Absorption Chiller : Technologies &
Applications
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Agenda
• Background : Krishnan, US DOE GC RAC
– DOE Application Center
– CHP Basics
• Absorption Chillers: Piyush Patel, Thermax
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Company Overview
Product Portfolio
Chiller Performance
Technical Aspects
Applications & Case Studies
Multi Energy Chillers
Eight U.S. DOE Clean Energy Application Centers
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Develop regional strategies to support:
Combined Heat and Power
Waste Heat Recovery
District Energy
1) Education and Outreach
Website, workshops, webinars
2) Policy Development Initiatives
Legislative and regulatory issues
Partners:
3) Project Specific Support
Audits, feasibility studies, assistance
CHP: Typical Schematic
Fuel input
•Natural gas
•Landfill gas
•Digester gas
Process
Steam
Reciprocating
Engine
Work
Electricity
Generator
Turbine
Electricity
Waste Heat
Options
Space
Heating
Domestic
Hot Water
Industrial
process
drying
Chilled
Water
Additional
Electricity
THERMAX
AN OVERVIEW
Vision
To be a globally respected,
high performance organization,
offering sustainable solutions in
Energy & Environment
Businesses
Boilers &
Heaters
Specialty Chemicals
Air Pollution Control
Turnkey Power Plants
Vapor Absorption Chillers
Waste & Waste Water
Solutions
Locations
Manufacturing plant:
Pune, India
Our Locations
Company Profile
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A 40 year old value based organization
Manufacturer of Industrial Boilers, Air Pollution Control Equipments,Absorption Chillers and Chemicals
From $ 0.5 million in 1966 to $ 1B at present
Total Manpower: 4000
World wide network of 13 offices, 5 subsidiaries and > 100 distributors/reps
50,000 installations for various businesses in more than 75 countries
World class manufacturing plants (> 1 million square feet)
Quality assured manufacturing to international codes
Tradition of intensive R&D
Thermax: 3rd best company to work for in India: BT Mercer Survey
Featured in Forbes ‘Asia’s best under a billion’ : 2005,2006 & 2007
Most comprehensive range of absorption chillers
License agreement - Babcock & Wilcox (for utility boilers)
Technology and Manufacturing Licensing Agreement – Georgia Pacific Chemicals
Business tempered by social responsibility
Global Footprint
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Well established sales and service rep network for North & South America,
Europe, Middle East, Africa & other markets
Dominant market share : India, South East Asia, Middle East and Europe
Respectable player : US and Brazil Markets
Absorption chillers’ manufacturing facility - ISO 9001: 2000, ISO 14001 and OHSAS
18001 certified
New absorption chiller manufacturing facility in China: Oct 2008
Absorption chillers comply to ETL, MEA, CE, DIN, ASME, GOST and other
international standards
Absorption chillers inspected by Jacobs, Llyods, BV,TUV, ASME, SGS & other
international agencies
Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
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THERMAX INC. USA (Northville, MI)
THERMAX EUROPE LTD.(UK)
THERMAX ZHEJIANG LTD.(CHINA ABSORPTION PLANT)
THERMAX HONGKONG LTD.
THERMAX DO BRASIL LTDA.
Overseas Branch Offices
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Bangladesh
Belgium
Indonesia
Kenya
Malaysia
Nigeria
Philippines
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Sri Lanka
Thailand
UAE
ABSORPTION COOLING
Product Portfolio
• Steam Driven Chillers
• Hot Water Driven Chillers
• Direct Fired Chiller-Heaters
• Multi Energy Chillers
• Heat Pumps
Capacity Range : 10 TR – 2000 TR
450 chillers per year
Product Overview
TYPE
RANGE
(Tons)
# OF
MODELS
COP
HEAT INPUT
SINGLE
STAGE STEAM
(SSA)
50-2000
24
0.7
16.8 lb steam/hr/TR
(Steam: 14 – 50 psig)
TWO
STAGE STEAM
(TSA)
50-2000
26
1.35
8.6 lb steam/hr/TR
(Steam: 55-140 psig)
LOW TEMP
HOT WATER
(LTA)
20-1150
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0.75
3.2 gpm hot water/TR
(195/185 degF)
DIRECT FIRED
(DFA)
40-1100
20
1.20
10,000 BTU/hr/TR
Medium and High temperature/ high pressure hot water machines are also available.
Largest single chiller of up to 3500 ton available upon request.
