Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Technical Guide
Index
Document version: v7.5 - 02/2018
© Libelium Comunicaciones Distribuidas S.L.
INDEX
1. General and safety information........................................................................................... 6
2. Important: Read before use................................................................................................. 7
3. Introduction........................................................................................................................... 8
4. Waspmote vs Waspmote Plug & Sense!............................................................................... 9
5. General view......................................................................................................................... 10
5.1. Specifications.................................................................................................................................... 10
5.2. Parts included................................................................................................................................... 13
5.3. Identification..................................................................................................................................... 14
6. Sensor probes....................................................................................................................... 16
6.1. Sensor probes types........................................................................................................................ 18
6.2. Extension cord.................................................................................................................................. 27
7. Internal sensors................................................................................................................... 29
7.1. Accelerometer.................................................................................................................................. 29
8. Radio modules...................................................................................................................... 30
8.1. XBee-PRO 802.15.4.......................................................................................................................... 31
8.2. XBee 868LP....................................................................................................................................... 33
8.3. XBee-PRO 900HP.............................................................................................................................. 34
8.4. LoRaWAN modules.......................................................................................................................... 34
8.5. Sigfox modules................................................................................................................................. 36
8.6. WiFi PRO module............................................................................................................................. 37
8.7. 4G module........................................................................................................................................ 38
9. Industrial Protocols............................................................................................................. 40
10. GPS module......................................................................................................................... 42
11. Internal storage................................................................................................................. 43
12. On/off button..................................................................................................................... 44
12.1. External LED................................................................................................................................... 45
13. Resetting Waspmote Plug & Sense! with an external magnet..................................... 46
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v7.5
Index
14. USB port.............................................................................................................................. 48
14.1. Outdoors USB Cable...................................................................................................................... 50
14.2. External SIM/USB socket............................................................................................................... 51
15. External solar panel........................................................................................................... 54
16. External Battery Module................................................................................................... 56
16.1. Technical specifications................................................................................................................ 56
16.2. Operating modes........................................................................................................................... 59
17. Vent plug / Pressure Compensator.................................................................................. 61
18. Antenna............................................................................................................................... 62
18.1. Antennas for the Plug & Sense! 4G model.................................................................................. 63
18.2. Antennas for Plug & Sense! GPS-ready models......................................................................... 64
19. Sensor protection.............................................................................................................. 66
19.1. Special probes................................................................................................................................ 66
20. Battery................................................................................................................................ 66
21. Models................................................................................................................................. 67
21.1. Smart Environment PRO............................................................................................................... 68
21.2. Smart Security................................................................................................................................ 71
21.3. Smart Water................................................................................................................................... 73
21.4. Smart Water Ions........................................................................................................................... 75
21.4.1. Single...................................................................................................................................76
21.4.2. Double.................................................................................................................................76
21.4.3. Pro........................................................................................................................................77
21.5. Smart Parking................................................................................................................................. 78
21.6. Smart Agriculture........................................................................................................................... 79
21.6.1. Normal.................................................................................................................................80
21.6.2. PRO......................................................................................................................................81
21.7. Ambient Control............................................................................................................................. 82
21.8. Smart Cities PRO............................................................................................................................ 84
21.9. Radiation Control........................................................................................................................... 86
21.10. 4-20 mA Current Loop................................................................................................................. 87
22. Programming..................................................................................................................... 88
22.1. Real time Clock - RTC..................................................................................................................... 88
22.2. Interruptions.................................................................................................................................. 89
22.3. Watchdog........................................................................................................................................ 89
22.3.1. RTC Watchdog for reseting Waspmote...........................................................................89
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v7.5
Index
23. Programming Cloud Service............................................................................................. 90
24. Uploading code................................................................................................................... 91
25. Over the air programming – OTA..................................................................................... 97
25.1. Overview......................................................................................................................................... 97
25.2. OTA with 4G/WiFi modules via FTP............................................................................................. 97
25.2.1. Setting the FTP server configuration...............................................................................98
26. Encryption libraries........................................................................................................... 99
27. Interacting with Waspmote............................................................................................ 100
27.1. Receiving XBee frames with Waspmote Gateway.................................................................... 100
27.1.1. Waspmote Gateway........................................................................................................ 100
27.1.2. Linux receiver.................................................................................................................. 101
27.1.3. Windows receiver............................................................................................................ 105
27.1.4. Mac-OS receiver.............................................................................................................. 107
28. Meshlium - The IoT Gateway.......................................................................................... 108
28.1. Meshlium Storage Options......................................................................................................... 108
28.2. Meshlium connection options.................................................................................................... 109
28.3. Meshlium Visualizer..................................................................................................................... 110
28.4. Cloud Connectors........................................................................................................................ 111
29. Installation....................................................................................................................... 112
29.1. Parts............................................................................................................................................... 112
29.2. Street Light installation............................................................................................................... 115
29.2.1. External solar panel........................................................................................................ 115
29.3. Wall installation............................................................................................................................ 118
29.3.1. External solar panel........................................................................................................ 118
30. Energy Consumption....................................................................................................... 120
30.1. Consumption tables.................................................................................................................... 120
30.2. Energy system.............................................................................................................................. 120
30.2.1. Concepts........................................................................................................................... 120
30.2.2. Sleep mode...................................................................................................................... 122
30.2.3. Deep Sleep mode............................................................................................................ 123
30.3. Lifetime of the sensors................................................................................................................ 123
31. Recommendations........................................................................................................... 124
32. Documentation changelog............................................................................................. 125
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v7.5
Index
33. Certifications.................................................................................................................... 126
33.1. General overview......................................................................................................................... 126
33.2. CE (Europe)................................................................................................................................... 126
33.2.1. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4 EU.......................................................................... 127
33.2.2. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 868........................................................................................ 127
33.2.3. Waspmote Plug & Sense! WiFi....................................................................................... 127
33.2.4. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 4G EU/BR.............................................................................. 128
33.2.5. Waspmote Plug & Sense! Sigfox EU.............................................................................. 128
33.2.6. Waspmote Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN EU....................................................................... 128
33.3. FCC (USA)...................................................................................................................................... 129
33.4. IC (Canada).................................................................................................................................... 130
33.5. ANATEL (Brazil)............................................................................................................................. 130
33.6. RCM (Australia)............................................................................................................................. 131
33.7. Use of equipment characteristics ............................................................................................. 132
34. Maintenance..................................................................................................................... 133
35. Disposal and recycling..................................................................................................... 134
36. Resources.......................................................................................................................... 135
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v7.5
General and safety information
1. General and safety information
Important:
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All documents and any examples they contain are provided as-is and are subject to change without notice.
Except to the extent prohibited by law, Libelium makes no express or implied representation or warranty of
any kind with regard to the documents, and specifically disclaims the implied warranties and conditions of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
The information on Libelium’s websites has been included in good faith for general informational purposes
only. It should not be relied upon for any specific purpose and no representation or warranty is given as to its
accuracy or completeness.
Read carefully Limited Warranty and Terms and Conditions of Use before using “Waspmote Plug & Sense!”.
Do not open casing and do not damage black warranty stickers. If you do so, you will lose warranty.
Do not remove any of the connectors.
Do not allow contact between metallic objects and electronic parts to avoid injury and burns.
Never immerse equipment in any liquid.
Keep equipment within temperature range indicated in recommendation section.
Do not connect or power equipment using cables that have been damaged.
Place equipment in an area to which only maintenance personnel can have access (in a restricted access zone).
In any case keep children away from the equipment.
If there is a power failure, immediately disconnect from the mains.
If using a battery whether or not in combination with a solar panel as a power source follow the voltage and
current specifications indicated in the section “External solar panel connector”.
If a software failure occurs, contact Libelium technical support before doing any action by yourself.
Do not place equipment on trees or plants as they could be damaged by its weight.
Be particularly careful if you are connected through a software interface for handling the machine; if settings
of that interface are incorrectly altered, it could become inaccessible.
If you need to clean the node, wipe it with a dry towel.
If Waspmote Plug & Sense! needs to be returned please send it completely dry and free from contaminants.
Waspmote Plug & Sense! is not designed to be placed in hard environmental conditions, under dangerous
chemical elements, explosive atmospheres with flammable gases, high voltage installations or special
installations. Please contact Libelium technical support to ensure your application is compatible with
Waspmote Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
Important: Read before use
2. Important: Read before use
The following list shows just some of the actions that produce the most common failures and warranty-voiding.
Complete documentation about usage can be found at http://www.libelium.com/development. Failure to comply
with the recommendations of use will entail the warranty cancellation.
Software:
••
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••
Upload code only using Waspmote IDE. If a different IDE is used, Waspmote can be damaged and can become
unresponsive. This use is not covered under warranty.
Do not unplug any connector while uploading code. Waspmote can become unresponsive. This use is not
covered under warranty.
Do not connect or disconnect any connector while Waspmote is on. Waspmote can become unstable or
unresponsive, and internal parts can be damaged. This fact is not covered under warranty.
Hardware:
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Do not handle black stickers seals on both sides of the enclosure ( Warranty stickers). Their integrity is the
proof that Waspmote Plug & Sense! has not been opened. If they have been handled, damaged or broken, the
warranty is void.
Do not open Waspmote Plug & Sense! in any case. This will automatically make the warranty void.
Do not handle the four metallic screws of Waspmote Plug & Sense!. They ensure waterproof seal.
Do not submerge Waspmote Plug & Sense! in liquids.
Do not place nodes on places or equipment where it could be exposed to shocks and/or big vibrations.
Do not expose Waspmote Plug & Sense! to temperatures below -20 ºC or above 60 ºC.
Do not power Waspmote with other power sources than the original provided by Libelium. Voltage and current
maximum ratings can be exceeded, stopping Waspmote working and voiding warranty.
Do not try to extract, screw, break or move Waspmote Plug & Sense! connectors far from necessary usage,
waterproof sealing can be damaged and warranty will be voided.
For more information: http://www.libelium.com
Do not connect any sensor on the solar panel connector and also do not connect the solar panel to any of
sensor connectors. Waspmote can be damaged and warranty void.
Do not connect any sensor not provided by Libelium.
Do not place Waspmote Plug & Sense! where water can reach internal parts of sensors.
Do not get the magnet close to a metal object. The magnet is really powerful and will get stuck.
Do not place the magnet close to electronic devices, like PCs, batteries, etc, they could be damaged, or
information could be deleted.
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v7.5
Introduction
3. Introduction
This guide explains the features related to our product line Plug & Sense! v15, released on October 2016.
If you are using previous versions of our products, please use the corresponding guides, available on our
Development website.
You can get more information about the generation change on the document “New generation of Libelium product
lines”.
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v7.5
Waspmote vs Waspmote Plug & Sense!
4. Waspmote vs Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Waspmote is the original line in which developers have a total control over the hardware device. You can physically
access to the board and connect new sensors or even embed it in your own products as an electronic sensor
device.
The Waspmote Plug & Sense! line allows developers to forget about electronics and focus on services and
applications. You can deploy wireless sensor networks in an easy and scalable way ensuring minimum maintenance
costs. The platform consists of a robust waterproof enclosure with specific external sockets to connect the
sensors, the solar panel, the antenna and even the USB cable in order to reprogram the node. It has been specially
designed to be scalable, easy to deploy and maintain.
Figure: Waspmote
Figure: Waspmote Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
General view
5. General view
This section shows main parts of Waspmote Plug & Sense! and a brief description of each one. In later sections
all parts will be described deeply.
5.1. Specifications
•• Material: polycarbonate
•• Sealing: polyurethane
•• Cover screws: stainless steel
•• Ingress protection: IP65
•• Impact resistance: IK08
•• Rated insulation voltage AC: 690 V
•• Rated insulation voltage DC: 1000 V
•• Heavy metals-free: Yes
•• Weatherproof: true - nach UL 746 C
•• Ambient temperature (min.): -30 °C*
•• Ambient temperature (max.): 70 °C*
•• Approximated weight: 800 g
* Temporary extreme temperatures are supported. Regular recommended usage: -20, +60 ºC.
In the pictures included below it is shown a general view of Waspmote Plug & Sense! main parts. Some elements
are dedicated to node control, others are designated to sensor connection and other parts are just identification
elements. All of them will be described along this guide.
85 mm
124 mm
160 mm
410 mm
122 mm
175 mm
164 mm
Figure: Main view of Waspmote Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
General view
Figure: Control side of the enclosure
Figure: Control side of the enclosure for 4G model
Figure: Sensor side of the enclosure
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v7.5
General view
Figure: Antenna side of the enclosure
Figure: Front view of the enclosure
Figure: Back view of the enclosure
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v7.5
General view
Figure: Warranty stickers of the enclosure
Important note: Do not handle black stickers seals of the enclosure (Warranty stickers). Their integrity is the proof
that Waspmote Plug & Sense! has not been opened. If they have been handled, damaged or broken, the warranty is
automatically void.
5.2. Parts included
Next picture shows Waspmote Plug & Sense! and all of its elements. Some of them are optional accessories that
may not be included.
1
9
6
5
8
2
7
10
3
4
Figure: Waspmote Plug & Sense! accessories: 1 enclosure, 2 sensor probes, 3 external solar panel, 4 USB cable, 5 antenna, 6 cable ties,
7 mounting feet (screwed to the enclosure), 8 extension cord, 9 solar panel cable, 10 wall plugs & screws
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v7.5
General view
5.3. Identification
Each Waspmote model is identified by stickers. Next figure shows front sticker.
Model identification colour
Enclosure model
Figure: Front sticker of the enclosure
There are many configurations of Waspmote Plug & Sense! line, all of them identified by one unique sticker. Next
image shows all possibilities.
Figure: Different front stickers
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v7.5
General view
Moreover, Waspmote Plug & Sense! includes a back sticker where it is shown identification numbers, radio MAC
addresses, etc. It is highly recommended to annotate this information and save it for future maintenance. Next
figure shows it in detail.
Figure: Back sticker
Sensor probes are identified too by a sticker showing the measured parameter and the sensor manufacturer
reference.
