SEBU8088-07
January 2009
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
C27 and C32 Generator Sets
DWB1-Up (Generator Set)
SXC1-Up (Generator Set)
SAFETY.CAT.COM
i01658146
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe
basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous
situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also
have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings
are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard.
The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool,
procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar
is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that
the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you
start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, physical dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8088-07
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby) ............ 73
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standard) .......... 75
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 6
General Hazard Information ................................. 12
Burn Prevention .................................................... 14
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 15
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 17
Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 17
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 17
Engine Starting ..................................................... 17
Engine Stopping ................................................... 18
Electrical System .................................................. 18
Generator Isolating for Maintenance .................... 19
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications ........................... 20
Product Identification Information ........................ 25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 34
Installation ............................................................. 36
Features and Controls .......................................... 38
Engine Starting ..................................................... 52
Engine Operation .................................................. 55
Engine Stopping ................................................... 56
Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 57
Generator Operation ............................................. 59
Voltage Regulators ............................................... 64
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 66
Maintenance Recommendations .......................... 68
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings ................................................... 129
Customer Service ............................................... 131
Reference Materials ............................................ 133
Index Section
Index ................................................................... 142
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Caterpillar
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency in electronic media delivery.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Caterpillar dealer for the latest
available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by fuel consumption, service hours and/or calendar
time maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions that
follow.
SEBU8088-07
Use fuel consumption or service hours to determine
intervals. Calendar intervals shown (daily, annually,
etc.) may be used instead of service meter intervals
if they provide more convenient schedules and
approximate the indicated service meter reading.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. Each level and/or individual
items in each level should be shifted ahead or back
depending upon your specific maintenance practices,
operation and application. We recommend that
the maintenance schedules be reproduced and
displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.
We also recommend that a maintenance record be
maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Records” for information
regarding documents that are generally accepted
as proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized
Caterpillar dealer can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or
an authorized Caterpillar dealer. Your Caterpillar
dealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaul
programs. If you experience a major engine failure,
there are also numerous after failure overhaul options
available from your Caterpillar dealer. Consult with
your dealer for information regarding these options.
SEBU8088-07
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands
after handling.
5
Foreword
6
Safety Section
Safety Messages
SEBU8088-07
Safety Section
i02879636
Safety Messages
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Illustration 1
C27 Generator Set right side view
g01433816
SEBU8088-07
Illustration 2
C27 Generator Set left side view
7
Safety Section
Safety Messages
g01433804
8
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 3
C32 Generator Set right side view
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g01433818
SEBU8088-07
Illustration 4
C32 Generator Set left side view
9
Safety Section
Safety Messages
g01433805
10
Safety Section
Safety Messages
SEBU8088-07
Universal Warning (1)
Hot Surface (3)
The universal safety message is located on each
side of the generator enclosure and on each side of
the terminal box.
These safety messages are located on each side
of the radiator and on each side of the barrel of the
generator.
g01370904
Do not operate or work on this product unless you
have read and understand the instructions and
warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
warnings could result in injury or death. Contact
any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals.
Proper care is your responsibility.
Automatic Starting (2)
The safety message for automatic starting is located
on each side of the enclosure.
g01392484
When the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode, the
engine can start at any moment. To avoid personal
injury, always remain clear of the the engine when
the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode.
g01384734
Hot parts or hot components can cause burns or
personal injury. Do not allow hot parts or components to contact your skin. Use protective clothing
or protective equipment to protect your skin.
SEBU8088-07
11
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Lifting the Genset (4)
Hot Fluid Under Pressure (5)
This safety message for lifting the genset is located
on right, left, and rear panels of the generator
enclosure.
The safety message for hot fluid under pressure is
located on top of the radiator near the radiator cap.
g01371640
g01433231
Crushing Hazard! Improper lifting could cause serious injury or death. Follow the lifting instructions in the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
safe lifting procedures.
Pressurized system! Hot coolant can cause serious burns, injury or death. To open the cooling
system filler cap, stop the engine and wait until
the cooling system components are cool. Loosen
the cooling system pressure cap slowly in order to
relieve the pressure. Read and understand the Operation and Maintenance Manual before performing any cooling system maintenance.
Electrical Shock (6)
The safety message for electrical shock is located on
the sides of the terminal box.
g01372247
WARNING! Shock/Electrocution Hazard! Read and
understand the instructions and warnings in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the warnings could
cause serious injury or death.
12
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
SEBU8088-07
i02574315
General Hazard Information
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Illustration 6
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Illustration 5
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction,
SEHS7332) are available from your Caterpillar
dealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When it is appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps
• Grease fittings
• Pressure taps
• Breathers
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
is performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that
is located on the valve cover base. This will help
prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the
unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit
injector terminals while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not understood.
Use the proper tools. Replace any equipment that
is damaged or repair the equipment.
SEBU8088-07
13
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Pressurized Air and Water
Asbestos Information
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Illustration 8
Fluid Penetration
g00702022
Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free. Caterpillar
recommends the use of only genuine Caterpillar
replacement parts. Use the following guidelines
when you handle any replacement parts that contain
asbestos or when you handle asbestos debris.
Illustration 7
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
Containing Fluid Spillage
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Prepare to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component that contains fluids.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tools Catalog” for the following items:
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
• Tools that are suitable for collecting fluids and
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
equipment that is suitable for collecting fluids
• Tools that are suitable for containing fluids and
equipment that is suitable for containing fluids
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
jobs.
way to control the dust.
14
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
SEBU8088-07
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations
for the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal
of asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Softwrap
Keep the engine room ventilation operating at full
capacity. Wear a particulate respirator that has been
approved by the National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH). Wear appropriate
protective clothing in order to minimize direct contact.
Use good hygiene practices and wash hands
thoroughly after handling softwrapmaterial. Do not
smoke until washing hands thoroughly after handling
softwrap material. Clean up debris with a vacuum
or by wet sweeping. Do not use pressurized air to
clean up debris.
Reference: The applicable material safety data
sheets can be found at the following web site by
searching by the part number or the name of the
product:
http://dsf2ws.cat.com/msds/servlet/
cat.cis.ecs.msdsSearch.controller.
UserIdentificationDisplayServlet
i01480768
Burn Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Illustration 9
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
SEBU8088-07
15
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
i01496776
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be properly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Illustration 10
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after
an emergency shutdown.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and properly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
deterioration. The hoses must be properly routed.
The lines and hoses must have adequate support
and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be properly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the proper
torque.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Caterpillar dealer for additional
information about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil, and
debris from the engine. Do not allow any flammable
materials to accumulate on the engine.
All fluids that are captured in the fluid spill
containment basin should be cleaned up immediately.
Failure to clean up spilled fluids can cause a fire. Fire
may cause personal injury and property damage.
Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Illustration 11
g00704059
16
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
SEBU8088-07
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Use ether in well ventilated areas. Do not smoke
while you are replacing an ether cylinder or while you
are using an ether spray.
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders
in direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49 °C
(120 °F). Keep ether cylinders away from open
flames or sparks.
Dispose of used ether cylinders properly. Do not
puncture an ether cylinder. Keep ether cylinders
away from unauthorized personnel.
Do not spray ether into an engine if the engine is
equipped with a thermal starting aid for cold weather
starting.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent
or damaged.
Illustration 12
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
Improper jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous.
Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks
can cause fires. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
repair or for replacement parts.
Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not use
your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a board or
cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all connections
to the recommended torque.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
SEBU8088-07
17
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
i01359666
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
i01805780
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Support the component properly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i01372247
Mounting and Dismounting
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically.
If automatic shutdown does not occur, press the
emergency stop button in order to cut the fuel and/or
air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Engine Starting
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
i02136012
SMCS Code: 1000
18
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8088-07
If there is a possibility that unburned gas remains in
the exhaust system, refer to the purge procedure in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Starting” topic in the Operation Section.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
properly, check the water temperature and the oil
temperature during heater operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
i01462046
Engine Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled. This may be accomplished
by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine and/or
shutting off the air supply to the engine.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine.
i02106213
Electrical System
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” jump start cable should be connected
last from the external power source to the negative
“−” terminal of the starting motor. If the starting motor
is not equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect
the jump start cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is started. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started. See
the Operation and Maintenance Manual for specific
starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Proper grounding for the engine electrical system
is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Improper grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function properly, an engine-to-frame ground
strap with a direct path to the battery must be used.
This path may be provided by way of a starting motor
ground, a starting motor ground to the frame, or a
direct engine ground to the frame.
All grounds should be tight and free of corrosion. The
engine alternator must be grounded to the negative
“-” battery terminal with a wire that is adequate to
handle the full charging current of the alternator.
SEBU8088-07
19
Safety Section
Generator Isolating for Maintenance
i01593543
Generator Isolating for
Maintenance
SMCS Code: 4450
When you service an electric power generation set
or when you repair an electric power generation set,
follow the procedure below:
1. Stop the engine.
Illustration 13
g00104545
2. Attach a “DO NOT OPERATE” or similar warning
tag to the engine prime mover starting circuit.
Disconnect the engine starting circuit.
3. Disconnect the generator from the distribution
system.
4. Lock out the circuit breaker. Attach a “DO NOT
OPERATE” or similar warning tag to the circuit
breaker. Refer to the electrical diagram. Verify that
all points of possible reverse power flow have
been locked out.
5. For the following circuitry, remove the transformer's
fuses:
• power
• sensing
• control
6. Attach a “DO NOT OPERATE” or similar warning
tag to the generator excitation controls.
7. Remove the cover of the generator's terminal box.
8. Use an audio/visual proximity tester in order to
verify that the generator is de-energized. This
tester must be insulated for the proper voltage
rating. Follow all guidelines in order to verify that
the tester is operational.
9. Determine that the generator is in a de-energized
condition. Add ground straps to the conductors
or terminals. During the entire work period, these
ground straps must remain connected to the
conductors and to the terminals.
20
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications
SEBU8088-07
Product Information
Section
Model Views and
Specifications
i02455395
Model View Illustrations
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
The following model views show typical features of
the generator sets that are supported in this manual.
Due to individual applications, your generator set
may appear different from the illustrations.
SEBU8088-07
21
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications
g01225432
Illustration 14
Typical example of a C27 generator set
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Emergency stop button
Control panel
Air cleaner
Air inlet
Oil level gauge
Engine control module (ECM)
Fuel priming pump
(8) Oil filler
(9) Fuel filter
(10) Package lifting eye
(11) Water separator
(12) Fuel inlet
(13) Fuel return
(14) Oil drain
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
Oil filter
Radiator cap
Engine lifting eye
Exhaust
Fumes disposal tube
Starting motor
22
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications
SEBU8088-07
g01185614
Illustration 15
Typical example of a C32 generator set
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Control panel
Air cleaner
Oil level gauge
Excess fuel return
Radiator cap
(6) Oil filler
(7) Terminal strips
(8) Fuel priming pump
(9) Fuel filter
(10) Package lifting eye
i02572751
Product Description
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
(11) Water separator
(12) Engine lifting eye
(13) Exhaust
(14) Oil filter
(15) Fumes disposal tube
• Air-To-Air Aftercooler (ATAAC)
Electronic Engine Features
• Direct fuel injection
Caterpillar C27 and C32 engines are designed with
electronic controls. The integral on board computer
controls the operation of the engine. Current
operating conditions are monitored. The Electronic
Control Module (ECM) controls the response of the
engine to these conditions and to the demands of the
operator. These conditions and operator demands
determine the precise control of fuel injection by the
ECM. The electronic engine control system provides
the following features:
• Mechanical Electronic Unit Injector (MEUI)
• Engine and auxiliary monitoring
• Turbocharged
• Engine speed governing
Caterpillar C27 and C32 Generator Sets provide the
following features:
Engine Description
• Four cycle
SEBU8088-07
23
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications
• Cold start strategy
Engine Specifications
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right sides
of the engine are determined from the flywheel end.
The number 1 cylinder is the most forward cylinder.
• Integrated ether start
• Torque rise shaping
• Automatic altitude compensation
• Injection timing control
• System diagnostics
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
Illustration 16
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
(A) Inlet valves
(B) Exhaust valves
• Water temperature regulators which regulate the
engine coolant temperature
g00291566
Cylinder and valve locations
Table 1
C27 and C32 Generator Set Engine Specifications
• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
C27
C32
• Oil cooler
Cylinders and
Arrangement
The engine lubricating oil is also filtered. Bypass
valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil
to the engine components during the following
conditions:
Bore
137.7 mm
(5.4 inch)
145 mm
(5.7 inch)
Stroke
152.4 mm
(6 inch)
162 mm
(6.4 inch)
• High oil viscosity
Compression
Ratio
16.5:1
15:1
• Plugged oil cooler or plugged oil filter elements
(paper cartridge)
Aspiration
Displacement
Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants and
lubricants. Use this Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expected engine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average power
that is demanded is based on fuel consumption of the
engine over a period of time. For more information,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Overhaul Considerations” topic (Maintenance
Section).
12 cylinder vee block
Firing Order
TA(1)
27 L (1648 in3)
1-10-9-6-5-12-11-4-3-8-7-2
Rotation
(flywheel end)
(1)
32 L (1953 in3)
Counterclockwise
Turbocharged Aftercooled
Generator Description
The SR4B brushless generator is used with the
following loads: mixed loads of motors and lights,
SCR-controlled equipment, computer centers,
installations of communications, and petroleum
drilling applications. The elimination of the brushes in
the field circuit reduces maintenance. The elimination
of the brushes in the field circuit increases reliability.
The elimination of brushes provides a higher degree
of protection in potentially hazardous atmospheres.
24
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications
The generator set packages can be utilized for prime
power generation or standby power generation. The
generator set packages can be used in land-based
applications or marine applications.
SR4B generators are utilized in three-phase full-wave
excitation and regulation. The generators have four
poles. The generators have four, six, ten, or twelve
lead configuration. This depends on frame size. The
generators are capable of producing electrical power
in either 50 Hz or 60 Hz applications.
SEBU8088-07
SEBU8088-07
25
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
i02456200
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Caterpillar generator sets are identified by serial
numbers and by arrangement numbers. These
numbers are shown on the engine serial number
plate, on the engine identification plate and on the
generator identification plate. Caterpillar dealers need
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
Illustration 18
g01225784
C32 generator set
Generator Identification Plate (1)
The generator identification plate is located on the
top of the barrel of the generator.
Generator serial number__________________________________
Generator model number_________________________________
Engine Identification Plate (2)
The engine identification plate is located on the right
side of the engine on the oil cooler.
Setpoint of the engine altitude derate _________________
Illustration 17
C27 generator set
g01225493
Horsepower _________________________________________________
High idle _____________________________________________________
Full load engine speed ___________________________________
Fuel settings ________________________________________________
The engine information plate also contains other
important information about the engine.
26
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8088-07
Engine Serial Number Plate (3)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the engine block.
Engine serial number _____________________________________
Engine model _______________________________________________
Arrangement number _____________________________________
i01830750
Emissions Certification Film
SMCS Code: 1000; 7405
Note: This information is pertinent in the United
States, in Canada and in Europe.
A typical example is shown.
SEBU8088-07
27
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
g00776690
Illustration 19
i01757910
Reference Information
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Identification of the following items may be needed
in order to obtain parts and service. Some of the
numbers are on the engine Serial Number Plate
and/or Information Plate. Locate the information
for your engine. Record the information in the
appropriate space. Make a copy of this list for a
record. Retain the information for future reference.
The top level part numbers in the Parts Manual for
the engine are listed with the engine arrangement
number.
The packaging arrangement may also be called a
pricing arrangement or a customer arrangement. This
is the total package with attachments and options
that are not included in the engine arrangement.
The performance specification can be used by
your Caterpillar dealer with the Technical Marketing
Information system. Before the engine leaves the
factory, the engine performance is tested. Detailed
performance data is recorded. The performance
specification number can be used for obtaining the
data.
Record for Reference
Engine Model _______________________________________________
28
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8088-07
Engine Serial Number ____________________________________
Engine Arrangement Number ___________________________
Modification Number ______________________________________
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
Performance Specification Number ____________________
Part Number for the Primary Fuel Filter _______________
The leads are numbered clockwise from the top
and from the outside inward. The diagrams that
are contained in the “Wye Configuration Diagrams”
section show lead numbering for the six lead
generators and for the twelve lead generators. The
diagrams contained in the “Delta Configuration
Diagrams” section show lead numbering for the six
lead generators and for the twelve lead generators.
Wye Configuration Diagrams
6 Lead
Part Number for the Water Separator Element
_________________________________________________________________
Part Number for the Secondary Fuel Filter Element
_________________________________________________________________
Part Number for the Lubrication Oil Filter Element
_________________________________________________________________
Part Number for the Auxiliary Oil Filter Element
_________________________________________________________________
Part Number for the Supplemental Coolant Additive
Maintenance Element (If Equipped) ___________________
Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Part Number for the Air Cleaner Element ____________
Illustration 20
g00611486
Part Number for the Fan Drive Belt ____________________
6 Lead Wye Configuration
Part Number for the Alternator Belt ____________________
Terminals T4, T5 and T6 become a neutral connection when the
terminals are tied together.
Model Number of the Generator ________________________
Serial Number of the Generator ________________________
Arrangement Number of the Generator _______________
Part Number for the Control Panel _____________________
i01553111
Generator Lead Connections
SMCS Code: 4450
Lead Numbering
The Wye Configurations and the Delta Configurations
are the most common generator lead connections.
The following three-phase connection diagrams
illustrate the proper connection and lead identification.
SEBU8088-07
29
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Delta Configuration Diagrams
12 Lead
6 Lead
Illustration 21
g00661863
12 Lead Wye Configuration - High Voltage
Terminals T10, T11 and T12 become neutral connection when
the terminals are tied together.
Illustration 23
g00669319
6 Lead Delta Configuration
12 Lead
Illustration 22
g00611608
12 Lead Wye Configuration - Low Voltage
Terminals T10, T11 and T12 become neutral connection when
the terminals are tied together.
Illustration 24
g00669312
12 Lead Delta Configuration
Terminals T6 and T9 become the neutral connection when the
terminals are tied together and grounded. This reflects the terminal
T2 and T10 connection as the high phase.
30
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Grounding the Frame
In any generator set installation, the frame of the
generator must be positively connected to an earth
ground or to the hull of a vessel. This connection is
the first connection that is made at the installation.
This connection is the last connection that should be
removed. If the generator set is on flexible pads or on
resilient pads, the ground connection must be flexible
in order to avoid possible breakage in later operation.
Ground connection cable or ground connection straps
should have at least the current carrying capacity of
the largest line lead to the connected load. Joints in
cables or in straps must be clean, free of electrical
resistance, and protected from possible oxidation.
Bolted ground connection joints eventually oxidize.
The joints are frequent sources of radio frequency
interference (RFI). Silver soldered joints and bolted
joints are electrically and mechanically sound.
Neutral Connections
The generators with Wye Configuration usually
have the neutral ground when the generator is
installed. However, there are some cases when
definite measures should be taken in order to
prevent grounds on the load side. The purpose of
the grounding of the neutral is to prevent load side
equipment damage.
If the neutral wire is grounded and one of the phase
leads becomes grounded, the excessive current will
open a load circuit breaker. The excessive current
will also collapse the generator voltage. The result
depends on the following items: particular generator
electrical characteristics, type of fault, and trip rating
of the circuit breaker. An undervoltage device may be
required in order to provide an adequate short circuit
protection.
There are some instances in which it is undesirable
to ground the neutral wire. In other applications, it is
acceptable to have an ungrounded generator neutral
lead. Definite measures should be taken in such
applications in order to prevent grounds to the phase
leads. An example of such measures are ground fault
protective circuits. Ground fault protection requires
that the entire group of distribution circuits should
be studied. The entire group of distribution circuits
should be treated as a system. The owner should
engage a certified, registered consultant if a new
distribution system is being developed. The owner
should also engage a certified, registered consultant
if an existing system should be modified for the
ground fault protection.
Single Units
In a three-phase, four-wire system, the neutral wire
should be grounded according to local wiring codes.
SEBU8088-07
In applications in which definite measures are taken
in order to prevent grounds to the load leads, an
ungrounded neutral can be used. Be sure to check
your local wiring codes.
Multiple Units
Operation of multiple generators in parallel that have
all neutrals grounded, may result in the circulating
current through the neutral connections. In order
to eliminate the possibility of circulating currents,
ground the neutral of only one generator. If multiple
generators are alternated on line, a switch should
be installed in the neutral ground circuit of each
generator. In this case, all neutral ground circuits
except one circuit can be opened. Be sure that one
of the neutral ground circuits is closed.
Parallel to Utility
When a Wye connected generator is going to operate
in parallel with a utility system (infinite bus) and
when the secondary of the step-down transformer
in the utility system is also a Wye connection, the
following may happen. The grounding of both Wye
neutrals may result in circulating currents through
the neutrals. Also, the coordination of ground fault
protection requires an entire system study. This study
should be done by a certified, registered consultant
who is familiar with generator systems. The study will
determine which grounding method should be used.
i01553204
Voltage Connections
SMCS Code: 4450
Three-Phase Voltage Connections
The Wye Configuration for a 480 V generator and the
Delta Configuration for a 240 V generator are given
in the following diagrams.
The terminals must be connected securely. The
terminals must also be insulated with a good quality
electrical tape.
If a Delta Configuration with grounded neutral is being
used, a two-thirds winding pitch is recommended. If
the generator winding pitch is not two-thirds, third
harmonics will cause a high neutral current. This
current can damage the wiring, which may cause
a fire hazard. A floating neutral does not require a
two-thirds pitch winding.
SEBU8088-07
31
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Wye Configuration Diagrams
6 Lead Generators
Illustration 27
g00637320
Typical Parallel Wye Configuration (60 Hz, 12 Lead)
Illustration 25
g00626053
Typical Wye Configuration (60 Hz, 6 Lead)
Delta Configuration Diagrams
12 Lead Generators
Illustration 26
Typical Series Wye Configuration (60 Hz, 12 Lead)
This is a typical high voltage connection.
This is a typical high voltage connection.
6 Lead Generators
g00637319
Illustration 28
Typical Delta Configuration (60 Hz, 6 Lead)
g00626129
32
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8088-07
Do not exceed the nameplate current rating for any
one phase.
12 Lead Generators
Wye Configuration Diagrams
6 Lead Generators
Illustration 29
g00626130
Typical Delta Configuration (60 Hz, 12 Lead)
Single-Phase Current From a
Three-Phase Generator
Three-phase current and single-phase current
can be taken simultaneously from a generator
that is connected for three-phase service. In
the Wye Configuration, connect the load to the
three-phase leads (any two of the three leads). In
the Delta Configuration, connect the load to the
three-phase leads (any two of the three leads). In
both configurations, this connection will provide
single-phase voltage at the same voltage as
three-phase voltage.
Illustration 30
g00626132
Single-Phase Voltage Diagram with 6 Lead Wye Configuration
12 Lead Generators
Connect the load to any phase lead and neutral lead
of the Wye Configuration. This will produce voltage at
58% of three-phase voltage.
In the Delta Configuration that produces 240 Volts
60 Hz three-phase power, the voltages will be the
following:
• 208 Volts between the high phase and neutral
• 240 Volts between either one of the low phases
and neutral
Refer to Operation Section, “Generator Operation”
for allowable single-phase loading unbalance.
Single-phase power that is taken from a three-phase
source can be a problem. Ensure that the
single-phase loading is equally distributed.
Illustration 31
g00637321
Single-Phase Voltage Diagram with 12 Lead Wye Configuration
SEBU8088-07
33
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Delta Configuration Diagrams
6 Lead Generators
Illustration 32
g00626135
Single-Phase Voltage Diagram with 6 Lead Delta Configuration
12 Lead Generators
Illustration 33
g00626136
Single-Phase Voltage Diagram with 12 Lead Delta Configuration
34
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
SEBU8088-07
Operation Section
Lifting the Entire Package
Lifting and Storage
i02396283
Product Lifting
SMCS Code: 7000; 7002
Do NOT use the engine lifting eyes or the
generator lifting eyes to lift the entire package.
Lifting points (3) have been provided on the base
rails of the generator set for lifting the entire package.
However, lifting the engine and the generator together
requires special equipment and procedures. Consult
your Caterpillar dealer for information regarding
fixtures for proper lifting of your complete package.
Lifting the Engine Only
To remove the engine ONLY, use lifting eyes (2) that
are on the engine.
Lifting the Generator Only
Note: The control panel and the terminal will need to
be removed before attempting to lift the generator.
To remove the generator ONLY, use lifting eyes (1)
that are on the generator.
Illustration 34
g01189078
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the entire package.
Use an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance. Lifting fixtures also help to
provide safety.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for each
package. Alterations to the lifting eyes and/or the
package make the lifting eyes and the lifting fixtures
obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that proper
lifting devices are provided. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for information regarding fixtures for proper
lifting.
SEBU8088-07
35
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
i02068367
Product Storage
SMCS Code: 7002
If the engine will not be started for several weeks, the
lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
liner surface. Rust on the cylinder liner surface will
cause increased engine wear and a reduction in
engine service life.
To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the
following guidelines:
• Complete all of the lubrication recommendations
that are listed in this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”
(Maintenance Section).
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
cooling system for adequate protection against
freezing. See this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
(Maintenance Section).
If an engine is out of operation and if use of the engine
is not planned, special precautions should be made.
If the engine will be stored for more than one month,
a complete protection procedure is recommended.
For more detailed information on engine storage, see
Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage Procedure
For Caterpillar Products”.
Your Caterpillar dealer can assist in preparing the
engine for extended storage periods.
36
Operation Section
Installation
SEBU8088-07
Installation
Storage
i01856938
Generator Set Installation
SMCS Code: 7002
Receiving Inspection
If the generator is received during cold weather,
allow the unit to reach room temperature before you
remove the protective packing material. Warming
the generator to room temperature will prevent the
following problems:
Short Time Storage
If the generator is not installed immediately, store
the generator in a clean area. This area should also
have the following conditions: low humidity, stable
humidity, and stable temperature. Space heaters
must be energized in order to keep condensation
from the windings. All accessory equipment that
is supplied with the unit should be stored with the
generator. The combined unit should be covered
with a durable cover in order to protect against the
following contaminants:
• Dust
• Water condensation on cold surfaces
• Dirt
• Early failures due to wet windings
• Moisture
• Early failures due to wet insulating materials
Long Time Storage
Unpacking and Storage
A storage period in excess of six months should be
preceded by the following preparation:
Moving the Generator
Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble causing injury and damage.
