UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
UPS
2013
THE GLOBAL SPECIALIST
IN ELECTRICAL AND DIGITAL BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURES
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing
your UPS
In general the diffusion of UPS systems derives
from an increasingly greater dependence
on electrical energy and the need to protect
sophisticated equipment, data and processes
that are critical for companies. Power
electronics is involved and focused to the design
and development of static UPS systems with
increasingly higher performance levels that
allow for adequate energy savings and a lower
environmental impact.
POWER PROBLEMS
Today there is an increasingly pressing need
for a continuous, quality power supply. Indeed the
devices to power up have an increasingly key, critical
role for businesses, for people's safety, for data
storage and processing and for communications.
After all, these functions are carried out by
sophisticated and sensitive devices that may
be affected by the disturbance coming from
the mains power supply. There are various types
of electrical events that constantly endanger
electronic equipment, as there are various effects
on the availability of the loads (for instance
computer systems):
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
DISTURBANCE
2
DESCRIPTION
EFFECTS
Brief drop in voltage levels. This is the
most common disturbance (even 87%)
due to the power supply and is caused
by the activation of electric devices
such as motors, compressors,
lifts and freight lifts.
Reduction of the power required by a
computer to be able to operate correctly,
which causes the keyboard to stop
working or unexpected system crashes,
resulting in loss and damage of the data
being processed.
A power failure means that there is no
power supply at all. It can be due to an
excessive demand of electrical energy,
storms, ice on the power lines, road
accidents, excavations, earthquakes, etc.
The effects that a loss of data may
involve include an interruption of
communications, no lighting, stopped
production lines, an interruption of
business activities, hazards for people, etc.
Brown-out
Power failure
DISTURBANCE
DESCRIPTION
EFFECTS
A spike, or voltage transient, is a sudden
surge in voltage. Spikes are generally
caused by lightening and can also occur
then the mains supply is restored after a
power failure.
It may also affect electronic devices
via the mains supply, serial lines
or telephone lines and damage or
completely destroy components and
cause a permanent loss of data.
This is a short voltage increase, typically
lasting 1/120 of a second. Overvoltage
may be caused by very powerful electric
motors, such as air-conditioning
systems. When these turn off, the excess
voltage is dissipated on the electric line.
Computers and other highly sensitive
electric devices require variable voltage
within a certain tolerance field. Any
voltage value greater than the peak
value or effective voltage levels (this can
be considered as the average voltage)
stresses delicate components and
causes premature failure.
The noise due to electromagnetic
interference and radio interference
changes the sinusoid generated by the
mains supply. It is generated by various
factors and phenomena, including
lightening, load switching, generators,
radio transmitters and industrial
equipment.
The noise may be intermittent or
constant and introduces transients,
errors and problems in the computer
data or in telecommunications. It can
also lead to malfunctions in various
electrical devices.
Generated by atmospheric
disturbances or changes, load
variations, current generators,
electromagnetic emissions and
industrial systems.
These disturbances cause errors in
the execution of software programs,
early deterioration of computers and
the data they contain, malfunctions in
various types of electric devices.
They generally occur in the energy
produced by power-supply units.
These variations cause errors
in the execution of calculations,
interpretation issues related to
magnetic supports (discs, tapes, etc.),
various kinds of problems associated
with electromechanical applications.
Spike
Overvoltage
EMI / RFI noise
Frequency variations
Power Problems
Parasitic and harmonic currents
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UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
UPS TECHNOLOGIES AND EN62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
There are various types of static UPS systems on the
market, such as: Off-Line, Line-Interactive, On-Line,
Double Conversion, Digital On-Line, In-Line, etc.
Most of these names are predominantly associated
with marketing needs and decisions rather than the
technology employed. In general there are three types
of systems:
Off-line (VD)
SWITCH
SWITCH
SWITCH
IN
IN
IN
OUT
OUT
OUT
INVERTER
Battery Charger INVERTER
INVERTER
Battery
Charger
Battery Charger
1 OFF-LINE
When the mains supply is on, the output is identical
to the input. The UPS attends only when there is no input
voltage and powers the load using the inverter,
which in turn is powered by the batteries.
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
Line-Interactive (VI)
2 LINE-INTERACTIVE
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
When the mains supply is on, the input and output
are separated by a filtering and stabilisation circuit
(AVR: Automatic Voltage Regulator), but some of the
disturbances and waveform variations that may
be at the input may be found at the output.
As in Off-line systems, when there is a power failure,
the output is connected to the inverter, which in turn
is powered by the batteries.
4
IN
IN
IN
Battery Charger
Battery
Battery Charger
Charger
INVERTER
INVERTER
INVERTER
OUT
OUT
OUT
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
3 ON-LINE DOUBLE CONVERSION
The input is first rectified and then re-converted
into alternating current with an inverter.
This way the output voltage waveform is totally
independent from the input. All potential mains
disturbances are eliminated and there is no transient
time switching from the mains to the battery, as the
output is always powered by the inverter.
In the event of overloads or other eventual problems,
this type of UPS has an automatic Bypass that ensures
the load is powered by switching it directly at the input.
SWITCH
SWITCH
SWITCH
AVR
AVR
AVR
On-line double conversion (VFI)
BYPASS
BYPASS
BYPASS
PFC/BOOSTER
PFC/BOOSTER
PFC/BOOSTER
INVERTER
INVERTER
INVERTER
OUT
OUT
OUT
IN
IN
IN
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
BATTERIES
To identify the best-suited UPS for your needs,
it is important to carefully examine the features
of the application to be protected.
Every UPS offers specific benefits depending
on the application for which it is designed.
It is not enough to consider only the power
absorbed by the load!
The fact that a UPS has enough power to supply the
effective load does not ensure it is an adequate choice.
The EN 62040-3 standard defines the classification
of the UPS based on its performance.
EN 62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
Output
dependence
from the Input
YY
Output
waveform
The third part of the classification code (ZZZ) defines the
dynamic performance of the output voltage in relation to
the load variations occurring in three different conditions:
• 111 variation of the operating modes (normal and
battery-based),
• 112 insertion of the step-based linear load
in normal or battery-based mode,
• 113 insertion of the step-based non-linear load
in normal or battery-based mode.
ZZZ
Output dynamic
performance
The first part of the classification (XXX) defines
the type of UPS:
• VFI (Voltage and Frequency Independent):
this UPS has an output that is independent from
supply voltage variations (mains) and frequency
variations are controlled within the limits required
by the IEC EN 61000-2-2 standard.
• VFD (Voltage and Frequency Dependent):
this UPS has an output that depends on the supply
voltage variation (mains) and frequency variations.
• VI (Voltage Independent):
in this type of UPS the voltage supply variations are
stabilised by electronic/passive regulating devices
within the normal operating limits.
EN 62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
VFI
SS
111
VI
XX
112
VFD
YY
113
The UPS systems with the best performance are
classified as: VFI SS 111
UPS TECHNOLOGIES AND EN62040-3 CLASSIFICATION
XXX
The second part of the classification code (YY) defines
the output waveform during normal operation or
battery-powered operation:
• SS: sinusoidal (THDu ‹ 8%),
• XX: sinusoidal with linear load,
non-sinusoidal with distorting load (THDu › 8%),
• YY: non-sinusoidal.
