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Electric dishwashers for household use – Methods for measuring the
performance
or
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toestaan als
IEC 60436:2004+A1:2009(E)
IEC 60436
®
Edition 3.1
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2009-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
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IEC 60436
®
Edition 3.1
2009-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
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colour
inside
or
Electric dishwashers for household use – Methods for measuring the
performance
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INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
PRICE CODE
CL
ISBN 2-8318-1066-8
ICS 97.040.40
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
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60436 © IEC:2004+A1:2009(E)
CONTENTS
FOREWORD ...........................................................................................................................4
Scope ...............................................................................................................................7
2
Normative references .......................................................................................................7
3
Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................7
4
List of measurements .......................................................................................................9
5
General conditions for measurements...............................................................................9
6
5.1 General ...................................................................................................................9
5.2 Conditioning of the machine under test and sequence of test procedures .............. 10
5.3 Electricity supply for machines ..............................................................................10
5.4 Test programme ....................................................................................................11
5.5 Ambient conditions ................................................................................................11
5.6 Water supply .........................................................................................................11
5.7 Detergent ..............................................................................................................12
5.8 Rinse agent ...........................................................................................................13
5.9 Salt .......................................................................................................................13
Cleaning performance ....................................................................................................13
7
6.1 General and purpose .............................................................................................13
6.2 Load ......................................................................................................................13
6.3 Soiling agents........................................................................................................14
6.4 Preparation and application of soiling agents......................................................... 14
6.5 Drying of the soiled dishes ....................................................................................21
6.6 Loading and operating ...........................................................................................22
6.7 Evaluation .............................................................................................................22
6.8 Expressing results .................................................................................................27
Drying performance ........................................................................................................27
8
7.1 General and purpose .............................................................................................27
7.2 Load ......................................................................................................................27
7.3 Loading and operating ...........................................................................................27
7.4 Evaluation .............................................................................................................28
7.5 Expressing results .................................................................................................31
Energy consumption, water consumption and time .......................................................31
9
8.1 General and purpose .............................................................................................31
8.2 Method of measurement ........................................................................................31
Airborne acoustical noise................................................................................................33
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Annex A (normative) Place settings and serving pieces (non-AHAM style load) ................... 34
Annex B (normative) AHAM style load..................................................................................36
Annex C (informative) Illustration of soil distribution .............................................................39
Annex D (normative) Test materials for laboratories .............................................................40
Annex E (normative) Description of the reference machine [Type 1]..................................... 42
Annex F (informative) Addresses of suppliers ......................................................................46
Annex G (normative) Microwave oven and through-circulation thermal cabinet ....................50
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Annex H (informative) Guidelines for assessing cleaning performance ................................. 51
Annex I (normative) Test enclosure for built-in dishwasher...................................................53
Annex J (informative) Flow chart – test sequence for IEC 60436 ..........................................54
Annex K (normative) Shade chart.........................................................................................55
Annex L (informative) Test report format ..............................................................................56
Annex M (informative) Adjusting water consumption in the reference dishwasher.................59
Annex N (normative)
Description of the reference machine [Type 2] ...................................61
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Bibliography..........................................................................................................................65
Figure 1 – Position of the glasses on the microwave turntable ..............................................16
Figure I.1 – Test enclosure for built-in dishwasher ................................................................53
Figure N.1 – Reference machine [Type 2] loading plan .........................................................64
Table 1 – Evaluation of Cleaning Tests .................................................................................23
Table 2 – Evaluation to determine the cleaning index............................................................ 24
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Table 3 – Numerical Values of the t-factor for statistical calculations .................................... 26
Table 4 – Evaluation to determine the drying index ............................................................... 29
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60436 © IEC:2004+A1:2009(E)
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRIC DISHWASHERS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE –
METHODS FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE
FOREWORD
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1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote
international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To
this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,
Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC
Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested
in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and nongovernmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely
with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by
agreement between the two organizations.
or
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all
interested IEC National Committees.
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC
Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any
misinterpretation by any end user.
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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications
transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence
between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in
the latter.
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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity
assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any
services carried out by independent certification bodies.
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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and
members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or
other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and
expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC
Publications.
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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is
indispensable for the correct application of this publication.
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of
patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 60436 has been prepared by subcommittee 59A: Electric
dishwashers, of IEC technical committee 59: Performance of household electrical appliances.
This consolidated version of IEC 60436 consists of the third edition (2004) [documents
59A/114A/FDIS and 59A/116/RVD] and its amendment 1 (2009) [documents 59A/138/CDV
and 59A/139/RVC].
The technical content is therefore identical to the base edition and its amendment and has
been prepared for user convenience.
It bears the edition number 3.1.
A vertical line in the margin shows where the base publication has been modified by
amendment 1.