NOTICE
Do not use the engine lifting eyes to remove the engine and generator together.
Unpack the equipment with care in order to avoid
scratching painted surfaces. Move the unit to the
mounting location. The unit can be moved by either
of the following methods:
• Attach an overhead crane to the lifting eyes that
are installed on the generator package.
• Use a lift truck in order to lift the generator.
The hoist and the hoist cables should have a rating
that is greater than the weight of the generator.
When the unit is moved, ensure that the generator
is completely supported by the lift truck's fork tines.
Also ensure that the generator is balanced on the
lift truck's fork tines. Slide the fork tines beneath the
attached skid in order to lift the generator.
1. Install desiccant bags inside the exciter's cover
and install desiccant bags inside the screen of
the fan.
2. Seal the unit in a covering of plastic or other
material that has been designed for that purpose.
3. Adequately tag the generator. This will ensure
that preservative greases and desiccant bags are
removed before the unit is placed in operation.
Bearing Inspection
Ball bearing generators use grease. This grease is
subject to deterioration. If the generator is stored
longer than one year, new ball bearings should be
installed. These bearings should be greased to
the proper level prior to being put into operation. If
inspection indicates that bearings are free of rust or
corrosion, and no noise or excessive vibration appear
on start-up, replacement is not necessary.
Location
The location of the generator must comply with all
local regulations. The location of the generator must
also comply with all special industrial regulations.
Locate the generator in an area that meets the
following requirements:
• Clean
• Dry
SEBU8088-07
37
Operation Section
Installation
• Well ventilated
Protective Devices
• Easily accessible for inspection and maintenance
The output to the load of the generator should always
be protected with an overload protection device such
as a circuit breaker or fuses. Fuses should be sized
by using the lowest possible current rating. However,
this rating must be above the current rating for full
load. A common recommendation is 115 percent
of rated current. Determine the size of fuses or
determine the size of circuit breakers in accordance
with NEMA, IEC, and Local Electrical Codes.
Do not obstruct air inlet openings. Do not obstruct
discharge openings. Coolant flow must reach these
openings. If the generator is exposed to harsh
environmental conditions, the generator can be
modified in the field in order to add filters and
space heaters. In addition, a more rigid periodic
maintenance schedule should be established.
Electrical Measurements
Measure the insulation resistance of each winding
if the generator was exposed to the following
conditions:
• Rapid changes in temperature
• Freezing
• Wet climate during shipment
• Wet climate during storage
Note: These tests should be conducted prior to any
power connections that are being made. These tests
should be conducted prior to any control connections
that are being made.
Refer to the Generator Maintenance section of this
manual in order to measure the following items:
• Exciter field (stator)
• Exciter armature (rotor)
• Generator field (rotor)
• Generator armature (stator)
Alignment
After the generator set has been placed in the final
position, the generator must be aligned. Refer to
these publications:
• Special Instruction, SEHS7654, “Alignment General Instructions”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7259, “Alignment of
Single-Bearing Generators”
• Special Instruction, REHS0177, “Alignment of the
Close Coupled Two-Bearing Generators”
38
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8088-07
Features and Controls
i02363871
Electronic Modular Control
Panel II+ with Paralleling
(EMCP II+P)
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 4490
g00639524
Illustration 35
Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ With Paralleling (EMCP II+P)
(1) Generator set control + (GSC+)
(2) Alarm module (ALM) (optional)
(3) Custom alarm module (CAM)
(4) Panel light switch (PLS)
(5) Pump stop switch
(6) Start aid switch (SAS) (optional)
(7) Panel lights (PL)
(8) Pump run switch (optional)
(9) Voltage adjust rheostat (VAR)
(10) Speed potentiometer (SP) (optional) or
Governor switch (GS) (optional)
(11) Emergency stop push button (ESPB)
The electronic modular control panel II+ with
paralleling (EMCP II+P) is located above the
generator distribution housing. The control panel
consists of a main panel with indicators, meters
and control switches. This control panel may be
equipped with optional modules in order to match the
customers' needs and requirements.
(12) Engine control switch (ECS)
(13) Caterpillar Monitoring System
(14) Synchronization mode switch
(15) Breaker open pushbutton/indicator
(16) Breaker close pushbutton/indicator
The left side of the control panel contains the
generator set control + (GSC+). This is the main
component of the system. The GSC+ displays
generator output, fault conditions, and key engine
parameters. The center section of the control panel
may be blank, or contain one or two of the optional
alarm modules. The right side of the control panel
may be blank, or contain the Caterpillar Monitoring
System.
SEBU8088-07
The main control panel may or may not contain all
of the components which are shown in Illustration
35. Some components are optional. The optional
components may not be required for your particular
application.
Generator Set Control + (1) – The generator set
control + (GSC+) is the main component of the
EMCP II+P. See the topic “Generator Set Control +
(GSC+)” in this section.
Alarm Module (2) – The alarm module (ALM) is
optional. The function of the ALM is to provide a visual
and audible warning of engine conditions before
these conditions become severe enough to shut the
engine down or keep the engine from starting.
Custom Alarm Module (3) – The custom alarm
module (CAM) is optional. The purpose of the CAM is
to annunciate faults, alarms or other conditions from
customer supplied inputs.
Panel Light Switch (4) – The panel lights switch
(PLS) turns the panel lights (7) on or off.
Pump Stop Switch (5) – The pump stop switch is
optional with 3406E and 3412C generator sets only.
This push button switch is used with the generator
mounted automatic fuel transfer system, if equipped.
The pump stop switch is used to manually stop the
fuel transfer pump. This switch is latched down when
pushed. The red indicator will now be ON. The switch
can be reset by pressing the switch again. The red
indicator will now be OFF.
Start Aid Switch (6) – The start aid switch (SAS)
is optional. The SAS is used to inject ether into
the engine when you are starting the engine in
cold weather conditions. When the SAS is in the
ON position, the switch energizes the starting aid
solenoid valve (SASV) and meters a specific amount
of ether into a holding chamber. When the SAS
is released, the solenoid releases the ether to the
engine.
NOTICE
The engine must be cranking before using the start
aid switch. Damage to the engine is possible if ether
is released to the engine but not exhausted or burned
by the engine when cranking.
Panel Lights (7) – Panel lights (PL) are controlled
by the panel lights switch (4). The panel lights switch
(4) is an ON/OFF switch.
39
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Pump Run Switch (8) – The pump run switch is
optional. This momentary push button switch is
used with the generator set mounted automatic fuel
transfer system, if equipped. Pushing this switch will
cause the generator set mounted fuel transfer pump
to fill the generator set day tank. The green indicator
will be ON when the pump is running. The pump will
automatically shut OFF when the fuel reaches the
high fuel level. The pump can also be turned OFF
manually by the pump stop switch (5). The pump stop
switch must be reset. Reset the pump stop switch by
pressing the switch again.
Voltage Adjust Rheostat (9) – The voltage adjust
rheostat (VAR) is used to adjust the generator output
voltage to the desired level.
Speed Potentiometer (10) – The speed
potentiometer (SP) is optional. The SP can be used
with the generator set that has an electric governor.
When the governor is equipped with a speed adjust
motor, the governor switch (GS) can be mounted
instead of the SP. The GS is used to raise or lower the
engine speed and frequency. The GS is also optional.
Emergency Stop Push Button (11) – The
emergency stop push button (ESPB) is used to shut
down the engine during an emergency situation. The
ESPB shuts off the fuel and activates the optional air
shutoff, if equipped.
Engine Control Switch (12) – The engine control
switch (ECS) determines the status of the control
panel. In the AUTOMATIC position (3 o'clock),
the engine will start automatically whenever a
remote initiating contact is closed. The engine will
shutdown after the initiating contact opens and after
a programmable cooldown time has elapsed. The
cooldown time can be programmed to give a 0 to
30 minute cooldown period before the engine shuts
down.
In the MANUAL START position (6 o'clock), the
engine will start and run as long as the ECS switch
remains in this position.
In the STOP position (9 o'clock), the fuel solenoid
shuts the engine down after a programmable cool
down time period has elapsed.
In the OFF/RESET position (12 o'clock), the
fault lights are reset and the engine shuts down
immediately.
Caterpillar Monitoring System (13) – This system
is the information center for the engine and related
components. See the Operation Section, “Caterpillar
Monitoring System” for more information.
40
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8088-07
Synchronization Mode Switch (14) – The
synchronization mode switch (14) is manually
operated. The switch has four positions: the AUTO
position, the SEMI-AUTO position, the MANUAL
(PERMISSIVE) position, and the OFF position. Refer
to Illustration 36.
Breaker Open Pushbutton/Indicator (15) – When
the generator is being taken off-line manually, the
breaker open pushbutton must be pressed by the
operator in order to open the breaker. When the
breaker is open and the engine is running, the
breaker open indicator (15) will light continuously.
Breaker Close Pushbutton/Indicator (16) – When
the generator is being paralleled semi-automatically
or manually, the breaker close pushbutton must
be pressed by the operator in order to close the
breaker. The system does not allow the breaker to
close unless in sync. When the breaker is closed
(generator is on line), the breaker close indicator (16)
will light continuously.
Below, you can find the descriptions of the following
main modules of the EMCP II+P:
• Generator Set Control + (GSC+)
• Alarm Module (ALM)
• Custom Alarm Module (CAM)
Generator Set Control + (GSC+)
Illustration 36
g00692931
The Synchronization Mode Switch
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39)
The
The
The
The
Functions and Features of the GSC+
OFF position
MANUAL (PERMISSIVE) position
AUTO position
SEMI-AUTO position
The AUTO position (6 o'clock) is used for complete
automatic paralleling. The EMCP II+P brings the
generator into sync with the bus and sends a signal
to close the motor operated breaker. The EMCP
II+P supports automatic paralleling to a dead bus.
Automatic voltage matching is not provided.
When the synchronizer mode switch is in the
SEMI-AUTO position (3 o'clock), the EMCP II+P
brings the generator into sync with the bus and holds
it there indefinitely. The operator brings the generator
online by manually closing the breaker. Automatic
voltage matching is not provided.
When the synchronizer mode switch is in the
MANUAL (PERMISSIVE) position (9 o'clock), the
operator adjusts the frequency and phase of the
generator in order to match the bus. When the
generator is in sync with the bus, the operator brings
the generator online by manually closing the breaker.
When the synchronizer mode switch is in the OFF
position (12 o'clock), all paralleling functions are
disabled.
Illustration 37
g00634036
The Location of the GSC+ on the EMCP II+P Control Panel
The left side of the control panel contains the
Generator Set Control + (GSC+). The GSC+ is the
main component of the system. The GSC+ displays
generator output, generator set functions, fault
conditions, and key engine parameters. The GSC+
accepts information from the operator, magnetic
pickup, oil pressure sensor, water temperature
sensor, and optional remote sources. This information
is used to determine the “ON/OFF” state of the
engine's air, fuel, and starter.
SEBU8088-07
In the very basic operating conditions, the GSC+
receives a signal to run the generator set. The GSC+
turns on the engine's fuel and starter. When the
engine speed reaches the crank termination speed,
the starter is disengaged. When the GSC+ receives a
signal to stop the engine, the GSC+ shuts the fuel off.
The functions of the GSC+ are listed below.
• The GSC+ controls the normal starting and
stopping of the engine.
• The GSC+ shows engine conditions and generator
output information on two displays. The displays
also show fault codes and GSC+ programming
information.
• The GSC+ monitors the system for faults. If a
fault occurs, the GSC+ performs a controlled fault
shutdown or provides a fault alarm annunciation.
The GSC+ uses indicators and displays in order to
describe the fault.
41
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• Power Down: The EMCP II+P system is designed
to remove power from the GSC+ when the engine
control switch (ECS) is in the OFF/RESET mode
and when the proper jumper wire is removed.
The GSC+ will not power down until the crank
termination relay and the fuel control relay are both
off for about 70 seconds. If the wire is not removed,
the GSC+ will remain powered up. For the wiring
diagram and the location of the jumper wire, refer
to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control Panel II
+ (EMCP II+)”.
• Fuel Solenoid Type: The GSC+ can be
programmed to work with either an energized to
run (ETR) fuel system or an energized to shutdown
(ETS) fuel system.
Fault indicators
• The GSC+ contains programmable features for
certain applications or customer requirements.
The features of the GSC+ are listed below.
• Cycle Crank: The GSC+ can be programmed to
crank for adjustable time periods. For programming
instructions, refer to the Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic
Modular Control Panel II + (EMCP II+)”.
• Governor Control: When the engine oil pressure
increases past the low oil pressure set point,
the GSC+ will indicate to the governor that the
governor should increase the engine speed from
idle RPM to rated RPM.
• Cooldown: Upon receiving a signal to perform
a normal shutdown, the GSC+ will wait a
preprogrammed amount of time before shutting the
engine down by means of the fuel control.
• Automatic Operation: While in the automatic
mode, the GSC+ can be started by a remote
initiate signal (contact closure). Upon loss of the
signal (contact opening), the GSC+ will perform a
normal shutdown.
• Alarm Module Communication: The GSC+ can
transmit fault and alarm conditions to an alarm
module (AM).
Illustration 38
g00634142
Display Area of the GSC+
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
Low oil pressure indicator
Emergency stop indicator
High water temperature indicator
Engine overspeed indicator
Overcrank indicator
Spare 1 indicator/Voltage match
Spare 2 indicator/Frequency match
Spare 3 indicator/Phasing match
Fault shutdown indicator
Fault alarm indicator
Dedicated shutdown indicators
Spare fault indicators
Upper display
The alarm codes key
The ten fault indicators are used in order to show and
describe a fault that is present. The fault indicators
are divided into four groups. The four groups are
listed below.
• fault alarm indicator (26)
42
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• fault shutdown indicator (25)
• spare fault indicators (28)
• dedicated shutdown indicators (27)
The yellow fault alarm indicator (26) FLASHES when
the GSC+ detects an alarm fault. The alarm fault
does not cause the engine status to change. The
engine can be started. The engine will continue
operating only if the engine is running at the time
of the alarm fault. Fault alarm indicator (26) is
accompanied by an alarm fault code that is shown
on the upper display (29) when the alarm codes
key (30) is pressed. For the descriptions of the fault
codes, refer to the Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control
Panel II + (EMCP II+)”.
The red fault shutdown indicator (25) FLASHES
when the GSC+ detects a shutdown fault. The engine
will shut down if the engine is running. The engine will
not be allowed to start. Fault shutdown indicator (25)
is accompanied by a fault code that is immediately
shown on the upper display (29). For the descriptions
of the fault codes, refer to the Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic
Modular Control Panel II + (EMCP II+)”.
The yellow spare fault indicators (28) can be used for
paralleling as a redundant sync check. During the
paralleling process and before the circuit breaker
is closed, the lamps will indicate if the generator is
in sync with the bus. The spare fault indicators are
listed below.
• generator voltage match (spare 1 indicator)
• generator frequency match (spare 2 indicator)
• generator phasing match (spare 3 indicator)
If the generator parameters are not matched to
the bus, the associated lamp will flash. When the
generator and bus voltages, frequencies and phases
are in sync, the lamps will light continuously.
SEBU8088-07
When the control panel is not in a paralleling mode,
the same three spare fault indicators (28) can be
programmed by the customer. The three spare
faults can be programmed to show coolant loss, oil
temperature, spare fault condition or no assignment.
The yellow spare fault indicators (28) FLASH when
the conditions that are associated with that spare
fault are active. The yellow fault alarm indicator
(26) or the red fault shutdown indicator (25) will
accompany the spare fault indicators (28). The
spare fault indicators will tell whether the spare fault
input is programmed to be an alarm condition or a
shutdown condition. For the descriptions of the fault
codes, refer to the Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control
Panel II + (EMCP II+)”.
The red dedicated shutdown indicators (27) represent
the following shutdown faults: low oil pressure,
emergency stop, high water temperature, engine
overspeed and engine overcrank. When the GSC+
detects a fault in one of these areas, the dedicated
shutdown indicator (that corresponds to the fault)
FLASHES. The engine is shutdown if the engine
is running, and the engine is not allowed to start.
No fault codes are associated with the dedicated
shutdown indicators because each indicator has a
descriptive label.
Many of the dedicated shutdown faults depend on
certain setpoints in the GSC+. For the descriptions
of the fault codes, refer to the Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic
Modular Control Panel II + (EMCP II+)”.
The conditions that are required to activate the
dedicated fault shutdowns and the results of each
dedicated fault are in the following list.
_________________________________________________________________
Low Oil Pressure – The engine oil pressure drops
below the setpoints for low oil pressure shutdown
that are programmed into the GSC+. There are two
low oil pressure setpoints. One setpoint is used when
the engine is at idle speed. The other setpoint is used
when the engine is at rated speed. When a low oil
pressure fault occurs, the low oil pressure indicator
FLASHES, and the engine is shut down. The engine
is not allowed to start until the fault is corrected.
Emergency Stop – The operator presses the
Emergency Stop Push Button (ESPB) on the front
panel. When an emergency stop condition occurs,
the emergency stop indicator FLASHES and the
engine is shut down. The engine is not allowed to
start until the condition is corrected.
SEBU8088-07
High Water Temperature – The engine coolant
temperature rises above the setpoint for high water
temperature shutdown that is programmed into the
GSC+. When the high water temperature fault occurs,
the high water temperature indicator FLASHES. The
engine is shutdown and the engine is not allowed to
start until the fault is corrected.
43
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Display
Engine Overspeed – The engine speed exceeds
the setpoint for engine overspeed that is programmed
into the GSC+. When the engine overspeed fault
occurs, the engine overspeed indicator FLASHES.
The engine is shutdown and the engine is not allowed
to start until the fault is corrected.
Overcrank – The engine does not start within the
setpoint for total cycle crank time that is programmed
into the GSC+. When the overcrank fault occurs, the
overcrank indicator FLASHES. The engine is not
allowed to start until the fault is corrected.
Note: The GSC+ can be programmed to override
the shutdown for low oil pressure and high water
temperature faults. When the operator overrides
the shutdown faults, the GSC+ responds to the
faults as though the faults are alarm faults. The
corresponding dedicated shutdown indicator is ON
CONTINUOUSLY and will not be flashing. The
engine continues to run and can be restarted when
necessary. When the dedicated shutdown indicator
is ON CONTINUOUSLY, the setpoint for shutdown
has been exceeded, but the GSC+ is programmed
to override the shutdown fault. The GSC+ does not
treat the shutdown fault as a shutdown fault. The
GSC+ treats the shutdown fault as an alarm fault.
At the factory, the GSC+ is programmed to treat a
low oil pressure fault and a high water temperature
fault as shutdown faults. The operator or the service
technician must decide to override these shutdown
faults. The operator or the service technician must
program the GSC+ to treat the shutdown faults as
alarm faults. For programming procedures, refer
to the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control Panel II+
(EMCP II+)”.
Illustration 39
g00634182
Display Area of the GSC+
(29)
(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)
Upper display
Lower display
The power meter key
The AC meter key
The engine meter key
The display consists of the upper display and
the lower display. Both displays are used for
programming functions when in service mode. For
more information, see the Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic
Modular Control Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
Upper display
The EMCP II+P upper display (29) displays voltage
and frequency. The voltage and frequency alternate
between the generator output and the bus. The word
“bus” or “gen” appears in the right side of the window.
This word indicates which parameter is displayed.
Several options are available on the upper display
for AC metering. These options can be viewed one
at a time by pressing the AC meter key (33) on the
keypad. The options are listed below.
• Average voltage, generator frequency, and total
current
• Line to line voltage, generator frequency, and line
current for any one phase
• Line to line voltage for all three phases at once
• Line current for all three phases at once
44
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Note: When total current increases above “9999A”,
the GSC+ will show current in “kA” units.
• Line to neutral voltage for all three phases at once
Upper display (29) is also used to show the various
fault codes for system faults. For more information on
fault codes, see the Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control
Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
Note: Line to neutral voltages are not shown when
the setpoint P032 is set to 1 for delta generator sets.
Lower display
The EMCP II+P lower display (31) displays the
synchronoscope. This unique display allows a
simultaneous visual indication of both frequency and
phase of the generator set, in reference to the bus.
Additionally, the three spare indicator lamps are used
to indicate the synchronization status.
The lower display (31) shows values for power
metering, engine parameters and the relay status.
The left side of the lower display (31) serves as a
power meter for the generator set. The following
functions will scroll automatically.
SEBU8088-07
• Power factor (average)
• Power factor phase A
• Power factor phase B
• Power factor phase C
• Total energy output (kW/h)
• Total reactive energy output (kVARHr)
Note: All real power values are signed with a “+” or a
“−”. A negative value indicates reverse power.
Note: Real power phase A, B, and C as well as
power factor phase A, B, and C are not shown when
setpoint P032 is set to 1 for delta generator sets.
Note: Total energy output that is greater than 999,999
kW/h will be shown as MW/h in two steps in order to
maintain a resolution of 1 kW/h. The first step will
show MW/h as a whole number up to six places. The
second step will show MW/h as a decimal to three
places. For example: 1,000,001 kW/h will be shown
as 1000 MW/h (first step), followed by .001 MW/h
(second step).
• Total real power (kW)
The right side of lower display (31) shows the value
of certain engine parameters. The parameters are
listed below.
• Total reactive power (KVAR)
• engine oil temperature (optional)
• Percentage of rated power (%kW)
• system battery voltage
• Power factor (average)
• engine hours
• Total energy output (kW/h)
• engine speed
The display will stop scrolling when the operator
presses the power meter key for less than five
seconds. The display will show a particular parameter
continuously. Additional power meter functions will
scroll if the power meter key (32) is held for more
than five seconds and then released. The additional
functions are shown below.
• engine oil pressure
• Total real power (kW)
• Real power phase A (kW)
• Real power phase B (kW)
• Real power phase C (kW)
• Total apparent power (kVA)
• Total reactive power (KVAR)
• Percentage of rated power (%kW)
• engine coolant temperature
The value for one of these conditions is shown on the
display (31) for two seconds. The display then scrolls
to the value for the next condition. A small pointer
identifies the engine condition that corresponds to the
value that is showing. When the engine meter key
(34) is pressed, the lower display (31) stops scrolling.
The lower display continuously shows one particular
value. The pointer flashes above the value that is
showing on the display. When the engine meter key
(34) is pressed for the second time, the lower display
will return to scrolling.
SEBU8088-07
45
Operation Section
Features and Controls
The relay status indicators are on the bottom of the
lower display (31). When a GSC+ relay is activated,
the corresponding indicator (K1, K2, etc) is shown
on lower display (31). When a relay is not activated,
the corresponding indicator (K1, K2, etc) is not
shown. For a description of the relay functions,
see the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control Panel II+
(EMCP II+)”.
Keypad
Alarm Codes Key (30) – If fault alarm indicator (26)
is FLASHING, pressing this key causes the upper
display (29) to show the corresponding alarm fault
code. If this key is pressed again, the generator AC
output information will be shown on the upper display
(29). If fault alarm indicator (26) is OFF, this key has
no function.
Power Meter Key (32) – This key controls the
viewing of power meter information. This information
is shown on the lower display. Pressing the key for at
least five seconds causes all the power meter data
to scroll once. The default power meter data then
resumes scrolling. If this key is pressed for less than
five seconds, the display will stop scrolling the power
meter functions until the key is pressed again.
AC Meter Key (33) – The AC meter key controls
the viewing of the AC parameters on the upper
display. Pressing the key causes the display to show
a different set of parameters.
Engine Meter Key (34) – This key controls the
viewing of engine parameters on the lower display.
Pressing the key stops the scrolling of engine
conditions. The value for one particular engine
condition will show continuously. The pointer flashes
indicating that the scrolling is stopped. The scrolling
of the engine conditions will resume when the engine
meter key is pressed again.
Illustration 40
g00634183
Keypad Area of the GSC+
(25)
(26)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)
(38)
Fault shutdown indicator
Fault alarm indicator
Upper display
Alarm codes key
Lower display
Power meter key
AC meter key
Engine meter key
Lamp test key
Exit key
Service mode key
Keypad
Keypad (38) is used to control the information that is
shown on upper display (29) and lower display (31).
The seven keys have two sets of functions: normal
functions and service functions. For a description of
the service functions of the keys, see the Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484,
“Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
The normal functions of the keys are described in
the following paragraphs.
Lamp Test Key (35) – Pressing this key performs
a lamp test on the GSC+ and the optional alarm
module. On the GSC+, the ten fault indicators are ON
CONTINUOUSLY. Every segment of upper display
(5) and lower display (6) is ON. On the optional alarm
module, all of the indicators are ON and the horn
sounds. The lamp test function automatically turns off
if an operator presses the key and holds the key for
longer than ten seconds.
Exit Key (36) – This key only functions when the
GSC+ is in Service Mode. For more information,
see the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control Panel II+
(EMCP II+)”.
Service Mode Key (37) – Pressing this key
causes the GSC+ to enter service mode. For more
information, see the Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control
Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
46
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8088-07
Alarm Module
Illustration 41
Custom Alarm Module
g00635769
Illustration 42
g00635777
The Location of the Alarm Module (ALM) on the EMCP II+P
Control Panel
The Location of the Custom Alarm Module (CAM) on the EMCP
II+P Control Panel
The alarm module (ALM) is optional. The ALM is
located in the center of the control panel. The function
of the alarm module is to provide a visual and audible
warning of engine conditions before these conditions
become severe enough that the engine will shut
down or will be unable to start.
The Custom Alarm Module (CAM) is located in
the center of the control panel. The function of the
custom alarm module is to provide a visual and
audible warning of the conditions of the customer
supplied inputs before these conditions become
severe enough that the engine will shut down or will
be unable to start. The CAM has eight indicators,
an audible horn, acknowledge/silence switch and
the lamp test switch. Four of the indicator lamps
are yellow. These yellow indicator lamps are
used to indicate a fault shutdown. For all wiring
and installation information, refer to the Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484,
“Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
Refer to the above manual for the names of input
signals.
One basic alarm module is used to satisfy the
requirements for a standby NFPA 99 alarm module,
standby NFPA 110 alarm module, NFPA 99 remote
annunciator panel, and prime power alarm. This is
accomplished by using different inputs to the module
and different decals on the front of the module in
order to indicate alarms or shutdown conditions.
For all wiring and installation information, refer to
the Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR2484, “Electronic Modular Control Panel II+
(EMCP II+)”. Refer to the above manual for a listing
of indicators and alarm (horn) functions.
The front of the alarm module consists of the
following indicators.
