Ozone Sounding with Vaisala Radiosonde RS41 User'

USER'S GUIDE
Ozone Sounding with Vaisala Radiosonde
RS41
M211486EN-C
PUBLISHED BY
Vaisala Oyj
Street address:
Vanha Nurmijärventie 21, FI-01670 Vantaa,
Finland
Mailing address:
P.O.Box 26, FI-00421 Helsinki, Finland
Phone:
+358 9 8949 1
Fax:
+358 9 8948 2227
Visit our Internet pages at www.vaisala.com/
© Vaisala 2016
No part of this manual may be reproduced, published or publicly
displayed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical
(including photocopying), nor may its contents be modified, translated,
adapted, sold or disclosed to a third party without prior written
permission of the copyright holder. Translated manuals and translated
portions of multilingual documents are based on the original English
versions. In ambiguous cases, the English versions are applicable, not
the translations.
The contents of this manual are subject to change without prior notice.
Local rules and regulations may vary and they shall take precedence
over the information contained in this manual. Vaisala makes no
representations on this manual’s compliance with the local rules and
regulations applicable at any given time, and hereby disclaims any and
all responsibilities related thereto.
This manual does not create any legally binding obligations for Vaisala
towards customers or end users. All legally binding obligations and
agreements are included exclusively in the applicable supply contract or
the General Conditions of Sale and General Conditions of Service of
Vaisala.
________________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Version Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Related Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Product-Related Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lithium Battery-Related Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Transporting RS41 Radiosondes with Lithium
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
ESD Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Product Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT AND SYSTEM COMPONENT OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Introduction to Ozone Sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Ozone Sensor Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Ozone Interface Kit RSA411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Ozone Interface Board OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Radiosonde RS41 Additional Sensor Interface . . . . . . . . . 24
Equipment and Material Needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Vaisala Ozone Sounding Startup Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Ozone Destruction Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Pump Test Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Laboratory Ware Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Ozone Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Air Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Using the Air Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Other Equipment and Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Thermometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Protective Gloves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Expendables and Spare Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
CHAPTER 3
CONSTRUCTING AN OZONE SOUNDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Sounding Preparation Phases and Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . 41
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 1
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Preparations 7 to 3 Days Prior to Release . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Preparation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Preparations on the Day of Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Preparation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Preparations Just Before Release (2 - 0 Hours) . . . . . . . . .48
Starting Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Attaching Radiosonde Holder to Flight Box . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Attaching OIF411 to SPC’s Ozone Sensor Frame . . . . . . .53
Attaching OIF411 to DMT’s Ozone Sensor Frame . . . . . .56
Connecting Ozone Sensor Wires to OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . .58
Preparing the Radiosonde and OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Connecting Ozone Sensor Pump to OIF411 . . . . . . . . 61
Connecting Ozone Pump Battery to OIF411 . . . . . . . . 62
Connecting Thermistor Cable to Ozone Sensor
Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Connecting Additional Sensor Cable to OIF411 . . . . . 64
Connecting Heating Battery to OIF411 (Optional) . . . . 64
Preparing the Radiosonde with Ground Equipment . . . . . .66
Constructing Sounding Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Activating Pump Motor Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Recording the Surface Ozone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Launching the Balloon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Recording Post-Launch Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
CHAPTER 4
OZONE CALCULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Averaging and Eliminating Irrelevant Measuring
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Ozone Partial Pressure Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Ozone Sensor Operating Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Ozone Sensor Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Calculation of Local Ozone Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Background Current Correction (IBG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Pumping Time for 100 ml of Air (t) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Measured Airflow Temperature (TP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Pump Efficiency Correction (Cef). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Additional Correction Factor (Cref) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Total Ozone Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Total Ozone from Sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Residual Ozone (Total Ozone after Balloon Burst) . . . . . .95
Ozone in µg/m³ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Accuracy of Ozonesonde Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
CHAPTER 5
OZONE INTERFACE BOARD OIF411 DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Interpreting OIF411 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Measurement Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
ID Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Additional Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
2 ___________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
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CHAPTER 6
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
CHAPTER 7
TECHNICAL SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Product Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
APPENDIX A
DIGICORA MW41 OZONE DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Calculating Ozone Data in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Reporting Ozone Data in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Archived Ozone Data in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Additional Sensor Data from RS41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Additional Sensor Data from RS92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Calculated Ozone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
OIF411 or OIF92 Ozone Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Ozone Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Raw Ozone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
APPENDIX B
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS FOR BALLOON OPERATORS . . . . . . . . . . . 115
APPENDIX C
CHECKLIST FOR EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES FOR FLIGHT
PREPARATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
APPENDIX D
PERFORMANCE REVIEW LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 3
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
4 ___________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
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List of Tables
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21
Table 22
Table 23
Table 24
Manual Revisions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Related Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
OIF411 Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Electrical Interface of RS41 and the Additional Sensor . . . . . . . . 24
Ozone Sounding Startup Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Equipment Required for Ozone Destruction Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Equipment Required for Pump Test Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Laboratory Ware Needed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Required Ozone Chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Equipment Required for Air Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Workflow for Ozone Sounding Preparations 45 Minutes
Before Launch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
OIF411 Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Ozone Partial Pressure Correction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Ozone Partial Pressure Correction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
OIF411 Data Interpretation 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
OIF411 Data Interpretation 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
AdditionalSensorData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
RS92SpecialSensorData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
CalculatedOzone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
OIF411Parameters/ OIF92Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
OzoneResults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
RawOzone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Checklist for Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Performance Review Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 5
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
6 ___________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
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List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35
Figure 36
Figure 37
Figure 38
Figure 39
Figure 40
Figure 41
Figure 42
Lithium Battery Handling Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SPC ECC-6A Ozone Sensor Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Ozone Sensor Interface Board OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
OIF411 Terminals Marked on Sticker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
OIF411 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
RS41 Additional Sensor Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
EC Black Bench O3S Tester Made by EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
EC White Bench O3S Tester Made by Droplet
Measurement Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Ozone Destruction Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Vacuum/Pressure Gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Air Flow Rate Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Radiosonde Holder Attachment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Radiosonde Holder Measurements (a) and Position (b) . . . . . 51
Marking the Positions of the Holder Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Inserting the Dowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Attaching OIF411 to Ozone Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Wing Nuts on the Back of OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
OIF411 Being Attached to the Ozone Sensor Frame . . . . . . . 55
OIF411 Wing Nuts Tightened. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Droplet Measurements Model Z Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Drilling the Ozone Sensor Frame Holes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Ozone Sensor Attached to the DMT Frame with M3 Nuts . . . . 58
OIF411 Terminals Marked on Sticker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Connecting Sensor Wires to OIF411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Connecting Ozone Sensor Pump Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Connecting Ozone Sensor Battery Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
SPC ECC-6A with Thermistor Assembled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
DMT Model Z with OIF411 Temperature Sensor
Assembled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Connecting Heating Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Two-Sided Tape Attached to the Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Battery Wires Running Between the Ozone Sensor
Frame Wall and the Ozone Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Ozone Sensor Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Radiosonde Preparation in Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Waiting for Background Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Do Not Touch the Radiosonde Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Connecting Radiosonde Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Checking Radiosonde Interface Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
OIF411 Connected to Radiosonde Interface Connector . . . . . 70
Do Not Touch the Radiosonde Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Attaching Radiosonde to the Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 7
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 43
Figure 44
Figure 45
Figure 46
Figure 47
Figure 48
Figure 49
Figure 50
Figure 51
Figure 52
Figure 53
Figure 54
Figure 55
Figure 56
Figure 57
Pushing the Holder into Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Radiosonde RS41 Attached to the Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
SPC Ozone Sensor inside the Flight Box. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
DMT Ozone Sensor inside the Flight Box, Cover About
to be Closed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Air Outlet Hole and Air IntakeTube Not Taped Over . . . . . . . .75
Supported Flight Box String in DMT Ozone Sensor
Flight Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Entering Sensor Background Current in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Viewing Raw Ozone Data in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Assembly of RSU Stabilizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Assembly of Detainer to Unwinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Unwinder Attached to the Balloon Neck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Taped Flight Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Viewing Raw Ozone Data in MW41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Electrochemical Cell Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Example of an MW41 Ozone Data Report Output . . . . . . . . .108
8 ___________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
This chapter provides general notes for the manual and the product.
About This Manual
This manual provides information on assembling and operating an
ozone sounding with RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit, Vaisala Radiosonde
RS41, and an ozone sensor.
The manual describes:
-
The preparation of the ozone sensor with RSA411 Ozone Interface
Kit and Radiosonde RS41. For a list of the ozone sensor
manufacturers’ manuals, see topic Related Manuals on page 11.
-
Sounding preparations before the launch. See Chapter
Constructing an Ozone Sounding on page 41.
For information on performing an ozone sounding with sounding
software, see the on-line help embedded in MW41 sounding software.
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 9
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Contents of This Manual
-
Chapter 1, General Information on page 9, provides general notes
for the manual and the product.
-
Chapter 2, Product and System Component Overview on page 17,
introduces the product components.
-
Chapter 3, Constructing an Ozone Sounding on page 41, describes
the sounding preparations with Vaisala Radiosonde RS41, the
ozone sensor, and the ground equipment.
-
Chapter 4, Ozone Calculation on page 85, describes ozone
calculation in detail.
-
Chapter 5, Ozone Interface Board OIF411 Data on page 99,
explains the data received from Ozone Interface Board OIF411,
and how it is interpreted.
-
Chapter 6, Storage and Transportation on page 103, provides
information for the transport and storage of the product.
-
Chapter 7, Technical Support on page 105, provides information
on technical support available.
-
Appendix A, DigiCORA MW41 Ozone Data on page 107, explains
the files containing the ozone-related data in MW41.
-
Appendix B, Safety Instructions for Balloon Operators on page
115, lists the preparation steps needed for the ozone sensor, and
contains the checklists for the preparations.
-
Appendix C, Checklist for Equipment and Supplies for Flight
Preparations on page 117, provides a checklist for the equipment
needed in an ozone sounding.
-
Appendix D, Performance Review Literature on page 119,
provides a list of performance review literature.
10 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Version Information
Table 1
Manual Revisions
Manual Code
Description
M211486EN-C
December 2016. Updated information on securing
the unwinder attachment for the sounding.
January 2016. Updated term ("zero air" changed
into "ozone-free air").
May 2014. First version.
M211486EN-B
M211486EN-A
Related Manuals
Table 2
Related Manuals
Manual Code
Description
M211667EN
Vaisala Radiosonde RS41-SG and RS41-SGP
User’s Guide
Droplet Measurement Technologies Model Z ECC
Ozonesondes Operator Manual
Science Pump Corporation Operator’s Manual
Model 6A ECC Ozonesonde
Science Pump Corporation Operator’s Manual
Ozonizer/Test Unit Model TSC-1
On-line help for Vaisala DigiCORA® Sounding
System MW41, available in the sounding software
user interface
DOC-0336
SPC-6A Manual ©
SPC
SPC TSC-1 © SPC
-
Documentation Conventions
Throughout the manual, important safety considerations are highlighted
as follows:
WARNING
Warning alerts you to a serious hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions very carefully at this point, there is a risk of injury or even
death.
CAUTION
Caution warns you of a potential hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions carefully at this point, the product could be damaged or
important data could be lost.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 11
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
Note highlights important information on using the product.
Product-Related Safety Precautions
Radiosonde RS41 has been tested for safety and approved as shipped
from the factory. Note the following precautions:
WARNING
Conduct soundings in a safe environment and in accordance with all
applicable restrictions and regulations.
WARNING
Do not use the radiosonde in an area with power lines or other
obstructions overhead. Make sure that you check the area for such
obstructions before using the radiosonde.
WARNING
Do not use the radiosonde without consultation and cooperation with
local and other applicable aviation authorities.
WARNING
Do not modify the unit in any way, except as instructed in the manual.
WARNING
Do not use the radiosonde for any purpose other than for soundings.
WARNING
The chemicals involved in an ozone sounding can be harmful, and
must be handled with proper care. To ensure your working safety, take
all the necessary precautions before beginning the preparations for a
flight. Read the sensor manuals carefully. Follow the local laboratory
work practices, regulations, and waste management guidelines. Use
disposable gloves to avoid dust and other contaminants. The gloves
must be lint-free and made of artificial fabric or plastic. RSA411
Ozone Interface Kit does not include gloves.
WARNING
Vaisala recommends the use of parachute even if it is not required by
applicable restrictions.
12 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Lithium Battery-Related
Precautions
CAUTION
Do not place the lithium battery in fire or apply heat to the battery.
Do not pierce the battery with nails, strike the battery with a hammer,
step on the battery, or otherwise damage the outer casing.
Do not subject the battery pack to strong impacts or shocks.
Do not expose the battery to water or salt water, or allow the battery to
get wet.
Do not disassemble or modify the battery. The battery contains safety
and protection devices which, if damaged, may cause the battery to
generate heat, rupture or ignite.
