* Add milk and sugar if desired. (お好みで、お好みならば、必要なら

Composition H – Useful Phrases for Instructional (Procedural/How To) Essays (14 October 2016)
Kris Sullivan
1
Useful Phrases for Instructional (Procedural/How To) Essays
1. Showing emphasis: In our essays, some steps are more important than others. It is
important to make this clear. We can do this by using phrases like:
* Make sure (that) you warm up before exercising.
* Be sure to warm up before exercising.
Or:
* It’s important to warm up before exercising.
必ず~しなさい, することを忘れないで,
~するように気を付けなさい, ~するように
synonyms of important: ___________________
* The most important thing is to warm up before exercising.
* Don’t f__ __ __ __ __ to warm up before exercising.
* R__ __ __ __ __ __ __ to warm up before exercising.
Use these phrases to write 2 important steps to follow when writing an essay for Kris’s class:
a) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2.
Give ideas for alternatives and options:
* Add milk and sugar if desired. (お好みで、お好みならば、必要なら、必要に応じて)
* Add salt and pepper to taste. (好みに合わせて → USED ONLY FOR FOOD)
* If necessary, consult a doctor before starting your new exercise program. (必要であれば)
* If preferred, use fresh cream instead of milk. (その方が良ければ)
Use these phrases to introduce 2 options/alternatives when writing an essay for Kris’s class:
a) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Composition H – Useful Phrases for Instructional (Procedural/How To) Essays (14 October 2016)
Kris Sullivan
3.
2
Change the adjectives, nouns and
verbs as necessary!
Be specific about purpose:
* For best flavor, it should take 4.5-5 minutes for the water to pass through the filter.
* To achieve the best flavor, use high quality coffee beans.
* In order to make great coffee, it’s important to use filtered water.
* So as not to burn your coffee grounds, make sure you allow the boiled water to cool.
Use these phrases to introduce 2 pieces of advice for when writing an essay for Kris’s class:
a) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4a.
Be careful with articles & determiners. Fill in the gaps with the correct article (冠詞:
a/an/the) or determiner (限定詞:my/this/that/some…).
4b.
Make the order of the steps clear. We can do this by using discourse markers (first,
second, next...). In some cases it is better to use prepositions & conjunctions. Fill in the
boxes with the best preposition or conjunction (when/once/before/after/until…).
Here is a recipe for a delicious egg sandwich, perfect for a light lunch or snack. In
advance, buy __________ eggs, bread, mayonnaise, salt, pepper, and __________
saucepan if necessary.
you start to feel hungry, begin your preparations.
First, fill __________ saucepan with 3 cups of water, add __________ eggs, and
then turn on the heat to medium.
__________ water has come to the boil,
put on the lid, take __________ saucepan off the heat, and then let the eggs sit for
10 minutes. Next,
straining the water, fill up __________ saucepan with tap
water several times in order to cool down __________ eggs.
eggs have become cool enough to touch, peel __________. […]
__________
Composition H – Useful Phrases for Instructional (Procedural/How To) Essays (14 October 2016)
Kris Sullivan
5.
3
Giving detail with “adjectives”: It’s important to give much detail in Instructional Essays.
We can use adjectives to do this. Adjectives can come before or after nouns. “Nouns” and
“participles” can also act like adjectives.
a) Decide whether the following phrases are “adjective + noun”, “noun + noun” or
“participle + noun”, and write them in the table below.
tightly-closed jar
coffee beans
non-dairy creamer
filtered water paper filter
adjective + noun
ground coffee
fresh cream
electric grinder
bottled water
spring water
noun + noun
participle + noun
b) Create “(adverb) past participle + noun” phrases for the following:
i. 手動機械
____________________________________________
ii. 指定[予約]席
____________________________________________
iii. 推薦図書
____________________________________________
iv. 染みができているシャツ
____________________________________________
v. 焼きたてのパン
____________________________________________
vi. 壊れたパソコン
____________________________________________
vii. 最近雇用された労働者
____________________________________________
20 October class: Business Writing
27 October class: Peer Writing Feedback Conference
This week’s homework:
1. Read the example essay to get a better understanding of the genre.
2. Think of an interesting and unique essay topic. Remember, NO RECIPES!
3. Plan your essay.
Download PDF