Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory

QMP 7.1 D/F
Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
NH 206 (B.H. Road), Gubbi, Tumkur – 572 216. Karnataka.
Department of Mechanical Engineering
LAB MANUAL
(2015-16)
Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory
(10MEL58)
B.E - V Semester
Name : _____________________________________
USN : _____________________________________
Batch : __________________ Section : ___________
Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
NH 206 (B.H. Road), Gubbi, Tumkur – 572 216. Karnataka.
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory
August 2015
Prepared by:
Reviewed by:
SUSHMA .S
NAGESH S B
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Approved by:
Professor & Head,
Dept. of Mechanical Engg.
Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
NH 206 (B.H. Road), Gubbi, Tumkur – 572 216. Karnataka.
SYLLABUS
Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory
Sub Code: 10 MEL58
Hrs/week : 03
Total Lecture Hrs: 48
IA Marks : 25
Exam Marks : 50
Exam Hours : 03
PART – A
1. Determination of Flash Point and Fire Point of lubricating oil using Abel Pensky and Marin
(Closed) / Cleavland (Open cup) Apparatus.
2. Determination of Calorific value of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
3. Determination of Viscosity of a lubricating oil using Redwoods, Saybolts and Torsion
Viscometers.
4. Valve Timing/ port opening Diagram of an I.C. Engine (4 stroke/ 2 stroke.)
5. Use of Planimeter.
PART – B
1. Performance Tests on I.C. Engines, Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP, Heat
balance sheet for
(a) Four stroke Diesel Engine
(b) Four stroke Petrol Engine
(c) Multi cylinder Diesel/Petrol Engine,(Morse test)
(d) Two stroke Petrol Engine
(e) Variable Compression Ratio I.C. Engine
Scheme of Examination:
ONE question from part -A: 20 Marks
ONE question from part -B: 20 Marks
Viva -Voice: 10 Marks
Total: 50 Marks
Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
NH 206 (B.H. Road), Gubbi, Tumkur – 572 216. Karnataka.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG.
CONTENTS
Exp.
No
Title of the Experiment
Page
No
1
ABEL’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS
01
2
PENSKY MARTENZ’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS
03
3
FLASH POINT AND FIRE POINT BY CLEAVELAND
05
(OPEN CUP)APPARATUS
4
BOMB CALORIMETER
07
5
BOY’S GAS CALORIMETER
13
6
REDWOOD VISCOMETER
25
7
8
9
10
SAYBOLT VISCOMETER
TORSION VISCOMETER
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM
(CUT SECTION DIESEL ENGINE)
PORT TIMING DIAGRM
(Cut section petrol engine)
19
23
25
27
11
PLANIMETER
29
12
4 STROKE , SINGLE CYLINDER, DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG
31
13
2 STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER , PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
37
14
4 STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
43
15
VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
51
16
THREE CYLINDER ,4 STROKE , PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
17
THRUSTON OIL TESTER (Additional Experiment)
VIVA QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
59
73
77
Channabasaveshwara Institute of Technology
(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
NH 206 (B.H. Road), Gubbi, Tumkur – 572 216. Karnataka.
ENERGY CONVERSION ENGINEERING LBROTARY OBJECTIVE & OUTCOMES:
OBJECTIVES:
This lab will help students to see how energy can be converted from one form to another. Students will
observe the loss in useful energy as a result of such a conversion and measure the efficiency for such
conversions.
 To make students familiar with the design and operating characteristics of internal combustion engines.
 To apply analytical techniques to the engineering problems and performance analysis of internal
combustion engines.
 To study the thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer, friction and other factors affecting engine power,
efficiency and emissions.
 To introduce students to the environmental and fuel economy challenges facing the internal combustion
engine.
 To introduce students to future internal combustion engine technology .
OUTCOMES:
 Students are able to differentiate among different internal combustion engine designs.
 Students are able to recognize and understand reasons for differences among operating characteristics of
different engine types and designs.
 Given an engine design specification, predict performance and fuel economy trends with good accuracy.
 Learn to compare and contrast experimental results with theoretical trends, and to attribute observed
discrepancies to either measurement error or modelling limitations.
 Develop an ability to optimize future engine designs for specific sets of constraints (fuel economy,
performance, emissions).
‘Instructions to the Candidates’
1. Students should come with thorough preparation for the experiment to be conducted.
2. Students will not be permitted to attend the laboratory unless they bring the practical record fully
completed in all respects pertaining to the experiment conducted in the previous class.
3. Experiment should be started only after the staff-in-charge has checked the experimental setup.
4. All the calculations should be made in the observation book. Specimen calculations for one set of
readings have to be shown in the practical record.
5. Wherever graphs are to be drawn, A-4 size graphs only should be used and the same should be
firmly attached to the practical record.
6. Practical record should be neatly maintained.
7. They should obtain the signature of the staff-in-charge in the observation book after completing
each experiment.
8. Theory regarding each experiment should be written in the practical record before procedure in
your own words.
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:
Figure: Abel’s Flash Point Apparatus.
OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
Oil Temperature in 0C
No
Observations (Yes or No)
Flash Point
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
RESULT:
The flash point of a given sample of oil = ------- 0C
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EXPERIMENT NO 1
ABEL’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the flash point of given oil by Abel’s Flash Point Apparatus.
TERMINOLOGY:
Flash point of oil may be defined as the minimum temperature at which it gives off
sufficient vapours when mixed with air and gives rise to a momentary flash of light on
the application of a small pilot flame.
Fire point is defined as the lowest temperature to which oil should be heated to give
sufficient vapours to form an inflammable mixture with air to burn for at least five or
more seconds, when a pilot flame is introduced near of if.
APPARATUS:
Abel’s flash point apparatus & Thermometers.
DISCRIPTION:
The Abel’s flash point apparatus is mainly used to determine the flash point of fuel oils
flashing between 20C to 49 0C. It consists of a sealed water bath with a provision of an air
chamber to hold the oil cup and circulate cold water for below ambient determination and
an external heater for above ambient determinations. The oil cup is provided with a lid
and sliding ports for the introduction of test flame. Within the oil cup a circular marking
to indicate the level of oil to be taken for the test. The whole arrangement is mounted on
a cylindrical enclosed stand.
PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with any solvent and wipe it dry.
2) Fill water into the water jacket to its full level and insert into the cylindrical stand.
3) Pour water into the air chamber, which surrounds the oil cup to a depth of 38 mm.
4) Pour fuel oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the circular mark and place the oil cup
into the air chamber of the water bath.
5) Close it with the lid having sliding ports.
6) Insert the water and oil thermometers in their respective holders.
7) Keep the entire set up on a heater and heat the water at a very slow rate.
8) Maintain a low flame on the wick and apply the flame to the oil surface by sliding the
port at every 20 C rise in temperature of the oil under test.
9) Record the temperature at which the first flash occurs and report as flash point.
10) To determine the flash point of fuel oils below room temperature, circulate cold water
in the water bath to at least 150C below the expected flash point of the fuel oil sample
and follow steps 8 & 9.
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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Figure :Pensky Martenz’s Flash Point Apparatus
OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No
Oil Temperature in 0C
Observations (Yes or No)
Flash Point
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
RESULT:
Flash Point of given oil = --------- 0C
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EXPERIMENT NO 2
PENSKY MARTENZ’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the flash point of oil by Pensky Marten’s Apparatus.
PRINCIPLE:
The temperature at which an oil gives off inflammable vapour is on the greatest
importance in the case petroleum products & lubricating oils. If these oils are sufficiently
volatile at ordinary temperatures, the issuing vapours will form an explosive mixture with
air and cause fire hazards to ensure safety and to avoid this risk certain minimum
temperatures are laid down for burning and lubricating oils below which it should not
given off inflammable vapours. Flash point and fire point give these values of
temperature.
APPARATUS:
Pensky Marten’s apparatus, thermometers.
DISCRIPTION:
This apparatus is used to determine the flash point of fuel oils and lubricating oils.
Flashing above 49 0 C. It consists of an oil cup with a circular marking for oil level
indication. A lid to cover the oil cup with sliding shutters with ports, oil stirring
mechanism and dipping wick holder, cast iron oil cup holder (air bath), electric heater
with control.
PROCEDURE:
1) Install the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps single-phase power source.
Keep the electrical heater on the table with an asbestos sheet under it. Position the CI
cup holder (air bath) on the heater. Insert the oil cup into the bath and position it.
2) Pour the oil to be tested up to the mark into the oil cup.
3) Close the lid.
4) Connect the heater to the electrical power source and heat the oil at a slow steady rate
of 10 to 20C /min with the help of the regulator. Keep stirring the oil with the stirring
mechanism.
5) Maintain a small flame on the wick.
6) Introduce the flame to the oil surface by operating the circular handle, which makes
the maintained flame to dip into the oil cup by opening the shutter. This is done at
every half minute, only after the sample oil reaches around 150 C to 17 0C or before
the expected flash point. (Flash point is different for different oils)
7) Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the
sample oil.
8) To stop the experiment, switch of the heater and allow it to cool.
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OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No
Oil Temperature in 0C
Observations (Yes or No)
Flash point
Fire point
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
RESULT:
1) Flash Point of given oil = ------0C
2) Fire Point of given oil = -------- 0C
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EXPERIMENT NO 3
FLASH POINT AND FIRE POINT BY CLEAVELAND
(OPEN CUP)APPARATUS
AIM:
To determine the flash point and fire point of petroleum products by cleaveland
(Open cup) appartaus.
APPARATUS:
Cleaveland apparatus, thermometer.