• Four amber indicators, which can (depending
on module configuration) indicate High Coolant
Temperature, Low Coolant Temperature or Low
Coolant Level, Low Oil Pressure, Generator On
Load, Charger Malfunction, Low Oil Level and Low
Fuel Level
• Four red indicators, which can (depending on
module configuration) indicate a Not In AUTO
condition, Low DC Voltage, Air Damper Closed,
Low Oil Pressure Shutdown, Overcrank Shutdown,
High Coolant Temperature Shutdown, and
Overspeed Shutdown
• An audible alarm and Acknowledge/Silence switch
For more detailed information, refer to the Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR2484,
“Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ (EMCP II+)”.
Note: If an optional alarm module is ordered, the
audible horn, acknowledge/silence switch and lamp
test switch will come standard with the optional alarm
module.
The front of the alarm module consists of the
following indicators.
• Four amber indicators, which are used to display
alarm conditions
• Four yellow indicators, which are used to display
shutdown conditions
SEBU8088-07
47
Operation Section
Features and Controls
i02443021
Electronic Modular Control
Panel 3 (EMCP 3)
SMCS Code: 4490
Electronic Control Module
(Generator Set)
g01045431
Illustration 43
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Display screen
AC overview key
Engine overview key
Yellow warning lamp
Red shutdown lamp
Alarm acknowledge key
(7) Lamp test key
(8) Run key
(9) Auto key
(10) Stop key
(11) Up key
(12) Escape key
Navigation Keys
AC Overview (2) – The “AC OVERVIEW” key
will navigate the display to the first screen of AC
information. The “AC OVERVIEW” information
contains various AC parameters that summarize the
electrical operation of the generator set.
Engine Overview (3) – The “ENGINE OVERVIEW”
key will navigate the display to the first screen of
engine information. The “ENGINE OVERVIEW”
information contains various engine parameters that
summarize the operation of the generator set.
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Right key
Enter key
Down key
Left key
Acknowledge Key (6) – Pressing the
“ACKNOWLEDGE” key will cause the horn
relay to turn off. This will silence the horn. Pressing
this key will also cause any red or yellow flashing
lights to either turn off or to come on continuously,
depending on the active status of the alarms. The
“ACKNOWLEDGE” key may also be configured
to send out a global alarm silence signal on the
J1939 Data Link, which will silence the horns on the
annunciators.
Lamp Test Key (7) – Pressing and holding the
“LAMP TEST” key will cause each LED and the
display screen pixels to turn on continuously until the
key is released.
48
Operation Section
Features and Controls
RUN Key (8) – Pressing the “RUN” key will start
the engine.
AUTO Key (9) – Pressing the “AUTO” key will cause
the engine to enter the “AUTO” mode. The engine
will start if the module receives a start command from
a remote source.
STOP Key (10) – Pressing the “STOP” key will stop
the engine.
Up Key (11) – The “UP” key is used to navigate
through the various menus and monitoring screens.
The “UP” key is also used when a setpoint is entered.
When entering numeric data, the “UP” key is used
in order to increment the digits (0-9). If the setpoint
requires selection from a list, the “UP” key is used to
navigate UP through the list.
Escape Key (12) – The “ESCAPE” key is used in
order to navigate through the menus. When the key
is pressed, the user moves backward or the user
moves upward through the menus. The “ESCAPE”
key is also used to exit out of entering data when the
user is programming the setpoints. If the “ESCAPE”
key is pressed while the user is programming the
setpoints, none of the changes made on the screen
will be saved to memory.
Right Key (13) – The “RIGHT” key is used during
setpoint adjustment. The “RIGHT” key is used to
select which digit is edited while entering numeric
data. The “RIGHT” key is also used during some
setpoint adjustments in order to select or to unselect
a check box. If a check box has a check mark, the
function has been enabled. Pressing the “RIGHT”
key will disable the function. Pressing the “RIGHT”
key will also cause the check mark to disappear.
If the check box does not have a check mark, the
function is disabled. Pressing the “RIGHT” key will
enable the function. Pressing the “RIGHT” key will
also cause a check mark to appear.
Enter Key (14) – The “ENTER” key is used in order
to navigate through the menus. When the key is
pressed, the user moves forward or the user moves
downward through the menus. The “ENTER” key is
also used to save any changes while the setpoints
are being programmed. Pressing the “ENTER”
key during programming the setpoints causes the
changes to be saved to memory.
Down Key (15) – The “DOWN” key is used to
navigate downward through the various menus or
screens. The “DOWN” key is also used to program
the setpoints. The “DOWN” key is used to decrease
the digits when entering numeric data. If the setpoint
requires selection from a list, the “DOWN” key is
used to navigate DOWN through the list.
SEBU8088-07
Left Key (16) – The “LEFT” key is used during
setpoint adjustment. The “LEFT” key is used to select
the digit that is edited during the entry of numeric
data. The “LEFT” key is also used during some of
the setpoint adjustments to select a check box. The
key is also used to unselect a check box. If a check
box has a check mark, pressing the “LEFT” key
will disable the function. Pressing the key will also
remove the check mark. Pressing the “LEFT” key
will also cause the check mark to disappear. If the
check box does not have a check mark, pressing
the “LEFT” key will enable the function. Pressing the
“LEFT” key will also cause a check mark to appear.
Alarm Indicators
Yellow Warning Lamp (4) – A flashing yellow light
indicates that there are active warnings that have
not been acknowledged. A continuous yellow light
indicates that there are acknowledged warnings that
are active. If there are any active warnings, the yellow
light will change from flashing yellow to continuous
yellow after the “ACKNOWLEDGE” key is pressed. If
there are no longer any active warnings, the yellow
light will turn off after the “ACKNOWLEDGE” key is
pressed.
Red Shutdown Lamp (5) – A flashing red light
indicates that there are active shutdowns that
have not been acknowledged. A continuous red
light indicates that there are active shutdowns that
have been acknowledged. If there are any active
shutdowns the red light will change from flashing red
to continuous red after the “ACKNOWLEDGE” key is
pressed. Any condition that has caused a shutdown
must be manually reset. If there are no longer any
active shutdowns, the red light will turn off.
Digital Inputs
Note: There are 8 digital inputs on “EMCP 3.2” and
“EMCP 3.3”. There are 6 digital inputs on “EMCP
3.1”.
Digital Input 1 – Digital Input 1 is used for the
emergency stop. This input should be wired to
GROUND through an Emergency Stop switch.
The input can be set to activate on an active high
(normally closed contact) or an active low (normally
open contact). Activating the emergency stop input
will cause the generator set to stop immediately. The
emergency stop input will also prevent the generator
set from starting. Once Digital Input 1 goes active the
engine will not start until the event has been cleared.
Refer to System Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing
and Adjusting, RENR7902, “Digital Input Resetting”.
SEBU8088-07
Digital Input 2 – Digital Input 2 is used for remotely
starting and stopping the generator set. This input
should be wired to GROUND through a switch that
can be initiated remotely. The input can be set to
activate on an active high (normally closed contact)
or an active low (normally open contact). If the input
is active and the engine is in AUTO, the engine will
attempt to start. Once the input becomes inactive the
engine will enter into cooldown mode (if programmed)
and then the engine will stop.
The remainder of the inputs can be configured. The
main purpose for the other “DIGITAL” inputs is to add
additional monitoring capabilities of the parameters
for the engine or generator. The inputs can be
configured by going to the “EVENT I/P FUNCTIONS”
parameter under the “SETPOINTS” menu. The
“DIGITAL INPUTS” parameter can only be set to
“ACTIVE HIGH” or “ACTIVE LOW” in order to initiate
a High Warning, Low Warning, High Shutdown, Low
Shutdown, or Status.
The inputs can be programmed to monitor the
following parameters or components. Refer to
System Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR7902, “Digital Input Programming”.
Pressures
• Air filter differential pressure
49
Operation Section
Features and Controls
• Engine oil level
• Fuel level
• External fuel tank level
Other
• Air damper closed
• ATS in normal position
• ATS in emergency position
• Battery charger failure
• Generator breaker closed
• Utility breaker closed
• Fuel leak detected
• Custom event
For detailed information about the electronic control
module, see Systems Operation, Troubleshooting,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR7902, “EMCP3”.
Control Panel
• Engine oil pressure
• Fire extinguisher pressure
• Fuel filter differential pressure
• Oil filter differential pressure
• Starting air pressure
Temperatures
• Ambient air temperature
• Engine coolant temperature
• Engine oil temperature
• Exhaust temperature
• Rear bearing temperature (C32 only)
• Right exhaust temperature
• Left exhaust temperature
Levels
• Engine coolant level
Illustration 44
C27
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Pump stop switch
Starting aid auto/manual switch (optional)
Pump run switch
Speed potentiometer (optional)
Panel light switch
Voltage adjust switch
Emergency stop push button
Diagnostic connector
g01220625
50
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8088-07
Note: Your application may not have all of these
features.
Pump Stop Switch (1) – The pump stop switch is
optional. The pump stop switch is used to manually
stop the fuel transfer pump. Fully depress the switch
in order to latch the switch. The red indicator will
now be ON. The switch can be reset by pressing the
switch again. The red indicator will now be OFF.
Starting Aid Auto/Manual Switch (2) – The starting
aid switch is optional. The starting aid switch is
used to inject ether into the engine when you are
starting the engine in cold weather conditions. When
the starting aid switch is in the ON position, the
switch energizes the starting aid solenoid valve and
the switch meters a specific amount of ether into
a holding chamber. When the starting aid switch
is released, the solenoid releases the ether to the
engine.
Pump Run Switch (3) – The pump run switch is
optional. Pushing this switch will cause the generator
set that is mounted on the fuel transfer pump to fill
the generator set day tank. The green indicator will
be on when the pump is running. The pump will
automatically shut off when the fuel reaches the high
fuel level. The pump can also be turned to the OFF
position manually by the pump stop switch (1). The
pump stop switch must be reset. Reset the pump
stop switch by pressing the switch again.
Speed Potentiometer (4) – The speed
potentiometer is optional. The speed potentiometer
can be used with the generator set that has an
electronic governor.
Panel Light Switch (5) – The panel lights switch
turns on or the panel lights switch turns off the panel
lights.
Voltage Adjust Switch (6) – This switch can be
used to raise the voltage. The switch can also be
used to lower the voltage.
Emergency Stop Push Button (7) – The emergency
stop push button (ESPB) is used to shut down the
engine during an emergency situation. If equipped,
the ESPB shuts off the fuel and the ESPB activates
the optional air shutoff.
Diagnostic Connector(8) – The Electronic
Technician (ET) is used to communicate to the
electronic control module over the data link by
connecting to the diagnostic connector.
Illustration 45
g01155394
C32
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Starting aid auto/manual switch (optional)
Panel light switch
Emergency stop push button
Voltage adjust switch
Speed potentiometer (optional)
Note: Your application may not have all of these
features.
Starting Aid Auto/Manual Switch (1) – The starting
aid switch is optional. The starting aid switch is
used to inject ether into the engine when you are
starting the engine in cold weather conditions. When
the starting aid switch is in the ON position, the
switch energizes the starting aid solenoid valve and
the switch meters a specific amount of ether into
a holding chamber. When the starting aid switch
is released, the solenoid releases the ether to the
engine.
Panel Light Switch (2) – The panel lights switch
turns on or the panel lights switch turns off the panel
lights.
Emergency Stop Push Button (3) – The emergency
stop push button (ESPB) is used to shut down the
engine during an emergency situation. If equipped,
the ESPB shuts off the fuel and the ESPB activates
the optional air shutoff.
Voltage Adjust Switch (4) – This switch can be
used to raise the voltage. The switch can also be
used to lower the voltage.
Speed Potentiometer (5) – The speed
potentiometer is optional. The speed potentiometer
can be used with the generator set that has an
electronic governor.
SEBU8088-07
51
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Annunciator Module
To acknowledge the shutdown and alarm conditions
or to silence the horn, press the “Alarm Acknowledge”
button that is located near the middle of the
annunciator.
To test the LED indicators or to test the horn when the
data link is connected or the data link is disconnected,
hold in the “Lamp Test” button that is located near
the top of the annunciator.
Configuration
The annunciator module can be customized in order
to signal many different conditions that are related to
the system. Each pair of LEDs must be configured by
using the appropriate service tool. Once the service
tool has been connected to the annunciator, the user
must enter the “Configuration” screen. Each pair of
LEDs has four settings: SPN, Trigger Type, Trigger
Severity Level, and Failure Mode Identifier (FMI).
Illustration 46
g01101388
General Information
The annunciator module is used to indicate various
system events and conditions. The annunciator
module uses indicator lights and an audible horn
to give the operator information about the current
status of the system. The annunciator module can
be used to announce faults and/or status signals to
the operator. The annunciator module allows the
operator to silence the horn. The annunciator module
also allows the operator to acknowledge faults to the
system.
There are seventeen pair of LED indicators on
the annunciator's front panel. Sixteen pair of LED
indicators are used to announce events, diagnostics,
and ready signals. The seventeenth pair of LED
indicators is used as a combined network/module
status LED. The seventeenth pair of LED indicators
can tell the operator if there is a problem with the
J1939 data link connection.
Basic Operation
Each pair of LED indicators on the annunciator
consists of two of the following three colors: green,
yellow, and red. For example, a pair of red and
yellow LED indicators may be configured for engine
oil pressure. If a low engine oil pressure warning is
read over the data link, the annunciator will flash the
yellow LED and the audible horn will sound. If the low
engine oil pressure shutdown is read over the data
link, the annunciator will flash the red LED and the
audible horn will sound.
For detailed information about the annunciator
module, see Systems Operation, Troubleshooting,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR7902, “EMCP3”.
52
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8088-07
Engine Starting
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
i02048636
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• For the maximum service life of the engine, make
a thorough inspection before the engine is started.
Look for the following items: oil leaks, coolant
leaks, loose bolts, and trash buildup. Remove trash
buildup and arrange for repairs, as needed.
• Inspect the cooling system hoses for cracks and
for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator and accessory drive belts for
cracks, breaks, and other damage.
• Inspect the wiring for loose connections and for
worn wires or frayed wires.
• Check the fuel supply. Drain water from the water
separator (if equipped). Open the fuel supply valve.
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• All of the guards must be put in place. Check for
damaged guards or for missing guards. Repair
any damaged guards. Replace damaged guards
and/or missing guards.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the high current drain that may
be created. Check electrical cables and check the
battery for poor connections and for corrosion.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
• Check the engine lubrication oil level. Maintain the
oil level between the “ADD” mark and the “FULL”
mark on the oil level gauge.
• Check the coolant level. Observe the coolant level
in the coolant recovery tank (if equipped). Maintain
the coolant level to the “FULL” mark on the coolant
recovery tank.
• If the engine is not equipped with a coolant
recovery tank maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe. If
the engine is equipped with a sight glass, maintain
the coolant level in the sight glass.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator (if
equipped). Service the air cleaner when the yellow
diaphragm enters the red zone, or when the red
piston locks in the visible position.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
i02385404
Cold Weather Starting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900
DO NOT USE ETHER (starting fluids) unless
specifically instructed to do so. If the engine is
equipped with an Air Inlet Heater (electrically or
fuel ignited manifold heater), DO NOT use ether
(starting fluids) at any time. The use could result
in engine damage and/or personal injury.
SEBU8088-07
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
10°C (50°F) from the use of a cylinder block coolant
heater or from other means that are used to heat
the crankcase oil. Some engine applications use a
jacket water heater to improve startability. This will
help reduce white smoke and misfire during start-up
in cold weather.
NOTICE
When using ether (starting fluid), follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully, use it sparingly and spray
it only while cranking the engine. Excessive ether can
cause piston and ring damage. Use ether (starting fluid) for cold weather starting purposes only.
For engines that are not equipped with an Air Inlet
Heater, use ether when temperatures are below 0°C
(32°F). If the engine is equipped with an injection
system for starting fluid, crank the engine. Depress
the ether switch for three seconds. Additional
injections may be necessary in order to start the
engine.
Note: If the engine has not been run for several
weeks, fuel may have drained. Air may have moved
into the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters have
been changed, some air will be left in the filter
housing. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” (Maintenance Section)
for more information on priming the fuel system.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
1. Ensure that the quick disconnect switch is in the
ON position.
2. Push the start button in order to crank the engine.
Do not push down or hold the throttle down
while the engine is cranked. The system will
automatically provide the correct amount of fuel
that is needed to start the engine.
3. If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds,
release the start button, or the ignition switch. Wait
for two minutes in order to allow the starting motor
to cool before attempting to start the engine again.
53
Operation Section
Engine Starting
NOTICE
Oil pressure should rise within 15 seconds after the
engine starts. Do not increase engine speed until the
oil pressure gauge indicates normal. If oil pressure
is not indicated on the gauge within 15 seconds, DO
NOT operate the engine. STOP the engine, investigate and correct the cause.
4. Allow the engine to idle for approximately
three minutes. Idle the engine until the water
temperature gauge has begun to rise. Check all
gauges during the warm-up period.
Note: The oil pressures and fuel pressures should
be in the normal range on the instrument panel. Do
not apply a load to the engine or increase engine rpm
until the oil pressure gauge indicates at least normal
pressure. Inspect the engine for leaks and/or unusual
noises.
i02422473
Starting the Engine
(EMCP 3)
SMCS Code: 1000; 1450
1. Start the engine by one of these three methods.
• The operator presses the “RUN” Key.
• The control is in “AUTO” and the remote initiate
contact (IC) becomes active.
• The operator presses the “AUTO” Key and a
start command is sent via the RS-485 SCADA
Data Link.
2. The EMCP 3 checks the system before the crank
cycle begins. The EMCP 3 checks that no system
faults are present. The EMCP 3 checks that all
previous shutdown faults have been reset. The
EMCP 3 also checks that the engine is not already
running. If the engine is equipped with prelube,
the EMCP 3 checks the status of the prelube. If
the prelube is not complete, the EMCP 3 will not
crank the engine.
3. The EMCP 3 begins the crank cycle.
4. The EMCP 3 cranks the engine until the crank
cycle time reaches the setpoint for total crank time
or until the engine starts.
5. The EMCP 3 deactivates the starting motor
relay (SMR) when the engine speed reaches the
setpoint for crank terminate speed.
54
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8088-07
i01934760
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
SMCS Code: 1000; 1401; 1402; 1900
5. Immediately after the stalled engine is started,
disconnect the jump start cables in reverse order.
Note: If there is a problem with the alternator or the
battery charger, the engine will not continue to run
after starting, unless the power to the engine control
module is supplied by a separate source.
i01646248
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
After Starting Engine
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
SMCS Code: 1000
If the installation is not equipped with a backup
battery system, it may be necessary to start the
engine from an external electrical source.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
When using an external electrical source to start the
engine, turn the generator set control switch to the
“OFF” position. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn off
all accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries.
4. Start the engine.
Note: In temperatures from 0 to 60°C (32 to 140°F),
the warm-up time is approximately three minutes. In
temperatures below 0°C (32°F), additional warm-up
time may be required.
Note: Ensure that the self test for the monitoring
system (if equipped) is completed before operating
the engine under load.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Operate the engine at low idle until all systems
achieve operating temperatures. Check all gauges
during the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and
the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8088-07
55
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i01136207
Fuel Conservation Practices
i01646252
Engine Operation
SMCS Code: 1000
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Caterpillar's design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after
the engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine
at no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbochargers are operating
correctly so that the proper air/fuel ratio is
maintained. Clean exhaust indicates proper
functioning.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
56
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8088-07
Engine Stopping
i02443872
Manual Stop Procedure
i02237582
Emergency Stopping
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
NOTICE
Do not start the engine until the problem necessitating
the emergency stop has been located and corrected.
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load, when possible. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to idle.
2. Press the “STOP” button on the control panel. The
controller has a programmed 5 minute cooldown.
i02885872
After Stopping Engine
SMCS Code: 1000
• Check the engine crankcase oil level. Maintain the
Emergency Stop Button
oil level between the “ADD” and “FULL” marks
on the “ENGINE STOPPED” side of the oil level
gauge.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten loose bolts.
• Note the service hour meter reading. Perform the
maintenance that is scheduled in this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section).
Illustration 47
g00104303
Typical emergency stop button
The emergency stop button is in the OUT position for
normal engine operation. Push the emergency stop
button. The engine will not start when the button is
locked. Turn the button clockwise in order to reset.
NOTICE
Follow the guidelines for antifreeze/coolant mixtures
that are recommended in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic. Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for protection against freezing. The cooling
system must be protected against freezing to the
lowest expected outside temperature. Add the
proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. Refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM of the driven equipment.
SEBU8088-07
57
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i02237624
When No. 2 diesel fuel is used the following
components provide a means of minimizing problems
in cold weather:
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
• Starting aids
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
• Engine coolant heaters
The following fuels are the grades that are available
for Caterpillar engines:
• Fuel heaters
• No. 1
• No. 2
• Engine oil pan heaters
• Fuel line insulation
For more information on cold weather operation,
see Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold Weather
Recommendations”.
• Blend of No. 1 and No. 2
No. 2 diesel fuel is the most commonly used fuel.
Either No. 1 diesel fuel or a blend of No. 1 and No. 2
is best suited for cold weather operation.
Quantities of No. 1 diesel fuel are limited. No. 1 diesel
fuels are usually available during the months of the
winter in the colder climates. During cold weather
operation, if No. 1 diesel fuel is not available, use No.
2 diesel fuel, if necessary.
There are three major differences between No. 1 and
No. 2 diesel fuel. No. 1 diesel fuel has the following
properties:
• Lower cloud point
• Lower pour point
• Lower rating of kJ (BTU) per unit volume of fuel
When No. 1 diesel fuel is used, a decrease in power
and in fuel efficiency may be noticed. Other operating
effects should not be experienced.
The cloud point is the temperature when a cloud of
wax crystals begins to form in the fuel. These crystals
can cause the fuel filters to plug. The pour point is
the temperature when diesel fuel will thicken. The
diesel fuel becomes more resistant to flow through
fuel pumps and through fuel lines.
Be aware of these values when diesel fuel is
purchased. Anticipate the average ambient
temperature of the area. Engines that are fueled in
one climate may not operate well if the engines are
moved to another climate. Problems can result due
to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the type of fuel that
is being used.
i02225022
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1280
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after operating the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Oil changes
• Refueling of the fuel tank
This will help prevent water and/or sediment from
being pumped from the fuel storage tank and into
the engine fuel tank.
58
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Filters
NOTICE
Do not fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing them.
The fuel would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear
to fuel system parts.
NOTICE
In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent premature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel,
a two micron absolute high efficiency fuel filter is required for all Caterpillar Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors. Caterpillar High Efficiency Fuel Filters meet
these requirements. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
for the proper part numbers.
These engines are equipped with a primary
filter/water separator. The primary filter/water
separator must use a 10 micron filter to a 15 micron
filter. The filters are becoming more critical as fuel
injection pressures increase to 209 MPa (30000 psi)
and higher psi. For more information on priming the
fuel system, see the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” topic (Maintenance
Section).
Fuel Heaters
Note: Always follow the precautions in this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fire
Prevention and Explosion Prevention”.
Fuel heaters help to prevent fuel filters from plugging
in cold weather due to waxing. A fuel heater should
be installed in order for the fuel to be heated before
the fuel enters the primary fuel filter.
Select a fuel heater that is mechanically simple, yet
adequate for the application. The fuel heater should
also help to prevent overheating of the fuel. High fuel
temperatures reduce engine performance and the
availability of engine power. Choose a fuel heater
with a large heating surface. The fuel heater should
be practical in size. Small heaters can be too hot due
to the limited surface area.
Disconnect the fuel heater in warm weather.
Note: Fuel heaters that are controlled by the water
temperature regulator or self-regulating fuel heaters
should be used with this engine. Fuel heaters that
are not controlled by the water temperature regulator
can heat the fuel in excess of 65° C (149° F). A
loss of engine power can occur if the fuel supply
temperature exceeds 37° C (100° F).
SEBU8088-07
Note: Heat exchanger type fuel heaters should have
a bypass provision in order to prevent overheating of
the fuel in warm weather operation.
For further information on fuel heaters, consult your
Caterpillar dealer.
SEBU8088-07
59
Operation Section
Generator Operation
Generator Operation
i02443880
Generator Operation
SMCS Code: 4450
Loading of the Generator
When a generator is installed or reconnected, be
sure that the total current in one phase does not
exceed the nameplate rating. Each phase should
carry the same load. This allows the engine to work
at the rated capacity. If one phase current exceeds
the nameplate amperage, an electrical unbalance
can result in an electrical overload and overheating .
Allowable combinations of unbalanced loads are
shown in Illustration 48. When you operate with
significant single-phase loads, the combinations of
single-phase load and three-phase load may be
used. Such combinations should be located below
the line on the graph.
Illustration 48
g00627416
Allowable Combinations of Unbalanced Loads
Block Loading
Block loading is the instantaneous application of an
electrical load to a generator set. This load may be
anywhere from a moderate percentage of the rated
load up to the rated load.
The block loading capability of a generator set
depends on the following factors.
• Engine transient response
• Voltage regulator response
• Type of the voltage regulator
• Altitude of operation of the generator set
• Type of load
• Percent of load before the block load is applied
60
Operation Section
Generator Operation
If derating for the block load is required, refer to ISO
3046 Standards or SAE J1349 Standards. Also,
reference Engine Data Sheet, LEKX4066, “Loading
Transient Response” and Engine Data Sheet,
LEKX4067, “Block and Transient Response”.
Note: ISO stands for International Standards
Organization.
Power Factor
The power factor represents the efficiency of the
load. Power factor is the ratio of apparent power
to total power. The power factor is expressed as a
decimal. The power factor represents that portion of
the current which is doing useful work. The portion of
current which is not doing useful work is absorbed
in maintaining the magnetic field in motors or other
devices.
In most applications, electric motors and transformers
determine the power factor of the system. Induction
motors usually have a 0.8 or smaller power factor.
Incandescent lighting is a resistive load of about 1.0
power factor, or unity.
The power factor of a system may be determined by
a power factor meter or by calculations. Determine
the power requirement in kW by multiplying the power
factor by the kVA that is supplied to the system. As
the power factor increases, the total current supplied
to a constant power demand will decrease. For
example, a 100 kW load at a 0.8 power factor will
draw more current than a 100 kW load at 0.9 power
factor. High power factor will result in full engine load
at less than the rated amperage of the generator.
A lower power factor increases the possibility of
overloading the generator.
Note: Caterpillar generators are designed for a 0.8
power factor unless otherwise specified.
Excitation Systems
Self-Excited Generators
Self-excited (SE) generators receive power for
excitation and voltage sensing for the regulator from
the output of the main armature of the generator.
