users guide standard unit

NT OF US
OI
EPA Reg.
E
P
S TA N D A R D U N I T
ACTIVE CHLORINE
DI
USERS GUIDE
No. 57425-3
SPENSER
Contents
page
2. Approvals And MSDS Information
5
3. Standard Klorman™ Unit – An Exploded View
9
4. Principles of Operation
10
5. Operating Instructions
10
6. Installation Guidelines
11
7. Typical Applications with Diagrams
12
8 Klorman™ Test Kit and Determination of Chlorine Levels
21
9. The Advantages of Klorman™ Hypochlor® Chlorine Over Liquid Chlorine
Bleach
23
10. Calcium Hypochlorite and the Environment
24
11. KLORMAN™ TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
24
NOTES
26
1. Introduction
Dear Customer...
You have become the owner of the Klorman™ Hypochlor® dispenser. The Klorman™ is a compact,
easy to install, easy to use chlorinator that converts feed-water into a continuous stream of active
chlorine sanitizer. Klorman™ is ideal for any application where viruses, bacteria, fungal spores and
protozoa need to be controlled. In most processes, only 10% of water used is usually responsible
for 90% of all sanitation problems, and experience has shown that to chlorinate all input water at
a single point in a facility is simply not the answer, since sanitation requirements vary for different
applications.
As a POINT-OF-USE chlorinator, Klorman™ can be installed at critical points in the production
chain to supply effective sanitation at key points in the process. The unit dispenses Hypochlor®,
a mild calcium-based chlorine that forms a sanitizing solution which is non-corrosive, pH stable
and environmentally safe.
Manufactured by:
Control Chemicals Pty Ltd
70 13th Road, Kew
Johannesburg, South Africa
Tel: +27 11 786 7166/9
Fax: +27 11 8851300
email: water@conchem.co.za
Distributed by:
2. Approvals And MSDS Information
2.1 Existing Standards and Federal Approvals
1.
2.
.
Regulatory Position: The Klorman™ is EPA Registered as calcium hypochlorite based water
treatment chemical. Registration No: 57425-3.
Calcium hypochlorite, as dispensed by the Klorman™, is EPA registered for use without
tolerance to chemical residue on all agricultural commodities for pre- and post harvest
purposes. (40 CFR 180. 1054). (Note that similar approval is not extended to liquid sodium
hypochlorite bleach). It is approved by the FDA Food Additives Branch for food contact, as
well as by the USDA-FSIS for egg, meat and poultry sanitizing.
Patent numbers and Trade Marks: US Patents. 4,842,729/4,192,763. Other Patents Pending.
•
Australia 62430/80. Chile 255-40. Japan 209369/86. Pending.
•
South Africa. 86/6822. EPO Pending. Other Patents Pending.
•
Trade Mark, US Reg. TM. 1,532,893.
2.2 PRECAUTIONARY
WARNING OXIDIZING AGENT
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN
READ PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
BEFORE OPENING
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE DRY
UN No. 1748 STATEMENT
AGENT
5.1
2.3 Standard EPA Precautionary Statements
First Aid (Practical Treatment)
•
If on skin: Brush off excess chemical and flush skin with cold water for at least 15 minutes. If
irritation persists, get medical attention.
•
If inhaled: Remove person to fresh air. Get immediate medical attention.
•
If swallowed: Drink large quantities of water. Do not induce vomiting. Call a physician.
•
If in eyes: Flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. call a physician immediately.
HAZARDS TO HUMANS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS: DANGER.
Highly corrosive. Causes skin and eye damage. May be fatal if swallowed. Do not get in eyes, or
skin or on clothing. Do not handle with bare hands. wear goggles or face shield and use rubber
gloves and only thoroughly clean dry utensils when handling. Irritating to nose and throat. Avoid
breathing dust and fumes. Remove and wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS: DANGER.
Strong oxidizing agent. Mix only into water. Contamination may start a chemical reaction with
generation of heat, liberation of hazardous gases, and possible fire and explosion. Avoid any
contact with flame or burning material, such as lighted cigarette. Do not contaminate with
moisture, garbage, dirt, chemicals including other pool chemicals, pool chlorination compounds,
household products, cyanuric acid pool stabilizers, soap products, paint products, solvents, acids,
vinegar, beverages, oils, pine oil, dirty rags or any other foreign matter.
EMERGENCY HANDLING:
In case of contamination or decomposition, if possible, isolate container in open and wellventilated area. Flood with large volumes of water. Dispose of contaminated material in an
approved landfill area.