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UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
UPS output voltages
T = 3+5 ms
OFF LINE
T = 3+5 ms
OFF LINE
T = 3+5 ms
LINE
INTERACTIVE
LINE
T = 3+5 ms
INTERACTIVE
ON LINE
T=
NO Time
ON LINE
T=
NO Time
UPS features and classification
1 - Power outages, › 10 ms
VFD
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
VFD
6
VI
VI
VFI
VFI
1 - Power outages, › 10 ms
2 - Fast voltage fluctuations, ‹ 16 ms
2 - Fast voltage fluctuations, ‹ 16 ms
3 - Short-time overvoltages, 4-16 ms
3 - Short-time overvoltages, 4-16 ms
4 - Long-time voltage dips
4 - Long-time voltage dips
5 - Long-time over voltages
5 - Long-time over voltages
6 - Lighting effects
6 - Lighting effects
7 - Overvoltage surges, ‹ 4 ms
7 - Overvoltage surges, ‹ 4 ms
8 - Frequency fluctuations
8 - Frequency fluctuations
9 - Voltage-waveform distortion
9 - Voltage-waveform distortion
10 - Voltage harmonics
10 - Voltage harmonics
CHOOSING THE UPS
Modular Rack UPS up to 5kVA.
Conventional 2.5kVA single-cabinet UPS.
Choosing the UPS
To choose the correct UPS size, it is necessary
to know the following parameters:
• Active and reactive power: this is the UPS'
maximum power output expressed in VA.
• ACTIVE power: this is the UPS' maximum power
output expressed in W.
• Power Factor (PF): this is the ratio between
active and active and reactive power.
• Back-up Time: this is the maximum amount
of time for which the UPS can supply energy
without mains.
• Power supply characteristics:
these are the number of phases and the voltage
and frequency values of the power supply line.
• Output power supply characteristics:
these are the number of phases and the voltage
and frequency values of the UPS output line.
Clearly the input parameters must be compatible
with the mains and the output parameters must
be compatible with the loads to be powered and
protected.
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UPS
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
TYPES OF LOAD (ITIC CURVE)
As for the discrepancies from acceptable nominal
values, one of the few clear and internationally
acknowledged notes regarding the power supply
of electronic devices (namely computer-based
equipment) is the ITIC (Information Technology
Industry Council) curve. This represents the updated
version of the CBEMA (Computer Business Electronic
Manufacturer’s Association) note, also implemented
in the ANSI/IEEE Standard 446-1995: “IEEE
Recommended practice for emergency and stand-by
power for industrial and commercial applications”.
The ITIC immunity curve (formerly known as the
CBEMA curve) was created with an exclusive reference
to Information Technology Equipment (ITE),
i.e. basically PCs and similar products, and is based
on a simple assessment on the width (higher or lower
than the nominal voltage) and the duration
of the disturbance of the power supply voltage.
These curves indicate the percentage voltage
variations in relation to the nominal value (230V)
that are accepted by the devices powered in relation
to the duration of these variations.
In the figure, the white area represents all
the situations in which the device is not affected by
the voltage variation. Instead the coloured areas
represent situations where they may lead to
malfunctions or even failures.
Simply, it is evident that the greater the voltage
variation the shorter the time the electronic devices
can tolerate it without being affected.
Nominal Voltage
ITIC curve
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Risk of damaging the hardware
8
15%
10%
230V
-10%
-15%
-20%
Risk of causing a malfunction
0
1 ms
10 ms
100 ms
1s
10 s
100 s
1000 s
2000 s
Time
POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS FOR THE VARIOUS TYPES OF UPS SYSTEMS
By combining the operating features of the UPS
systems and knowing the features of the loads to be
powered, it is possible to list and group the possible
compatible applications for each type of UPS.
Line-Interactive
Corporate computer networks
Security systems
Emergency systems
Lighting systems
Domestic and industrial automation
On-Line Double Conversion
Corporate IT network.
Telecommunications.
Electromedical sector.
Industrial automation.
Emergency systems.
Protection of dedicated lines.
Critical industrial/civil applications.
Upstream of power-supply units.
Any other possible application
Possible Applications for the various Types of UPS systems
Off-Line
PC Home
Internet work stations
Telephone switchboards
Tills
POS terminals
Fax machines
Small groups of emergency lights
Industrial and domestic automation
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UPS
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
BATTERIES
Batteries are key for the UPS system: they ensure
power supply continuity by providing energy to the
inverter (for the necessary time) during a power
failure. It is therefore essential to have them always
connected, operational and charged.
Batteries typically used in UPS systems are Sealed
Lead Acid batteries (SLA) and Valve Regulated Lead
Acid batteries (VRLA).
This type of battery is hermetically sealed, does not
require any maintenance and is based on internal
gas recombination. As well as ensuring a greater
operating life, this feature allows to install the UPS
also in areas usually occupied by people. This type
of battery needs very little ventilation (which can
be calculated in accordance with the EN 50272-2
standard) and this does not usually require special
aeration and ventilation studies.
Battery parts
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Positive flag
terminal
10
Extruded intercell welded
connection, low resistance
current path
Valve
Cover lid
Strap joining
negative plates
in parallel
Negative
pasted plate
lead alloy grid
Polypropylene
container
Separator
Moreover, Lead batteries can provide high current
levels and operate discontinuously without
necessarily reaching the end of discharge, without
being affected by a "memory effect" like other types
of batteries.
Battery manufacturers declare the “Expected Life
Time” of batteries.
The most common cases for SLA batteries are:
5-6 years (Standard Life batteries) and 10-12 years
(Long Life batteries).
This is an indicative value and is referred to standard
working and environmental conditions that may not
necessarily coincide with batteries' real operating
conditions.
As for their the chemical nature in energy is storing
and supplying, batteries are very sensitive to
environmental conditions and to how they are used.
In particular, high temperatures can drastically reduce
batteries' life.
In general, the nominal operating temperature
of VRLA Batteries is 20-25°C, for every 10°C the life
expectancy is halved.
BATTERIES
As for their use, the duration and intensity of the
discharges and recharges influence the batteries'
life. Excessively intense or low currents, very
long and deep discharges, intense and prolonged
recharges, etc. can reduce batteries' life and even
damage them.
To avoid these phenomena, modern UPS systems
have sophisticated battery management algorithms
that optimise their use by monitoring and dynamically
adapting voltages and currents in order to prevent
deep discharges and conduct effective and safe
recharges.
As well as extending their life, a “smart” battery
management also allows to constantly monitor their
status and reduces consumption levels associated
with their recharge.
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UPS
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
Due to the phenomenon of self-discharge, batteries
age and deteriorate even when they are not used
for extended periods of time. To avoid incurring
in a permanent loss of their capacity, it is
recommended to do not leave the batteries
disconnected for more than six/ten months.
After this time, even new batteries that were initially
in good condition may have recharging problems.
In addition to self-discharge, also storage
temperature negatively affects batteries' life.
Modern UPS systems allow to prevent this issue by
managing to keep the batteries charged even when
they are off (battery recharge in stand-by). So even
when not used, one just needs to keep the UPS
connected to the mains to keep the batteries active
and alive.
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
To perform its functions the UPS must always be
connected to the batteries and promptly report
any disconnection or malfunctioning. Modern UPS
systems have various automatic battery testing
and monitoring functions and are able to inform
the user about possible faults in order to prevent
any problems even before the batteries reach
the end of their life.
