains and
buying takeaway coffees.
Even though Cody has been working here for a year, he still uses his check list to
ensure he doesn’t miss anything.
The first thing Cody does is to turn on the coffee machine as this needs time to warm
up. While the espresso machine is warming up, Cody gets started on the rest of the
mise en place:
•
•
•
•
He collects fresh milk and puts it in the fridge near the coffee station.
He stacks the serviceware on top of the espresso machine to warm it up.
He replenishes his stock of takeaway cups, sugar and other accompaniments.
He makes sure all of his small coffee-making equipment is accounted for as he was
off work the day before.
• He checks the group handles and filters, and the blind filter basket for back-flushing
cleaning during the day.
• He collects a stack of clean cloths for wiping.
Cody checks the pressure gauge of the espresso machine to see if it ready for use. He
runs water through each group head to flush the system and then runs water through
each group handle to flush the group handle. He puts water through the hot water
outlet to flush the old water out. Next, he runs the steam arms on his machine for
about 30 seconds. He is always careful when doing this; he pushes them to the back of
the machine to avoid the steam burning his arms.
As the head barista of Maples Café, Cody is the only one who can adjust the grinder.
The grinder is to the right of the espresso machine. To set up the grinder, Cody grinds
a small amount of coffee for his test extractions. He doses the required amount of
grind into his single-filter basket group handle and extracts his first coffee of the day.
He checks the timing of the extraction and visually checks that he has extracted 30 ml
of espresso coffee. As the spent coffee ground looks to be the correct texture, he does
not need to adjust the grind. He repeats a test extraction for all three group heads.
It’s now 6 am and Cody is ready to open the cafe. He can already see people waiting at
the door – it’s going to be another busy day.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Thanks, that makes it clear. I think I will create a summary of how to monitor the
ground and dose. Do you have any tips?
That’s a very good idea, but I can save you a bit of time as I’ve already created a
summary. Here it is!
•
•
•
•
•
•
You can monitor and grind the dose by:
• always ensuring fresh ground beans are used
• adjusting the grind required from coarse to fine
• measuring the dose carefully and accurately
checking the water pressure is at 8–10 bars
checking water temperature is 88–92 degrees Celsius
checking the quality with test shots by taste, looking for balance, sweetness, acidity and bitterness
checking the puck for texture
reporting any issues to your supervisor or manager if you need help
calling in repair if issues cannot be resolved in house.
So after all that, the grinder has to be cleaned, right?
Yes, that’s right. At the end of service the grinder will require a full cleaning.
During service, make sure you keep enough beans in the hopper to meet the needs
of the orders coming in and to keep an efficient workflow.
Wipe the outside of the grinder of any splashes from the espresso machine. You can
use a damp cloth to remove coffee grounds from around the grinder. This will help to
keep the area looking tidy and clean. Believe me, a dirty grinder is not a pleasant sight!
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
3B
Preparing the coffee
extraction
There are some variations in the
methods and techniques for extracting
coffee.
The extraction process aims to dissolve the
flavours from the coffee grounds in water. This is
completed when hot water, which is heated under
pressure, is forced through the ground coffee.
The key to quality is to allow the water the right
amount of time to be in contact with the coffee.
This will release the aroma and the oils in the
coffee to create the honey-coloured crema and
deep brown coffee.
Generally the operation of an espresso machine
is similar no matter the type of hospitality venue.
However, there will be some individual differences
in the workflow required for the efficient service
of coffee to customers. For example, there may
be limited bench space available or there may be
other food or beverage services occurring in the
same area.
There are a number of key quality indicators
that need to be monitored during the extraction
process. The barista needs to know how and
when to make adjustments during the extraction
process. The overall goal is to ensure quality of the
espresso is maintained in every order.
Method for extracting espresso
Espresso coffee forms the basis of
almost all the other coffee varieties and
styles.
1.Select the correct serviceware
Cups and glassware be
stored on the cup-warming
tray on top of the espresso
machine. This helps them to
feel warm.
2. Turn on the grinder and grind
the coffee beans to fill the dosing
chamber
The texture and grain of the
grind are important in the
quality of the espresso.
44
You therefore need to be able to make and serve
the perfect espresso. Practice, which includes trial
and error, will help you perfect your technique.
Here are the basic steps needed to produce an
espresso coffee using a commercial espresso
machine and grinder.
3. Remove the group head and knock
out old grounds into the tamp box
Always remember to remove
old grounds before starting
the next extraction.
4. Wipe filter basket dry with a clean
cloth
Always start with a clean,
dry, hot filter basket.