Environmental Hazard:
This pesticide is toxic to fish and aquatic organisms. Do not discharge effluent containing this
product into lakes, ponds, streams, estuaries, oceans or public waters unless this product is
specifically identified and addressed in and NPDES permit. Do not discharge effluent containing
this product to sewer systems without previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority.
For guidance contact your State water Board or Regional Office.
STORAGE AND DISPOSAL
Keep this product dry in a tightly closed container when not in use. Store in a cool, dry, well
ventilated area away from heat or open flame. In case of decomposition isolate container (if
possible) and flood area with large amounts of water to dissolve all materials before discarding
this container. Do not reuse empty container but place in trash collection. Do not contaminate
food or feed by storage or disposal or cleaning of equipment.
Active Constituents: 68%/kg available chlorine (Cl) present as
calcium hypochlorite.
Slow releasing, water-soluble tablets for chlorination of waterlines.
DO NOT USE FEEDER WITH ANY OTHER CHEMICAL THAN KLORMAN™
HYPOCHLOR® CHLORINE
2.4 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
[This MSDS complies with 29 CFR 1910.1200 (The Hazard Communication Sheet)]
Section I
Product Identification
Chemical Name
Calcium Hypochlorite
Trade Name
Hypochlor® Klorman™
Chemical Family
Inorganic - oxidizing agent - Ca (OCl)2
Section 2
Hazardous Ingredients
Not Applicable
Section 3
Physical Data
Appearance & Odor
White solid; Chlorine odor; Tablet form
Boiling Point
N/A
Vapor Pressure
N/A
Evaporation Rate
N/A
Specific Gravity
Approximately 1
Percent Volatile
None
Section 4
Fire and Explosion Information
Flash Point
N/A
Explosive Limit
N/A
Extinguishing Media
Drench with large volume of water
Fire / Explosion Hazards
Contact contamination with any foreign matter
Hazardous Decomposition
Products
Chlorine gas
Section 5
Health Hazard Data
Hypochlor tablets contain no carcinogenic substances
Effects of Overexposure
Inhalation:
effect = cough
Ingestion:
effect = nausea
Eyes:
effect = irritation
Skin:
effect = inflammation
Emergency First Aid
If inhaled, remove person to fresh air and seek immediate medical attention
If swallowed, feed large amount of milk or water and induce vomiting.
If in eyes, flush with cold water for at least 15 minutes and get immediate medical attention.
If on skin, remove loose powder and flood skin with cold water for at least 15 minutes and if
irritation persists get medical attention.
Section 6
Reactivity Data
Hazardous Polymerization
Cannot occur
Stability
Stable
Conditions to avoid
Any contact with moisture, heat, acid, organic materials and
reducing agents
Incompatibility
Acid, combustible materials, reducing agent
Section 7
Spill or Leak Procedures
Flush with large amount of water. Do not contaminate ponds, streams or lakes
Disposal Method
Neutralize with reducing agents such as thiosulfate
Section 8
Special Protection Information
** Note ** The special protection specified below is only necessary for handling the raw
chlorine tablets. Tablets are packed in disposable plastic cartridges. Under normal handling
conditions no protection is necessary.
Also, chlorinated water dispensed by the unit does not require special protection unless water
is heated above 140° F causing chlorine gas to be emitted as part of water vapour / steam.
Respiratory Protection
Respirator
Protective Gloves
Rubber gloves
Eye Protection
Goggles
Section 9
Special Precautions
Handling & Storage.
Keep away from sunlight. Store in a dry, cool, well-ventilated
area. Avoid any contact to contamination with moisture,
organic matter, reduction materials or other foreign matter.
Other precautions
(IMCO No. 5-1) (U. N. No. 1748)
3. Standard Klorman™ Unit – An Exploded View
The standard Klorman™ Unit has a spring in the chamber which makes it adjustable for purposes
of low level chlorination for drinking water or adjustable to high level chlorination for general
wash down purposes.
For variable adjustment the chlorine cartridge is equipped with a black plastic seal ring on the
base of the cartridge and the Klorman™ has calibration lines on the exterior of the unit body
which indicates “LOW” and “HIGH” levels of adjustment.
STANDARD KLORMAN
Cap long threaded for
adjustment
Chlorine dosing
regulated by turning
cap to depress basket
into water flow
Chlorine Cartridge
Black O-ring seal on chlorine
cartridge
Teflon O-ring
Chlorinated water
Inflowing water
Spring 316 stainless Steel
4. Principles of Operation
The Klorman™ Unit operates through the contact of incoming water with Hypochlor® calcium
hypochlorite based tablets. Chlorine concentration achieved in the water line is determined by:¬
•
•
Water pressure, i.e. line pressure and/or back pressure.