However, we recommend conducting periodical
checks and maintenance on the batteries (at least
once a year). It is also advisable to get a new set
of batteries before they run out.
12
When choosing the batteries, to reach a certain
back-up time it is important to also consider the
recharging time. Of course, with UPS systems with
the same nominal power, the greater the back-up
time, the higher the number of batteries and,
as a result, the longer the recharge time.
To evaluate the right amount of batteries,
it is recommended calculating the back-up time
based on the actual load to protect, rather than the
nominal power of the UPS.
SMART CHARGE - ADVANCED BATTERY MANAGEMENT
year 1
STANDARD CHARGING SYSTEM
SMART CHARGER
SAVINGS
year 2
year 3
At the same time this system does not stress the
batteries, because when they reach their full charge,
the charging intensity decreases until it reaches zero.
In other words, the smart battery charge system
optimises energy adsorption by limiting it to the
amount actually required by the real charging status
of the batteries. Moreover, it has the additional effect
of extending the batteries' performance and life.
Intelligent battery charge system
(Smart Battery Charger)
The “Smart Charger” three-stage intelligent charging
system considerable extends batteries' life by even 50%,
thereby halving the number of times they need to be
replaced and environmental pollution due to their disposal.
year 4
year 5
year 6
year 7
1,00
year 8
1,00
1,00
year 9
Total
2,00
1,00
50%
SMART CHARGE - ADVANCED BATTERY MANAGEMENT
To ensure power supply continuity in the event of
a power failure, the batteries must be charged and
in good condition. Therefore, a part of the energy
absorbed by the UPS must be directed to charging
the batteries. This is an additional consumption that
cannot be eliminated. To reduce and optimize the
cost of charging the batteries, UPS systems with an
intelligent charging system (Smart Charge) are used.
This system is based on the direct measurement of
the operating parameters (Voltage and current) of the
batteries and their variations in order to monitor the
status of the battery in real time. The recharge follows
a cycle consisting of several stages, whose duration
and intensity depends on the state of the batteries.
This advanced battery charge system has the benefit
of having a fast charging time and the batteries are
always charged constantly monitored.
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U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
THE COST OF DOWNTIME
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Calculating the economic impact caused by potential
downtime may seem a complicated task. As a matter
of fact, the productivity of modern companies is closely
associated with that of information systems, so often
unavailable information systems lead to downtime.
To get an idea of the cost of downtime due to electrical
issues, one just needs to multiply the unavailability
time by the cost of the salaries of employees that
depend on the system and add the lost profit
(Total profit/unavailability time).
These costs must then be added to any costs required
to restore the system, which instead depend on the
frequency of the events and on how serious they are.
14
The main players in the UPS market have a number of
distinguishing features, which need to be considered
before making a choice: from the commitment in
the Research and Development of power protection
solutions to the focus on low energy consumption
and the compliance with environmental regulations
to the solutions aiming at reducing running costs and
increasing flexibility and, in some cases, the compact
design and appearance of the devices.
From a marketing point of view, customer satisfaction,
maintenance processes (which must involve periodical
technical check-ups), how fast support services
are provided are clearly key elements and true
distinguishing elements of the product offer. Basically
UPS systems have three features: Safety, Reliability
and Availability.
ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM
1 DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE
Distributed architecture is used in cases where the application to be protected is not particularly critical and
when there are logistics issues (for instance: several rooms, pre-existing system, etc.).
BENEFITS
DRAWBACKS
It is possible to use existing wall sockets.
Complex management and monitoring: several UPS systems located
in different areas.
Special sizing for the individual loads to be
protected.
Long and complex maintenance: for instance, battery control and
replacement to be conducted on many systems at different times.
Small independent UPS systems next to the
loads to be protected.
Emergency shutdown to be managed for each machine.
Special expansion units or new parts for each
individual UPS work station.
Difficulty in achieving redundancy.
Existing UPS systems can be retained and
used together with new ones.
Higher running and maintenance costs.
Greater electrical consumption.
A dedicated UPS for each system load
UPS 1
UPS 2
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM
UPS 3
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
2 CENTRALISED ARCHITECTURE
Centralised architecture is a preferable solution to protect the entire structure:
BENEFITS
DRAWBACKS
Just one system to install and manage (simpler and more
convenient than several small systems)
A single system may represent a un single point of failure
(critical nature of the distribution). This can be avoided with
redundant installations with a resulting increase in costs.
A single system to maintain (easier and more economical
than many small systems).
The UPS is usually far away from the load to be protected.
Greater longevity for both the UPS and the Batteries.
Greater overall dimensions.
Greater energy efficiency (Lower Electric consumption).
Installation and wiring costs, together with costs to extend the
back-up time can be high.
The UPS is generally placed in a safe and protected utility
room with optimal environmental conditions.
Installation and maintenance must generally be conducted by
specialised technical personnel.
A single UPS to protect several system loads
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
UPS
16
Load 1
Load 4
Load 2
Load 5
Load 3
Load 6
Load 7
3 MODULAR ARCHITECTURE
Modular architecture is an interesting solution to protect a company's key areas.
The modules are UPS systems that contribute all together to powering the load:
BENEFITS
DRAWBACKS
All the Benefits of centralised Architecture.
The initial purchase cost may be higher.
Easy to achieve internal redundancy by adding one or
more modules.
Installation and maintenance may need to be conducted by
specialised technical personnel.
Easier and faster installation and expandability compared
with the centralised solution.
Greater overall dimensions compared to distributed
architecture.
Easier and faster to maintain and repair.
With modular UPS systems the configurations can be changed to increase the back-up time and power without
replacing the machine.
ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM
More compact compared to the centralised solution
(especially in case of redundancy).
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
4 GRANULAR MODULAR ARCHITECTURE
Granularity consists in having compact modules with low power levels order to let the system less sensitive
against the malfunction of an individual module.
BENEFITS
Easier and faster installation, maintenance and expandability
compared with the Modular solution.
DRAWBACKS
The initial purchase cost may be higher.
Easy to achieve internal redundancy and immunity against failures.
A single module involves a small power loss in relation
to the nominal power.
In the event of a failure, minimal downtime for non-redundant
configurations.
Greater energy efficiency, lower consumption.
Accurate and optimal sizing: with small modules it is easier
to attain the actual power of the load.
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
R
18
S
T
KO
LOAD
With the "granular" modular architecture you can only replace one element, as needed, ensuring the service
continuity of the whole system.
SYSTEM SIZE
To obtain a uninterruptible power supply– and
therefore suitable sized in relation to the load to be
protected – it is necessary to clearly identify various
aspects.
This will allow us to achieve the best integration of all
the parts that make up the source itself.
The elements required to size the UPS correctly are:
1.Maximum power of the load to be protected.
2. Performance of the UPS to be used.
3. Features of the UPS system's input circuit.
4. Any additional energy sources.
Pups
η
MAINS
Plinea
UPS
Pload
Load
GE
Pgen
PF-ups
THDi%
PF-load
THDi%
The power of the UPS input must have is the result
of the sum of the UPS' power plus the "lost" power
generated by its performance.
The conversion efficiency of the UPS must always be
declared by the manufacturer of the UPS itself.
Usually the declared efficiency does not consider
the charging of the batteries, which would involve an
increase in the amount of power absorbed. However,
this is negligible considering that normally UPS
systems are never used at full load but often at around
75-80%.