Do not leave the battery in direct sunlight, or use or store the battery
inside cars in hot weather. Doing so may cause the battery to generate
heat, rupture, or ignite. Using the battery in this manner may also result
in shortened life expectancy and loss of performance.
Never short circuit, reverse polarity, disassemble, damage, or heat the
battery over 100 ºC (212 ºF). If an exposed lithium battery does not
start on fire, it will burn even more violently if it comes into contact
with water or even moisture in the air.
DO NOT THROW WATER ON A BURNING BATTERY. A fire
extinguisher must be used.
Transporting RS41 Radiosondes
with Lithium Batteries
RS41 radiosondes with lithium batteries are classified as:
-
UN 3091 Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment
Consignments must be packed, labeled, and documented according to
the IATA packing instructions.
When transporting the radiosondes with lithium batteries, take the
following requirements into account:
-
The package must display a lithium battery handling label, see
Figure 1 on page 14 for an example. The original radiosonde
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 13
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
shipping package must be used for transport, and it already has the
lithium battery handling label.
-
The consignment must include a document indicating the lithium
content, describing proper handling and procedures for damaged
packages, and a telephone number for additional information. The
original radiosonde consignment includes a SHIPPER'S
DECLARATION FOR ARTICLES NOT REGULATED AS
DANGEROUS GOODS, which should be reused for this purpose
after updating the appropriate information.
1002-100
Figure 1
NOTE
Lithium Battery Handling Label
If the lithium battery is faulty, do not transport it.
14 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
ESD Protection
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can cause immediate or latent damage to
electronic circuits. Vaisala products are adequately protected against
ESD for their intended use. However, it is possible to damage the
product by delivering electrostatic discharges when touching,
removing, or inserting any objects inside the equipment housing.
To make sure you are not delivering high static voltages yourself:
-
CAUTION
Handle ESD sensitive components on a properly grounded and
protected ESD workbench. When this is not possible, ground
yourself to the equipment chassis before touching the boards.
Ground yourself with a wrist strap and a resistive connection cord.
Touch a conductive part of the equipment chassis with your other hand
before touching the boards.
-
Always hold the boards by the edges and avoid touching the
component contacts.
Recycling
Recycle all applicable material.
Dispose of batteries and the unit according to statutory regulations.
Do not dispose of with regular household refuse.
Trademarks
DigiCORA® is a registered trademark of Vaisala Oyj.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 15
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Product Returns
If the product must be returned for service, see www.vaisala.com/
returns.
For contact information of Vaisala Service Centers, see
www.vaisala.com/servicecenters.
16 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT AND SYSTEM COMPONENT
OVERVIEW
This chapter introduces the product and system components in more
detail.
Introduction to Ozone Sounding
An ozone sounding with RS41 consists of an ozone sensor unit,
RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit, and RS41 radiosonde. These are
described in the sections below. Other equipment needed is also
explained. For detailed information on the radiosonde, see Vaisala
Radiosonde RS41-SG and RS41-SGP User’s Guide.
In an ozone sounding, the radiosonde is attached to a styrofoam flight
box which contains the ozone sensor unit and the interface card. The
battery for powering the ozone pump is placed in a compartment on the
side of the box. For information on performing an ozone sounding with
Vaisala Radiosonde RS41, see also the MW41 on-line help, embedded
in the sounding system software.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 17
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Ozone Sensor Unit
The ozone sensor unit is either of the following:
-
Science Pump Corporation (SPC) Model ECC-6A ozone sensor
-
Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) Model Z ozone sensor
The sensors are based on chemical reaction cells. The type of the
sensors is electrochemical concentration cell (ECC). Air is sampled
flow (by using a pump) and it goes to a reaction cell, in which the
sampled ozone reacts in a solution, and the current developed in the
reaction is detected and measured with an ozone interface. The ozone
sensor units are thoroughly discussed in the sensor manufacturers’
manuals (see section Related Manuals on page 11) and Performance
Review Literature listed in Appendix D Performance Review Literature
on page 119.
The main parts of an SPC ECC-6A ozone sensor are seen in Figure 2 on
page 19. Model Z ozone sensor is similar to the SPC sensor. Refer to the
sensor manufacturer’s manuals for more detailed information.
18 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
0410-112
Figure 2
SPC ECC-6A Ozone Sensor Parts
The following numbers refer to Figure 2 on page 19:
1
=
Gas sampling pump
2
=
Ozone sensor cathode
3
=
Ozone sensor anode
4
=
Wires for interface
5
=
Air intake tube
6
=
Motor
7
=
Connector for pump battery
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 19
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Ozone Interface Kit RSA411
The RSA411 kit is used with Radiosonde RS41 and Science Pump
Corporation’s (SPC) ECC type sensors Model ECC6A, or Droplet
Measurement Technologies (DMT) Model Z. The kit contains the items
listed below. The numbers refer to Figure 3 on page 20.
1.
Radiosonde holder with three plastic dowels and three screws for
attaching the holder to the flight box wall. The plastic bag also
contains two M3 nuts for attaching Ozone Interface Board OIF411
to DMT’s ozone sensor frame. The M3 nuts are an alternative for
the wing nuts included in OIF411.
2.
Four cables: RS41-OIF411 cable CBL210224, OIF411 power
cable CBL210225, OIF411 pump cable CBL210282, and OIF411
heater cable CBL210295.
3.
Vaisala OIF411 with temperature sensor cable. The OIF411
temperature sensor is an NTC thermistor. OIF411 includes wing
nuts for attaching it to SPC’s ozone sensor frame.
4.
RSU stabilizer, used with parachute or radar reflector.
5.
Detainer for the radiosonde unwinder.
1309-250
Figure 3
RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit Contents
20 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
Ozone Interface Board OIF411
Ozone Interface Board OIF411 has four dedicated channels (ozone
sensor current and temperature, battery voltage, and ozone pump
current), and an additional voltage measurement channel for other
purposes.
1310-028
Figure 4
Ozone Sensor Interface Board OIF411
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 21
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
The terminals on OIF411 are marked with a sticker attached on the card.
See Figure 5 on page 22 for details. The numbers in the figure refer to
Table 3 on page 22.
Figure 5
OIF411 Terminals Marked on Sticker
Table 3
OIF411 Terminals
Number
Connection
Cable Code
1
2
Radiosonde interface
Add-on sensor IN for optional
XDATA sensors
Pump motor
Ozone pump motor battery
Heating battery
Extra terminal
SPC sensor
W = white cable
B = blue cable
CBL210224
3
4
5
6
7
CBL210282
CBL210225
CBL210295
Figure 6 on page 23 shows the dimensions of OIF411. The dimensions
are in millimeters.
22 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
1401-009
Figure 6
OIF411 Dimensions
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 23
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Radiosonde RS41 Additional
Sensor Interface
Figure 7 on page 24 shows details of the radiosonde additional interface
connector. See also Table 4 on page 24 for details on the RS41 electrical
interface and the additional sensor.
1311-203
Figure 7
RS41 Additional Sensor Interface
Table 4
Electrical Interface of RS41 and the Additional
Sensor
Radiosonde
Additional Sensor
Pin
Name
I/O
Function
1
2
GND
RxD
I
3
TxD
O
4 ... 10
Reserved
Ground
Serial data from the
additional sensor
Serial data to the
additional sensor
For Vaisala use only
Pin
Name
Common
Instrument
Serial OUT
Instrument
Serial IN
Do not
connect
24 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
Equipment and Material Needed
Several items are needed to prepare the ozone sensor and the radiosonde
for a flight. The items listed below are included in the Vaisala Ozone
Sounding Startup Kit and they are explained in more detail in the
sections below:
-
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1 (or similar, from other manufacturers)
-
Ozone destruction filter
-
Pump test unit
-
Laboratory ware set
-
Ozone chemicals
-
Air flow meter
These items are valid when using the SPC ECC-6A ozone sensor
or Droplet Measurement Technologies Model Z ozone sensor.
Some sensor manufacturers also have their own startup kits. Note
that these kits may not necessarily include all the required items for
conducting an ozone sounding. For more details, refer to the sensor
manufacturers’ manuals.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 25
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Vaisala Ozone Sounding Startup Kit
Vaisala part number 25820OS.
Vaisala Ozone Sounding Startup Kit is used when preparing a new
ozone sounding site. The kit includes materials and equipment for the
sounding preparations. A list of the items and their part numbers are
provided in Table 5 on page 26. More detailed information is given in
the sections below.
Table 5
Ozone Sounding Startup Kit
Pieces
Item
Vaisala Part Number
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1
Ozone destruction filter
Pump test unit
Set of laboratory ware
Ozone chemicals
Air flow meter
Balance
Power supply
Ozone documentation (includes several
manuals)
12768
13197OS
12785OS
13198OS
13199OS
1319OS
12771
12767
Also note the following points:
-
The preparation startup kit delivered by SPC (see Operator’s
Manual for Model 6A-ECC Ozonesonde) differs from the Vaisala
startup kit.
-
The preparation startup kit delivered by Droplet Measurement
Technologies (Operator Manual for Corporation Model Z
Ozonesonde, or product brochure) differs from the Vaisala startup
kit.
-
Triple-distilled water and some other chemicals are not delivered,
as they are easily available on the local sites.
-
Documentation contains several manuals. Refer to section Related
Manuals on page 11 for further details.
-
Instructions for using the sounding software are needed to conduct
a successful sounding. In addition to the instructions in this
manual, MW41 sounding software contains an embedded on-line
help with instructions for performing an ozone sounding.
-
The Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1 is traditionally used for ozone
sensor preparation. However, these days it is possible to substitute
26 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
it with different models that have a digital ampere meter. A newer
digital model is available from DMT (see Figure 10 on page 29 in
section Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1 on page 27).
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1
This topic and Figure 8 on page 27 present the Science Pump
Corporation Model TSC-1 Ozonizer/Test Unit in more detail. Other
options are also available, see Figure 9 on page 29 and Figure 10 on
page 29.
1006-003
Figure 8
NOTE
Ozonizer/Test Unit TSC-1
Vaisala recommends adding a digital ampere meter with a minimum
resolution of 0.01 uA beside Ozonizer TSC-1, and checking the
current from the digital ampere meter instead of the analog meter on
TSC-1.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 27
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
The Science Pump Corporation Model TSC-1 Ozonizer/Test Unit (or a
similar equipment, see Figure 9 on page 29 and Figure 10 on page 29)
is a necessary basic equipment for the preparations.
The TSC-1 Ozonizer/Test Unit model has been designed for
conditioning ECC ozonesondes with the ozone, and for checking the
radiosonde’s performance prior to balloon release.
The Ozonizer/Test Unit and its operation are described in more detail in
the SPC Operator's Manual for Model 6A-ECC Ozonesonde and in the
SPC Operator's Manual for Model TSC-1 Ozonizer/Test Unit. See
Table 1 on page 11 for a list of related manuals.
The following spare parts are available for TSC-1:
NOTE
-
Calibrator ECC ozone sensor, OTU-15. Vaisala part number
18955.
-
Internal ozone filter, OTU-17. Vaisala part number 18960.
-
Other spare parts mentioned in the TSC-1 manual are also
available.
For background current measurement, the ampere meter resolution
must be 0.01 μA. This is difficult to achieve with an analog ampere
meter, thus the GAW report 201 recommends the use of a digital
model.
28 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
1403-002
Figure 9
EC Black Bench O3S Tester Made by EC
1403-003
EC White Bench O3S Tester Made by Droplet
Measurement Technologies
Figure 10
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 29
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Ozone Destruction Filter
The ozone destruction filter eliminates ozone generated during testing.
Table 6 on page 30 lists the parts required for the ozone destruction
filter. However, the ASOPOS panel (Assessment of Standard Operating
Procedures for Ozonesondes) recommends the use of purified, ozonefree air instead of the destruction filter. Refer to the GAW report 201 for
more information. See Appendix D Performance Review Literature on
page 119.
Table 6
Equipment Required for Ozone Destruction
Filter
Item Required
Vaisala Part
Number
Particle and ozone filter: Mine Safety Appliances (MSA)
Company. Delivered by MSA as a single cartridge (part
number 815185).
Funnel, 75 mm in diameter, tube diameter 8 mm, glass
Connector tube 1: soft silicon tube approximately 5 cm
long, inner diameter 6 mm, outer diameter 10 mm
Connector tube 2: soft vinyl tube approximately 60 cm
long, I.D. 1/8" (3.2 mm), O.D. 1/4" (6.4 mm)
Connector tube 3: soft silicon tube approximately 2 cm
long, inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm
Connector tube 4: Cut a piece of tubing from the ECC
sensor air intake tube (2 cm), or order separately.