Water Flow through the unit i.e. gallons or liters per minute.
The rate of dissolution of the Hypochlor® tablets is therefore solely determined by water pressure
and flow. Of these, the water pressure is the most important for optimally utilizing the Klorman™.
•
Adjustment of the incoming water pressure could therefore either prevent the water from
immersing the tablets in the cartridge, or ensure that the tablets are partially or completely
immersed within the cartridge chamber if this is required.
•
Each chlorine cartridge is fitted with a black seal-ring that protects the tablets from the
feed-water pressure and therefore retards the dissolution of the chlorine tablets. This seal
regulates the chlorine level in the water, depending upon water pressure or by adjustment
of the cap.
IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT, UNLESS THE CARTRIDGE IS EFFECTIVELY
CONSUMED WITHIN THE VARIABLES OF EITHER WATER VOLUME OR PRESSURE, CHLORINATION
AT THE DESIRED LEVEL CANNOT BE ACHIEVED.
5. Operating Instructions
Once installation has been completed, follow these steps to adjust your Klorman™ unit so that it
delivers the required amount of chlorine.
1.
Ensure that cartridge and its black seal ring are clean. Place cartridge in chamber and press
gently downward. When screwing the cap on, engage threads evenly and press down
straight and firmly when turning.
2.
Screw cap downward until cartridge seal matches the required settings marked on the
exterior of the Klorman body as indicated below.
LOW CHLORINE LEVEL ADJUSTMENT
In this setting, the cartridge seal ring is typically located well above water passage. The seal ring
is depressed against the sidewall of the unit, and depending upon the water pressure, this should
prevent or limit water contact with the tablets. At this adjustment, a single refill cartridge could
deliver up to 20 to 50 ppm of chlorine in a standard at pressures of 50 to 60 psi (3.5 - 4.2 Bar).
MEDIUM TO HIGH CHLORINE LEVEL ADJUSTMENT
When the seal ring is adjusted to the middle adjustment line or lower, the tablets will be fully
exposed to the water flow. These adjustments are generally suitable to wash down or spray bar
applications. Depending on water-pressure or pressure surges, levels in excess of 100 ppm or
even 600 ppm can be dispensed.
10
MEDIUM AND HIGH ADJUSTMENT
chlorine adjustment
chlorine adjustment
NOTE : If cartridges are consumed at a faster rate than expected, this is usually due to pressure surges in the water supply. Intermittent surges of
up to 90 psi. (6.4 Bar) are not uncommon in some facilities, and are usually characterized by periodic vibrations or rattling of water lines.
6. Installation Guidelines
1.
Enclosed with each unit are two pairs of threaded adapters.
•
If you have purchased your Klorman™ in the USA, these adapters will be 1 set of ¾” and
another of 11/4” US standard thread (1 ½” Imperial Standard 50 mm ID).
If you have purchased the unit anywhere else, the adapters will be 1 set of 1½” and another
of ¾”.
Besides suiting available or intended pipe work, the varying diameter of the fittings will
enable the user to create backpressure in the water line to manipulate the chlorine dosage.
As a guideline, the smaller the diameter - the higher the backpressure, and therefore the
greater the degree of contact between the water and the chlorine.
•
•
•
2.
Glue in the required adapter with a bonding agent that is compatible with Acrylic plastic
materials. When applying the cement, ensure that it fills the spaces between body parts and
adapters to avoid leaking.
3.
Threaded adapters (metal or plastic) are of varying tolerance from country to country. To get
a proper watertight seal, use plumbing sealant tape.
4.
Units must only be mounted vertically. If this is not possible, an angle of 15 degrees must
not be exceeded.
5.
If flow is too low for water to reach tablets, reduce outlet pipe diameter to create
backpressure. Another option is to install an upward elbow in the line after the chlorinator.
6.
IMPORTANT: The KLORMAN™ unit must be installed in such a way as to ensure that it
will drain after use. This will prevent tablets from becoming saturated or disintegrating,
11
which will lead to excessive chlorine concentrations and accelerated cartridge use.
7. Typical Applications with Diagrams
The Klorman is a versatile unit which can be installed in many ways depending use application.
7.1 FIXED WALL INSTALLATION
Wall fixed bracket
Chlorinated water can be made available
for dedicated use applications:
•
Hospitals
•
Surgeries
•
Kitchens
•
Dog Kennels
Fixed Wall Installation
7.1 Installation Within a Waterline
This installation method is applied when the Klorman unit is installed within a waterline where
water cannot drain from the chamber when water flow stops. These would typically include
installations where Klorman is below spray bars or rain drench installations such as in Figure 7.7.1
page 18. Of these installations, the typical would apply for dairy sanitizing.