The vast majority of UPS systems do not have a correct
absorption. Indeed, as they are non-linear loads,
they can cause disturbances to the mains itself.
These disturbances are caused by harmonics generated
by input circuits that have not been set up correctly.
Therefore the plant engineer must also take
into account this aspect, especially when it is
recommended to choose a UPS with a limited THDi
value of about 3% max.
This is only allowed in UPS systems with input PFCs
(Power Factor Corrector).
SYSTEM SIZE
Pups
P
line =
ηups
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
1 SIZING WITH POWER-SUPPLY UNITS
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Power-supply units may show malfunctions
if associated with a UPS without a input PFC circuit,
as an harmonic distortion of the current could cause
considerable disturbance to the alternator, which
could lead to a shutdown.
For conventional UPS systems, to avoid this potential
issue it is necessary to use a generator 1.5 times
or twice the size in relation to the power of the UPS,
which would result in wasted energy and money.
Therefore also in this case it is necessary to examine
the architecture of the UPS systems correctly.
When determining the size of an electrical system,
special attention should be placed on selecting the
cables. Indeed, it is necessary to take account various
elements such as voltage, current, the length of the
line, the ambient temperature and the intended type
of installation.
20
The IEC 60364 standard defines the capacities of the
conductors to be used for fixed installations and takes
into account the elements listed above.
ARCHIMOD three-phase modular UPS.
2 SIZE OF THE NEUTRAL CABLE
In three-phase distribution systems, where UPS
systems with high harmonic distortion or no input PFC
circuit are used, there is often strong unbalance
on the line, which results in the need for an oversized
neutral cable.
So a UPS with a correct and balanced absorption
requires a neutral conductor with a smaller
cross-section.
In single-phase systems the size of the neutral cable
does not represent an issue, as it must have the same
cross-section of the phase conductor.
3 SIZE OF THE PROTECTIVE DEVICE
WITH CIRCUIT BREAKER
Typically, UPS systems with On-Line double conversion
technology (VFI) are fitted with a bypass circuit which,
in the event of a UPS failure or overload, automatically
connect the load directly to the mains.
In this case, the size of the upstream circuit breaker
must take into account the UPS' maximum allowed
current overload.
Modular circuit breaker.
4 SIZE OF THE PROTECTIVE DEVICE
FITTED WITH A FUSE
Modular fuse-holder.
SYSTEM SIZE
Normally all UPS systems already have an integrated
input fuse protection with current values adequately
set by the manufacturer.
Therefore it is not necessary to fit an additional
protection of this type in the system.
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A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
PROTECTION WITH EARTH LEAKAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER
22
N
F
Id=0.3A
ON LINE
DOUBLE CONVERSION
(VFI)
IN
UPS
BATTERIES
BYPASS
PFC/BOOSTER
INVERTER
PASSING TROUGH NEUTRAL
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
In cases where it is necessary to use earth leakage
protections on the load is important that the UPS
does not alter the output neutral/earth arrangement
in relation to the arrangement at the input.
The preservation of the neutral/earth arrangement
is certainly guaranteed in UPS systems with
a Feed-through Neutral cable, where the input neutral
coincides with the output neutral.
When using earth leakage protections, one must
consider that all electric devices employ internal
EMC filters, which generate small leakage currents
to earth. When they are summed up and added to the
UPS' leakage current, they may cause an ill-timed
intervention of the differential. In this regard, to achieve
a greater selectivity on the system, we recommend
using 0.03A residual current devices on the UPS
output to protect the loads against indirect contact and
use 0.3A or more powerful residual current devices
upstream of the UPS.
This way the loads are protected by the switches
downstream of the UPS and the leakage currents
of the loads (even if added to the leakage currents
of the UPS) will never cause the protection upstream
of the UPS to intervene at the wrong time.
OUT
Id=0.03A
N
Residual current circuit breaker
F
POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
The European Code of Conduct published in 2007 defines
the minimum efficiency levels based on the size and load
levels for the new UPS systems launched on the market.
from 1-1-2008 to 31-12-2009
Mode
UPS range:
›
–10 - ‹20kVA
UPS range:
›
–20 - ‹40kVA
UPS range:
›
40
– - ‹200kVA
UPS range:
›
–200kVA
83 %
84 %
86.5 %
89 %
50% of nominal power
89 %
89.5 %
90.5 %
92%
75% of nominal power
90.5 %
91 %
92 %
93 %
100% of nominal power
91 %
91.5 %
92 %
93 %
Normal mode Minimum
efficiency measured according
to EN 62040-3 Annex AA
25% of nominal power
POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
Electronic power conversion circuits (PFC Rectifier and
Inverter) certainly represent the main components of
the UPS. The energy transferred to the load passes
through these circuits, which are therefore particularly
stressed from both an electrical and thermal point of
view. The process of converting energy requires energy
and the losses due to parasitic effects are added to
this process. Usually, except for battery chargers,
conversion circuits are the ones that use the highest
amount of energy in the UPS.
To reduce and optimize this consumption, latest generation UPS systems employ high efficiency and high
performance electronic components (IGBT-Insulated
Gate Bipolar Transistor) that ensure a high quality
energy conversion with very low consumption levels
and compact overall dimensions.
Using IGBTs allows to employ high frequency
monitoring and control technologies (PWM-Pulse
Width Modulation). This means transformers are
not required (Transformerless technologies) and the
use of passive filters is reduced to a minimum.
The drastic reduction of these elements removes all
the losses occurring in iron and copper parts and
considerably reduces the overall dimensions, weight
and costs of the UPS. Moreover, by reducing losses
also the heat that needs to be removed is reduced.
This means that also cooling and ventilation systems
require less energy and are lighter and more compact.
23
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
EFFICIENCY AND SIZE
Latest-generation static UPS systems place a special
focus on the energy drawn from the mains supply and
the one provided to the equipment to be powered, as the
main cause of wasted energy depends precisely on the
overall performance of the system.
The performance is also related to the system's usage
percentage (and increases as this percentage increase).
So special attention must be placed on the accurate
sizing of the UPS, as an oversized system also has
negative economic effects on electrical consumption,
along with higher initial costs.
One must also consider that in many applications,
the load may not be constant but vary throughout the
day and week. In these cases it is not enough to have
a high efficiency at the nominal power, because for
most of its life, the UPS operates with lower loads.
In general the best solution is to choose a UPS with a
high performance as constant as possible also with load
percentages below 50%, as shown in the figure. This
why the performance of the UPS does not depend on
the actual load connected.
Batteries, too, influence the overall performance of the
UPS System. Indeed, they need to be charged after being
used during a power failure and kept charged when
the mains voltage is on. So part of the energy absorbed
by the UPS is delivered to the batteries with additional
heat loss and dissipation. To reduce the consumption
of energy associated with the batteries to a minimum,
the battery chargers must have an efficient electronics
controlled with intelligent software algorithms based on
the actual conditions of the batteries.
Intelligent charging, management and monitoring
algorithms allow to charge the batteries accurately and
effectively, thereby reducing consumption, limiting the
charging time and using the batteries in the best possible
way. Using the batteries properly extends their life, with
resulting savings on the number of times the batteries
need to be replaced during the life of the UPS.