Measure
parameter
CO - TGS2442
Figure: Sensor
Figure: reference
Figure: Sensor probe identification sticker
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v7.5
Sensor probes
6. Sensor probes
All sensing capabilities of Waspmote Plug & Sense! are provided by sensor probes. Each sensor probe contains one
sensor, some necessary protections against outdoor environmental conditions and a waterproof male connector.
The standard length of a sensor probe is about 150 mm, including waterproof connector, but it could vary due to
some sensors need special dimensions. Weight of a standard probe rounds 20 g, but there are some special cases
which this weight can rise.
Sensor probes are designed to be used in vertical position (with sensor looking to the ground). In this position, the
protection cap of each sensor probe is effective against bad weather conditions.
Each model has six dedicated sockets to connect sensor probes. They are located in the sensor side, as shown
below. Each socket has a protecting cap. When one of the six sensor connectors is not used, be sure the cap is
screwed to protect the connector.
Figure: Enclosure sensor side with protection caps
Each sensor socket is identified by a letter from A to F (see picture below). The user should understand that each
sensor probe should go in a dedicated socket, due to each sensor has different power requirements (current and
voltage levels), dedicated circuitry, etc. So please see corresponding section about where to connect each probe.
Always be sure you connected probes in the right socket, otherwise they can be damaged.
Never connect a sensor not provided by Libelium to any of the sensor connectors. The electronics system inside
can be damaged and the warranty will be automatically void.
Figure: Enclosure sensor side without protection caps
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v7.5
Sensor probes
It should be taken into account that any sensor probe connector has only one matching position with a sensor
probe. The user should align the sensor probe connector looking at the little notch of the connector (see image
below). Notice that the sensor connector is male type and the enclosure sensor connector is female type.
Figure: Detail of sensor waterproof connector
Besides that, there is a locking nut which should be screwed till the connector is completely fixed to the enclosure.
Figure: Connecting a sensor probe to the enclosure
Please use only sensors officially provided by Libelium. Any other sensor can damage Waspmote Plug & Sense!
and void the warranty.
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v7.5
Sensor probes
6.1. Sensor probes types
Libelium provides many different sensor probes depending on what is going to be measured. This section
describes main features of each type. If further information is required, please refer for the corresponding sensor
board guide available on Libelium website.
Standard type
This sensor probe is the most common. The sensor is placed inside a plastic cylinder acting as a protection against
rain and water, but allowing sensor interact with environment to measure necessary parameters. Besides, the
sensor is kept always straight and the size and shape of the probes are standardized as maximum as possible.
Figure: Standard sensor probe
Sensor probes of this type are all the gas sensors of the Smart Environment and the Smart Environment PRO
models (except for the temperature, humidity and pressure sensor and the particle matter sensor).
White protection probe
This probe is designed to avoid sunlight effects and prevent from water and rain, but allowing humidity
measurement.
Only the temperature, humidity and pressure sensor include this special protection.
Figure: Temperature, humidity and pressure probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Luminosity - LDR probe
This probe is designed to allow sunlight go thought a transparent protection.
Figure: Luminosity probe
Liquid Presence probe (point)
This probe is designed to allow placing the sensor near its application.
Figure: Liquid Presence probe (point)
Liquid level probe
This probe is designed to measure liquid levels.
Figure: Liquid level probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Liquid flow probe
This probe is designed to measure liquid flow through a pipe.
Figure: Liquid flow probe
Hall effect probe
This probe is designed to control the opening of doors, windows, etc.
Figure: Hall effect probe
Solar radiation probe
This probe is designed to measure solar radiation.
Figure: Solar radiation probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Soil temperature probe
This probe is designed to be buried into the ground to measure its temperature.
Figure: Soil temperature probe
Soil moisture probe
This probe is designed to be buried into the ground to measure its moisture.
Figure: Soil moisture probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Dendrometer probe
This probe is designed to measure trunk, stem and fruit diameter of vegetables.
Figure: Dendrometer probe
Leaf wetness probe
This probe is designed to measure wetness on vegetable leafs.
Figure: Leaf wetness probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Weather Station WS-3000 probe
This probe is designed to measure wind direction, wind speed and rain.
Figure: Weather Station WS-3000 probe
Liquid Presence probe (line)
This probe is designed to allow placing the sensor near its application.
Figure: Liquid Presence probe (line)
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Directionable type
This type of probe is only for some sensors. The sensor is placed inside a plastic modular hose that allows us to
point them where we want to measure with it.
Figure: Configurations of directionable sensor probes
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Sensor probes of this type are:
•• Presence - PIR directionable probe
This probe is designed to allow infrared light trough a lens, necessary for presence applications.
Figure: Presence (PIR) directionable probe
•• Ultrasound sensor directionable probe
This probe is designed to measure distances using ultrasonic waves.
Figure: Ultrasound directionable probe
•• Luminosity (Luxes accuracy) directionable probe
This probe is designed to measure luxes indoors and outdoors.
Figure: Luminosity (luxes accuracy) directionable probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
•• Terminal box probe
This probe allow access to the 4-20 mA current loop board signals, to the relay contacts on Smart Security models
(max 30 VDC, 1 A) and also to allow access to the optional Industrial Protocols feature (RS-232, RS-485, Modbus
and CAN Bus) in the Waspmote Plug & Sense! encapsulated line. A waterproof terminal block junction box is
provided as a probe, making the connections on industrial environments or outdoor applications easier.
Figure: Terminal box probe
•• DB9 probe
The DB9 connector is commonly used in many applications with data transmission on industrial ambients.
Libelium provides this probe with a standard DB9 female connector and a length of 1.5 meters.
Figure: DB9 probe
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v7.5
Sensor probes
6.2. Extension cord
This element is used when one sensor needs to be placed far from the node. Two lengths are available: 1.5 and
3 m. Next picture shows an extension cord.
Figure: Extension cord accessory
The extension cord has a female and a male connector. The first one (female) should be connected to the sensor
probe. Next picture shows that.
Figure: Connecting a probe with an extension cord
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v7.5
Sensor probes
Moreover, the male connector should be connected to the enclosure as shown below.
Figure: Connecting an extension cord to the enclosure
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v7.5
Internal sensors
7. Internal sensors
7.1. Accelerometer
Waspmote has a built-in acceleration sensor which informs the mote of acceleration variations experienced on
each one of the 3 axes (X, Y, Z). The integration of this sensor allows the measurement of acceleration on the 3
axes (X, Y, Z), establishing 2 kinds of events: Free Fall and Direction Detection Change.
Z
Y
Figure: Axis direction in Waspmote Plug & Sense!
X
Complete information can be found in the Accelerometer Programming Guide.
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v7.5
Radio modules
8. Radio modules
Waspmote Plug & Sense! may integrate many radio modules for wireless communications.
Radio
Protocol
Frequency
bands
Transmission
power
Sensitivity
Range*
Certification
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
EU
802.15.4
2.4 GHz
10 dBm
-100 dBm
750 m
CE
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
802.15.4
2.4 GHz
18 dBm
-100 dBm
1600 m
FCC, IC, ANATEL,
RCM
XBee 868LP
RF
868 MHz
14 dBm
-106 dBm
8.4 km
CE
XBee 900HP US
RF
900 MHz
24 dBm
-110 dBm
15.5 km
FCC, IC
XBee 900HP BR
RF
900 MHz
24 dBm
-110 dBm
15.5 km
ANATEL
XBee 900HP AU
RF
900 MHz
24 dBm
-110 dBm
15.5 km
RCM
WiFi
(HTTP(S),
FTP, TCP,
UDP)
2.4 GHz
17 dBm
-94 dBm
500 m
CE, FCC, IC,
ANATEL, RCM
800, 850, 900,
1800, 2100, 2600
MHz
4G: class 3
4G: -102
dBm
- km - Typical
base station
range
CE, ANATEL
4G: -103
dBm
- km - Typical
base station
range
FCC, IC, PTCRB,
AT&T
- km - Typical
base station
range
RCM
WiFi
4G/3G/2G
4G EU/BR
(HTTP, FTP,
TCP, UDP)
(0.2 W, 23 dBm)
GPS
4G/3G/2G
4G US
(HTTP, FTP,
TCP, UDP)
700, 850, 1700,
1900 MHz
4G: class 3
(0.2 W, 23 dBm)
GPS
4G
4G: class 3
700, 1800, 2600
MHz
(0.2 W, 23 dBm)
4G: -102
dBm
Sigfox
868 MHz
16 dBm
-126 dBm
- km - Typical
base station
range
CE
Sigfox US
Sigfox
900 MHz
24 dBm
-127 dBm
- km - Typical
base station
range
FCC, IC
LoRaWAN EU
LoRaWAN
868 MHz
14 dBm
-136 dBm
> 15 km
CE
LoRaWAN US
LoRaWAN
900 MHz
18.5 dBm
-136 dBm
> 15 km
FCC, IC
4G AU
(HTTP, FTP,
TCP, UDP)
Sigfox EU
* Line of sight, Fresnel zone clearance and 5dBi dipole antenna.
These modules have been chosen for their high receiving sensitivity and transmission power, as well as for being
802.15.4 compliant (XBee-802.15.4 model) and ZigBee-Pro v2007 compliant (XBee-ZB model).
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v7.5
Radio modules
8.1. XBee-PRO 802.15.4
Radio version
XBee-PRO 802.15.4 EU
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
Frequency
2.4 GHz
Transmission
power
10 dBm
18 dBm
Sensitivity
-100 dBm
Range*
750 m
1600 m
* To determine your range, perform a range test under your operating conditions
The frequency used is the free band of 2.4 GHz, using 12 channels with a bandwidth of 5 MHz per channel.
Figure: Frequency channels in the 2.4 GHz band
Channel Number
Frequency
0x0C – Channel 12
2.405 – 2.410 GHz
0x0D – Channel 13
2.410 – 2.415 GHz
0x0E – Channel 14
2.415 – 2.420 GHz
0x0F – Channel 15
2.420 – 2.425 GHz
0x10 – Channel 16
2.425 – 2.430 GHz
0x11 – Channel 17
2.430 – 2.435 GHz
0x12 – Channel 18
2.435 – 2.440 GHz
0x13 – Channel 19
2.440 – 2.445 GHz
0x14 – Channel 20
2.445 – 2.450 GHz
0x15 – Channel 21
2.450 – 2.455 GHz
0x16 – Channel 22
2.455 – 2.460 GHz
0x17 – Channel 23
2.460 – 2.465 GHz
Figure: Channels used by the XBee modules in 2.4GHz
The XBee-PRO 802.15.4 modules comply with the standard IEEE 802.15.4 which defines the physical level and the
link level (MAC layer). The XBee modules add certain functionalities to those contributed by the standard, such as:
••
••
Node discovery: certain information has been added to the packet headers so that they can discover other
nodes on the same network. It allows a node discovery message to be sent, so that the rest of the network
nodes respond indicating their data (Node Identifier, @MAC, @16 bits, RSSI).
Duplicated packet detection: This functionality is not set out in the standard and is added by the XBee
modules.
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v7.5
Radio modules
The classic topology of this type of network is a star topology, as the nodes establish point to point connections
with brother nodes through the use of parameters such as the MAC or network address.
Figure: Star topology
Regarding the transmission power, it can be adjusted to several values depending on the radio version:
Parameter
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
EU
0
10 dBm
-3 dBm
1
12 dBm
-3 dBm
2
14 dBm
2 dBm
3
16 dBm
8 dBm
4
18 dBm
10 dBm
Figure: Transmission power values
Related API libraries: WaspXBeeCore.h, WaspXBeeCore.cpp, WaspXBee802.h, WaspXBee802.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the 802.15.4 Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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v7.5
Radio modules
8.2. XBee 868LP
Radio
version
Frequency
Transmission power
Sensitivity
Range*
XBee 868LP
863 - 870 MHz
14 dBm
-106 dBm
8.4 km
* To determine your range, perform a range test under your operating conditions
Note: The XBee 868 MHz module is provided with 4.5dBi antenna, which enables maximum range.
The frequency used is the 868 MHz band, using 30 software selectable channels. Channels are spaced 100 kHz
apart. The transmission rate is 10 kbps.
The classic topology for this type of network is a star topology, as the nodes can establish point-to-point
connections with brother nodes through the use of the MAC address.
Figure: Star topology
Regarding the transmission power, it can be adjusted to several values:
Parameter
XBee 868LP
0
3 dBm
1
7 dBm
2
10 dBm
3
12 dBm
4
14 dBm
Figure: Transmission power values
Related API libraries: WaspXBeeCore.h, WaspXBeeCore.cpp, WaspXBee868LP.h, WaspXBee868LP.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the 868 Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Radio modules
8.3. XBee-PRO 900HP
Radio version
Frequency
XBee-PRO 900HP US
902 - 928 MHz
XBee-PRO 900HP BR
902 - 906.8 MHz
915.6 - 928 MHz
XBee-PRO 900HP AU
915.6 - 928 MHz
Transmission power
Sensitivity
Range*
24 dBm
-110 dBm
15.5 km
* To determine your range, perform a range test under your operating conditions
The frequency used is the 900 MHz band, using 64 software selectable channels. Channels are spaced 400 kHz
apart. The transmission rate is 10 kbps. There are different versions of the XBee 900HP: USA & Canada, Brazil and
Australia.
The different versions differ mainly in the available channels, which are hard-coded in the XBee. Be aware that it is
not possible to change from one version to other with just a firmware change. According to the country where
the user is located, a different version must be chosen.
The classic topology for this type of network is a star topology, as the nodes can establish point-to-point connections
with brother nodes through the use of parameters such as the MAC address or that of the network.
Figure: Star topology
API libraries: WaspXBeeCore.h, WaspXBeeCore.cpp, WaspXBee900HP.h, WaspXBee900HP.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the 900 Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
8.4. LoRaWAN modules
LoRaWAN is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specification intended for wireless battery-operated
devices in regional, national or global network. LoRaWAN target key requirements of Internet of things such
as secure bi-directional communication, mobility and localization services. This standard will provide seamless
interoperability among smart Things without the need of complex local installations and gives back the freedom
to the user, developer, businesses enabling the role out of Internet of Things.