7.1.1.Sanitizing of Dairy Equipment (eg. Alfa Laval and Westphalia type, as well as
for rinsing of bulk milk tanks).
The unit should be installed on a dedicated water line leading into the Automatic Dairy Washing
(e.g. Alfa Laval Equipment), and can be applied to either pre- or post milking chlorine rinse.
Currently, the chemical compounds most widely used for this purpose are acidified iodophor
sanitizers. Although they are highly effective sanitizers, these compounds cannot remove the
microscopic casein protein film that accumulates on the surface of this equipment, and which
cause constant bacterial re-growth within the system. The application of Hypochlor® chlorine
12
will deliver equivalent or superior sanitizing results than iodine, but has the unique benefit
of removing the casein protein film. Installation of the Klorman™ for this purpose will be as
illustrated in Figure 7.2 below, where valves are indicated in manual configuration. When used
on automatic dairy wash systems, electrical solenoid valves synchronized to the equipment and
cycles need to be installed.
Also effective as portable unit below for washing parlor floors in removing slippery and
hazardous slime and algae deposits. For control of mastitis and hoof (foot) rot, the typical wall
7.2 INSTALLATION WITHIN WATERLINE
installation as in Figure 7.1 would be applied.
Valves A - used to isolate unit when the Klorman is installed in positions where unit cannot drain
naturally.
Valve B - used to drain water from unit when not in use.
7.3 Standard portable unit
7.3 STANDARD PORTABLE UNIT
13
Used for general environmental hygiene, wash down and odour control.
Also widely used for the purpose of mushroom irrigation. When so applied, a filter needs to
be installed on unit behind the Klorman to prevent calcium particles from blocking the small
openings on watering rose heads.
7.3.1 Hand Held Spray Gun:
7.3.1 SPRAY GUN
7.3.2 KLORMAN UNITS ON DEDICATED WATER LINES
RED MEAT
14
Unit available as spray gun for general environmental hygiene, including for instance the
washing of carcasses.
7.4 Installation diagrams for open and closed wells, tanks or dams.
In order to achieve the low levels of chlorine of (1-6 ppm) associated with drinking water
applications, it is important to reduce the pressure within the cartridge chamber. To achieve
this, the 1¼” US thread OR the 1 ¼” Imperial (50 mm ID) fittings are provided. By increasing
the diameter there will be less restriction on water flow through the unit. To prevent bursts of
concentrated chlorine in the line upon start-up, as well as continuous soaking of the cartridges,
the Klorman unit must be installed on the terminal end of an open waterline or, in the case of
wells (boreholes), it must be installed in such a manner as to ensure drainage of the unit when
not in use.
Depending upon the pressure in the feed line, the degree of contact between the water
and the tablets can be manipulated in the following way:
•
If the pressure is very low, install the unit so that it has a large inflow aperture and a smaller
outflow aperture. This will create backpressure and will assist the water level in reaching the
chlorine tablets. This may be further enhanced with the additional installation of a vertically
directed 90˚elbow at the outflow end. A further 90˚ bend can then be directed back down
toward the reservoir with additional fittings in order to create a siphon effect so that, when
water flow stops, it will drain away from the chlorine tablets.
7.4.1 Tank installation with float valve
Used in small hotels, industry, households or agricultural requirements where water pressure is
7.4.1 TANK INSTALLATION WITH FLOAT VALVE
Klorman in line after ball valve
Pressurized water
Chlorine cartridge
Ball valve
Float
Water
Outlet chlorinated water
15
Elbow on outlet to
allow contact of water
with tablets when ball
valve is only slightly
open i.e. very low
pressure
high and/or variable. The unit should be installed at the top inlet to the reservoir or holding tank.
Install a ball valve or solenoid switch before the Klorman®.
•
Pressurized feed water is fed through an open-ended system that makes it possible to
achieve reliably low chlorine levels. As water is drawn out of the tank, the ball valve opens
and feeds chlorinated water. When ball valve closes, the water drains and the tablets remain
dry.
•
When feed water has very low pressure, an elbow must be installed at the outlet side to
ensure contact between water and the tablets.
