US 20030096702A1
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2003/0096702 A1
(43) Pub. Date:
Frazier
(54)
DEVICE AND ASSOCIATED METHODS FOR
May 22, 2003
REMOVAL OF CHLORINE FROM WATER
consisting of cellulose, activated carbon, or activated carbon
With an enhanced adsorptive capacity for chlorine. Amethod
(76) Inventor: Stephen E. Frazier, Lake Mary, FL
for enhancing the adsorptive af?nity of activated carbon for
chlorine in potable Water is also disclosed. By pretreating
(Us)
ordinary activated carbon With one of several agents, includ
Correspondence Address:
Enrique G. Estevez
255 South Orange Avenue, Suite 1401’
PO. Box 3791
Orlando, FL 32802-3791 (US)
(21) Appl. No.:
09/923,764
(22) Filed:
Aug. 7, 2001
Publication Classi?cation
(51)
(52)
(57)
Int. Cl.7 ................................................... .. B01D 15/00
US. Cl. ......................... .. 502/416; 210/660; 210/263
ABSTRACT
The present invention discloses a device for removing
chlorine from chlorinated potable Water. The device contains
a chlorine adsorptive material selected from the group
ing potassium iodide, ammonium carbonate and ammonium
sulfate, the activated carbon, Which is minimally active for
chlorine reduction, is rendered highly active and able to be
applied in much smaller quantities than presently knoWn in
the art. Also disclosed is the use of activated carbon in
Zero-pressure-drop devices instead of ?lters requiring a
pressure differential. Commercial applications include
potable Water taste improvement Without ?ltration, Water
preparation for storage pitchers and the like Which do not
require ?ltration, devices Which remove chlorine from
make-up Water for concentrated juices, devices Which
remove chlorine from Water for coffee and tea, and other
applications as Will come to mind to one of ordinary skill in
the art, for example removal of chlorine from Water to be
used for holding tropical ?sh, fresh Water bait ?sh, and
related applications. Accordingly, the present invention
advantageously provides a device and associated methods
for removal of chlorine from potable Water Without the use
of a ?lter.
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
DEVICE AND ASSOCIATED METHODS FOR
REMOVAL OF CHLORINE FROM WATER
used for preparation of beverages. The present invention
RELATED APPLICATION
Commercial applications include potable Water taste
improvement Without ?ltration, Water preparation and stor
age pitchers and the like Which do not require ?ltration,
[0001] This application claims priority from co-pending
application Ser. No. 09/179,650 Which Was ?led on Oct. 27,
1998 and Which is incorporated herein by reference in its
entirety.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0002]
The present invention relates to the ?eld of potable
Water and more speci?cally to providing potable Water
having an improved taste through the use of a device and
method for substantially removing chlorine from the Water.
discloses the use of activated carbon in Zero-pressure-drop
devices instead of ?lters requiring a pressure differential.
devices Which remove chlorine from make-up Water for
concentrated juices, devices Which remove chlorine from
Water for coffee and tea, and other applications as Will come
to mind to one of ordinary skill in the art, for eXample
removal of chlorine from Water to be used for holding
tropical ?sh, fresh Water bait ?sh, and other related appli
cations.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
[0007] Additionally, a method to enhance the adsorptive
af?nity of activated carbon for chlorine in potable Water is
[0003] Conventional practice for removing chlorine dis
disclosed. Ordinary activated carbon, Which is minimally
infectant from chlorinated potable Water calls for the ?ltra
tion of Water through a ?lter bed, usually activated carbon or
charcoal. In this process the Water sample is required to
make intimate and relatively extended contact With the ?lter
medium. In addition, a ?ltration process has a number of
physical requirements Which make it best suited for appli
cation to dedicated, stand-alone appliances for the produc
tion of chlorine-free Water.
[0004] One requirement of a ?ltration method imposed by
the physics involved is a measurable pressure drop through
the ?lter bed, Which restricts the rate of How and sometimes
requires the application of eXternal pressure to force the
liquid through the ?lter at a practical ?oW rate. In addition,
to achieve the contact time required for complete reaction,
conventional ?lters tend to be disposed With large volumes
of ?lter medium. More compact ?lters, incorporating a
smaller volume of active ingredient require a sloWer Water
?oW rate to maXimiZe contact time and, therefore, optimiZe
chlorine removal.