234561 (1 pc)
Electrical tape (Nitto 15)
12725
12642OS (set of
tubes)
12642OS (set of
tubes)
12642OS (set of
tubes)
17348S (by the
meter) or SPC
spare part No.
OTU-19
4103
Assemble the ozone destruction filter components as shown in Figure
11 on page 31.
30 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
1006-005
Figure 11
Ozone Destruction Filter
The following numbers refer to Figure 11 on page 31:
1
=
Catalyst
2
=
Ultra fiber
3
=
Funnel
4
=
Connector tube 1
5
=
Connector tube 2
6
=
Connector tube 3
7
=
Tape 1, 2, and 3 together with electrical tape.
Pump Test Unit
Table 7 on page 31 lists the equipment needed for the pump test unit.
Table 7
Equipment Required for Pump Test
Unit
Item Required
Vaisala Part
Number
Vacuum/pressure gauge and connection screw. Range
-1 ... 1.5 Bar, division 0.05 Bar. Includes connection
parts for measurement gauge to tubing.
Locking nut
Connector tube 1: soft vinyl tube approximately 60 cm
long, I.D. 1/8" (3.2 mm), O.D. 1/4" (6.4 mm)
Connector tube 2: soft silicon tube approximately 2 cm
long, inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm
15240
12642OS (set of
tubes)
12642OS (set of
tubes)
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 31
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 7
Equipment Required for Pump Test
Unit (Continued)
Item Required
Vaisala Part
Number
Connection tube 3: cut a piece of tubing from EEC
17348S (by the
sensor air inlet tubes to a length of approximately 3 cm, meter) or SPC
or order separately.
spare part No.
OTU-19
Set up the vacuum/pressure gauge as shown in Figure 12 on page 32.
0106-008
Figure 12
Vacuum/Pressure Gauge
The following numbers refer to Figure 12 on page 32:
1
=
Gauge and connection screw
2
=
Locking nut
3
=
Connector tube 1
4
=
Connector tube 2
5
=
Connector tube 3
Set up the pump unit following the steps below:
1.
Insert connector tube 1 into the locking nut (see number 3 in Figure
12 on page 32).
2.
Push the tube over the tip of the connection screw on the gauge
(number 1).
3.
Gently tighten the locking nut over the connector tube onto the
gauge (number 2).
32 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
NOTE
Be careful when attaching connector tube 1 to the connection screw
tip. Be sure to tighten the locking nut gently to avoid damaging or
tearing the connection tube. The condition of the connection tube can
be checked by opening the locking nut.
4.
Insert connector tube 2 (number 4) into connector tube 1 (number
3) by at least 5 mm.
5.
Finally, insert the connector tube 3 (number 5) into connector tube
2 (number 4) by at least 1 cm.
Laboratory Ware Set
Bottles and glassware are needed, for instance, for preparing and storing
sensing solutions, and for sensor cleaning. The set presented in Table 8
on page 33 is useful and can easily be obtained from any laboratory
ware dealer. The set can also be ordered from Vaisala by referring to the
part numbers listed in the table.
Table 8
Laboratory Ware Needed
Item
Pieces
Vaisala Part
Number
Beakers (Pyrex glass)
1 pc, volume 250 ml
(subdivision 50 ml)
1 pc, volume 50 ml
1 pc, volume 100 ml
(subdivision 1 ml)
1 pc, volume 1000 ml
1 pc, volume 500 ml
1 pc, volume 100 ml
2 pcs, volume 1000 ml
2 pcs, volume 100 ml
12721
2 pcs, mouth diameter 75 mm,
pipe 10 mm, for liquids, glass
1 pc, mouth diameter 65 mm,
pipe 10 mm, for powder,
polypropylene
3 pcs, polypropylene or steel
2 pcs, for powder weighing
12725
Cylinder (Pyrex glass)
Volumetric flasks with
stoppers (Pyrex glass)
Bottles with stoppers
(preferably colored
glass)
Funnels
Spatulas
Basins (polypropylene
or glass)
12720
12722
12724
214857
12723
12738 + 12740
12739 + 12740
12726
12729
12727
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 33
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 8
Laboratory Ware Needed (Continued)
Item
Pieces
Syringes with needle
Disposable; total volume 3 ml,
division. 0.1 ml (at least
0.5 ml). Plastic (Teflon)
2 pcs, Syringe
12736
2 pcs, Syringe needle
12737
1 pc, for room temperatures
HST12
Thermometer
Vaisala Part
Number
Ozone Chemicals
The chemicals used must be very pure, at least of Pro Analysis quality.
Table 9
Required Ozone Chemicals
Chemical Required
Amount
Vaisala Part
Number
KI
1 kg
12743
KBr
0.5 kg
12744
NaH2PO4·H2O
0.5 kg
12741
Na2HPO4·12H2O (or Na2HPO4·7H2O)
0.5 kg
12742
Methanol (CH3OH)
-
Glycerol
-
Acetone
-
34 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
Air Flow Meter
Table 10 on page 35 lists the equipment required for the Air Flow
Meter. Section Using the Air Flow Meter on page 35 explains how the
air flow meter is used in ozone sounding preparations. Figure 13 on
page 37 shows an example of an air flow meter.
Table 10
Equipment Required for Air Flow Meter
Item Required
Vaisala Part
Number
Air flow meter tube. Burette with filling tube, capacity
100 ml
Rubber bulb, capacity approximately from 50 to 80 ml
Burette stand with two bossheads and two clamps
12733
12734
12730 (stand),
12732 (bosshead),
12728 (clamp)
Stop-watch, accuracy at least 0.1 s
12784
Connector tube 1: soft silicon tube approximately 5 cm 12642OS (set of
long, inner diameter 6 mm, outer diameter 10 mm
tubes)
Connector tube 2: soft vinyl tube approximately 60 cm 12642OS (set of
long, I.D. 1/8" (3.2 mm), O.D. 1/4" (6.4 mm)
tubes)
Connector tube 3: soft silicon tube approximately 2 cm 12642OS (set of
long, inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm
tubes)
Dishwashing liquid: Add about one teaspoon of
dishwashing liquid and one teaspoon of glycerol to 1 dl
of water.
Using the Air Flow Meter
This procedure is meant to be carried out with no remarkable breaks
(that is, breaks lasting over two hours).
NOTE
To avoid contamination, note the following precautions:
Work in a clean environment with clean hands.
Never operate the pump without the ozone destruction filter or purified
air.
Do not use a sensor loaded with solutions if the sensor is not connected
to a powered interface (or if the anode and cathode wires are
connected).
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 35
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Arrange the air flow meter as shown in Figure 13 on page 37. The
procedure for air flow measurement is described below. The numbers
within brackets refer to the items in Figure 13 on page 37:
NOTE
1.
Fill the rubber bulb (4) and the flow meter tube with soap solution
(8) almost up to the filling tube of the flow meter tube.
2.
Connect the air flow meter to the sensor cathode air exhaust tube.
This is done by slipping the connector tube 3 (9) over the short
Teflon tube protruding from the top plug of the sensor cathode
chamber.
3.
With the radiosonde air pump operating, squeeze the rubber bulb
(4) slightly to cause several soap bubbles to rise up the flow meter
tube. Repeat the process several times, until the bubbles reach the
top of the tube without breaking.
4.
Now form only one bubble, and use a stop-watch to determine the
time (t) required for the bubble to rise from 0 to 100 ml up the flow
meter tube (5). Repeat the measurement three times to obtain a
mean value.
When the air flow is measured, make sure the sensor is charged with
the sensing solution.
36 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
1006-004
Figure 13
Air Flow Rate Measurement
The following numbers refer to Figure 13 on page 37:
1
=
Stand
2
=
Bosshead
3
=
Connector tube 1
4
=
Rubber bulb
5
=
Flow meter tube
6
=
Clamp
7
=
Connector tube 2
8
=
Dishwashing liquid
9
=
Connector tube 3
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 37
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Other Equipment and Material
Balance
The balance must fulfill the following requirements:
-
Measurement range must be from 0 to 500 g.
-
Accuracy required is 0.01 g.
Thermometer
A thermometer is needed for measuring air temperature. It can be a
mercury thermometer or an electrical thermometer.
The thermometer must be capable of measuring normal room
temperature, a suitable measurement range is between -2 and +50 °C.
The recommended thermometer subdivision is 0.1 or 0.2 °C.
Power Supply
A power supply rated at 5 to 18 VDC, 300 mA is required for the ozone
pump motor. Refer to the manufacturers’ manuals for details.
Protective Gloves
Use disposable gloves to avoid dust and other contaminants. The gloves
must be lint-free and made of artificial fabric or plastic. Note that
RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit does not include gloves.
38 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 2 ______________________________________ Product and System Component Overview
Expendables and Spare Parts
After establishing an ozone sounding site, check the availability of
expendables and spare parts. Making a list of these items is
recommendable. A large variety of spare parts is available from
Vaisala.
The list of expendables includes at least:
-
Radiosondes, interfaces
-
Sounding accessories (for example, balloons)
-
Ozone solution chemicals
-
Syringes, needles
-
Protective gloves
-
Triple-distilled or ion-changed water
See also Appendix E Checklist for Equipment and Supplies for Flight
Preparations on page 117.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 39
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
40 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
CHAPTER 3
CONSTRUCTING AN OZONE
SOUNDING
This chapter describes how to construct an ozone sounding.
WARNING
The chemicals involved in an ozone sounding can be harmful, and
must be handled with proper care. To ensure your working safety, take
all the necessary precautions before beginning the preparations for a
flight. Read the sensor manuals carefully. Follow the local laboratory
work practices, regulations, and waste management guidelines. Use
disposable gloves to avoid dust and other contaminants. The gloves
must be lint-free and made of artificial fabric or plastic. RSA411
Ozone Interface Kit does not include gloves.
Sounding Preparation Phases and Schedule
Perform the preparations preferably at temperatures between +20 and
+30 °C.
Preparing an ozone sounding consists of the following steps. See the
sections below for more information.
-
Preparations 7 to 3 Days Prior to Release on page 43.
-
Preparations on the Day of Release on page 46.
-
Preparations Just Before Release (2 - 0 Hours) on page 48.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 41
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
The ASOPOS panel recommends using the following as sensing
solutions:
SPC6A: 1.0%, KI, full buffer (STT1.0)
DTM: 0.5% KI, half buffer (SST0.5)
The recommendation is only meant for new ozone sounding stations.
The existing stations that perform long-term measurements must not
change their sensing solution type or ECC type.
The ASOPOS panel recommends recording three different background
currents:
NOTE
-
IB0: after 10 minutes of ozone-free air before exposure of ozone.
-
IB1: after 10 minutes of ozone-free air after exposure of ozone (5
μA ozone equivalent of 170 - 180 ppbv).
-
IB2: at launch site after 10 minutes of ozone-free air.
IB2 equals to Vaisala IBG = I0, used in Vaisala scripts.
42 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Preparations 7 to 3 Days Prior to Release
This phase consists of checking the overall performance of the ozone
sensor, and charging the sensor with the sensing solution. A Model
TSC-1 Ozonizer/Test Unit is used to check the overall sensor
performance.
The purpose of these preparations is to make sure that the ozone sensor
functions properly and can be used in an ozone sounding.
The limit values mentioned here are valid only for SPC ECC-6A ozone
sensor. For other ozone sensors, create and use a modified checklist.
WARNING
The chemicals involved in an ozone sounding can be harmful, and
must be handled with proper care. To ensure your working safety, take
all the necessary precautions before beginning the preparations for a
flight. Read the sensor manuals carefully. Follow the local laboratory
work practices, regulations, and waste management guidelines. Use
disposable gloves to avoid dust and other contaminants. The gloves
must be lint-free and made of artificial fabric or plastic. RSA411
Ozone Interface Kit does not include gloves.
NOTE
Make sure to perform the initial preparations early enough, from 1
week to 3 days before the ozone sounding release. This must be done
to attain a low sensor background current and a fast sensor response to
ozone.
Preparation Steps
To enable smooth operation, place all the necessary parts on a table, but
leave some free space in front of the ozonizer, if necessary.
1.
Write down the following information:
Date: _______ Station: _________ Operator: __________
2.
Check the label on the flight box and record the information here.
Ozone sensor number:
Manufacturer:
Date of manufacture:
Pump pressure:____________ in Hg
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 43
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Pump voltage:____________ V DC
Pump current:____________ mA
Flow rate:_____________s/100 ml
3.
Connect the ozone sensor to the ozonizer (motor, output, sensor
leads).
a.
Turn on the ozonizer.
b.
Record IB0 before applying any ozone to the sensor:
IB0_____________μA
4.
Condition the pump and the dry sensor with HI O3 for 30 minutes.
5.