LoRaWAN network architecture is typically laid out in a star-of-stars topology in which gateways is a transparent
bridge relaying messages between end-devices and a central network server in the back-end. Gateways
are connected to the network server via standard IP connections while end-devices use single-hop wireless
communication to one or many gateways.
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v7.5
Radio modules
Figure: LoRaWAN network
Communication between end-devices and gateways is spread out on different frequency channels and data rates.
The selection of the data rate is a trade-off between communication range and message duration. Due to the
spread spectrum technology, communications with different data rates do not interfere with each other and
create a set of “virtual” channels increasing the capacity of the gateway. To maximize both battery life of the enddevices and overall network capacity, the LoRaWAN network server is managing the data rate and RF output for
each end-device individually by means of an adaptive data rate (ADR) scheme.
National wide networks targeting Internet of Things such as critical infrastructure, confidential personal data or
critical functions for the society has a special need for secure communication. This has been solved by several
layer of encryption.
Protocol: LoRaWAN 1.0, Class A
LoRaWAN-ready
Frequency:
•• LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: 868 MHz and 433 MHz ISM bands
•• LoRaWAN 900 module: 900-930 MHz ISM band
TX power:
•• LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: up to 14 dBm
•• LoRaWAN 900 module: up to 18.5 dBm
Sensitivity: down to -136 dBm
Range: >15 km at suburban and >5 km at urban area. Typically, each base station covers some km. Check the
LoRaWAN Network in your area.
Chipset consumption:
•• LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: 38.9 mA
•• LoRaWAN 900 module: 124.4 mA
Radio data rate:
•• LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: from 250 to 5470 bps
•• LoRaWAN 900 module: from 250 to 12500 bps
Receiver: purchase your own base station or use networks from LoRaWAN operators
Related API libraries: WaspLoRaWAN.h, WaspLoRaWAN.cpp
All the information about their programming and operation can be found in the LoRaWAN Networking Guide
available at Development section of Libelium website.
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v7.5
Radio modules
8.5. Sigfox modules
Sigfox is a private company that aims to build a worldwide network especially designed for IoT devices. The
network is cellular, with thousands of base stations deployed in each country. Sigfox technology offers very long
ranges for low-power, battery-constrained nodes. Sigfox is great for very simple and autonomous devices which
need to send small amounts of data to this ubiquitous network, taking advantage on the Sigfox infrastructure.
So Sigfox is similar to cellular (GSM-GPRS-3G-4G) but is more energy-efficient, and the annual fees are lower.
Sigfox uses a UNB (Ultra Narrow Band) based radio technology to connect devices to its global network. The use
of UNB is key to providing a scalable, high-capacity network, with very low energy consumption, while maintaining
a simple and easy to rollout star-based cell infrastructure.
Frequency
-- Sigfox 868 module: ISM 868 MHz
-- Sigfox 900 module: ISM 900 MHz
•• TX power
-- Sigfox 868 module: up to 16 dBm
-- Sigfox 900 module: up to 24 dBm
•• ETSI limitation: 140 messages of 12 bytes, per module per day
•• Range: Typically, each base station covers some km. Check the Sigfox network.
•• Chipset consumption
-- Sigfox 868 module: TX 51 mA @ 14 dBm
-- Sigfox 900 module: TX 230 mA @ 24 dBm
•• Radio data rate: 100 bps
•• Receive sensitivity: -126 dBm
•• Sigfox certificate: Class 0u (the highest level)
The network operates in the globally available ISM bands (license-free frequency bands) and co-exists in these
frequencies with other radio technologies, but without any risk of collisions or capacity problems.
••
Sigfox is being rolled out worldwide. It is the responsibility of the system integrator to consult the catalog of SNOs
(Sigfox Network Operators) for checking coverage in the deployment area.
The Sigfox back-end provides a web application interface for device management and configuration of data
integration, as well as standards based web APIs to automate the device management and implement the data
integration.
Figure: Sigfox network
Related API libraries: WaspSigfox.h, Waspsigfox.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the Sigfox Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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v7.5
Radio modules
8.6. WiFi PRO module
The WiFi PRO module offers and supports large variety of features, for example:
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
Ten simultaneous TCP/UDP sockets
DHCP client/server
DNS client
HTTP client
HTTPS client
FTP client
NTP client
Multiple SSIDs
Roaming mode
OTA feature. Refer to the Over the Air Programming Guide for more information.
The WiFi PRO module supports the SSL3/TLS1 protocol for secure sockets. On the WLAN interface it supports WEP,
WPA and WPA2 WiFi encryption.
The WiFi PRO module may connect to any standard router which is configured as Access Point (AP) and then send
data to other devices in the same network such as laptops and smart phones. Besides, they can send data directly
to a web server located on the Internet.
Instead of using a standard WiFi router as AP, the connection may be performed using a Meshlium device as
AP. Meshlium is the multiprotocol router designed by Libelium which is specially recommended for outdoor
applications as it is designed to resist the hardest conditions in real field deployments. For more information
about Meshlium go to:
http://www.libelium.com/meshlium.
Related API libraries: WaspWiFi_PRO.h, WaspWiFi_PRO.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the WiFi Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Radio modules
8.7. 4G module
The 4G module enables the connectivity to high speed LTE, HSPA+, WCDMA cellular networks in order to make
possible the creation of the next level of worldwide compatible projects inside the new “Internet of Things” era.
This communication module is specially oriented to work with Internet servers, implementing internally several
application layer protocols, which make easier to send the information to the cloud. We can make HTTP navigation,
downloading and uploading content to a web server. We can also set secure connections using SSL certificates
and setting TCP/IP private sockets. In the same way, the FTP protocol is also available which is really useful when
your application requires handling files.
The module includes a GPS/GLONASS receiver, able to perform geolocation services using NMEA sentences,
offering information such as latitude, longitude, altitude and speed; that makes it perfect to perform tracking
applications.
The 4G module offers the maximum performance of the 4G network as it uses 2 different antennas (normal +
diversity) for reception (MIMO DL 2x2), choosing the best received signal at any time and getting a maximum
download speed of 100 Mbps.
We chose the LE910 chipset family from Telit as it comprises the most complete 4G/LTE set of variants released
up to date. It counts with many different models, each one specifically designed for one market but all of them
with the same footprint:
••
••
••
LE910-EU (Europe/Brazil): CE, GCF, ANATEL
LE910-NAG (US / Canada): FCC, IC, PTCRB, AT&T approved
LE910-AU V2 (Australia): RCM, Telstra approved → [Available in Q3 2016]
Model: LE910 (Telit)
Versions:
•• Europe/Brazil
•• America
•• Australia
Europe/Brazil version:
•• 2G: 900/1800 MHz
•• WCDMA: 850/900/2100 MHz
•• LTE: 800/1800/2600 MHz
America version:
•• 2G: 850/1900 MHz
•• WCDMA: 850/1900 MHz
•• LTE: 700/850/1700/1900 MHz
Australia version:
•• 4G: 700/1800/2600 MHz
LTE (downlink):
•• Europe/Brazil version up to 100 Mbps
•• America version up to 100 Mbps
•• Australia version up to 150 Mbps
LTE (uplink): up to 50 Mbps
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v7.5
Radio modules
TX power:
•• Europe/Brazil:
-- Class 4 (2 W, 33 dBm) @ GSM 900
-- Class 1 (1 W, 30 dBm) @ GSM 1800
-- Class E2 (0.5 W, 27 dBm) @ EDGE 900
-- Class E2 (0.4 W, 26 dBm) @ EDGE 1800
-- Class 3 (0.25 W, 24 dBm) @ UMTS
-- Class 3 (0.2 W, 23 dBm) @ LTE
••
••
America:
-- Class 4 (2 W, 33 dBm) @ GSM 900
-- Class 1 (1 W, 30 dBm) @ GSM 1800
-- Class E2 (0.5 W, 27 dBm) @ EDGE 900
-- Class E2 (0.4 W, 26 dBm) @ EDGE 1800
-- Class 3 (0.25 W, 24 dBm) @ UMTS
-- Class 3 (0.2 W, 23 dBm) @ LTE
Australia:
-- Class 3(0.2W, 23 dBm) @ LTE
Antenna connector:
•• U.FL for main antenna
•• U.FL for cellular diversity antenna
•• U.FL for GPS antenna (only for Europe/Brazil and America modules)
External antenna: +5 dBi
GPS: GPS feature is supported only in Europe/Brazil and America versions
This module can carry out the following tasks:
•• Sending/Receiving SMS
•• Multisocket up to 6 TCP/IP and UDP/IP clients
•• TCP/IP server
•• TCP SSL
•• HTTP service
•• FTP service (downloading and uploading files)
•• Sending/receiving email (SMTP/POP3)
This model uses the UART1 at a baudrate of 115200 bps to communicate with the microcontroller.
Related API libraries: Wasp4G.h, Wasp4G.cpp
All information about programming and operation can be found in the 4G Networking Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section of Libelium website.
Note: A rechargeable battery must be always connected when using this module (USB power supply is not enough).
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v7.5
Industrial Protocols
9. Industrial Protocols
As an optional feature, it is possible to incorporate an Industrial Protocol module as a secondary communication
module, besides the main radio interface of Waspmote Plug & Sense!.
The available Industrial Protocols are RS-232, RS-485, CAN Bus and Modbus (software layer over RS-232 or RS485). This optional feature is accessible through an additional and dedicated socket on the antenna side of the
enclosure.
Figure: Industrial Protocols available on Plug & Sense!
The user can choose between 2 probes to connect the desired Industrial Protocol: A standard DB9 connector and
a waterproof terminal block junction box. These options make the connections on industrial environments or
outdoor applications easier.
Figure: DB9 probe connected to Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
Industrial Protocols
Figure: Terminal box probe connected to Plug & Sense!
Each Industrial Protocol requires its own signals, wired on the female DB9 connector and on the Terminal box
according to the next table:
RS-232
RS-485
CAN Bus
Terminal Box
DB9
Terminal Box
DB9
Terminal Box
DB9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
RX
RX
-
-
-
-
2
TX
TX
DATA + (A)
DATA + (A)
CAN_H
CAN_H
3
-
-
DATA - (B)
DATA - (B)
-
-
4
GND
GND
-
-
CAN_L
CAN_L
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
Figure: Wiring of Industrial Protocol signals on Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
GPS module
10. GPS module
Any Plug & Sense! node can incorporate a GPS receiver in order to implement real-time asset tracking applications.
The user can also take advantage of this accessory to geolocate data on a map. An external, waterproof antenna
is provided; its long cable enables better installation for maximum satellite visibility.
Figure: Plug & Sense! node with GPS receiver
Chipset: JN3 (Telit)
Sensitivity:
••
••
••
Acquisition: -147 dBm
Navigation: -160 dBm
Tracking: -163 dBm
Hot start time: <1 s
Cold start time: <35 s
Positional accuracy error < 2.5 m
Speed accuracy < 0.01 m/s
EGNOS, WAAS, GAGAN and MSAS capability
Antenna:
••
••
••
Cable length: 2 m
Connector: SMA
Gain: 26 dBi (active)
Available information: latitude, longitude, altitude, speed, direction, date&time and ephemeris management
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v7.5
Internal storage
11. Internal storage
Waspmote Plug & Sense! has an internal SD (Secure Digital) card. FAT32 file system is used and cards up to 8 GB
are supported.
Note: Until February 2018, 2 GB SD cards were distributed; they operated with FAT16.
To get an idea of the capacity of information that can be stored in a 8 GB card, simply divide its size by the average
for what a sensor frame in Waspmote usually occupies (approx. 100 bytes):
8 GB/100 B = 80 million measurements
The limit in files and directories creation per level is 256 files per directory and up to 256 sub-directories in each
directory. There is no limit in the number of nested levels.
The SD card is also used to store the firmware image when performing Over the Air Programming (OTAP).
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the SD Card Programming Guide.
Note: Waspmote must not be switched off or reset while there are ongoing read or write operations in the SD card.
Otherwise, the SD card could be damaged and data could be lost.
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v7.5
On/off button
12. On/off button
This button is used to turn on or off Waspmote. It is a latch type button with two static positions as shown below.
In on position, the button remains a bit lower than the LED ring.
Figure: On/off button at off position
Figure: Turning on Waspmote
Note: The on/off button can be in on or off position to charge the battery.
Note: Also, RTC time is now kept correctly even if the button is turned to off position.
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v7.5
On/off button
12.1. External LED
The on/off button includes a red ring LED, which can be managed by software using dedicated functions described
below. This LED can be used for instance to know that Waspmote is on, or for debugging purposes at developing
phase. By default, Waspmote Plug & Sense! comes with a code that blinks briefly (3 times in less than one second)
this LED when it is turned on. The LED can be managed specifying on time or just setting this state with specific
API functions. The user should take into account that the usage of this LED will increase power consumption due
to external LED consumes 4.4 mA.
Figure: Waspmote turned on
External LED ring can be managed with next code lines:
Utils.setExternalLED(LED_ON); // Turns external led ON
Utils.setExternalLED(LED_OFF); // Turns external led OFF
There is also another useful function which blinks external LED during specified time.
Utils.externalLEDBlink(uint_16 time) // Time must be in seconds
Finally, there is an extra function to know the external LED state:
Utils.getExternalLED(); // Read external led state
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v7.5
Resetting Waspmote Plug & Sense! with an external magnet
13. Resetting Waspmote Plug & Sense! with an external
magnet
Waspmote Plug & Sense! can be reset with an external magnet, with no contact. If one node stops working or if a
defective behavior is detected, it would be costly to uninstall the node to bring it back to laboratory. This feature
allows the network manager to reset the node in a quick and easy way.
The hardware consists of a reed switch connected to the Waspmote reset line. When the user gets the magnet
close to the reed-switch, the reset is activated. When the user moves the magnet away, the reset line is released
(the external LED will blink) and Waspmote executes the bootloader first and then, the setup function. After the
setup, it will continue with the loop function. Next pictures show the right way to reset the node using an external
magnet, first moving it closer, and then moving it away.