The voltage regulator senses the generator output
voltage. The voltage regulator provides the regulated
output to the exciter of the generator. The exciter
then provides power to the main rotating field. As the
main field rotates, a voltage is induced into the main
armature. This voltage is a generator output voltage.
Note: The main armature is also called the stator.
The main rotating field is also called the rotor.
SEBU8088-07
Permanent Magnet Pilot Excited
Generators
Permanent Magnet Pilot Excited (PMPE) generators
receive power for the voltage regulator from a pilot
exciter, rather than the main armature. The pilot
exciter consists of a permanent magnet rotor and a
permanent magnet stator. The pilot exciter operates
independently from the generator output voltage.
Constant excitation during a large load application
is possible because the irregularities that occur in
generator output voltage are not fed back into the
exciter. Such irregularities can be caused by load
conditions. The independent operation also allows
the generator to better sustain an overload for a
short duration. The pilot exciter also ensures that the
generator will start properly even if the rotating field
becomes completely demagnetized.
Low Idle Adjustment
Generator sets normally have a higher low idle
setting than industrial engines. Low idle will be
approximately 66% of the full load speed of 60 Hz
units. Low idle will be approximately 80% of the full
load speed of 50 Hz units.
There is no low idle stop on generator sets with
electronic governors. On generator sets with
mechanical governors and natural gas generator
sets, the low idle is set at the factory. The low idle
should only be adjusted by your Caterpillar dealer
if adjustment is required.
Note: Operating the generator set at low idle speed
for an extended time will cause some voltage
regulators to shut off. The generator set must be
completely shut down. Then, the generator set must
be restarted. This will allow the voltage regulator to
again produce an output.
Standby Generator Sets
Most standby units are installed with controls that
will start the unit automatically. Standby units start,
pick up the load, run, and stop without an operator
in attendance.
Standby units can not change the governor (speed)
control, or change the voltage level settings
automatically. The governor speed and voltage level
must be preset for the proper operation of the standby
unit. Whenever the set is operated manually, be
sure that the governor speed and voltage levels are
correct for automatic operation. Check all switches
for the proper setting. The start select switch should
be in the AUTOMATIC position. Emergency Stop
Switches should be in RUN position.
SEBU8088-07
61
Operation Section
Generator Operation
Generator Options
Space Heaters
Units that operate in parallel must have the same
phase rotation. There are two methods that may
be used in order to determine if the incoming unit
and the unit that is on-line have the same phase
rotation. These methods are listed below:
Most of the SR4B generators are provided with
space heaters. These space heaters are installed
for operation in high humidity conditions. For more
information on space heaters, refer to Maintenance
Section, “Space Heater - Check”.
• using a phase rotation meter
Embedded Temperature Detectors
Use the procedure below to determine the proper
phase rotation by using three light bulbs.
• using a set of three light bulbs
SR4B generators are available with embedded
temperature detectors. The detectors are installed in
the slots of the main armature. The main armature is
also called a stator. The detectors are used with the
equipment that is provided by the customer. Thus,
the temperature of the main armature winding can be
measured or monitored. Three types of temperature
detectors are available. Contact your Caterpillar
dealer for more information.
Bearing Temperature Detectors
Bearing temperature detectors are available as an
option on SR4B generators. Bearing temperature
detectors measure main bearing temperature.
Bearing temperature detectors are used with the
equipment that is provided by the customer. Thus,
the temperature of the bearing can be measured or
monitored. Bearing temperature measurements may
help to prevent premature bearing failure. Two types
of temperature detectors are available. Contact your
Caterpillar dealer for more information.
i02324949
Parallel Operation
SMCS Code: 4450
Initial Start-Up
Preparing a generator for parallel operation requires
special attention. Before you attempt to parallel units
for the first time, check all the units for the following
three conditions.
• same phase rotation
• same alternating current frequency
• same voltage adjustment
1. Check the phase rotation.
Illustration 49
g00695380
When servicing or repairing electric power generation equipment:
Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected from
utility and/or other generators power service), and
either locked out or tagged DO NOT OPERATE.
Remove all fuses.
a. Connect the light bulbs with rated voltage
between the generator leads and the
corresponding line phase. For example,
connect terminal 1 to line 1 across the open
circuit breaker.
b. Start the units that will be in operating in
parallel. Bring the units up to speed. As the
units approach the same speed, the lights will
start to blink.
• If the lights blink in sequence, one of the
units is connected backward. In order to
correct the problem, stop the units. Remove
generator leads 1 and 3 at the circuit
breaker. Exchange these generator leads.
This reverses the direction of phase rotation.
Terminal 2 should always be connected to
line 2. Go to 5.
62
Operation Section
Generator Operation
• Both generators have the same phase
rotation when the lights blink in unison. The
first condition of “Initial Start-Up” has been
met.
2. Adjust the frequency.
The units that will be operating in parallel must
operate at the same speed. Speed is proportional
to the alternating current frequency.
a. Allow each electric set to run under load for
about 30 minutes.
b. Adjust the control in order to give the rated
frequency at full load.
c. Remove the load and check the high idle
speed. The high idle speed should be
approximately 2 to 5 percent above full load
speed for generators that are equipped with
droop. If these speeds can not be obtained,
contact your Caterpillar dealer.
d. For the most consistent results, repeat 2.b
and 2.c until the second condition of “Initial
Start-Up” has been met.
3. Adjust the voltage.The potentiometers should
be at the initial settings. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Voltage Regulators”.
Note: Make sure that the speed droop is identical for
all of the engines before adjustments are made to
the generator.
a. Preset the unit for parallel operation by
connecting the current transformer to S1 and
S2 of the connector J2. Set potentiometer P1
for quadrature droop in the center position.
Apply the rated load. The voltage should drop
for 2% to 3%. Switch the positions of the
two incoming secondary wires of the current
transformer if the voltage increases.
b. The no-load voltages should be identical for all
the generators that are operating in parallel.
Connect the generators in parallel. Try to obtain
a 0 kW power exchange by adjusting the speed
of the generator. Try to minimize the circulating
currents between generators by altering the
voltage setting with potentiometer P2 or Rhe
on one of the generators.
Note: Do not change the voltage settings after
this step.
SEBU8088-07
c. Apply the available load. The setting is correct
only if a reactive load is available. Equalize the
Kilowatts or divide the rated power of the units
proportionally by altering the speed. Alter the
quadrature droop potentiometer (P1) in order
to equalize the currents or divide the currents.
Starting Multiple Units
Use the procedure for starting single units in order
to start multiple units. Refer to Operation Section,
“Single Unit Operation”.
Paralleling Multiple Units
Units may be paralleled at no load. Units may also
be paralleled with units under load. After the initial
conditions for start-up are satisfied, verify for the
following requirements:
• Generators must have voltage droop compensation
or cross current compensation.
1. Start the unit which will be paralleled.
2. Turn on the synchronizer lights.
3. After the engine has run a few minutes, bring the
engine up to synchronous speed. This means
that the frequency of the incoming unit will be the
same frequency as the unit that is on-line. The
synchronizing lights will begin to blink.
Note: The frequency of the incoming unit should be
slightly greater than the line frequency. This will allow
the incoming unit to assume some of the load instead
of adding to the system load.
4. By using the control, adjust the engine speed until
the lights blink very slowly.
5. The lights are off when the voltages of the two
units are in-phase. At this point, very quickly close
the breaker while the lights are out.
6. Use the controls in order to share kW load
between engines.
7. Generator temperature will be stabilized in
approximately one hour. After the generator
temperature has been stabilized, adjust the
voltage droop rheostat of each generator. This
will share the reactive load and this will limit
the circulating currents. Less droop increases
the reactive current that is carried by the
generator. Adjusting the voltage droop rheostat
in a counterclockwise direction will decrease the
droop. Adjusting the voltage droop rheostat in a
clockwise direction will increase droop.
SEBU8088-07
Load Division and Speed Droop (If
Equipped)
Once two units have been paralleled, the unit's share
of the kW load is determined by the control setting.
If two units of the same capacity and the same
characteristics have the same control settings, the
units will share the load equally. The total load must
not exceed the capacity of the one engine.
63
Operation Section
Generator Operation
The circulating current may be as high as 25
percent of rated amperes with cold generator sets.
Such current may not even be considered harmful.
The total generator current should not exceed the
amperage rating.
As the generators warm, the circulating currents will
decrease. The ammeter readings should decrease
slightly, but the voltage meter readings should remain
constant.
In order to transfer the load from one engine to
another engine, use the following procedure:
1. Increase the speed control of one unit in order to
increase the load.
2. Reduce the speed control of the other unit in order
to decrease the load on that unit.
3. Raise the speed control or lower the speed control
of both units in order to change system frequency.
Stopping
In order to remove a generator from the line, perform
the following procedure.
1. Check the load. The load must be less than the
rated capacity of the remaining units.
2. Be sure that the neutral of one of the remaining
units is grounded.
3. Remove the load from the outgoing unit. See
the Parallel Operation, “Load Division - Speed
Droop”. The amperage may never go to zero due
to circulating currents.
4. Open the circuit breaker.
5. Allow the engine to cool for five minutes.
6. Stop the engine.
Circulating Currents
Understanding the circulating currents becomes
very important when you parallel the units. These
circulating currents are flowing between generators
in parallel operation. The circulating currents
are caused by voltage differences between the
generators. The circulating currents are not doing
useful work. The amount of the circulating current can
be determined by subtracting the amperage which is
going to the load from the total generator amperage.
i01490164
Single Unit Operation
SMCS Code: 4450
Initial Start-Up
Before the initial start-up, perform the megohmmeter
test on the main stator winding. Refer to the Special
Instruction, SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of
Electric Set Generators” for the procedure.
Starting
1. Make all preliminary engine starting checks.
2. Be sure that the main circuit breaker or the line
circuit breaker is open.
3. Start the engine. Allow the engine to warm up.
4. Adjust to the full load engine speed.
5. Close the main circuit breaker.
6. Apply the load. Do not try to apply the full load.
Apply the load in increments in order to maintain
system frequency at a constant level.
7. Readjust the governor for rated frequency.
Stopping
1. Remove the load in increments.
2. Open the circuit breaker.
3. Allow the engine to run for five minutes in order
to cool.
4. Stop the engine.
64
Operation Section
Voltage Regulators
SEBU8088-07
Voltage Regulators
i02303476
Voltage Regulators
SMCS Code: 4467
Caterpillar Digital Voltage Regulator
(CDVR)
The Caterpillar Digital Voltage Regulator (CDVR) is
a microprocessor based voltage regulator. Control
power for the CDVR is supplied from an external
source of 24 VDC. The power stage of the CDVR
can be supplied from a multiple pole, high frequency,
permanent magnet generator, from the generator
output (shunt excitation), or from auxiliary windings
that are included on some generators. Connections
to the CDVR are made through three connectors. The
communication between the CDVR and the service
tool is accomplished by using a CANBUS protocol.
The CDVR has the following features:
• Three control modes:
The Cat Digital Voltage Regulator presents an
electrical shock/electrocution hazard. This hazard
will cause serious injury or death.
Service by trained personnel only.
1. Automatic voltage regulation (AVR)
2. Power factor (PF) regulation
3. Reactive power (VAR) regulation
The terminals and heat sinks are live at hazardous
voltages when power is applied and for up to 8
minutes after power is removed.
• Programmable stability settings
• Soft start control with an adjustable time setting
in AVR mode
• Dual slope voltage versus frequency (V/Hz)
characteristic
• Three-phase or single-phase voltage sensing
• Single-phase current sensing
• Field current sensing and field voltage sensing
• Ten protection functions
Adjusting the Caterpillar Digital Voltage
Regulator (CDVR)
In order to view and configure the parameters of
the CDVR, a PC with the Caterpillar PC software is
required.
Refer to Specifications, Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, RENR7941, “Caterpillar Digital
Voltage Regulator (CDVR)” for complete information.
Illustration 50
g01115009
SEBU8088-07
65
Operation Section
Voltage Regulators
i01809359
Voltage Regulator Options
SMCS Code: 4467
Manual Voltage Control
A manual voltage control is available as an option on
Caterpillar generator sets. Various specifications and
certifications require manual voltage control of the
generator if the automatic voltage regulator should
fail. The manual voltage control for the permanent
magnet excited generators is shown below.
Illustration 51
g00626639
Manual voltage control for permanent magnet excited generators
66
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8088-07
Maintenance Section
Table 2
Engine Oil Viscosities for Ambient Temperatures
Ambient Temperature
Refill Capacities
i02874979
Refill Capacities and
Recommendations
SMCS Code: 1348; 1395; 7560
Lubrication System
Lubricant Recommendations
Viscosity Grade
Minimum
Maximum
SAE 0W-20
−40 °C (−40 °F)
10 °C (50 °F)
SAE 0W-30
−40 °C (−40 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 0W-40
−40 °C (−40 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 5W-30
−30 °C (−22 °F)
30 °C (86 °F)
SAE 5W-40
−30 °C (−22 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
SAE 10W-30
−18 °C (0 °F)
40 °C (104 °F)
SAE 10W-40
−18 °C (0 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
SAE 15W-40
−9.5 °C (15 °F)
50 °C (122 °F)
Due to significant variations in the quality and in
the performance of commercially available oils,
Caterpillar recommends the following oils:
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for additional information that relates to lubricants.
• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (10W-30)
Lubricant Capacities
• Cat DEO (Diesel Engine Oil) (15W-40)
The capacity of the engine lubrication system
includes the capacity of the oil filters that are installed
at the factory. Auxiliary oil filter systems (if equipped)
will require additional oil. Refer to the specifications
that are provided by the OEM of the auxiliary oil filter
system.
Note: If Cat DEO Multigrade is not used, use
only commercial oils that meet the following
classifications.
• API CH-4 multigrade oils and API CI-4 multigrade
oils are acceptable if the requirements of
Caterpillar's ECF-1 (Engine Crankcase Fluid
specification 1) are met. API CH-4 oils and API
CI-4 oils that have not met the requirements
of Caterpillar's ECF-1 Specification may cause
reduced engine life.
• API CG-4 multigrade oils are acceptable for all
Caterpillar diesel engines. When API CG-4 oils are
used, the oil drain interval should not exceed the
standard oil drain interval for your engine.
The proper SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation. To determine
the oil viscosity that is required for starting a cold
soaked engine, refer to the minimum temperature in
Table 2. To select the oil viscosity for operation at
the highest anticipated ambient temperature, refer
to the maximum temperature in the Table. Use the
highest oil viscosity that is available in order to meet
the required temperature during start-up.
Table 3
C27 and C32 Engine
Approximate Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Liters
Quarts
Engine Crankcase
Standard Sump
72
76
Engine Crankcase
Deep Sump
99
104
Fuel
Fuel Recommendations
In North America, diesel fuel that is identified as
No. 1-D or No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally meet
the specifications. These fuels are distilled from
crude oil. Diesel fuels from other sources could
exhibit detrimental properties that are not defined or
controlled by this specification.
Refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids Recommendations”
for additional information that relates to diesel fuel.
SEBU8088-07
Cooling System
67
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Table 4
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Recommendations
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM “D3306” specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light duty automotive
applications.
Use only the coolant/antifreeze that is recommended.
The following coolants are the primary types of
coolants that are used in Caterpillar Engines:
Preferred – Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) or
a commercial extended life coolant that meets the
Caterpillar EC-1 specification
Acceptable – Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine
Antifreeze/Coolant) or a commercial heavy-duty
coolant/antifreeze that meets “ASTM D4985” or
“ASTM D5345” specifications
Caterpillar recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture will provide optimum heavy-duty
performance as a coolant/antifreeze.
Note: Cat DEAC DOES NOT require a treatment
with an SCA at the initial fill. Commercial heavy-duty
antifreeze/coolant that meets “ASTM D4985”
or “ASTM D5345” specifications MAY require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
the product.
In stationary engine applications and marine engine
applications that do not require protection from
boiling or freezing, a mixture of SCA and water is
acceptable. Caterpillar recommends a minimum
of six percent to a maximum of eight percent
SCA concentration in those cooling systems.
Distilled water or deionized water is preferred. Water
which has the required properties may be used. For
the water properties, refer to Special Publication,
SEBU6251, “Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine
Fluids Recommendations” for additional information
that pertains to coolants.
Note: Table 4 is a list of the coolants that are
recommended and the service life (calendar) of the
coolants. The service life of coolant is also limited by
use (service hours). Refer to the specific engine's
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule”. To achieve this service life,
the coolants must be properly maintained. The
maintenance program includes S·O·S coolant
analysis.
Coolant Type
Service Life
(1)
Cat ELC
Six Years
Cat DEAC
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Coolant/Antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D5345”
Two Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Coolant/Antifreeze that
meets “ASTM D4985”
One Year
Caterpillar SCA and
Water
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
One Year
(1)
The service life of coolant is also limited by use (service hours).
Refer to the specific engine's Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” (Maintenance
Section).
Coolant Capacities
To properly maintain the cooling system, the total
cooling system capacity must be determined. The
total cooling system capacity will vary between
individual installations. The total cooling system
capacity can include the following components:
engine, expansion tank, radiator, and piping.
Refer to the specifications that are provided by
Caterpillar or the OEM of the installation. Record the
total cooling system capacity in the appropriate Table.
Table 5
C27 and C32 Engine
Approximate Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
Quarts
55
58
External System (OEM)(1)
Total Cooling System(2)
(1)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger, aftercooler,
and piping. Refer to the Caterpillar specifications or the OEM
specifications and enter the capacity for the External System
in this row.
(2) The Total Cooling System includes the capacity for the engine
plus the capacity for the external system. Enter the total in this
row.
68
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU8088-07
Maintenance
Recommendations
• knowledgeable visual examination of the
equipment
• the application of electrical tests
i01179728
General Maintenance
Information
SMCS Code: 4450; 7000
Note: Read the warnings and read the instructions
that are contained in the Safety Section of this
manual. These warnings and instructions must be
understood before you perform any operation or any
maintenance procedures.
Rotating electric machines are complex structures
that are exposed to the following forms of stress:
Never perform a test over the rated potential. These
tests can damage insulation that is contaminated
or insulation that is in marginal condition. For more
information, refer to “I.E.E.E. Standard 432-1992” or
consult a Caterpillar dealer.
i02909163
System Pressure Release
SMCS Code: 1250; 1300; 1350; 5050
Coolant System
• mechanical
• electrical
• thermal
• environmental
These stresses may be of varying magnitudes. The
electrical insulation systems are very susceptible to
damage that is caused by the stresses that are listed
above. Exposure to these stresses may shorten
the effective life of the electrical insulation system.
Therefore, the service life of an electric machine will
largely depend on the serviceability of the electrical
insulation systems. An inspection program and a
testing procedure are recommended. An inspection
program and a testing procedure will ensure that the
equipment is maintained in satisfactory condition.
This will increase field reliability.
A regular maintenance and inspection program can
provide an evaluation of the present condition of
the equipment. A regular maintenance program
and a regular inspection program can also reveal
future problems. The frequency of this maintenance
program will depend on the following factors:
• application
• environmental conditions
• operator's experience
• operator's philosophy
A regular maintenance program is strongly
recommended. This program would involve the
following steps:
• periodic disassembly
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines (If Equipped)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged
with high pressure.
SEBU8088-07
69
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
1. Stop the engine.
2. Wait for ten minutes.
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air pressure from the fuel system.
3. Disconnect the J1/P1 and J2/P2 connectors from
the ECM. Move the harness to a position that will
not allow the harness to accidentally move back
and make contact with any of the ECM pins.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i03091592
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
SMCS Code: 1000
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Caterpillar dealer regarding welding on
a chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engine's ECM, sensors,
and associated components. When possible,
remove the component from the unit and then
weld the component. If removal of the component
is not possible, the following procedure must be
followed when you weld on a unit that is equipped
with a Caterpillar Electronic Engine. The following
procedure is considered to be the safest procedure to
weld on a component. This procedure should provide
a minimum risk of damage to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
Illustration 52
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not cause damage to any
associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
70
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU8088-07
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i02364500
Generator Start-up Checklist
SMCS Code: 4450
Table 6
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST
RATING INFORMATION
Engine Serial Number: ___________________________________
Arrangement Number: ___________________
Generator Serial Number: _________________________________
Arrangement Number: ___________________
GENERATOR NAME PLATE INFORMATION
Voltage: ___________________
Package (prime, continuous, standby): _________________
Amperage: _________________
Kilowatts: ________________________________________
Storage Location:
Main Stator Megohmmeter Reading:
Before Storage:
Generator dried for 24 hours prior to start-up?
SPACE HEATERS
After Storage:
Drying method:
(Y/N)
Yes
No
30 sec.
reading
60 sec.
reading
Voltage
Amps
Comments
Space heaters operating properly?
Space heater operated 48 hours before
start-up?
MEGOHMMETER TEST (“SEHS9124”)
Beginning
of Storage
30 sec.
corrected
60 sec.
corrected
Ambient
temp.
Comments
Main Stator
Main Rotor
Exciter Stator
Exciter Rotor
PMG Stator
Start-up
Main Stator
Main Rotor
Exciter Stator
Exciter Rotor
PMG Stator
Regulator
Comments
(continued)
SEBU8088-07
71
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
(Table 6, contd)
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST
No Load
Full Load
“T1” to “T2”
AC
“T1” to “T3”
AC
“T2” to “T3”
AC
“11” to “12”
AC
“11” to “13”
AC
“12” to “13”
AC
“T1” to “T2”
AC
“T1” to “T3”
AC
“T2” to “T3”
AC
“11” to “12”
AC
“11” to “13”
AC
“12” to “13”
AC
72
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
SEBU8088-07
Table 7
GENERATOR START-UP CHECKLIST (CONT.)
ELECTRICAL
Yes
No
Comments
Unit properly grounded
Check diodes
Over current protection
Over voltage protection
Check for loose wiring
Adjust voltage
Adjust frequency
Data
MECHANICAL
Comments
Bearing temperature readings at full load
Front __________ Rear ___________
Stator temperature readings at full load
A0 _______ B0 _______ C0 _______
Air gap on main stator
Top __________ Bottom __________
Air gap on exciter stator
Top __________ Bottom __________
Air gap of PMG
Top __________ Bottom __________
Ambient air to generator at full load
Temperature ____________________
Supplier air opening to generator
Size of Opening _________________
SWITCH GEAR/PARALLEL OPERATION
Manufacturer:
Setting 1
Setting 2
Circuit breaker type
Overload setting
Reverse power relay
VAR/PF Controller
Load share
INSTALLATION & LOAD INFORMATION
Neutral grounding system
UPS
Enclosure type
- Size
Motor:
Other loads:
- Total SKVA
- Lighting
- Total HP
- Computers
- Welding
- Non-linear
- Other
FULL LOAD DATA
Voltage
Amps
KW
KVARS
P.F.
Setting 3
Comments
SEBU8088-07
73
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i03450220
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Standby)
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500
Ensure that all safety information, warnings and
instructions are read and understood before any
operation or any maintenance procedures are
performed.
The user is responsible for the performance of
maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement
of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure
to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and
procedures may result in diminished performance of
the product and/or accelerated wear of components.
Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or
calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST,
in order to determine the maintenance intervals.
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
may require more frequent maintenance.
Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed,
all maintenance from the previous interval must be
performed.
When Required
Battery - Recycle .................................................. 77
Battery Charger - Check ....................................... 78
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. 79
Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 96
Generator - Dry ................................................... 100
Generator Set - Test ........................................... 107
Varistor - Test ...................................................... 124
Winding - Test ..................................................... 127
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 85
Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 92
Generator Load - Check ..................................... 107
Power Factor - Check .......................................... 117
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 125
Every Week
Air Inlet Filter - Check ........................................... 77
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78
Control Panel - Inspect ......................................... 80
Electrical Connections - Check ............................. 89
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 90
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... 98
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 99
Generator - Inspect ............................................. 100
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record ... 106
Jacket Water Heater - Check ............................... 114
Space Heater - Check ......................................... 119
Standby Generator Set Maintenance
Recommendations ............................................ 121
Stator Winding Temperature - Measure/Record .. 123
Voltage and Frequency - Check ......................... 125
Every 6 Months
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .............................. 79
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) Obtain ................................................................. 85
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 86
Heat Shield - Inspect/Replace ............................ 109
Stator Lead - Check ............................................ 122
Every Year
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 77
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ................................................................. 86
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 88
Engine - Clean ...................................................... 89
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................... 89
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 91
Engine Mounts - Check ........................................ 91
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain .................................. 92
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 93
Engine Protective Devices - Check ...................... 94
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 95
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate ............................... 95
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................ 95
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace .............................................. 97
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace .............. 98
Generator Bearing - Lubricate ............................ 102
Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record ................ 109
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................. 110
Insulation - Test .................................................... 111
Prelube Pump - Inspect ....................................... 117
Radiator - Clean ................................................... 117
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect ............................. 119
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 122
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 126
Every 3 Years
Batteries - Replace ............................................... 77
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ............................................................... 88
Rotating Rectifier - Check .................................... 118
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 123
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 81
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add .... 84
74
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 83
SEBU8088-07
SEBU8088-07
75
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i03450208
Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Standard)
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500
Ensure that all safety information, warnings and
instructions are read and understood before any
operation or any maintenance procedures are
performed.
The user is responsible for the performance of
maintenance, including all adjustments, the use of
proper lubricants, fluids, filters, and the replacement
of components due to normal wear and aging. Failure
to adhere to proper maintenance intervals and
procedures may result in diminished performance of
the product and/or accelerated wear of components.
Electrical Connections - Check ............................. 89
Generator - Inspect ............................................. 100
Space Heater - Check ......................................... 119
Stator Winding Temperature - Measure/Record .. 123
Voltage and Frequency - Check ......................... 125
Initial 250 Service Hours
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 95
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................ 95
Every 250 Service Hours
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace .............................. 79
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) Obtain ................................................................. 85
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 86
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate ............................... 95
Radiator - Clean ................................................... 117
Use mileage, fuel consumption, service hours, or
calendar time, WHICH EVER OCCURS FIRST,
in order to determine the maintenance intervals.
Products that operate in severe operating conditions
may require more frequent maintenance.
Initial 500 Hours (for New Systems, Refilled
Systems, and Converted Systems)
Note: Before each consecutive interval is performed,
all maintenance from the previous interval must be
performed.