[0005] Another disadvantage of ?ltration systems relates
to biological contamination of the ?lter bed. Potable Water,
hoWever clean, alWays carries some microorganisms,
including bacteria. Filtration devices using activated carbon
remove not only chlorine but also other organic and inor
ganic components found in Water. These components serve
as nutrients for bacteria and other microorganisms in the
Water. Because these ?lters usually retain Water during
active for chlorine reduction, is rendered highly active and
able to be applied in much smaller quantities than presently
knoWn in the art. Accordingly, With the foregoing in mind,
the present invention advantageously provides a device and
associated methods for removal of chlorine from potable
Water Without the use of a ?lter.
[0008] It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to
provide a device usable for substantially removing chlorine
from potable Water Without the need for ?ltration.
[0009] It is a further object of the present invention to
provide a chlorine removal device for potable Water using
cellulose as the adsorbent.
[0010] It is another object of the present invention to
provide a method for producing enhanced activated carbon
having an increased adsorptive capacity for chlorine.
[0011] It is a further object of the present invention to
provide a chlorine removal device using enhanced activated
carbon.
[0012] It is yet another object of the present invention to
provide a disposable device for chlorine removal from
potable Water employing cellulose as the adsorbent.
[0013] It is another object of the present invention to
provide a disposable product for chlorine removal from
potable Water employing enhanced activated carbon as the
adsorbent.
periods of non-use, they provide ideal environments for
[0014]
groWth of Waterborne bacteria on the nutrients that have
been accumulated in the ?lter bed. During periods of non
use of the ?lter, the bacteria and other microorganisms
provide an automatic coffee maker having a chlorine
removal device incorporated in its Water reservoir to sub
It is still another object of the present invention to
stantially dechlorinate Water for making coffee.
multiply rapidly Within the ?lter material until they are
?ushed out during the neXt use of the device. FolloWing a
period of non-use, the ?rst sample of Water to pass through
the ?lter Will usually be heavily laden With bacteria. Incor
poration of a ?ltration system in a device Which is used
intermittently, for eXample an automatic coffee maker, Will
[0015]
It is a further object of the present invention to
provide an easily portable, disposable chlorine removal
device that may be used anyWhere for conveniently provid
ing substantially dechlorinated potable Water.
eXpose the user to such bacterial contamination. Even if the
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
bacteria are destroyed by subsequent heating of the Water, as
might occur in the automatic coffee maker, a variety of toXic
products are released from the bacterial cells during their
destruction and these harmful bacterial byproducts Will be in
the Water used for the beverage.
[0016] Some of the features, advantages, and bene?ts of
the present invention having been stated, others Will become
apparent as the description proceeds When taken in conjunc
tion With the accompanying draWings in Which:
[0017]
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0006] The present invention relates to removal of chlo
rine from drinking Water to improve its taste When being
FIG. 1 is a cross sectional top vieW of a container
for holding the chlorine adsorbent material. The container
illustrated is a Water permeable device, in this illustration it
consists of a plastic cage having pores of suf?cient siZe to
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
allow the free How of Water through the device, yet suf?
ciently small to securely contain the adsorbent material.
[0018]
FIG. 2 is an illustration of the disposable bag
embodiment of the chlorine removal device. Like a conven
tional tea bag, this embodiment is easily portable for use
anyWhere.
[0019]
FIG. 3 is an illustration of an automatic coffee
maker With the chlorine removal device in place Within the
Water reservoir container.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED
EMBODIMENTS
[0020]
The present invention Will noW be described more
fully hereinafter With reference to the accompanying draW
ings Which illustrate preferred embodiments of the inven
tion. This invention may, hoWever, be embodied in many
EXAMPLE 1
[0024] About 25 grams of dry ground corn cob cellulose
Was placed in a Water permeable device 12, in this example
a plastic cage through Which Water could ?oW freely, as
shoWn in FIG. 1. The cage Was placed in the Water reservoir
18 of an automatic coffee maker 20 With a capacity for
betWeen 2 and 12 cups, such as that shoWn in FIG. 3. Water
containing 2.0 ppm (parts per million) of chlorine as OCl‘
Was added to the reservoir 18. The contact time in the
reservoir 18 Was approximately nine (9) minutes. The vol
ume of each breWing cycle Was 2.8 liters (12 cups), the full
capacity of the machine. FolloWing each breWing cycle the
chlorine content of the Water in the coffee pot Was measured.
