BRITISH COLUMBIA COUNCIL
FUN WITH SCIENCE
AN INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
FROM THE BC PROGRAM COMMITTEE
The purpose of this instant meeting is to encourage interest in science and at the same time,
earn the Science Badge.
Meeting Plan
Program Connections
10-15 min:
Gathering: Science – Technology Poster
10 min:
Guide Opening (include discussion about
posters)
10 min:
Science Careers Game (choose either “I
Have a Career” or Career Relay)
10 min:
Technology - Blast to the Past
40-60 min:
Round Robin Activities (choose 4-6)
Chemistry Activities
-
Touching the Tent (5 min) OR
Make Metal Float ( 5 min) OR
Rainbow M&M’s (10 min) OR
Mix ‘n Match (10 min)
Physics Activities
-
Laser Show (10 min) OR
Checkered Games (5-10 min) OR
Checkered Tricks (5 min) OR
Science Badge – Completed
with #’s 1-5, 7 and other
Beyond You: Try New Things 4.
Learn about Inertia; 6. Activity of
Choice
Discovering You: Discover
What’s Important to You 4. Hold
a career night – learn about
careers in science
Beyond You: Try New Things 4.
STEM
Related Interest Badge
Chemistry (2), Engineering (5),
Physics (8), Career Awareness
(2), Basic Camper (5), Camp-out
(6)
Taste Test (5 min) (Human Biology)
Super Structures (10 min) (Engineering)
15-20 min:
Women in Science (Skits)
5 min:
Guide Closing
120 minute meeting. Approximate activity times shown.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Camping Committee (2009, 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Preparation Prior to Meeting:
1. Print out 1 copy of the Science Information sheet per girl to fill out during the meeting.
2. Print the Technology Then and Now Cards (1 set for every 3-4 girls), the Science Career
Game Cards (1 set for every 4 girls. Copy in colour for “I Have a Career” or in black and
white for the Career Relay) and the Women in Science Cards on Cardstock (1 set of cards)
and cut out.
*Note: You may want multiple sets.
3. Print several copies of the protractor page.
4. Print instructions sheets for each of the science experiments.
Preparation at the meeting:
1. Set up the Round Robin as stations. At each activity location, have all ingredients, tools and
instructions.
2. Keep an eye on things and be available to help as required.
Meeting Supplies
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poster board
pencils / erasers
felt pens or pencil crayons
paper
Technology Then and Now cards
Science Career Game Cards
a piece of material (any type with a tight
weave) large enough to cover the top of
a cup
a cup
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pH kit
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a ruler
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Science Information Sheet X # of girls
an elastic band
water
a small plate
one paper clip
soap
compass (optional, for extension)
picture of a rainbow
coffee filters
vinegar and ammonia
1 cup for the waste liquid
plastic syringe
LED laser pointer
rectangular mirror
binder clip or clothespin
printed pages of a protractor
a lot of checkers, the checkers need to
have a smooth edge, alternatively, use
loonies
jelly beans of different flavours
marshmallows
spaghetti
props – anything that might be able to
be used in science skits
paper towels
M&M’s, multiple colours
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 25
Gathering Activity:
Science-Technology Poster
Purpose: Learn ways that science and technology affect your life.
Directions
1.
2.
3.
With a partner or in a group, brainstorm ways that
science and technology affect your life.
Using the poster board, use your imagination to create a
poster that demonstrates at least five ways that
technology and science affect your life.
Supplies
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poster board
pencils & erasers
felt pens or pencil crayons
Be prepared to talk about your poster with the rest of the girls at opening.
Opening
Have your usual meeting opening, e.g. have the girls collect the weekly dues and take
attendance in their patrols. Have the Guides sing the Guide Marching Song or the Guide Law
Song as they do Horseshoe.
Science Careers Card Game
Purpose: To learn about different science careers.
Directions for “I Have a Career”
Supplies
1.
The goal of the Game is to collect a complete set of 1
career card, 1 education card, and 4 equipment cards.

2.
Play in groups of 3-4. If playing in larger groups, you will
have to add your own sets of cards to the deck. Other
careers
could
be:
Astronomer,
Botanist,
Environmentalist, etc.
Science Careers Game
Cards

Science Information
Sheet
3.
Deal 4 cards to each player. the remaining cards face down in the centre of the playing
area.
4.
The player to the left of the dealer starts the play. She asks any player whether they have a
specific type of card (e.g. “Sue, do you have any equipment for a Doctor?”). If the girl has
any of the tools, she hands them all to the player asking the question.
5.
She can continue asking players for cards until someone indicates that she has none of the
requested cards. At that point, she takes a card from the centre pile and adds it to her hand.