PROCEDURE:
1. Keep the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5 amps power source.
2. Clean the oil cup with a soft cloth and fill the oil to be tested into the cup up to the
mark.
3. Place the oil filled cup on heater; insert the thermometer into the clip, until the
thermometer sensor bulb just dip into the oil surface.
4. Switch on the heater and heat the oil at a faster rate for first few min (2- 3 min)
and control the heating rate at very slow rate (100C rise in 60 seconds) as athe oil
approaches the flash point.
5. Apply a test flame at every 1.50C rise in temperatue.
6. Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the
sample oil.
7. To obtain the fire point, continue heating at the same rate and keep applying the
test flame to the surface of oil.
8. At approximately 100C to 150C rise in oil temperature above the flash point ,
applying the test flame the oil surface continue to burn for 5 to 6 seconds. Record
the temperature at this point which is the fire point of the oil under test.
9. Tabulate the readings and declare the temperature as flash point and fire poin t of
the oil under test.
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OBSERVATIONS:
Calorific value of Standard Benzoic Acid (H) = 6319Cal /grm
Water equivalent of Calorimeter (W) 2330 Cal/ 0C
CALCULA TIONS:
WT = HM
... H =
WxT
M
Where:
W = Water equivalent of Calorimeter Cal/0C
H= Calorific Value of solid fuel sample in
Cal/gm to be determined
T= Rise in temperature due to combustion of
solid fuel inside the Bomb 0C.
M=Mass of solid fuel sample Burnt inside
the Bomb grms
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EXPERIMENT NO 4
BOMB CALORIMETER
AIM:
To determine the calorific value of solid fuels.
APPARATUS:
The Bomb Calorimeter mainly consists of the following:
1. Stainless steel Bomb
2. Calorimeter Vessel with Bomb support and insulating base
3. Water Jacket with outer body
4. Lid for water Jacket
5. Stirrer assembly with F.H.P. motor
6. Bomb firing unit with Electronic Digital Temperature Indicator
7. Pellet Press
8. Stand and dial pressure gauge
9. Connecting tubes(copper tubes O2 Cylinder to pressure gauge & pressure
gauge to bomb)
10. Connecting electrical leads(Firing unit to water jacket & water jacket to
bomb)
11. Crucible Stainless steel
12. Gas release valve
13. Oxygen cylinder valve
DISCRIPTION:
A Bomb Calorimeter will measure the amount of heat generated when matter is burnt in a
sealed chamber (Bomb) in an atmosphere of pure oxygen gas.
A known amount of the sample is burnt in a sealed chamber. The air is replaced by pure
oxygen.
The sample is ignited electrically. As the sample burns, heat is produced. The rise in
temperature is determined Since, barring heat loss the heat absorbed by calorimeter
assembly and the rise in temperature enables to calculate the heat of combustion of the
sample.
W Water equivalent of the calorimeter assembly in calories per degree centigrade
(2330 cal / 0C)
T Rise in temperature (registered by a sensitive thermometer) in degree centigrade
H Heat of combustion of material in calories per gram
M Mass of sample burnt in grams
Then W T = HM
“H” is calculated easily since W, T and M are known.
WT
... H 
M
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PROCEDURE:
1. Install the equipment on a plain flat table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps electrical power
source and 15mm tap size water source.
2. Weigh the empty S.S. crucible and record.
3. Weigh exactly 1 gm of powdered dry fuel sample, pour it into the pellet press and
press it to form a briquette (tablet / pellet), put it into the crucible and weigh it again
to get the exact weight of the solid fuel sample.
i.e. weight of (crucible + sample) – (empty crucible)
4. Open the bomb lid, keep it on the stand; insert the S.S. crucible into the metallic ring
provided on one of the electrode stud.
5. Take a piece of ignition wire of about 100 mm length, weigh it and tie it on the
electrode studs, in such a way that the wire touches the fuel pellet, but not the sides of
the S.S. crucible.
6. Insert a piece of cotton thread of known weight on to the ignition wire without
disturbing it.
7. Lift the Bomb lid assembly from the stand, insert it into the S.S. Bomb body and
secure it with the cap.
8. Fill water into the outer shell to its full capacity, insert a glass thermometer with
rubber cork. Keep the insulating base in position inside the shell.
9. Fill oxygen gas to about 20 atmospheres into the Bomb with the help of copper tubes
with end connectors through pressure gauge from an oxygen cylinder (Oxygen
cylinder is not in the scope of supply).
10. Fill water into the calorimeter vessel up to half its capacity and place the assembled
Bomb unit, charged with oxygen into it in position. Top up with more water to bring
the water level in the calorimeter vessel up to the Bomb lid level.
11. Keep the entire vessel assembly on the insulated base already placed in the outer
shell. This should be carried out without disturbing the vessel assembly.
12. Connect the bomb unit to the Bomb firing unit with the electrical leads (connecting
wires) and close the shell lid.
13. Insert the stirrer unit into the calorimeter vessel in proper position through the shell
lid and secure it; connect the stirrer unit with the firing unit, also insert the
thermocouple sensor into the calorimeter vessel through the shell lid and connect it to
the firing unit.
14. Connect the Bomb firing unit to an electrical source of 230v, 50Hz, 5 amps keeping
all the switches on the firing unit in “OFF” position.
15. Switch “ON” the main switch of the firing unit. Now the temperature indicator
indicates the temperature sensed by the thermocouple.
16. Switch “ON” the stirrer unit.
17. Press the “green” button on the firing unit to check the continuity in the Bomb unit,
observe the indicator glow.
18. Wait till the temperature in the calorimeter vessel, stabilize and record it as initial
temperature. Press the “red” button on the firing unit to fire the sample inside the
Bomb.
19. Now the temperature of the water in the calorimeter vessel starts rising, note and
record the rise in temperature at every one-min. interval until the rise in temperature
stabilizes or starts dropping.
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20. Tabulate all the readings and calculate the calorific value of the solid fuel under test.
21. To close the experiment switch “OFF” the stirrer and main switch, open the shell lid
and take out the Bomb assembly from the calorimeter vessel. Release all the flue
gases from the Bomb with the help of release valve, unscrew the cap open the lid and
observe all the fuel sample is burnt completely.
22. Clean the Bomb and crucible with clean fresh water and keep it dry.
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TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No.
Water flow
rate
LPM
LPS
Kg/s
Weight
of gas
Difference
X Kg
Time for X
Kg
in sec
Initial -Final
X1 - X2
Kg
Kg
Gas
flow
Kg/s
Water Temperature
Tin
0
C
Tout
0
C
t
0
C
Tout- Tin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
CALCULATION:
The calorific value of gaseous fuel
C v = Ww x Cpw x t
Wf
= Kcal / kg
Where
Ww = weight of water flowing through Calorimeter in Kg/s (1 Kg=1 liter water)
Cpw = specific heat of water is 4.187 J/grams 0 C, 1 Kcal / Kg 0 C
t = difference between water inlet and outlet temperature
Wf = weight of Gaseous fuel burnt in Kg/s
RESULT:
Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is = ----------------------------K Cal/Kg
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
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Calori
fic
Value
Cv
Kcal /
kg
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 5
BOY’S GAS CALORIMETER
AIM:
To determine the calorific value of gaseous fuel by Boy’s Gas Calorimeter.
APPARATUS:
Gas calorimeter, gas cylinder (small), digital weighing balance, Rotameter, control
valves, pipe connections and Temperature indicator with Thermocouples (RTD).
DESCRIPTION:
This calorimeter is intended for the purpose of determining, the “Calorific Value of
Gaseous Fuel”, experimentally. The method is based on heat transfer from burning the
known quantity of gaseous fuel for heating the known quantity of water that circulates in
a copper coil heat exchanger. With the assumption that the heat absorbed by the
circulating water is equal to the heat released from the gaseous fuel, is accurate enough
for calculation of calorific value.
The gaseous fuel from the cylinder, which is kept on a weighing scale passes
through the pipe connected to the burner of the calorimeter with a control valve. Water
connection from a water source of 15-mm tap size is connected to the calorimeter through
a Rotameter to circulate through the calorimeter. Temperature measurement is made on a
digital temperature Indicator with RTD sensors located at inlet and outlet water
connections.
Weight of gas burnt is directly indicated by the digital weighing scale in Kg.
Amount of water flowing through the calorimeter is indicated by the Rotameter in LPM.
The Digital temperature indicator indicates the inlet and outlet water temperature.
PROCEDURE:
a) Install the equipment near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps, Single-phase power source (power
socket) and an un interrupted water source of 15 mm tap size.
b) Keep the gas cylinder on the weighing scale, connect the rubber tube with regulator
to gas cylinder and calorimeter. Keep the regulator closed.
c) Connect the un interrupted water source to the inlet of the Rotameter through
control valve with a suitable flexible hose and the out let to drain.
d) Switch “on” the electrical main switch as well as the digital balance switch. Now
the digital balance indicates some reading. Tare the cylinder weight to “zero”.
e) Open the gas control valve, allow water into the calorimeter by opening Rotameter
control valve, as the water starts flowing into the calorimeter ignition takes place
automatically and starts burning. Adjust the water flow rate to any desired value by
operating the Rotameter control valve and allow the calorimeter to stabilize.
f) Note down the readings indicated by the digital balance, Rotameter and temperature
indicator (inlet & outlet).
g) Repeat the experiment by changing the flow rate of water.
h) Tabulate the readings and calculate the calorific value of the gaseous fuel.
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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Figure: Experimental Steup
OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Sl.
No.
Temperature of oil in 0C
Time for collecting 50 ml.of oil in
t (sec)
1.
2.
3.