Another solution to consumption associated with the
batteries is to determine the system's back-up time in
relation to the actual load to be powered up for the entire
duration of the power failure. In addition to the resulting
energy savings, a correct battery size also leads to lower
installation and maintenance costs, along with a smaller
overall dimensions.
24
100%
90%
80%
70%
efficiency
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Performance curve
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
load rate
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
MANAGING ENERGY WITH MODULAR UPS SYSTEMS
Modular UPS systems allow for an optimal
configuration of the number of modules and for
nominal power values that are very similar to the
values required by the loads. This avoids unnecessary
and costly oversized systems.
Modularity also leads to energy savings and lower
installation and maintenance costs of the UPS. As they
are lightweight and compact, the modules are easy
to transport and replace. So it is possible to handle
and maintain modular UPS systems with minimum
personnel and means of transport and with very little
downtime. Moreover, high-end modular machines are
“self-configuring” (self-sensing) and do not require
programming or hardware or software setting when
the modules are installed or replaced. Therefore no
special tools and devices are required to operate with
these UPS systems.
Therefore modularity allows to optimize consumption
and costs both in terms of energy absorption and
in terms of managing and operating the system.
Batteries, too, influence the overall performance of
the UPS System. Indeed, they need to be charged after
being used during a power failure and kept charged
when the mains voltage is on. So part of the energy
absorbed by the UPS is delivered to the batteries with
additional heat loss and dissipation.
To reduce the consumption of energy associated with
the batteries to a minimum, the battery chargers must
have an efficient electronics controlled with intelligent
software algorithms based on the actual conditions
of the batteries. Intelligent charging, management
and monitoring algorithms allow to charge the
batteries accurately and effectively, thereby reducing
consumption, limiting the charging time and using the
batteries in the best possible way.
In addition to the resulting energy savings, a correct
battery size also leads to lower installation and
maintenance costs, along with a smaller overall
dimensions.
Megaline from 1250VA to 10000VA.
1250 UPS module.
MANAGING ENERGY WITH MODULAR UPS SYSTEMS
In terms of the economical and rational use of energy
in UPS applications, modularity brings great benefits.
Modular UPS systems consist of independent and
synchronised modules that are all involved in powering
and protecting the load. These are low power modules
and therefore are compact, lightweight and have low
consumption levels.
The nominal power of these UPS systems depends on
the number of modules installed. If the load increases,
it is possible to increase the system's power by adding
other modules. It is also possible to install more
modules than the ones required to achieve internal
redundancy and ensure continuity of operation even in
the event of a failure of a single module.
25
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
A guide to choosing your UPS (continued)
1 SINGLE-PHASE MODULAR
UPS SYSTEMS
Single-phase modular UPS systems definitely
offer first-class performance levels and features.
Depending on the power levels, they are available
in two versions, single cabinet or double cabinet.
Each modular UPS consists of a variable number
of power boards and batteries, based on powers levels
and uptime. Each module is a VFI SS 111 class 1250VA
UPS with PFC rectifier and high frequency
PWM-controlled inverter.
2 THREE-PHASE MODULAR
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
UPS SYSTEMS
26
LEGRAND'S range of three-phase UPS systems
consists of Modular UPS systems suited to provide
protection against sudden power failures in critical
environments such as data centres and industrial
or emergency applications.
These modular UPS systems offer a number
of benefits in terms of the reliability and overall
management costs they entail. Modular and
expandable systems allow to optimize investments in
the UPS systems by adapting them to actual needs,
without precluding future expansion and avoiding an
unnecessary waste of energy. These UPS systems can
be configured to increase or decrease both their power
and back-up time as needed.
As well as allowing expandability based on small
steps, the modular philosophy based on compact
modules (both power and battery modules) also
allows to manage maintenance operations in a simple
and cost-effective way. LEGRAND's three-phase
UPS systems introduce a new model of modularity
that rather than offering pre-set power reductions,
offers the opportunity of choosing the “on-demand”
configuration that best suits your needs.
ARCHIMOD
POWER FACTOR AND HARMONIC DISTORTION
Indeed, the more the power factor moves away
from the unity value, the greater the reactive power
absorbed by the mains, leading to higher operator
tariffs. Plus, the reduction in resulting voltage drops
substantially limits the waste of energy.
The correction of the power factor also removes
the need to implement a power factor correction
system and to increase the size of a potential
power-supply unit upstream, which in the past had
to be at least 30% of the UPS' nominal power.
This allows for additional savings related to
installation of the uninterruptible power supply
system. A high power factor also determines
a reduction of the losses on the conductors due
to a lower intensity of the circulating current.
Moreover, a careful control of the current absorbed
by the mains (PFC) allows to achieve a very low
harmonic distortion of the input current (THD ‹3%).
The harmonic distortion caused by non-linear loads
on power supply lines means that the currents
in the system are higher than expected and that
they contain harmonic frequency components: a
phenomenon that may be seriously underestimated
because these are currents that cannot be measured
with standard portable instruments supplied to
maintenance personnel.
Even if the current remains within the capacity of the
overload protection device, the conductors operate
at higher temperatures and cause a waste of energy
generally equal to 2-3% of the overall load.
W = VA
Vin
MAINS
Iin
PF=0.8
Switching
Load
Vin
Iin
MAINS
PF=0.99
PFC
THD i < 3 %
Rest of
the UPS
PF=0.8
Switching
Load
POWER FACTOR AND HARMONIC DISTORTION
An almost unity power factor at the input (PFC = 0.99
already with a load of just 20%) and a low harmonic
distortion (THD ‹3%) ensure a minimal impact on the
mains and a high level of energy efficiency that results
in lower energy management costs.
27
UPS
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES
UPS management
and communication
Very often UPS systems require remote
communication to allow for faster and more
effective diagnostics during the various
operating stages and quick maintenance
operations.
These functions may be obtained by fitting
the equipment with communication boards
and network interface cards and providing
additional monitoring services to ensure
maximum safety and peace of mind for the
customer.
LOCAL PROTECTION
To protect an individual computer (server or work
station) and its relative devices, one just needs to
use a RS232 or a USB connection and install the
management software on the system to be protected.
If your computer is connected to an IP network
you can also receive the UPS' alarm messages
on your computer via pop-up messages
and e-mails and graphically view operational
data through specific monitoring programs.
The benefit of this type of management is that
implementation costs are very low, but there
is a limitation: the UPS must be installed near
the system to be protected.
UPS
RS232
Computer
UPS management software
TCP/IP
Reception
of messages /
Display of data
Computer
Computer
Optional
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
EXTENSION OF THE LOCAL PROTECTION
28
If there is a higher number of computers to be
controlled, it is possible to use the solution described
above. However, a special software "agent"
must be installed on the other computers.
This receives and executes controls sent from
the computer interfaced with the UPS.
Again in this case implementation costs are
very low, but if the computer interfaced with the
UPS shuts down (fault, maintenance, updates, etc.),
the management system is completely prevented
from operating.
As a result, one can no longer receive the alarm
messages and this endangers the integrity of the
remaining computers.
UPS
RS232
Computer
UPS management software
Computer
Computer
TCP/IP
Computer
Reception of messages /
Display of data
Shutdown agent
Shutdown agent
INTEGRATION INTO THE IP NETWORK
This solution has a number of benefits:
•The UPS can be installed even far away from
the systems that it needs to protect.