Figure: Moving the magnet closer to the node
Figure: Moving the magnet away from the node
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v7.5
Resetting Waspmote Plug & Sense! with an external magnet
The magnet is made of neodymium. It is a special, high-power magnet. We only advise to use the magnet Libelium
provides. The user must be careful because the magnet is so powerful that it can get stuck to metal objects. Besides,
the magnet must be kept away from electronic devices like PCs, batteries, etc, since they could be damaged or
information could be deleted.
It is not mandatory, but highly recommended to consider this feature when designing the project. Every Plug &
Sense! node comes with the hardware to allow the contacless reset, but the magnet is optional, an accessory. It is
highly recommended to purchase one magnet (one unit is enough for many nodes). The user should design the
software in a way the node can be reset if things go wrong. Remember that laboratory tests are always needed to
validate the feature before your final deployment.
When the node is already deployed in the field, and for instance it is installed in a traffic light, this feature can be
used to reset the node easily, as it is shown in the diagram below, where a technician uses a pole with the magnet
attached in one side.
Figure: Resetting a Plug & Sense! node with a pole and magnet
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v7.5
USB port
14. USB port
This connector is used to upload code into Waspmote with a male to male USB cable provided by Libelium. Also,
Plug & Sense! sends messages via this USB port. Just connect one side of the cable to this connector, removing
protection cap and connect the other side to a PC to upload a code or to charge the internal rechargeable battery.
Next picture shows an example.
Figure: USB connector and protective cap
Figure: Connecting the USB cable to Waspmote
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v7.5
USB port
When uploading processes are finished, do not forget to screw firmly the protection cap to avoid connector
damage. Never connect a USB which exceed maximum ratings of USB standard.
Figure: Connecting USB charger
For indoor deployments the nodes can be recharged using the USB charger.
Figure: Charging the mote via USB
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v7.5
USB port
14.1. Outdoors USB Cable
The Outdoors USB Cable is made for outdoors applications with high power consumption requirements, where
nodes need to be permanently powered. It consists of a 3-meter cable with the solar socket connector on one end,
and a USB male A type on the other end.
The solar socket end is meant to be connected on the solar socket of Plug & Sense!, it is not valid for the sensor
sockets. This special end is waterproof and suitable for outdoors connections.
On the other hand, the USB end of the cable is thought to be connected to the USB charger (AC/DC, 5 V output).
Bear in mind that this end is not waterproof so it cannot be used outdoors. Please protect it accordingly.
Figure: Outdoors USB Cable
One application of the cable is to power a node placed on the facade of a building; the USB cable goes indoors
through a nearby window, and the USB end remains indoors, connected to a wall adapter.
Figure: Application of the Outdoors USB Cable
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v7.5
USB port
14.2. External SIM/USB socket
The External SIM/USB socket replaces the USB socket in two types of devices:
••
••
Waspmote Plug & Sense! devices with 4G module
Meshlium devices with 4G module
The External SIM/USB socket is composed of 2 connectors:
••
••
nano-SIM card
micro-USB (type B)
Figure: External SIM/USB socket in a Plug & Sense! with 4G module
The operation with the micro-USB socket is just the same than with the normal USB socket. Just remember to use
a micro-USB cable.
Figure: Connecting the micro-USB cable to Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
USB port
The nano-SIM card connector allows the user to connect the SIM card he likes from the outside. It is not necessary
to send a SIM card to Libelium for proper installation. You can ask your telecommunication provider for a nanoSIM card. Alternatively you can take a normal SIM card and transform it into a nano-SIM card with a SIM card
cutter.
Besides, the nano-SIM card connector has a push-push mechanism, so it is really easy to remove the card with
the aid of one nail.
Figure: Push-push mechanism in the External SIM/USB socket
Please mind the correct orientation of the nano-SIM card: the side of the chip must look towards the micro-USB
connector, and the 45º-angled corner must face the device.
Figure: Correct orientation of the nano-SIM card
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v7.5
USB port
It is highly important to turn off the Plug & Sense! device in a secure way before inserting a SIM card, or removing
an existing SIM-card. The user can damage the device if this operation is done “on-the-fly”.
Make sure you closed the External SIM/USB socket with its protection cap before outdoors deployment.
IMPORTANT: Take into account that the External SIM/USB socket has a limited resistance. Do not push it hard with
the USB or SIM card.
Figure: Inserting a SIM card with care in the External SIM/USB socket
Note: From February 2018, Libelium has redesigned the SIM-USB connector, now it is more resistant and we have
updated it using the most popular SIM card standard, nano-SIM.
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v7.5
External solar panel
15. External solar panel
This panel should be connected to the external solar panel connector. As shown in picture below, it has identical
shape as sensor connectors, but is placed on the control side of the enclosure, below the on/off button.
External solar panel features:
••
••
••
••
••
Max power: 3 W
Max power voltage: 5.8 V
Max power current: 520 mA (max current input is 300 mA in Plug & Sense!)
Dimensions: 234 x 160 x 17 mm
Weight: 0.54 kg
Figure: External solar panel connector
Do not connect any sensor on this connector and also do not connect the solar panel to a sensor connector.
Waspmote can be damaged and warranty will be void.
Figure: Connecting the solar panel to Waspmote Plug & Sense!
In the next picture a typical installation with external solar panel is shown. Notice that the enclosure is placed just
under the solar panel, using it as a protection against sun and rain.
Libelium provides special brackets in order to install it correctly.
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v7.5
External solar panel
Figure: Typical installation of the external solar panel
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v7.5
External Battery Module
16. External Battery Module
The External Battery Module (EBM) is an accessory to extend the battery life of Plug & Sense!. The extension
period may be from months to years depending on the sleep cycle and radio activity. The daily charging period is
selectable among 5, 15 and 30 minutes with a selector switch and it can be combined with a solar panel to extend
even more the node’s battery lifetime.
Typical scenarios for this accessory are remote places where a power supply is not available or places where a
solar panel is not suitable, like tunnels or cloudy environments.
Note: Nodes using solar panel can keep using it through the External Battery Module (EBM). The EBM is
connected to the solar panel connector of Plug & Sense! and the solar panel unit is connected to the solar
panel connector of the EBM.
16.1. Technical specifications
•• 26 A·h high performance non-rechargeable battery
•• Dimensions: 122 mm x 82 mm x 84 mm (without mounting feet)
•• Operating temperature range: -30 ºC to 70 ºC*
•• Low self-discharge rate
•• IP65 waterproof, polycarbonate enclosure
•• On/Off switch
•• Operating mode selector (3 different modes)
•• Solar panel voltage: up to 18 V
•• 2 different solar panel options available
* Temporary extreme temperatures are supported. Regular recommended usage: -20, +60 ºC.
The EBM is specially designed to minimize its power consumption and maximizing its efficiency and the energy
delivered to the node. This way, the internal electronic is in an ultra-low power state most of the time. The pictures
below show a general view of the EBM main parts.
Figure: External Battery Module
As shown above, the EBM has 2 sockets: One for the solar panel and one for the Plug & Sense! node. An extension
cord will be used to connect the EBM and the node.
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v7.5
External Battery Module
Figure: External Battery Module’s Plug & Sense! connector
Figure: Plug & Sense! with External Battery Module
A solar panel can be attached to the solar panel connector, providing extra energy to the Plug & Sense! and
extending the EBM life. Furthermore, if the charging period occurs while the solar panel is providing energy, the
EBM will only provide the necessary current to fulfill the demand of the Plug & Sense! node. If the solar panel is
able to provide all the current demand, the EBM will not contribute during the charging process. This way, the
system does not waste energy from the solar panel and, at the same time, it enlarges the EBM battery lifetime.
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v7.5
External Battery Module
Figure: External Battery Module with a solar panel connected
Figure: Plug & Sense! with External Battery Module and solar panel
Finally, the EBM is compatible with all the Plug & Sense! product range, but it is not compatible with other Libelium
products like Meshlium, Smart Parking or MySignals.
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v7.5
External Battery Module
16.2. Operating modes
The EBM is designed to charge a Plug & Sense! node once per day during a preprogrammed period of time.
There is a latch button to turn on and off the EBM. This button also includes a red LED to show the user when the
device has started working. It will blink only a couple of times when the device is switched on, to avoid unnecessary
current consumption through it. When the device is on, the button will look like in the picture below.
Figure: External Battery Module, on position
Due to the nature of the EBM battery, its level cannot be monitored. If the LED does not blink when the button
is pressed, the EBM battery could be empty. On the other hand, when the button is off, the battery is physically
disconnected from any circuitry and there is no power consumption from the battery, even if there is a solar panel
present. Finally, the LED will not be on during the charging period for efficiency purposes.
The External Battery Module has 3 operating modes. In order to select them, there is a 3-position rotative selector
switch.
Figure: External Battery Module operation selector
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v7.5
External Battery Module
The operating mode determines the daily time that the system will be charging a node:
••
••
••
Position 1 will set the charging time to 5 minutes per day
Position 2 will set the charging time to 15 minutes per day
Position 3 will set the charging time to 30 minutes per day
During the charging period, the Plug & Sense! node will be recharged at the maximum charging current, which
is 300 mA. The operating mode must be selected before turning on the EBM. The selector will be read just after
turning on the device and the button LED will blink accordingly to the selected mode (one blink for position
1, 2 blinks for position 2 and so on). If the mode needs to be changed, it is necessary to turn off the EBM
first, otherwise moving the selector will not have any effect. Moreover, it has to be taken into account that
temperature variations might induce small time drifts due to the tolerance of the internal electronic components.
Figure: Selector on the 3 different positions
If the Plug & Sense! charging current needs to be monitored, please use the example power 06: battery recharging.
The current flow trough the Plug & Sense! solar panel connector will be printed on screen. Besides, take into
account that the EBM will start the selected charging period 5 minutes after turning it on.
As can be inferred from the previous lines, the EBM battery life will be larger in position 1 than in position 3. To
estimate the battery life, consider that the maximum allowed charging current through the Plug & Sense! solar
panel connector is 300 mA (it becomes smaller when the Plug & Sense! battery is near to 100%). Moreover, take
into account that environmental conditions like temperature or the battery self-discharge may affect also to the
EBM lifetime.
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Vent plug / Pressure Compensator
17. Vent plug / Pressure Compensator
The purpose of the Vent Plug is to avoid condensation by compensating external / internal pressure. Do not try to
connect anything to this element and also do not modify its position or any of its parts.
Figure: Vent plug of Waspmote Plug & Sense!
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v7.5
Antenna
18. Antenna
By default, Waspmote Plug & Sense! has one external antenna with a standard SMA connector. This connector
allows to connect the RF antenna. See next section for more information about other antenna options.
Figure: Antenna connector of the enclosure
To ensure good RF coverage, be sure that the antenna points to the sky and also be sure that the antenna is
screwed completely to the connector. To connect the antenna, just align it with the connector and screw it carefully.
Antenna must be always connected in order to ensure a good RF communication.
Figure: Connecting antenna to the enclosure
Note: Once Waspmote Plug & Sense! is installed, it is recommended to fix it using a tape like the one shown in the picture
below.
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v7.5
Antenna
Figure: Recommended tape
Figure: Ensure antenna remains in the right position
Do not try to connect other kind of antennas which do not match with SMA standard connector and also other
antennas not provided by Libelium.
18.1. Antennas for the Plug & Sense! 4G model
The Waspmote Plug & Sense! models including a 4G radio will have 3 antenna connectors: the cellular main
antenna, the cellular diversity antenna and the GPS antenna. The antenna to be connected is the same on the 3
cases. See the pictures below to identify each 4G antenna connector. The 3 antennas must be properly connected
for the right operation of the 4G radio.
Figure: Main and GPS antennas (only 4G models)
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v7.5
Antenna
Figure: Diversity antenna (only 4G models)
Note: The 4G radio for Australia does not have a GPS receiver, so in this case, only 2 antennas are provided. Just leave
the GPS antenna connector without any antenna.
18.2. Antennas for Plug & Sense! GPS-ready models
The Waspmote Plug & Sense! models including a GPS receiver will have 3 antenna connectors: the main radio
antenna connector, the GPS antenna connector and an unused antenna connector. The GPS antenna and the
main antenna are different. The GPS antenna is easy to identify: it is a square and magnetic antenna with a long
cable (2 m). See the pictures below to identify each GPS antenna connector.
Figure: Main and GPS antennas connectors (only GPS-ready models)
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v7.5
Antenna
Figure: Not used antenna connector (only GPS-ready models)
Note: In order to achieve a better performance and maximum satellite visibility, the GPS antenna should be placed in an
open-space location and oriented so that its reference arrow points vertically to the sky.
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Sensor protection
19. Sensor protection
19.1. Special probes
There are some sensor probes which include special protection against sunlight and bad environmental
conditions. For instance, the temperature, humidity and pressure probe has a special filter which allows humidity
measurement but offers protection against water.
However, a lot of sensor probes include just a standard protection. If the final application involves bad environmental
conditions and a lot of sunlight hours, Libelium suggests the usage of a solar radiation shield.
In addition, refer to corresponding section for more information about sensor probes.
20. Battery
Libelium provides a 6600 mA·h rechargeable battery inside Waspmote Plug & Sense!.
Waspmote has a control and safety circuit which makes sure the battery charge current is always adequate. The
following image shows a battery discharging for a typical load and for a specific case.
Figure: Typical discharging curve for the 6600 mA·h battery
Note: When recharging, if the battery is near 0%, it will take some time before the battery level increases.
Note: It is normal to see some battery level variations during the charging periods due to the Waspmote charging
circuitry. To know the real battery level of the node, it is recommended to measure it when the node is not being
recharged and also with sensors and radio modules switched off.
Note: The on/off button can be in on or off position to charge the battery.
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Models
21. Models
There are some defined configurations of Waspmote Plug & Sense! depending on which sensors are going to be
used. Waspmote Plug & Sense! configurations allow to connect up to six sensor probes at the same time.