After 10 minutes of HI O3, check the following values from the
ozonizer:
Measured
Limit values
Pump
voltage
_________ V
12 ... 13 V
Pump
current
_________ mA
SPC: < 115 mA; DTM: <100 mA
Head
pressure
_________ Pa
> 670 hPa app. 20 in Hg
Vacuum
(this is a
minus
value)
_________ Pa
> 670 hPa app. 20 in Hg
(Normal head pressure and vacuum values are 700 ... 900 hPa)
6.
Turn off HI O3. Run NO O3 for 5 minutes.
7.
Next, you must charge sensor cathode and anode. Use a different
syringe for cathode and anode.
Charge sensor cathode with solution 3.0 cm3 and wait 2 minutes.
Charge sensor anode with solution 1.5 cm3.
8.
The current starts to decrease. Sensor background current after 10
minutes (typically the value is under 1.5 μA) on NO O3:
____________μA
9.
Run on moderate ozone (about 5 μA) for 10 minutes.
44 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
10. Check the sensor response to LO O3. It should be about 5 μA.
11. Run on NO O3 for 10 minutes. Record the background current:
IB1____________μA
12. Switch everything off and short-circuit the ozone sensor wires.
13. Put the ozone sensor back to the flight box and store it in a dark,
clean-air environment at a temperature of 20 ... 25 °C until it is
used.
After these preparations, a sensor cleaning process takes place, whereby
both half cells (anode and cathode) and ionbridge get in balance.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 45
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Preparations on the Day of Release
Preparation Steps
NOTE
The CAL measurements are applicable when SPC’s TSC-1 Ozonizer/
Test unit is used. They can be ignored with DMT’s ozonizer.
1.
Write down the following information:
Date: ________ Station:_________ Operator: __________
Ozonesonde number: _______________
Manufacturer: _______________
Date of manufacture: _______________
2.
Run the ozone sensor motor for 5 minutes on NO O3 (optional).
3.
Change cathode solution in SONDE (S) and CAL (calibrator, C;
with TSC-1 only) sensors:
S: _______ ml
C: _______ml
The ASOPOS panel recommends the following:
a.
Dump both solutions carefully (cathode and anode).
b.
Recharge cathode cell with 3.0 cm3 cathode solution.
c.
Recharge anode cell with 1.5 cm3 anode solution.
4.
Condition SONDE (S) and CAL (C; with TSC-1 only.) NO O3 for
10 minutes.
5.
Sensor’s background currents (< 0.2 μA. ASOPOS
recommendation 0.05 μA):
bc = _______ μA
i
bs= ________ μA (<0.05 μA; defined as IB0 by ASOPOS)
i
46 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
6.
Condition SONDE and CAL (with TSC-1 only) sensors with 5±0.2
μA O3 for 5 minutes.
Measure:
SONDE sensor air flow rate:
ts =________ , ________ , ________ , ________ , ________ s
CAL sensor air flow rate:
tc =________ ,
________, ________ , ________ , ________ s
Troom = ______°C; Proom =______ hPa; RHroom = ______%
7.
After 5 minutes of conditioning with about 5 μA O3:
ic = μA ________ is = μA________
With NO O3, check the sensor response test, 30 seconds:
i0.51c: = ________μA i0.5s: μA ________0.5 minute
i1c: = ________μA i1s: μA ________1 minute
i2c: = ________μA i2s: μA _______ 3 minutes
i3c: = ________μA i3s: μA _______ 5 minutes
i10c: = ________μA i10s: μA ______ 10 minutes (equals to IB1)
Record cell current at t = 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes (as
recommended by ASOPOS i10s = IB1 background current).
Computed for calibration acceptance check out:
(ic-ibc) tc = ________ (is-ibs) ts = ______ (agree to within 5%. If
necessary, take corrective action to get the desired result. See
Science Pump Corporation’s Operator’s Manual for further
instructions.)
i1c = ________ <0.20 (ic-ibc)______
i1s = ________ <0.20 (is-ibs)______
or, alternatively with DMT ozonizer:
i1s = _______ <0.20 (is-IB1)
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 47
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Preparations Just Before Release (2 - 0 Hours)
These preparations must be performed from 2 to 0 hours before the
sounding balloon release. Table 11 on page 48 presents the workflow
included in preparing the radiosonde and OIF411 for a sounding with
sounding software MW41 45 minutes before the launch. The steps
below provide more detailed information on the preparations.
Table 11
Time to
Launch in
Minutes
Ozone Sensor Interface
OIF411
45
Select battery
type and any
supplemental
heat source
needed, based
on the previous
flight’s
performance.
Start running
the ECC on
ozone-free air
using an
external power
supply for the
pump motor.
Record
background
current.
Connect
battery to
ozone sensor
pump (activate
battery if
needed), and
heater battery,
if required.
Take the
ozonesonde
construction
outside to
acclimatize and
record surface
ozone.
30
20
15
10
0
Workflow for Ozone Sounding Preparations 45
Minutes Before Launch
Radiosonde
RS41
Sounding
Balloon and
Software MW41 Accessories
Attach interface Attach
Start MW41
board to pump radiosonde
software.
frame.
holder to
styrofoam flight
box.
Activate and
condition
radiosonde.
Connect
interface to
RS41.
Fill the balloon
and attach the
detainer/
unwinder/
parachute.
Configure
software for the
ozone flight.
Record
background
current.
Attach
radiosonde to
the flight box.
Prepare the
radiosonde for
flight. Put ECC
into to flight box if
it is not there yet
(for prewarming
in cold weather
flights).
Check telemetry Attach
data.
radiosonde to the
balloon.
Check telemetry Release the
data.
balloon.
48 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Starting Preparations
1.
Write down the following information:
Date: ________ Station :_________ Operator: __________
Ozonesonde number: _______________
Manufacturer: _______________
Date of manufacture: _______________
Radiosonde serial number: _______________
OIF411 serial number: _______________
Attaching Radiosonde Holder to
Flight Box
Equipment and tools needed:
-
A pen for marking the positions of the holder screws.
-
A screwdriver for tightening the screws.
-
Radiosonde holder with three plastic dowels and three screws,
included in Ozone Interface Kit RSA411.
Figure 14 on page 50 shows how the radiosonde holder is attached
to the flight box wall. See also the steps below.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 49
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 14
Radiosonde Holder Attachment
The following numbers refer to Figure 14 on page 50:
1
=
Radiosonde holder
2
=
Dowels
3
=
Screws
Figure 15 on page 51 shows the radiosonde holder measurements and
its position in the flight box wall. In the figures presented in this section,
the holder is positioned according to Vaisala recommendation,
according to which the radiosonde sensor boom is above the flight box
wall and the holder is attached on top of the sticker.
50 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
1402-102
Figure 15
Radiosonde Holder Measurements (a) and Position
(b)
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 51
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
1.
The holder is attached on top of the sticker on the flight box wall.
Press the radiosonde holder against the flight box wall and mark
the holder screw positions with a pen.
1403-167
Figure 16
Marking the Positions of the Holder Screws
52 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
2.
Use a screwdriver to insert the dowels where the holder screw
marks are. Use the three dowels included in the RSA411 kit.
1403-168
Figure 17
Inserting the Dowels
3.
Remove the tape cover before attaching the holder. The tape makes
the radiosonde holder attachment extra secure.
4.
Hold the radiosonde holder against the tape and use a screwdriver
to attach it to the box wall with the screws provided in the RSA411
kit.
Attaching OIF411 to SPC’s Ozone
Sensor Frame
Figure 18 on page 54 shows how OIF411 is attached to Science Pump
Corporation’s (SPC) Model ECC-6A ozone sensor frame. See also the
steps below. You do not need any extra equipment to attach OIF411 to
the ozone sensor frame, the wing nuts needed are included in OIF411.
For instructions on attaching OIF411 to Droplet Measurements
Technologies (DMT) Model Z ozone sensor frame, see section
Attaching OIF411 to DMT’s Ozone Sensor Frame on page 56.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 53
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
CAUTION
Keep the sensor in an upright position. The sensor contains liquid.
Figure 18
Attaching OIF411 to Ozone Sensor
The following numbers refer to Figure 18 on page 54:
1
=
Wing nuts
2
=
Ozone sensor frame
3
=
OIF411
To connect the ozone sensor frame and Ozone Interface Board OIF411:
1.
OIF411 is equipped with two wing nuts at the back. Attach OIF411
to the ozone sensor with the wing nuts. See Figure 19 on page 55
for an illustration.
54 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
1310-101
Wing Nuts on the Back of OIF411
1310-102
OIF411 Being Attached to the Ozone Sensor
Frame
Figure 19
Figure 20
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 55
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
2.
Tighten the wing nuts.
Figure 21
OIF411 Wing Nuts Tightened
Attaching OIF411 to DMT’s Ozone
Sensor Frame
For instructions on attaching OIF411 to Droplet Measurements
Technologies’ (DMT) ozone sensor frame, see the steps below. In
addition to OIF411 and the ozone sensor frame, you need the following
equipment:
CAUTION
-
Two M3 nuts included in RSA411 Ozone Interface Kit
-
Drill with applicable drill bits
-
Socket wrench for M3 nuts
-
Screwdriver
Keep the sensor in an upright position. The sensor contains liquid.
Figure 22 on page 57 shows Droplet Measurements Technologies
Model Z ozone sensor frame.
56 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
1402-103
Figure 22
Droplet Measurements Model Z Sensor
To connect the ozone sensor frame and Ozone Interface Board OIF411:
1.
Remove the wing nuts attached to OIF411.
2.
Use a drill to make the holes in the ozone sensor frame bigger.
1405-007
Figure 23
3.
Drilling the Ozone Sensor Frame Holes
Attach OIF411 to the ozone sensor frame with the two M3 hex
nuts, a screw driver and a socket wrench. Tighten the nuts.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 57
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 24
Ozone Sensor Attached to the DMT Frame with
M3 Nuts
Connecting Ozone Sensor Wires to
OIF411
Connect the ozone sensor wires to Ozone Interface Board OIF411.
The terminals on OIF411 are marked with a sticker attached on the card.
See Figure 25 on page 59 for an example. The numbers in the figure
refer to Table 12 on page 59.
58 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Figure 25
OIF411 Terminals Marked on Sticker
Table 12
OIF411 Terminals
Number
Connection
Cable Code
1
2
Radiosonde interface
Add-on sensor IN for optional
XDATA sensors
Pump motor
Ozone pump motor battery
Heating battery
Extra terminal
SPC sensor
W = white cable
B = blue cable
CBL210224
3
4
5
6
7
CBL210282
CBL210225
CBL210295
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 59
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
The white wire from the anode is connected to the terminal on the
corner of the interface marked with W. The blue wire from the cathode
is connected to the terminal marked with B.
Figure 26
Connecting Sensor Wires to OIF411
60 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Preparing the Radiosonde and
OIF411
CAUTION
To avoid any problems with the sounding, do not use the sensor loaded
(pump-powered) with solutions, if the sensor is not connected to a
powered interface, or if the anode and cathode wires are connected.
The pump is allowed to be used only with NO-OZONE, or when the
destruction filter is connected. Never use HI-OZONE.
Connecting Ozone Sensor Pump to OIF411
-
Cable needed: CBL210282
Connect the cable to the OIF411 terminal marked Pump.
Figure 27
Connecting Ozone Sensor Pump Cable
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 61
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Connecting Ozone Pump Battery to OIF411
-
Cable needed: CBL210225
Connect the ozone pump battery to OIF411 terminal marked Battery
(12 ... 20 V). At a later stage, place the battery in the empty
compartment on the side of the flight box.
Figure 28
Connecting Ozone Sensor Battery Cable
62 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Connecting Thermistor Cable to Ozone Sensor
Pump
Insert the thermistor into the hole in the pump base of the ozone sensor
by pushing the thermistor hose into the hole, as shown in Figure 29 on
page 63. In the SPC sensor, the hole is below the air outlet of the pump.
0901-013
Figure 29
SPC ECC-6A with Thermistor Assembled
In the DMT sensor, the temperature measuring hole is on the opposite
side of the pump (and is connected through the frame).
0401-221
Figure 30
DMT Model Z with OIF411 Temperature Sensor
Assembled
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 63
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Connecting Additional Sensor Cable to OIF411
If you are using an additional sensor in the sounding, use the terminal
marked Add-on sensor IN for the additional sensor cable.
Connecting Heating Battery to OIF411 (Optional)
-
Cable needed: CBL210295
The heating battery is used in extreme conditions. Heating turns on
automatically when the ozone pump temperature drops under +5 °C,
and turns off when the temperature rises above +7 °C. There is no risk
of overheating the box. However, the applicability of the heating should
be checked on each site separately.
Connect the heating battery wire to the Heating battery terminal on
OIF411. The red wire is connected to the terminal marked with +, and
the black wire is connected to the terminal marked with -.
Figure 31
Connecting Heating Battery
64 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Attach two-sided tape to the side and bottom of the battery to attach it
to the sensor frame.