•The whole management no longer depends
on a single computer and this effectively ensures
the safety of all the connected devices.
•The data can be viewed from any web browser
without having to install special software.
UPS
RS232
Network
interface
UPS management software
TCP/IP
Computer
Computer
Computer
Reception
of messages /
Display of data
Shutdown agent
Shutdown agent
INTEGRATION INTO THE IP NETWORK
This type of installation requires that the UPS
is connected to a special network interface inside
which the software is installed. The network
interface card is in turn connected to the IP network.
As the UPS is connected directly to the IP network,
its management system is able to send e-mails and
pop-up messages, and turn computers on and off.
The protection of the various computers is ensured
by installing a software agent that receives the
controls from the network interface of the UPS.
29
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
Management and communication
of the UPS systems (continued)
MANAGING SEVERAL UPS SYSTEMS
To manage several LEGRAND UPS systems it is
necessary to use a software application that can
continuously monitor even a large number of UPS
systems installed locally or in remotely.
All the alarms generated by the UPS through their
respective management systems are intercepted
through the IP network by this application.
This stores the alarms in a database and sends
a series of pop-up messages and e-mails to operators
who, by connecting themselves via online browsers,
are able to quickly identify the UPS that generated
the alarm and carry out a full and efficient diagnosis.
Firewall
A typical example of how this application is used is
represented by a financial institution:
• A UPS is installed in each branch and controlled by
one of management systems described earlier. This
manages and protects the local network.
• The various local networks are permanently
connected with each other.
• In the head office there is the monitoring station that
continuously monitors all the UPS systems.
The advantage of this solution lies in using a standard
monitoring and alarm reception system that allows to
manage any UPS without having to know its IP address.
Branch 1
Local server
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
LAN (TCP/IP)
30
Firewall
INTERNET
Head office
LAN (TCP/IP)
Firewall
UPS
UPS Management
Software
http
Server
Operator PC
Centralised
UPS management
Network
interface
Branch 2
LAN (TCP/IP)
RS232
Local server
Shutdown agent
RS232
UPS
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
There are situations where the monitoring
service carried out by the UPS is not enough
and it is necessary to also control the surrounding
environment.
By using network interfaces it is possible to
monitor – through a dedicated analogue sensor –
the temperature and humidity of the room
or of a specific rack cabinet and send e-mails
or execute controls on remote machines if the value
detected falls outside the preset limits.
If there is the need to use more than one sensor it
is possible to interpose a special device which allows
to connect up to 8 UPS systems between the interface
and the sensor itself.
Historical data on the trends of the values detected by
the sensors is stored in a special log file, which can be
displayed graphically or exported to be analyzed and
filed at a later stage.
It is also possible to monitor the status of digital inputs
(for instance door opening microswitches or fault
signalling contacts of the air-conditioning system)
and control hardware devices such as, for example,
signal lights or sirens: once again it is possible to send
e-mails or run controls on remote computers.
Monitoring of a single sensor
UPS
network interface
Temperature sensor
or
temperature/humidity
Monitoring several sensors
UPS
network interface
Temperature sensors
Sensor Manager
Temperature/humidity
sensors
“Custom” sensors
input
input
UPS
network interface
output
output
Smoke sensors
Air-conditioning units
Optically isolated contacts
Fire alarm systems
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
Monitoring digital inputs and controlling hardware devices
31
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
UPS technical
features
The range of UPS systems consists of modular,
conventional and line-interactive machines with
a power of up to 10kVA.
Here below are the technical features of the
various types of UPS systems.
NIKY AND NIKY-S - SINGLE-PHASE LINE-INTERACTIVE UPS SYSTEMS
ITEM
3 100 02
3 100 03
3 100 04
3 100 05
3 100 06
3 100 20
Nominal power (VA)
600
800
1000
1500
1000
Active power (W)
300
400
600
900
600
GENERAL FEATURES
3 100 07
3 100 08
1500
2000
3000
900
1200
1800
LI
LI-S
Technology
Line-interactive VI
Waveform
Pseudo-Sinusoidal
Sinusoidal
INPUT
Input voltage
230 V
Input frequency
50-60 Hz
Input Voltage Range
160V-290V
OUTPUT
Output voltage
230V ± 10%
Output frequency (nominal)
50/60 Hz +/-1%
THD Output voltage
‹ 3% with linear load
BATTERIES
Number of batteries
Battery series Type/Voltage
1
1
2
2
2
2
4
4
12V, 7Ah
12V, 9Ah
12V, 7Ah
12V, 9Ah
12V, 7Ah
12V, 9Ah
12V, 7Ah
12V, 9Ah
COMMUNICATION AND MANAGEMENT
Display and Signals
One button and two LEDs
to monitor the status
of the UPS in real time.
One button and four LEDs
to monitor the status
of the UPS in real time.
Three buttons and three LEDs to monitor the status
of the UPS in real time.
Communication Ports
RS232, USB and RJ11/RJ45 serial ports
Remote Management
available
MECHANICAL FEATURES
Dimensions H x L x D (mm)
Net Weight (kg)
171x95x349
7
239x147x354
7,5
13
247x173x369
16
13
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Operating temperature (°C)
32
Relative humidity (%)
Noise level at 1 m (dBA)
0 - 40°C
0÷95 % non-condensing
‹40
CERTIFICATIONS
Standards
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
247x173x465
15
22
24
MEGALINE - SINGLE-PHASE MODULAR UPS SYSTEMS
GENERAL FEATURES
Nominal power (VA)
Active power (W)
Max expandability (VA/W)
Technology
System
INPUT
Input nominal voltage
Input voltage range
Minimum operating voltage
THD Input current
Input Power Factor
Input frequency
OUTPUT
Output voltage
Output frequency
THD Output voltage
Waveform
Crest Factor
Performance when connected to the mains
Allowed overload
UPTIME
Back-Up Time (min)
Back-Up Time expandability
EQUIPMENT
Bypass
Signals and Alarms
Communication Ports
UPS Communicator Software
Protections
IN/OUT mains connection
MECHANICAL FEATURES
Net weight (kg)
Dimensions (lxhxd) (mm)
Installed power boards
Free power expansion slots
Installed battery kits
Free uptime expansion slots
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Operating temperature (°C)
Relative humidity (%)
Noise level at 1 m (dBA)
CERTIFICATIONS
Standards
60 + 3 103 63 + 3 103 66 + 3 103 69 + 3 103 72 +
3 103 50 3 103 52 3 103 54 3 103 56 33 103
107 78 3 107 79 3 107 80 3 107 81 3 107 82 3 103 79 3 103 81 3 103 83 3 103 85
Single CABINET
Double CABINET
RACK
1250
2500
3750
5000
5000
6250
7500
8750
10000
1250
2500
3750
5000
875
1750
2625
3500
3500
4375
5250
6125
7000
875
1750
2625
3500
5000/3500
10000/7000
5000/3500
On-line double conversion (VFI-SS-111)
Modular, Expandable, N+X Redundant with 1250 VA power boards in a single cabinet
230 V
184 V ÷ 264 V at 100% of the load
100 V at 50% of the load
‹ 3%
› 0.99 from 20% of the load
50 Hz / 60 Hz ± 2% autosensing
230 V ± 1%
50 Hz / 60 Hz synchronised
‹ 1% with non-linear load
Sinusoidal
3.5: 1
92% at 100% of the load
300% for 1 sec. – 200% for 5 sec. – 150% for 30 sec.