6.
The winner is the first player to get 6 cards in one set (e.g. 1 career card, 1 education card,
and 4 equipment cards) and call “I Have a Career”.
OR
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Directions for “Career Relay”
Page 26
1.
Girls line up at one end of the room in groups of 4-6.
Supplies
2.
A set of career cards (1 career/girl in the group) is used
(e.g. for four girls, use 4 full sets of career cards –
Doctor, Engineer, Meteorologist, Pilot).

Science Careers Game
Cards
3.
Mix up the cards and place them randomly upside down
across the room from the team.

Science Information
Sheet
4.
The first girl in line runs to the cards opposite her team. She picks up one card and places it
down beside the upside down cards, then runs back to tag the second girl.
5.
The second girl runs to the cards, picks a new card. If the card belongs to the same career
set as the card already turned, then it should be placed below the card. If it doesn’t, then it
should be placed beside.
6.
The next girl and every subsequent girl runs to the cards and either chooses to move a card
to the correct row or can pick a new card and place it in the correct row.
7.
The winning team is the one to correctly identify the career, education, and tools for all sets
of cards.
On your Science Information Sheet, write down 5 science careers that you think would be
interesting.
Technology – Then and Now Memory Game
Purpose: To learn about how technology has improved
different science disciplines over the years.
Supplies
Directions

Technology Then and
Now Memory Game
Cards

paper and pencil for score
keeping
1.
This game is played similar to the old style memory
game. It is for 2 players.
2.
Lay all the cards face down on the table in front of you.
Make sure that the cards are mixed up.
3.
Player one turns over one of the cards, and then a second card. If the two cards are a
matching pair, e.g. the same type of science, then they share one “Then” and one “Now”
fact before placing both the cards in her win pile.
4.
The first player continues to repeat the process of selecting cards and sharing facts. Until
she picks two cards that don’t match.
5.
At that point, the second player chooses two cards to match.
6.
Play continues until all cards have successfully been matched and information from each
one has been shared.
7.
Players count the number of cards in their win pile and record their score.
8.
The game can be played again, but the facts that are shared should be new ones.
9.
The game is over after 3 rounds.
Pick one science and write a fact from each the Then and Now on your Science Information
sheet.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Extension
Page 27
If you have access to the internet, pick a branch of science (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics,
geology, etc.) and find out how technology has changed that science over time. You can create
new cards using the information that you’ve found out.
Round Robin Activities (choose 4-6)
Touching the Tent
Directions
1.
Pour the water into a cup, place the material on
the top, and put an elastic band around it to keep
so that it is taut.
2.
Predict what will happen if you turn the cup
upside-down.
3.
Turn the cup over and make sure that it is directly
upside down.
Supplies
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a piece of material (any
type with a tight weave)
large enough to cover the
top of a cup
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a cup
an elastic band
4.
Touch the material underneath and watch the
water leak through.
5.
What do you think happens when you touch the side of your tent when it’s raining?
water
What’s Happening?
Water molecules are attracted to one another and stick tightly together causing a very
high surface tension. The surface tension of the water acts like a skin next to the material.
When you touch the material, the pressure and the oil on your fingers disrupt the surface
tension and the water molecules start to leak through. Surface tension is what allows pond
skaters (insects) to “walk” on water. This also demonstrates why you don’t want anything
touching the sides or the top of your tent when camping.
Make Metal Float!
Directions
1.
Pour water into a small plate.
2.
Try to slide the paper clip onto the surface of the
water until it floats.
3.
4.
When the paper clip floats, look carefully at the
surface of the water under the clip. Can you see
the “skin” of the water that holds up the clip?
Put some soap on your finger and gently touch
the surface of the water. What happens?
Supplies
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a small plate
water
one paper clip
soap
compass (optional, for
extension)

What’s Happening?
The water molecules are attracted to each other because of the hydrogen bonding. They
stick together tightly causing a surface “film” which makes it harder for an object to move
through the surface layer of the liquid than it is to move through the lower layers. Soap
molecules, which are only partly attracted to the water, disturb the ability of the water
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 28
molecules to “stick” together and this allows the paper clip to break through the surface
and fall to the bottom. Once you introduce soap to the water, the paper clip cannot float on
the surface of the water. To repeat the activity, wash all the soap off the plate and start
again with fresh water. Try floating other light metal objects (eg. a staple or a sewing
needle) across the plate.
Rainbow M&M’s
Directions
1.
Introduce the girls to ROY G BIV – the acronym
for the colours in a rainbow (Red-Orange-YellowGreen-Blue-Indigo-Violet).
2.
Flatten a coffee filter or paper towel on a table.
3.