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EXPERIMENT NO 6
REDWOOD VISCOMETER
AIM:
To determine the viscosity of the given oil using redwood viscometer at different
temperatures. Expressed in terms of Redwood seconds
APPARATUS:
1. Redwood Viscometer, 50ml Receiving flask, thermometers and stopwatch
DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS:
Redwood viscometer Consists of a cylindrical oil cup furnished with a gauge
point, agate / metallic Orifice jet at the bottom having a concave depression from inside
to facilitate a ball with stiff wire to act as a valve to start or stop oil flow. The outer side
of the orifice jet is convexed, so that the oil under test does not creep over the lower face
of the oil cup. The oil cup is surrounded by a water bath with a circular electrical
immersion heater and a stirring device. Two thermometers are provided to measure water
bath temp. & oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask of 50ml marking, to
measure 50 ml of oil flow against time. The water bath with oil cup is supported on a
tripod stand with leveling screws.
PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and
wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton
waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread.
2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion
4) Keep the ball (valve) in position and pour clean filtered oil sample (use strainer
not coarser than BS 100 mesh) to be tested into the oil cup up to the gauge point
and cover it with the lid.
5) Take a clean dry 50ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and
center it.
6) Lift the ball (valve) and simultaneously start a stop watch and allow the oil into
the receiving flask.
7) Adjust the receiving flask (50ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of
the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on
the oil surface.
8) Wait till the oil level touches the 50 ml mark stop the watch and record the time in
sec.
9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
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CALCULATION
V = A.t 
B
t
Where
V= Kinematic viscocity of the oil in m2 / s
t= Time for filling of 50ml of sample oil in sec.
in m2 / s
Commonly used values of A & B for Viscometers are:
Viscometer
Redwood
Saybolt
A X 10
0.26
6
0.24
6
B X 10
172
190
GRAPH:
Plot the graph of temperature verses Kinematic viscocity
CONCLUSION:
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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Figure: Saybolt Viscometer
OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No.
Temperature of oil in 0C
Time for collecting 60 ml.of oil in
t (sec)
1.
2.
3.
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EXPERIMENT NO 7
SAYBOLT VISCOMETER
AIM:
To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different
temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds.
APPARATUS:
Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch.
DISCRIPTION:
The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a
water bath with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with
two S.S. Orifice jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom
of the oil cup as per our requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also
at the bottom to facilitate start and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two
thermometers are provided to measure water bath temperature and oil temperature under
test. A round flat-bottomed flask with a 60-ml marking on the neck is provided to
measure 60 ml of oil flow against time. The oil cup with the water bath is supported on a
stand with levelly screws.
PROCEDURE:
1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and
wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton
waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread.
2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it.
3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion.
4) Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to
be tested into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills
up in the oil cup as well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well
and position the thermometers in water bath and oil cup.
5) Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and
center it.
6) Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil
into the receiving flask.
7) Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of
the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on
the oil surface.
8) Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time
in sec.
9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
20
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
CALCULATION
V = At 
B
t
Where
V= Kinematic viscocity of the oil in m2 / s
t= Time for filling of 60 ml of sample oil in sec.
in m2 / s
Commonly used values of A & B for Viscometers are:
6
6
Viscometer
A X 10
B X 10
Redwood
0.26
172
0.24
190
Saybolt
GRAPH:
Plot the graph of temperature verses Kinematic viscocity
CONCLUSION:
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
21
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
2016-17
22
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Figure: Experimental Setup Of Torsion Viscometer
OBSERVATION:
Type of oil used:-
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.no
Temperature of oil
in 0C
Angular rotation on the
disk in degrees
Corresponding redwood
seconds from graph
1
2
3
GRAPH:
Plot the graph of temperature verses redwood second
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
23
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 8
TORSION VISCOMETER
AIM:
To determine the viscosity of given oil using torsion viscometer
APPARATUS:
Torsion Viscometer, sample oil & thermometer.
DISCRIPTION:
The apparatus consists of a device to hold a solid cylinder and a flywheel by
means of a Torsion wire with end connectors. A release pin is provided to hold the
flywheel in horizontal position. The flywheel is, surrounded by a graduated scale in
degrees (00 to 3600). A pointer is attached to the flywheel to indicate the angler
movement of the flywheel. Oil cup to hold the oil under test
PROCEDURE:
1) Install the apparatus on a plain flat table and level it with leveling screws.
2) Insert the torsion wire with end connectors into the tube vertically downwards with
the top end connector of the wire fixed to a stationary head
3) Insert the bottom end connector of the wire into the top portion of the flywheel and
secure it.
4) Fix the solid cylinder to the bottom portion of the flywheel.
5) Pour clean filtered oil to be tested into the oil cup up to about 5mm to 10mm below
the top of the oil cup and place it on the platform provided and properly position it.
6) Slightly lift the top stationery head so that the flywheel along with torsion wire is
free to rotate horizontally and position the pointer of the flywheel exactly in front of
the release pin.
7) Adjust the pointer of the flywheel to zero degree by turning the stationary head
either way with absolutely no torsion in the wire and tighten the stationary head.
8) Lift the oil cup along with the platform in such a way that, the solid cylinder under
the flywheel completely immersed in the oil under test.
9) Manually give one full rotation to the flywheel (00 to 00) and secure it in the release
pin.
10) Now the apparatus is ready for the test
11) Slowly pull the release pin back without disturbing the set up.
12) The flywheel starts rotating and completes one full rotation (00 to 00) and moves
beyond zero purely by virtue of its momentum. This angler movement beyond zero
(over swing) is recorded and the viscosity of the oil under test in Redwood seconds
is obtained from the graph provided.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
24
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
SKETCH
Figure : Valve Timing Diagram of A Four Stroke Disel Engine
TABULAR COLOUMN:
SI.
No.
Event
Position of
the crank
1
IVO
ATDC
2
IVC
ABDC
3
EVO
BBDC
4
EVC
ATDC
Angle θ
(in degree)
Where:
I V O – Inlet valve opens
E V O – Exhaust valve opens
BTDC – Before top dead centre,
BBDC – Before bottom dead centre
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
I V C – Inlet valve closes
E V C – Exhaust valve closes
ABDC – After bottom dead centre
ATDC – After top dead centre
25
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 9
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM
(CUT SECTION DIESEL ENGINE)
AIM:
To draw valve timing diagram for given engine and calculate different periods.
THEORY:
In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not take place
exactly at the end of dead centre positions. The valves open slightly earlier and close after
that respective dead centre position .The fuel injection also occurs prior to the full
compression ie before the piston reaches the dead centre position. both the valve operate
at some degree on either side in terms of crank angle from dead centre position.
DISCRIPTION:
Cut section, 4 Stroke, single cylinder, constant speed .water cooled, vertical diesel
engine, 5 BHP 1500 rpm
PROCEDURE:
1. Rotate flywheel freely by hand, fix a reference point on the body of the engine near
the flywheel
2. Now while rotating observe piston at TDC (Top dead centre) and mark with chalk on
flywheel with reference to the point
3. Similarly by rotating, mark the position of bottom dead center (BDC).
4. It is to be observed that it takes to rotation of flywheel to complete one cycle of
operation.
(one cycle is suction, compression, power & exhaust strokes)
5. Now identify inlet and exhaust valves.
6. Find out direction of rotation of flywheel (crank shaft)
7. Bring flywheel to TDC position (pointer).
8. Go on rotating flywheel slowly and observe position (functioning) of both the valves .
9. Now observe when inlet valves opens mark it on flywheel inlet valve open (IVO)
10. Slowly rotate flywheel, and observe when inlet valve closes ( IVC.)
11. Rotate further observe when exhaust valve opens (EVO )
12. Rotate further & observe when exhaust valve closes (EVC).
13. Same time note down IVO & mark all these on flywheel
14. With small thread &scale find out circumference of flywheel
15. With marking of IVO,IVC,EVO &EVC find out lengths with thread &scale.
16. Then draw spiral diagram with data in marking on flywheel.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
26
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
SKETCH
Figure : Port Timing Diagram of A Two Stroke Petrol Engine.
TABULAR COLOUMN:
SL.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
EVENT
IPO
IPC
TPO
TPC
EPO
EPC
POSITION OF CRANK
ANGULAR POSITION
FROM THE NEAREST
DEAD CENTRE
BTDC
ATDC
BBDC
ABDC
BBDC
ABDC
Where:
I P O – Inlet port opens
T P O – Transfer port opens
E P O – Exaust port opens
BTDC – Before top dead centre,
BBDC – Before bottom dead centre
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
I P C – Inlet port closes
T P C – Transfer port closes
E P C – Exaust port closes
ABDC – After bottom dead centre
ATDC – After top dead centre
27
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 10
PORT TIMING DIAGRM
(Cut section petrol engine)
AIM: To draw port timing diagram for a given petrol engine.
THEORY :
Hear in this type of engines ports which takes charge of air and fuel mixture and removes
exhaust from the cylinder it self, by virtue of position of piston. When piston moves
inside the cylinder it closes & opens ports. In two stroke engines one revolution of crank
shaft completes one cycle .
INLET PORT: Through which mixture of fuel and air enters the crank casing.
EXHAUST PORT: Through which the burnet (exhaust) gas exits
TRANFER PORT: Through which air and fuel mixture enters the cylinder head
DISCRIPTION:
Cut section of Two Stroke, Single cylinder Automobile petrol engine
PROCEDURE:
1. Fix a reference pointer on the body of the engine near the flywheel
2. Identify the ports.
3. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank – shaft.