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Topic 3 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Factors that influence quality
There are many variables that can affect
the espresso.
Every order needs to be checked for quality and
this will become standard practice as you become
more experienced and confident with the process.
There are a number of things to look for that will
indicate the quality of the espresso.
The technique applied for test extractions can in
most cases also be applied to customer coffees.
Under-extracted coffee has an accentuated sour
and thin note. Over-extracted coffee will be weak
with bitter acrid notes. It is crucial to know the
relation between the extraction time and the
volume so that you are aware of what is occurring
during the extraction process.
Here are quality indicators for espresso coffee.
Colour of crema
Changes in flow texture and rate of
flow
Crema should be thick and
honey-coloured.
Timing the extraction
ensures consistent quality.
Changes in crema texture
and colour indicate an overor under-extraction.
Changes in the rate of flow
will affect the quality and
recommended timing for an
espresso.
Cake of used ground coffee
The cake (or puck) must not
be too soft or watery, or
too dry or hard, but should
fall out in a biscuit shape.
Water temperature
Water that is too hot or too
cold will affect the flow of
the coffee.
Water pressure during extraction
The pressure must be
maintained and constant
to extract the maximum
coffee from the beans.
Taste of the finished product
The espresso should be
sampled several times a
day to monitor the quality
of the flavour.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Procedure for texturing the milk
1. Select the best sized jug
for the amount of milk
for the order. Half-fill
the jug with fresh cold
milk. Face the wand
towards the back of
the machine to prevent
burning.
2. Purge the steam wand
to expel the excess
water and any milky
residue.
3. Wipe the wand clean.
Make sure the cloth you
use is only used for this
task.
4. Hold the jug by the
handle and tilt it so you
can see inside the jug.
Place the thermometer
in the jug.
Place the tip of the
steam arm just below
the milk surface in the
centre of the milk jug.
5. Turn on the steam wand
to full pressure and
hold the jug at a slight
angle. This will cause
a funnel effect around
the steam arm known
as rolling.
6. Listen for the correct
sound of the steam in
the milk. It should make
a hissing sound when
‘stretching’, followed by
a quieter sound when
texturing.
As the milk starts to
expand, the milk level
will rise. Slowly move
the jug down so the
steam wand tip remains
just below the surface.
7. As the milk heats,
the bottom of the jug
will become warm.
If you are using a
thermometer, watch
for the temperature
to reach 60 degrees
Celsius.
8. Purge the steam wand
again by facing it
towards the back of the
machine. Once again,
wipe it with a clean,
damp cloth.
Turn the steam wand
off and the temperature
will continue to rise to
75 degrees. The milk
in the jug should be a
smooth, silky foam.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
3D
Serving coffee
Every business that serves coffee has
standards about the presentation of
coffee beverages.
When presenting and serving customers,
beverages must be served as quickly as possible.
However, you should always check that they are
well presented and look appetising. Learning
how to sequence orders as they come to the
coffee station gets easier will practice. During
busy service periods, being able to sequence
orders means there is less wastage and
customers are not left waiting too long.
Presentation of beverages
Excellent presentation will add to the
customer’s pleasure.
Read what each person says are the key
considerations when presenting a coffee beverage.
All coffees must be presented in accordance with the customer’s preferences. For
example, they might ask for a long black with milk on the side.
Be sure to always use clean and hygienic serviceware. It is pretty awful to be given a
coffee in a lipstick-stained cup!
Bill
Never touch cups or glasses where customers will place their mouths (such as along
the rim) and, when placing the lid on takeaway cups, do not handle the drinking hole.
You should also check for any drips or spills before serving the coffee.
Let’s see what Isa lists as her key considerations when presenting a coffee.
I agree with everything Bill said. I would add that serviceware must be warm. A hot
coffee served in a cold cup doesn’t work well!
A folded napkin can be placed between the cup or glass and the saucer. A clean, dry
teaspoon should also be provided regardless of whether the customer desires sugar.
Isa
If you are serving coffee at a table, make sure the coffee is placed with the handle of
the cup facing the customer’s hand and the teaspoon is placed on the right-hand side
of the saucer or across the top of the cup.
You should always handle accompaniments such as marshmallows and biscuits with
tongs, and store them in appropriate containers.
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SITHFAB005 Prepare and serve espresso coffee
Summary of Topic 3
1. The process of producing the correct dose of coffee ensures the best quality espresso coffee
extraction.
2. The correct amount of coffee must be ground to the correct degree of fineness and texture. This is
generally 7–9 grams of coffee for a single shot of espresso and 14–18 grams for a double outlet group
handle.