Place different coloured M&M’s on the paper
about 3 centimetres apart – arrange the colours
according to the rainbow (ROY G BIV: redorange-yellow-green-blue).
Supplies
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picture of a rainbow
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M&M’s, multiple colours
coffee filters or paper
towels
water
4.
Place a brown M&M separately on the coffee filter.
5.
Drip water onto each M&M until the paper below is wet. Wait for about 2 minutes.
6.
Pick up the M&M’s and observe that the colours made a ring on the paper.
7.
Compare the rings of the coloured M&M’s to the ring under the brown M&M. Do you
notice anything different about the outside edge of the brown ring?
What’s Happening?
This activity demonstrates several principles:
Colour theory shows mixing of primary colours to make secondary colours. For Sparks
and Brownies, ask them to notice that the red, yellow and blue rings use primary colours
and have only one colour ring. Then point out that the orange and green rings have a
yellow ring in addition to the orange and green/blue, respectively. Finally, point out the
brown M&M develops three distinct colour rings: red, yellow and blue.
Chromatography is used to separate the dyes used to create the colours of the M&M’s.
For Guides and Pathfinders, point out that chromatography separates the inks used in the
sugar coating (they are water soluble and dissolve with the sugar). The heaviest inks stay
close to the centre and the lightest inks move the farthest. By observing the colour(s) of
the rings you can tell which ones are primary colours (use only one colour dye) and which
are secondary (use two colours). Brown is a composite of red, yellow and blue. Over time,
there will be three distinct colours seen around the brown M&M.
Capillary action is the movement of water through small openings caused by the high
surface tension of water. This explains why the water moved outward from the M&M’s.
The water texture of the paper towel or coffee filter has many small channels (capillaries).
The surface tension of water makes it climb up the sides of these capillaries and travel out
from the centre of the M&M.
Extension: Make this an experiment
Once you have learned about chromatography, turn this demonstration into an experiment
by testing different types of coloured food products (jelly beans, Skittles, Kool-Aid, fruit
juice crystals, etc.) or felt/ink markers to see if you can create different types of rainbows!
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 29
Mix and Match
This activity is similar to the STEM Challenge: Science
activity “Cabbage Juice pH Indicator”. The pH indicator
can be used to replace the pH kit listed in the supply
list for this experiment.
Supplies
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pH kit
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1 cup for clean water
Directions
1.
Put your gloves and safety glasses on. Spread the
paper towel on the tabletop.
2.
Take the red lid off the pH tester.
3.
Use the syringe to take some of the liquid out of
one of the containers labeled ammonia, water, or
vinegar and place it in the pH tester. Fill up to the
MAX line.
vinegar, water, and
ammonia
1 cup for the waste liquid
plastic syringe
paper towel
phenol red dye
4.
Add 5 drops of the pH indicator, phenol red dye. Put the lid on tightly and shake it a
bit.
5.
The liquid will have changed colour. Look to the left and match the colour and the
number.
6.
Now look on the pH scale above to find out if the liquid is an acid or a base (alkaline).
7.
Pour the used liquid into the waste cup.
8.
Use clean water to rinse out the kit with the syringe.
9.
Now repeat with the other two liquids.
What’s Happening?
A pH indicator is a special type of compound that changes colour according to the pH of
the substance it reacts with. The phenol red dye that you have in your pH kit is a pH
indicator.
Acids, Bases and pH
Acids and bases (also called alkaline) are on the
opposite ends of a pH scale.
The pH scale shows how acidic or basic a
substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
A substance with a pH of 7 is neutral. A
substance with a pH less than 7 is acidic (eg. it
has high concentrations of hydrogen ions, H+),
and a substance with a pH greater than 7 is
basic (eg. it has high concentration of hydroxide
ions, OH-).
Water is neutral (eg. it has equal concentrations
of hydrogen and hydroxide ions). Vinegar and
lemon juice are acidic substances, while laundry
detergents and ammonia (found in glass
cleaner) are basic. Chemicals that are very basic
(e.g. lye, found in household drain cleaners) are
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Increasing
Acidity
Neutral
Increasing
Alkalinity
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Battery acid
Lemon juice, vinegar
Milk
Pure water
Sea water
Baking soda
Milk of Magnesia
Ammonia
Bleach
Lye
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 30
very acidic (e.g. car battery acid) are called “reactive.” Acids and bases are very corrosive
and can cause severe burns. Combining strong acids with strong bases is very
dangerous.
Extension
Test all kinds of different liquids. Start with the liquids you drink, such as pop, milk, and
juice. Then take the pH kit on a hike and sample a creek, river, pond or puddles of water.
Laser Show
Directions
1.