1405-009
Figure 32
Two-Sided Tape Attached to the Battery
Make sure to pass the battery wires between the ozone sensor frame
wall and the ozone sensor top cover and make sure that they are not
twisted or under the sensor frame. See Figure 33 on page 65 for an
illustration.
1405-010
Figure 33
Battery Wires Running Between the Ozone Sensor
Frame Wall and the Ozone Sensor
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 65
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Preparing the Radiosonde with
Ground Equipment
CAUTION
To be able to prepare an ozone sounding with MW41, you must import
and activate the following scripts: OzoneCalculations.py,
OzoneMain.py, and OIF411.py. The scripts are included on the
MW41 installation DVD, in folder ScriptLibrary\CalcOzone. The
ozone sounding cannot be completed if any of these scripts is missing.
Import the scripts to the same Script Group and select OzoneMain.py
as the main script. Make sure that Script group is set active. You do not
need to set a command line argument. For more instructions, see
MW41 on-line help.
CAUTION
1.
Start MW41 sounding software, if you have not started it yet, and
log in.
2.
Attach the ozone destruction filter to the pump inlet tube.
3.
Place the RS41 radiosonde on the ground check device. The
radiosonde is switched on when you place it on the ground check
device. The message "Preparation in progress" will be displayed in
MW41.
Do not connect the Ozone Interface Board OIF411 to the radiosonde
while the radiosonde is placed on the ground check device. Connecting
OIF411 during the ground check will interrupt the preparations and
MW41 will return to the Radiosonde selection window.
4.
Before the preparation phase is completed, scroll the MW41 page
down to the Special sensor window, and select Ozone from the
drop-down list.
5.
Fill in the information needed and click Apply.
During this phase, the radiosonde LED light is red, but you can
ignore it. It does not indicate an error at this point.
NOTE
The ASOPOS panel recommends 3.0 cm3 for cathode solution
volume.
66 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
1312-002
Figure 34
Ozone Sensor Information
During the ground check preparations, the radiosonde status in
MW41 might display an error with the message "No add-on sensor
data (filtered)". You can ignore this message and proceed with the
preparations, it has no effect on the ozone sounding.
1312-003
Figure 35
Radiosonde Preparation in Progress
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 67
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
6.
When the message "Waiting for background current" is displayed,
remove the radiosonde from the ground check device.
1312-004
Figure 36
7.
CAUTION
Waiting for Background Current
Connect OIF411 to the radiosonde using cable CBL210224. Do as
explained below:
Do not touch or hit the radiosonde sensors on the sensor boom. By
carefully handling the radiosonde and the sensor boom, you ensure
that the radiosonde functions properly during the sounding.
Figure 37
Do Not Touch the Radiosonde Sensors
68 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Connect the radiosonde cable to the interface terminal marked
Radiosonde.
Figure 38
Connecting Radiosonde Cable
Connect the interface to the radiosonde:
First check that none of the pins on the radiosonde interface are
deformed. After this, firmly push the connector to the interface
connector pins located inside the radiosonde, see Figure 40 on page
70 for an example.
1310-107
Figure 39
Checking Radiosonde Interface Connector
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 69
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
1310-105
Figure 40
OIF411 Connected to Radiosonde Interface
Connector
After the connection, the radiosonde LED light is blinking green.
8.
CAUTION
Attach the radiosonde to the holder in the flight box as instructed
below.
Do not touch or hit the sensors on the sensor boom. By carefully
handling the radiosonde and the sensor boom, you ensure that the
radiosonde functions properly during the sounding.
Figure 41
Do Not Touch the Radiosonde Sensors
70 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
NOTE
Detailed capacity information on the radiosonde battery is available in
the radiosonde data sheet. OIF411 interface reduces the battery
operating time by approximately 2 to 4%. If there are any delays in the
sounding preparations or before the sounding starts while the
radiosonde is powered from the battery, you can switch off RS41 by
pressing the power switch. Switch the radiosonde back on before
launching the balloon.
Hold the radiosonde holder with your other hand and place the
radiosonde’s bottom end to the holder first. See Figure 42 on page
71.
1403-170
Figure 42
Attaching Radiosonde to the Holder
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 71
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Use your finger to push the top part of the holder against the
radiosonde so that the radiosonde is tightly attached to the holder.
403-171
Figure 43
1403-172
Figure 44
Pushing the Holder into Place
Radiosonde RS41 Attached to the Holder
If you attach the radiosonde in a lower position than shown here,
push the holder against the flight box wall.
72 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
9.
After attaching the radiosonde, place the ozone sensor into the
flight box. In this step, item a. below explains inserting SPC ozone
sensor to the flight box. See item b. for DMT sensor instructions.
a.
1403
For an example of the SPC sensor inside the flight box, see
Figure 45 on page 73. Make sure that the wires and tubes are
led through the grooves in the flight box, indicated with the
numbers in the figure.
Figure 45
SPC Ozone Sensor inside the Flight Box
The following numbers refer to Figure 45 on page 73:
1
=
Ozone sensor placed inside the flight box
2
=
Pump motor battery wires led through the groove
3
=
Air tube led through the groove
b.
For an example of the DMT sensor inside the flight box, see
Figure 46 on page 74. Make sure that the wires and tubes are
led through the grooves in the flight box.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 73
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
CAUTION
In case of DMT sensor, make sure to place the flight box cover
(number 1 in Figure 46 on page 74) and the ozone sensor inside the box
(number 2) in the correct position and leave enough headspace for the
pump. The cover must not touch the pump as it might prevent the
pump from running. Number 3 indicates the radiosonde position on the
flight box wall.
Figure 46
DMT Ozone Sensor inside the Flight Box, Cover
About to be Closed
The following numbers refer to Figure 46 on page 74:
1
=
Flight box cover
2
=
Ozone sensor placed inside the flight box
3
=
Radiosonde RS41-SG
Optionally, you can prepare the ozone sensor outside the flight
box. The GAW report 201 recommends setting the ozone sensor
into the flight box during the measuring of the background current
prior to the flight, but, for practical reasons, you can also prepare
the ozone sensor outside the flight box.
10. Do not connect the pump motor wires to the battery yet, leave the
connectors outside the flight box.
11. In this step, item a. below explains finalizing the flight box for SPC
sensor. See item b. for DMT sensor instructions.
a.
In case of SPC sensor, close the cover of the flight box and
tape the seam between the cover and the body of the box. Do
74 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
not tape the hanging strings. See Figure 53 on page 81 for an
example.
NOTE
Do not tape over the air outlet and air intake tube, as the measuring gas
must be allowed to move in and out of the sensor box. See Figure 47
on page 75 for an illustration.
Figure 47
Air Outlet Hole and Air IntakeTube Not Taped Over
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 75
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
b.
1405-012
In case of DMT sensor, it is a good idea to attach the flight box
string with another string in two places (indicated with the
arrows in Figure 47 on page 75) so that the string does not hit
the radiosonde sensor boom during the flight.
Figure 48
Supported Flight Box String in DMT Ozone
Sensor Flight Box
12. With ozone destruction filter on or zero ozone gas for sensor
background current values, run the ozone sensor for 10 minutes
and record the cell current IB2:
Record IB2: ________μA
NOTE
The IB2 value equals to Vaisala IBG = I0, used in Vaisala scripts.
NOTE
Background current is measured after the flight box is closed: Close
the cover of the flight box and tape the seam between the cover and the
body of the box. Do not tape the hanging strings. Do not tape over the
air outlet and air intake tube, as the measuring gas must be allowed to
move in and out of the sensor box. See Figure 53 on page 81 and
Figure 47 on page 75.
76 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Always record the value indoors with destruction filter or ozonefree air connected, and after inserting the ozone sensor to the flight
box.
At this stage, it is recommended to power the ozone sensor with an
external power source, not with the ozone sensor battery.
13. MW41 proposes a background current. Use the value by clicking
Copy. You can either use the Copy button or enter the sensor
background current in MW41 and click Apply.
1403-192
Figure 49
Entering Sensor Background Current in MW41
14. In the Monitoring window, go to the Tabular data tab and select
Raw ozone from the drop-down list. Make sure that ozone data is
coming through, showing reasonable ozone current and ozone
flight box temperature.
1403-169
Figure 50
Viewing Raw Ozone Data in MW41
The following information is displayed:
-
Time: time in seconds
-
Raw O3: ozone partial pressure
-
Current
-
Box temperature
-
Ozone pump current
15. Turn off the pump and either take off the ozone destruction filter or
shut off ozone-free air flow.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 77
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
16. Before starting the flight, connect the ozone sensor pump to its
power supply as instructed in section Activating Pump Motor
Battery on page 80. Now, continue with section Constructing
Sounding Accessories on page 78.
Constructing Sounding
Accessories
Note that different installations are used depending on the components
of the sounding. Always use an unwinder. An RSU stabilizer must be
used if other than Vaisala-specific Totex parachute models are used.
Before you begin, see the general instructions and various sounding
accessories presented in Vaisala Guide to Sounding Preparations
Technical Reference.
The sounding construction depends on the radiosonde type and if either
of the following is used:
NOTE
-
Radar reflector
-
Parachute
Vaisala recommends always to use the parachute in ozone soundings.
1.
When using a Totex parachute, attach the unwinder to the ribbon
loop below the parachute spreader.
As the accidental breaking of the unwinder hook might cause the
ozone sounding box to fall with great speed, Vaisala recommends
that you tie the unwinder to the parachute spreader with a string for
extra security. Thread the string through the hole in the unwinder
hook (circled in Figure 51 on page 79) and tie it around the
parachute spreader. Make sure the string is slightly longer and
looser than the ribbon loop.
Another option is to prevent the unwinder hook from opening
during the flight by tying extra-strong tape such as glass cloth tape,
or equivalent, around the unwinder hook. If you do not have this
kind of strong tape available, tie the unwinder with a string to the
spreader, as explained above. See Figure 51 on page 79. If you like,
you can also use both options at the same time.
78 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Figure 51
CAUTION
Securing Unwinder with String (Left) or Tape
(Right)
For extra security, Vaisala recommends that you tie the radiosonde
unwinder to the Totex parachute spreader with a string, or tie extrastrong tape around the unwinder hook .
2.
Assemble the unwinder detainer to the radiosonde unwinder by
pressing the detainer head into the radiosonde unwinder.
3.
If you are using other than a Vaisala-specific Totex parachute
model, or a radar reflector, connect the RSU stabilizer to the
unwinder and prepare the balloon string connection. See Figure 52
on page 79 for an illustration.
Figure 52
RSU Stabilizer Attached to the Unwinder
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 79
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
When DMT Model Z ozone sensor is used, the unwinder string is
firmly attached to the ring hanger.
4.
NOTE
Continue sounding preparations by tying the flight box string to the
unwinder stick.
Balance the radiosonde payload by moving the string knot on the
bottom of the flight box, and secure it with a piece of tape.
Activating Pump Motor Battery
NOTE
NOTE
Ozone sensors may also use water-activated batteries, which have their
own separate activation instructions. Follow the battery
manufacturers’ instructions.
1.
Activate the ozone sensor battery 20 minutes prior to release, and
pack the battery into the compartment in the flight box. Check
telemetry.
2.
Take the flight box outside and connect the free-hanging battery
cable with the ozone sensor battery cable. As the pump is quite
noisy, you should be able to hear the ozone sensor pump running.
Do not tape over the battery compartment, as the fumes from the
battery must be allowed to move out of the box. See Figure 53 on page
81 for an example.
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Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
1403-174
Figure 53
Taped Flight Box
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 81
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Recording the Surface Ozone
NOTE
The ASOPOS panel recommends the following: It is important that,
before the launch, the ozone sensor has sampled surface air for at least
5 minutes; 10 minutes is recommended.
In the MW41 Monitoring window, go to the Tabular data tab and
select Raw ozone from the drop-down list. Make sure that ozone data
is coming through, showing reasonable ozone current and ozone flight
box temperature.
1403-169
Figure 54
Viewing Raw Ozone Data in MW41
Launching the Balloon
Before launching the balloon, check the MW41 user interface to see that
ozone sensor data is received. When MW41 shows the message "Ready
for release", you can launch the sounding balloon.
After the release, check that the ozone data is stable in MW41.
82 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 3 _____________________________________________ Constructing an Ozone Sounding
Recording Post-Launch Data
After launching the balloon, enter the surface observation data in
MW41. MW41 user interface shows the appropriate data. Use the free
text field for any additional data you wish to store in the database and
be available for messages.
You can also write down the information here:
Launch time:
Psurf = ________ hPa
Tsurf = ________ °C
Usurf = ________ % RH
Surface wind speed: ________m/s
Wind direction: ________
Sky condition: _________________________________________
Other information: ______________________________________
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 83
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
84 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
CHAPTER 4
OZONE CALCULATION
This chapter describes ozone calculation in detail.