Measurements taken after several breWing cycles are shoWn
in Table 1.
TABLE 1
different forms and should not be construed as limited to the
BreW Cycle
Chlorine
embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments
are provided so that this disclosure Will be thorough and
complete, and Will fully convey the scope of the invention
Completed
Reduction
1
13
17
47
67
81
100
1 28
99%
83%
85%
54%
58%
73%
50%
51 %
to those skilled in the art. Like numbers refer to like
elements throughout, the prime notation, if used, indicates
similar elements in alternative embodiments. Preferred
embodiments Will be discussed With reference to FIGS. 1-3.
[0021] FIG. b illustrates a Water permeable device 12 to
hold a quantity of an adsorbent 10 for substantially remov
ing chlorine from potable Water. The device is used by
immersing it in the Water sample to be dechlorinated and
alloWing suf?cient time for the adsorbent 10 to chemically
remove chlorine. The device may be disposed With retrieval
means such as a string, or a handle for aiding retrieval from
the Water. When disposed With a handle, the device may
resemble a large sWiZZle stick. In addition, While the device
illustrated in FIG. 1 embodies a particular shape, those
skilled in the art Will appreciate that the device may be made
in any number of shapes, including shapes having an overall
ornamental appearance, for example, a ?sh. Preferred adsor
bents 10 include activated carbon, cellulose and activated
carbon With increased adsorbency for chlorine effected
through the process herein beloW described.
[0022]
[0025] Approximately 16 grams of ground corncob cellu
lose Was placed in a Water permeable device 12, as shoWn
in FIG. 2 this is a plastic cage through Which Water could
?oW freely. The cage Was again placed in the reservoir 18 of
a 12 cup coffee breWer 20, as described above With reference
to FIGS. 1 and 3, and Water containing 2.0 ppm chlorine as
OCl' Was used to ?ll the reservoir 18. The contact time in
the reservoir Was approximately nine (9) minutes. The
volume of Water 16 used for each breWing cycle Was 2.8
liters (12 cups), the full capacity of the machine. Chlorine
content in the breWed Water Was measured folloWing each
cycle and for several cycles. These data are reported by Way
of example in Table 2 beloW.
Conventional methods of removing chlorine from
TABLE 2
chlorinated potable Water include ?ltration With activated
charcoal or carbon, and reaction of chlorine With various
combinations of metal catalysts. It Was observed that When
chlorinated Water is in contact With organic matter such as
polymeric ion exchange resins, or simple molecules such as
dextrose, the chlorine content Was quickly reduced. The use
of chlorine to treat and bleach natural materials such as
BreW Cycle
Chlorine
Completed
Reduction
20
3O
4O
51
62
94%
68%
55%
59%
52%
lignin and cellulose is Well knoWn in the art, hoWever, there
are no suggestions or teachings in Which a material such as
cellulose is used to reduce chlorine in drinking Water.
[0023] A preferred embodiment of the present invention
includes the use of cellulose as the absorbent 10 for sub
stantially reducing the amount of chlorine in chlorinated
potable Water. To test this approach, several types of cellu
lose-containing materials, including Waste products from
[0026]
It is clear from these examples that cellulose in
general, and corn cob cellulose in particular, can be used to
reduce chlorine in potable, chlorinated drinking Water. These
tests have been repeated multiple times With essentially the
same results.
Data obtained When using corn cob derived cellulose are
[0027] Another preferred embodiment uses activated car
bon as the chlorine adsorbent 10 to be used in the chlorine
removal device 12. The mechanism of the reaction betWeen
chlorine and activated carbon is a tWo step process occurring
at the surface of the carbon and is shoWn in the formula
presented in the folloWing examples.
beloW. The ?rst step is the rate-limiting step, that is, the
paper recycling, from Wood production and from an agri
cultural process (eg corn cobs), Were obtained and tested
for their ability to remove chlorine from drinking Water.