Girls can work in pairs or small groups.
2.
Attach the binder clip or clothespin to the bottom
of one side of the mirror. The clip or clothespin will
act as a stand.
Supplies
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red laser pointer
rectangular mirror
binder clip or clothespin
3.
Place the protractor page on a flat surface. Make
sure the mirror lies flat on the paper.
4.
Balance the mirror on top of the flat line of the
bottom of the protractor.
5.
Pick a number on the protractor and shine the laser horizontally along the line aimed
at the centre point on the protractor at the mirror. Ask your partner to hold her hand
touching the table in front of the number on the other side of the protractor.
6.
What happens to the laser light? What number does the reflected laser beam shine
on?
7.
Try a different number on the half circle. Does the light reflect to the same number on
the other side?
printed pages of a
protractor
What’s Happening?
Light is reflected from a mirror at the same angle that the light approached it. When you
hold the laser pointer along line “0”, it is reflected straight back at the laser pointer. But if
you place the laser pointer to shine along line “1”, it is reflected at an angle and back on
the opposite line “1”. If you measure the angle from the mirror to the line, it is the same
angle from the mirror to the reflected line. This is called the angle of reflection and the
number will always be the same.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 31
Checkered Tricks
Directions
1.
Bend your arm with your elbow up (forearm level
to the floor) and your hand next to your shoulder,
palm up.
Supplies

a lot of checkers
2.
Place a checker on the flat area next to your
elbow.
3.
Try to catch the checker in the hand on the same arm by quickly swinging your elbow
down and rotating your hand to the location where your elbow started.
4.
When you master this action, try it with 2 stacked checkers, then three. See how
many you can catch.
5.
Play a relay game by dividing the girls into two groups. Place a table at one end of the
room and a second table at the opposite end.
6.
To play the relay game, have half of each team at each table. The girls will take turns
placing a checker on their elbow and catching it. If the girls drop the checker, they
must pick it up and try again. Once they successfully catches the checker, they run to
the other side and give the checker to the next girl. The team that finishes first wins.
What’s Happening?
As your elbow moves down from under the checker, your hand comes down toward the
checker. If your timing is right, you can catch the token. There is a slight delay before the
checker starts to fall. This is called inertia, which gives you time to rotate your hand
around to catch it.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 32
Checkered Games
Directions
1.
Build a stack of eight or ten checkers.
2.
Place another checker on the table next to the
stack, about 3 cm away.
3.
Using your forefinger, flick the single checker
toward the stack of checkers, trying to knock out
the bottom one. You need to flick it really hard and
make sure it goes flat across the surface.
Supplies

a lot of checkers, the
checkers need to have a
smooth edge,
alternatively, use loonies


a ruler
a flat surface
What’s Happening?
This is inertia at work again. The stack of checkers wants to remain in place when the
rogue checker strikes the stack. The bottom checker will fly away while the rest of the
checkers stay in their stack and drop to the table.
Extension
Try using a ruler to dislodge a middle checker instead of the bottom one. To do this, you
must be sure to hit only one checker and hit it hard enough to cause it to fly out without
knocking over any other checkers.
Taste Test
Directions
1.
Working in pairs, close your eyes and hold your
nose while your partner feeds you a jellybean.
Supplies

jellybeans of different
flavours
2.
Keeping your nose pinched, try to guess the
flavour of the jellybean.
3.
Observations should proceed as you slowly chew the candy.
4.
Is there any change in the taste of the candy from the beginning to the end of the
activity?
5.
Describe the tastes.
6.
Switch and let your partner try.
What’s Happening?
There are four different types of taste that are sensed on the tongue: sour, sweet, salty
and bitter. About 80-90% of what we think of as “taste” actually is due to our sense of
smell. Think how different food tastes when you have a stuffy nose. It is actually smell that
lets us experience the complex, mouthwatering flavours we associate with our favourite
foods.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 33
Super Structures
Directions
Supplies
1.


Divide girls into groups of two. Give each pair of
girls the same number of marshmallows, spaghetti
and linguini noodles.
marshmallows
spaghetti
2.
Using only the materials provided, challenge the pairs to build the highest structure
that they can.
3.
Set a time limit before starting. When time is up, compare the structures.
4.
Ask the girls to discuss their experience. Did they use spaghetti or linguini for their
structure? Did they notice a difference?
What’s Happening?
Circles are among the strongest shapes in nature. External and internal stress distributes
itself evenly through a round structure. Spaghetti is shaped like a cylinder, while linguini is
shaped like a flattened rectangle. A piece of spaghetti has the same strength in any
direction that it is bent. Linguini will bend more easily in one direction than in another.