The ozone data is combined with meteorological radiosonde data:
pressure (P), temperature (T) and relative humidity (U) in the ground
equipment. The measuring sample interval (measures each sensor once)
of Radiosonde RS41-SG is 1 second. OIF411 is scanned in phase with
the radiosonde PTU measuring sequence. Therefore, all the measured
data is synchronized.
Averaging and Eliminating Irrelevant Measuring
Results
Noise filtering helps to eliminate erroneous data. Errors may originate
from various different phenomena, for example, from electrical spikes.
The filtering is made by calculating the median of a given number of
consecutive samples. The median is the middlemost sample in the order
of magnitude. This algorithm cuts all remarkably higher and lower
measurement results compared with other measurement results near the
measurement (in a given time window). The filtering window (the
number of consecutive samples, where the median is made) is given to
the ground equipment during ozone sounding preparation.
The median calculation algorithm is well-defined for odd values only:
number of filtering window length (1, 3, 5, 7, ...) (number of
measurement samples in the window). Therefore, the filtering window
is defined in the ground equipment as the window radius; from the
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 85
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
middle to the last sample, or, equally, from the middle to the first
sample. In other words, the window radius indicates how many samples
before and after the corresponding sample will be taken with in the
filtering window. The number of samples where the median is
calculated is as follows (sample radius = window radius):
Filter Window Length = 2 × Window Radius + 1
The sample radius is the value given for the ground equipment. If the
windows radius is defined as an Integer, the filter window is always an
odd integer and the median algorithm is well-defined.
The ozone sensor response time is typically about 20 seconds, as
indicated in the GAW report 201 (see Appendix D Performance Review
Literature on page 119 for details). To avoid cutting real ozone values
of the measurement results, the median filtering window length must be
clearly shorter than the sensor’s response time. Note that the length is
defined as the amount of samples. Therefore, different values for
radiosondes with different sample rates must be used. A typical value
for the window radius for RS41 is 4 (filtering window = 9 seconds).
The median filtering algorithm is disabled by setting the window radius
to 0.
Ozone Partial Pressure Calculation
The ozone sensor operating principles are explained in detail in the
sensor manufacturer manuals. To clarify the ozone calculation, the
operation of the SPC ozone sensor ECC6A is explained here in brief.
Ozone Sensor Operating Principle
The ozone sensor used within the ozonesonde is an iodine-iodide redox
electrochemical concentration cell. It is made of two bright platinum
electrodes immersed in potassium iodide solutions of different
concentrations, contained in separate cathode and anode chambers,
fabricated from polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE resin). The
chambers are linked together with an ion bridge that serves as an ion
pathway and retards mixing of the cathode and anode electrolytes,
thereby preserving their concentrations. Driving emf for the cell is
derived from a difference of potassium iodide concentrations present in
the two half cells. See Figure 55 on page 87.
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Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
06-014
Figure 55
Electrochemical Cell Construction
A chemical reaction starts as soon as ozone (in air) flows into the
cathode solution. The reaction is an iodide-iodine redox reaction. The
current can be measured when the switch S is closed. R is the load
resistance of the circuit.
Ozone Sensor Reactions
The cell system is shown in Figure 55 on page 87. Platinum electrodes
are chemically inert, and do not take part in chemical reactions.
Electrochemical reactions take place in the boundary layers of the
electrodes. As soon as air that contains O3 molecules is bubbled through
the cathode solution, the following total reaction occurs:
2 KI + 03 + H2O -> 2 KOH + I2 + 02
Iodine, I2, is formed and the I2 concentration of the solution starts to
increase. If the external circuit is closed (switch S), reaction 1 is
followed by reactions 2 and 3.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 87
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
In the cathode chamber:
3 I - -> I3 - + 2 eIn the anode chamber:
I2 + 2 e- -> 2 I These chemical reactions result in the following statement:
ONE O3 MOLECULE CAUSES A CURRENT OF TWO
ELECTRONS
The current is measured with the OIF411 interface.
NOTE
The reaction occurs with all oxidants (such as NO2). The chemical
reaction in sensor chambers is affected by the sensor dimensions, air
bubbling rate, the total liquid volume of the sensor, and the
temperature of the sensor solution. These factors introduce some basic
errors and variance.
Calculation of Local Ozone Values
The partial pressure of the ozone is a measure for local ozone
concentration. Sometimes ppmv values are used. Basic principles for
this step of the calculations are given in the sensor manufacturer's
manuals. See Related Manuals on page 11. As each molecule of ozone
creates a current of two electrons, ozone concentration is:
88 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
where:
C
=
ozone concentration in mmol 1-1
F
=
9.6485 × 104 C (mol)-1 (Faraday constant)
I
=
measured current in μA
t
=
pumping time for 100 ml of air (seconds)
The partial pressure of ozone (P3) is:
R
P 3 = C ˜ R ˜ T air = ------------------------------- ˜ I ˜ T air t
F ˜ 2 ˜ 100ml
R = 8.31451 JK-1 mol-1 (Molar gas constant)
Finally:
–4
P 3 = 4.3087 ˜ 10 I – I BG ˜ T p ˜ t ˜ C ef ˜ C ref
where
P3
=
partial pressure of ozone in mPa
I
=
measured ozone current in μA
IBG =
current caused by oxidants other than ozone (mainly O2) in
μA (IBG equals to IB2).
Tp
=
measured airflow temperature in K from pump base.
t
=
pumping time for 100 ml of air in seconds
Cef
=
correction due to reduced ambient pressure for pump
Cref =
NOTE
additional correction factor
IBG used in this manual is equal to I0 used in the Vaisala scripts, and
IB2 used in the GAW report 201, and the ASOPOS panel
recommendations.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 89
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
Each ozone sensor manufacturer has their own recommendations for
calculating IBG, Tp, and Cef. See Related Manuals on page 11.
Background Current Correction (IBG)
Background current correction (IBG) is caused by oxidants other than
ozone (mainly O2). Because the concentration of ozone without any
additional oxidants needs to be measured, the background current has to
be deducted from the measurement current.
The amount of oxidants (mainly oxygen) will decrease during sounding
when ambient pressure decreases. The background current IBG is
counted from the following equation recommended for the SPC ECC6A sensor.
2
A0 + A1 u P + A2 u P - u I0
I BG = ----------------------------------------------------------------2
A0 + A1 u P 0 + A2 u P 0 I0
=
Background current I0 is measured using ozone
destruction filter through which air is pumped during the
sounding preparation activities, just before release
P
=
ambient pressure in hPa
P0
=
ambient pressure when Io is measured in hPa ~ ground
pressure
A0
=
0.00122504
A1
=
0.0001241115
A2
=
-2.687066 × 10-8
The Droplet Measurement Technologies Model Z sensor
recommended correction is constant:
IBG = Io
when Io is measured just before release during sounding setup
configuration.
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Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
By setting the background current Io = 0, the background current
correction is disabled.
The ASOPOS panel recommends the use of a constant, pressureindependent IB2 in the basic equation to determine the ozone partial
pressure throughout the entire vertical profile. Pressure-dependent
background can be done by:
IO = (P/P0) x IB2
As a Vaisala equation, this is:
IBG = (P/P0) x IO
Pumping Time for 100 ml of Air (t)
The pumping time is measured during sounding preparations. The value
is entered in the ground equipment during sounding preparations.
Measured Airflow Temperature (TP)
All sensors use measured values in a Vaisala application.
Pump Efficiency Correction (Cef)
The efficiency of the SPC Model 6A Ozonesonde air sampling pump
decreases with altitude. Calculated ozone partial pressures must,
therefore, be corrected for the efficiency loss. Correcting factors for
Model 6A pumps, with ECC sensor cathodes filled with 2.5 cm3
sensing solution and 3.0 cm3 sensing solution, are shown in Table 13 on
page 92, respectively. At pressure level (P) the value of Cef is calculated
using linear interpolation as a function of pressure.
NOTE
The ASOPOS panel recommends the use of 3.0 cm3 only.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 91
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 13
Ozone Partial Pressure Correction Factors
Ozone Partial Pressure
Correction Factor Cef
Atmospheric
pressure hPa
2.0
3.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
50.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
500.0
1000.0
Sensor cathode solution volume
2.5 cm3
1.160
1.124
1.087
1.054
1.033
1.024
1.015
1.010
1.007
1.005
1.002
1.000
Sensor cathode solution
volume 3.0 cm3
1.171
1.131
1.092
1.055
1.032
1.022
1.015
1.011
1.008
1.006
1.004
1.000
For other sensor manufacturers, the pump correction is very similar to
the SPC ozone sensor; only the table values differ.
For Model Z, use the following table:
Table 14
Ozone Partial Pressure Correction Factors
P/hPa
Cef
≤3
5
7
10
15
20
30
50
70
100
150
≥200
1.24
1.124
1.087
1.066
1.048
1.041
1.029
1.018
1.013
1.007
1.002
1
92 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
Additional Correction Factor (Cref)
It might be necessary to scale the ozone measurement values with an
additional correction factor. For instance, if another method (such as
light absorption) is usable for measuring total ozone concentration,
partial pressure values can be corrected to fit the inferred total ozone
value with the total ozone measurement in question.
This can be done in the ground equipment software by modifying one
of the scaling calibration coefficients of the sensor. Preferably, the
Pumping time for 100 ml of air is used for this correction.
tcorrected = t × Cref
Total Ozone Calculation
Total ozone is the integrated ozone in a column, extending from the
bottom to the top of the atmosphere. Thus, it is the sum of the total
ozone measured from the sounding and the estimated residual ozone
(for example, total ozone after burst).
TOTALOZONE = ': S + ': R
where
': S
= Total ozone from the sounding
': R
= Residual total ozone
In the software used in Vaisala equipment, the results of total ozone
calculation are in Dobson Units (DU).
For further information on total ozone calculation, see Chapter 3 Ozone
Calculation on page 85.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 93
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Total Ozone from Sounding
The total ozone from the sounding is calculated by summing up the
amount of ozone in the layers between two measurement points as
expressed in the equation below. When using the units indicated in the
list below, the equation gives the total ozone in units of grams per
square meter (g/m2).
H3
': s = ----- ³ p 3 d ln p i =
g
pi
H 3 p 3i + p 3i + l § p i ·
----------------------------------- ln ----------¦
© p i + 1¹
g2
i
where:
H3
= 1.6571, ratio of molecular masses of ozone and air
g
= 9.80665 m/s2, acceleration of gravity
pi ... pi+n
= Ambient pressure, [hPa]
i
= Index for a measurement point
p3i ... p3i+n = Ozone partial pressure [mPa]
M3
= 48.00 g/mol, molar mass of ozone
When the constants are inserted into the equation, it reduces to:
': s =
pi ·
§ ---------0.0845
u
p
+
p
ln
3i
3i
+
1
¦
© p i + 1¹
i
NOTE
The equation above gives the ozone in grams per square meter (g/m2).
A commonly used unit for total ozone is Dobson Unit (DU = 2.687 ×
1020 molecules/m2). To get the result in DUs, ozone grams must first be
divided by molar mass of ozone 48.00 g/mol and then multiplied by
Avogadro's number 6.02217 × 1023 molecules/mol. The result is ozone
in molecules/m2. The unit relation above is used to convert this to DUs.
94 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
The following equation gives the result in DUs when the partial
pressures are given in mPa and ambient pressures in hPa.
': s =
pi ·
§ ---------ln
3.9449
u
p
+
p
3i
3i
+
1
¦
© p i + 1¹
i
Residual Ozone (Total Ozone after
Balloon Burst)
After the balloon burst, the level of ozone is estimated by using the
equation below with a constant mixing ratio (p3i = p3i+1 = p3END) up to
ambient pressure 0 hPa. The equation changes to:
H3
': R = ----- u p 3END | 7.8899 u p 3END
g
When the pressure is given in hPa, the equation above gives the residual
total ozone in DUs.
The total ozone can now be calculated from the equation:
TOTALOZONE = ': S + ': R
Another option is introduced in the GAW report 201. Post-calculation
is possible, integrated ozone is reported, and residual can be calculated
afterwards. It can also be changed in the script.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 95
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Ozone in µg/m³
Ozone density is, by definition:
m
9 3 = ------3
V3
where m3 = mass of ozone in volume V3.