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
migration of hypochlorite ion, OCl', to the surface of the
carbon. The second step is the chemical reaction at the
surface, liberating chloride ion and carbon dioxide:
[0028] This reaction mechanism does not require conven
tional ?ltration, merely suf?cient time as necessary for the
rate-limiting step, the intermingling of the carbon and chlo
rine reactants. Because the rate at Which the reaction occurs
is closely related to the intermingling of carbon and chloride
ions, it can be appreciated that a ?ltration process Would
tend to accelerate the reaction by helping to bring the
reactants together more quickly. HoWever, provided
adequate contact time, the reaction betWeen the chloride ions
and the carbon Will proceed regardless of the manner in
Which they come together.
[0029]
For the present invention, a device Which brings
gasses from air is discussed in US. Pat. No. 4,855,276,
issued to Osborne et al. on Aug. 8, 1989.
[0033] After noting the activated carbon treated With
potassium iodide had the property of reacting rapidly With
chlorine in drinking Water, the process Was studied and
reproduced. The potassium iodide additive alone Was also
studied, and no direct correlation betWeen the additive and
the subsequent reduction of chlorine in drinking Water could
be demonstrated.
[0034] Granular activated carbon can be enhanced With
respect to the reaction of chlorine in chlorinated potable
Water by ?rst treating the carbon With a dilute aqueous
solution of potassium iodide
Excess iodide salt can be
subsequently Washed out of the dried, treated carbon Without
reducing its enhanced activity toWard chlorine. The appli
cation of this process is illustrated in the folloWing example.
activated carbon into intimate contact With chlorinated Water
EXAMPLE 4
is used to dechlorinate the Water Without the use of a
?oW-through ?lter and Without the physical limitations
imposed by a ?oW-through ?lter. Several tests Were com
pleted and are summariZed in the folloWing example.
EXAMPLE 3
[0030] Granular activated carbon (“GAC”) Was arranged
betWeen sheets of polypropylene Webbing in a plastic frame,
constituting the Water permeable device 12 as shoWn in FIG.
1. The cage Was immersed in 500 ml of Water containing
approximately 2 ppm OCl'. The concentration of free chlo
rine in the Water Was measured at one-minute intervals using
[0035] A 10 gram sample of plain activated carbon Was
placed in a Water permeable device 12 having a cage, as
shoWn in FIG. 1, through Which Water could ?oW freely. The
cage and sample Were placed in the Water reservoir 18 tank
of a 12 cup coffee maker 20, as earlier described With
reference to FIGS. 1 and 3. This sample Was exposed to
several 2.8 liter portions of Water containing 2.0 ppm
chlorine as OCl'. Chlorine levels after breWing Were mea
sured as before described and are listed in Table 4, beloW.
TABLE 4
a UV-V'isib'le spectrophotometer and N,N-diethyl-p-phe-
Brew Cycles
Chlorine
nylened1am1ne (DPD) indicator. The results are shown in
Completed
Reduction
1
2
63%
11%
3
12%
Table 3, beloW.
TABLE 3
Chlorine
Time
Absorbency
Reduction
0 min.
0.603
00%
1
0.435
28
2
'
.
0303
50;;
EXAMPLE 5
.
.
.
.
[0036] Three (3) grams of potassium 1od1de Was dissolved
3 min_
0.206
66%
in 74 cc of Water. An activated carbon, 97 grams, shoWn
4 IHPI5 mln'
0-155
0106
74%
82%
previously to be minimally active toWards chlorine, Was
added to the K1 solution. After thoroughly stirring and
mixing, the mixture Was dried overnight at 80° C., then
further dried by heating to 130° C. for about one hour.
6 mm.
0.073
88%
Contact betWeen the GAC and the chlorinated
[0037] A20 gram sample of the treated carbon Was placed
Water Was sufficient to effect a substantial reduction in the
concentration of chlorine, as shoWn in Table 3. This test Was
in a Water permeable device 12, or cage through Which Water
repeated numerous times and results substantiated.