Women in Science
Purpose: To learn about women who were or are
instrumental in making great strides for women in their
chosen science career.
Supplies

props – anything that
might be able to be used
in skits



paper, poster board
Directions
1.
Divide into small groups of 2 or 3.
2.
Pick a card about a woman in science and using
the information provided, figure out a creative way
to tell the rest of the unit about her.
3.
You can do this by making up a skit, drawing a
poster, writing a poem, etc. Be as creative as you
like.
4.
Make your presentations to the rest of the girls in the unit.
pencils, felt markers
Science Information
Sheet
Write the names of the two most interesting women in the Science Information Sheet.
Closing
Close the meeting in your usual way.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 34
PROTRACTOR SHEET
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 35
SCIENCE INFORMATION SHEET
1: Improvements in Technology that changed Science
Choose the Science: __________________________
List some changes in technology that have changed this science:
1.
2.
2: List 5 careers in science:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3: List two women in science and what they do or did:
1.
2.
4: What Sciences did you do experiments from?
1.
2.
3.
4.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 36
Technology Then and Now
Forensics – Then
Forensics – Now
Forensics is a science that is
used to solve crime.
 In the early days of
solving crimes, detectives
relied on eye-witnesses to identify
the criminals.
 Fingerprints were compared by a person,
one print at a time with only a few prints
available.
 Blood at a crime scene couldn’t be used
for identification.
 Hair, skin cells, or body fluids at the crime
scene could help detectives to figure out
what might have happened (a struggle,
etc.), but wasn’t otherwise useful.
 Physical evidence gathered at the crime
could only be compared visually to items
found with the suspect.
Today detectives have a
large number of tools
available to them.
 Now detectives know
that eye-witness
accounts are very often unreliable.
 Fingerprints are compared on computers
where many millions of prints are stored.
The computers are very fast and accurate.
 Blood at a crime scene can be analyzed to
determine blood type.
 Hair, skin cells or body fluids can be used
to identify DNA. Computer systems can
quickly identify if the DNA is already in
data storage. If a suspect DNA sample is
obtained, it can be quickly compared.
 Physical evidence gathered at the crime
can be analyzed – many items can be
identified as to what brand, where it was
made, even where it was purchased.
Chemistry – Then
Chemistry – Now
The earliest chemists were
called alchemists and they
were convinced that they
could transform regular
chemicals into gold.
Chemists began identifying
different chemicals based on their properties
and how they look.
 Chemists didn’t know enough about safety
to protect themselves from the chemicals.
Sometimes they became ill due to
exposure to the chemicals with which they
worked.
 Chemists didn’t easily find out what other
chemists were working on. Sometimes it
would take years to find out about another
scientists work or discoveries.
 Chemists had to try out their ideas in the
lab and used up their starting materials.
We now know that you
cannot transform one
atom into another one
with simple chemistry.
 Chemists use sophisticated technology to
identify chemicals. They used
chromatography to separate the dyes.
 Chemists can separate and identify
different molecules and with an electron
microscope. They can even see individual
atoms.
 Chemists work in laboratories with
elaborate venting systems, using gloves
and lab coats to protect themselves from
exposure to the chemicals.
 Chemists use global communication
systems to collaborate with their peers
around the world, sharing information and
learning from each other.
 Chemists use computer models to simulate
reactions and products before trying to
make them in the lab.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
FUN WITH SCIENCE
INSTANT MEETING FOR GUIDES
Page 37
Astronomy – Then
Astronomy – Now
The earliest
astronomers simply
looked at the night sky
and noticed that the
patterns of stars
changed with the seasons. Galileo began
using the first telescope to look at the night sky
in 1610.
 Galileo’s first telescope had 3X power.
 Early astronomers used only visible light to
get information about the night sky, by
simply looking up at the night sky and
recording what they saw.
 Early astronomers created names for
groups of stars, now known as
constellations. They transferred this
information by oral history.
Amateur astronomers have
technology that far exceeds
what the early astronomers
had available to them.
Professional astronomers have
incredible technology to use now.
 Today’s most well-known telescope is the
Hubble Space Telescope. It can magnify
things by 4700X.
 Astronomers gather information from the
night sky using radio, infrared, ultraviolet,
and other types of electromagnetic waves.
 Today’s astronomers use start charts,
either printed ones or charts available
through apps on their phones or tablets.
 Astronomers gather information about the
night sky using radio waves, like the Very
Large Array in Socorro, NM.
Medicine – Then
Medicine – Now
Early doctors thought that
diseases were caused by
“bad” spirits.
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Doctors used herbs and plants to treat
illnesses.
Doctors often had to remove infected limbs
to keep the patient from dying of an
infection.
