Fluid bed granulation - Delft Solids Solutions

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Towards powders and granules
How do we make them
Gabrie Meesters
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Aim of making agglomerates
• Changing particle size distribution
• Changing flow behaviour
• Instant products
• Reducing lumping
• De-dusting
• Decrease segregation
• Changing porosity and density
• Increase wettability and dispersability
• Etc…
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How to make powders and agglomerates
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Concentrating
Drying
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agglomeration
Liquid to Powder
(LP)
• Spray drying
• Flash drying
Liquid to Agglomerate Powder to Agglomerate
(LA)
(PA)
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Low shear granulation
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Pan and drum granulation
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Low-medium shear granulation
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High Shear granulation
•AGT
•Procell
•Cont. fluid bed aggl.
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Fluid bed granulation
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Extrusion
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Pelletising
•Fluid bed coating
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Briquetting
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Tabletting
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(Sintering)
•Multi stage drying
•Filtermat
•Fluid bed agglomeration
•Pan coating
•Drum coating
•(Prilling)
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Liquid to Powder
(LP)
• Spray drying
• Flash drying
Liquid to Agglomerate Powder to Agglomerate
(LA)
(PA)
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Low shear granulation
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Pan and drum granulation
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Low-medium shear granulation
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High Shear granulation
•AGT
•Procell
•Cont. fluid bed aggl.
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Fluid bed granulation
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Extrusion
•
Pelletising
•Fluid bed coating
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Briquetting
•
Tabletting
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(Sintering)
•Multi stage drying
•Filtermat
•Fluid bed agglomeration
•Pan coating
•Drum coating
•(Prilling)
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Criteria for choosing equipment
• Feed: psd, moisture content, material properties, bulk properties, binding properties
• Product: size, shape, strength, porosity, etc
• Process: continuous or batch, capacity, wet or dry, energy requirements,
investments, stand alone or in process-line
• Environment: exposure of exhaust dust, location and handling of raw materials,
laws, energy, cooling etc
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Spray drying: From liquid to powder
• Differentiation on basis of nozzles:
• pneumatic
• air assist (twin fluid)
• rotary atomisers
• Differentiation on basis of flow pattern:
• co-current
• counter-current
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Spray drying: From liquid to powder
• Differentiation on basis of nozzles:
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Single stage spray dryer
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Single stage spray dryer
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Single stage spray dryer
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Advanced Spray Drying (LA)
• Multi stage drying (50-1000 µm)
• spray drying with fines return
• integrated spray dryers
• spray dryers agglomerators
• Filtermat (100-2000 µm)
• specially for sticky powders and high fat products
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Mechanism
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Intergrated Spray Dryer (Niro) (LA)
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MSD-material
--- = 200 µm
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NIRO Integrated Spray Dryer
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Filtermat (Niro) (LA)
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Filtermat (Niro)
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Fluid bed proceses; Spray granulation
•Fluid bed agglomeration
•AGT
•Fluid bed coating
•Pan coating
•Drum coating
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Mechanism Fluid bed agglomeration
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Top Spray Fluidised bed granulation (LA)
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Fluid bed agglomerates examples
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Mechanism Side spray f.b. agglomeration
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Side Spray Fluidised bed granulation (LA)
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Side spray fluidised bed agglomerator
 micro)-agglomeration
 (micro)-coating
 spray granulation
 tumbling agglomerationn
Agglomaster:
Hosokawa
for multi-purpose
batch fluidbed processing
products
AM2
From 2 l up to 1000 l batches
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AGT-process; Continuous Granulation
(LA)
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AGT-process
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(LA)
AGT (GFG)
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Continuous Fluidised Bed granulator
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Mechanism Fluid bed coating
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Spray coating (liquid on granules)
• Fluidised bed coating
• Pan coating
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Fluid bed spray coating/layering
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Fluid bed spray coating/layering (LA)
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Fluid bed spray coating/layering (LA)
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Wurster type fluidised bed; Bottom Spray