13
yes
Static and Electromechanical, automatic and internally synchronised (due to overload or operating fault).
Large 4-line alphanumeric display, multi-colour status indicator, audio signal
no.1 RS 232 port, no.2 logical ports
Can be downloaded from the website free of charge (after requesting the activation code)
Electronic protections against overloads, short-circuits and excessive battery discharge. Operation stops when the
uptime ends. In-rush current limiter at start-up. Sensor to connect the neutral cable correctly. Back-feed protection
(electrical safety insulation of the input plug during battery-based operation).
EPO contact (complete shutdown in the event of an emergency)
Standard German / Clamp connector with universal multiple socket outlet (Italian/German standard)
23.5
1
3
1
3
34
43
270 x 475 x 570
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
53
4
4
-
24 + 50 26.5+57.5 29 + 65 31.5+72.5 34 + 80
2 x (270 x 475 x 570)
4
5
6
7
8
4
3
2
1
4
5
6
7
8
6
5
4
3
2
0÷40
20÷80 non-condensing
‹ 40
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
23.5
1
3
1
3
34
43
270 x 475 x 570
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
53
4
4
-
MEGALINE - SINGLE-PHASE MODULAR UPS
ARTICOLO
33
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
UPS technical features (continued)
ARCHIMOD AND TRIMOD - THREE-PHASE MODULAR UPS SYSTEMS
ARCHIMOD
ITEM
GENERAL FEATURES
Nominal Power (kVA)
Active power (W)
Module Power (kVA)
Technology
System
Hot Swap capacity
INPUT FEATURES
Input voltage
Input frequency
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Input Voltage Range
34
THD Input Current
Compatibility with Power-Supply Units
Input Power Factor
OUTPUT FEATURES
Output voltage
Performance at Full Load
Nominal output frequency
Crest Factor
Output Voltage Tolerance
Allowed Overload
Performance in Eco Mode
Bypass
BATTERIES
Battery Module
Battery Series Type/Voltage
Back-Up Time
Battery Charge
COMMUNICATION AND MANAGEMENT
Display and Signals
Communication Ports
Emergency Power Off (EPO)
Remote Management
PHYSICAL FEATURES
Dimensions (H x L x D) (mm)
Installed Power Modules
Installable Battery Slots
Net Weight (kg)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Operating Temperature/Humidity
Maximum Audible Noise at 1 m (dBA)
Heat Loss (BTU/h)
CONFORMITY
Certifications
SERVICES
Installation
Maintenance
Diagnostics
3 104 51
3 104 52
20
18
3 104 53
3 104 54
3 104 55
3 104 56
40
60
80
100
36
54
72
90
6.7 for the Power Module (20kVA with 3 Modules), power factor 0.9
On-Line Double Conversion VFI-SS-111
Modular, expandable and redundant UPS system in just one 19’’ rack cabinet
Possibility of replacing the power modules and/or battery without turning off the UPS
230V 1F+N, 400V 3F+N
3 104 57
120
108
400V 3F+N
50-60 Hz ±2% Autosensing
230V +15%/-20% 1F
400V +15%/-20% 3F
400V +15%/-20% 3F
‹3%
Synchronism between the IN/OUT frequencies that can be configured for wider frequency ranges, ±14%
› 0,99 from 20% of the load
230V 1F, 400V 3F
400V 3F
Up to 95%
50/60 Hz ±0.1
3.5:1
±1%
10 minutes at 125% and 60 seconds at 150%
99%
Automatic and maintenance bypass
The battery modules are designed to easily be fitted inside the cabinet
VRLA - AGM / 252 Vdc
Configurable and expandable both internally and with additional battery cabinets
Smart Charge technology. 3-stage advanced cycle
4 rows/20 characters, 4 buttons to browse the menus, multi-colour LED status indicator
2 RS232 serial ports, 1 Logical port, 5 ports with dry contacts, 2 slots for SNMP interfaces
Yes
Available
3
Up to 30
205
2730
6
Up to 24
240
5460
2080 /570 /912 (42U)
9
12
Up to 18
276
272
0 - 40 °C / 20 - 80% non-condensing
50÷65
8190
10920
15
318
18
364
13650
16380
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
Can be performed by the user, modular architecture with "plug and play" power and battery modules
Can be performed by the user, optional services available from the manufacturer
-
TRIMOD
Trimod10
Trimod15
10
9
3.4
15
13,5
5
Trimod20
Trimod30
20
30
18
27
6.7
5
On-Line Double Conversion VFI-SS-111
Modular, expandable and redundant UPS
Trimod40
Trimod60
40
36
6.7
60
54
6.7
230V 1F+N, 400V 3F+N
400V 3F + Neutral
50-60 Hz ±2% Autosensing
400 V +15 %/-20 % - 230 V +15 %/-20 %
400 V +15 %/-20 %
‹ 3%
Synchronism between the IN/OUT frequencies that can be configured for wider frequency ranges, ±14%
› 0,99 from 20% of the load
400V 3F + Neutral
Up to 95%
50/60 Hz can be selected by the user ±1 Hz
3.5:1
±1%
10 minutes at 125% and 60 seconds at 150%
99%
Automatic and maintenance bypass
The battery modules are designed to easily be fitted inside the cabinet
VRLA - AGM / 240 Vdc (internal redundant series)
Configurable and expandable both internally and with additional battery cabinets
Smart Charge technology. 3-stage advanced cycle
4 rows/20 characters, 4 browsing buttons, multi-colour LED status indicator, alarms and audio signals
2 RS232 serial ports, 1 Logical port, 4 ports with dry contacts, 1 slots for interfaces
Yes
Available
1370 /414 /628
3
Up to 12
120
3
Up to 12
120
6
6
9
130
130
150
4094
6141
8189
0 - 40 °C / 20 - 80%
46
1364
2183
2729
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
Can be performed by the user, modular architecture with "plug and play" power and battery modules
Can be performed by the user, optional services available from the manufacturer
Advanced diagnostics functions via the display
ARCHIMOD AND TRIMOD - THREE-PHASE MODULAR UPS SYSTEMS
230V 1F+N, 400V 3F+N
35
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
UPS technical features (continued)
WHAD, Daker DK, DHEA, CONVENTIONAL SINGLE-PHASE UPS SYSTEMS
WHAD
3 100 87
3 100 88
3 100 90
3 100 91
3 100 93
3 100 94
3 100 96
Nominal power (VA)
800
1000
1500
2000
Active power (W)
560
700
1050
1400
ITEM
3 100 97
GENERAL FEATURES
3 100 98
3 100 99
3 101 00
3 101 01
2500
3000
4000
5000
6000
1750
2100
2800
3500
4200
TOWER
Technology
On-Line Double Conversion VFI-SS-111
Waveform
Sinusoidal
Conventional UPS systems with expandable uptime
UPS architecture
INPUT
Input voltage
Input frequency
230 V
50-60 Hz ±2% Autosensing
Input Voltage Range
184V÷265V at 100% of the load
THD Input current
3%
Input power factor
Compatibility with Power-Supply Units
›0,99
OUTPUT
Output voltage
Output frequency (nominal)
Crest Factor
THD Output voltage
230V ± 1%
50/60 Hz synchronised
3.5: 1
1%
Allowed Overload
300% for 1 sec., 200% for 5 sec., 150% for 30 sec.