4. Mark the TDC position and BDC position on the flywheel.
5. Mark the opening and closings of the inlet, Exhaust and Transfer ports.
6. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the
piston
7. Name the events IPO , IPC, EPO, EPC , TPO, and TPC.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
28
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
OBSERVATION & TABULATION:
Shape of figure
Measured Area
Sl.no
Actual
Area
% Error
1
2
3
4
CALCULATION
(Actual area - Measured area)
Percentage error = --------------------- ----------------- × 100
Actual area
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
29
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 11
PLANIMETER
AIM: To determine surface area of a given drawing
DISCRIPTION: Planimeter , Drawing board, Drawing board pins
The planimeter mainly consists of :
a) Tracing arm with main scale, vernier scale, Rotating disc and rotating drum with
vernier scale
b) Pivot arm with a ball point at one end and a cylindrical weight with pin at the .
other end .
c) Magnifying lance.
PROCEDURE :
1. Keep the drawing board on a plain table.
2. Fix the drawing sheet containing the regular or irregular shape of drawing . (with the
help of drawing board pins.) of which the surface area is to be determined .
3. Take out the Planimeter (Tracing arm and pivot arm) from the box and place it on the
drawing board.
4. Set the main scale of the tracing arm to the specified set point with the vernir
scale “zero” coin side with the main scale setting (use Magnifying lance if required)
5. Place the tracing arm horizontally with the tracing point on the periphery of the
drawing whose surface area to be determined.
6. Fix the pivot arm approximately perpendicular to the tracing arm, by inserting the
ball point into its appropriate position on the tracing arm and press the pin on the
other side of the pivot arm against the board in position.
7. Roughly move the tracing arm. along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise
direction to ascertain free and easy movement of the tracing arm and bring back to the
starting point.
8. Now carefully rotate the scale dram manually by thumb so that rotating disc
indicates “zero”, and the “zero” of the drum scale coin side with “zero” of the its
Vernier scale “zero” .
9. Ascertain that the tracing point is on the periphery of the drawing
10. Now slowly move the tracing pin along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise
direction without ms lifting the tracing pin or moving away from the line of the
drawing and come back to the starting point.
11. Carefully record the reading indicated by the rotating disc as well as the drum scale
with the vernier scale and declare the area in appropriate units.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
30
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Engine
speed
in rpm
N
Spring
balance
reading
F1
F2
Fuel burette
readings
Volume
in ml
Time
in
Sec
Air flow
manomete
r reading
in mm of
water
Air
inlet
tempe
rature
in °c
hm
T1
Water
temperature for
engine in °C
Exhaust gas
temperature
before
calorimeter
in °C
T2
T4
T3
Water inlet
temp for
calorimeter
in °C
Water
outlet
temp for
calorimet
er in °C
Exhaust
gas
temperat
ure after
calorimet
er in °C
T5
T6
T7
NOTE: TEMPERATURE POINTS,
T1 = AIR INLET TEMPERATURE .
.
T2 = ENGINE HEAD WATER INLET.
T3 = ENGINE HEAD WATER OTLET
T4 = EXHAUST GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE
T5 = WATER INLET TEMPERATURE FOR CALORIEMETER
T6 = WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE FOR CALORIEMETE
T7 = EXHAUST OUTLET TEMPERATURE AFTER CALORIEMETER
CALCULATIONS:
1.
BRAKE POWER (BP):
x 9.81x F x r
BP =
--------------------------60000
KW
Where,
N = RPM of Engine
r = Radius of Brake drum = 0.15 m
F = in Kgf read from Spring Balance (F1-F2)
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
31
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 12
FOUR STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, DIESEL ENGINE TEST RIG
(Mechanical Loading with Exhaust gas Caloriemeter & Water Colled)
AIM: To conduct performance test on four - stroke water Cooled diesel Engine
DESCRIPTION:
The Test Rig consists of Four-Stroke diesel Engine (WATER Cooled) to
be tested for performance is coupled to break drum assembly. The arrangement is made
for the following measurements of the set-up.
1)
The Rate of Fuel Consumption is measured by using Volumetric Pipette.
2)
Air Flow is measured by Manometer, connected to Air Box.
3)
The different mechanical loading is achieved by loading the engine
through rope – break drum assembly attached to weighing balance.
4)
The engine speed is measured by electronic digital meter.
5)
Temperature at air inlet, engine exhaust gas, engine water inlet and outlet
and calorimeter inlet and outlet are measured by electronic digital
temperature indicator with thermocouple.
6)
Water flow is measured by water flow meter or rotameter.
The whole instrumentation is mounted on a self-contained unit ready for operation.
SPECIFICATIONS:
*
ENGINE TYPE
:
*
MAKE
:
Kirloskar.
*
MAXIMUM POWER, ‘ P ’
:
5 HP.
*
RATED SPEED,
‘N’
:
*
BORE ,
‘D’
:
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
4-Stroke , Single Cylinder
Diesel Engine
1500 RPM.
80mm.
32
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2.
mf
2016-17
MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED PER MINUTE ( mf ) :
Pipette Reading x P x 60
= ------------------------------------T x 1000
Kg / min.
Where,
P
= density of Diesel = 0.86g/ml
60 = Conversion from sec to min
1000 = Conversion from gm to Kg
T
= time taken for fuel flow
3.
TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (TFC):
TFC = mf x 60
Kg / h.
Where,
mf = kg/min
60 = Conversion from min to hr.
4.
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC):
T.F.C
S.F.C. = --------------
Kg / KW - hr
B.P
5.
HEAT INPUT ( HI ) :
HI
T.F.C
= --------------- x CV
60 x 60

KW

Where,
TFC in Kg/h.
CV = Calorific Value of Diesel = 40,000 KJ/Kg
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
33
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
‘L’
*
STROKE,
*
STARTING
:
By Hand crank
*
LOADING
:
Mechanical loading connected
to break drum assembly
*
COOLING
:
Water cooling.
:
110mm.
MEASUREMENTS:
*
AIR INTAKE
:
By Volumetric Tank with
Orifice Dia d = 0.016m
connected to Manometer
(water), Cd
= 0.62
*
SPEED
:
By digital RPM indicator.
*
FUEL FLOW
:
By Volumetric Pipette.
OPERATION:
1)
Check the diesel in the tank.
2)
Allow diesel and start the engine by using Hand crank.
3)
Keep the weighing balance to read zero position, initially.
4)
Apply the Load to engine by adjusting the weighing balance
5)
Allow some time so that the speed stabilizes.
6)
Now take down temperature, petrol flow rate and air consumption.
7)
Repeat the procedure (4) & (6) for different loads.
8)
Tabulate the readings as shown in the enclosed sheet.
9)
After the experiment is over, keep the petrol control valve closed
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
34
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
6.
2016-17
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY ( Btherm ) :
Btherm
B.P
= -------------
x 100
HI
7.
AIR - FUEL RATIO: (A/F)
ma
AF
Where, mf
=
------mf
is in kg/min
ma= 60 x Cd x A x Va x a
i.e.
Va=  (2 g (hm / 1000) x [(w / a) - 1])
Cd
in Kg / min
in m/s.

= 0.62,
 d2
A
= ------------in m2
, Orifice diameter d = 0.016m
4
hm in mm of Water from manometer reading
8.
g
a
=
=
9.81 m/s2
Density of Air
w
=
=
1.10 Kg/m3
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
INDICATED POWER ( IP ) :
IP = (BP + FP)
Where,
FP = (1/3) *BP
KW
(1/3 of maximum BP by Willans Curve)
9. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY: (m)
BP
m
= ---------- x 100%
IP
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
35
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
HEAT BALANCE SHEET
1.
Heat Input:
HI
2.
=
T.F.C.
-------------- x CV
60 x 60
KW
Heat Equivalent to Brake Power:
HBP = BPEng
BPEng in KW
3 .Heat Carried away by cooling Water ( Calorimeter ) :
Hwg = mwgCPw Twg
kj/s
Where,
mwg
=
in kg/s
t= time taken to collect 1000 ml of water in sec.
CPw = 4.18 KJ/Kg K
T =(T6-T5) K
wg
Heat Carried away by Exhaust Gas:
HEg = mEgcpg TEg
5.
KJ/s
Where,
mEg = (ma +mf )/60 in Kg/s
CPg = 1.05 KJ/Kg K
T = (T4-T7) K
Eg
Heat Lost due to FRICTION POWER :
HFP = (1/3)* BP (1/3 of maximum BP by Willan’s Curve)
6.
Unaccounted Heat Lost:
Hu = (1) - [(2) + (3) + (4) + (5)]
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
36
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Fuel consumption
Loa
d
in
KW
Spee
dN
in
rpm
Energy
meter
reading for
3 rev in
secs
Air
consumpti
on
in mtrs of
water
read on
manomete
r(h
m)
Air
Inlet
Temperat
ure in °C
Volume
in ml
Time
in sec
T1
Temperature
Calorimet
er
Exhaust gas
Water
(inlet to
Inlet
calorimeter)
Temperat
temperature
ure in °C
in °C
T2
Calorimet
er
Water
outlet
Temperat
ure in °C
T3
T4
NOTE: TEMPERATURE POINTS,
T1 = AIR INLET TEMPERATURE
T2 = EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE BEFORE CALORIE METER
T3 = CALORIE METER WATER INLET TEMPERATURE
T4 = CALORIEMETER WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE
T5 = EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE AFTER CALORIE METER
LIST OF FORMULAE
1. Electrical Power as indicated by Energy Meter:
Bpshaft
=
n x 60 x 60
--------------1200 x t
KW.