Each model takes a different conditioning circuit to enable the sensor integration. For this reason each model
allows to connect just its specific sensors. In the next table we show the sensor board which corresponds to each
Plug & Sense! model:
Plug & Sense! model
Waspmote OEM sensor board
Plug & Sense! Smart Environment PRO
Gases PRO Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Smart Agriculture
Smart Agriculture Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Smart Agriculture PRO
Smart Agriculture PRO Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Smart Water
Smart Water Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Smart Water Ions
Smart Water Ions Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Smart Cities PRO
Smart Cities PRO Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Ambient Control
No sensor board inside (direct connection)
Plug & Sense! Smart Security
Events Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! Radiation Control
Radiation Sensor Board
Plug & Sense! 4-20 mA Current Loop
4-20 mA Current Loop Sensor Board
This section describes each model configuration in detail, showing the sensors which can be used in each case
and how to connect them to Waspmote. In many cases, the sensor sockets accept the connection of more than
one sensor probe. See the compatibility table for each model configuration to choose the best probe combination
for the application.
It is very important to remark that each socket is designed only for one specific sensor, so they are not
interchangeable. Always be sure you connected probes in the right socket, otherwise they can be damaged.
Figure: Identification of sensor sockets
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Models
21.1. Smart Environment PRO
The Smart Environment PRO model has been created as an evolution of Smart Environment. It enables the user
to implement pollution, air quality, industrial, environmental or farming projects with high requirements in terms
of high accuracy, reliability and measurement range as the sensors come calibrated from factory.
Figure: Smart Environment PRO Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
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v7.5
Models
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
A, B, C or F
D
E
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Carbon Monoxide (CO) for high concentrations [Calibrated]
9371-P
Carbon Monoxide (CO) for low concentrations [Calibrated]
9371-LC-P
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) [Calibrated]
9372-P
Oxygen (O2) [Calibrated]
9373-P
Ozone (O3) [Calibrated]
9374-P
Nitric Oxide (NO) for low concentrations [Calibrated]
9375-LC-P
Nitric Dioxide (NO2) high accuracy [Calibrated]
9376-HA-P
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) high accuracy [Calibrated]
9377-HA-P
Ammonia (NH3) for low concentrations [Calibrated]
9378-LC-P
Ammonia (NH3) for high concentrations [Calibrated]
9378-HC-P
Methane (CH4) and Combustible Gas [Calibrated]
9379-P
Hydrogen (H2) [Calibrated]
9380-P
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) [Calibrated]
9381-P
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) [Calibrated]
9382-P
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) [Calibrated]
9383-P
Phosphine (PH3) [Calibrated]
9384-P
Ethylene (ETO) [Calibrated]
9385-P
Chlorine (Cl2) [Calibrated]
9386-P
Particle Matter (PM1 / PM2.5 / PM10) - Dust
9387-P
Temperature, humidity and pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Environment PRO model
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium website.
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Models
Calibrated gas sensors are manufactured once the order has been placed to ensure maximum durability of the
calibration feature. The manufacturing process and delivery may take from 4 to 6 weeks. The lifetime of calibrated
gas sensors is 6 months working at maximum accuracy. We strongly encourage our customers to buy extra gas
sensors to replace the original ones after that time to ensure maximum accuracy and performance.
Note: In March 2017, Smart Environment (which is the Plug & Sense! version for the Gases sensor board) was
discontinued. The Gases sensor board is now only available in the Waspmote OEM product line. Libelium currently
offers Gases PRO (Smart Environment PRO) and Smart Cities PRO for accurate measuring of gases.
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Models
21.2. Smart Security
The main applications for this Waspmote Plug & Sense! configuration are perimeter access control, liquid presence
detection and doors and windows openings. Besides, a relay system allows this model to interact with external
electrical machines.
Figure: Smart Security Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
Note: The probes attached in this photo could not match the final location. See next table for the correct configuration.
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Models
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Presence - PIR
9212-P
Liquid Level (combustible, water)
9239-P, 9240-P
Liquid Presence (Point, Line)
9243-P, 9295-P
Hall Effect
9207-P
B
Liquid Flow (small, medium, large)
9296-P, 9297-P, 9298-P
F
Relay Input-Output
9270-P
A, C, D or E
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Security model
As we see in the figure below, thanks to the directional probe, the presence sensor probe (PIR) may be placed in
different positions. The sensor can be focused directly to the point we want.
Figure: Configurations of the Presence sensor probe (PIR)
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.3. Smart Water
The Smart Water model has been conceived to facilitate the remote monitoring of the most relevant parameters
related to water quality. With this platform you can measure more than 6 parameters, including the most relevant
for water control such as dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, pH, conductivity and temperature. An
extremely accurate turbidity sensor has been integrated as well.
The Smart Water Ions line is complementary for these kinds of projects, enabling the control of concentration
of ions like Ammonium (NH4+), Bromide (Br-), Calcium (Ca2+), Chloride (Cl-), Cupric (Cu2+), Fluoride (F-), Iodide (I-),
Lithium (Li+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrate (NO3-), Nitrite (NO2-), Perchlorate (ClO4-), Potassium (K+), Silver (Ag+), Sodium
(Na+) and pH. Take a look to the Smart Water Ions line in the next section.
Refer to Libelium website for more information.
Figure: Smart Water Plug&Sense! model
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Models
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
A
pH
9328
B
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
9327
C
Conductivity
9326
E
Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP)
9329
Soil/Water Temperature
9255-P (included by default)
Turbidity
9353-P
F
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Water model
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.4. Smart Water Ions
The Smart Water Ions models specialize in the measurement of ions concentration for drinking water quality
control, agriculture water monitoring, swimming pools or waste water treatment.
The Smart Water line is complementary for these kinds of projects, enabling the control of parameters like
turbidity, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen. Take a look to the Smart Water line in
the previous section. Refer to Libelium website for more information.
There are 3 variants for Smart Water Ions: Single, Double and PRO. This is related to the type of ion sensor that
each variant can integrate. Next section describes each configuration in detail.
Figure: Smart Water Ions Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
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Models
21.4.1. Single
This variant includes a Single Junction Reference Probe, so it can read all the single type ion sensors.
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the table below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Calcium Ion (Ca2+)
9352
Fluoride Ion (F )
9353
-
A, B, C and D
Fluoroborate Ion (BF4 )
9354
Nitrate Ion (NO3-)
9355
pH (for Smart Water Ions)
9363
E
Single Junction Reference
9350 (included by default)
F
Soil/Water Temperature
9255-P (included by default)
-
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Water Ions model, single variant
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
21.4.2. Double
This variant includes a Double Junction Reference Probe, so it can read all the double type ion sensors.
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the table below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
-
Bromide Ion (Br )
9356
Chloride Ion (Cl )
9357
Cupric Ion (Cu )
9358
Iodide Ion (I-)
9360
Silver Ion (Ag+)
9362
pH (for Smart Water Ions)
9363
E
Double Junction Reference
9351 (included by default)
F
Soil/Water Temperature
9255-P (included by default)
-
2+
A, B, C and D
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Water Ions model, double variant
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.4.3. Pro
This special variant integrates extreme quality sensors, with better performance than the Single or Double lines.
In this case, there is only one type of reference probe and up to 16 different ion parameters can be analyzed in 4
sockets.
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the table below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Ammonium Ion (NH4+) [PRO]
9412
Bromide Ion (Br-) [PRO]
9413
Calcium Ion (Ca ) [PRO]
9414
Chloride Ion (Cl ) [PRO]
9415
Cupric Ion (Cu2+) [PRO]
9416
Fluoride Ion (F-) [PRO]
9417
Iodide Ion (I ) [PRO]
9418
Lithium Ion (Li ) [PRO]
9419
Magnesium Ion (Mg2+) [PRO]
9420
Nitrate Ion (NO3-) [PRO]
9421
Nitrite Ion (NO ) [PRO]
9422
Perchlorate Ion (ClO ) [PRO]
9423
Potassium Ion (K+) [PRO]
9424
Silver Ion (Ag+) [PRO]
9425
Sodium Ion (Na ) [PRO]
9426
pH [PRO]
9411
E
Reference Sensor Probe [PRO]
9410 (included by default)
F
Soil/Water Temperature
9255-P (included by default)
2+
-
-
+
A, B, C or D
2
4
+
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Water Ions model, PRO variant
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.5. Smart Parking
The Smart Parking node allows to detect available parking spots by placing the node on the pavement. It works
with a magnetic sensor which detects when a vehicle is present or not.
The node benefits from Sigfox and LoRaWAN technologies (868 and 900 MHz bands), getting ubiquitous coverage
with few base stations. The device is very optimized in terms of power consumption, resulting in a long battery life.
Its small size and the robust and surface-mount enclosure enables a fast installation, without the need of digging
a hole in the ground. Finally, the developer does not need to program the node, but just configure some key
parameters. Remote management and bidirectional communication allow to change parameters from the Cloud.
Figure: Smart Parking node
Note: There are specific documents for parking applications on the Libelium website. Refer to the Smart Parking
Technical Guide to see typical applications for this model and how to make a good installation.
Figure: Smart Parking application diagram
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Models
21.6. Smart Agriculture
The Smart Agriculture models allow to monitor multiple environmental parameters involving a wide range of
applications. It has been provided with sensors for air and soil temperature and humidity, solar visible radiation,
wind speed and direction, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, etc.
The main applications for this Waspmote Plug & Sense! model are precision agriculture, irrigation systems,
greenhouses, weather stations, etc. Refer to Libelium website for more information.
Two variants are possible for this model, normal and PRO. Next section describes each configuration in detail.
Figure: Smart Agriculture Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
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Models
21.6.1. Normal
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
A
Weather Station WS-3000 (anemometer + wind vane +
9256-P
pluviometer)
B
Soil Moisture 1
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
C
Soil Moisture 3
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
Soil Temperature
86949-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Leaf Wetness
9249-P
Soil Moisture 2
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
D
E
F (digital
bus)
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Agriculture model
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.6.2. PRO
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
A
B
C
D (digital
bus)
E
F (digital
bus)
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Weather Station WS-3000 (anemometer + wind vane + pluviometer)
9256-P
Soil Moisture 1
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
Solar Radiation (PAR)
9251-P
Ultraviolet Radiation
9257-P
Soil Moisture 3
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
Dendrometers
9252-P, 9253-P, 9254-P
Soil Temperature (Pt-1000)
9255-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Leaf Wetness
9249-P
Soil Moisture 2
9248-P, 9324-P, 9323-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Agriculture PRO model
* Ask Libelium Sales Department for more information.
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.7. Ambient Control
This model is designed to monitor the main environment parameters easily. Only three sensor probes are allowed
for this model, as shown in next table.
Figure: Ambient Control Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
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v7.5
Models
Sensor sockets are configured as it is shown in figure below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
A
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
B
Luminosity (LDR)
9205-P
C
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Not used
-
D, E and F
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Ambient Control model
As we see in the figure below, thanks to the directional probe, the Luminosity (Luxes accuracy) sensor probe may
be placed in different positions. The sensor can be focused directly to the light source we want to measure.
Figure: Configurations of the Luminosity sensor probe (luxes accuracy)
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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v7.5
Models
21.8. Smart Cities PRO
The main applications for this Waspmote Plug & Sense! model are noise maps (monitor in real time the acoustic
levels in the streets of a city), air quality, waste management, smart lighting, etc. Refer to Libelium website for
more information.
Figure: Smart Cities PRO Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
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Models
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
A
B, C and F
D
E
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Parameter
Reference
Noise level sensor
NLS
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Carbon Monoxide (CO) for high concentrations
[Calibrated]
9371-P
Carbon Monoxide (CO) for low concentrations
[Calibrated]
9371-LC-P
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) [Calibrated]
9372-P
Oxygen (O2) [Calibrated]
9373-P
Ozone (O3) [Calibrated]
9374-P
Nitric Oxide (NO) for low concentrations [Calibrated]
9375-LC-P
Nitric Dioxide (NO2) high accuracy [Calibrated]
9376-HA-P
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) high accuracy [Calibrated]
9377-HA-P
Ammonia (NH3) for low concentrations [Calibrated]
9378-LC-P
Ammonia (NH3) for high concentrations [Calibrated]
9378-HC-P
Methane (CH4) and Combustible Gas [Calibrated]
9379-P
Hydrogen (H2) [Calibrated]
9380-P
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) [Calibrated]
9381-P
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) [Calibrated]
9382-P
Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) [Calibrated]
9383-P
Phosphine (PH3) [Calibrated]
9384-P
Ethylene (ETO) [Calibrated]
9385-P
Chlorine (Cl2) [Calibrated]
9386-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Particle Matter (PM1 / PM2.5 / PM10) - Dust
9387-P
Temperature + Humidity + Pressure
9370-P
Luminosity (Luxes accuracy)
9325-P
Ultrasound (distance measurement)
9246-P
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for Smart Cities PRO model
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section in Libelium website.
Calibrated gas sensors are manufactured once the order has been placed to ensure maximum durability of the
calibration feature. The manufacturing process and delivery may take from 4 to 6 weeks. The lifetime of calibrated
gas sensors is 6 months working at maximum accuracy. We strongly encourage our customers to buy extra gas
sensors to replace the original ones after that time to ensure maximum accuracy and performance.
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Models
21.9. Radiation Control
The main application for this Waspmote Plug & Sense! configuration is to measure radiation levels using a Geiger
sensor. For this model, the Geiger tube is already included inside Waspmote, so the user does not have to connect
any sensor probe to the enclosure. The rest of the other sensor sockets are not used.
Figure: Radiation Control Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
Sensor sockets are not used for this model.
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium
website.
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Models
21.10. 4-20 mA Current Loop
The applications for this Plug & Sense! model are focused on adding wireless connectivity to 4-20 mA devices and
connecting them to the Cloud.
Figure: 4-20 mA Current Loop Waspmote Plug & Sense! model
Sensor sockets are configured as shown in the figure below.