Every 2000 Service Hours
When Required
Batteries - Replace ............................................... 77
Battery - Recycle .................................................. 77
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. 79
Engine - Clean ...................................................... 89
Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 96
Generator - Dry ................................................... 100
Generator Set - Test ........................................... 107
Generator Set Alignment - Check ....................... 108
Varistor - Test ...................................................... 124
Winding - Test ..................................................... 127
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ................................................................. 86
Engine Mounts - Check ........................................ 91
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................ 95
Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record ................ 109
Insulation - Test .................................................... 111
Stator Lead - Check ............................................ 122
Every Year
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ................................................................. 86
Generator Bearing - Lubricate ............................ 102
Every 3000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Daily
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 81
Control Panel - Inspect ......................................... 80
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 85
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 90
Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 92
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ................................................................... 98
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 99
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record ... 106
Generator Load - Check ..................................... 107
Jacket Water Heater - Check ............................... 114
Power Factor - Check .......................................... 117
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 125
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Every Week
Air Inlet Filter - Check ........................................... 77
Battery Charger - Check ....................................... 78
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add .... 84
Every 6000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 77
Prelube Pump - Inspect ....................................... 117
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect ............................. 119
Every 8000 Service Hours
Rotating Rectifier - Check .................................... 118
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 83
76
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Every 19 000 L (5000 US gal) of Fuel or 250
Service Hours
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace .................................................... 89
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain .................................. 92
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 93
Engine Protective Devices - Check ...................... 94
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace .............. 98
Heat Shield - Inspect/Replace ............................ 109
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................. 110
Every 38 000 L (10 000 US gal) of Fuel or 500
Service Hours
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 91
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace .............................................. 97
Every 228 000 L (60 000 US gal) of Fuel or
3000 Service Hours
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace ............................................................... 88
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 88
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 95
Every 379 000 L (100 000 US gal) of Fuel or
5000 Service Hours
Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 122
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 123
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 126
Overhaul
Generator Bearing - Inspect/Replace ................. 102
Overhaul Considerations ..................................... 114
SEBU8088-07
SEBU8088-07
77
Maintenance Section
Air Inlet Filter - Check
i02574676
Air Inlet Filter - Check
1. Turn the key start switch to the OFF position.
Remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Turn OFF the battery charger. Disconnect the
charger.
SMCS Code: 1051-535
Monitor the connector contacts of the differential
pressure switch for the air inlet filter. If the differential
pressure rises above 0.15 kPa (0.6 inch of H2O) of
water, clean the filter with a solution of soap and
water. Be sure that the filter is thoroughly dry before
the start-up. Replace the filter, if necessary.
i02676048
Alternator - Inspect
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the ground plane. Disconnect
the cable from the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the starting motor.
Disconnect the cable from the POSITIVE “+”
battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Return used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
SMCS Code: 1405-040
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled inspection
of the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and proper battery charging. Inspect the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure proper battery performance and/or
proper performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
proper operation. If the batteries are properly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. The battery will
not crank the engine, even if the engine is warm.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time
or if the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully charge. A battery with a low charge will
freeze more easily than a battery with a full charge.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before connecting the cables, ensure that the
key start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the cable from the ground plane to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
i00993589
Battery - Recycle
SMCS Code: 1401-005; 1401-510; 1401-535;
1401-561; 1401
Always recycle a battery. Never discard a battery.
i01041029
Batteries - Replace
Always return used batteries to one of the following
locations:
SMCS Code: 1401-510
• A battery supplier
• An authorized battery collection facility
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
• Recycling facility
78
Maintenance Section
Battery Charger - Check
SEBU8088-07
i01039758
Battery Charger - Check
SMCS Code: 1401-535
Checking Before Start-Up
Check the battery charger for proper operation. If
the batteries are properly charged, the needle of the
ammeter will register near “0” (zero).
The battery charger must not produce excessive
current during start-up. Alternatively, the charger
must be automatically disconnected for start-up.
If the engine has an alternator, the charger must
be automatically disconnected during start-up and
during engine operation.
Charging the Battery
Perform one of the following procedures if the battery
shows symptoms of overcharging:
• Reduce the rate of charging by a significant
amount. Complete the charging at the reduced
rate.
• Turn OFF the charger.
Table 8 describes the effects of overcharging on
different types of batteries.
Table 8
Effects of Overcharging Batteries
Type of Battery
Effect
Caterpillar General Service
Batteries
Caterpillar Premium High
Output Batteries
All of the battery cells have
a low level of electrolyte.
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is operated. A spark can cause an explosion from the flammable vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen that is released from the electrolyte through the battery outlets. Injury to personnel can be the result.
Perform the following procedure to charge the
battery:
1. Ensure that the charger is turned OFF.
2. Adjust the voltage of the charger in order to match
the voltage of the battery.
3. Connect the POSITIVE “+” lead of the charger
to the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal. Connect
the NEGATIVE “-” lead of the charger to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
When the plates of the
battery are inspected
through the filler holes, the
plates may appear to be
warped. This is caused by
an excessive temperature.
The battery may not pass
a load test.
Caterpillar Maintenance
Free Batteries
The battery may not accept
a charging current.
The battery may not pass
a load test.
Checking After Stopping
Ensure that the battery charger is connected
properly. Observe the meter of the charger. Record
the amperage.
4. Turn ON the battery charger.
Overcharging of Batteries
Overcharging reduces the service life of batteries.
Use a battery charger that will not overcharge the
battery. DO NOT charge the battery if the meter of
the battery charger is in the RED zone.
Overcharging is indicated by the following symptoms:
• The battery is very warm to the touch.
• A strong odor of acid is present.
• The battery emits smoke or a dense vapor (gas).
i02601752
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
SMCS Code: 1401-535-FLV
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing.
SEBU8088-07
79
Maintenance Section
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal at the
battery that goes to the start switch. Ensure that
the cable cannot contact the terminal.
3. Tape the leads in order to help prevent accidental
starting.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
4. Proceed with necessary system repairs. Reverse
the steps in order to reconnect all of the cables.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
i03450184
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510
3. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
Inspection
• A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of baking soda and
Inspect the alternator belt and the fan drive belts for
wear and for cracking. Replace the belts if the belts
are not in good condition.
• A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
Check the belt tension according to the information in
the Service Manual, “Specifications”.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Slippage of loose belts can reduce the efficiency
of the driven components. Vibration of loose belts
can cause unnecessary wear on the following
components:
1 L (1 qt) of clean water
(1 qt) of clean water
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
i01857537
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
SMCS Code: 1401; 1402-029
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
• Belts
• Pulleys
• Bearings
If the belts are too tight, unnecessary stress is placed
on the components. This reduces the service life of
the components.
Replacement
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the drive belts in matched sets. Replacing
one drive belt of a matched set will cause the new
drive belt to carry more load because the older drive
belts are stretched. The additional load on the new
drive belt could cause the new drive belt to fail.
Adjustment of the Fan Drive Belt
1. Remove the belt guard.
2. Loosen the mounting bolt for the pulley.
3. Loosen the adjusting nut for the pulley.
80
Maintenance Section
Control Panel - Inspect
SEBU8088-07
4. Move the pulley in order to adjust the belt tension.
i02373355
5. Tighten the adjusting nut.
Control Panel - Inspect
6. Tighten the mounting bolt.
SMCS Code: 4490-040; 7451-040
7. Reinstall the belt guard.
Inspect the condition of the panel. If a component is
damaged, ensure that the component is repaired or
that the component is replaced. If equipped, ensure
that the electronic displays are operating properly.
Inspect the wiring for good condition. Ensure that the
wiring connections are secure.
If new drive belts are installed, check the drive belt
tension again after 30 minutes of engine operation
at the rated rpm.
Adjustment of the Alternator Belt
Electronic Modular Control Panel 3
(EMCP 3)
Illustration 54
g00960176
Illustration 53
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Adjusting
Mounting
Mounting
Mounting
nuts
bolt
bolt
bolt
g01184041
The Lamp Test button is located on the top right side
of the electronic control module. Press and hold
the Lamp Test button in order to test all of the LED
lights and the display screen. The LED lights and the
display screen should remain on until the button is
released. If any of the components do not pass this
test, replace the faulty components before starting
the engine.
1. Remove the drive belt guard.
2. Loosen mounting bolts (2), (3), and (4). Loosen
adjusting nuts (1).
3. Turn adjusting nuts (1) in order to increase or
decrease the drive belt tension.
4. Tighten adjusting nuts (1). Tighten mounting bolts
(2), (3), and (4).
5. Reinstall the drive belt guard.
If new drive belts are installed, check the drive belt
tension again after 30 minutes of engine operation at
the rated rpm.
Switch Panel
The Panel Lights switch should turn on the panel
lights. Toggle the switch in order to ensure that the
panel lights are working.
SEBU8088-07
81
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
Annunciator Panel
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
Illustration 55
g01101388
It is possible to test the LED indicators and the horn
when the data link is connected and when the data
link is not connected. The Lamp Test button is located
near the top of the annunciator panel. Test both the
horn and the indicators by pressing and holding the
Lamp Test button. Replace any faulty components
before starting the engine.
i02056137
Cooling System Coolant
(DEAC) - Change
SMCS Code: 1350-044
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
NOTICE
Use of commercially available cooling system cleaners may cause damage to cooling system components. Use only cooling system cleaners that are approved for Caterpillar engines.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove one of the drain plugs.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar
dealer or consult Caterpillar Dealer Service Tools
Group:
Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
82
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System
Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L
(4 US gal) of the cooling system capacity. Install
the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. If equipped, be sure to
flush the heater and any related supply and return
lines. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean
the drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
Cooling Systems with Heavy
Deposits or Plugging
Note: For the following procedure to be effective,
there must be some active flow through the cooling
system components.
SEBU8088-07
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 90 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve
(if equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the
drain plugs. Refer to the Specifications Manual,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications” for more
information on the proper torques.
Fill
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
1. Fill the cooling system with coolant/antifreeze.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to 1500 rpm. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System
Cleaner. Add 0.5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per
3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling system
capacity. Install the cooling system filler cap.
SEBU8088-07
83
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap.
If the gasket that is on the cooling system filler
cap is not damaged, perform a pressure test. A
9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump is used to perform
the pressure test. The correct pressure for the
cooling system filler cap is stamped on the face of
the cooling system filler cap. If the cooling system
filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Open the cooling system drain valve (if equipped).
If the cooling system is not equipped with a drain
valve, remove the cooling system drain plugs.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
i02056152
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
SMCS Code: 1350-044-NL
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar
dealer or consult Caterpillar Dealer Service Tool
Group:
Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL
Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain valve (if equipped). Clean the
drain plugs. Install the drain plugs. Refer to
the Specifications Manual, SENR3130, “Torque
Specifications” for more information on the proper
torques.
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap. Open the drain valve
(if equipped) or remove the cooling system drain
plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling
system with clean water. Close the drain valve
(if equipped). Clean the drain plugs. Install the
drain plugs. Refer to the Specifications Manual,
SENR3130, “Torque Specifications” for more
information on the proper torques.
84
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SEBU8088-07
Fill
NOTICE
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
per minute to avoid air locks.
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Stop the engine.
3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level within
13 mm (0.5 inch) to the proper level on the sight
glass (if equipped).
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap
is damaged, discard the old cooling system filler
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
not damaged, use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
i02482066
Cooling System Coolant
Extender (ELC) - Add
SMCS Code: 1352-544-NL
Cat ELC (Extended Life Coolant) does not require
the frequent additions of any supplemental cooling
additives which are associated with the present
conventional coolants. The Cat ELC Extender only
needs to be added once.
NOTICE
Use only Cat Extended Life Coolant (ELC) Extender
with Cat ELC.
Do NOT use conventional supplemental coolant additive (SCA) with Cat ELC. Mixing Cat ELC with conventional coolants and/or conventional SCA reduces the
Cat ELC service life.
Check the cooling system only when the engine is
stopped and cool.
Personal injury can result from hot coolant, steam
and alkali.
At operating temperature, engine coolant is hot
and under pressure. The radiator and all lines
to heaters or the engine contain hot coolant or
steam. Any contact can cause severe burns.
Remove cooling system pressure cap slowly to
relieve pressure only when engine is stopped and
cooling system pressure cap is cool enough to
touch with your bare hand.
Do not attempt to tighten hose connections when
the coolant is hot, the hose can come off causing
burns.
Cooling System Coolant Additive contains alkali.
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” for tools and supplies
suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. It may be necessary to drain enough coolant from
the cooling system in order to add the Cat ELC
Extender.
SEBU8088-07
85
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
3. Add Cat ELC Extender according to the
requirements for your engine's cooling system
capacity. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
article for more information.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gaskets on the cooling system filler cap. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
i01197583
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
Illustration 57
g00103639
Typical filler cap gaskets
SMCS Code: 1350-535-FLV
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02837191
Cooling System Coolant
Sample (Level 1) - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542
Illustration 56
g00285520
Cooling system filler cap
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the proper level in the sight glass.
Note: Obtaining a Coolant Sample (Level 1) is
optional if the cooling system is filled with Cat
ELC (Extended Life Coolant). Cooling systems that
are filled with Cat ELC should have a Coolant Sample
(Level 2) that is obtained at the recommended interval
that is stated in the Maintenance Interval Schedule.
Note: Obtain a Coolant Sample (Level 1) if the
cooling system is filled with any other coolant
instead of Cat ELC. This includes the following
types of coolants:
• Commercial long life coolants that meet the
Caterpillar Engine Coolant Specification -1
(Caterpillar EC-1)
• Cat DEAC (Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant)
• Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze
86
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) - Obtain
SEBU8088-07
Submit the sample for Level 1 analysis.
Table 9
Recommended Interval
Type of Coolant
Level 1
Level 2
Cat DEAC
Every 250
Hours(1)
Yearly(1)(2)
Cat ELC
Optional(2)
Yearly(2)
(1)
This is the recommended interval for coolant samples for all
conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze. This is also the
recommended interval for coolant samples of commercial
coolants that meet the Cat EC-1 specification for engine
coolant.
(2) The Level 2 Coolant Analysis should be performed sooner if a
problem is suspected or identified.
For additional information about coolant analysis,
see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” or consult your
Caterpillar dealer.
i01987714
Cooling System Coolant
Sample (Level 2) - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1350-008; 1395-008; 1395-554; 7542
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
Note: Level 1 results may indicate a need for
Level 2 Analysis.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) - Obtain”
for the guidelines for proper sampling of the coolant.
Obtain the sample of the coolant as close as possible
to the recommended sampling interval. In order
to receive the full effect of S·O·S analysis, you
must establish a consistent trend of data. In order
to establish a pertinent history of data, perform
consistent samplings that are evenly spaced.
Supplies for collecting samples can be obtained from
your Caterpillar dealer.
Use the following guidelines for proper sampling of
the coolant:
• Complete the information on the label for the
sampling bottle before you begin to take the
samples.
• Keep the unused sampling bottles stored in plastic
Submit the sample for Level 2 analysis.
For additional information about coolant
analysis, see Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engines Fluids
Recommendations” or consult your Caterpillar dealer.
i02839449
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081
bags.
• Obtain coolant samples directly from the coolant
sample port. You should not obtain the samples
from any other location.
• Keep the lids on empty sampling bottles until you
are ready to collect the sample.
• Place the sample in the mailing tube immediately
after obtaining the sample in order to avoid
contamination.
• Never collect samples from expansion bottles.
• Never collect samples from the drain for a system.
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and eyes. Do not drink cooling system
coolant additive.
SEBU8088-07
87
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the cooling system, reducing the engine's
heat transfer characteristics. Reduced heat transfer
could cause cracking of the cylinder head and other
high temperature components.
Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration could also result in blockage of the heat exchanger, overheating, and/or accelerated wear of the water
pump seal.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow
space for the addition of the SCA.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. For the
proper amount of SCA, refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities
and Recommendations” topic. The proper
concentration of SCA depends on the type of
coolant that is used. For the proper concentration
of SCA, refer to Special Publication, SEBU6251,
“Caterpillar Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” and to Special Publication, GECJ0003, “Cat Shop Supplies and Tools” for
tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.
Dispose of all fluids according to applicable regulations and mandates.
Note: Caterpillar recommends an S·O·S coolant
analysis (Level 1).
Cooling Systems that Use
Conventional Coolant
This maintenance procedure is required for
conventional coolants such as DEAC.This
maintenance is NOT required for cooling systems
that are filled with Extended Life Coolant.
Test the Concentration of the SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
Cooling Systems that Use Water
and SCA
Test the Concentration of the SCA
Test the concentration of the SCA with a 298-5311
Coolant Nitrite Test Kit for SCA or perform an S·O·S
Coolant Analysis. The test kit includes the following
items: a tool for the testing, 30 ampoules for testing
nitrite, instructions, and a case. 294-7420 Test
Kit contains the refill ampoules for the 298-5311
Coolant Nitrite Test Kit. Use the instructions that are
included with the test kit in order to properly conduct
the testing.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule” for the times at
which the procedures should be conducted. Test the
concentration of the SCA more frequently if more
frequent testing is indicated by the results of the
S·O·S Coolant Analysis.
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
88
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator - Replace
SEBU8088-07
Add the SCA, If Necessary
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow
space for the addition of the SCA.
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. For the proper
amount of SCA, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and
Recommendations” topic. For the proper
concentration of SCA, refer to Special Publication,
SEBU6251, “Caterpillar Commercial Diesel
Engine Fluids Recommendations”.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
i02623972
Cooling System Water
Temperature Regulator Replace
SMCS Code: 1355-510
Replace the water temperature regulator before
the water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a
partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear
of the cylinder liner.
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Caterpillar engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that
the water temperature regulator vent hole is open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or
cylinder head surface.
Refer to two articles in the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, “Water Temperature Regulators
- Remove and Water Temperature Regulators Install” for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Caterpillar
dealer.
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system to
a level that is below the water temperature regulator
housing.
i02933380
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
- Inspect
SMCS Code: 1205-040
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
of the crankshaft vibration damper can increase
torsional vibrations. This can result in damage to
the crankshaft and to other engine components. A
damper that is damaged can cause excessive gear
train noise at variable points in the speed range.
The damper is mounted to the crankshaft which is
located behind the belt guard on the front of the
engine.
Visconic Damper
The visconic damper has a weight that is located
inside a fluid filled case. The weight moves in the
case in order to limit torsional vibration.
SEBU8088-07
89
Maintenance Section
Electrical Connections - Check
Inspect the damper for evidence of fluid leaks. If
a fluid leak is found, determine the type of fluid.
The fluid in the damper is silicone. Silicone has
the following characteristics: transparent, viscous,
smooth, and adhering.
If the fluid leak is oil, inspect the crankshaft seals for
leaks. If a leak is observed, replace the crankshaft
seals.
Inspect the damper and repair or replace the damper
for any of the following reasons:
• The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.
• The paint on the damper is discolored from heat.
• The engine has had a failure because of a broken
crankshaft.
• Analysis of the oil has revealed that the front main
bearing is badly worn.
i01664717
Engine - Clean
SMCS Code: 1000-070
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture could create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure the unit is off line (disconnected from
utility and/or other generators), locked out and
tagged "Do Not Operate".
NOTICE
Water or condensation can cause damage to generator components. Protect all electrical components
from exposure to water.
• There is a large amount of gear train wear that is
not caused by a lack of oil.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Vibration Damper and Pulley - Remove and Install”
or consult your Caterpillar dealer for information
about damper replacement.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
Electrical Connections - Check
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
SMCS Code: 4459-535
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
Check all exposed electrical connections for
tightness.
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
i01217164
Check the following devices for loose mounting or
physical damage:
• transformers
• fuses
• capacitors
• lightning arrestors
Check all lead wires and electrical connections for
proper clearance.
• Ease of maintenance
Note: For more information on cleaning and drying
electric generators, refer to Special Instruction,
SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators”.
i02353651
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 1051; 1054-037
See this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Air Cleaner Element - Clean/Replace” for
information on servicing the primary air filter.
90
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
Inspecting and Replacing the
Secondary Air Cleaner Element (If
Equipped)
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Operating conditions (dust, dirt, and debris) may
require more frequent service of the air cleaner
element. If the air cleaner element becomes plugged,
the air can split the material of the air cleaner
element. Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate
internal engine wear. Your Caterpillar dealer has
the proper air cleaner elements for your application.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for the correct air
cleaner element.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable
or washable. The secondary air cleaner element
should be removed and discarded for every three
cleanings of the primary air cleaner element.
SEBU8088-07
3. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
4. Remove the adhesive covering that covers the air
inlet for the turbocharger. Install the secondary
air cleaner element. Install a primary air cleaner
element that is new or clean.
5. Install the air cleaner cover.
6. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
i01900118
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
(If Equipped)
SMCS Code: 7452-040
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner housing or in a remote location.
Illustration 58
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
g00736431
Cover
Primary air cleaner element
Secondary air cleaner element
Air inlet for the turbocharger
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air
cleaner element.
2. Cover the air inlet for the turbocharger with
adhesive material in order to keep dirt out of the
turbocharger.
Illustration 59
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
SEBU8088-07
91
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
2. Remove the bolts (1) and remove the breather
from the engine.
Test the Service Indicator
3. Check the condition of the seal. Replace the seal
if the seal is damaged.
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch approximately at the
greatest vacuum that is attained.
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be plugged.
4. Remove the breather element. Wash the breather
element and wash the breather in a clean
nonflammable solvent.
5. Shake the breather element until the breather
element is dry. You may also use pressurized air
in order to dry the breather element.
6. Check the condition of the tube. Replace the tube
if the tube is damaged.
7. Install the element into the breather and install the
breather.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty, if
necessary. Replace the service indicator annually
regardless of the operating conditions. Replace the
service indicator when the engine is overhauled, and
whenever major engine components are replaced.
8. Install the tube onto the outlet of the breather
cover and tighten the clamp.
Note: When a new service indicator is installed,
excessive force may crack the top of the service
indicator. Tighten the service indicator to a torque
of 2 N·m (18 lb in).
SMCS Code: 1152-535
i02327200
Engine Crankcase Breather Clean
SMCS Code: 1317-070
i01786814
Engine Mounts - Check
Misalignment of the engine and the driven equipment
will cause extensive damage. Excessive vibration
can lead to misalignment. Excessive vibration of the
engine and the driven equipment can be caused by
the following conditions:
• Improper mounting
• Loose bolts
• Deterioration of the isolators
Ensure that the mounting bolts are tightened
to the proper torque. For standard torques, see
Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”.
Ensure that the isolators are free of oil and
contamination. Inspect the isolators for deterioration.
Ensure that the bolts for the isolators are tightened to
the proper torque.
Illustration 60
g01162493
The crankcase breather is located on the back of
the engine.
1. Remove the tube (2) from the outlet of the breather
and loosen the clamp.
Replace any isolator that shows deterioration. For
more information, see the literature that is provided
by the OEM of the isolators. Also see the Application
and Installation Guide for the engine. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
92
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8088-07
i02108396
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
For the correct oil to use, see this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and
Recommendations” topic (Maintenance Section).
Do not fill the crankcase above “FULL” mark (X)
on the oil level gauge. Clean the oil filler cap.
Install the oil filler cap.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
3. Record the amount of oil that is added. For the
next oil sample and analysis, include the total
amount of oil that has been added since the
previous sample. This will help to provide the most
accurate oil analysis.
Engine Oil Level - Check
SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV
i01935337
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
SMCS Code: 1348-554-SM
Illustration 61
g00110310
(Y) “ADD” mark
(X) “FULL” mark
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
1. Maintain the oil level between “ADD” mark (Y) and
“FULL” mark (X) on the oil level gauge. Do not fill
the crankcase above “FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Engine damage can occur if the crankcase is filled
above the “FULL” mark on the oil level gauge (dipstick).
An overfull crankcase can enable the crankshaft to
dip into the oil. This will reduce the power that is developed and also force air bubbles into the oil. These
bubbles (foam) can cause the following problems: reduction of the oil's ability to lubricate, reduction of oil
pressure, inadequate cooling of the pistons, oil blowing out of the crankcase breathers, and excessive oil
consumption.
Excessive oil consumption will enable deposits to form
on the pistons and in the combustion chamber. Deposits in the combustion chamber lead to the following
problems: guttering of the valves, packing of carbon
under the piston rings, and wear of the cylinder liner.
If the oil level is above the “FULL” mark on the oil level
gauge, drain some of the oil immediately.
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
program, Caterpillar recommends using S·O·S oil
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals in order
to monitor the condition of the engine and the
maintenance requirements of the engine. S·O·S oil
analysis provides infrared analysis, which is required
for determining nitration and oxidation levels.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order
to help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide
the following information:
• Engine model
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
To ensure that the sample is representative of the
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
SEBU8088-07
93
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve
in order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the
consistency of the samples are better when the
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be
obtained during normal engine operation.
The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is
recommended for use with the sampling valve. The
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are
also provided.
NOTICE
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling, and
use a separate designated pump for coolant sampling.
Using the same pump for both types of samples may
contaminate the samples that are being drawn. This
contaminate may cause a false analysis and an incorrect interpretation that could lead to concerns by both
dealers and customers.
If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,
use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is
designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion
into the sump.
For instructions, see Special Publication, PEHP6001,
“How To Take A Good Oil Sample”. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for complete information and
assistance in establishing an S·O·S program for your
engine.
i02107152
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SMCS Code: 1318-510
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the bottom
of the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed
with the draining cold oil. Drain the crankcase with
the engine stopped. Drain the crankcase with the
oil warm. This draining method allows the waste
particles that are suspended in the oil to be drained
properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine crankcase oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the
drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
sump, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should
be cleaned and installed.
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar specifications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by
Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to
the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters
recommended by Caterpillar.
1. Remove the oil filter with a 1U-8760 Chain
Wrench.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a 175-7546 Oil Filter
Cutter Gp. Break apart the pleats and inspect the
oil filter for metal debris. An excessive amount
of metal debris in the oil filter may indicate early
wear or a pending failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of
the engine. Parts that may be affected include
the following items: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter. Consult your Caterpillar dealer in order
to arrange for a further analysis if an excessive
amount of debris is found in the oil filter.
94
Maintenance Section
Engine Protective Devices - Check
SEBU8088-07
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of ten minutes.
4. Remove the oil level gauge in order to check the
oil level. Maintain the oil level between the “ADD”
and “FULL” marks on the oil level gauge.
i00626013
Engine Protective Devices Check
SMCS Code: 7400-535
Illustration 62
g00103713
Typical filter mounting base and filter gasket
3. Clean the sealing surface of the filter mounting
base. Ensure that all of the old oil filter gasket is
removed.
4. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter gasket.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
engine components.
5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter until the
oil filter gasket contacts the base. Tighten the oil
filter by hand according to the instructions that are
shown on the oil filter. Do not overtighten the oil
filter.
Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
to determine if the engine protective devices are
in good working order during normal operation.