7.4.2 TANK INSTALLATION WITH FLOAT VALVE/SOLENOID VALVE
AND RE-PRESSURIZATION PUMP
Configuration for low volume
raw water feed
Klorman in line after
ball valve
Raw water in
Chlorine cartridge
Ball valve
Float
Pipe for water to escape on
switch off. Drains water off
Klorman
Pipe below water level for
chlorine contact
50-2000 litre tank
Pressure
gauge
Flow sensor/pressure switch
Chlorinated water in
Water out
100lt/min
Pump
Supporting structure for
tank and pump
7.4.2 Tank installation with float valve/solenoid valve and re-pressurization pump
This installation provides an open-ended outlet to the Klorman™, which also allows for low-level
chlorination like the tank installation with float valve shown above. This installation is particularly
suited to high-pressure lines where the Klorman™ cannot be installed inline. As mentioned, when
the Klorman™ is installed directly inline the tablet chamber will flood, resulting in unwanted high
chlorine levels. The chlorinated water is then re-pressurized in applications where large volumes
16
of water, or high pressures are required.
7.3.3 KLORMAN WELL INSTALLATION
SHALLOW WELL i.E. Footvalve
Air release
valve
Check valve
(non-return)
Submersible
pump
Holding tank (reservoir or
bladder pressure tank)
Solenoid Valve with water bleed into
casing, wired to pump circuit
Footvalve
Well
Note: When pump switches off, Solenoid
Valve opens and allows drainage of water
from system to prevent soaking and
softening of tablets
7.5 GREENHOUSES AND NURSERIES
17
7.4.3 Well/Borehole Installations
7.5 Greenhouses and Nurseries
7.5.1 Chlorination of fertilized recycle water in hydroponics:
Chlorine combines readily with nitrogen to form chloramines. This also applies to nitrogenous
fertilizers used in hydroponic applications. Consequently, only very low chlorine concentrations
should be used in order to effect chloramination (i.e. 2 - 5 ppm), since higher concentrations
of chloramines will burn root systems. In addition, chloramines are of low sanitizing value
compared to free chlorine. See also Table 9.1 on Page 18. In this application, the Klorman™ unit
should ideally be installed on the return waterline into a recycling catchment tank, and ahead
of the fertigation adjustment tank. In the absence of a catchment tank, the Klorman™ should be
installed at least 5 meters ahead of fertigation adjustment tank. If the water pressure exceeds
40 PSI, a pressure-reducing valve should be installed ahead of the Klorman. The long active life
span of chloramines may result in a build up of chloramine levels in small hydroponics systems.
Installing the Klorman™ by-pass, together with a timer switch that will divert water through
the Klorman™ for a limited time daily will ensure effective chlorination without a build up of
chloramines. Again as indicated under other headings, Klorman should be installed in such a
manner that water can drain when water flow ceases.
7.6 Klorman used as Substitute for Immediate Post Harvest Cold Processing of
Fruit or other Produce.
It is accepted practice to cool fresh fruit and vegetable produce after harvest to remove field
heat. This process is also considered to slow metabolic activity. An important, but generally
ignored consequence of such cooling is the effect that it has on spoilage organisms, which
are drawn into the fruit or vegetable through harvest wounds under the effect of capillary
force. This particularly relevant in crops such as asparagus (Pseudomonas), Table Grapes and
Mangoes (Stem Rot), sweet corn and many other crops. Prevention can be effected only through
mending of harvest stem lesions and bruising. Using the Klorman™ as a pre wash with ambient
temperature water after harvest will arrest the negative effects of this capillary force, because the
Hypochlor® chlorine will not only immobilize cell rupture enzyme activity, but also leave calcium
residual which would enhance cell wall integrity. Cooling should therefore be employed as the
final, rather than the immediate activity after harvest in the process line.
The Klorman™ unit should ideally be installed in the field - ahead of transport to the pack house to arrest harvest bruising and wilting at source. This is particularly relevant to lettuce, which, even
when cooled, is still subject to wilting.
Chlorine is delivered ahead of the application, and loss of active chlorine will not occur.
Any natural water source such as dam or river can be used. An inexpensive structure can be
fabricated from PVC piping and wooden frames, for either transport as shown, or erected at low
level for drenching of small crates. Spray holes can be drilled in PVC piping, but it is suggested
that standard, custom PVC saddle type shower/rose head sprayers be used which would deliver
dense water coverage.
18
IMPORTANT NOTE
Klorman™ must be installed in order for unit to drain when not in use. In the Figure above
it is shown as installed at elevated level to indicate need for drainage. If installed at water
source below sprayers, unit must be isolated and a drain valve installed as shown in Figure
7.2 as either manual or solenoid applied system.
7.7 Spray Bar Application for Post Harvest Protection of Fresh Produce.
Unit can be installed on re-circulating line as in Figure 7.7.1, or on a fresh waterline as in 7.7.2.