Where,
n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc.
t = is the time taken by the Energy meter for n revolutions, in seconds.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
37
Exhaust
gas (outlet
from
calorimete
r)
temperatu
re in °C
T5
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 13
TWO STROKE, SINGLE CYLINDER, PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
AIM :To Conduct performance test on 2 - stroke Air Cooled Petrol Engine
DESCRIPTION:
The Test Rig consists of Four-Stroke Petrol Engine to be tested for
performance is connected to an alternator coupled to electrical coils to apply load on
engine. The arrangement is made for the following measurements of the set-up:
1. The Rate of Fuel Consumption is measured by using the Burette reading
against the known time.
2. The water flow rate for exhaust gas calorimeter is measured separately by
measuring jar & stop clock.
3. The load to the engine applied by coils which are all coupled with alternator.
4. The engine speed (RPM) is measured by digital counter.
5. Temperature at different points
is measured by
temperature indicator with thermocouple.
electronic digital
The whole instrumentation is mounted on a self-contained unit ready for
operation.
SPECIFICATIONS:
*
TYPE
:
*
MAKE
:
*
RATED POWER OUTPUT
:
*
BORE & STROKE
:
57mm x 57mm.
*
COMPRESSION RATIO
:
7.4 : 1
*
BREAK DRUM RADIUS
:
0.15m
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
2-Stroke Petrol Engine ( Air
Cooled ), Spark Ignition.
Bajaj.
2.5 HP, at 3000 RPM.
38
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2.
2016-17
MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED PER MINUTE ( mf ) :
Pipette Reading x P x 60
mf
= -------------------------------------
Kg / min.
T x 1000
Where,
P = density of petrol
= 0.72 gm/ml
60 = Conversion from sec to min
1000 = Conversion from gm to Kg
Volume of pipette =pipette reading
3.
TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (TFC):
TFC = mf x 60
Kg / h.
Where,
mf = kg/min
60 = Conversion from min to hr.
4.
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC):
T.F.C
S.F.C. = ------------- B.P
6.
Kg / KW - hr
HEAT INPUT ( HI ) :
HI
T.F.C
= --------------- x CV
60 x 60 
KW
Where,
TFC in Kg/h.
CV = Calorific Value of petrol = 48,000 KJ/Kg (approx.)
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
39
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
*
STARTING
:
By Kick Start.
*
LOADING
:
ELECTRICAL LOADING
*
DIA OF ORIFICE
:
14mm
OPERATION:
1)
Check the Petrol in the tank.
2)
Allow petrol, Start the engine by using kick start.
3)
Set the engine output speed (using the accelerator stick) at less than 1350 rpm.
4)
5)
6)
7)
Allow some time so that the speed stabilizes.
Apply load from switches given on the panel
Note down the time taken for particular quantity of fuel consumed by the engine
from the burette Note down the diff. temperatures.
Repeat the procedure (5) to (6) for different loads.
8)
Tabulate the readings as shown in the enclosed sheet.
9)
After the experiment is over, keep the petrol control valve at closed position,
to avoid riching of the engine for subsequent operation.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Do not shut down the engine when maximum load applied
2. After completion of experiments turn off the fuel supply valve.
3. Do not turn off water supply immediately when experiments completes wait for
15 to 30 minutes to maintain the engine temperature cool.
4. Change engine oil when oil turns to black color.
5. Frequently at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts.
6. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging of
the moving parts.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
40
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
7.
2016-17
AIR - FUEL RATIO: (A/F)
ma
AF
=
Where, mf
----mf
in kg/min
ma= 60 x Cd x A x Va x a
Va=  (2 g (hm / 1000) x [(w / a ) - 1] )
i.e.
Kg / min
m/s.
=133.47hm
Whrer,
Cd
= 0.62,
 d2
A
= ------------in m2
, Orifice diameter, d = 0.014 m
4
hm in mm of Water from manometer reading
8.
g
a
=
=
9.81 m/s2
Density of Air
w
=
=
1.10 Kg/m3
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
INDICATED POWER ( IP ) :
IP = (BP + FP)
KW
Where,
FP = (1/3) BP (1/3 of maximum BP by Willans Curve)
9. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY: (m )
m
BP
= ----------
x
100%
IP
GRAPHS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
TFC Vs BP
Brake thermal efficiency Vs BP
Mechanical efficiency Vs BP
SFC Vs BP
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
41
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
2016-17
42
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Load
In
KW
Engine
speed
in rpm
Volt
Meter
reading
Ammeter
reading
In Volts
In Amps
Fuel
burette
readings
Vol Time
um in
e
sec
In
ml
Temperatures in °C
Air
inlet
T1
Exhau
st
outlet
T2
Water
Inlet
To
Calori
Meter
T3
Water
Outlet
To calori
Meter
exhaust
outlet
calori
Meter
T4
T5
Air
Flow
mano
Meter
reading
s
In mm
of
water
(hm)
CALCULATIONS
1. Electrical Power as indicated by Energy Meter:
Bpshaft
=
n x 60 x 60
--------------1200 x t
KW.
Where,
n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc.
t = is the time taken by the Energy meter for n revolutions, in seconds.
2.
mf
MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED PER MINUTE (mf):
Pipette Reading x P x 60
= -------------------------------------
Kg / min.
T x 1000
Where,
P = density of Petrol
= 0.737gm/ml
60 = Conversion from sec to min
1000 = Conversion from gm to Kg
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
43
Energy
meter
reading
for 3 rev
in sec
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 14
SINGLE CYLINDER,FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
AIM :To Conduct performance test on 4 - stroke Air Cooled Petrol Engine
DESCRIPTION:
The Test Rig consists of Four-Stroke Petrol Engine to be tested for
performance is connected to an alternator coupled to electrical coils to apply load on
engine. The arrangement is made for the following measurements of the set-up:
1. The Rate of Fuel Consumption is measured by using the Burette reading against the
known time.
2. The water flow rate for exhaust gas calorimeter is measured separately by measuring
jar & stop clock.
3. The load to the engine applied by coils which are all coupled with alternator.
4. The engine speed (RPM) is measured by digital counter.
5. Temperature at different points
indicator with thermocouple.
is measured by
electronic digital temperature
The whole instrumentation is mounted on a self-contained unit ready for
operation.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
*
TYPE
:
4-Stroke petrol Engine
(Air cooled)
*
MAKE
:
Greves
*
RATED POWER OUTPUT
:
3 HP, 3000 RPM.
*
BORE DIAMETER
‘D‘
:
70mm
*
STROKE LENGTH ‘ L ‘
:
66.7mm
*
COMPRESSION RATIO
:
16.5 : 1
*
CYLINDER CAPACITY
:
553 cc
*
*
STARTING
DIA OF ORIFICE
:
:
By Hand Cranking.
12 mm.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
44
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
3.
2016-17
TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (TFC):
TFC = mf x 60 in Kg / h.
Where,
mf = kg/min
60 = Conversion from min to hr.
4.
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC):
S.F.C. =
5.
T.F.C
------------- B.P
Kg / KW - hr
HEAT INPUT ( HI ) :
HI
=

T.F.C
--------------- x CV
60 x 60

KW
Where,
TFC in Kg/h.
CV = Calorific Value of Petrol = 48,000 KJ/Kg (approx.)
6.
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY ( Btherm ) :
Btherm
B.P
= -------------
x 100
HI
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
45
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
OPERATION:
1. Check the petrol in the Petrol tank.
2. Allow Petrol, start the engine by using hand cranking.
3. The engine is set to the speed of 1500 RPM.
4. Apply load from switches given on the panel
5. Note down the time taken for particular quantity of fuel consumed by the engine
from the burette
6. Note down the diff. temperatures.
7. Repeat the procedure (5) to (9) for different loads.
8. Tabulate the readings as shown in the enclosed sheet.
9. After the experiment is over, keep the Petrol control valve at closed.
RUNNING THE ENGINE:
The fuel level, cooling arrangement and lubricating system are checked. The
engine is started by hand cranking. For this, the decompression lever is set in the vertical
position. The crank shaft is rotated by hand cranking till sufficient energy is gained by the
flywheel (to over come the compression pressure). Immediately the decompression lever
is knocked down and the fuel system is put into action by releasing the lever of the fuel
pump. The engine is allowed to run idle for 5 minutes to achieve steady state.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
46
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
7.
2016-17
AIR - FUEL RATIO: (A/F)
ma
AF
Where, mf
=
----mf
is in kg/min
ma= 60 x Cd x A x Va x a
i.e.
in Kg / min
Va=  (2 g (hm / 1000) x [( w / a ) - 1] )
Cd
m/s.

= 0.62,
 d2
A
= ------------in m2
, d = 0.012m
4
hm in mm of Water from manometer reading
g
=
9.81 m/s2
8.
a
=
Density of Air
w
=
=
1.10 Kg/m3
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
INDICATED POWER ( IP ) :
IP = (BP + FP)
KW
Where,
FP is obtained from Willian’s line Diagram (i.e.1/3 rd of the max BP)
9. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY: (m )
BP
m
= ---------- x 100%
IP
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
47
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
READINGS TO BE TAKEN:
1.
To determine the Fuel Consumption Rate:
The fuel supply from the fuel tank to engine is disconnected by means of
3-way distributed which is provided on the right side of the control panel. The engine
receives fuel from measuring pipette tube. The fuel level in the pipette starts decreasing.
The time‘t ‘sec for the consumption of known volume ‘v’cc. Of fuel is noted by using a
stopwatch.
2.
To determine Brake Power:
The speed of the engine ‘N ‘RPM and the effective load applied by
electrical heaters should be noted down. or voltage and current should be
noted down.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Do not run the engine without fuel supply.