3. The extraction process aims to dissolve the flavours from the coffee grounds in water. This involves
hot water that is heated under pressure being forced through the ground coffee.
4. Every order needs to be checked for quality and this will become standard practice as you become
more experienced and confident with the process.
5. Almost any milk can be textured, but most baristas prefer to use full-cream milk because it’s easier to
work with.
6. Follow the step-by-step process to texture the milk to ensure a smooth, velvety foam.
7. Texturing the milk is done the same way for all milk-based coffee beverages. However, cappuccinos,
lattes and flat whites are all poured differently.
8. All coffees must be presented in accordance with the customer’s preferences, and in a clean and
hygienic manner.
9. There needs to be a process of sequencing coffee orders so they can be made and served to
customers in a prompt manner.
10. To minimise waste, ensure that the required amount of milk and the correct size of jug is used. Grind
the coffee beans as you need them.
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Topic 4 Equipment maintenance
Basic cleaning and maintenance
Chemical clean of group heads
Cleaning the machine
The following is a general process of the backflush. (Note: the process will vary according
to the instructions for particular chemical
products.)
1. Turn on hot water to clean the drainage
pipes.
2. Turn the machine off.
3. Remove the drip tray from the machine,
wash it with detergent, rinse and polish dry
with a clean cloth.
4. With the drip tray removed, check that the
waste pipe/drainage hole is clear. Flush
with clean water if required.
5. Wipe underneath the machine and replace
the drip tray.
6. De-pressurise the coffee machine by
turning on both steam wands.
7. Wipe over the front, sides, top and splashback of the machine with sanitising spray
and polish with a clean cloth.
1. Place a measure (recommended amount)
of the chemical powder in the double
group handle with the blind filter and
secure on the first group head.
2. Manually run the coffee machine for
approximately 20 seconds. This backflushes the cleaner into the shower screen
area. Repeat the process if necessary, until
the solution looks clean.
3. Empty the solution from the group handle.
Back-flush the machine with clean water
until the water runs clear.
4. Repeat the process for the other group
heads.
5. Remove the blind filter. Clean the group
handle and replace with a filter basket
ready for the next service.
Steam wand clean
1. Remove the steamer rose from the
steamer wand and check for blockages.
Soak the wand in hot water for a short
period to loosen any milk residue. Clean
thoroughly and replace the rose on the
steam wand.
2. Purge the steam wand.
3. Wipe the steam wand with detergent to
clean.
Watch this video [00m:58s] to learn about
cleaning the group heads with chemicals.
v1988
Watch this video [00m:32s] to learn about
cleaning the steam wand.
v1989
Watch this video [00m:50s] to learn about
cleaning the machine.
v1995
65
Topic 4 Equipment maintenance
Clean and maintain the grinder
You need to clean the grinder at the end
of the service period.
Here is a list of the daily tasks to complete as part
of the grinder cleaning and shut-down process:
• R
emove coffee beans from the hopper and store
in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.
• Clean the bean hopper in mild, soapy water and
dry.
• U
se a brush to remove used grounds from the
blades, being careful of sharp edges.
• E
mpty the dosing chamber of ground coffee.
This can be saved for the next day to in the
espresso machine.
• U
se a brush to remove used grounds from the
dosing chamber.
There is very little maintenance that needs to be
(or can be) performed on the coffee grinder. The
main aspect of maintenance is a weekly check
and thorough cleaning of the grinder blades. The
manufacturer’s instructions need to be followed
carefully because cleaning the grinder blades
involves pulling apart and replacing some parts of
the machine.
Symptoms and solutions of faults
The espresso machine and grinder may
develop faults that could affect the
quality of the coffee or become a safety
concern.
Before the first service of the day, check the
grinder and espresso machine to ensure they are
operating correctly and to identify any faults.
Test extractions conducted throughout service
also help to identify faults in the equipment. Faults
in the machines must be reported to a supervisor
because they may require a service call from a
technician if they cannot be resolved by in-house
staff.
Symptoms
1.
2.
3.
4.
Machine has lost pressure or temperature.
Machine is leaking water.
Water delivery from the group head is slow.
Grinder is producing inconsistent grind.
Causes
1. Machine may have been switched off or shut
down due to fault.
2. Waste pipe is blocked or kinked.
3. Group head jet is blocked.
4. Grinder blades are worn or damaged.
Solutions
1. Check power switch is on.
2. Check waste and remove kink or unblock.
3. Back-flush group head with blind filter
basket.
4. Replace grinder blades.
If faults are unable to be resolved, contact a
supervisor or technician.
67