Note adjustment of Unit always to be on the first or LOW line. Generally at average mains
pressure the Unit would provide on average 20 ppm of free chlorine at this adjustment.
When installed on re-circulation systems, water needs to be replenished regularly to prevent an
inordinate increase in pH of the water, as well as to overcome the effect of dirt introduced to the
7.7.1 PACKSHED CHLORINATION FOR SORTING AND
PACKAGING LINES
pump
water by the produce that is being washed. Note that the Klorman™ should be installed above
the spray bars to allow drainage when water is turned off.
19
Klorman ideally installed on a fresh water line where Hypochlor can be made available at
optimum efficiency in terms of pH in rendering hypochlorous acid, and also preventing the
intervention of organic dirt.
7.7.1 PACKSHED CHLORINATION FOR SORTING AND
PACKAGING LINES
Fresh water
NOTE: Hypochlor Chlorine if used effectively at pH 7-8 this effected by using mains water
in the system, the hypochlorous acid generated would be highly effective in not only
sealing bruises and lesions, but also pesticide residues which contain metals or molecular
nitrogen would effectively be degraded.
7.8 Carrot Washers
7.8 CARROT WASHING DRUM
Two Klorman™ Units Installed In Waterline At Standard Mains Pressure 60 Psi.
Each Unit Delivers 25-50 ppm Chlorine. Optimum Efficiency, No Loss Of Chlorine.
20
8 Klorman™ Test Kit and Determination of Chlorine Levels
8.1 The Concept of Chlorine Demand and Continuous Chlorination
•
When chlorine is applied as sanitizer, it is consumed in the process by matter such as debris,
surface pollutants and organic residues that are present in the solution. The quantity
of chlorine consumed is known as the chlorine demand of the system, and may vary
significantly depending upon the type of application or quality of water in the system. It is
therefore futile to dose, for example, levels of 5ppm chlorine solution when the requirement
or demand may be 50 ppm.
•
Chlorine activity is determined by contact time. The shorter the contact time, the higher the
concentration of chlorine required to achieve the same result. This can be illustrated by the
simple Concentration/Time (CxT) ratio below.
Eg: 1 ppm chlorine concentration x 10 minutes contact = 10
10 ppm chlorine concentration x 1 minute contact = 10
•
Once the chlorine demand of the system has been satisfied through the use of calcium
hypochlorite, the remaining free active chlorine residual in solution will have no taste and
will be odourless. In fact, the strong odor associated with the use of chlorine is due to the
formation of malodorous chloramines. When this odor is present, it indicates insufficient
chlorine levels to satisfy the chlorine demand, which causes chemical bonding between
the chlorine and nitrogen, resulting in the formation of chloramines. This reaction is often
encountered in meat, poultry and fish sanitizing, as well as in drinking water applications
where nitrogen pollutants are present. The Klorman™ is able to overcome this problem,
because it continuously replenishes the consumed chlorine in a waterline. This renders
Klorman Hypochlor solutions effective at low concentration levels, mostly recommended by
our company for use at 20 - 50 ppm.
8.2 Determining and Monitoring Chlorine Concentrations
The concentration of chlorine in a sanitizing solution is expressed as parts per million (ppm)
or milligram per liter (mg/l). It may be confusing to try and equate the dosage levels used in
chlorination with those that apply to organic sanitizers, since these are dosed at vastly higher
concentrations compared to chlorine. For example, organic sanitizers are dosed at levels of
0.5% or 1%, even 5%. By comparison, one part per million in percentage terms represents one
thousandth of 1% (or 0.0001 %). Despite this miniscule quantity, chlorine concentrations are
considered to be easily controllable within narrowly defined limits such as 6 or 8, or 20 to 30
ppm. This simply is not feasible, and has resulted in confusion and misunderstanding over the
proper application of chlorine in practice. When using the Klorman™ inline system, water surges
may cause the chlorine concentrations to fluctuate intermittently. Below at pH 8 can be noted in
Table 9, low levels of HOCl, the effective sanitizer can be available in such solutions. The Klorman
renders chlorine on a continuous basis with relatively low influence on pH of input water. For
instance, if input water pH is 7.4, the chlorinated water derived on the LOW setting of 20-50 ppm
(depending pressure fluctuations) would increase to approximately pH 7.8.