2. Do not shut down the engine when maximum load applied to Engine.
3. After completion of experiments turn off the fuel supply valve.
4. Change engine oil when oil turns to black color.
5. Frequently at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts.
6. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging of
the moving parts.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
48
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
HEAT BALANCE SHEET
1. Heat Input:
T.F.C.
HI
=
× CV
KJ/s
60×60
2. Heat Equivalent to Brake Power:
HBP = BPEng
BPEng in KJ/s
3. Heat carried away by cooling water (Calorimeter):
Hwg =
mwgcPwTwg
KJ/s
Where:
mwg =
in kg/s
t= time taken to collect 1000 ml of water in
Sec.
Cpw = 4.18 KJ/kg 0K
Twg = (T4-T3) 0K
4. Heat Lost due to Friction:
HFP = 1/3* BPmax
5. Heat carried away by Exhaust Gas:
HEg
=
mEgcpgTEG
KJ/s
mEg = (ma+mf)/60 Kg/s
Cpg = 1.05 KJ/kg 0K
TEG = (T2-T5) 0 K
6. Unaccounted Heat Lost:
Hu = (1) – [(2) + (3) + (4) + (5)]
GRAPHS:
6.
7.
8.
9.
TFC Vs BP
Brake thermal efficiency Vs BP
Mechanical efficiency Vs BP
SFC Vs BP
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
49
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
2016-17
50
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
TABULAR COLOUMN:
load
in KW
Speed
in
rpm
(N)
Voltmeter
reading
in
volts
Fuel
Cosumption
Current
in amps
Energy
meter
reading
for 3 revs
Manometer
reading
in
mm (hm)
Temperatures in
°C
T1
Compression
ratio
T2
NOTE: TEMPERATURE POINTS,
T1 = AIR INLET TEMPERATURE
T2 = ENGINE HEAD WATER INLET
T3 = ENGINE HEAD WATER OTLET
T4 = EXHAUST GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE
T5 = WATER INLET TEMPERATURE FOR CALORIEMETER
T6 = WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE FOR CALORIEMETE
T7 = EXHAUST OUTLET TEMPERATURE AFTER CALORIEMETER
CALCULATIONS:
1.
BRAKE POWER (BP):
Bp (elec)
=
n x 60 x 60
--------------Em x t
Bp (Eng)
=
Bp (elec)
--------------trans
KW.
KW.
Where,
n = No. of revalution of energy meter.
Em = Energy meter constant = 1200 revln/ KW-hr
t = time for ‘n’ revln of energy meter in sec.
trans =Transmission efficiency =0.7
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
51
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 15
VARIBLE COMPRESSION RATIO PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG.
(Electrical Loading)
AIM : To Conduct performance test on Varible compression ratio petrol engine test rig
DESCRIPTION:
The Test Rig consists of Four-Stroke Petrol Engine (Air Cooled) to be
tested for performance is coupled to AC current generator. The arrangement is made for
the following measurements of the set-up.
1)
The Rate of Fuel Consumption is measured by using Volumetric Pipette.
2)
Air Flow is measured by Manometer, connected to Air Box.
3)
The different mechanical loading is achieved by loading the engine
through rope – break drum assembly attached to weighing balance.
4)
The engine speed is measured by electronic digital meter.
5)
Temperature at air inlet, engine exhaust gas, engine water inlet and
outlet and calorimeter inlet and outlet are measured by electronic digital
temperature indicator with thermocouple.
6)
Water flow is measured by water flow meter or rotameter.
The whole instrumentation is mounted on a self-contained unit ready for operation.
SPECIFICATIONS:
*
ENGINE TYPE
cooled
.
:
*
MAKE
:
*
MAXIMUM POWER, ‘ P ’
:
2.2 KW.
*
RATED SPEED,
‘N’
:
3000 RPM.
*
BORE ,
‘D’
:
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
4-Stroke , Single Cylinder,Air
Petrol Engine,spark ignition
Greaves
70mm.
52
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2.
mf
2016-17
MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED PER MINUTE ( mf ) :
Pipette Reading x P x 60
= ------------------------------------T x 1000
Kg / min.
Where,
P
= density of petrol = 0.72gm/ml
60 = Conversion from sec to min
1000 = Conversion from gm to Kg
T
= time taken 20cc of fuel cosumtion.
3.
TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (TFC):
TFC = mf x 60
Kg / h.
Where,
mf = kg/min
60 = Conversion from min to hr
4.
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC):
T.F.C
S.F.C. = --------------
Kg / KW - hr
B.P
5.
HEAT INPUT ( HI ) :
HI
T.F.C
= ------------- x CV
60 x 60
KW
Where,
TFC in Kg/h.
CV = Calorific Value of Diesel = 48,000 KJ/Kg
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
53
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
*
STROKE,
*
2016-17
‘L’
:
66.7 mm.
STARTING
:
By Rope
*
LOADING
:
Electrical loading
*
COOLING
:
Air cooling for cylinder and water
cooling for auxillary cylinder.
MEASUREMENTS:
*
AIR INTAKE
:
By Volumetric Tank with
Orifice Dia d = 0.016m
connected to Manometer
(water), Cd
= 0.62
*
SPEED
:
By digital RPM indicator.
*
FUEL FLOW
:
By Volumetric Pipette.
RUNNING THE ENGINE:
The fuel level, cooling arrangement and lubricating system are checked. The
engine is started by Rope. For this, the Rope is wound around the starting pulley in a
clockwise direction and give a pull to rotate the engine, pulling the Rope clear of the
starting pulley. Allow the engine to run for 5 minutes to achieve steady state.
READINGS TO BE TAKEN :
1.
To determine the Fuel Consumption Rate:
The fuel supply from the fuel tank to engine is disconnected by means of
3-way distributed which is provided on the right side of the control panel. The engine
receives fuel from measuring pipette tube. The fuel level in the pipette starts decreasing.
The time‘t ‘secs. for the consumption of known volume ‘v’cc. of fuel is noted by using a
stopwatch.
2.
To determine Brake Power:
Apply the Load to the AC Generators by Switching - ON the loading
switches. When each switch is turned on 0.5KW of heat will be generated in
corresponding heater.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
54
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
6.
2016-17
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY ( Btherm ) :
Btherm
B.P
= -------------
x 100
HI
7.
AIR - FUEL RATIO: (A/F)
ma
AF
Where, mf
=
------mf
is in kg/min
ma= 60 x Cd x A x Va x a
i.e.
Va=  (2 g (hm / 1000) x [(w / a) - 1]
Cd
in Kg / min
m/s.

= 0.62,
 d2
A
= ------------in m2
, Orifice diameter d = 0.016m
4
hm in mm of Water from manometer reading
8.
g
a
=
=
9.81 m/s2
Density of Air
w
=
=
1.10 Kg/m3
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
INDICATED POWER ( IP ) :
IP = (BP + FP)
KW
Where,
FP = (1/3)* BP
9. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY: (m)
m
BP
= ----------
x
100%
IP
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
55
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
OPERATION:
1)
Check the Petrol in the tank.
2)
Check the sufficient lubricating oil in the oil sump (crank case).
3)
Check the water circulation to the engine head .
4)
Put on the mains, and check ‘mains on’ in the indicator as it glows.
6)
Loosen the locking bolt of the auxillary piston-screw rod assembly.
7)
Rotate the hand wheel and bring the indicator to the required
Compression ratio.
8)
Lock the screw rod assembly before conducting the experiment for the
Compression ratio selected.
9)
Allow petrol and start the engine by using Rope.
10)
Keep the Loading knob in OFF positions, initially.
11)
Apply the Load to the AC Generators by Switching - ON the loading switches.
12)
Allow some time so that the speed stabilizes.
13)
Now take down readings of Air flow, temperature indicator, fuel flow, engine
speed and power consumption.
14)
Repeat the procedure (9) & (13) for different loads.
15)
Tabulate the readings as shown in the enclosed sheet.
16)
After the experiment is over, keep the petrol control valve at closed position.
17)
Allow water to flow for some time through auxiliary piston head after completion
of the experiment
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
56
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
10.
2016-17
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY: (vol)
V
Vs
=
-------------x 100
Vt
Where, Vs = Swept Volume, Vt = Theoretical Volume at STP.
a) Vt = Theoretical Volume
=
 x D2 x L x N
-------------------in m3/ min
4x2
Here, D = Bore Diameter = 0.07m, L= Stroke Length = 0.0667m
N = Speed in RPM.
b) Vs = Swept volume at STP
= Va x (Ts/Ta)
Here, Ta = Ambient Temperature, oK = T1 + 273
Ts = Standard Temperature ok = 288 oK
{NOTE: [(PaVa)/ Ta] = (Ps Vs) / Ts]; Pa ~ Ps }
and, actual volume of air intake is given by,
c)
Va= 60 x Cd x A x  (2 *g * ha)
Cd
= 0.62,
m3/min.