Sensor
Socket
Sensor probes allowed for each sensor socket
Board channel
Reference
A
Channel 1 (type 2 and type 3)
9270-P, DB9-P
B
Channel 2 (type 2 and type 3)
9270-P, DB9-P
C
Channel 3 (type 2 and type 3)
9270-P, DB9-P
D
Channel 4 (type 4)
9270-P, DB9-P
Figure: Sensor sockets configuration for 4-20 mA Current Loop model
Note: For more technical information about each sensor probe go to the Development section on the Libelium website.
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v7.5
Programming
22. Programming
Waspmote Plug & Sense! can be programmed using Libelium’s Integrated Development Environment (IDE).
For further details on how to install the Waspmote IDE and how to compile and upload your first programs, we
advise to read the “Waspmote IDE: User Guide”. This guide contains step-by-step indications to get started; it can
be found on the Plug & Sense! Development section:
www.libelium.com/development/plug-sense/sdk_applications/
22.1. Real time Clock - RTC
Waspmote Plug & Sense! has a built-in Real Time Clock – RTC, which keeps it informed of the time. This allows to
program and perform time-related actions such as:
“Sleep for 1h 20 min and 15sec, then wake up and perform the following action..”
Or even programs to perform actions at absolute intervals, e.g.:
“Wake on the 5th of each month at 00:20 and perform the following action..”
All RTC programming and control is done through the I2C bus.
Alarms:
Alarms can be programmed in the RTC specifying day/hour/minute/second. That allows total control about when
the mote wakes up to capture sensor values and perform actions programmed on it. This allows Waspmote Plug
& Sense! to be in the saving energy mode (Deep Sleep) and makes it wake up just at the required moment.
As well as relative alarms, periodic alarms can be programmed by giving a time measurement, so that the node
reprograms its alarm automatically each time one event is triggered.
Waspmote Plug & Sense! can keep the RTC time correctly even if the on/off button is switched to off position.
RTC module has an internal compensation mechanism for the oscillation variations produced in the quartz crystal
by changes in temperature (Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator – TCXO).
The RTC is responsible for waking the node up from energy saving mode called Deep Sleep. In addition, it controls
when it has to wake up the node and perform a particular action.
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the RTC Programming Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Programming
22.2. Interruptions
Interruptions are signals received by the microcontroller which indicate it must stop the task it is doing to handle
an event that has just happened. Interruption control frees the microcontroller from having to control sensors all
the time. It also makes the sensors warn Waspmote Plug & Sense! when a determined value (threshold) is reached.
Waspmote Plug & Sense! is designed to work with two types of interruptions: Synchronous and asynchronous:
••
••
Synchronous interruptions: They are scheduled by timers. They allow to program when we want them to be
triggered. There are two types of timer alarms: periodic and relative.
-- Periodic alarms are those to which we specify a particular moment in the future, for example: “Alarm
programmed for every fourth day of the month at 00:01 and 11 seconds”. They are controlled by the RTC.
-- Relative alarms are programmed taking into account the current moment, eg: “Alarm programmed
for 5 minutes and 10 seconds”. They are controlled through the RTC and the microcontroller’s internal
Watchdog.
Asynchronous Interruptions: These are not scheduled, so it is not known when they will be triggered. Types:
-- Sensors: The sensor boards can be programmed so that an alarm is triggered when a sensor reaches a
certain threshold.
-- Accelerometer: The accelerometer can be programmed so that certain events such (as a fall or change of
direction) generate an interruption.
All interruptions, both synchronous and asynchronous can wake Waspmote Plug & Sense! up from the Sleep and
the Deep Sleep modes.
All information about the programming and operation of interruptions can be found in the Interruption
Programming Guide.
22.3. Watchdog
The ATmega1281 microcontroller inside the Waspmote Plug & Sense! has an internal Enhanced Watchdog Time
– WDT. The WDT precisely counts the clock cycles generated by a 128 kHz oscillator. The WDT generates an
interruption signal when the counter reaches the set value. This interruption signal can be used to wake the
microcontroller from the Sleep mode or to generate an internal alarm when it is running in on mode, which is very
useful when developing programs with timed interruptions.
The WDT allows the microcontroller to wake up from a low consumption Sleep mode by generating an interruption.
For this reason, this clock is used as a time-based alarm associated with the microcontroller’s Sleep mode. This
allows very precise control of small time intervals: 16 ms, 32 ms, 64 ms, 128 ms, 256 ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s, 4 s, 8 s.
For intervals over 8 s (Deep Sleep mode), the RTC is used and not the microcontroller.
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the Interrupt Programming Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
22.3.1. RTC Watchdog for reseting Waspmote
One of the alarms of the RTC (Alarm 2) is connected to a Watchdog reset circuit that is able to reset the
microcontroller of Waspmote Plug & Sense! when the alarm is generated. This Watchdog has been implemented
for reseting Waspmote Plug & Sense! if it gets stuck. That periodical reset avoids erratic behaviour. This is highly
recommended for applications that need to be very robust and can never stop working. The use of the Watchdog
feature ensures us that our Waspmote will never stop working.
The Watchdog feature requires the physical watchdog switch to be put in “enable” position (default state in
Waspmote Plug & Sense! Devices).
All information about the RTC programming and operation can be found in the RTC Programming Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Programming Cloud Service
23. Programming Cloud Service
The Programming Cloud Service is an intuitive graphic interface which creates code automatically. The user
just needs to fill a web form to obtain binaries for Plug & Sense!. Advanced programming options are available,
depending on the license selected.
Features:
••
••
••
No more programming, just configure a web form and the PCS will create the binary
Always up-to-date: code is compiled on the Cloud, with the latest libraries
Advanced options: Water and Ions calibration, Watchdog, critical battery warning, GPS, Industrial Protocols,
HTTPS, encryption (at both payload and link levels), etc
•• Template management
•• New devices are added easily (bulk or individual activation codes)
•• Simple devices management: list, order, search or filter
•• Share your devices with others
•• Three license types: Basic, PRO and Elite
•• Easy licenses management
•• Summary reports
•• Just program any standard Plug & Sense! in minutes!
Check how easy it is to handle the Programming Cloud Service at:
https://cloud.libelium.com/
Figure: Programming Cloud Service
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Uploading code
24. Uploading code
Using the USB connector, a new code can be uploaded to Waspmote without opening Waspmote Plug & Sense!.
Just connect one side of the USB cable to this connector, removing protection cap if necessary and connect the
other side to a PC. Remember that Waspmote must be on to allow uploading a new code. Next steps describe this
process in detail.
Step 1: Open the USB connector
Remove the protection cap of the USB connector.
Figure: Removing the USB cap
* n the case you have a Plug & Sense! with a 4G module, insert your nano-SIM card in the External SIM/USB socket with care.
Figure: Inserting a SIM card with care in the External SIM/USB socket
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Uploading code
Step 2: Connect the USB cable to Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Connect one end of the provided male-to-male USB cable to the USB connector. For models with 4G module, a
micro-USB is supplied.
Figure: Connecting the USB cable to Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Step 3: Connect the USB cable to PC
Connect the other end of the USB cable to your PC.
Figure: Connecting the node to a PC
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Uploading code
Step 4: Turn on Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Be sure you have turned on the node by pressing on/off button.
Figure: Turning on Waspmote
Step 5: Open Waspmote IDE
Now run Waspmote IDE on your PC. If you do not have Waspmote IDE already installed in your PC, then go to the
Development section of Libelium website to download the latest version; there is a dedicated guide to help in the
process: “Waspmote IDE: User Guide”.
If it is the first time you plug a Waspmote Plug & Sense! on your PC and you are unable to see the proper USB port,
maybe you should install the latest FTDI drivers: http://www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/D2XX.htm
Moreover, if you have troubles installing FTDI drivers and your computer is unable to recognize Waspmote,
please follow the installation guide for your operating system on your next link: http://www.ftdichip.com/Support/
Documents/InstallGuides.htm
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Uploading code
Step 6: Select the corresponding code
Go to the examples menu and open your desired example. Then modify it according to your application and save
the sketch with the save button. For instance with the name “Waspmote_Plug_Sense_test_code”, and check the
IDE message “Done Saving”.
Save the sketch (Waspmote IDE has a button for that), for example with the name “Waspmote_Plug_Sense_
test_code”, and check the IDE message “Done Saving”.
Figure: Preparing code for Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Step 7: Select the corresponding API
Select the latest API version going to tools/board. There can be only one API in each installed IDE. Please read the
“IDE: User Manual” for more details.
Figure: Selecting API
Please notice that Waspmote “OEM” and Plug & Sense! share the same API and IDE. The same software system is
valid for both platforms.
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Uploading code
Step 8: Select the USB port
Select the corresponding serial port by going to tools/serial port. If you are unable to see the proper USB port
maybe you should install the latest FTDI drivers.
Figure: Selecting the USB port for Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Note: the name of the USB ports depends on the OS and the particular PC you have. The best way to find the USB where
Waspmote is connected is trial & error.
Step 9: Compile the code
Compile the code (the IDE has a button for that), and check there are no errors or warnings. The IDE should say
“Done Compiling”.
Figure: Compiling a code for Waspmote Plug & Sense!
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Uploading code
Step 10: Upload the code
Now, press the upload button and see messages coming out from IDE. During a while you will see message
“uploading to I/O board”.
Figure: Uploading a code for Waspmote Plug & Sense!
Wait a few seconds until the process ends and check there are no error messages, just “Done uploading” message.
Step 11: Open the Serial Monitor
If uploading processes are successfully completed, open Serial Monitor to see the output of the uploaded code.
Figure: Opening Waspmote IDE serial monitor
When uploading processes are finished successfully, do not forget to screw the protection cap of USB connector
to avoid its damage.
Never connect a USB which exceed maximum ratting of the USB standard. Waspmote can be damaged and
warranty voided.
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Over the air programming – OTA
25. Over the air programming – OTA
25.1. Overview
The concept of Wireless Programming or commonly know as Programming Over the Air (OTA) has been used
in the past years overall for the reprogramming of mobile devices such as cell phones. However, with the new
concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things where the networks consist of hundreds or
thousands of nodes OTA is taken to a new direction.
Libelium provides an OTA method based on FTP transmissions to be used with 4G and WiFi modules.
25.2. OTA with 4G/WiFi modules via FTP
It is possible to update the Waspmote’s program using Over The Air Programming and the following modules: 4G
or WiFi module.
The Waspmote reprogramming is done using an FTP server and an FTP client which is Waspmote itself. The FTP
server can be configured by Meshlium. Otherwise, the user will have to setup an FTP server.
Figure: OTA via FTP protocol
There are two basic steps involved in OTA procedure:
••
••
Step 1: Waspmote requests a special text file which gives information about the program to update: program
name, version, size, etc.
Step 2: If the information given is correct, Waspmote queries the FTP server for a new program binary file and
it updates its flash memory in order to run the new program.
Figure: OTA steps via FTP protocol
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Over the air programming – OTA
25.2.1. Setting the FTP server configuration
The FTP server that Waspmote connects to needs a specific configuration so as to OTA work properly. There are
two ways to set up the FTP server:
Extern user’s FTP server: The user sets up an FTP server following the specific settings which are described within
OTA Guide.
Meshlium FTP server: There is a specific plugin which allows the user to setup the FTP server automatically
indicating the new binary to be downloaded.
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Encryption libraries
26. Encryption libraries
The new Encryption Libraries are designed to add to the Waspmote sensor platform the capabilities necessary to
protect the information gathered by the sensors. To do so two cryptography layers are defined:
••
••
Link Layer: In the first one all the nodes of the network share a common preshared key which is used to
encrypt the information using AES 128. This process is carried out by specific hardware integrated in the same
802.15.4/ZigBee radio, allowing the maximum efficiency of the sensor nodes energy consumption. This first
security layer ensures no third party devices will be able to even connect to the network (access control).
Secure Web Server Connection: The second security technique is carried out in Meshlium -the Gatewaywhere HTTPS and SSH connections are used to send the information to the Cloud server located on the
Internet.
A third optional encryption layer allows each node to encrypt the information using the Public key of the Cloud
server. Thus, the information will be kept confidentially all the way from the sensor device to the web or data base
server on the Internet.
Transmission of sensor data
Information is encrypted in the application layer via software with AES 256 using the key shared exclusively
between the origin and the destination. Then the packet is encrypted again in the link layer via hardware with AES
128 so that only trusted packets be forwarded, ensuring access control and improving the usage of resources of
the network.
Figure: Communication diagram
Related API libraries:
••
••
••
WaspAES.h, WaspAES.cpp
WaspRSA.h, WaspRSA.cpp
WaspHash.h, WaspHash.cpp
All information about their programming and operation can be found in the Encryption Programming Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Interacting with Waspmote
27. Interacting with Waspmote
27.1. Receiving XBee frames with Waspmote Gateway
27.1.1. Waspmote Gateway
This device allows to collect data which flows through the sensor network into a PC or device with a standard USB
port. Waspmote Gateway will act as a ”data bridge or access point” between the sensor network and the receiving
equipment. This receiving equipment will be responsible for storing and using the data received depending on the
specific needs of the application.
Figure: Waspmote Gateway
The receiving equipment can be a PC with Linux, Windows or Mac-OS, or any device compatible with standard
USB connectivity. The gateway offers a male USB A connector, so the receiving device has to have a female USB
A connector.
Once the Gateway is correctly installed, a new communication serial port connecting directly to the XBee module’s
UART appears in the receiving equipment, which allows the XBee to communicate directly with the device, being
able to both receive data packets from the sensor network as well as modify and/or consult the XBee’s configuration
parameters.
Another important function worth pointing out is the possibility of updating or changing the XBee module’s
firmware.
Figure: Waspmote Gateway connected to a PC
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Interacting with Waspmote
LEDs
Four indicator LEDs are included in the Gateway:
••
••
••
••
USB power LED: indicates that the board is powered through the USB port
RX LED: indicates that the board is receiving data from the USB port
TX LED: Indicates that the board is sending data to the USB port
I/O 5 configurable LED: associate
The configurable LED connected to the XBee’s I/O 5 pin can be configured either as the XBee’s digital output or as
the XBee’s indicator of association to the sensor network.