Doctors used leeches to remove “bad”
blood from patients.
Doctors didn’t know that caused many
diseases.
Doctors had to wait until the patient died
before they could see what was happening
inside the body.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Doctors know that many illnesses
are caused by microorganisms,
such as bacteria and viruses.
 Doctors use tested drugs to
treat and cure illnesses.
 Doctors use antibiotics to treat bacterial
infections. They try to work in a sterile
environment to avoid introducing
microorganisms while treating the patient.
 Doctors make sure to sanitize their hands
to keep from spreading germs from patient
to patient.
 Doctors use microscopes to look at
pathogenic microorganisms that cause
diseases.
 Doctors have many machines to look at
the body to help identify health problems –
for example X-rays and ultrasound
machines, MRI’s, CAT scanners, etc.
 Doctors have ready access to information
via books, professional magazines, the
Internet, etc.
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Engineering – Then
Engineering – Now
Engineering in the early
days was the concept of
applying science to solve
problems. Most of the
Renaissance scientists were also inventors
and engineers: Galileo designed a water clock
to be able to do experiments in motion.
 Most engineers used trial and error to
make things work.
 Most used very simple methods for
creating impressive structures, like the
pyramids.
 When the engineers built large structures,
there were often accidents that would hurt
the workers
Engineering is now a
separate field of study,
beginning with the fundamental science topics
(physics, mathematics, chemistry, etc.) and
building upon those topics with a focus on
using technology to solve problems.
 Formal application of the scientific method
to analyze how to improve how things
work.
 Engineers use sophisticated measuring
devices to build structures. Skyscrapers
weren’t possible until engineers learned to
combine metals to create alloys that are
stronger than the original metals.
 Technology allows engineers to design
better systems, before building to make
things stronger, more efficient, and safer.
 Design standards provide a starting point
for engineers to do their work providing a
minimum assurance of public safety.
Aeronautics – Then
Aeronautics – Now
Leonardo Da Vinci
created drawings of
flying machines in the
late 15th century, but the
first successful plane flight wasn’t until 1903 by
the Wright brothers.
 First flight took one man 120 ft. The first
non-stop flight to cross the Atlantic Ocean
was in 1919.
 The first flights were arranged directly with
the pilot.
 When landing and taking off, pilots had to
rely on vision to ensure safety.
 The first commercial planes could carry
two – the pilot and one passenger.
Plane flight has made
amazing technological
advances in the past
100 years.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
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Flights routinely cross the ocean, since the
late 1950’s.
Flights are booked on line and scheduled
using a computer.
Air traffic controllers use radar and voice
communication systems to assist with take
off and landing.
Today’s planes are capable of carrying
more than a hundred passengers, as well
as a lot of cargo.
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Meteorology – Then
Meteorology – Now
The earliest weathermen
simply looked at signs from
nature to predict the weather.
They began tracking weather
information and publishing the
data in books called almanacs.
Farmers would use this information to
determine the best dates for planting and
harvesting.
 The earliest weathermen made up stories
about the “gods” to explain weather events.
 Wives tales were used to remember the
signs leading to specific natural events –
the first appearance of a robin, beavers
add to the north side of their den before a
hard winter, a squirrels’ tail grows bushier
before a hard winter, etc.
 The first weather almanacs were created
by the ancient Greeks.
Weathermen today
are known as
meteorologists. They
use a wide variety of
sophisticated tools to predict the weather.
Almanacs still exist to document historical
information, but are not used as a significant
source for prediction.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
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Technology provides a variety of
information about developing weather
trends: wind speed, air temperature,
humidity levels, etc.
Computer models use information from
multiple technology tools to predict weather
patterns.
Weather data is available on the internet
going back a hundred years.
Doppler radar is used to collect current
information about the weather.
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Page 40
Career equipment card (print on cardstock)
Career Card
DOCTOR
Equipment Card
Stethoscope
Equipment Card
Thermometer
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Career Card
ENGINEER
Equipment Card
Calculator
Equipment Card
Graph Paper
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Equipment Card
Equipment Card
Rx
Equipment Card
Ruler
Equipment Card
Reflex Hammer
Education Card
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7-9 years to complete education
Includes 2-3 years of pre-med or a 4
year bachelor’s program
3-4 year MD degree by an accredited
university
Completion of qualifying
examinations and licensing by
provincial licencing authority
2 years of Family practice or 4 years
of specialty post-graduate training
where you spend time as a resident
training for certification.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Page 41
Bridge Design
Education Card
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Graduate from a Canadian
Engineering Accreditation Boardcertified university
Licenced in the Province in which
you are employed
Engineering graduates must have 3
to 4 years of on-the-job engineering
work experience depending on the
province, under the supervision of a
licensed engineer, as well as pass
the professional Ethics exam to
obtain a P.Eng.