Cycle of Operation
Basic Principle
Low Temp. Hot Water
Single Stage Steam
Two Stage Steam
Direct Fired with Side Arm Heat
Exchanger
Why two stage is more effective?
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No. of stages indicate how many times, refrigerant is generated (or LiBr is
concentrated).
Heat is required to increase the dilute solution concentration from 59% to 63%.
In single stage chillers, this heat is supplied by low pr steam in Low Temp
Generator and LiBr boils at about 200F.
In two stage chillers, heat is supplied by high pr. steam in High Temp Generator,
where LiBr boils at about 320F & its concentration rises from 59% to 61%. Water
vapors separated here further boils the LiBr 61% to 63% in second stage generator.
This is possible since the pressure in second stage generator is low and hence the
boiling point is also low.
So external heat source is used only for first stage generation, which is half the
total requirement. So heat consumption is half or in other words, COP is double.
Features & Benefits
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Rated in accordance with ARI 560
Rugged design: Life span > 20 years
Special on-line concentration measurement & control
ensures operating temp is as far as 18 deg F away
from the crystallization temperature
Factory mounted vacuum pump
Part load operation 10 -100%
Corrosion Inhibitor: Lithium Molybdate
Chilled water outlet temp: 32 ~70 F
Cooling water inlet temp: 50 F
MODBUS communication protocol
Simple Design – Easy for maintenance e.g.
– Gravity Feed System (SS),
– Sight glasses,
– Isolation valves for refrigerant & solution pumps,
– Side exit nozzles and Hinged type absorber/condenser
headers,
– Wet back and wet front furnace (no refractory)
Optional Features
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Non-proprietary highest quality parts/raw material e.g.
– Siemens PLC,
– Teikoku pumps,
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OPTIONAL FEATURES:
Different tube metallurgy: Cu, Cu-Ni 90/10, 70/30, SS 316L,
Titanium
Various power supply: (208V, 460 V, 415V, 380V, 575V) (50
or 60 Hz)
Factory installed hot & cold insulation
Auto purging
Remote CHW set-point (reset)
Bacnet/ Lonworks communication protocols
Multi piece shipment
High pressure headers
Flameproof construction
Online bearing monitoring for solution pumps
Heat sources
Form of Heat
Source
Natural Gas
• Piped Gas connection
High Pressure Steam
• Solid fuel/ Bio-mass Boiler
Low Pressure Steam
• Used waste steam
• Process steam
Hot Water
• Heat recovery heat exchangers
• Prime movers - Micro-turbines, jacket water of
Gas engines, Gas turbines, Fuel cells
• Solar Collectors
Applications
Applications
COMFORT AIR CONDITIONING
Hotels & Resorts
Office
Art Gallery/Musuem
Schools, Universities
Supermarkets, Malls
Banks
Hospital
Electronics
Apartments
PROCESS COOLING
Chemicals
Textiles/Garments/Synthetic Fibers
Paper
Pharmaceuticals
Food
Printing
Plastics
Brewery
Rubber
CHPC/COGENERATION
INLET AIR COOLING
Comfort Cooling
Ensuring cool summers & warm winters in a
high rise commercial building in New York
In one of the most prestigious buildings in the
heart of New York city, two 500 TR gas-fired,
double effect Thermax absorption chiller-heaters,
with side arm heat exchangers, provide cooling
during summer and heating during winter. This
has not only helped reduce peak electric demand,
but also eliminated the need for a boiler.
Supplied in multiple pieces, because of the restricted ingress to the building, these
machines were assembled on site. Also, these chillers are very environment-friendly, with
the refrigerant being water which has zero ozone depleting potential.
Comfort Cooling
University Campus Cooling using high Temp. hot water
When the old inefficient absorber at the site was replaced by a 1400 TR, two stage,
high temperature high pressure hot water driven chiller from Thermax, the effect
was felt instantly.
Today, the chilled water output is used for air conditioning several buildings on the
campus.
Comfort Cooling
A new landmark in cooling helps keep temp down in Rio
For the last 6 years, 6 Thermax stage Gas driven 600 Ton absorption chillers have been
providing chilled water for the air conditioning at this largest facility using absorbers in
South America. This ensues in Clean & Green Air conditioning for the facilities, saving
simultaneously on precious & often scarce electricity
Comfort Cooling
Passing the test in Ohio
- using waste heat to cool the process
When a leading plastics manufacturer in Ohio hosted a 1100 kW test engine from
Waukesha, it was discovered that this test engine also generated a great deal of
waste heat.