Bypass
Electromechanical, automatic and internally synchronised (due to overload or operating fault)
BATTERIES
Uptime Expansion
Yes
Battery series voltage (VRLA-AGM)
No
48Vdc
36Vdc
144Vdc
192Vdc
Number of batteries
Back-Up Time (min)
24
18
10
13
10
23
14
16
12
COMMUNICATION AND MANAGEMENT
Display and Signals
LED multi-colour status indicator, alarms and audio signals
1 RS232 serial port, 1 logical port,
1 slot for the network interface connection
available
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Communication Ports
36
1 RS232 serial port
Remote Management
Network interface slot
Output socket
MECHANICAL FEATURES
Dimensions H x L x D (mm)
355 x 88 x 390
460 x 160 x 425
Dimensions H x L x D (mm) Battery Cabinet
Net Weight (kg)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Operating temperature (°C)
319 x 160 x 402
12
319 x 160 x 402
23
319 x 160 x 402
55
20÷80 non-condensing
Noise level at 1 m (dBA)
‹ 40
150
190
‹ 42
287
380
‹ 40
478
570
CERTIFICATIONS
Standards
65
0÷40
Relative humidity (%)
Heat Loss (BTU/h)
475 x 270 x 570
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
760
952
1140
Daker DK
3 100 51
3 100 52
3 100 53
3 100 56
1000
2000
3000
4500
800
1600
2400
4050
3 100 54
3 100 57
3 100 58
3 101 07
3 101 08
6000
10000
1000
1500
5400
9000
On-Line Double Conversion VFI-SS-111
sinusoidal
700
1050
On-Line Double Conversion
VFI-SS-111
sinusoidal
convertible tower and rack
energy station
230 V
50/60 Hz ± 5% (autosensing)
230 V
50/60 Hz ± 2%
160 V ÷ 288 V
184 V ÷ 265 V
‹ 3%
‹ 3%
› 0.99
Synchronization configuration between IN/OUT frequencies for wider ranges, ± 14%
› 0,99 from 20% of the load
230 V ± 1%
50/60 Hz ± 0.1% can be set from the LCD panel
3:1
‹ 3% (with linear load)
230 V ± 1%
50/60 Hz ± 1%
‹ 1%
-
Automatic and maintenance bypass
Yes
12 V 7.2 Ah
12 V 7.2 Ah
12 V 9 Ah
12 V 5 Ah
12 V 5 Ah
-
-
36 V 7.2 Ah
3
6
6
20
-
20
-
-
2
10
10
8
6
-
4
-
-
4 buttons and 4 LEDs to monitor the status of the UPS.
RS232 and USB serial ports
1 RS 232 + 3 contact outputs
(2 poles) + EPO
RS232 serial ports
available
SNMP
1
440x88 x405 440x88 x650 440x88 x650 440x176 x680 440x88 x650 440x176 x680 440x88 x650 440x132x680
440x176 x405 440x88 x650 440x88 x650
440x132 x680
440x132 x680 440x132 x680
16
29.5
30
60
25*
60
25*
26*
3
450X309X170 (inverter)
450X125X170 (batteries)
20
0 - 40 °C
20÷80 % non-condensing
‹ 50
490
654
818
982
‹ 40
1310
EN 62040-1, EN 62040-2, EN 62040-3
* Weight without battery
1636
WHAD, Daker DK, DHEA, CONVENTIONAL SINGLE-PHASE UPS SYSTEMS
3 100 50
DHEA
37
UPS
U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R S U P P LY
UPS range
The UPS range comprises a wide variety
of solutions to meet any installation
requirement. From the higher performance
machines, such as ARCHIMOD, to entry-level
UPS systems, there is the right solution for
every application field, from Data Centres to
home-based computer work stations.
MODULAR, CONVENTIONAL AND LINE-INTERACTIVE UPS SYSTEMS
P (VA)
10
15
20
UPS - UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
30
38
40
60
TRIMOD
Uptime (min)
3 103 99
11
3 104 00
17
3 104 01
35
600
3 104 00 + 3 107 57
54
800
3 104 00 + 3 107 58
68
1000
3 104 05
13
1100
P (VA)
ARCHIMOD
MEGALINE
Single
cabinet
3 104 06
21
1250
3 104 06 + 3 107 60
33
1500
3 104 06 + 3 107 63
57
2000
3 104 04 + 3 108 08
110*
2500
3 104 11
9
3000
3 104 12
14
3750
Double cabinet
3 103 50
3 103 79
3 103 52
3 103 81
3 103 54
3 103 83
3 104 12 + 3 107 62
35
4000
3 104 10 + 3 108 08
82*
4500
3 104 12 + 3 107 63 +
3 107 62
59
5000
3 104 16 + 3 107 57
6
6000
3 104 16 + 3 107 63
12
6250
3 103 63 + 3 107 79
3 103 66 + 3 107 80
3 104 16 + 3 108 09
50*
7500
3 104 16 + 3 108 09 (X2)
110*
8000
3 104 21 + 3 107 63
8
8250
3 104 21 + 3 107 58 (X2)
16
P (kVA)
3 104 21 + 3 108 10
33*
10
3 104 21 + 3 107 59 (X3)
38
15
3 104 21 + 3 107 64 (X4)
60
16
3 104 21 + 3 108 10 (X2)
82*
20
3 103 56
3 103 72 + 3 107 82
3 104 21 + 3 108 10 (X3)
120*
20
3 104 52
3 104 28 + 3 107 58 (X2)
9
40
3 104 53
3 104 28 + 3 107 64 (X2)
14
45
3 104 28 + 3 108 11
17*
60
3 104 54
3 104 28 + 3 107 63 (X4)
27
80
3 104 55
3 104 28 + 3 108 11 (X2)
50*
100
3 104 56
3 104 28 + 3 108 11 (X3)
80*
120
3 104 57
3 104 28 + 3 108 11 (X4)
110*
*Configurations with battery cabinets (20 x 94 Ah).
Battery cabinet dimensions and weight:
A x L x P 1635 x 600 x 800 (mm), 785 kg
3 103 60 + 3 107 78
3 103 69 + 3 107 81
3 104 51 (1)
(1) with 18 rack units available
Rack
3 103 85
WHAD
ITA power outlets
FR power outlets
DHEA
Daker DK
With
batteries
Rack
NIKY
Without
batteries
NIKY-S
IEC multisocket
3 100 02
3 100 87
3 100 88
3 100 90
3 100 91
3 100 93
3 100 94
3 100 96
3 100 03
3 101 07
3 101 04
3 100 50
3 101 08
3 100 04
3 100 06
3 100 05
3 100 20
3 100 51
3 100 07
3 100 52
3 100 08
3 100 97
3 100 98
3 100 99
3 101 01
3 100 54
3 100 57
3 100 58
MODULAR, CONVENTIONAL AND LINE-INTERACTIVE UPS SYSTEMS
3 101 00
39
FOLLOW US ALSO ON
www.ecataleg.be
www.ups.legrand.com
TLG1302UPSUK
Legrand Group Belgium nv
Kouterveldstraat 9
1831 Diegem
Tel.: +32 (0)2 719 17 11
Fax: +32 (0)2 719 17 00
E-mail: info.be@legrandgroup.be
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