The ideal gas law is
p3 ×V3 = n3 × R × T
where
p3 =
partial pressure of ozone in mPa
n3 =
mole number of ozone
R
=
ideal gas constant
T
=
temperature in K
gives
n3 u R u T
V 3 = -----------------------P3
Combining the equations gives
P3
M 3 P 3 48.00 u 10 2 P 3 Pg
m3
-----------------u
93 =
= ------- u ------ | ---------------------------- u ------ ------3
n3 u R T
R
T
Tm
8.314510
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Chapter 4 _________________________________________________________ Ozone Calculation
where:
M3 =
Molar mass of ozone, 48.00 g/mol
P3 =
Ozone partial pressure in mPa
T
Temperature in K
=
This means that for ozone:
2
10 u 48.00 u 10
1 Pg
1 Pg
1mPa | ---------------------------------------- u --- ------3 | 5773.04 u --- ------3
Tm
8.314510
Tm
Accuracy of Ozonesonde Measurement
Certain sources of inaccuracy must be kept in mind when considering
errors in ozone measurements. Errors can originate from the ozone
sensor cell, the interface (converter), temperature and flow rate
measurement, telemetry, or they can be random errors. The
measurement procedure affects the accuracy. For example, if you
measure only ozone partial pressure, you can do measurements in a way
which is slightly different from the method you use when calculating
total ozone in the end. It is also possible to improve measurement
accuracy by developing the measurement methods in the sensing
system.
Basic sources for errors and differences between measurement systems
(the ECC system, light absorption measurement) are quite well known.
Relevant literature is also available. See Appendix D Performance
Review Literature on page 119.
NOTE
The latest detailed technical data for the radiosonde and OIF411 can
be found on the Vaisala website, www.vaisala.com.
NOTE
Detailed specifications for the ozone sensors are available directly
from the manufacturers or from Vaisala.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 97
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
98 __________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Chapter 5 ___________________________________________ Ozone Interface Board OIF411 Data
CHAPTER 5
OZONE INTERFACE BOARD OIF411
DATA
This chapter explains the data received from Ozone Interface Board
OIF411, and how it is interpreted.
Interpreting OIF411 Data
Measurement Data
When Radiosonde RS41 is connected to Ozone Interface Board
OIF411, it sends the OIF411 measurement data through the additional
sensor interface. The following information is contained:
-
Instrument type and number
-
Ozone pump temperature
-
Ozone current
-
Battery voltage
-
Ozone pump current
-
External voltage measured once per second
OIF411 measurement data contains the following information:
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 99
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
xdata= <Instrument type is 05><Instrument number is 01><Ozone
pump T [0.01 ºC]><Ozone current [0.0001uA]><Battery voltage
[0.1V]> <Ozone pump current [1 mA]><Ext. voltage [0.1V]>CR
This means that if OIF411 sends
xdata=050108CA186A0750B637CR
it is interpreted as shown in Table 15 on page 100:
Table 15
OIF411 Data Interpretation 1
Instrument Instrument Ozone
Type
Number
Pump T
2 Bytes
2 Bytes
[0.01 ºC]
4 Bytes.
MSB bit is
a sign bit.
Hex ASCII 05
Interpreted 5
as
01
1
08CA
22.50
Ozone
Current
[0.0001u
A]
5 Bytes
Battery
Voltage
[0.1V]
2 Bytes
Ozone
Pump
Current [1
mA]
3 Bytes
Ext.
Voltage
[0.1 V]
2 Bytes
186A0
10.0000
75
11.7
0B6
182
37
5.5
ID Data
The radiosonde also sends OIF411 ID data, which contains:
-
Instrument type and number
-
OIF411 serial number
-
Diagnostics word
-
Software version once per minute
OIF411 ID data replaces OIF411 measurement data, but not the
additional sensor data, sent once per minute.
The OIF411 ID data contains the following information:
xdata= <Instrument type is 05><Instrument number is 01><OIF serial
number><diagnostics word><SW version><I>CR.
This means that if OIF411 sends
xdata=0501G12345670001000AICR
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Chapter 5 ___________________________________________ Ozone Interface Board OIF411 Data
it is interpreted as shown in Table 16 on page 101:
Table 16
OIF411 Data Interpretation 2
Instrument Instrument OIF411
Type
Number
Serial
2 Bytes
2 Bytes
Number
8 Bytes
Hex ASCII 05
Interpreted 5
as
01
1
G1234567
G1234567
Diagnostics
Word
4 Bytes
Software
Version
2 Bytes
ID Data
0001
Bit0 set
(=calibration
not done)
000A
0xA=10 dec ->
SW version is
10/100= 0.10
I
Ignore
Use data
length to
distinguish
ozone and ID
data.
Additional Data
If additional xdata-compatible sensor is connected to OIF411, it
receives data from the additional xdata sensor, increments instrument
number by 1, and sends this data immediately after receiving the CR.
Additional sensor data can be in any order (except that the OIF411 data
always comes first), meaning that the instrument numbers are not in an
ascending order. For example:
xdata=050108CA186A0750B637CRxdata=020300090009000900090
0090009CRxdata=10021FF44487A04E0410018FLFCR
xdata=0304001000100010001000100010CR
If additional sensor CFH is connected to OIF411, OIF411 sends
xdata=050108CA186A0750B637CRxdata=10021DB6BC879
5200443018FLFCR
where LF = line feed, CR = carriage return.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 101
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
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Chapter 6 __________________________________________________ Storage and Transportation
CHAPTER 6
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
This chapter provides information for the transport and storage of the
product.
Storage
Ozone Interface Kit RSA411 must be stored and used properly in
accordance with applicable instructions, User’s Guide, and
specifications issued by Vaisala.
Proper storage conditions must fulfill the following requirements:
Ozone Interface Kit RSA411 must be stored in a dry, ventilated indoor
storage space, and within the following key environmental limits (ref.
IEC 60721-3-1 class 1K2):
-
Temperature +5 °C to +40 °C
-
Relative humidity below 85%
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 103
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Transportation
Ozone Interface Kit RSA411 must be transported in the original
shipping package. The package is designed and built to survive and
protect its contents in the environmental conditions described herein
with the terminology and standards per standard: IEC 60721-3-2.
Transportation of OIF411 requires climatic conditions 2K2 and
mechanical conditions 2M1 of this standard:
-
Transportation in weather-protected conditions.
-
Transportation using conventional means (car, truck, and/or
aircraft), with free fall not exceeding 0.25 m in any circumstances.
-
Following additional markings on packaging.
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Chapter 7 _________________________________________________________ Technical Support
CHAPTER 7
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
This chapter presents information about technical support.
Product Returns
If the product is found faulty, please follow the instructions below to
speed up the process and to avoid extra costs to you.
NOTE
1.
Read the radiosonde warranty information.
2.
Contact Vaisala technical support via e-mail or fax and request for
RMA (Return Material Authorization) and shipping instructions.
3.
Proceed as instructed by Vaisala technical support and provide the
failure report as requested.
RMA must always be requested from Vaisala technical support before
returning any faulty material.
Technical Support
For technical questions, contact the Vaisala technical support:
E-mail
helpdesk@vaisala.com
Fax
+358 9 8949 2790
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 105
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
106 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix A _______________________________________________ DigiCORA MW41 Ozone Data
APPENDIX A
DIGICORA MW41 OZONE DATA
This appendix explains the files containing the ozone-related data in
MW41. In MW41, ozone-related data is created with the help of scripts.
For further information on preparing and monitoring an ozone sounding
with MW41, see the on-line help embedded in the sounding software.
Calculating Ozone Data in MW41
Ozone data is calculated by the scripting engine using raw ozone and
EDT data. This information, along with the calculated ozone, can be
archived for further inspection, for example, simulation. The MW41
installation DVD contains script interface documentation which
provides more information on using the scripts. Ozone calculation is
implemented with three script files:
-
OzoneMain.py
-
OzoneCalculations.py
-
OIF411.py
Reporting Ozone Data in MW41
You can use the report template editor in MW41 to create an ASCII
output of the calculated ozone data. The data may also be
programmatically accessed via the script interface during the sounding.
The ozone-related data can be exported in the following files:
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 107
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
calc_ozone.tsv and specsens.tsv. For information on creating a report in
MW41, see the on-line help.
Below is an example of an ozone data report output:
Figure 56
Example of an MW41 Ozone Data Report Output
Archived Ozone Data in MW41
The calculated ozone data is stored in XML format in a zipped .mwx
sounding archive file. Extract the .zip file to access the .xml file. The
following tables in the archive file contain ozone-related data:
108 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix A _______________________________________________ DigiCORA MW41 Ozone Data
Additional Sensor Data from RS41
Table 17
AdditionalSensorData
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
RADIORXTIMEPK
INSTRUMENTTYPEPK
INSTRUMENTNUMBERPK
MEASUREMENTOFFSET
String
Double
String
String
Double
DATASRVTIME
String
GPSTIMEOFFSET
Byte
XDATA
String
Unique sounding ID
Radio time [s]
Instrument type identifier
Instrument number
Measurement time offset
of the additional sensor
data [s]
Data server timestamp
[yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Offset to the frame’s GPS
time [1/20 s]
XData from additional
sensor
Additional Sensor Data from RS92
Table 18
RS92SpecialSensorData
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
RADIORXTIMEPK
DATASRVTIME
String
Double
String
HEADERDATA
SENSORDATA
UShort
String
Unique sounding ID
Radio time [s]
Data server [yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Interface and sensor type
Sensor data
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 109
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Calculated Ozone Data
Ozone layer data with pressure correction is applied.
Table 19
CalculatedOzone
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
RADIORXTIMEPK
DATASRVTIME
String
Double
String
PARTIALPRESSURE
Double
BOXTEMPERATURE
Double
O3CURRENT
Double
INTEGRATEDOZONE
Double
RESIDUALOZONE
Double
VOLTAGE
Double
AUX
Double
Unique sounding ID
Radio time [s]
Data server [yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Calculated ozone partial
pressure [mPa]
Sensor box temperature
[Kelvin]
Bias and pressure
corrected current [uA]
Ozone accumulated up to
the current sounding level
[DU] (Dobson Unit)
Estimated residual ozone
above the current
sounding level [DU]
(Dobson Unit)
OIF92: Channel 3 data
OIF411: Battery voltage
measurement [V]
OIF411: ozone pump
current value
OIF92: channel 4 data
OIF411 or OIF92 Ozone Parameters
Table 20
OIF411Parameters/ OIF92Parameters
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
DATASRVTIME
String
String
SENSORTYPE
SERIALNUMBER
String
String
CALIBRATIONPRESSURE
Double
SOLUTIONVOLUME
Double
Unique sounding ID
Data server [yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Sensor type code
OIF411: null
OIF92: serial number
Applied calibration
pressure [hPa]
Cathode solution volume
[cm3]
110 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix A _______________________________________________ DigiCORA MW41 Ozone Data
Table 20
OIF411Parameters/ OIF92Parameters (Continued)
Column Name
Type
Description
MEDIANFWRADIUS
Double
FLOWRATE
Double
IOFFSET
Double
IREFLIN
Double
IREFQUAD
Double
IREFZEROC
Double
RNTC25
Double
VREFCH3
Double
VREFCH4
Double
BGCURRENT
Double
Median filter window
radius
Pump airflow rate [s/100
cm3]
OIF411: null
OIF92: offset correction for
current measurement
OIF411: null
OIF92: Iref linear
temperature coefficient [1/
k]
OIF411: null
OIF92: Iref quadratic
temperature coefficient [1/
K2]
OIF411: null
OIF92: Iref at 0 C
temperature [uA]
OIF411: null
OIF92: Sensor thermistor
resistance at 25 C
temperature [Ohm]
OIF411: null
OIF92: Reference value
for voltage channel [V]
OIF411: null
OIF92: Reference value
for AUX channel [V]
Sensor background
current [uA]
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 111
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Ozone Results
Summary of calculated ozone data.
Table 21
OzoneResults
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
DATASRVTIME
String
String
INTEGRATEDOZONE
Double
RESIDUALOZONE
Double
SENSORTYPE
INTERFACETYPE
String
String
SERIALNUMBER
DIAGNOSTIC
String
Int
BGCURRENTCORRMETH
OD
SMOOTHINGMETHOD
String
String
CALIBRATIONPRESSURE
Double
BGCURRENT
Double
SOLUTIONVOLUME
Double
OZONEPRIORSTART
Double
Unique sounding ID
Data server [yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Ozone accumulated up to
the sounding termination
[DU] (Dobson Unit)
Estimated residual ozone
above the termination level
[DU] (Dobson Unit)
Sensor type code
Ozone interface type
(Undefined, OIF411, or
OIF92)
OIF serial number
OIF411: diagnostic word
OIF92: 0
Background current
correction method
OIF411: null
OIF92: method for
smoothing measured data
Applied calibration
pressure [hPa]
Sensor background
current [uA]
Cathode solution volume
[cm3]
Ozone at the surface level
prior to the launch [DU]
(Dobson Unit)
Surface ozone
measurement duration
[min]
PRIORSTARTMEASDURAT Double
ION
112 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix A _______________________________________________ DigiCORA MW41 Ozone Data
Raw Ozone Data
Ozone layer data without pressure correction.