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This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 1981 and constitutes a
technical revision. Major changes introduced in the second edition include
changes made to the soils used in the standard;
•
the use of an oven and microwave oven to dry the soils;
•
the alternate 15 to 18 hour air dry method to dry the soils;
•
the addition of a reference dishwasher;
•
the recognition of alternate supply voltages and frequencies;
•
the recognition of a cold or hot water supply to the dishwasher;
•
the detergent and rinse aid compositions have been uprated to reflect current technology;
•
the addition of the Aham load;
•
the evaluation of the filter systems;
•
the modification of the scoring system from 2 to 5 grades;
•
the definition of program and cycle time;
•
the temperature correction for energy testing;
•
harmonization of ambient conditions.
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•
The committee has decided that the contents of the base publication and its amendments will
remain unchanged until the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under
"http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date,
the publication will be
•
withdrawn,
•
replaced by a revised edition, or
•
amended.
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•
IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates
that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding
of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.
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60436 © IEC:2004+A1:2009(E)
INTRODUCTION
In 1996, IEC subcommittee 59A charged its Working Group 2 with the revision of the second
edition of IEC 60436 to make it suitable for the international needs and to make it suitable for
the current levels of dishwasher performance and technology.
The second edition was published in 1981 and has not been significantly updated.
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SC59A instructed the WG2 to take the Cenelec draft standard EN 50242 as the basis for the
third edition.
An important reason for the third edition was the need to take into account the needs of all
countries such as varying voltages and frequencies, different water supply temperatures and
water hardness and availability of specified soils in in the various countries.
To meet the goal the following significant technical changes were made.
The repeatability and reproducibility of the test results have been improved by the
introduction of the same model reference dishwasher specified for all locations.
•
The soils have been changed to reflect the modern dishwasher's capability.
•
The preparation of the soils has been improved to enhance repeatability and reproducibility
by the introduction of new drying methods.
•
The standard also recognizes various supply voltages and frequencies,cold or hot water
supply, an alternate Aham load, the evaluation of dishwasher filter systems.
•
The standard has updated the formulation of the detergent and rinse agents to reflect the
producs on the market today.
•
The standard has increased the sensitivity of the grading scale from two to five points to
improve repeatability and reproducibility.
•
Ambient conditions have been brought closer to harmonization.
•
More detailed instructions have been provided for the installation of the various designs of
dishwashers.
•
Correction formulae have been provided for the correction of energy consumption
measurements for varying water supply temperature.
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60436 © IEC:2004+A1:2009(E)
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ELECTRIC DISHWASHERS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE –
METHODS FOR MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE
1
Scope
This international standard applies to electric dishwashers for household use that are supplied
with hot and/or cold water.
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The object is to state and define the principal performance characteristics of electric
dishwashers for household use and to describe the standard methods of measuring these
characteristics.
This standard is concerned neither with safety nor with performance requirements.
2
Normative references
or
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition
of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60350, Electric cooking ranges, hobs, ovens and grills for household use – Methods for
measuring performance
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IEC 60704-2-3, Household and similar electrical appliances – Test code for the determination
of airborne acoustical noise – Part 2-3: Particular requirements for dishwashers
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IEC 60704-3, Test code for the determination of airborne acoustical noise emitted by
household and similar electrical appliances – Part 3: Procedure for determining and verifying
declared noise emission values
IEC 60705, Household microwave ovens – Methods for measuring performance
IEC 60734, Household electrical appliances – Performance – Hard water for testing
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ISO 607, Surface active agents and detergents – Methods of sample division
AHAM DW-1:2003: Performance testing methods for household electric dishwashers
3
Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
dishwasher
machine which cleans, rinses, and dries dishware, glassware, cutlery, and, in some cases,
cooking utensils by chemical, mechanical, thermal, and electric means. A dishwasher may or
may not have a specific drying operation at the end of the program
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3.2
rated dishwasher capacity
whole number of place settings together with the serving pieces (see Annexes A & B) stated
by the manufacturer, which can be cleaned and dried when loaded in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions
3.3
operation
each event that occurs during the dishwasher programme such as cleaning, rinsing or drying
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3.4
programme
series of operations which are pre-defined within the dishwasher and which are declared as
suitable for specified levels of soil and/or type of load and together form a complete cycle
3.5
cycle
complete washing, rinsing, and drying process, as defined by the programme selected,
consisting of a series of operations
or
3.6
programme time
programme time is measured from the initiation of the programme (excluding any user
programmed delay) until an end of programme indicator. If there is no end of programme
indicator, the programme time is equal to the cycle time
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3.7
cycle time
cycle time is measured from the initiation of the programme (excluding any user programmed
delay) until all activity ceases (i.e. the end of the cycle)
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3.8
automatic dispenser
device activated automatically which injects or dispenses detergent, rinse agent, etc., one or
more times into the dishwasher at predetermined points in the dishwasher cycle
3.10
water softener
device which reduces the hardness of water
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3.9
non-automatic dispenser
device, usually a fixed cup or cavity on the dishwasher door, cover, or dish rack, which
deposits a previously measured amount of detergent, rinse agent, etc., into the dishwasher at
the beginning of the dishwasher cycle
3.11
rack
support for holding dishware, cutlery, and/or glassware in the dishwasher
3.12
detergent
cleaning agent in powder, granular, tablet or liquid form, manufactured for use in household
electric dishwashers to aid in the removal of food soils by chemical means
NOTE A reference detergent in powder form is specified for use in this standard (see 5.7).