This waste heat was put to productive use, when it was harnessed to drive a 150 TR
Thermax absorption chiller. The chilled water output from this absorption chiller is
now used for process cooling.
CHPC
CHPC
CHPC
Using heat to cool state facilities
A Thermax chiller keeps the mercury levels down at a state facility in sunny
California.
Waste heat recovered from the 10 x 60 kW Capstone Micro Turbines (used for peak
shaving) is used to drive a 150 ton Thermax low temperature, hot water driven
absorption chiller. This, in turn, is used for air conditioning several buildings in the
facility.
CHPC
Cooling the process at a renowned plastics
manufacturer in California: using the CHPC route
At a plastics factory in California, three 375 KW natural gas fired engines provide a large part
of the electric energy used on the site. The jacket water from these engines was routed to a
Thermax single stage 500 ton absorption chiller to produce chilled water.
Today, this chilled water output meets the entire cooling requirements of the injection
molding process in the company's operations.
CHPC
1000 Ton Low Temp hot water chiller being shipped for a Casino in Atlantic City
Cooling using CHPC route
Solar Based Cooling
30 ton hot water chiller in Spain
What’s new?
Multi- Energy Chillers
Tri-generation
Tri-generation
System efficiency
with and without recover
Multi-Energy chiller offerings
• Absorption chiller on exhaust gas only
(ED Series)
• Absorption chiller on exhaust gas and jacket hot water
(EJ Series)
• Absorption chiller on exhaust gas with supplementary / boost-up
gas/oil firing
(EDG Series)
• Absorption chiller on exhaust gas and jacket hot water with
supplementary / boost-up gas/oil firing
(EJG series)
Cooling potential on engine ratings
Engine size (kW)
Cooling Capacity* on Exhaust +
Jacket water (ton)
300
100 ~ 110
500
175 ~ 200
1000
300 ~ 350
1500
425 ~ 500
2000
525 ~ 600
* Indicative and may vary as per engine waste heat parameters
Advantages
• Custom design to meet the project requirements, thus offering
optimum heat recovery and efficiency
• Advanced series flow cycle to avoid simultaneous occurrence of
high temp and high concentration thus minimizing possibility of
corrosion
• Single chiller on multiple engines without compromising engine
safety
• Unique online LiBr concentration measurement and control to keep
safe 18F distance from the crystallization line
• Approx. 10% higher heat recovery from the same engine
• Unique feature for chiller safety during long period shutdown
Salient features
• Cooling Capacity range: 50 ton to 2000 ton
• Options available on tube material like copper,
Cupro-Nickel, SS 316L, Titanium to suit the
water quality available at site
• Auto purging
• PLC based control system
• Online stand by pumps
• Multi-piece shipments
Experience
California State University, Fullerton, CA
4.5 MW Power, 2600 TR of Cooling
1 x 4.5 MW CAT Solar Gas
Turbine
2 x 1300 TR Exhaust Fired
Chillers
Exhaust gas
IBM Data Center Syracuse University, NY,
780kW Power, 300 TR of Cooling
12 x C65 Capstone
Micro - Turbine
Exhaust gas
2 x 150 TR Exhaust gas
Fired Chillers
Contact
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Piyush Patel:
Cell: 248-756-5398
ppatel@thermax-usa.com
Thermax Inc.
21800, Haggerty Road, Suite 112
Northville, MI 48167
Office 248-468-0541
Fax 248-468-0546
Thank You!
Upcoming webinars & Announcements
6/23 – Texas Legislature:
Wrap-up
6/30 – Measuring the CHP
Advantage
7/14 – Louisiana Legislature:
Wrap-up
Go to www.GulfCoastCleanEnergy.org
> News & Events > Webinars
2011 Annual
CHP
Conference
October 18-19
Westin Hotel Galleria
Houston, TX
•Panel discussions
•Breakout sessions
•Exhibits
•Awards Ceremony
•CHP installation tours
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Contacts
Dan Bullock, MS, MPAff
Director
Ross Tomlin, MPAff
Clean Energy Policy
281-364-6087
dbullock@harc.edu
281-363-7922
rtomlin@harc.edu
Krishnan Umamaheswar, LEEDAP, CEM, CDSM, DGCP
Project Support
Ginny Jahn
Administrative Support
281-363-7906
ukrishnan@harc.edu
281-364-6051
gjahn@harc.edu
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