Table 22
RawOzone
Column Name
Type
Description
SOUNDINGIDPK
RADIORXTIMEPK
DATASRVTIME
String
Double
String
PARTIALPRESSURE
Double
INTERMEDIATE
Double
CURRENT
Double
BOXTEMPERATURE
Double
VOLTAGE
Double
AUX
Double
EXTERNALVOLTAGE
Double
Unique sounding ID
Radio time [s]
Data server [yyyy-MM-dd
HH:mm:ss.fff]
Raw (uncorrected) ozone
partial pressure [mPa]
Intermediate data being
used in calculation
Current measured by
sensor [uA]
Sensor box temperature
[K]
OIF92: Channel 3 data
OIF411: Battery voltage
measurement [V]
OIF411: ozone pump
current value [mA]
OIF92: channel 4 data
OIF411: external voltage
measurement [V]
OIF92: 0
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 113
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
114 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix B _______________________________________ Safety Instructions for Balloon Operators
APPENDIX B
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS FOR
BALLOON OPERATORS
This appendix contains details of safe and proper balloon preparation.
Photocopy these instructions and place the list in clear view in the
balloon filling shed and in the sounding compartment.
1.
No smoking or naked flame allowed.
2.
If possible, avoid wearing clothing made of nylon or other
synthetic fibers to prevent a build-up of static charges. Do not wear
shoes with rubber soles.
3.
Wear protective glasses.
4.
Regularly check that the gas tube fits securely to the gas cylinder
or generator nozzle and to the balloon inflation nozzle.
5.
Take care to prevent a gas leak in the shed when interrupting
inflation to replace a gas cylinder.
6.
Never use a repaired balloon.
7.
Should a leak develop in the balloon during inflation, do not let gas
escape from the balloon inside the shed if possible. Instead, release
the defective balloon without load. It is not advisable to deflate the
balloon, even outside the shed.
8.
Do not touch the balloon with bare hands except when holding it
by the neck. Wear soft cotton gloves.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 115
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
9.
Ensure that there are no pointed objects in the shed. Nails, hooks,
hinges, padlocks, etc., are dangerous as they might scratch the
inflated balloon. The balloon film is only 0.05 ... 0.1 mm thick
upon launch; the slightest scratch could cause the balloon to burst
prematurely.
10. Keep the doors of the shed shut while inflating the balloon on a
windy day. However, ensure that the shed is properly ventilated.
11. No unauthorized person shall be allowed admittance to the shed
while the hydrogen generator is in operation or balloon inflation is
going on.
12. Ensure that all tools and other implements not essential for balloon
inflation have been removed from the shed.
13. Do not take any electrical devices (cell phone etc.) to the balloon
filling shed or close to the balloon inflated with hydrogen. Safe
distance when outdoors is typically 1.5 meters.
14. Always keep the radiosonde at least 50 cm below the level of the
gas nozzle and the inflated balloon, and at least 1.5 meters away
from the gas cylinder/hydrogen generator, connectors, and tubing.
Avoid taking the radiosonde inside the balloon filling shed, if
possible.
15. Follow all regulations concerning hydrogen safety.
WARNING
New operator! Carefully study the instructions for using the hydrogen
generator and for the correct method of inflation.
116 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix C _______________________ Checklist for Equipment and Supplies for Flight Preparations
APPENDIX C
CHECKLIST FOR EQUIPMENT AND
SUPPLIES FOR FLIGHT
PREPARATIONS
This appendix contains the checklist for the equipment and supplies
needed in the sounding preparations. You can mark the items in the
Checked column.
Table 23
Checklist for Equipment
Equipment
Checked
Ozone sensor with styrofoam flight box and motor battery
Radiosonde RS41
Ozone Interface Board OIF411
Balloon (plastic or rubber)
5 meters of string (strength about 300 to 500 N), an
unwinder and a detainer
Parachute, 200-inch (500 cm) circumference
(recommended)
Short-circuit cable for the ozone sensor (optional)
Ozone sensor interface - radiosonde extender test cable
(optional)
Bottle for the sensor cathode solution prepared according
to the instructions
Bottle for the sensor anode solution prepared according to
the instructions
Bottle for distilled H2O
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 117
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 23
Checklist for Equipment (Continued)
Equipment
Checked
Syringe, 3 ml volume (equipped with Teflon tube), for use
with the sensor cathode solution
Syringe, 3 ml volume, for use with the sensor anode
solution
Roll of firm tape, 2 inches (5 cm) wide
Apparatus for measuring ozone sensor air flow rate
Ozonesonde power supply for pump motor rated at 12 to
13 VDC, 300 mA
SPC Ozonizer/Test Unit Model TSC-1 with adapter cables
or equivalent from other manufacturers
Ozone destruction filter or purified, ozone-free gas
Thermometer graduated in degrees centigrade
Hand-held pressure/vacuum gauge for pump tests
Small strips of No. 600A sandpaper for grasping Teflon
tubing
Plastic squirt bottle filled with research-grade methanol
Methanol and acetone for cleaning
Pair of lint-free gloves for laboratory work (made of artificial
fabric or plastic, disposable)
118 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix D ______________________________________________ Performance Review Literature
APPENDIX D
PERFORMANCE REVIEW LITERATURE
This appendix provides a list of relevant performance review literature.
Table 24
Performance Review Literature
Name
Details
Attmannspacher, W. and H.U.
Dütsch
International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at Observatory
Hohenpeissenberg. Bericht des Deutschen Wetterdienstes, No.
120, 1970, 85 pp.
2nd. International Ozone Sonde Intercomparison at
Observatory Hohenpeissenberg. Bericht des Deutschen
Wetterdienstes, No. 157, 1981, 65 pp.
Comparison of ozone profiles obtained with Brewer-Mast and ZECC sensors during simultaneous ascents. J. Geoph. Res., vol.
103, D16, 19641 - 19648. Johnson, B.J. , S.J. Oltmans, H.
Voemel, H.G.J Smit, T. Deshler, and C. Kroeger (2002), ECC
ozonesonde pump efficiency measurements and tests on the
sensitivity to ozone of buffered and unbuffered ECC sensor
cathode solutions. J. Geophys. Res., 107, D19 doi: 10.1029/
2001JD000557. 1998.
Intercomparison of tropospheric ozone profiles obtained by
electrochemical sondes, a ground based lidar and an airborne
UV-photemeter Atmospheric Environment Vol. 29, No. 9, pp.
1027-1042, 1995.
The Oxford-Kew Ozonesonde, Proc. Roy. Soc A, 256, 470,
1960.
Atmospheric comparison of electrochemical cell ozonesondes
from different manufacturers, and with different cathode solution
strenghts: The Balloon Experiment on Standards for
Ozonesondes, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04307, doi: 10.1029/
2007JD008975. Komhyr, W. D. (1969), Electrochemical
concentration cells for gas analysis, Ann. Geoph., 25, 203 210. 2008.
Attmannspacher, W and H.U.
Dütsch
De Backer, Hugo, D. De Muer and
G. De Sadelaer
Beekman, M. and G. Ancellet, D.
Martin, C. Abonnel, G. Duverneuil
and F. Eideliman, P. Bessemoulin,
N. Fritz and E. Gizard
Brewer, A.W. and J.R. Milford
Deshler, T., Mercer, H.G.J Smit, R.
Stubi, G. Levrat, B.J. Johnson, S.J.
Oltmans, R. Kivi, J. Davies, A.M.
Thompson, J. Witte, F.J. Schmidlin,
G. Brothers, T. Sasaki
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 119
User’s Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 24
Performance Review Literature (Continued)
Name
Details
Godson, W.L.
The representation and analysis of vertical distributions of
ozone, Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society, Vol. 88,
No. 377, July 1962.
Contribution of Switzerland to International Ozonesonde
Intercomparisons. Proceedings of GAW-CH Conference Zurich,
14-15 October 1998. Swiss Agency for the Environment,
Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), Environmental
documentation No.110 Air, pp 43-47.
Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde pump
efficiency measurements and tests on the sensitivity to ozone of
buffered and unbuffered ECC sensor cathode solutions. J.
Geophys. Res., 107 (D19), 4394, doi:1029/2001JD000557,
2002.
The 1991 WMO international ozonesonde intercomparison at
Vanscoy, Canada. Atmosphere Ocean, Vol XXXII, No 4 pp 685716, December 1994.
Tropospheric water-vapour and ozone cross-sections in a zonal
plane over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc.
(1997), 123, pp. 2009-2040.
Hoegger, B.A. & all
Johnson, Bryan J., Samuel J.
Oltmans, H. Vomel, H.G.J. Smit, T.
Deshler., and C. Kroger
Kerr, J.B. & all
Kley, D., H.G.J. Smit, H. Vömel, H.
Grassl, V. Ramanathan, P.J.
Crutzen, S. Williams, J. Meywerk,
S.J. Oltmans
Komhyr, W.D.
Komhyr, W.D., J.A. Lathrop, D.P.
Opperman, R.A. Barns, and G.B.
Brothers
Komhyr, W.D.
Schenkel, A., and B. Broder
Schmidlin, F.J., B.A. Hoegger & all
Smit, H.G.J and ASOPOS panel
Smit, H.G.J.
Operations Handbook - Ozone Measurement to 40-km Altitude
with 4A Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC)
Ozonesondes (used with 1680-MHz radiosondes), NOAA
Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-149,1986.
ECC Ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989,
J. Geophys. Res., 100 9231-9244, 1995.
Electrochemical Concentration Cell for Gas Analysis Ann.
Geophys., t. 25, fasc. 1, 1969, pp. 203-210.
Interference of some trace gases with ozone measurements by
the KI method, Atmospheric Environment, 16, 2187-2190. 1982.
Sondex96: A Field Experiment Conducted by NASA and SMI at
Payerne,Switzerland. WMO Instruments and Observing
Methods Report No 70, WMO Technical Conference on
Meteorological and Methods of Observation (TECO-98),
Casablanca Morocco, 13-15 May 1998, (WMO/TD No. 877), pp
193-196.
Quality assurance and quality control for ozonesonde
measurements in GAW, WMO Global Atmosphere Watch
Report series, No. 121, World Meteorological Organization,
Geneva, 2013.
Ozonesondes, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences,
edited by J. Holton, J. Pyle, and J. Curry, pp. 1469-1476,
Academic Press, London. 2002.
120 _________________________________________________________________ M211486EN-C
Appendix D ______________________________________________ Performance Review Literature
Table 24
Performance Review Literature (Continued)
Name
Details
Smit, H.G.J., W. Straeter, B.
Johnson, S. Oltmans, J. Davies,
D.W. Tarasick, B. Hoegger, R. Stubi,
F. Schmidlin, T. Northam, A.
Thompson, J. Witte, I. Boyd, F.
Posny
Smit, H.G.J. and D.Kley
Assessment of the performance of ECC-ozonesondes under
quasi-flight conditions in the environmental simulation chamber:
Insights from the Jülich Ozone Sonde Intercomparison
Experiment (JOSIE), J. Geophys. Res., 112, D19306,
doi:10.1029/2006JD007308. 2007
Smit, H.G.J.& all
Smit, H.G.J. & all
Stübi R., G. Levrat, B. Hoegger, P.
Viatte, J. Staehelin, F. J. Schmidlin
WMO
Jülich Ozone Sonde Intercomparison Experiment (JOSIE) ;
WMO Global Atmosphere Watch report series No. 130
(Technical document No.926) WMO, Geneva, 1998.
The 1996 WMO International intercomparison of ozonesondes
under quasi flight conditions in the environmental simulation
chamber at Jülich, Proceedings XVIII Quadrennal Ozone
Symbosium, Eds. R. Bojkov, and G. Visconti, L'Aquila, Italy,
Sept. 1996.
The 1996-1999 Evaluation of Performance of ECC- Sondes
Under Quasi-Flight Conditions in the Environmental Simulation
Chamber, Proceedings of Quadrennal Ozone Symbosium
2000, Sapporo, Japan, July 2000.
SPARC-IOC-GAW Assessment of Trends in the Vertical
Distribution of Ozone (1998), SPARC Report No.1, WMO
Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report No. 43,
World Meteorological Organization, Geneva. Note: In this report
performance investigations made before 1996 have been
intensively evaluated by the SPARC-IOC-GAW assessment
panel
In-flight comparison of Brewer-Mast and electrochemical
concentration cell ozonesondes, J. Geophys. Res., 113,
D13302, doi:10.1029/2007JD009091. 2008.
Third WMO intercomparison of the ozonesondes used by the
Global ozone observing System, Vanscoy Canada 13-24 May
1991, WMO/ Global Atmosphere Watch/WMO Global Ozone
Research and Monitoring Project, Report No 27.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 121
www.vaisala.com
*M211486EN*
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