Buttons
••
••
••
••
Reset: allows the XBee module to be reset
I/O - 0: button connected to the XBee’s I/O pin 0
I/O -1: button connected to the XBee’s I/O pin 1
RTS - I/O – 6: button connected to the XBee’s I/O pin 6
All the buttons connect each one of its corresponding data lines with GND with when pressed. None of these have
pull-up resistance so it may be necessary to activate any of the XBee’s internal pull-up resistances depending on
the required use.
Figure: LEDs in Waspmote Gateway
27.1.2. Linux receiver
When using Linux it is possible to use various applications to capture the input from the serial port. Libelium
recommends to use the ‘Cutecom’ application.
Once the application is launched, the speed and the USB where Waspmote has been connected must be configured.
The speed that must be selected is 115200 bps which is the standard speed set up for Waspmote.
The USB where Waspmote has been connected must be added the first time this application is run, adding USB0,
USB1, etc (up to the USB number of each computer) according to where Waspmote has been connected. For this,
the ‘Device’ window must be modified so that if Waspmote is connected to USB0, this window contains ‘/dev/
ttyUSB0’.
Once these parameters are configured, capture is started by pressing the ‘Open Device’ button.
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Interacting with Waspmote
Figure: Cutecom application capturing Waspmote’s output
Linux Sniffer
As well as using the terminal to see the sensor information, an application which allows this captured data to be
dumped to a file or passed to another program to be used or checked has been developed.
File:
“sniffer.c”
Compilation on Linux:
gcc sniffer.c -o sniffer
Examples of use:
----
Seeing received data: ./sniffer USB0
Dumping of received data to a file: ./sniffer USB0 >> data.txt
Passing received values to another program: ./sniffer USB0 | program
Note: The speed used for the example is 19200 bps. The final speed will depend on the speed the XBee module has been
configured with (default value 115200).
Code:
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<string.h>
<unistd.h>
<fcntl.h>
<errno.h>
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Interacting with Waspmote
#include
#include
<stdlib.h>
<termios.h> /* Terminal control library (POSIX) */
#define MAX 100
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
int sd=3;
char *serialPort=””;
char *serialPort0 = ”/dev/ttyS0”;
char *serialPort1 = ”/dev/ttyS1”;
char *USBserialPort0 = ”/dev/ttyUSB0”;
char *USBserialPort1 = ”/dev/ttyUSBS1”;
char valor[MAX] = ””;
char c;
char *val;
struct termios opciones;
int num;
char *s0 = ”S0”;
char *s1 = ”S1”;
char *u0 = ”USB0”;
char *u1 = ”USB1”;
if(argc!=2)
{
fprintf(stderr,”Usage: %s [port]\nValid ports: (S0, S1, USB0, USB1)\n”,argv[0], serialPort);
exit(0);
}
if (!strcmp(argv[1], s0))
{
fprintf(stderr,”ttyS0 chosen\n...”);
serialPort = serialPort0;
}
if (!strcmp(argv[1], s1))
{
fprintf(stderr,”ttyS1 chosen\n...”);
serialPort = serialPort1;
}
if (!strcmp(argv[1], u0))
{
fprintf(stderr,”ttyUSB0 chosen\n...”);
serialPort = USBserialPort0;
}
if (!strcmp(argv[1], u1))
{
fprintf(stderr,”ttyUSB1 chosen\n...”);
serialPort=USBserialPort1;
}
if (!strcmp(serialPort, ””))
{
fprintf(stderr, ”Choose a valid port (S0, S1, USB0, USB1)\n”, serialPort);
exit(0);
}
if ((sd = open(serialPort, O_RDWR | O_NOCTTY | O_NDELAY)) == -1)
{
fprintf(stderr,”Unable to open the serial port %s - \n”, serialPort);
exit(-1);
}
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Interacting with Waspmote
else
{
if (!sd)
{
sd = open(serialPort, O_RDWR | O_NOCTTY | O_NDELAY);
}
//fprintf(stderr,”Serial Port open at: %i\n”, sd);
fcntl(sd, F_SETFL, 0);
}
tcgetattr(sd, &opciones);
cfsetispeed(&opciones, B19200);
cfsetospeed(&opciones, B19200);
opciones.c_cflag |= (CLOCAL | CREAD);
/*No parity*/
opciones.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;
opciones.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;
opciones.c_cflag &= ~CSIZE;
opciones.c_cflag |= CS8;
/*raw input:
* making the applycation ready to receive*/
opciones.c_lflag &= ~(ICANON | ECHO | ECHOE | ISIG);
/*Ignore parity errors*/
opciones.c_iflag |= ~(INPCK | ISTRIP | PARMRK);
opciones.c_iflag |= IGNPAR;
opciones.c_iflag &= ~(IXON | IXOFF | IXANY | IGNCR | IGNBRK);
opciones.c_iflag |= BRKINT;
/*raw output
* making the applycation ready to transmit*/
opciones.c_oflag &= ~OPOST;
/*aply*/
tcsetattr(sd, TCSANOW, &opciones);
int j = 0;
while(1)
{
read(sd, &c, 1);
valor[j] = c;
j++;
// We start filling the string until the end of line char arrives
// or we reach the end of the string. Then we write it on the screen.
if ((c==’\n’) || (j==(MAX-1)))
{
int x;
for (x=0; x<j; x++)
{
write(2, &valor[x], 1);
valor[x] = ’\0’;
}
j = 0;
}
}
}
close(sd);
The code can be downloaded from: http://www.libelium.com/development/waspmote
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Interacting with Waspmote
27.1.3. Windows receiver
If Windows is used, the application ‘Hyperterminal’ can be used to capture the output of the serial port.
This application can be found installed by default in ‘Start/Programs/Accessories/Communication’, but if it is not
available it can be downloaded from: http://hyperterminal-private-edition-htpe.en.softonic.com/
Once this application is launched the connection must be configured. The first step is to give it a name:
Figure: Step 1 of establishing connection
The next step is to specify the port on which Waspmote has been connected, in this case the system recognizes it
as ‘COM9’, (this will vary on each computer):
Figure: Step 2 of establishing connection
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Interacting with Waspmote
The next step is to specify the speed and configuration parameters:
Figure: Step 3 of establishing connection
Once these steps have been performed connection with Waspmote has been established, and listening to the serial
port begins.
Figure: HyperTerminal application capturing Waspmote’s output.
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Interacting with Waspmote
27.1.4. Mac-OS receiver
If Mac OS X is used (version later than 10.3.9) the application ‘ZTERM’ can be used to capture the serial port output.
This application can be downloaded from: http://homepage.mac.com/dalverson/zterm/
This application is configured automatically, establishing the USB on which Waspmote has been connected and
the speed.
The following image shows this application capturing Waspmote’s output, while the example code ‘Waspmote
Accelerator Basic Example’ is run.
Figure: Waspmote’s output capture
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Meshlium - The IoT Gateway
28. Meshlium - The IoT Gateway
Figure: Meshlium device
The sensor data gathered by the Waspmote Plug & Sense! nodes is sent to the Cloud by Meshlium, the IoT gateway
router specially designed to connect Waspmote sensor networks to the Internet via Ethernet and 4G/3G/2G
interfaces.
Meshlium can work as:
•• an RF (XBee) to Ethernet router for Waspmote nodes*
•• an RF (XBee) to 4G/3G/GPRS/GSM router for Waspmote nodes*
•• a WiFi Access Point
•• a WiFi to 4G/3G/GPRS/GSM router
•• a GPS – 4G/3G/GPRS/GSM real-time tracker
•• a smartphone scanner (detects iPhone and Android devices)
28.1. Meshlium Storage Options
Figure: Meshlium storage options
••
••
Local data base
External data base
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Meshlium - The IoT Gateway
28.2. Meshlium connection options
Figure: Meshlium connection options
••
••
XBee / 4G / 3G / 2G / WiFi → Ethernet
XBee / 4G / 3G / 2G / WiFi → 4G / 3G / 2G
All the networking options can be controlled from the Manager System, a web interface which comes with
Meshlium. It allows to control all the interfaces and system options in a secure, easy and quick way.
Figure: Meshlium Manager System
All information about Meshlium can be found in the Meshlium Technical Guide.
All the Meshlium documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
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Meshlium - The IoT Gateway
28.3. Meshlium Visualizer
Meshlium Visualizer is a plugin which plots graphs and maps with the data stored in the database. It can also
export data in common formats. Meshlium Visualizer is a special software feature only available in the Meshlium
units included in the IoT Vertical Kits (Smart Cities IoT Vertical Kit, Smart Water IoT Vertical Kit, etc).
Figure: Meshlium visualizer
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Meshlium - The IoT Gateway
28.4. Cloud Connectors
Meshlium allows developers to connect easily with third party cloud servers such as Amazon, IBM, Telefónica, ESRI,
Thingworks, etc. Just select the desired plugin in the Manager System and add the account info to synchronize the
internal data base of Meshlium with the desired platform.
For more info about Meshlium go to:
http://www.libelium.com/products/meshlium/
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v7.5
Installation
29. Installation
The right behavior of Waspmote Plug & Sense! depends on a reliable installation. Libelium provides the necessary
accessories to make it easy, like cable ties, mounting feet and other accessories.
Wherever Waspmote Plug & Sense! is placed, please be sure you tight it firmly and the enclosure is not affected
by wind, vibrations and other environmental conditions. Libelium does not take responsibility of damages to third
parts caused by a bad installation. Moreover, it is recommended to power off Waspmote Plug & Sense! during its
installation.
29.1. Parts
Mounting feet
Libelium provides four mounting feet accessories to allow easy fixing Waspmote Plug & Sense! to walls, etc.
Mounting feet come already fixed to the enclosure using a screw, as shown in figures below.
Figure: Mounting feet accessory
Cable ties
Another provided accessories are PVC coated stainless steel cable ties. Dimensions of these ties are 1 meter
length and 5 millimeters width.
Figure: Metal cable ties
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Installation
Figure: Using metal cable ties
Solar panel bracket
The solar panel brackets are used to achieve 45 degrees of inclination when a solar panel is used.
Enclosure
Solar panel
s
le tie
Cab
Figure: Solar panel bracket
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Installation
Waspmote Plug & Sense! accessories can vary depending on which configuration is acquired. See text and figure
below to know which accessories are provided with each of the options.
H
F
D
J
I
G
A
B
C
E
Figure: Waspmote Plug & Sense! accessories
1- Basic
This configuration includes 4 mounting feet (A), 4 screws type 1 (B), 4 screws type 2 (C), 4 wall plugs (E) and 2 cable
ties (I). No solar panel is included.
2- With external solar panel
This configuration includes 4 mounting feet (A), 4 screws type 1 (B), 8 screws type 2 (C), 8 wall plugs (E), 4 screws
type 3 (D), 4 nuts (F), 8 washers (G), 2 solar panel brackets (H), 4 cable ties (I) and 1 external solar panel (J).
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Installation
29.2. Street Light installation
The node can be fixed to a street light using the PVC coated stainless steel cable ties provided by Libelium. Always
be sure that the enclosure is firmly tied and environmental elements (like wind) do not modify its position. Next
pictures show examples of typical installation processes using the external solar panel in combination with the
provided accessories.
29.2.1. External solar panel
Step 1: Prepare the cable ties
Introduce cable ties through external holes of the mounting feet.
Figure: Preparing metal cable ties
Step 2: Secure the solar panel bracket to the external solar panel
Use provided screws to secure the solar panel bracket to the external solar panel. Be sure you place screws in the
right bracket holes, as shown in the figure below.
Figure: Preparing the external solar panel
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Installation
Figure: Adding cable ties to the external solar panel
Step 3: Secure Waspmote Plug & Sense! to the street light
Place Waspmote Plug & Sense! on street light tightening firmly the metal cable ties. Be sure that the node remains
completely tied to street light to avoid it could fall down.
Figure: Placing Waspmote Plug & Sense! on a street light
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Installation
Step 4: Secure the external solar panel to the street light
It is recommended to place the external solar panel above Waspmote Waspmote Plug & Sense!, using it as a roof.
This will increase protection against rain and sunlight. Use cable ties and the dedicated holes of the solar panel
bracket to complete Waspmote Plug & Sense! installation.
Figure: Placing external solar panel above Waspmote
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Installation
29.3. Wall installation
Another typical installation of Waspmote Plug & Sense! is on walls. Using the mounting feet accessory, the node
can be tied using provided screws and wall plugs. Next pictures show examples of typical installation processes
using the external solar panel in combination with provided accessories.
29.3.1. External solar panel
Step 1: Secure the solar panel bracket to the external solar panel
Use provided screws to secure the solar panel bracket to the external solar panel. Be sure you place screws in the
right bracket holes, as shown in previous section.
Step 2: Secure Waspmote Plug & Sense! to the wall.
Use provided screws and wall plugs to secure firmly the node to the wall. Check if the node remains completely
fixed to avoid it could fall down.
Figure: Waspmote Plug & Sense! placed on a wall
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Installation
Step 3: Secure the external solar panel to a wall
It is recommended to place the external solar panel above the node, using it as a roof. This will increase protection
against rain and sun. Use screws and the dedicated holes of the solar panel bracket to complete the installation.
Figure: Placing the external solar panel above Waspmote
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Energy Consumption
30. Energy Consumption
30.1. Consumption tables
Waspmote
On
17 mA
Sleep
30 uA
Deep Sleep
33 uA
Waspmote modules
On
Sleep
Off
Sending
Receiving
XBee-PRO 802.15.4
56,68 mA
0,12 mA
0 μA
187,58 mA
57,08 mA
XBee 868LP
60,82 mA
--
0 μA
160 mA
73 mA
XBee-PRO 900HP
64,93 mA
0,93 mA
0 μA
77 mA
66 mA
WiFi PRO
33 mA
4 uA
0 uA
38 mA
38 mA
4G
Note: Before setting Waspmote to a low-power consumption mode, it is always recommended to switch any communication
module off.