(LA)
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Wurster example
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Wurster type fluidised bed;Bottom Spray
Controlled release
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Wurster type fluidised bed; Small Pilot
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Wurster type fluidised bed; Large pilot
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Würster fluid bed: Production Scale
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Top Spray Fluid Bed: Production Scale
(LA)
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Enzoguard
• Solid core
• PVA-layer
• Enzyme layer + PVA
• (NH4)2SO4 layer
• Polymer + pigment
• Neodol coating
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……20-50%
……. ~1%
0.1-10%
10-30%
1-10%
…0.1-2%
Fluid bed ; powder coating
• Not only liquids may be applied also mixtures of liquids and powders can
be added
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Coating
•Fluid bed agglomeration
•AGT
•Fluid bed coating
•Pan coating
•Drum coating
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Pan coating
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(LA)
Rotating drum coater (LA)
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Rotating drum coater
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Spray system in drum coater
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Drum coated products
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Agglomeration (powders to agglomerates)
• Tumbling agglomerators
• Mixer agglomerators, high shear granulators
• Pressure agglomerators (extruders)
• low, medium and high pressure
• Fluidised bed agglomerators
• Briquetting
• Tabletting
• (Sintering)
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1
2
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Mechanisms during agglomeration
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Drum granulation
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(PA)
Rotating Drum Agglomeration
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Continuous drum granulation
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Typical products from tumbling
agglomeration
- =500um
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Low / medium shear granulation Flexomix
(Hosokawa)
(PA)
Continuous
Wet
Agglomeration
 Endproduct particles 0.2 - 1.2 mm
 Excellent free flowing
 Instant products
 > 300 kg/h
for instantizing
Instant mixing “The Schugi Principle”
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Flexomix (Hosokawa)
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(PA)
Instant Cocoa
Typical formulation
for use
in milk
for use
in H2O
 sugar
 cocoa powder
 milkpowder
 flavourings
78%
19%
0%
39%
28%
31%
3%
2%
 thickeners
 emulsifier
 vitamins
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High Shear granulation Lödige
agglomerator
(PA)
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Gral and Glatt high shear granulator (PA)
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Gral and Glatt high shear granulator
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Lödige: Choppers and ploug shares (PA)
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Typical high shear granulate
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Continuous high shear agglomeration
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Continuous high shear granulation circuit
Solid/fluid flow
Feed
Information flow
Binder Liquid
Measurement
Particle size analysis
Solid flow measurement

Fluid bed dryer
Granulator
Screens
Oversize
Product
Undersize
Fluidising medium
Recycle
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Crusher
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Pressure Agglomeration
• Extrusion
• low, medium or high pressure
• depends on moisture content and plasticity
• Pelletising
• Briquetting
• Tabletting
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(PA)
Deformation during pressure
agglomeration
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Low pressure extruders
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(PA)
Low pressure extrusion
Bextruder Hosokawa
for low pressure extrusion
Ø = 0,3 – 1,5 mm
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Mechanism extrusion-spheronisation (PA)
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Spheronisation
Bexroller Hosokawa
for spheronization
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Spheronisation
Batch or semi batch
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Low to medium pressure extrusion (PA)
Extrud-O-mix
Hosokawa
for medium pressure
extrusion
 mixing & extrusion
 wet formgranulation
 cylindrical granules
 diameter: 1.2 - 6 mm
up to 7000 kg/h
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Henkel Mega pearls
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Extrudate
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High Pressure extrusion
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(PA)
High pressure extrudates
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Pelletising
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(PA)
Pellets
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Briquetting; dry granulation
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(PA)
Dry granulation set up
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Tabletting
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(PA)
Pressures during tabletting
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References
• M. Rhodes; Introduction to Particle Technology, John Wiley, 2008
• H. Merkus, G.M.H. Meesters; Particulate products, Springer, 2013
• H. Merkus, G.M.H. Meesters; Production and handling and
characterisation of particulate materials, Springer, 29-10-2015
• W. Pietsch; Size enlargement by agglomeration, John Wiley&sons, 1991
• K.C. Kadam, Granulation of Bioproducts, CRC Press, 1990
• Websites
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Hosokawa Micron
Niro A/S
Glatt GmbH Process Technology
Lödige Process Technology
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