 d2
A
=
------------4
in m2
, d = 0.016m Orifice diameter
w hw
ha = ----------
a
hw in m of Water from manometer reading
g
a
w
=
9.81 m/s2
=
Density of Air
=
1.10 Kg/m3
=
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
57
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
2016-17
58
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Speed
in rpm
of
engine
Spring
balance
readings in
Kg
Air
Consumption
of water read
on
manometer
in mm
Fuel
Consumption
Read on meter
in kg/h
Water flow
rate in lpm
from
engine
head
Temperature in °C
T1
T2
T3
Water flow
rate in lpm
from
caloriemeter
T4
TEMPERATURE POINTS :
T1 = AIR INLET
T2 = ENGINE HEAD WATER INLET
T3 = ENGINE HEAD WATER OTLET
T4 = WATER INLET TEMPERATURE TO CALORIMETER
T5 = WATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE FROM CALORIMETER
T6 = EXHAUST GAS INLET TO CALORIMETER
T7 = EXHAUST GAS OUTLET TO CALORIMETER
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
59
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
EXPERIMENT NO 16
THREE CYLINDER, 4-STROKE, PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
AIM:
To Conduct performance test on three cylinder, 4-stroke, petrol engine test rig
DESCRIPTION:
The test Rig consists of Four-Stroke, three Cylinder Petrol Engine to be tested for
performance is connected to Dynamometer (Hydraulic dynamometer). The arrangement
is made for the following measurements of the set-up:
1. The engine is provided with self-starter arrangement consisting of a
battery, dynamo and switch
2. Exhaust gas calorimeter is fitted to draw the Heat Balance Sheet.
3. The water flow rate for cooling the engine is measured separately by measuring
jar and stop watch.(By collecting the known amount of water in the measuring jar
with respect to time)
4. The water flow rate for exhaust gas calorimeter is measured separately by
measuring jar and stop clock.
5. The different Hydraulic loadings are achieved by operating the inlet and outlet
valves provided on the frame of the engine.
6. The mechanical energy is measured by Torque arm of the Hydraulic
dynamometer.
7. The engine speed (RPM) is measured by electronic digital meter.
8. Temperature at different points is measured by electronic digital temperature
indicator with thermocouple.
The whole instrumentation is mounted on a self-contained unit ready for operation.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
60
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
Calculation:
1.
BRAKE POWER (BP),
2××N×f×r×9.81
BP =
KW
60×1000
2.
Where,
N = RPM of Engine
r = Torque arm distance in m
f = load applied on engine in kg
MASS OF FUEL CONSUMED PER MINUTE (mf):
Pipette Reading x P x 60
= ------------------------------------T x 1000
mf
Kg / min.
Where,
P
= density of Petrol
= 0.72 gm/ml
60 = Conversion from sec to min
1000 = Conversion from gm to Kg
3.
TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (TFC):
TFC = Fuel flow meter reading in kg/h.
TFC = mf x 60 in Kg / h.
Where,
mf = kg/min
60 = Conversion from min to hr.
4.
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC):
T.F.C.
S.F.C.
kg/kw – hr
=
B.P
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
61
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
* TYPE
:
4-Stroke, 3-Cylinder, Petrol Engine
(Water cooled)
* MAKE
:
Maruthi
* RATED POWER OUTPUT
:
10 hp at 1500 RPM.
* BORE DIAMETER ‘D’
:
68 mm
* STROKE LENGTH ‘L’
:
72 mm
* COMPRESSION RATIO :
8.7:1
* STARTING
Ignition
:
* COOLING SYSTEM
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
:
Water cooled
62
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
5.
2016-17
HEAT INPUT (HI):
T.F.C.
HI =
Where,
TFC in Kg/h.
CV = Calorific Value of
Petrol = 48,000 KJ/kg (approx).
× CV KW
60×60
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY (Btherm):
6.
B.P
Btherm
=
× 100
HI
7.
AIR - FUEL RATIO: (A/F)
AF
ma
-- ----mf
=
Where, mf is in kg/min (From formula – 2)
Va x a in Kg / min
ma=
i.e.
Va= 60 x Cd x A x  (2 g ha ) m3/s.
Cd
= 0.62,
 d2
A
=
------------4
in m2
, d = 0.016m Orifice diameter
w hw
ha = ----------
a
hw
=
Water manometer reading in m.
g
=
9.81 m/s2
=
Density of Air
=
1.10 Kg/m3
=
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
a
w
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
63
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
OPERATION:
1.
Check the petrol in the petrol tank.
2.
Allow water to flow through the engine and calorimeter.
3.
Allow petrol, start the engine by key provided without engaging the clutch.
4.
Engage the clutch, set the engine speed, by adjusting the speed regulator provided at
the control panel.
5.
Apply load by rotating the two inlet, outlet and drain valves and controlling the
supply of water.
6.
Now adjust the speed using speed regulator.
7.
Now take down the Hydraulic dynamometer load readings in the spring balance.
8.
Note down the time for water collected for 1/2 liter in seconds, for both engine and
calorimeter, Different temperatures, speed, and fuel consumption meter reading and
Air flow across orifice is measured by manometer.
9.
Repeat the procedure (5) to (8) for different loads.
10. Tabulate the readings as shown in the enclosed sheet.
11. After the experiment is over, keep the petrol control valve at off position.
12. Stop the water flow by operating the valve.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
64
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
8. INDICATED POWER (IP) :
IP = (BP+FP) KW
Where,
FP is obtained from
Morse test.
9. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY : (mech)
BP
mech =
× 100%
IP
10. VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY:
Vol
Vs
=
------------Vt
x 100
Where, Vs = Swept Volume, Vt = Theoretical Volume at STP.
a) Vt = Theoretical Volume
2
=
D
xLxN
3 x ---------------4
x
2
in m3/ min
Here, D = Bore Diameter = 0.068m,
L= Stroke Length = 0.072m
N = Speed in RPM, 3 = No of cylinders.
b) Vs = Swept volume at STP
= Va x (Ts/Ta)
Here, Ta = Ambient Temperature, oK = T1 + 273
Ts = Standard Temperature ok = 288 oK
{NOTE: [(PaVa)/ Ta] = (Ps Vs) / Ts ] ; Pa ~ Ps }
and, actual volume of air intake is given by,
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
65
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
RUNNING THE ENGINE:
The fuel level, cooling arrangement and lubricating system are checked. The engine is
started by the key provided. For this, the key is turned so that heating
of the engine takes place after this key is further turned so that engine is started. If air is
blocked in the fuel line then remove it by removing the pipe. The water flowing in the
engine cooling system and exhaust gas calorimeter is adjusted so that sufficient water is
flowing in the system. The engine is allowed to run idle for 5 minutes to achieve steady
state.
READINGS TO BE TAKEN:
1. To determine the Fuel Consumption Rate:
The fuel consumption can be determined directly by digital meter reading
in Kg/hr.
2. To determine Air intake:
A large tank with an orifice is provided to measure the air in flow to
the engine. A manometer is provided to measure the pressure head of the
Air, which causes its flow. An orifice of diameter 16 mm is used for
Engine speed up to 1500 rpm.
3. To determine Brake Power:
The load can be adjusted by rotating the inlet and outlet valves of the
Hydraulic dynamometer. The speed of the engine ‘N’ RPM and the effective
Torque controller Loading is noted down.
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
66
Energy Conversion Engg. Lab.
2016-17
Va= 60 x Cd x A x  (2 g ha ) m3/s. {calculated from formulae –(7)}
Cd = 0.62,

 d2
A
=
------------4
in m2
, d = 0.016m Orifice diameter
w hw
ha = ----------
a
hw
=
Water from manometer reading in m.
g
=
9.81 m/s2
=
Density of Air
=
1.10 Kg/m3
=
Density of water
=
1000 Kg/m3
a
w
GRAPHS:
 T.F.C.Vs B.P
 S.F.C. Vs B.P

mech Vs B.P

B.th Vs B.P
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4. To determine the Heat Carried away by Cooling Water:
The mass flow rate of water ‘mc’ kg/min is noted down. The
temperature of inlet water and the temperature of outlet water of the engine
cooling jacket are also noted.
5. To determine the Heat Carried away by Exhaust Gas:
i) Exhaust gas temperature inlet and outlet to the calorimeter are noted.
ii) Mass flow rate of water ‘me’ kg/min in the calorimeter is noted.
iii) Inlet and Outlet temperatures of water flowing in the exhaust gas calorimeter
are noted.
PRECAUTIONS:
7. Do not run the engine without water supply
8. Do not shut down the engine when maximum load applied to dynamometer.
9. After completion of experiments turn off the fuel supply valve.
10. Do not turn off water supply immediately when experiments completes wait for
15 to 30 minutes to maintain the engine temperature cool.
11. Change engine oil when oil turns to black colour (aprox once in 6 months).
12. Engage clutch after engine maintains speed.
13. Frequently at least once in three months, grease all visual moving parts.
14. At least every week, operate the unit for five minutes to prevent any clogging of
the moving parts.
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TABLE OF OBSERVATION AND TABULATION FOR MORSE TEST
SL.NO.
CYLINDER
DESCRIPTION
1.
All cylinders are firing
2.
First cylinder is cut off
3.
Second cylinder is cut off
4.
Third cylinder is cut off
Dept.of Mechanical Engg. CIT, Gubbi.
ENGINE
SPEED
N(RPM)
TORQUE
BRAKE
POWER
KW
INDICATED
POWER
KW
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MORSE TEST ON THREE-CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
AIM:
To determine Mechanical Efficiency, Indicated power & frictional power.
APPARATUS:
Hydraulic Dynamometer and multi-cylinder Petrol Engine.
THEORY:
Morse test is used to find a close estimate of indicated power (IP) of a multicylinder Engine. In this test the engine is coupled to a suitable Hydraulic dynamometer
and the brake power is determined by running the engine at the required speed. The first
cylinder is cut out by interrupting the ignition to the first cylinder in the case of a petrol
engine.
As a result of cutting out the first cylinder, engine speed will drop. Load on the
engine is removed so that the original speed is attained. The brake power under this load
is determined and recorded (BP1). The first cylinder operation is restored normal and the
second cylinder is cut-out. The engine speed will again vary. By adjusting the load on
the engine speed brought to original speed and the new BP is recorded (BP2). Same
procedure is continued till the last cylinder is cut-out.