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Career Card
PILOT
Equipment Card
Page 42
Career Card
DETECTIVE
Equipment Card
Navigation Display Crime Scene Tape
Equipment Card
Altimeter
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Equipment Card
Magnifying Glass
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Equipment Card
Fuel Gauge
Equipment Card
Airplane
Page 43
Equipment Card
Fingerprint
Equipment Card
Wire Taping Skills
Education Card
Equipment Card
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One way to complete education:
 Earn a Bachelor of Technology in
Forensic Investigation
 Pre-requisites for entry:
equivalent of English 12 or 3 credits
of post-secondary English,
Humanities or Social Sciences plus a
2 year post-secondary program
 200 hours of relevant work
experience before completion
 A criminal record check.
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Start with either a Recreational Pilot
Permit or a Private Pilot’s License.
Upgrade to a Commercial License
and finally to an Airline Transport
Pilot’s License.
Must pass a medical exam.
Must take ground school classes and
flight lessons.
Must log a specific number of hours
in the air – approximately 1500 hours
over two years for a commercial pilot.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
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Career Card
PHARMACIST
Equipment Card
Beakers and Test
Tubes
Equipment Card
Chemicals
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Page 44
Career Card
COMPUTER
PROGRAMMER
Equipment Card
Laptop
Equipment Card
Computer Book
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Equipment Card
Equipment Card
Bunsen Burner
Equipment Card
Mouse
Equipment Card
Safety Glasses
Education Card
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Students are not admissible to the
program directly from high school.
Admission is after a minimum of one
year of post-secondary training where
a minimum of 30 credits of specified
coursework in the sciences must be
completed.
The Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy
(B.Sc. (Pharm)) takes an additional 4
years beyond this.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Page 45
Hard Drive
Education Card
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Can go to college for an Associate of
Science Degree in Computer
Science. This transfers to a third
year computer science program.
If doing all 4 years at university,
students can apply to major in
Computer Science once their 2nd
year in the Bachelor of Arts program
has been completed.
The degree program is four years
long.
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Career Card
METEOROLOGIST
Equipment Card
Satellites
Equipment Card
Weather Station
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Page 46
Career Card
OPTOMETRIST
Equipment Card
Glasses Frames
Equipment Card
Contact Lens
Solution
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Equipment Card
Page 47
Equipment Card
Weather Balloons
Equipment Card
Radar
Education Card
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Bachelors or higher degree in
meteorology or atmospheric science.
OR
If a person already has a Bachelor’s
degree in another field (physics,
applied mathematics, engineering or
similar discipline), they can earn a
Diploma of Meteorology in a two year
part time program.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Eye Chart
Equipment Card
Snipe Nose Pliers
Education Card
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Minimum 3 years undergraduate
education, preferably in sciences.
4 to 5 year program at an accredited
(by Optometric Education) university.
Can choose to do a year of
residency to complete Doctor of
Optometry degree.
Must satisfy the provincial board
requirements in the province they
want to practice. This includes an
examination by the Canadian
Examiners in Optometry.
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Station 4: Women in Science
Hypatia of Alexandria
(350 – 415AD)
Greek
Maria Sybillia Merian
(1647 – 1717)
German
Mathematician, inventor
and teacher
Botantist and illustrator
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Wrote
texts
on
geometry, algebra and
Public Domain
astronomy.
Credited with developing 3 scientific
devices:
o a hydrometer: used to determine the
relative density of liquids,
o an astrolabe used to locate and
predict positions of sun, moon, stars
and planets,
o an instrument for distilling water.
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Published books of
natural illustrations.
First published book
Public Domain
entitled
Neues
Blumenbuch, in 1675 when she was 28.
Considered to be the founder of modern
botany and zoology.
One of the first naturalists to observe
insects directly.
Just before her death, she met Peter the
Great. After her death he purchased a
number of her prints that are still in the
academic collections in St. Petersburg.
Ada Lovelace
(1815 – 1852)
British
Marie Curie
(1867 – 1934)
Polish/naturalized French
English mathematician
Physicist and Chemist
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Was a Countess.
Commissioned to
translate the French
paper on Babbage's
Public Domain
Analytical Engine into
English. She augmented it with
explanatory notes, thicker than the
original memoir.
Regarded to be the first computer
programmer because of the algorithm
that she describes for the Analytical
Engine to compute Bernoulli numbers.
This is considered to be the first ever
algorithm written for computer
implementation.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
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First woman to win a
Nobel Prize.