21
8.2.1 The Important Role of pH to Determine the Effectiveness of Your
Chlorination Program
It is a property of all chlorine sanitizers that, when they are dissolved in water, the active
ingredients are usually present in equilibrium between two sanitizing compounds, namely
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and the Hypochlorite ion (OCl‫)־‬. As a sanitizing agent, hypochlorous
acid is more effective than the hypochlorite ion by a factor of 120 times. The balance of this
equilibrium from one compound to the other is governed by the pH of the solution as illustrated
by the table below. This table clearly illustrates the importance of maintaining pH levels at
an optimal rate in order to derive the maximum percentage of hypochlorous acid versus
hypochlorite ion possible for the system in question.
TABLE 9: The Effect of pH on HOCl vs OCl Equilibrium in a Chlorine Solution
pH
4 and below
% HOCl
100.00
5
99.7
6
7
8
9
96.8
75.2
23.3
2.9
10
0.3
11
0.03
8.3 Testing for Chlorine
8.3.1 Test Methods
The generally applied methods used to determine chlorine levels in the process industry are the
DPD (Di-Phenylene Diamine), Sodium Thiosulfate and Potassium Iodide Paper Strip Methods.
Potassium Iodide Paper Strip Method
The chlorine test widely used on the farm and in the process industry is the Potassium Iodide/
Starch paper strip method. The test method is qualitative in that it indicates only the presence of
chlorine, and not the quantity of chlorine present.
The Klorman™ DPD Chlorine Test Kit:
The Klorman™ Test Kit contains DPD No 1 powder, and therefore determines only the free
chlorine residual. It also contains a Ferrous Ammonium (FAS) titration agent, and a Phenol Red
pH test solution with an appropriate pH color-comparison chip insert.
The larger of the two test receptacles is used to test for chlorine. You will note that the chlorine
test receptacle has indicator lines printed at its upper and lower points. These indicator lines
are for the purpose of diluting the chlorine test water samples when testing for very high levels
22
of chlorine (see box below). When the DPD powder is introduced to a solution containing free
chlorine, a pink color will develop. The intensity of this color is related to the level of chlorine
present. The actual concentration can be determined by adding the Titration Solution provided
in the test kit. The addition of titration fluid will cause the pink color to disappear. The number of
drops used to remove the color indicates the concentration present
NOTE: If no pink color develops despite chlorine tablets being visibly present in the
cartridge, the concentration of chlorine in the water line may be so high that the indicator
powder is bleached away. When this occurs, the user must take care not to construe this as
indicating that chlorine is not present.
9. The Advantages of Klorman™ Hypochlor® Chlorine Over Liquid
Chlorine Bleach
•
Hypochlor® is a more efficient sanitizer than liquid chlorine, since a far greater percentage
of its available chlorine content is released as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in solution under
operational conditions. Liquid chlorine has a propensity to release a greater percentage
its available chlorine content as either hypochlorite ion (ˉOCl), or monochloramine
(NH2Cl). The table below illustrates the differences in efficacy between of HOCl, -OCl and
monochloramine for a varied sample of organisms.
The Comparative Germicidal Effect of Chlorine Compounds in Solution
Table 9.1 Concentration of forms of active chlorine to yield 99 per cent
germicidal effect in 10 minutes at 25 oC in mg/L or ppm
Organism
HOCl
Hypochlorous
acid
-OCl
hypochlorite
ion
NH2Cl
Monochloramine
E coli
0.005
0.6
1.0
Polio virus
0.002
>>1.0
25.0
Cysts
2.00
800.0
10.0
Shistosomes
0.5 - 1.0
-
0.4
•
Calcium hypochlorite in solution is stable over a wider pH range than its sodium bleach
counterpart. The high solubility of sodium gives it a propensity to readily elevate pH levels.
•
The calcium salt released by Hypochlor® is non-corrosive. The strong ionic character of
liquid chlorine often leads to electrolytic galvanic corrosion of pipe work and equipment
necessitating the use of special metals at the point of application. In addition, liquid bleach
will attack and weaken substances such as glass, porcelain and aluminum.
•
Calcium hypochlorite based chlorine does not saponify fat, and can readily be applied at
levels above 50 to even 100 ppm in food or environmental hygiene applications. Liquid
chlorine saponifies, causing slippery floors, equipment and work areas.