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3.13
rinse agent
chemical agent added to the water in the last rinsing operation to improve the drying effect
and reduce water marks
NOTE Two reference rinse agents are specified for use in this standard (see 5.8).
3.14
serving pieces
defined set of crockery and cutlery for serving (see Annexes A and B)
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3.15
place settings
defined set of crockery, glass and cutlery for use by one person(see Annexes A and B)
4
List of measurements
Standard methods of measuring the performance characteristics are determined as follows:
cleaning performance according to Clause 6;
–
drying performance according to Clause 7;
–
energy, water consumption and time according to Clause 8;
–
airborne acoustical noise according to Clause 9.
5
General conditions for measurements
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5.1
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The dishwasher manufacturer’s instructions regarding installation and use of the dishwasher
shall be followed, except where there is a conflict, in which case this standard shall prevail.
Performance tests according to this standard shall be generally carried out on a new machine,
with a reference machine running parallel with the machine(s) under test, i.e., at the same
time under the same conditions using soil prepared at the same time from the same batch.
The reference machine shall be in accordance with the description given in Annex E or
Annex N.
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The reference machine shall always be installed as a free standing machine independent of
the type of machine under test.
Before commencing measurements, the dishwasher and the reference machine shall be
checked to ensure that they are operating properly.
All tests shall be started with the appliances at the ambient temperature according to 5.5.
5.1.1
Free standing dishwashers
Dishwashers shall be tested as free standing except where they are designated as built–in or
integrated (refer to 5.1.2). Dishwashers that can be installed as either free standing or builtin/integrated shall be tested as free standing.
5.1.2
Built in and integrated dishwashers
Built-in dishwashers have to be installed in an enclosure. See Figure I.1.
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60436 © IEC:2004+A1:2009(E)
The front edge of the housing of the dishwasher (except the door) shall be 20 mm to 25 mm
behind the front edge of the test enclosure. If required by the manufacturer’s instructions, the
enclosure shall be provided with ventilation openings accordingly.
If an appliance is provided with spacers, strips or other special means of solid or resilient
material for closing the gap(s) between the contours of the appliance and the cabinet
enclosure, these means shall be used accordingly. If such means are not provided, the gap(s)
shall be left open.
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Appliances to be integrated shall be installed under the same conditions as built-in
appliances. In addition, the door of the dishwasher shall be equipped, in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instruction, with a board of the maximum size allowed by the manufacturer and
of the same material and thickness as the test enclosure; see Annex I.
Moreover, for integrated types, the test enclosure shall be provided, in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions, at its lower front side with a skirting board of the maximum height
which corresponds with the size of the board on the door of the appliance and of the same
material and thickness as the test enclosure, see Annex I. If no instructions are given by the
manufacturer, a skirting board as described above shall be pressed against the skirting board
of the appliance.
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5.2
Conditioning of the machine under test and sequence of test procedures
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Before conducting the performance tests, the dishwasher shall be operated for at least 3
complete cycles using a clean load with reference detergent (specified in 5.7) and without
rinse agent. The following cycle(s) can be a noise test according to Clause 9. No additional
cycles shall be carried out on the machine under test between the sequential steps specified
in the following procedure.
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The tests shall be performed in the following order: cleaning performance (Clause 6) then
drying performance (Clause 7). The determination of energy, water and cycle/program time
(Clause 8) shall be done in conjunction with a wash performance test (Clause 6).
NOTE 1 The above sequence is necessary for better reproducibility, i.e. to avoid differences in drying
performance due to the ageing process of the plastic parts in the dishwasher (for example, racks).
NOTE 2
Any cycles or operations performed on the appliance during the manufacture of the product are ignored.
NOTE 3
time.
Noise tests require that the test should be carried out before the rinse aid dispenser is filled for the first
Electricity supply for machines
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
Electricity supply for test machine
Voltage
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5.3
The test voltage shall be set at the rated voltage of the machine and maintained within the
range of ±2 % throughout the test. If a voltage range is indicated, then the test voltage shall
be set at the nominal voltage of the country in which the appliance is intended to be used. The
measured voltage shall be reported.
NOTE If the rated voltage of the machine differs from the system voltage of the country of intended use,
measurements should be carried out at the nominal voltage of the country of intended use.
5.3.1.2
Frequency
The supply frequency shall be set at the rated frequency of the machine and maintained within
the range ±1 % throughout the test. If a frequency range is indicated, then the testing shall be
carried out at the nominal frequency of the country in which the appliance is intended to be
used. The measured frequency shall be reported.
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