Public Domain
Earned
two
Nobel
Prizes in her life – the
first in 1903 for Physics and the second
in 1911 for Chemistry.
She did research in radioactivity,
sucessfully isolating radium.
First woman to become a professor at
the University of Paris.
Defined an international standard for
radioactive emissions.
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Harriet Brooks
(1876 – 1933 )
Canadian
Margaret Newton
(1887 – 1971 )
Canadian
Nuclear Physics
Agricultural Science
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Worked in Research
at McGill University as
Public Domain
Canada’s first woman
nuclear physicist.
1901 was the first woman to study at the
Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge
University in England.
Worked for a period of time in Dr. Marie
Curie’s laboratory.
Since the rule of the day was that once
women were married, they were not
allowed to work, she was forced to give
up her work as a physicist.
She raised her 3 children, but remained
active in the Federation of University
Women.
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In her second year of
university, enrolled in
Fair use
the agriculture program.
She was the only
woman in a class of 50. She was one of
the first Canadian women to earn a degree
in agriculture, and the first to earn a PhD in
Agricultural Science.
1933 - Invited to Russia to train students in
the problems of rust research.
Second woman to become a Fellow of the
Royal Society of Canada.
First person and only woman to have
received the Flavelle Medal for Meritorious
Achievement in Biological Science.
Margaret Newton Hall at the University of
Victoria has been named for her.
Elsie Gregory McGill
(1905 – 1980)
Canadian
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1910 – 1994)
British
Electrical Engineer
Chemist
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1927, became the first
Public Domain
Canadian woman to earn a
degree in electrical
engineering.
1929, first woman in North American and
likely the world to receive a master’s in
aeronautical engineering.
First woman elected to corporate
membership in the Engineering Institute of
Canada.
Chief Aeronautical Engineer at Canadian Car
and Foundry (CC&F), first woman in the
world to hold such a position.
In WWII, her primary responsibility was the
production of the Hawker Hurricane fighter
aircraft. Her staff of 4,500 people produced
more than 2,000 aircraft.
Considered the first woman to be a designer
of airplanes.
© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
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Became the third woman
to win the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry.
Wikipedia:Unattributed
photograph from Les
Advanced the technique
Prix Nobel 1964 p84
of x-ray crystallography .
Deciphered the structure of insulin.
Confirmed the structure of penicillin and
then the structure of vitamin B12.
Regarded as one of the pioneer scientists
in the field of X-ray crystallography studies.
One of five 'Women of Achievement'
selected for a set of British stamps issued
in August 1996.
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Page 50
Sylvia Olga Fedoruk
(1927 – present )
Canadian
Jane Goodall
(1934 – present)
British
Medical Imaging
Primatologist
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Established her
reputation in nuclear
medicine research
Fair Use
early in her career.
Instrumental in the development of the
cobalt radiation unit used in cancer
treatments.
First women to become Chancellor at the
University of Saskatchewan.
First women trustee of the Society of
Nuclear Medicine.
First woman to be appointed to the
Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.
Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan
from 1988 to 1994.
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Considered to be the
world’s foremost
expert on
CC-SA-3.0
chimpanzees having
extensively studied them in Gombe
Stream National Park, Tanzania.
1977 established the Jane Goodall
Institute which supports Gombe research.
She has 8 honourary doctorates from
Universities and Institutions around the
world.
She was honoured with a plaque on the
Tree of Life at Walt Disney World’s
Animal Kingdom theme park, beside a
carving of her beloved chimpanzee David
Greybeard.
Roberta Bondar
(1945 – present)
Canadian
Nancy Margaret Reid
(1952 – present)
Canadian
Neurologist, Astronaut
Statistician
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First female Canadian
astronaut. Flew on the
Public Domain
space shuttle in 1992.
Payload Specialist for the first
International Microgravity Laboratory
Mission (IML-1).
Certified in sky diving and parachuting
Celebrated landscape photographer.
She studied professional nature
photography at Brooks Institute of
Photography in California.
2009, the Roberta Bondar Foundation as
a not-for-profit charity centred on
environmental awareness.
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© Girl Guides of Canada - Guides du Canada
Photo
unavailable
Earned her B.A. from the University of
Waterloo, her Masters from the University
of British Columbia and her PhD from
Stanford University.
1992 – First woman to receive the
President’s Award of the Committee of
Statistical Societies for outstanding
contributions to the field of statistics.
1995 – First recipient of Krieger-Nelson
Prize lectureship for distinguished
research by a woman in mathematics.
1997 – Professor of Statistics at the
University of Toronto.
2001 – elected as a Fellow of the Royal
Society of Canada.
2004-5 – President of the Statistical
Society of Canada.
BC Program Committee (2009; 2014, 2017)
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