23
10. Calcium Hypochlorite and the Environment
The effect of Calcium, the Hypochlorite ion and Chlorides on Soil and Plants
Fears are often expressed at the possible influence of calcium and other chlorination residues
on the long-term structure of the soil. As far as the use of Calcium Hypochlorite is concerned,
such fears are unfounded, since calcium represents the largest single component of all of the
elemental nutrients within plant foliage, and forms the building block of all plant cell walls
by strengthening the integrity of middle lamella pectin components. The active ingredient
of chlorine (hypochlorous acid) does not combine or enter into chemical reaction with plant
carbohydrates. In fact, the widely held belief that chlorine damages plant foliage or fruit is
incorrect, and is based upon the historical use of liquid chlorine bleach. Bleach is a caustic soda
based chlorine source, and releases large amounts of sodium, which displaces calcium from the
cell wall and results in deterioration of the protective cellulose outer cuticle of both foliage and
fruit. Calcium is beneficial to soil, and the established practice of liming the soil with an array of
calcium salts in order to elevate the pH illustrates this fact. Calcium also promotes the solubility
of many nutrients in the soil and renders them more easily utilized.
In 1954, the chloride anion residue derived from expended hypochlorite was accepted as being
a plant nutrient. In later years it was confirmed as being an essential nutrient, due to the fact
that plants probably need more chloride than almost any other micronutrient (with the possible
exception of iron). The reason for this may be found in the fact that chlorides are abundantly
available in nature. As a principal constituent of seawater, chlorides are entrapped in sea spray
and carried by winds for vast distances. Rainwater is a therefore a continuous source of chlorides.
The only area where chlorides are considered to have a potentially negative effect in soil is
where it has accumulated with other salts, usually in saline soils or where saline lakes are used for
irrigation purposes.
11. KLORMAN™ TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
11.1 Little Or No Chlorine Reading Despite Chlorine Tablets Visibly Present In The
Cartridge
a) Calcium residue could form a sediment/crusty barrier between the cartridge seal ring
and the Klorman™ body sidewall that may restrict the water from entering the cartridge
chamber. This usually occurs on low-level drinking water applications when units are used
continuously without regular shutoff of the system. To correct this, unscrew the cap partially
and turn water flow ON and OFF briefly. This will allow water pressure to “bump” cartridge
up and down and dislodge any sediment. When using Klorman™ in continuous dosing
applications, it may be advisable to move/dislodge the cartridge on a daily basis before
working shifts.
b) Chlorine is bonded, and cannot react properly with test reagents. If you are satisfied that
your test sample has been properly diluted and no chlorine reading or pink color can be
detected with DPD No 1 powder, try adding iodide crystals. If a pink color develops, it will
confirm that the chlorine is bonded. This condition will only occur when chlorine is applied
and tested on for example wash water used in poultry evisceration.
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11.2 Cartridges Are Difficult To Insert Or Remove
Hypochlor® chlorine is calcium-based, and therefore deposits small quantities of
calcium residue inside the cap, chamber and threads. Over time, this residue may
restrict movement of and around these parts, but it can easily be removed through
brushing with a diluted solution of muriatic/hydrochloric acid. This is non-toxic and
will not affect water quality or produce.
11.3 Water Leaking Through Teflon Seal Between Klorman™ Body And Cap
The white Teflon seal located at the upper end of Klorman® Body provides an airtight
compartment which ensures that only the bottom tablets come into contact with the water
flow. This is particularly important for low-level chlorine dosing. If the Teflon seal is faulty and
water does flood the cartridge chamber, the tablets will be inclined to swell and disintegrate in
an uncontrolled manner. When this occurs, the Teflon seal and black “o” ring should be replaced.
When replacing, ensure that the groove on the Teflon seal is in the upper position.
11.4 Klorman™ Cap Shatters Or Cracks Repeatedly
Klorman™ caps are molded from high impact, durable plastic compounds and can easily
withstand the pressures found in most standard water lines. Nevertheless, in systems that are
prone to repeated pressure surges, these surges will result in flexing of the cap and may weaken
the plastic at the corners over time. If your system has such surges, try installing a hollow shockabsorbing pipe into the line just ahead of the chlorinator.
25
NOTES
26
Manufactured by:
Control Chemicals Pty Ltd
Africa Division:
Control Chemicals Pty Ltd
Co Reg. no. : 71/07012/07
70 13th Road, Kew
Johannesburg, South Africa
Sharecall RSA: 0861 245671
Tel: +27 11 786 7166/9
Fax: +27 11 8851300
email: water@conchem.co.za
Australia Division:
Klorman Industries (Pty) Ltd
Unit 5, 75 Corish Circle,
East Gardens, Sydney
Sharecall: 1800-225-499
Tel: 0961 297 000630
Email: sales @klorman-industries.com
USA Division:
Control Chemicals
D/B/A Deatrick & Associates INC
4353 Howellsville Rd,
Front Royal, VA 22630-3870
Tel: 540-622-2666
Fax: 540-622-6213
Email: info@ webbsupplycompany.com
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