PROCEDURE:
1. Remove all loads on the engine.
2. Start the engine using ignition key.
3. Adjust the throttle valve to obtain the desired speed of the engine.
4. Load the engine to 1/2 of its maximum by the knob provided at the torque
controller and adjust the throttle position to any desire speed.
5. Cut-off the first cylinder by cutting off the ignition provided at the engine.
6. The speed of engine decreases. Attain the normal speed by adjusting the load
without adjusting the throttle valve.
7. Repeat the experiment by cutting off other cylinders on at a time and note down
all the readings.
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CALCULATION
1. Total Brake Power when all cylinders firing:
2××N× T ×9.81
(BP)load
=
KW
1000×60
2. Brake Power when first cylinder is cut off:
2××N×T×9.81
(BP)1 =
60×1000
KW
3. Brake Power when second cylinder is cut off:
2××N×T×9.81
(BP)2 =
KW
60×1000
4. Brake Power when third cylinder is cut off:
2××N×T×9.81
(BP)3 =
KW
60×1000
5. Indicated power when first cylinder is not firing:
(IP)1 =
(BP) -
(BP)1
Similarly for second, third cylinders are not firing
(IP)2 =
(BP) -
(BP)2
(IP)3 =
(BP) -
(BP)3
Total Indicated power, (IP) = (IP)1+(IP)2+(IP)3 KW
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6. Total Friction power
(FP) = (IP) – (BP)load KW
7. Mechanical Efficiency
Brake Power
mech =
×100
Indicated power
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OBSERVATION:
Friction Co Efficient ()
=
Pendulum (bob) weight (W)
=
kgf
Radius of the shaft (r)
=
m
Radius (length of the pendulum) (R) =
m
Applied Force on the Bush(P)
=
kgf
=
Degree
Angle of Swing of the
Pendulum (Bob) ()
TABULAR COLOUMN:
Sl
No
1
2
3
4
RPM
Temp. in
O
C
Friction Co Efficient
Spring
force (kgf)
Angle of
swing

 = WR × sin 
Pr
Where
WR = C
is a constant for the Given equipment
r
...
 = C × sin 
P
OR
(At any RPM of the shaft)  = K
Where K = C sin 
P
Data for the given equipment is:
W
R
r
(Constant) C
=
=
=
=
2.9kg
200mm (0.2m)
16.2mm (0.01625m)
35.8kg
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ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT
EXPERIMENT NO 17
THURSTON OIL TESTER
AIM: To determine the co efficient of friction of lubricating oil experimentally by
Thurston Oil Tester.
DESRICPTION:
The Thurston Oil Tester is an equipment to determine the co efficient of friction
experimentally that exists between metal to metal contact surfaces as in the case of a
“bush bearing”. in presence of a thin layer of lubricating oil smeared on the contact
surface. The co efficient of friction depends on two factors, One the type of lubricating
oil and the other surface finished of metals in contact (Bush & Shaft). When the shaft
smeared with a thin layer of lubricating oil is rotated at a constant low speed, the bush
with a bob weight and adjustable spring load (pendulum) tends to move in the direction
of the rotation of the shaft due to friction. This angular displacement of the pendulum is a
measure of Coefficient of friction.
APPARATUS:
The Thurston Oil Tester apparatus mainly consists of a shaft with one end of the shaft is
with three stepped cone pulley and the other end with a pendulum having a split Bush,
bob weight spring loading arrangement and a swing scale and pointer.
AC induction motor of suitable capacity, RPM indicator, glass thermometer etc…
The unit can be operated at three different speeds with the help of a stepped cone pulley.
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PROCEDURE:
1. Install the equipment on a strong and sturdy table, near a 230V, 50Hz 5amps.
power point.
2. Clean the shaft and the bush with a clean soft cloth.
3. Select any desired speed by shifting the ‘V’ belt to appropriate groove.
4. Apply few drops of oil on to the shaft and smear it on the shaft so as to make a
thin film of oil on the shaft. Apply few drops of oil it to the bush as well.
5. Apply desired spring force on the bush by rotating the hand wheel provided at
the bottom of the pendulum (Bob).
6. Disengage the bush of its pressure by turning the levers provided on the sides
of the bush block.
7. Insert the pendulum (Bob) assembly on the shaft and lock it. Engage the bush
by turning the levers back to its original position.
8. Insert the 3 pin plug top in to the 3 pin socket (230V, 50Hz, 5 amps socket )
9. Switch on the motor the pendulum (Bob) assembly swings in the direction of
rotation of the shaft.
10. Record the angle of swing at approximately steady state of the pendulum
(Bob)
11. Also record the temperature and RPM of the shaft.
12. Switch of the motor.
13. Unlock, disengage and remove the pendulum (Bob) assembly from the shaft.
14. Vary the spring force; repeat the experiment by following steps 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 to
13.
15. The experiment can also be conducted at different speeds of the shaft by
shifting the ‘V’ belt on to a different groove and also by selecting a different
grade of lubricant oil (SAE 30 to SAE 90 )
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VIVA QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
1. Define Flash point?
Flash point of oil may be defined as the minimum temperature at which it gives
off sufficient vapours when mixed with air and gives rise to a momentary flash of
light on the application of a small pilot flame.
2. Define Fire point?
Fire point is defined as the lowest temperature to which oil should be heated to
give sufficient vapours to form an inflammable mixture with air to burn for at
least five or more seconds, when a pilot flame is introduced near of if.
3. Define Calorific value?
The Calorific value of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat obtained by the
complete combustion of a unit mass of fuel
4. What is the use of bomb calorimeter?
Bomb calorimeter is used to determine Calorific value of solid and liquid fuel.
5. Define Higher Calorific value?
It is the quantiy of heat obtained by the complete combustion of one kg of
fuel,when the products of combustion are cooled down to the temeperature of the
surrounding air,usually 150 C.it is also called as gross Calorific value.
6. Define Lower Calorific value?
It is the quantiy of heat obtained by the combustion of one kg of fuel,when the
product of combustion is not sufficiently cooled down to condense the steam
formed during combustion.
it is also called as net Calorific value.
7. What is the use of Boy’s Gas Calorimeter?
Boy’s Gas Calorimeter is used to determine the calorific value of gaseous fuel.
8. Define viscosity?
Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which offers resistance to the
movement of one layer of fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.
9. Define kinematic viscosity?
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscocity and density of fluid. It is
denoted by the Greek symbol (v) called ‘nu’.
10. What is the use of viscometer?
It is used to measure viscocity of oil.
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11. Define heat engine and classify.
Heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into
thermal enrgy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful work.Thus,
thermal energy is converted to mechanical enrgy in heat engines. They are
clasiifed into two categories
1) External combustion engine
2) Intrenal combustion engine
12. What do you mean by intrenal combustion engine?
In intrenal combustion engine combustion takes place within the engine cylinder.
Eg: Petrol engines, Diesel engines, Gasoline engines etc.
13. What do you mean by External combustion engine?
In external combustion engine combustion takes place outside the engine
cylinder.
Eg: Steam engine, Steam turbine, etc.
14. What do you mean by bore?
The inside diameter of the cylinder is called bore.
15. Define compression ratio.
It is defined as the ratio between total cylinder volume to the clearance volume
16. Define indicated power?
It is the power developed by the engine within the cylinder.
17. Define Brake power?
It is the power avalible at the crank shaft.
18. What is the use dynamometer?
Dynamometer is used to measure brake power of the engines.
19. Name different types of dynamometer?
1. Rope brake Dynamometer
2. Hydraulic Dynamometer
3. Electric dynamometer
20. What do you mean by heat balance sheet?
Heat balance sheet gives an idea about the amount of heat input and amount of
heat utilized in the system.
21. What do you mean swept volume?
The nominal volume swept by the piston when travelling from one dead centre to
other is called as swept volume or displacement volume.it is expressed in terms of
cubic centimeter (cc).
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22. Define mechanical efficiency.
It is the ratio of brake power to indicated power.
23. Define brake thermal efficiency?
It is the ratio of brake power developed by the engine to heat supplied by the fuel.
24. Define indicated thermal efficiency?
It is the ratio of indicated power developed by the engine to heat supplied by the
fuel.
25. What do you mean by volumetric efficiency?
It is defined as the volume flow rate of air into the intake system divided by the
rate at which the volume is displaced by the system
26. Differentiate between petrol engine and diesel engine with regard to the suction
stroke?
During suction stroke of petrol engine air fuel mixture will enter the engine
cylinder.
During suction stroke of diesel engine only air will enter the engine cylinder.
27. What is use of piston rings?
Piston rings, fitted into the slots around the piston, provide a tight seal between
the piston and cylinder wall thus preventing leakage of combustion gases.
28. Why is Otto cycle called as constant volume Cycle?
The cycle is so called because heat is supplied at constant volume.
29. What do you mean by Scavenging?
Scavenging process is the replacement of combustion products in the cylinder from
previous power stroke with fresh air charge to be burned in the next cycle.
30. What do you mean by octane number?
The octane number of the fuel is the percentage of octane in the reference mixture
which knocks under the same conditions as the fuel.
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REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Thermodynamics , An engineering approach, Yunus, A. Cengel and
Michael A.Boies, 6th Ed., Tata McGraw Hill pub. Co., 2002,
2. Fundamental of Classical Thermodynamics, G.J. Van Wylen and R.E. Sontang
Wiley eastern.
3. Basic and applied Thermodynamics, P.K. Nag, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill
Pub.Co,2002
4. Applied Thermodynamics, Rajput, Laxmi Publication
5. Applied Thermodynamics, B.K. Venkanna, Swati B. Wadavadagi,
PHI, New Delhi, 2010
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