Water reservoir 18 tank of a 12 cup coffee maker 20, as
earlier described With reference to FIGS. 1 and 3. The
[0031]
[0032] An additional preferred embodiment Was identi?ed
While studying the reaction of activated carbon With chlorine
in chlorinated potable Water. Activated carbon treated With
a dilute aqueous solution of potassium iodide (Kl), displayed
an enhanced ability to react With chlorine in Water, as
compared With untreated carbon. Although the potassium
iodide treated product is available commercially, at the time
could ?oW freely. The cage and sample Were placed in the
sample Was exposed to several 2.8 liter portions of Water
containing 2.0 ppm chlorine as OCl'. Before treatment, the
carbon essentially fails to remove chlorine after it has been
used for tWo to three breWing cycles. Results for the
Kl-treated carbon are as reported, by Way of example, in
Table 5:
TABLE 5
this effect Was noted the manufacturer Was unaWare of this
enhanced property and recommended against using this
BreW Cycles
Chlorine
product to treat chlorinated potable Water. The product Was
formulated for air treatment applications unrelated to chlo
rine reduction in chlorinated potable Water. Application of
potassium iodide treated activated carbon to removal of
Completed
Reduction
3
5
65%
55%
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
carbon. The mixture was carefully stirred until uniform, and
slowly dried at 80°. Complete drying was effected by
TABLE 5 -continued
heating the carbon at 130° for one hour.
[0038]
Brew Cycles
Chlorine
Completed
Reduction
6
1O
64%
53%
The process of treating activated carbon with
potassium iodide results in a remarkable increase in the
adsorptive af?nity of activated carbon for chlorine in potable
water. This enhanced activated carbon maintains a high
adsorption of chlorine for many brewing cycles. In contrast,
plain activated carbon loses its adsorptive capacity after a
single brewing cycle. The persistence of this effect with
enhanced activated carbon is illustrated through the follow
ing example.
EXAMPLE 6
[0039] Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreated with
potassium iodide (B/S 787, 8x16 mesh, 15 grams) was
placed in the cage of a water permeable device 12, the
openings 14 of which allowed free How of water to contact
the GAC. As illustrated with reference to FIGS. 1 to 3, the
device 12 was placed in the reservoir tank 18 of a 12 cup
automatic coffee maker 20 and exposed to water 16 con
taining 2.0 ppm chlorine as OCl'. The contact time in the
[0044] The activated carbon produced by this process also
substantially removed chlorine from 2.8 liter samples of
water containing 2 ppm of chlorine in over thirty (30)
consecutive brewing cycles.
[0045] In addition to the water permeable device 12, or
cage, hereinabove described and shown in FIG. 1, the
present invention is also advantageously employed through
the use of a disposable bag device 26, as known in the art for
tea bags, and similarly having a string 24 attached thereto for
easy retrieval of the chlorine removal device from the water
sample being treated. This embodiment of the invention is
best illustrated in FIG. 2. The device may be provided in
sizes appropriate for treatment of various volumes of water
and the bag material 22 may preferably be paper or cloth;
however, any of the disposable devices herein described
may be made of plastic, metal, paper or cloth while main
taining its chlorine removal advantage.
[0046] In the drawings and speci?cation, there have been
disclosed a typical preferred embodiment of the invention,
and although speci?c terms are employed, the terms are used
in a descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.
The invention has been described in considerable detail with
speci?c reference to these illustrated embodiments. It will be
reservoir was approximately nine (9) minutes. The volume
apparent, however, that various modi?cations and changes
used for each brewing cycle was 2.8 liters (12 cups).
can be made within the spirit and scope of the invention as
Chlorine content in the brewed water was measured after
described in the foregoing speci?cation and as de?ned in the
every ten brewing cycles.
appended claims.
That which is claimed is:
TABLE 6
1. Adevice for removing chlorine from potable water, said
Brewing Cycles
Completed
Chlorine
Reduction
10
2O
3O
4O
5O
6O
7O
8O
74%
68%
62%
63%
59%
63%
45%
50%
device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of activated carbon;
b) a water permeable holder for containing the activated
carbon.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein said device is a
disposable product.
3. The device of claim 2 further comprising means for
retrieval.
4. The device of claim 3 wherein said water permeable
holder is a bag made of a material selected from the group
[0040] After exposure to 224 liters of 2.0 ppm chlorinated
water, the device 12 comprising the Kl-treated GAC is still
capable of reducing the chlorine content by an appreciable
potable water in an automatic coffee maker having a reser
amount, as shown by the data of Table 6. This effect was
voir, consisting essentially of the steps of:
replicated in numerous other experimental studies.