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the
engine protective devices.
A calibration check of the engine protective devices
will ensure that the alarms and shutoffs activate
at the setpoints. Ensure that the engine protective
devices are functioning properly.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated.
The tests must be performed correctly in order to prevent possible damage to the engine.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
To prevent damage to the engine, only authorized
service personnel or your Caterpillar dealer should
perform the tests.
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and
Recommendations” for more information.
Visual Inspection
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or overfilling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW
IDLE” for two minutes. Perform this procedure in
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately.
SEBU8088-07
95
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust
i02562758
i02784507
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate
SMCS Code: 1102-025
Some of the fan drives have grease fittings and some
of the fan drives do not have grease fittings. If there is
no grease fitting, periodic lubrication is not required.
The fan drive requires grease only if the fan drive
is equipped with a zerk.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your
Caterpillar dealer for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
SMCS Code: 1359-086-BD
Operation of Caterpillar engines with improper valve
adjustments can reduce engine efficiency. This reduced efficiency could result in excessive fuel usage
and/or shortened engine component life.
The initial valve lash adjustment on new engines,
rebuilt engines, or remanufactured engines should
be performed at the first oil change. The initial valve
lash adjustment on new engines, rebuilt engines, or
remanufactured engines must be performed before
the fourth oil change, or at the fourth oil change. The
adjustment is necessary due to the initial wear of
the valve train components and to the seating of the
valve train components.
This maintenance is part of a lubrication and
preventive maintenance schedule in order to help
provide maximum engine life.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
To obtain an accurate measurement, allow the valves
to cool before this maintenance is performed.
The following components should be inspected and
adjusted when the valves are inspected and adjusted.
• Valve actuators
• Injectors
• Compression brakes
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” in your service
manual for more information.
Illustration 63
g00746166
Typical location of the grease fitting (if equipped) that is for the fan
drive bearing
The pulley is shown with the belt guards that have been removed.
Lubricate the grease fitting that is on the fan drive
bearing with High Speed Ball Bearing Grease or the
equivalent.
Inspect the fan drive pulley assembly for wear or for
damage. If the shaft is loose, an inspection of the
internal components should be performed. Refer to
the Systems Operation Testing and Adjusting Manual
for additional information.
i01565926
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust
SMCS Code: 1290-025
Note: Perform this procedure when the engine valve
lash is inspected.
NOTICE
The camshafts must be correctly timed with the crankshaft before an adjustment of the lash for the fuel injector is made. The timing pins must be removed from
the camshafts before the crankshaft is turned or damage to the cylinder block will be the result.
96
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8088-07
Inspect the adjustment of the lash for the fuel injector
according to the Testing And Adjusting, “Fuel Injector
Adjustment”. Adjust the lash for the fuel injector, if
necessary.
i02879917
Fuel System - Prime
SMCS Code: 1250-548; 1258-548
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
The fuel system should be primed after a unit injector
is changed or when the fuel system is totally dry.
Note: The fuel system does not typically need to be
primed when the primary fuel filters or secondary fuel
filters are changed or when an Electronic Control
Module (ECM) is replaced. When the engine is
started under these circumstances, the engine may
momentarily run rough until the air is purged from
the system.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over any disconnected fuel system components.
Illustration 64
g01275925
The right side view of a typical C27 or C32 Engine that is
configured for a genset
(1) Fuel priming pump
(2) Fuel filter base
(3) Secondary fuel filter
Illustration 65
g01275944
The secondary fuel filter and the fuel priming pump is shown.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Fuel priming pump
Fuel filter base
Secondary fuel filter
Priming pump plunger
SEBU8088-07
97
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
Follow the procedure below in order to prime the
engine with fuel.
1. Turn the priming pump plunger (4)
counterclockwise in order to unlock the
plunger. Manually pump the plunger in order to fill
the fuel lines and the fuel filters with fuel.
2. As the air is purged from the fuel system, fuel
pressure will increase. This will create resistance
in the plunger. Continue to pump the plunger until
a strong resistance is felt. The number of strokes
will vary with the amount of air in the fuel lines.
Replace the Element
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
3. After resistance is felt in the plunger, push in the
plunger. Lock the plunger by turning the plunger
clockwise.
4. Start the engine at low idle.
5. If the engine runs rough, continue to run the
engine at low idle until the engine runs smoothly.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
i02049797
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
SMCS Code: 1260-510-FQ; 1263-510-FQ
Water in the fuel can cause the engine to run rough.
Water in the fuel may cause an electronic unit injector
to fail. If the fuel has been contaminated with water,
the element should be changed before the regularly
scheduled interval.
The primary filter/water separator also provides
filtration in order to help extend the life of the
secondary fuel filter. The element should be changed
regularly. Install a vacuum gauge. Change the
element for the primary filter/water separator if the
pressure is at 50 to 70 kPa (15 to 20 inches Hg).
Illustration 66
g00668636
(1) Bowl
(2) Element
(3) Drain
1. Stop the engine.
2. Turn the start switch to the “OFF” position.
3. Shut off the fuel tank supply valve to the engine.
4. If the primary fuel filter is equipped with a drain
valve (3), open the drain valve in order to drain any
fuel from the filter case. Close the drain valve (3).
NOTICE
Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
5. Remove the fuel filter bowl (1) and wash the fuel
filter bowl with clean diesel fuel.
6. Remove the fuel filter (2).
7. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter
base. Ensure that all of the old gasket is removed.
8. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket.
98
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8088-07
i01463757
NOTICE
In order to maximize fuel system life and prevent premature wear out from abrasive particles in the fuel,
use Caterpillar fuel filters.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for proper part numbers.
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SMCS Code: 1260-543; 1263-543
9. Install the new fuel filter (2). Spin the fuel filter
onto the fuel filter base until the gasket contacts
the base. Use the rotation index marks on the
filters as a guide for proper tightening. Tighten the
filter for an additional 3/4 turn by hand. Do not
overtighten the filter.
NOTICE
Do not fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing them.
The fuel would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear
to fuel system parts.
10. Install the clean fuel filter bowl (1) on the new fuel
filter.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the vent plug is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel system.
11. Open the fuel tank supply valve.
12. Start the engine and check for leaks. Run the
engine for one minute. Stop the engine and check
the engine for leaks again.
Detection of leaks is very difficult especially if
the engine is running. The primary filter/water
separator is under suction. A leak will allow air to
enter the fuel. The air in the fuel can cause low
power due to aeration of the fuel. If air enters the
fuel, check the components for overtightening or
undertightening.
Illustration 67
g00668636
(1) Bowl
(2) Element
(3) Drain
Bowl (1) should be monitored daily for signs of water.
If water is present, drain the water from the bowl.
1. Open drain (3). The drain is a self-ventilated drain.
Catch the draining water in a suitable container.
Dispose of the water properly.
2. Close drain (3).
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the fuel
system.
i02326422
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
SMCS Code: 1261-510-SE
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
SEBU8088-07
99
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
5. Install the new fuel filter. Spin the fuel filter onto
the fuel filter base until the gasket contacts the
base. Use the rotation index marks on the filters
as a guide for proper tightening. Tighten the
filter for an additional 3/4 turn by hand. Do not
overtighten the filter.
i03071053
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
SMCS Code: 1273-543-M&S
Illustration 68
g01162207
(1) Fuel supply connections
(2) Fuel filter
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over any disconnected fuel system components.
NOTICE
Use a suitable container to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
1. It may be necessary to relieve residual fuel
pressure from the fuel system before removing
the fuel filter.
Loosen one of the fuel supply connections (1) in
order to purge any residual pressure.
NOTICE
Do not loosen fuel lines or fittings at the fuel manifold
or ECM. The engine components may be damaged.
2. Remove the used fuel filter.
3. Clean the gasket sealing surface of the fuel filter
base. Ensure that all of the old gasket is removed.
4. Apply clean diesel fuel to the new fuel filter gasket.
NOTICE
Do not fill the secondary fuel filter with fuel before installing. The fuel would not be filtered and could be
contaminated. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog” or refer to Special Publication, PECJ0003, “Caterpillar Shop Supplies and
Tools Catalog” for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar products.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system. Condensation
occurs during the heating and cooling of fuel. The
condensation occurs as the fuel passes through the
fuel system and the fuel returns to the fuel tank. This
causes water to accumulate in fuel tanks. Draining
the fuel tank regularly and obtaining fuel from reliable
sources can help to eliminate water in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Drain the water and sediment
from the fuel tank after operating the engine or drain
the water and sediment from the fuel tank after the
fuel tank has been filled. Allow five to ten minutes
before performing this procedure.
100
Maintenance Section
Generator - Dry
SEBU8088-07
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank during the following conditions:
• Weekly
• Oil change
Drying Methods
The following methods can be used for drying a
generator:
• Self-circulating air method
• Oven method
NOTICE
Do not allow the winding temperature to exceed 85 °C
(185.0 °F). Temperatures that are greater than 85 °C
(185.0 °F) will damage the winding insulation.
Self-Circulating Air Method
Run the engine and disconnect the generator load.
This will help circulate air. Operate the generator
space heaters.
Oven Method
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank. A four micron(c) absolute filter for the breather
vent on the fuel tank is also recommended. Refer
to Special Publication, SENR9620, “Improving Fuel
System Durablity”.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Place the entire generator inside a forced air drying
oven for four hours at 65 °C (149 °F).
NOTICE
Use a forced air type oven rather than a radiant type
oven.
Radiant type ovens can cause localized overheating.
i01461264
Generator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 4450-040
i02290310
Generator - Dry
SMCS Code: 4450-569
NOTICE
Do not operate the generator if the windings are wet. If
the generator is operated when the windings are wet,
damage can occur due to insulation breakdown.
When moisture is present or when moisture is
suspected in a generator, the generator must be
dried before being energized.
If the drying procedure does not restore the insulation
resistance to an acceptable value, the winding should
be reconditioned.
Note: For additional information, refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS9124 .
Personal injury or death can result from improper
troubleshooting and repair procedures.
The following troubleshooting and repair procedures should only be performed by qualified personnel familiar with this equipment.
Refer to Safety Section, “Generator Isolating for
Maintenance” for information regarding the procedure
to safely isolate the generator.
SEBU8088-07
Proper maintenance of electrical equipment requires
periodic visual examination of the generator and
periodic visual examination of the windings. Proper
maintenance of electrical equipment also requires
appropriate electrical checks and appropriate thermal
checks. Insulation material should be examined for
cracks. The insulation material should be examined
for accumulations of dirt and dust. If there is an
insulation resistance value that is below normal, a
conductive path may be present. This conductive
path may be made of one of the following materials:
• Carbon
• Salt
• Metal dust
• Dirt that is saturated with moisture
These contaminants will develop a conductive path
which may produce shorts. Cleaning is advisable if
heavy accumulations of dirt can be seen or if heavy
accumulations of dust can be seen. If excess dirt is
the cause of a restriction in the ventilation, cleaning
is also advisable. Restricted ventilation will cause
excessive heating.
NOTICE
To avoid the possibility of deterioration to the generator windings, do not clean the generator unless there
is visual, electrical, or thermal evidence that dirt is
present.
If harmful dirt accumulations are present, a variety
of cleaning techniques are available. The cleaning
procedure that is used may be determined by one of
the items on the following list:
• The extent of the cleaning procedure that is being
attempted
• The type of enclosure of the generator
• The voltage rating of the generator
• The type of dirt that is being removed
Cleaning (Assembled Generators)
Cleaning may be required at the point of installation.
At this point, complete disassembly of the generator
may not be necessary or feasible. In this case,
a vacuum cleaner should be used to pick up the
following items: dry dirt, dust, and carbon. This will
prevent the spreading of these contaminants.
101
Maintenance Section
Generator - Inspect
A small nonconductive tube may need to be
connected to the vacuum cleaner. This will allow the
vacuum cleaner to clean the surfaces that are not
exposed. After most of the dust has been removed,
a small brush may be attached to the vacuum hose
in order to loosen dirt that is more firmly attached to
the surface.
After the initial cleaning with a vacuum, compressed
air may be used to remove the remaining dust and
dirt. Compressed air that is used for cleaning should
be free of moisture and free of oil. Air pressure
should be a maximum of 210 kPa (30 psi) in order to
prevent mechanical damage to the insulation. If the
above cleaning procedures are not effective, consult
a Caterpillar dealer.
Cleaning (Disassembled
Generators)
An initial insulation resistance check should be
made on the generator in order to confirm electrical
integrity. A minimum reading of one megohm would
be expected with severely contaminated generators.
A zero megohm reading may indicate an insulation
breakdown. An insulation breakdown requires more
than cleaning. An insulation breakdown requires
repair.
A high pressure wash is normally an effective way
to clean windings. This includes windings that have
been exposed to flooding or windings that have been
contaminated by salt. A solution of hot water and
detergent is used for this method of cleaning.
A high pressure wash sprays a high velocity fluid
stream of this solution over the generator that is
being cleaned. This detergent washing is followed by
multiple sprays of clean water. The clean water is
used in order to remove the detergent or the clean
water is used in order to dilute the detergent.
Allow the generator to dry at room temperature.
Check the insulation resistance. The insulation
resistance should now be normal. If the insulation
resistance is not normal, repeat the procedure. It
may be necessary to use solvents if the generator
is contaminated with oil or if the generator is
contaminated with grease.
Note: For more information on drying methods, refer
to Special Instructions, SEHS9124, “Cleaning and
Drying of Electric Set Generators”.
102
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8088-07
i03099722
Generator Bearing Inspect/Replace
(SR4 Generator)
SMCS Code: 4471-040; 4471-510
The following maintenance procedure for generator
bearings should be followed at every major engine
overhaul:
Inspect
1. Remove the bearing bracket. Inspect the following
items: bracket bore, bearing outer race, and
rolling elements. On standby power units, the
bearing must be inspected and the grease must
be replaced at three year intervals. The sleeve
in the bearing bracket should be inspected for
out of roundness, excessive wear, and a bracket
step that is less than 0.0762 mm (0.0030 inch). If
there is no sleeve in the bearing bracket, inspect
the bore of the bearing bracket. The bearing
should be inspected for damage to the outer race,
severe fretting, and smoothness of operation.
When possible, the bearing elements should be
inspected. Some double shielded ball bearings
prevent visual inspection of the elements of the
bearing. Other double shielded ball bearings
have a retaining ring. This retaining ring can be
removed in order to allow access for a visual
inspection of the elements of the bearing.
On two-bearing generators, the front bearing
can only be removed after the drive coupling
is removed. Refer to the Systems Operation
Testing and Adjusting Disassembly and Assembly,
“Coupling - Remove” for the generator for
instructions for removing the drive coupling.
Replace
1. All ball bearings should be cleaned. The cavity
in the bracket should be repacked with 2S-3230
Grease. Pack the ball bearings (one-third to
one-half of the volume of the cavity).
2. Use an induction heater to heat the ball bearings to
107 °C (224.6 °F) for ten minutes in order to install
either of the following bearings: ball bearings
that are new and ball bearings that have been
inspected. Mount the bearings on the shaft. To
reinstall the hub, heat the hub to 400 °C (752.0 °F)
for three hours. Mount the hub to the shaft.
3. Ensure that the tube of the grease gun is filled
with grease.
4. Remove the bracket drain plug and operate the
generator for one hour. This will allow the grease
to expand. The expanding grease will force the
excess grease from the cavity. When the excess
grease is forced from the cavity, the internal
pressure will be reduced. The generator should
continue to operate until the grease stops purging.
5. Stop the engine. Install the bracket drain plug.
Wipe off the excess grease.
6. For greasing intervals, follow the recommendations
on the lubrication plate (if equipped) or refer to
Maintenance Schedule, “Generator Bearing Lubricate”. Whenever the bearings are greased,
repeat Step 1. DO NOT MIX GREASES.
i03072525
Generator Bearing - Lubricate
SMCS Code: 4471-086
Lubricating Process (If Applicable)
Note: If the generator already has a visible grease
point, go to Step 4.
1. Remove either the louver assembly or the rear
plate from the rear of the generator housing.
2. Remove the top grease pipe plug and remove the
lower grease pipe plug.
3. Install a grease fitting in the grease pipe.
4. Grease the bearings with the appropriate grease
from Table 10. Do not mix greases.
SEBU8088-07
103
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Lubricate
Table 10
Bearing
Part
Number
Bearing
Type
Frame
Size
Temperature
Min/Max(1)
Grease
Part
Number
Interval
Weight
Volume
Shaft
Diameter
108-1760
Ball
Bearing
321 BC
224.9856 ±
0.0152 mm
(8.8577 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
680
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
minimum
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
maximum
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
105.0214
± 0.0076
mm
(4.1347
± .0003
inch)
690 /
800
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
110.0201
± 0.0076
mm
(4.3315
± .0003
inch)
104.9909 ±
0.0102 mm
(4.1335 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
108-1761
Ball
Bearing
322 BC
239.9843 ±
0.0152 mm
(9.4482 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
109.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(4.3303 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
139-0349
Roller
Bearing
Roller
2900 /
2800
−40 °C
(−40 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
Mobilith
SHC220
Every 250
service
hours
2.8 g
(0.1 oz)
NA
126.9873
± 0.0127
mm
(4.9995
± .0005
inch)
139-0350
Roller
Bearing
Roller
2900 /
2800
−40 °C
(−40 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
Mobilith
SHC220
Every 250
service
hours
2.8 g
(0.1 oz)
NA
126.9873
± 0.0127
mm
(4.9995
± .0005
inch)
154-3032
Ball
Bearing
326 BC
279.9817 ±
0.0178 mm
(11.0229 ±
.0007 inch)
OD
820 /
2600 /
2700
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
130.0391
± 0.0114
mm
(5.11965
± .00045
inch)
129.9870 ±
0.0127 mm
(5.1176 ±
.0005 inch)
ID
(continued)
104
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Lubricate
SEBU8088-07
(Table 10, contd)
Bearing
Part
Number
Bearing
Type
Frame
Size
Temperature
Min/Max(1)
Grease
Part
Number
Interval
Weight
Volume
Shaft
Diameter
241-4644
Bearing
320 BC
214.9856 ±
0.0152 mm
(8.4640 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
LC7
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
60 °C
(140 °F)(2)
UNIREX
N3
Every 4500
service
hours or 12
months
60 g
(2.1 oz)
NA
100.0100
± 0.0076
mm
(3.9374
± .0003
inch)
LC6100
/
LC5000
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
60 °C
(140 °F)(2)
UNIREX
N3
Nonregreasable
bearing(3)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
75.0087
± 0.0076
mm
(2.9531
± .0003
inch)
LC2000
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
50 °C
(122 °F)(2)
UNIREX
N3
Nonregreasable
bearing(3)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
35.0075
± 0.0063
mm
(1.37825
± .00025
inch)
LC2000
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
60 °C
(140 °F)(2)
UNIREX
N3
Nonregreasable
bearing(3)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
35.0075
± 0.0063
mm
(1.37825
± .00025
inch)
99.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(3.9366 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
243-5220
Bearing
315 BB
159.9870 ±
0.0127 mm
(6.2987 ±
.0005 inch)
OD
74.9935 ±
0.0076 mm
(2.9525 ±
.0003 inch)
ID
261-3545
Bearing
307 BB
79.9935 ±
0.0063 mm
(3.14935
± .00025
inch) OD
34.9923 ±
0.0063 mm
(1.37765
± .00025
inch) ID
262-5921
Bearing
307 BC
79.9935 ±
0.0063 mm
(3.14935
± .00025
inch) OD
34.9923 ±
0.0063 mm
(1.37765
± .00025
inch) ID
(continued)
SEBU8088-07
105
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing - Lubricate
(Table 10, contd)
Bearing
Part
Number
Bearing
Type
Frame
Size
Temperature
Min/Max(1)
Grease
Part
Number
Interval
Weight
Volume
Shaft
Diameter
263-0161
Bearing
309 BC
99.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(3.9366 ±
.0004 inch)
OD
LC3000
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
60 °C
(140 °F)(2)
UNIREX
N3
Nonregreasable
bearing(3)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
45.0075
± 0.0063
mm
(1.77195
± .00025
inch)
580 /
590
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
75.0126
± 0.0089
mm
(2.95325
± .00035
inch)
450
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
100.0201
± 0.0076
mm
(3.9378
± .0003
inch)
597
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
2S-3230
Bearing
Lubricant
Every 2000
service
hours or 12
months
51.2 g
(1.8 oz)
59 mL (2 oz)
90.0201
± 0.0076
mm
(3.5441
± .0003
inch)
44.9948 ±
0.0063 mm
(1.77145
± .00025
inch)
5P-2448
Ball
Bearing
315 BC
159.9870 ±
0.0127 mm
(6.2987 ±
.0005 inch)
OD
74.9935 ±
0.0076 mm
(2.9525 ±
.0003 inch)
ID
6Y-3955
Ball
Bearing
220 BC
179.9869 ±
0.0127 mm
(7.0861 ±
.0005 inch)
OD
99.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(3.9366 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
6Y-6488
Ball
Bearing
318 BC
189.9844 ±
0.0152 mm
(7.4797 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
89.9897 ±
0.0102 mm
(3.5429 ±
.0004 inch)
(continued)
106
Maintenance Section
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record
SEBU8088-07
(Table 10, contd)
Bearing
Part
Number
Bearing
Type
Frame
Size
Temperature
Min/Max(1)
Grease
Part
Number
Interval
Weight
Volume
Shaft
Diameter
311-0843
Ball
Bearing
326 BC
279.9817 ±
0.0178 mm
(11.0229 ±
.0007 inch)
OD
1800 FR
−40 °C
(−40 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
EA6
Nonregreasable
bearing(1)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
130.0391
± 0.0114
mm
(5.11965
± .00045
inch)
1600 FR
−40 °C
(−40 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
EA6
Nonregreasable
bearing(1)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
110.0239
± 0.0089
mm
(4.33165
± .00035
inch)
1400 FR
−29 °C
(−20.2 °F)
/
80 °C
(176 °F)
UNIREX
N3
Nonregreasable
bearing(1)
Nonregreasable
bearing
Nonregreasable
bearing
100.0100
± 0.0076
mm
(3.9374
± .0003
inch)
129.9870 ±
0.0127 mm
(5.1176 ±
.0005 inch)
ID
311-0844
Ball
Bearing
322 BC
239.9843 ±
0.0152 mm
(9.4482 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
109.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(4.3303 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
253-9789
Bearing
320 BC
214.9856 ±
0.0152 mm
(8.4640 ±
.0006 inch)
OD
99.9896 ±
0.0102 mm
(3.9366 ±
.0004 inch)
ID
(1)
This temperature is for a generator set that is equipped with a resistive temperature detector (RTD).
Do not exceed 60 °C (140 °F) above the ambient temperature.
(3) This bearing can not be greased. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Generator Bearing - Replace” article for information
concerning the replacement of these bearings.
(2) Do not exceed 50 °C (122 °F) above the ambient temperature.
(2)
5. Wipe off the excess grease. Remove the top
grease fitting. Install the plug.
6. Operate the generator for one hour. This will allow
the grease to expand. The expanding grease will
force the excess grease from the cavity. When
the excess grease is forced from the cavity, the
internal pressure will be reduced. The generator
should continue to operate until the grease stops
purging.
7. Stop the engine. Install the plug in the bottom
grease pipe. Wipe off the excess grease.
8. Install the louver assembly or install the rear plate.
i03098750
Generator Bearing
Temperature - Test/Record
SMCS Code: 4471-081-TA
The monitoring of bearing temperature may prevent
premature bearing failure. A generator set should
never operate above the recommended set points.
Keep records in order to monitor the changes in the
temperature of the bearing.
Note: Measure the bearing temperature after the
generator reaches normal operating temperature.
SEBU8088-07
107
Maintenance Section
Generator Load - Check
Resistive Temperature Detectors
(RTDs)
Resistance temperature detectors for generator
bearings are optional on all Caterpillar Generators.
These detectors are 100 ohm resistance temperature
detectors. A resistance temperature detector
may be monitored by the optional monitor for the
EMCP 3.2/3.3 resistance temperature detector. A
resistance temperature detector may be monitored by
equipment that is provided by the customer. Consult
with your Caterpillar dealer about other methods of
measuring the bearing temperature.
The EMCP 3.2/3.3 may be configured to “ALARM”
or the EMCP 3.2/3.3 may be configured to
“SHUTDOWN”. An alarm is activated if the
temperature of the bearing reaches 85 °C (185 °F).
A shutdown occurs if the temperature of the bearing
reaches 95 °C (203 °F).
Infrared Thermometers
Bearing temperatures can also be recorded with the
use of an infrared thermometer. Refer to Special
Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar Dealer Service
Tools Catalog” for a variety of infrared thermometers.
Follow the instructions that come with your infrared
thermometer.
i01473721
Generator Load - Check
SMCS Code: 4450-535-LA
During normal operation, monitor the power factor
and monitor generator loading.
When a generator is installed or when a generator
is reconnected, ensure that the total current in any
one phase does not exceed the nameplate rating.
Each phase should carry the same load. This allows
the generator to work at the rated capacity. If one
phase current exceeds the nameplate amperage,
an electrical imbalance will occur. An electrical
imbalance can result in an electrical overload and an
electrical imbalance can result in overheating.
The power factor can be referred to as the efficiency
of the load. This can be expressed as the ratio of kVA
to actual kW. The power factor can be calculated by
dividing kW by kVA. Power factor is expressed as a
decimal. Power factor is used to mean the portion
of current that is supplied to a system that is doing
useful work. The portion of the current that is not
doing useful work is absorbed in maintaining the
magnetic field in motors. This current (reactive load)
can be maintained without engine power.
Electric sets normally have a low idle setting that
is higher than industrial engines. Low idle will be
approximately 66 percent of the full speed that is
achieved by 60 Hz units. This would be equal to 80
percent of the full speed that is achieved by 50 Hz
units.
Some electric sets are equipped with Woodward
governors and some electric sets are equipped
with Caterpillar electronic governors. These electric
sets have no low idle stop. On electric sets with
mechanical governors and natural gas electric sets,
the low idle is set at the factory. Adjustment of the
low idle on these machines should only be done by
a Caterpillar dealer.
Note: Operating the electric set at low idle speed for
an extended time will cause some voltage regulators
to shut off. The electric set must be completely shut
down and the electric set must be restarted. This
will allow the voltage regulator to again produce an
output.
i03292462
Generator Set - Test
SMCS Code: 4450-081
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
When power generation equipment must be in operation to make tests and/or adjustments, high
voltage and current are present.
Improper test equipment can fail and present a
high voltage shock hazard to its user.