30.2. Energy system
30.2.1. Concepts
Waspmote has four operational modes:
••
••
••
••
On: Normal operation mode. Consumption in this state is 17 mA.
Sleep: The main program is paused, the microcontroller passes to a latent state, from which it can be woken
up by all asynchronous interruptions and by the synchronous interruption generated by the Watchdog. The
duration interval of this state is from 32 ms to 8 s. Consumption in this state is 30 μA.
Deep Sleep: The main program pauses, the microcontroller passes to a latent state from which it can be
woken up by all asynchronous interruptions and by the synchronous interruption triggered by the RTC. The
interval of this cycle can be from seconds to minutes, hours, days. Consumption in this state is 33 μA.
Hibernate: The main program stops, the microcontroller and all the Waspmote modules are completely
disconnected. The only way to reactivate the device is through the previously programmed alarm in the RTC
(synchronous interrupt). The interval of this cycle can be from seconds to minutes, hours, days. Almost all
devices are totally disconnected from the battery: only the RTC is powered through the battery, from which it
consumes 7 μA.
Consumption Microcontroller
Cycle
Accepted interruptions
On
17 mA
On
-
All interruption sources
Sleep
30 μA
On
Depends on INT
source
All interruption sources
Deep Sleep
33 μA
On
1 s – 31 days
All interruption sources (RTC always
used)
Hibernate
7 μA
Off
1 s – 31 days
Only RTC
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Energy Consumption
On the other hand, each module (radio, sensor board, etc) might have up to several operation modes.
••
••
••
On: Normal operation mode.
Sleep: Some communication modules permit to set up sleep modes so as to save energy (depends on each
module).
Off: By using Waspmote’s digital switches (controlled by the microcontroller), the module is switched off
completely. This mode has been implemented by Libelium as an independent layer of energy control, so
that it can reduce consumption to a minimum (~7 μA) without relegating to techniques implemented by the
manufacturer.
For complete information about interruption types and their handling, see the “Interruption” chapter.
Related API libraries: WaspPWR.h, WaspPWR.cpp
All information about the programming and operation of interruptions can be found in the Interrupt Programming
Guide.
All the documentation is located in the Development section in the Libelium website.
Note: Before setting Waspmote to a low-power consumption mode, it is always recommended to switch any communication
module off.
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Energy Consumption
30.2.2. Sleep mode
In this mode, the main program is paused, the microcontroller passes to a latent state, from which it can be woken
by all asynchronous interruptions and by the synchronous interruption generated by the Watchdog. When the
Watchdog Timer is set up, the duration interval can be programmed from 16 ms to 8 s. Consumption in this state
is 30 μA.
In this mode the microcontroller stops executing the main program. The program stack where all the variables and
log values are stored keep their value, so when Waspmote returns to on mode, the next instruction is executed
and the variable values are maintained.
Figure: From on to Sleep mode
The following example would set Waspmote in the Sleep mode for 32 ms. The microcontroller would be in a state
of minimum consumption waiting for the synchronous interruption from the Watchdog:
{
PWR.sleep(WTD_32MS, ALL_OFF);
}
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Energy Consumption
30.2.3. Deep Sleep mode
In this mode, the main program is paused, the microcontroller passes to a latent state from which it can be woken
by all the asynchronous interruptions and by the synchronous interruption launched by the RTC. The interval of
this cycle can go from seconds to minutes, hours, days. Consumption in this state is 33 μA.
In this mode the microcontroller stops executing the main program. The program stack where all the variables and
log values are stored keep their value, so when Waspmote returns to on mode, the next instruction is executed
and the variable values are maintained.
Figure: From on to Deep Sleep mode
30.3. Lifetime of the sensors
Libelium sensor probes are designed to increase lifetime of sensors when they are used outdoors. However,
each sensor has a different lifetime depending on environmental conditions, usage and many other factors that
Libelium cannot control.
It is suggested to use a solar shield with sensor probes which are going to be installed in places where sunlight is
present. Besides, always use sensor probes following all recommendations given in this guide, to ensure the best
lifetime.
The next table shows an appropriated lifetime of sensors which for physical limitations may expire:
Sensor probe type
Lifetime
Gas sensors
3 months – 2 years
Humidity and Temperature (Sensirion) 6 months – 2 years
Solar radiation
1 year – 2 years
Soil moisture
1 year – 2 years
Note: Gas sensors may require replacement for optimal accuracy.
Note: Some of sensor probes like Particle Matter, presence (PIR), ultrasound or solar radiation require a periodic
maintenance due to dust and dirt and environment particles may affect to right measurements.
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Recommendations
31. Recommendations
Libelium gives some recommendations to improve performance and efficiency of Waspmote Plug & Sense!,
enlarging the useful life of all of its elements:
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
Try placing Waspmote Plug & Sense! and its sensors out of the sun. It is known that sun rays accelerates plastic
elements deterioration.
Waspmote Plug & Sense! is waterproof (rated at IP65). Avoid rain or water can reach the node directly when
possible.
If your model includes external solar panel, it is a good idea to place the node under the solar panel, to keep
the node out of the rain, but ensuring solar panel is faced to south (north if you are on the south hemisphere)
and titled 45º.
Always place the node under RF coverage of other Waspmotes or Meshliums. It is a good idea to check RF
communication before fixing the node to its final position.
It is recommended to write down Waspmote Plug & Sense! identification data of external sticker before placing
it in its final place.
Waspmote Plug & Sense! is rated to IK07 against impacts. However, avoid any external object or machinery
can impact with the node.
Keep the node and its sensors out of range of people who can damage installation, wet sensors, etc.
Temperature operating range is from -20 ºC to 60 ºC. Always ensure that the environment temperature is
between these limits.
Libelium takes no responsibility of any damage to third parties caused by a bad installation.
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Documentation changelog
32. Documentation changelog
From v7.4 to v7.5
•• Changed description of the new External SIM/USB Socket version, now nano-SIM compliant
•• Changed specifications of the SD card, now 8 GB
•• Deleted references to the discontinued Internal Solar Panel
From v7.3 to v7.4
•• Added Programming Cloud Service section
From v7.2 to v7.3
•• Added External Battery Module section
•• Operating temperature range was updated
•• Added notes about recharging the 6600 mA·h battery
From v7.1 to v7.2:
•• Added references to the new GPS accessory for Plug & Sense!
•• Added references to the discontinuation of Smart Environment
•• Added references to the new sensors for Smart Environment PRO
•• Deleted references to non-rechargeable batteries
From v7.0 to v7.1:
•• Added references to the integration of Industrial Protocols for Plug & Sense!
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Certifications
33. Certifications
33.1. General overview
Products
Europe
US
Canada
Australia
Brazil
Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
EU
CE
-
-
-
-
Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
-
FCC
IC
RCM / CoC
CoC / Anatel
Plug & Sense! 868
CE
-
-
-
-
Plug & Sense! 900 US
-
FCC
IC
-
-
Plug & Sense! 900 AU
-
-
-
RCM / CoC
-
Plug & Sense! 900 BR
-
-
-
-
CoC / Anatel
Plug & Sense! 4G EU/BR
CE
-
-
-
CoC / Anatel
Plug & Sense! 4G US
-
FCC / PTCRB / AT&T
IC
-
-
Plug & Sense! 4G AU
-
-
-
RCM / CoC
-
Plug & Sense! WiFi
CE
FCC
IC
RCM / CoC
CoC / Anatel
Plug & Sense! Sigfox EU
CE
-
-
-
-
Plug & Sense! Sigfox US
-
FCC (in process)
IC (in process)
-
-
Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN
EU
CE
-
-
-
-
Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN
US
-
FCC
IC
-
-
33.2. CE (Europe)
Figure: Back sticker for Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4 EU
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Certifications
33.2.1. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4 EU
Libelium Comunicaciones Distribuidas, S.L. declare under our sole responsibility that the product Waspmote
Plug & Sense! 802.15.4 EU is in conformity with the essential requirements and other relevant requirements of
the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in conformity with the following
standards and/or other normative documents:
••
••
••
••
Health and Safety:
-- RoHS, EN 50581 (2012)
Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-1 v1.9.2 (2011)
-- EN 301 489-17 v2.2.1 (2012)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
Spectrum:
-- EN 300 328 v1.8.1 (2012-06)
Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
33.2.2. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 868
The product Waspmote Plug & Sense! 868 is in conformity with the essential requirements and other relevant
requirements of the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in conformity with
the following standards and/or other normative documents:
••
••
••
••
Health and Safety:
-- EN 50581 (2012)
Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-1 v1.9.2 (2011)
-- EN 301 489-3 v1.6.1 (2013)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
Spectrum:
-- EN 300 220-2 v2.3.1 (2010-02)
Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
33.2.3. Waspmote Plug & Sense! WiFi
The product Waspmote Plug & Sense! WiFi is in conformity with the essential requirements and other relevant
requirements of the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in conformity with
the following standards and/or other normative documents:
••
••
••
••
Health and Safety:
-- EN 50581 (2012)
Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-1 v1.9.2 (2011)
-- EN 301 489-17 v2.2.1 (2012)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
Spectrum:
-- EN 300 328 v1.8.1 (2012-06)
Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
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Certifications
33.2.4. Waspmote Plug & Sense! 4G EU/BR
The product Waspmote Plug & Sense! 4G EU/BR is in conformity with the essential requirements and other relevant
requirements of the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in conformity with
the following standards and/or other normative documents:
•• Health and Safety:
-- RoHS, EN 50581 (2012)
•• Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-24 v1.5.1 (2010-10)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
•• Spectrum:
-- EN 300 440-2 v1.4.1 (2010-08)
-- EN 301 511 v9.0.2 (2002-11)
-- EN 301 908-1 v6.2.1 (2013-04)
-- EN 301 908-2 v6.2.1 (2013-10)
-- EN 301 908-13 v6.2.1 (2013-10)
•• Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
33.2.5. Waspmote Plug & Sense! Sigfox EU
The product Waspmote Plug & Sense! Sigfox EU is in conformity with the essential requirements and other relevant
requirements of the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in conformity with
the following standards and/or other normative documents:
•• Health and Safety:
-- EN 50581 (2012)
•• Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-1 v1.9.2 (2011)
-- EN 301 489-3 v1.6.1 (2013)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
•• Spectrum:
-- EN 300 220-1 v.2.3.1 (2010)
-- EN 300 220-2 v.2.3.1 (2010)
•• Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
33.2.6. Waspmote Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN EU
The product Waspmote Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN EU is in conformity with the essential requirements and other
relevant requirements of the R&TTE Directive (1999/5/EC) and the 2002/95/CE Directive. The product is in
conformity with the following standards and/or other normative documents:
•• Health and Safety:
-- EN 50581 (2012)
•• Electro-Magnetic Compatibility:
-- EN 301 489-1 v1.9.2 (2011)
-- EN 301 489-3 v1.6.1 (2013)
-- EN 55022 (2010) / A1 (2011)
•• Spectrum:
-- EN 300 220-1 v.2.4.1 (2012-05)
-- EN 300 220-2 v.2.4.1 (2012-05)
•• Electrical Security:
-- EN 60950-1 (2006) / A11 (2009) / A1 (2010) / A12 (2011) / Ac (2011) / A2 (2013) (except annex Zx)
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Certifications
33.3. FCC (USA)
This document applies to the following Waspmote Plug & Sense! models:
Model
FCC ID
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
XKM-WPS-2400-V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 900 US
XKM-WPS-900-V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! WiFi
XKM-WPS-WIFI-V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 4G US
XKM-WPS-4G-V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN US
XKM-WPS-LORA-V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! Sigfox US
XKM-WPS-SFX-V1
Figure: Back sticker for Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
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Certifications
33.4. IC (Canada)
This document applies to the following Waspmote Plug & Sense! Models:
Model
IC ID
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
8472A-WPS2400V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 900 US
8472A-WPS900V1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! WiFi
8472A-WPSWIFIV1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! 4G US
8472A-WPS4GV1
Waspmote Plug & Sense! LoRaWAN US
8472A-WPSLORAV1
IC
Figure: Back sticker for Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
33.5. ANATEL (Brazil)
Figure: Back sticker for Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
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Certifications
33.6. RCM (Australia)
Figure: Back sticker for Waspmote Plug & Sense! 802.15.4
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v7.5
Certifications
33.7. Use of equipment characteristics
Equipment to be located in an area of restricted access, where only expert appointed personnel can access and
handle it.
The integration and configuration of extra modules, antennas and other accessories must also be carried out by
expert personnel.
It is the responsibility of the installer to configure the different parameters of the equipment correctly, whether
hardware or software, to comply with the pertinent regulation of each country in which it is going to be used.
Important: It is the responsibility of the installer to find out about restrictions of use for frequency bands in each country
and act in accordance with the given regulations. Libelium Comunicaciones Distribuidas S.L does not list the entire set of
standards that must be met for each country. For further information go to:
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v7.5
Maintenance
34. Maintenance
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
Although Waspmote is a highly resistant product, please handle with care in order to enjoy a longer useful life.
Handle Waspmote Plug & Sense! with care, do not allow it to drop or move roughly.
Avoid placing the devices in areas reaching high temperatures that could damage the electronic components.
The antennas screw on gently to the connector, do not force upon installing or you could damage the
connectors.
Plug antennas or sensor probes only in their corresponding connectors.
Do not use any type of paint on the device, it could affect the operation of connections and closing mechanisms.
Do not store Waspmote Plug & Sense! in places exposed to dirt and dust in order to avoid damage to electronic
components.
Never open the casing, warranty will not cover products that have been opened.
For cleaning, use a damp cloth, no aggressive chemical products.
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Disposal and recycling
35. Disposal and recycling
••
••
••
When Waspmote Plug & Sense! reaches the end of its useful life it must be taken to a recycling point for
electronic equipment.
The equipment should be disposed of separately from solid urban waste, please dispose of correctly.
Your distributor will advise you on the most appropriate and environmentally-friendly way of disposing of the
product and its packing.
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Resources
36. Resources
You can find complete information and support in the next sections in the Libelium Website:
••
••
Development: http://www.libelium.com/products/plug-sense/
Forum: http://www.libelium.com/forum/
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