EXAMPLE 7
[0041] Five grams of ammonium carbonate was dissolved
in 72 cc of water and added to 95 grams of ordinary activated
carbon. The mixture was carefully stirred until uniform, and
slowly dried at 80° C. Complete drying was effected by
heating the carbon at 130° for one hour.
[0042] In over thirty (30) successive reactions, the acti
vated carbon produced by this process substantially removed
chlorine from 2.8 liter samples of water containing 2 ppm of
chlorine.
EXAMPLE 8
[0043] Five grams of ammonium sulfate was dissolved in
72 cc of water and added to 95 grams of ordinary activated
consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
5. A method of providing substantially dechlorinated
a) placing activated carbon into the reservoir of the coffee
maker;
b) ?lling the reservoir of the coffee maker with potable
water;
c) allowing the activated carbon to remain in contact with
the water for suf?cient time for substantially removing
chlorine.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the activated carbon is
contained in a water permeable holder.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the water permeable
holder is a disposable product.
8. The method of claim 7, further comprising the step of
removing the water permeable disposable holder from the
reservoir.
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
9. Aprocess for making enhanced activated carbon having
an increased capacity for adsorbing chlorine in potable
Water, consisting essentially of the steps of:
a) placing the enhanced activated carbon produced by the
a) saturating activated carbon With an aqueous solution of
from 1% to 10% by Weight of a compound selected
from the group consisting of potassium iodide, ammo
nium carbonate and ammonium sulfate;
b) ?lling the reservoir of the coffee maker With potable
Water;
c) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
b) drying the activated carbon Without reaching ignition
temperature until substantially all Water is evaporated
therefrom.
10. A device for removing chlorine from potable Water,
said device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of the enhanced activated
carbon produced by the process of claim 9;
b) a Water permeable holder for containing the predeter
mined quantity of enhanced activated carbon.
11. The device of claim 10, Wherein the device is a
disposable product.
12. The device of claim 11 further comprising means for
retrieval.
13. The device of claim 12 Wherein said Water permeable
holder is a bag made of a material selected from the group
consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
14. A method of providing substantially dechlorinated
potable Water in an automatic coffee maker having a reser
voir, consisting essentially of the steps of:
a) placing the enhanced activated carbon produced by the
process of claim 9 into the reservoir of the coffee
maker;
b) ?lling the reservoir of the coffee maker With potable
Water;
c) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
15. The method of claim 14, Wherein the enhanced
activated carbon is contained in a Water permeable holder.
16. The method of claim 15 Wherein the Water permeable
holder is a disposable holder.
17. The method of claim 15, further comprising the step
of removing the Water permeable disposable holder from the
reservoir.
18. An enhanced activated carbon produced by the pro
cess of claim 9 Wherein the selected compound is potassium
iodide.
19. A device for removing chlorine from potable Water,
said device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of the enhanced activated
carbon produced by the process of claim 18;
b) a Water permeable holder for containing the enhanced
activated carbon.
20. The device of claim 19, Wherein the device is a
disposable product.
21. The device of claim 20 further comprising means for
retrieval.
22. The device of claim 21 Wherein said Water permeable
holder is a bag made of a material selected from the group
consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
23. A method of providing chlorine-free potable Water in
an automatic coffee maker having a reservoir, consisting
essentially of the steps of:
process of claim 18 into the reservoir of the coffee
maker;
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
24. The method of claim 23, Wherein the enhanced
activated carbon is contained in a Water permeable holder.
25. The method of claim 24 Wherein the Water permeable
holder is a disposable product.
26. The method of claim 24, further comprising the step
of removing the Water permeable disposable holder from the
reservoir.
27. An enhanced activated carbon produced by the pro
cess of claim 9 Wherein the selected compound is ammo
nium carbonate.
28. A device for removing chlorine from potable Water,
said device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of the enhanced activated
carbon produced by the process of claim 27;
b) a Water permeable holder for containing the enhanced
activated carbon.
29. The device of claim 28, Wherein the device is a
disposable product made of a material selected from the
group consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
30. The device of claim 29 further comprising means for
retrieval.
31. The device of claim 30 Wherein said Water permeable
holder is a bag Wherein said means for retrieval is a string.