Make sure the testing equipment is designed for
and correctly operated for high voltage and current tests being made.
When servicing or repairing electric power generation equipment:
• Make sure the unit is off-line (disconnected
from utility and/or other generators power
service), and either locked out or tagged DO
NOT OPERATE.
• Make sure the generator engine is stopped.
• Make sure all batteries are disconnected.
• Make sure all capacitors are discharged.
108
Maintenance Section
Generator Set Alignment - Check
SEBU8088-07
DANGER: Shock/Electrocution Hazard-Do not operate this equipment or work on this equipment
unless you have read and understand the instructions and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings will result in serious injury or
death.
Table 11
Tools Needed
Part Number
Part
Quantity
237-5130
Digital
Multimeter
1
12 VDC Battery
1
Potential
Transformer
1
The generator set functional test is a simplified test
that can be performed in order to determine if the
generator is functional. The generator set functional
test should be performed on a generator set that is
under load.
The generator set functional test determines if the
following statements happen:
NOTICE
Do not operate the generator set at a speed that is
higher than one-half of the rated speed.
Higher speeds under these test conditions can cause
damage to the system.
4. Operate the generator set at half the rated speed.
5. Measure the AC voltage across the low voltage
terminals of the transformer that correspond to the
following generator terminals: “T1” and “T2”, “T2”
and “T3”, and “T3” and “T1”. Record the voltages.
6. Monitor the voltage between any two of the
locations in step 5. Decrease the generator set
speed by 10 percent. Increase the generator set
speed by 10 percent.
7. The voltages that were measured in Step 5 should
be nearly equal. These voltages should measure
a minimum of 85 VAC.
8. When the generator set speed is decreased by
10 percent, the voltages that were measured in
Step 6 should decrease by 10 percent. When the
generator set speed is increased by 10 percent,
the voltages that were measured in Step 6 should
increase by 10 percent.
• A phase voltage is being generated.
• The phase voltages are balanced.
i03100396
• The phase voltages change relative to engine
speed.
Generator Set Alignment Check
(Generator Sets)
The generator set functional test consists of the
following steps:
SMCS Code: 7002-024
1. Stop the generator. Connect the potential
transformer's high voltage winding to the
generator terminals (T1) and (T2). Connect
the voltmeter to the low voltage winding. If two
transformers are available, connect the high
voltage winding of the second transformer to the
generator terminals (T1) and (T3). Connect the
secondary terminals that correspond to generator
terminal (T2) of both transformers together.
The alignment between the engine and the driven
equipment must be properly maintained in order to
minimize the following problems:
2. Disconnect wires “F1+” and “F2-” from the voltage
regulator. Disconnect the generator from the load.
Refer to the following information for more information
about the alignment of the generator set:
3. Connect a 12 VDC automotive battery to wires
“F1+” and “F2-”.
• Special Instruction, SEHS7654, “Alignment -
• Bearing problems
• Vibration of the engine crankshaft
• Vibration of the driven equipment
General Instructions”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7259, “Alignment of
Single Bearing Generators”
SEBU8088-07
109
Maintenance Section
Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record
• Special Instruction, REHS0177, “Alignment of the
Close Coupled Two Bearing Generators”
Keep a record of the measurement of the alignment.
The record may be used to check the trend of the
alignment. The record may be used to analyze the
trend of the alignment.
The genset must be aligned when the genset is
moved into a final position. The genset must be
aligned if the genset is moved into a different position.
i03100151
Generator Set Vibration Test/Record
SMCS Code: 4450-081-VI
Check for vibration damage.
Vibration may cause the following problems:
• Coupling wear
When a generator set is installed, a vibration plot
should be recorded in order to assist in diagnosing
potential problems. This vibration plot should be
updated yearly. The vibration plot should also be
updated when the generator set is moved and
when the engine is overhauled. This will allow
the trend of the vibration to be monitored and
analyzed. A potential problem may be prevented by
monitoring the trend of the vibration. If the vibration
is approaching the limit of the specification of the
component, the problem may be more imminent.
Refer to Data Sheet, LEKQ4023, “Linear Vibration”
for the allowable limits of vibration.
Caterpillar also recommends recording the vibration
of the bearing at the generator bearing bracket.
If the vibration exceeds the EDS limits for vibration,
check the alignment. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Product Alignment - Check”
for the alignment procedure.
Contact the Caterpillar Dealer Service Tools group
for information on ordering a vibration analyzer that
will meet your needs.
• Loose fittings
i02574347
• Fatigue of the metal components of the engine
Heat Shield - Inspect/Replace
• Cracks in the cabinet which surrounds the
SMCS Code: 1067-040; 1067-510
generator
• Cracked insulation
NOTICE
Use caution when you inspect heat shields. Ensure
that the engine is not running and ensure that the
engine components are cool before you touch heat
shields.
The following areas are susceptible to vibration
damage:
Visually inspect all heat shields for signs of wear.
Some unacceptable signs of wear are listed below.
• Coupling for the generator set
• Outer covering that is chafed or cracked
• Generator bearings
• Outer covering that is cut
• Stator output leads
• Outer covering that shows signs of abrasion
• Protective sleeving
• Fasteners that are loose or missing
• Insulation
• Insulation material that is exposed
• Exposed electrical connections
Replace all heat shields that show any signs of wear.
• Cracks in welds
• Excessive noise
• Transformers
• Fuses
• Capacitors
• Lightning arresters
110
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
SEBU8088-07
i02121526
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
SMCS Code: 7554-040; 7554-510
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
NOTICE
Do not bend or strike high pressure lines. Do not install bent or damaged lines, tubes or hoses. Repair
any loose or damaged fuel and oil lines, tubes and
hoses. Leaks can cause fires. Inspect all lines, tubes
and hoses carefully. Tighten all connections to the recommended torque.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
heat set. Heat setting causes hose clamps to loosen.
This can result in leaks. A constant torque hose
clamp will help to prevent loose hose clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: Refer to the Specifications, SENR3130,
“Torque Specifications” in order to locate the proper
torques.
8. Refill the cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's gaskets. Replace
the cooling system filler cap if the gaskets are
damaged. Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
SEBU8088-07
111
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test
i03230486
Insulation - Test
SMCS Code: 4453-081; 4454-081; 4457-081;
4470-081
Recommended Periodic Insulation
Tests
The high voltage that is produced by an operating
generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
ensure that the generator will not start.
Place the engine control switch in the “OFF” position. Attach “DO NOT OPERATE” tags to all starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
with the generator.
• The generator set has not been run under load
for three months. Test the generator set weekly.
Use space heaters around the generator set if the
generator is exposed to a sea water environment or
if the humidity is above 75 percent. Also use space
heaters if a test result was below 3 megohms.
Space heaters must be used whenever the generator
set is not under load. Space heaters must also be
used whenever salt is present or whenever high
humidity is present. Using a space heater in this
fashion is the only way to maintain insulation tester
readings above one megohm. Use space heaters
only when the generator is not running.
For additional information, refer to Special Instruction,
SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators”.
Recommended Procedure for the
Insulation Test
Personal injury or death can result from electrocution.
Table 12
Tools Needed
Part Number
Part Name
Quantity
300-8648
Insulation
Testing Gp
1
Periodically, use an insulation tester to check the
insulation resistance of the generator's main stator
winding. The frequency of this test is determined by
the generator's environment. Previous insulation
tester readings will also determine the frequency of
this test.
Test the main stator windings with an insulation tester
in the following situations:
• The generator set is started for the first time.
• The generator set is removed from storage.
• The generator set is operating in a humid
environment. Test every three months.
• The generator set is not protected from the
elements in an enclosed area. Test every three
months.
• The generator set is installed in an enclosed area.
This area needs to be low in humidity and this area
needs to have steady temperatures. Test every
twelve months (minimum).
The megohmmeter is applying a high voltage to
the circuit.
To avoid electrocution, do not touch the instrument leads without first discharging them. When
finished testing also discharge the generator
windings.
1. Take the generator out of service.
2. Visually inspect the generator for moisture. If
moisture exists, do not perform this insulation
test. Dry the unit first. Refer to Special Instruction,
SEHS9124, “Cleaning and Drying of Electric Set
Generators”.
3. Inspect the installation. Determine the equipment
that will be tested by the insulation tester.
4. Discharge the capacitance of the windings.
5. Disconnect “T0” from ground.
6. Disconnect the sensing lead wires for the
regulator. This may be accomplished by
unplugging the harness connectors.
7. Connect the insulation tester's RED lead to
ground.
8. Connect the insulation tester's BLACK lead to
“T0”.
112
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test
9. For units that are 600 volts or less, set the voltage
to 500 Volts. For units that are more than 600
volts, set the voltage to 1000 Volts.
10. Use the 30/60 Time Resistance Method:
a. Apply voltage.
b. Observe the readings at 30 seconds. Observe
the readings at 60 seconds.
c. Record the 60 second reading. This reading
must be corrected for temperature.
d. Record temperature.
e. Record humidity.
f. Remove voltage.
11. Evaluate the readings. The actual value of the
resistance may vary greatly between generators.
For this reason, the insulation's condition must be
evaluated. Base this evaluation on the comparison
between the 60 second resistance readings and
the readings that were taken on previous dates.
These two readings must be taken under similar
conditions. If a 60 second resistance reading
has a 50 percent reduction from the previous
reading, the insulation may have absorbed too
much moisture.
Switch the insulation tester to the “OFF” position.
This will discharge the insulation tester's leads.
Disconnect the insulation tester's leads.
Note: The results from the insulation resistance
checks indicate when cleaning and/or repairing is
becoming critical. Generally, insulation resistance
will vary greatly with temperature. Therefore, always
test at the same temperature and humidity. Refer to
Illustration 69.
Engine Serial Number_____________________________________
Serial Number for the Generator________________________
SEBU8088-07
SEBU8088-07
Illustration 69
113
Maintenance Section
Insulation - Test
g00633226
114
Maintenance Section
Jacket Water Heater - Check
SEBU8088-07
i01917546
Jacket Water Heater - Check
(Standby Generator Sets (If
Equipped))
SMCS Code: 1383-535
Jacket water heaters help to improve startability in
ambient temperatures that are below 21 °C (70 °F).
All installations that require automatic starting should
have jacket water heaters.
Check the operation of the jacket water heater. For
an ambient temperature of 0 °C (32 °F), the heater
should maintain the jacket water coolant temperature
at approximately 32 °C (90 °F).
i03257588
Overhaul Considerations
SMCS Code: 7595-043
Reduced hours of operation at full load will result in a
lower average power demand. A decreased average
power demand should increase both the engine
service life and the overhaul interval.
The oil consumption rate (brake specific oil
consumption) is measured in grams per kW/h (lb per
bhp). The brake specific oil consumption (BSOC)
depends on the engine load. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance in determining the typical oil
consumption rate for your engine.
When an engine's oil consumption has risen to three
times the original oil consumption rate due to normal
wear, an engine overhaul should be scheduled.
There may be a corresponding increase in blowby
and a slight increase in fuel consumption.
Overhaul Options
Using Fuel Consumption For Calculating the
Overhaul Intervals
Experience has shown that maintenance intervals
are most accurately based on fuel consumption. Fuel
consumption corresponds more accurately to the
engine load. Table 13 and 14 lists average ranges of
fuel consumption for a load factor of approximately
60 percent.
Table 13
Service Hours and Fuel Consumption for
C27 Generator Set(1)
Top End
Overhaul
The need for an overhaul is generally indicated by
increased fuel consumption and by reduced power.
The following factors are important when a decision
is being made on the proper time for an engine
overhaul:
• The need for preventive maintenance
Major
Overhaul
(1)
1608799 L (425000 US gal)
Fuel consumption is based on a load factor of approximately
60 percent.
Top End
Overhaul
• The results of the S·O·S analysis
Oil consumption is in proportion to the percentage
of the rated engine load. As the percentage of the
engine load is increased, the amount of oil that is
consumed per hour also increases.
15000 Service Hours
Service Hours and Fuel Consumption for
C32 Generator set(1)
• The operating conditions
Oil consumption, fuel consumption, and maintenance
information can be used to estimate the total
operating cost for your Caterpillar engine. Oil
consumption can also be used to estimate the
required capacity of a makeup oil tank that is suitable
for the maintenance intervals.
804399 L (212500 US gal)
Table 14
• The quality of the fuel that is being used
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul
Indicator
7500 Service Hours
Major
Overhaul
(1)
7500 Service Hours
946360 L (250000 US gal)
15000 Service Hours
1892700 L (500000 US gal)
Fuel consumption is based on a load factor of approximately
60 percent.
Table 15
Equation For Calculating Overhaul Intervals
F/R = H
“F” is the estimated total amount of fuel consumption of
the engine.
“R” is the rate of fuel consumption in liters per hour or
gallons per hour.
“H” is the number of estimated hours until the overhaul
interval.
SEBU8088-07
Use the actual records of fuel consumption, when
possible. If the actual records are not available, use
the following procedure in order to estimate the fuel
consumption.
1. Estimate the average percent of the load for the
operation of the engine.
2. Refer to the data for fuel consumption in the
Technical Marketing Information (TMI) for your
engine. This will determine the fuel consumption
for the percent of the load that was estimated
in Step 1. Use this figure as variable “F” for the
equation in Table 15. For more information about
the Technical Marketing Information (TMI) for your
engine, consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Before Failure Overhaul
A planned overhaul before failure may be the best
value for the following reasons:
• Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided.
• Many original parts can be reused according to the
standards for reusable parts.
• The engine service life can be extended without the
risk of a major catastrophe due to engine failure.
• The best cost/value relationship per hour of
extended life can be attained.
After Failure Overhaul
If a major engine failure occurs and the engine
must be removed, many options are available. An
overhaul should be performed if the engine block or
the crankshaft needs to be repaired.
If the engine block is repairable and/or the crankshaft
is repairable, the overhaul cost should be between 40
percent and 50 percent of the cost of a new engine
with a similar exchange core.
115
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
Note: Overhaul programs vary according to the
engine application and according to the dealer that
performs the overhaul. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for specific information about the available
overhaul programs and about overhaul services for
extending the engine life.
If an overhaul is performed without overhaul service
from your Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the following
maintenance recommendations.
Unit Fuel Injector
Clean the fuel injector body and replace the O-rings.
Replace the O-rings and the gasket on the injector
sleeve. Clean the area around the injector seating
in the injector sleeve. Refer to the Service Manual
for the complete procedure, or consult with your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
Rebuild or Exchange
Cylinder Head Assembly, Connecting Rods,
Pistons, Cylinder Liners, Turbocharger, Cylinder
Packs, Oil Pump, and Fuel Transfer Pump
These components should be inspected according to
the instructions that are found in various Caterpillar
reusability publications. The Special Publication,
SEBF8029 lists the reusability publications that are
needed for inspecting the engine parts.
If the parts comply with the established inspection
specifications that are expressed in the reusable
parts guideline, the parts should be reused.
Parts that are not within the established inspection
specifications should be dealt with in one of the
following manners:
• Salvaging
• Repairing
This lower cost can be attributed to three aspects:
• Replacing
• Specially designed Caterpillar engine features
Using out-of-spec parts can result in the following
problems:
• Caterpillar dealer exchange components
• Caterpillar Inc. remanufactured exchange
components
Overhaul Recommendation
To minimize downtime, a scheduled engine overhaul
by your Caterpillar dealer is recommended. This will
provide you with the best cost/value relationship.
• Unscheduled downtime
• Costly repairs
• Damage to other engine parts
• Reduced engine efficiency
• Increased fuel consumption
116
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations
Reduced engine efficiency and increased fuel
consumption translates into higher operating costs.
Therefore, Caterpillar Inc. recommends repairing
out-of-spec parts or replacing out-of-spec parts.
Inspection and/or Replacement
Piston Rings, Crankshaft Bearings, Valve
Rotators, and Crankshaft Seals
The following components may not last until the
second overhaul.
• Thrust bearings
• Main bearings
• Rod bearings
• Valve rotators
• Crankshaft seals
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the installation of new
parts at each overhaul period.
Inspect these parts while the engine is disassembled
for an overhaul.
Inspect the crankshaft for any of the following
conditions:
• Deflection
SEBU8088-07
• Camshaft bearings
• Camshaft followers
Caterpillar Inc. recommends replacing the crankshaft
vibration damper.
Oil Cooler Core and Aftercooler Core
During an overhaul, the removal of the oil cooler
core and the aftercooler core is recommended. The
oil cooler core and the aftercooler core should be
cleaned and pressure tested.
NOTICE
Do not use caustic cleaners to clean the core.
Caustic cleaners can attack the internal metals of the
core and cause leakage.
Note: Use this cleaning procedure to clean the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core.
1. Remove the oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core.
2. Remove any debris from the oil cooler core and
the aftercooler core. To remove debris from the oil
cooler core, turn the oil cooler core onto one end.
To remove debris from the aftercooler core, turn
the aftercooler core upside-down.
• Bearing material that has seized to the journals
3. Flush the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
internally with cleaner in order to loosen foreign
substances. This will also help to remove oil from
the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core.
Check the journal taper and the profile of the
crankshaft journals. Check these components by
interpreting the wear patterns on the following
components:
Note: The use of Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners is
recommended. Table 16 lists the Hydrosolv Liquid
Cleaners that are available from your Caterpillar
dealer.
• Rod bearing
Table 16
• Damage to the journals
Hydrosolv Liquid Cleaners(1)
• Main bearings
Note: If the crankshaft is removed for any reason,
use the magnetic particle inspection process to check
for cracks in the crankshaft.
Inspect the camshaft for damage to the journals and
to the lobes.
Note: If the camshaft is removed for any reason, use
the magnetic particle inspection process to check for
cracks in the camshaft.
Inspect the following components for signs of wear or
for signs of scuffing:
Part
Number
Description
1U-5490
Hydrosolv 4165
19 L (5 US gallon)
174-6854
Hydrosolv 100
19 L (5 US gallon)
(1)
Size
Use a two to five percent concentration of the cleaner
at temperatures up to 93°C (200°F). Refer to Application
Guide, NEHS0526 or consult your Caterpillar dealer for more
information.
4. Use steam to clean the oil cooler core and the
aftercooler core. This removes any remaining
residue from the cleaner. Flush the fins of the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core. Remove any
other trapped debris.
SEBU8088-07
5. Wash the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
with hot, soapy water. Rinse the oil cooler core and
the aftercooler core thoroughly with clean water.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
6. Dry the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core
with compressed air. Direct the air in the reverse
direction of the normal flow.
7. Inspect the components in order to ensure
cleanliness. The oil cooler core and the aftercooler
core should be pressure tested. Repair the oil
cooler core and the aftercooler core, if necessary.
Install the oil cooler core and the aftercooler core.
For more information about cleaning the cores,
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Obtain Coolant Analysis
117
Maintenance Section
Power Factor - Check
• Identification of contaminants
• Identification of built up impurities (corrosion and
scale)
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides a report of
the results of both the analysis and the maintenance
recommendations.
For more information about coolant analysis, consult
your Caterpillar dealer.
i01216962
Power Factor - Check
SMCS Code: 4450-535-PWR
The power factor of a system can be determined by
a power factor meter or by calculations. The power
factor can be calculated by dividing kW by kVA.
Power factor is expressed as a decimal.
i02569617
Prelube Pump - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1319-040
Inspect the prelube pump for the following conditions:
The concentration of supplemental coolant additive
(SCA) should be checked regularly with test kits
or with S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 1). Further
coolant analysis is recommended when the engine
is overhauled.
• Cracks
A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to verify
the condition of the water that is being used in the
cooling system. A full water analysis can be obtained
by consulting your local water utility company or
an agricultural agent. Private laboratories are also
available for water analysis.
• Wear
Caterpillar Inc. recommends an S·O·S Coolant
Analysis (Level 2).
S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) is a
comprehensive coolant analysis which completely
analyzes the coolant and the effects on the cooling
system. An S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2) provides
the following information:
• Complete S·O·S Coolant Analysis (Level 2)
• Visual inspection of properties
• Identification of metal corrosion
• Pin holes
• Proper operation
If repair or replacement is necessary, see the
literature that is provided by the OEM of the pump.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
i02559063
Radiator - Clean
SMCS Code: 1353-070
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
118
Maintenance Section
Rotating Rectifier - Check
SEBU8088-07
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Testing a Three-Diode Rectifier
Block
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
of the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the
air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This will remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Illustration 70
g00610240
Illustration 71
g00613971
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
For more detailed information on cleaning and
inspection, refer to Special Publication, SEBD0518,
“Know Your Cooling System”.
i02246950
Rotating Rectifier - Check
SMCS Code: 4465-535
Check the exciter armature. Ensure that the rotating
rectifier is tight. If a failure of a rectifier is suspected,
proceed to the “Testing a Three-Diode Rectifier
Block” section.
Three-Diode Rectifier Block (two pieces)
The following procedure tests all three diodes within
a block. Check the positive rectifier block and the
negative rectifier block. If any meter reading does not
fall within the given ranges, replace the rectifier block.
1. Set the digital multimeter on the diode range.
Remove all leads from the rectifier block.
2. To test the negative rectifier block, follow these
steps:
SEBU8088-07
119
Maintenance Section
Space Heater - Check
a. Place the red test lead on the negative “-”
terminal. Place the black test lead on the
following rectifier terminals: “AC1”(3), “AC2”(4),
and “AC3”(5). All readings on the meter should
be between 0.4 and 1.0.
b. Place the black test lead on the negative
“-” terminal. Place the red test lead on the
following rectifier terminals: “AC1”(3), “AC2”(4),
and “AC3”(5). In all cases, the meter should
read “OL” (overload).
3. To test the positive rectifier block, follow these
steps:
a. Place the red test lead on the positive “+”
rectifier terminal. Place the black test lead
on the following rectifier terminals: “AC1”(3),
“AC2”(4), and “AC3”(5). In all cases, the meter
should read “OL” (overload).
b. Place the black test lead on the positive “+”
rectifier terminal. Place the red test lead on the
following rectifier terminals: “AC1”(3), “AC2”(4),
and “AC3”(5). All readings on the meter should
be between 0.4 and 1.0.
Note: A shorted diode can cause damage to the
exciter rotor. If a diode is shorted, check the exciter
rotor. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting, “Winding Test” and Testing and Adjusting, “Insulation - Test”.
Perform these tests.
Note: This rectifier block also contains varistor “CR7”.
“CR7” can be checked by measuring the resistance
between the positive “+” rectifier terminal and the
negative “-” rectifier terminal. The resistance should
be a minimum of 15000.
i02985289
Illustration 72
g00610396
Space Heater Connection Diagram
An SR5 generator can operate in high humidity
conditions without problems. The humidity can be as
high as 100% non-condensing humidity. However,
problems can occur when the generator is idle and
the surrounding air is warmer than the generator.
Moisture can form on the windings. Moisture will
result in poor performance or even damage to the
windings. Whenever the generator is not active, the
optional space heaters should be operated.
An external source is required to operate the space
heaters. Both of the sources must be a single phase.
This source can be either 115 vac or 230 vac. When
the external source is 50 hertz, 200 vac must be
used. Refer to Illustration 72.
See your Caterpillar dealer for information on
checking your Caterpillar generator.
i02627547
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect
Space Heater - Check
SMCS Code: 1907-040; 1907-070
SMCS Code: 4450-535-HTR
The C32 Generator Set has three different speed
sensors.
The space heater is attached to the rear bearing
bracket. The space heater is located in the
generator's exciter end.
120
Maintenance Section
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect
SEBU8088-07
Illustration 75
g01184155
1. Remove the sensor. Inspect the condition of the
end of the magnet. Look for signs of wear and
contaminants.
2. Clean any debris from the face of the magnet.
3. Check the tension of the sliphead. Gently extend
sliphead (4) for a minimum of 4 mm (0.16 inch).
Then push back the sliphead.
Illustration 73
g01184074
One speed/timing sensor (1) is mounted in the
camshaft cover. A second speed/timing sensor (2) is
mounted in the front housing. Both of these sensors
are pulled into position by a bolt.
1. Remove the speed/timing sensors from the front
housing. Check the condition of the plastic end
of the speed/timing sensors for wear and/or
contaminants.
2. Clean the metal shavings and other debris from
the face of the speed/timing sensors. Use the
procedure in the Service Manual in order to
calibrate the speed/timing sensors.
When the sliphead has the correct tension, at
least 22 N (5 lb) of force is required to push in the
sliphead from the extended position.
NOTICE
The sliphead must be fully extended when the speed/
timing sensor is installed so that the sensor maintains
the correct clearance with the speed-timing wheel.
If the correct clearance is not maintained, the signal
from the sensor will not be generated.
Do not install the sensor between the teeth of the
speed-timing wheel. Damage to the sensor would result. Before installing the sensor, ensure that a tooth
of the wheel is visible in the mounting hole for the sensor.
4. Install the engine speed/timing sensor.
a. Ensure that a tooth on the speed-timing wheel
is visible in the mounting hole for the sensor.
b. Extend sliphead (2) by a minimum of 4 mm
(0.16 inch).
c. Coat the threads of the sensor with 4C-5597
Anti-Seize Compound.
Illustration 74
g01184093
The third speed/timing sensor has a threaded end,
and screws directly into the flywheel housing.
Note: The sliphead is designed to contact a tooth
during the first revolution of the speed-timing wheel.
For the maximum allowable clearance between
the sliphead and the tooth, refer to the engine's
Specifications manual.
d. Install the sensor. Tighten the sensor to
40 ± 5 N·m (30 ± 4 lb ft).
SEBU8088-07
121
Maintenance Section
Standby Generator Set Maintenance Recommendations
i03108463
Standby Generator
Set Maintenance
Recommendations
SMCS Code: 4450-041
Maintenance and Repair
The maintenance that is recommended for Every
Week can be performed by an authorized operator.
The maintenance that is recommended for the
subsequent maintenance intervals must be
performed by an authorized service technician or by
your Caterpillar dealer.
A standby generator set may not need to be used
very often. However, the generator set is usually
needed for operation in an emergency situation.
Maintenance of the standby generator set is very
important for the following reasons:
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
maintenance and repairs under the following
conditions:
• The generator set must always be in excellent
• The starting system is disabled.
operating condition.
• The generator set must be ready to work under
load at any time.
Establishing a Preventive Maintenance Program will
provide these benefits:
• Maximum availability of the standby generator set
• Longer service life for the generator set
• Minimum of expensive repairs
• The engine is stopped.
• The generator does not pose an electrical shock
hazard.
• The generator is disconnected from the load.
Operation
To ensure proper operation, the generator set must be
exercised regularly. For instructions on operating the
generator set, see the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the generator set control panel.