32. A method of providing chlorine-free potable Water in
an automatic coffee maker having a reservoir, consisting
essentially of the steps of:
a) placing the enhanced activated carbon produced by the
process of claim 27 into the reservoir of the coffee
maker;
b) ?lling the reservoir of the coffee maker With potable
Water;
c) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
33. The method of claim 32, Wherein the enhanced
activated carbon is contained in a Water permeable holder.
34. The method of claim 33 Wherein the Water permeable
holder is a disposable product.
35. The method of claim 33, further comprising the step
of removing the Water permeable holder from the reservoir.
36. An enhanced activated carbon produced by the pro
cess of claim 9 Wherein the selected compound is ammo
nium sulfate.
37. A device for removing chlorine from potable Water,
said device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of the enhanced activated
carbon produced by the process of claim 36;
b) a Water permeable holder for containing the enhanced
activated carbon.
38. The device of claim 37, Wherein the device is a
disposable product made of a material selected from the
group consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
May 22, 2003
US 2003/0096702 A1
39. The device of claim 38 further comprising means for
retrieval.
40. The device of claim 39 Wherein said Water permeable
holder is a bag Wherein said means for retrieval is a string.
41. A method of providing chlorine-free potable Water in
an automatic coffee maker having a reservoir, consisting
52. The method of claim 49 Wherein the compound
selected for making the enhanced activated carbon is ammo
nium carbonate.
53. The method of claim 49 Wherein the compound
selected for making the enhanced activated carbon is ammo
nium sulfate.
essentially of the steps of:
54. A method of providing chlorine-free potable Water in
an automatic coffee maker having a reservoir, consisting
a) placing the enhanced activated carbon produced by the
process of claim 36 into the reservoir of the coffee
maker;
b) ?lling the reservoir of the coffee maker With potable
Water;
c) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
42. The method of claim 41, Wherein the enhanced
activated carbon is contained in a Water permeable holder.
43. The method of claim 42 Wherein the Water permeable
holder is a disposable product.
44. The method of claim 42, further comprising the step
of removing the Water permeable holder from the reservoir.
45. A device for removing chlorine from potable Water,
said device comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of cellulose;
b) a Water permeable holder for containing the cellulose.
46. The device of claim 45, Wherein the device is a
disposable product made of a material selected from the
essentially of the steps of:
a) placing into the reservoir enhanced activated carbon
made according to the method of claim 9;
b) ?lling the reservoir With potable Water;
c) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
55. The method of claim 54, Wherein the enhanced
activated carbon is contained in a Water permeable holder.
56. The method of claim 55, Wherein said holder is built
into the coffee maker.
57. The method of claim 56, Wherein the Water permeable
holder is a disposable product.
58. The method of claim 56, further comprising the step
of removing the Water permeable holder from the reservoir.
59. A disposable Water treatment packet for substantially
removing chlorine from potable Water, comprising:
a) a predetermined quantity of enhanced activated carbon
produced by the process of claim 9;
b) a bag for containing said predetermined quantity of
group consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
enhanced activated carbon, said bag made of Water
47. The device of claim 46 further comprising means for
retrieval.
48. The device of claim 47 Wherein said Water permeable
holder is a bag Wherein said means for retrieval is a string.
permeable material.
49. A method of removing chlorine from potable Water,
consisting of the steps of:
a) placing in the Water the enhanced activated carbon
produced by the process of claim 9;
b) alloWing the enhanced activated carbon to remain in
contact With the Water for suf?cient time for substan
tially removing chlorine.
50. The method of claim 49, further comprising the step
of separating the enhanced activated carbon from the Water.
51. The method of claim 49 Wherein the compound
selected for making the enhanced activated carbon is potas
sium iodide.
60. The disposable Water treatment packet device of claim
59, Wherein the Water permeable material is selected from
the group consisting of cloth, paper, plastic and metal.
61. The disposable Water treatment packet of claim 60,
further comprising a string for retrieving the packet.
62. An automatic coffee maker having a reservoir con
tainer for Water, said reservoir container comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of the enhanced activated
carbon produced by the process of claim 9;
b) a receptacle for holding a Water permeable packet
containing said predetermined quantity of enhanced
activated carbon.
63. The automatic coffee maker of claim 62, Wherein said
packet is a disposable product.
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