Your Caterpillar dealer can help you to establish an
effective Preventive Maintenance Program for your
generator set. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
details.
For these operation procedures, follow the
instructions that are provided in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Operation Section”: starting
the engine, engine operation, and stopping the
engine.
Maintenance and Operation
Procedures
Record Keeping
The high voltage that is produced by an operating
generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
ensure that the generator will not start.
Place the engine control switch in the “OFF” position. Attach “DO NOT OPERATE” tags to all starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
with the generator.
The recommended maintenance for the generator set
is listed in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby Generator
Sets)” (Maintenance Section).
Maintain a record in order to document these items:
gauge readings, maintenance that is performed,
problems, and repairs.
Space Heaters
Moisture causes damage to generators and other
electrical equipment. Make every effort to keep the
generator set as dry as possible.
Generators can operate without problems in humid
environments. However, problems can occur when
the generator is inactive. Moisture can condense on
the windings. This can result in poor performance.
Also, damage to the windings can occur.
Use space heaters in order to help keep the windings
dry. When the generator is not active, ensure that the
space heaters are operating. When the generator is
operating, turn OFF the space heaters.
122
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
SEBU8088-07
i02618737
Starting Motor - Inspect
(If equipped)
SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
Air Starting Motor
If the starting motor fails, the engine may not start in
an emergency situation. A scheduled inspection of
the starting motor is recommended.
The starting motor pinion and the flywheel ring gear
must be in good condition in order for the engine
to start properly. The engine will not start if the
starting motor pinion does not engage the flywheel
ring gear. The teeth of the starting motor pinion and
the flywheel ring gear can be damaged because of
irregular engagement.
Inspect the starting motor for proper operation. Listen
for grinding when the engine is started. Inspect the
teeth of the starting motor pinion and the flywheel
ring gear. Look for patterns of wear on the teeth. Look
for teeth that are broken or chipped. If damaged teeth
are found, the starting motor pinion and the flywheel
ring gear must be replaced.
The starting motor pinion and the flywheel ring gear
must be in good condition in order for the engine
to start properly. The engine will not start if the
starting motor pinion does not engage the flywheel
ring gear. The teeth of the starting motor pinion and
the flywheel ring gear can be damaged because of
irregular engagement.
Inspect the starting motor for proper operation. Listen
for grinding when the engine is started. Inspect the
teeth of the starting motor pinion and the flywheel
ring gear. Look for patterns of wear on the teeth. Look
for teeth that are broken or chipped. If damaged teeth
are found, the starting motor pinion and the flywheel
ring gear must be replaced.
Problems with the electric starting motor can be
caused by the following conditions: malfunction of
the solenoid and malfunction of the electric starting
system.
Inspect the electrical system for the following
conditions:
• Loose connections
• Corrosion
• Wires that are worn or frayed
• Cleanliness
Personal injury or death can result from improperly checking for a leak.
Removal and Installation of the
Starting Motor
Always use a board or cardboard when checking
for a leak. Escaping air or fluid under pressure,
even a pin-hole size leak, can penetrate body tissue causing serious injury, and possible death.
Refer to the Service Manual, “Disassembly and
Assembly” module for information on removing the
starting motor and installing the starting motor.
If fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated
immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of
injury.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance and/or
for options on replacement of the starting motor.
i03230840
Inspect all of the components in the air circuit for
the starting motor. Inspect all of the air lines and
connections for leaks.
Stator Lead - Check
If damaged teeth are found, the air circuit for
the starting motor must be examined in order to
determine the cause of the problem.
Ensure that the stator output leads are routed out of
the generator in a manner that prevents the leads
from rubbing against metal objects.
Electric Starting Motor
Visually inspect the following areas for cracking and
physical damage:
If the starting motor fails, the engine may not start in
an emergency situation. A scheduled inspection of
the starting motor is recommended.
SMCS Code: 4459-535
• stator output leads
• protective sleeving
• insulation
SEBU8088-07
123
Maintenance Section
Stator Winding Temperature - Measure/Record
i03086301
Stator Winding Temperature Measure/Record
SMCS Code: 4453-082-TA
Some generators are equipped with optional 100
Ohm Resistance Temperature Detectors(RTD) that
are mounted in slots of the main stator. When the
generator set is equipped with RTD modules that
are interfaced to an EMCP 3.2 or EMCP 3.3, the
RTD modules can be interfaced in order to measure
the temperature of the stator. Alternately, there are
measuring devices in the open market that can be
interfaced with the RTD. Caterpillar recommends the
continuous monitoring of the RTD.
Refer to the specifications in table 17 for the
maximum temperatures of the setpoints.
Table 17
Maximum Recommended Temperatures
for the Setpoint(1)
Generator set
application
Alarm
Shutdown
Standby
180 °C
(356 °F)
190 °C
(374 °F)
Continuous
155 °C
(311 °F)
165 °C
(329 °F)
(1)
If the trend of the operating temperature of the main stator
is measured and the temperature is much lower than the
recommended setpoints, adjust the alarm setpoint and the
shutdown setpoint to a lower value in order to ensure that
unusual temperature variances are recognized promptly.
i01539769
Turbocharger - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1052-040
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
for the turbocharger compressor housing (inlet side).
Any fumes from the crankcase are filtered through
the air inlet system. Therefore, by-products from oil
and from combustion can collect in the turbocharger
compressor housing. Over time, this buildup can
contribute to loss of engine power, increased black
smoke and overall loss of engine efficiency.
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. An inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Note: Turbocharger components require precision
clearances. The turbocharger cartridge must
be balanced due to high rpm. Severe Service
Applications can accelerate component wear.
Severe Service Applications require more frequent
inspections of the cartridge.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, repair
and replacement, consult your Caterpillar dealer.
Refer to the Service Manual for this engine for the
procedure and specifications.
Cleaning and Inspecting
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil. Clean
the interior of the pipes in order to prevent dirt
from entering during reassembly.
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger must be reconditioned.
124
Maintenance Section
Varistor - Test
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the blade side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
SEBU8088-07
i01494879
Varistor - Test
SMCS Code: 4466-081
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the inlet air (plugged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
4. Use a dial indicator to check the end clearance
on the shaft. If the measured end play is greater
than the Service Manual specifications, the
turbocharger should be repaired or replaced.
An end play measurement that is less than the
minimum Service Manual specifications could
indicate carbon buildup on the turbine wheel. The
turbocharger should be disassembled for cleaning
and for inspection if the measured end play is less
than the minimum Service Manual specifications.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion.
6. Clean the turbocharger housing with standard
shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
Illustration 76
g00677004
PMPE Generator Wiring Diagram
(CR1-CR6) Diodes
(CR7) Varistor
(L1) Exciter field (stator)
(L2) Exciter armature (rotor)
(L3) Main field (rotor)
(L4) Main armature (stator)
(L5) Pilot exciter armature
(PM) Permanent magnet
(RFA) Rotating field assembly
(CST) Customer supplied transformer
Ohmmeter
An ohmmeter can be used to check a varistor
(CR7). Place an ohmmeter across the varistor. The
resistance should be a minimum of 15000 ohms. If
the resistance is less than 15000 ohms, the varistor
is faulty.
SEBU8088-07
125
Maintenance Section
Voltage and Frequency - Check
Test Light
i02591373
Walk-Around Inspection
SMCS Code: 1000-040
Personal injury or death can result from improper
troubleshooting and repair procedures.
The following troubleshooting and repair procedures should only be performed by qualified personnel familiar with this equipment.
Illustration 77
g00555113
Test Light
Refer to the test light that is shown in Illustration 77.
Follow these steps in order to test the varistor:
1. Disconnect either lead of the varistor (CR7).
2. Place the test light across the varistor.
3. Observe the results. The lamp should not light.
4. Reverse the test light.
5. Observe the results. The lamp should not light.
If the test light illuminates in either direction, there is
a short in the varistor. Replace any faulty varistors
with varistors that have comparable operating
characteristics. Include the following information
when a varistor is being ordered for replacement:
• Part number of the varistor
• Serial number of the generator
After the varistor has been replaced, verify that the
strapping of the field winding lead is securely wound
on the shaft. Also, verify that the strapping of the field
winding lead is securely tied.
i01491868
Voltage and Frequency - Check
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning
or high pressure water.
SMCS Code: 4450-535-EL
• Ensure that cooling lines are properly clamped.
Check for the proper voltage setting and check for
the proper frequency setting. Check for stability.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
For the correct voltage and frequency, refer to the
generator set's Serial Plate.
Check for leaks. Check the condition of all pipes.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
in the cooling system. It is normal for a small amount
of leakage to occur as the engine cools down and
the parts contract.
126
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For the removal of
water pump and the installation of water pump and/or
seals, refer to the Service Manual for the engine or
consult your Caterpillar dealer.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the valve cover.
• Inspect the Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV)
filter, if equipped. If the restriction indicator is
visible, service the CCV.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps.
• Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps.
• Inspect the alternator belt and the accessory drive
belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
• Drain the water and the sediment from fuel tanks
on a daily basis in order to ensure that only clean
fuel enters the fuel system.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
for good condition.
• Inspect the engine-to-frame ground strap for a
good connection and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.
SEBU8088-07
A visual inspection should be initially directed at
the areas that are most prone to damage and
deterioration. The most prone areas to damage and
deterioration are listed below:
Ground insulation – Ground insulation is insulation
that is intended to isolate components that are
carrying current from components that are not
carrying current.
Support insulation – Support insulation is usually
made from one of the following items: a compressed
lamination of fibrous materials, polyester, or felt pads
that have been impregnated with various types of
bonding agents.
There are many different types of damage that can
occur in these areas. Several of the different types of
damage are listed below:
Thermal aging – Thermal aging can cause the
degradation of insulation or the deterioration of
insulation. An examination of the coils may reveal
that the insulation has expanded into the ventilation
ducts. This is the result of a loss of bond which
will cause the insulation material to separate. The
insulation material could also separate from the
conductors on the windings.
Abrasion – The surfaces of coils and the surfaces
of connectors may be damaged by abrasion. These
surfaces may also be damaged by contamination
from other sources. An example of these sources
would be chemicals or abrasive substances.
Cracking – Cracking of insulation may result from
mechanical stress. The structure that is used to brace
the stator winding will become loose if the problem
is not corrected. Further mechanical damage or
electrical damage may also result.
Erosion – Erosion can be caused when foreign
substances rub against the insulation that is on the
surface of the coil .
i01057943
Water Pump - Inspect
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
SMCS Code: 1361-040
Inspect the Generator
A failed water pump might cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauges that
can not be calibrated.
Refer to Safety Section, “Generator Isolating for
Maintenance” for information regarding the procedure
to safely isolate the generator.
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
SEBU8088-07
127
Maintenance Section
Winding - Test
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If any
leaking is observed, replace the water pump seal
or the water pump assembly. Refer to the Service
Manual for the disassembly and assembly procedure.
Table 18
Tools Needed
Note: Refer to the Service Manual or consult your
Caterpillar dealer if any repair is needed or any
replacement is needed.
i02903565
Winding - Test
SMCS Code: 4453-081; 4454-081; 4457-081;
4470-081
(1)
Part Number
Part(1)
Quantity
6V-7070
Digital
Multimeter
1
146-4080
Digital
Multimeter
(RS232)
1
Only one multimeter is necessary for this test. Either of the
multimeters that are shown will work.
The high voltage that is produced by an operating
generator set can cause severe injury or death.
Before performing any maintenance or repairs,
ensure that the generator will not start.
Place the engine control switch in the “OFF” position. Attach “DO NOT OPERATE” tags to all starting controls. Disconnect the batteries or disable
the starting system. Lock out all switchgear and
automatic transfer switches that are associated
with the generator.
Measure the resistance of the following windings:
(L1), (L2), (L3), (L4), and (L5). The winding that
is being tested must be disconnected from the
other components before the resistance can be
measured. The following resistance measurements
are approximations. If the measured value is
not near the listed approximation, the winding is
probably damaged. For a more precise resistance
value, consult the Technical Marketing Information
(TMI). Refer to the generator arrangement that is in
question.
Illustration 78
PMPE generator wiring diagram
(1) Voltage regulator and/or related components
(CR1) Diode
(CR2) Diode
(CR3) Diode
(CR4) Diode
(CR5) Diode
(CR6) Diode
(CR7) Varistor
(L1) Exciter field (stator)
(L2) Exciter armature (rotor)
(L3) Main field (rotor)
(L4) Main armature (stator)
(L5) Pilot exciter armature
(PM) Permanent magnet
(RFA) Rotating field assembly
(CST) Customer supplied transformer
g01445763
Note: The winding temperature affects the
resistance. When the winding temperature increases,
the winding resistance also increases. When
the winding temperature decreases, the winding
resistance also decreases. Therefore, a correct
measurement can be performed only when the
winding is at room temperature.
The following armature windings have very little
resistance: (L2), (L4), and (L5). The resistance of
these windings will measure near 0 ohms. Use a
milliohmmeter to measure the resistance of the
armature windings.
Exciter armature (rotor) – less than 0.1 ohm
Main armature (stator) – less than 0.1 ohm
Pilot exciter armature (L5) – less than 0.1 ohm
Use a multimeter in order to measure the resistance
of field windings (L1) and (L3).
128
Maintenance Section
Winding - Test
Exciter field (stator) (L1) – approximately 3.0 ohms
to 6.0 ohms
Main field (rotor) (L3) – approximately 1.25 ohms
to 2.0 ohms
Note: There should be no continuity between any
winding and ground. There should be no continuity
between any winding and another winding.
SEBU8088-07
SEBU8088-07
129
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
Reference Information
Section
i01250210
Engine Rating Definitions
SMCS Code: 1000
Engine Ratings
i00727327
Engine Rating Conditions
SMCS Code: 1000
All engine ratings are in compliance with the following
standard ambient air conditions of “SAE J1349”:
• 99 kPa (29.3 inches of Hg)
• 30 percent relative humidity
The ratings must be reduced in order to accommodate
changes in the altitude. The ratings must be reduced
according to the data for derating that is obtained
from the test specification for the engine.
All of the ratings that are defined have a
manufacturing tolerance of ± three percent.
Use the following guidelines in order to determine the
applicable engine rating.
NOTICE
Operating an engine at a greater power output than
the engine is rated for will reduce the service life of
the engine before overhaul.
• A temperature of 25 °C (77 °F)
Ratings relate to the standard conditions of
“ISO8665”, of “ISO3046/1”, of “DIN6271”, and of
“BS5514”.
The engine ratings are based on the following fuel
specifications:
• Low heat value (LHV) of the fuel of 42 780 kJ/kg
(18,390 Btu/lb) at 29 °C (84 °F)
• Gravity (API) of 35 degrees at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Specific gravity of .849 at 15 °C (60 °F)
• Density of 850 kg/m3 (7.085 lb/US gal)
The engine ratings are gross output ratings.
Gross Output Ratings – The total output capability
of the engine that is equipped with standard
accessories.
Standard accessories include the following
components:
• Oil pumps
• Fuel pumps
• Water pumps
Subtract the power that is required to drive auxiliary
components from the gross output. This will produce
the net power that is available for the external load
(flywheel).
Ratings for Generator Set Engines
Load Factor – The sum of the loads divided by the
number of hours of operation. Idle time and down
time are not part of the calculation.
Power Interruption – Unexpected failure of the
utility power supply.
Operating Cycle – Unless the operating cycle
is specified differently, the operating cycle for
calculating the load factors and the peak load limits is
not to exceed 24 hours. The operating cycle does not
include the time when the engine is not operating.
Continuous – This rating allows a constant load
or a load that varies for an unlimited number of
hours per year. The normal load factor is up to 100
percent for an unlimited number of hours per year.
The following applications are suggested: base load,
utility, cogeneration, and parallel operation.
Prime – This rating allows a load that varies for an
unlimited number of hours per year. The normal load
factor is up to 80 percent for an unlimited number of
hours per year. A 100 percent load is only allowed
for 5 percent of the operating cycle. The following
applications are suggested: industrial, pumping,
construction, and cogeneration.
130
Reference Information Section
Engine Ratings
Prime + 10% (Standby applications for a power
supply from a reliable utility) – This rating allows a
load that varies up to the Prime rating. An additional
ten percent is allowed for the duration of the power
interruption. The normal load factor is up to 80
percent for 100 hours per year. A 100 percent load
is only allowed for 5 percent of the operating cycle.
The suggested application is Standby for a power
supply from a reliable utility.
SEBU8088-07
Curtailable (Connected to a utility with a
Continuous base rating for load factors) – This
rating allows a constant load or a load that varies for
more than six hours per day. The normal load factor
is up to 100 percent for an unlimited number of hours
per year. The peak load factor is up to 100 percent
for an unlimited number of hours per year.
Industrial Engine Ratings
Prime + 10% (Applications that are industrial,
pumping, construction, and cogeneration) – This
rating allows a load that varies up to the Prime rating.
The normal load factor is up to 80 percent for an
unlimited number of hours per year. A load of 100
percent is only allowed for 5 percent of the operating
cycle. The following applications are suggested:
industrial, pumping, construction, and cogeneration.
“IND A” (Continuous) – This rating allows operation
at the engine's rated load and speed for 100 percent
of the time without interruption or load cycling. The
engine may be operated at full load for 100 percent of
the duty cycle. The following applications are typical:
pipeline pumping, ventilation, and applications that
are specified by the customer.
Standby – This rating allows a load that varies for
the duration of the power interruption. The normal
load factor is up to 80 percent for 100 hours per year.
A 100 percent load is only allowed for 5 percent of
the operating cycle. The suggested application is
Standby for a power supply from a reliable utility.
“IND B” – This rating is for service with power
and/or speed that is cyclic. The time at full load is not
to exceed 80 percent of the duty cycle. The following
applications are typical: irrigation with a normal pump
demand that is 85 percent of the engine rating,
mechanical pumping and/or drilling in an oil field, and
stationary plant air compressors.
Load Management Peak Shaving Rating
Guidelines
Interruptable (Isolated from the utility with a
Standby base rating for load factors) – This rating
allows a load that varies for less than 12 hours per
day. The typical peak load factor is up to 80 percent
for less than 500 hours per year. The peak operating
limit is a load factor up to 100 percent. A 100 percent
load is only allowed for 5 percent of the operating
cycle. The operating cycle for calculating the load
factors and the peak load limits is not to exceed six
hours. The operating cycle does not include the time
when the engine is not operating.
Interruptable (Isolated from the utility with a
Prime base rating for load factors) – This rating
allows a load that varies for more than 12 hours per
day. The typical peak load factor is up to 80 percent
for an unlimited number of hours per year. The peak
operating limit is a load factor up to 100 percent. A
100 percent load is only allowed for 5 percent of the
operating cycle.
Curtailable (Connected to a utility with a special
base rating for load factors) – This rating allows a
constant load or a load that varies for less than six
hours per day. The typical peak load factor is up to
100 percent for a maximum of 500 hours per year.
The peak operating limit is up to 100 percent load for
a maximum of 500 hours per year.
“IND C” (Intermittent) – This rating is for service
with power and/or speed that is cyclic. The engine
can be operated continuously for one hour at the “C”.
This is followed by one hour of operation at the “A”
rating or below the “A” rating. Continuous power may
be supplied by engines with the “C” rating. However,
full load operation is not to exceed 50 percent
of the duty cycle. The following applications are
typical: agricultural tractors, harvesters, combines,
off-highway trucks, power for fire pumps, drilling for
blast holes, rock crushers with high torque rise, wood
chippers with high torque rise, and oil field hoisting.
SEBU8088-07
131
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
Customer Service
i03201484
Customer Assistance
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
USA and Canada
When a problem arises concerning the operation of
an engine or concerning the service of an engine,
the problem will normally be managed by the dealer
in your area.
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar
and to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem that
has not been handled to your complete satisfaction,
follow these steps:
1. Discuss your problem with a manager from the
dealership.
2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealer
level without additional assistance, use the phone
number that is listed below to talk with a Field
Service Coordinator:
1-800-447-4986
The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Monday
through Friday Central Standard Time.
3. If your needs have not been met still, submit the
matter in writing to the following address:
Caterpillar Inc.
Marine Center of Excellence
Manager, Customer Service
111 Southchase Blvd
Fountain Inn, SC 29644
Please keep in mind: probably, your problem will
ultimately be solved at the dealership, using the
dealership's facilities, equipment, and personnel.
Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when a
problem is experienced.
Outside of the USA and of Canada
If a problem arises outside the USA and outside
Canada, and if the problem cannot be resolved at the
dealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar office.
Latin America, Mexico, Carribean
Caterpillar Americas Co.
701 Waterford Way, Suite 200
Miami, FL 33126-4670
USA
Phone: 305-476-6800
Fax: 305-476-6801
Europe, Africa, and Middle East
Caterpillar Overseas S.A.
76 Route de Frontenex
P.O. Box 6000
CH-1211 Geneva 6
Switzerland
Phone: 22-849-4444
Fax: 22-849-4544
Far East
Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.
7 Tractor Road
Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Phone: 65-662-8333
Fax: 65-662-8302
China
Caterpillar China Ltd.
37/F., The Lee Gardens
33 Hysan Avenue
Causeway Bay
G.P.O. Box 3069
Hong Kong
Phone: 852-2848-0333
Fax: 852-2848-0440
Japan
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.
SBS Tower
10-1, Yoga 4-Chome
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530
Japan
Phone: 81-3-5717-1150
Fax: 81-3-5717-1177
Japan
Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
SBS Tower (14th floor)
4-10-1, Yoga
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0097
Phone: 81-3-5797-4300
Fax: 81-3-5797-4359
Australia and New Zealand
Caterpillar of Australia Ltd.
1 Caterpillar Drive
Private Mail Bag 4
Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
Australia
Phone: 03-9953-9333
Fax: 03-9335-3366
132
Reference Information Section
Customer Service
SEBU8088-07
i01028392
Ordering Replacement Parts
SMCS Code: 4450; 7567
When replacement parts are required for this
product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar
replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available
from Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.
Caterpillar dealers' parts inventories are up-to-date.
The parts stocks include all of the parts that are
normally needed to protect your Caterpillar engine
investment.
When you order parts, please specify the following
information:
• Part number
• Part name
• Quantity
If there is a question concerning the part number,
please provide your dealer with a complete
description of the needed item.
When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenance
and/or repair, provide the dealer with all the
information that is stamped on the Information Plate.
This information is described in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual (Product Information Section).
Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform the
dealer about the conditions of the problem and the
nature of the problem. Inform the dealer about when
the problem occurs. This will help the dealer in
troubleshooting the problem and solving the problem
faster.
SEBU8088-07
133
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Reference Materials
• Maintenance log
i00912149
Maintenance Records
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention of accurate
maintenance records. Accurate maintenance records
can be used for the following purposes:
• Determine operating costs.
• Establish maintenance schedules for other engines
that are operated in the same environment.
• Show compliance with the required maintenance
practices and maintenance intervals.
Maintenance records can be used for a variety of
other business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.
Maintenance records are a key element of a
maintenance program that is well managed. Accurate
maintenance records can help your Caterpillar dealer
to fine tune the recommended maintenance intervals
in order to meet the specific operating situation. This
should result in a lower engine operating cost.
Records should be kept for the following items:
Fuel Consumption – A record of fuel consumption
is essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines overhaul
intervals.
Service Hours – A record of service hours is
essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.
Documents – These items should be easy to
obtain, and these items should be kept in the engine
history file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number, and engine serial number. The following
types of documents should be kept as proof of
maintenance or repair for warranty:
Keep the following types of documents as proof of
maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:
• Dealer work orders and itemized bills
• Owner's repair costs
• Owner's receipts
134
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
SEBU8088-07
i01176304
Maintenance Log
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Table 19
Engine Model
Customer Identifier
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Service
Hours
Quantity
Of Fuel
Service Item
Date
Authorization
SEBU8088-07
135
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
i02413905
Reference Material
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”
Coolants
The following publications can be obtained from any
Caterpillar dealer.
• Data Sheet, PEHJ0067, “Cat ELC (Extended Life
Lubricants
• Special Publication, PELJ0176, “Cat ELC
• Special Publication, PELJ0179, “Caterpillar Engine
Crankcase Fluid-1 Specifications (Cat ECF-1)” All
international markets
• Data Sheet, PEHJ0008, “Cat Arctic DEO (SAE
0W-30)” Canada and the United States
• Data Sheet, PEHJ0021, “Cat DEO (SAE 10W-30
and SAE 15W-40)” Worldwide except North
America, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Brazil
• Data Sheet, PEHJ0059, “Cat DEO (SAE 10W-30
and SAE 15W-40)” Canada, Mexico, and the
United States
• Data Sheet, PEHP7062, “Cat DEO SYN (SAE
5W-40)”
• Special Publication, PEHP6001, “How To Take A
Good Oil Sample”
• Special Publication, PEDP7036, “S·O·S Fluid
Analysis”
• Data Sheet, PEHJ0088, “Cat Multipurpose Grease”
(NLGI grade 2)
• Data Sheet, PEHP0002, “Cat Advanced 3Moly
Grease” (NLGI grade 2)
• Data Sheet, NEHP6010, “Cat Ultra 5Moly Grease”
(NLGI grades 1 and 2)
• Data Sheet, NEHP6015, “Cat High Speed Ball
Bearing Grease” (NLGI grade 2)
• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”
Coolant)” Worldwide
(Extended Life Coolant) 223-9116 Dilution Test Kit”
• Special Publication, PEEP5027, “Label - ELC
Radiator Label”
• Data Sheet, PEHP9554, “Cat DEAC (Diesel
Engine Antifreeze/Coolant) (Concentrate)”
• Special Publication, PEDP7036, “S·O·S Fluid
Analysis”
• Data Sheet, PEHP7057, “Coolant Analysis”
• Special Publication, SEBD0518, “Know Your
Cooling System”
• Special Publication, SEBD0970, “Coolant and Your
Engine”
• Special Publication, SEBU6251, “Caterpillar
Commercial Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations”
Miscellaneous
• Service Manual, RENR9970, “C27 and C32
Generator Set Engines”
• Specifications, RENR7167, “C27 and C32
Generator Set Engines”
• Troubleshooting, RENR9348, “C27 and C32
Generator Set Engines”
• Disassembly and Assembly, RENR9716, “C27 and
C32 Generator Set Engines”
• Systems Operation/Testing And Adjusting ,
RENR9968, “C27 and C32 Generator Set Engines”
• Special Publication, SEBU5898, “Cold Weather
• Systems Operation/Testing And Adjusting ,
Fuels
• Service Manual, RENR7941, “Caterpillar Digital
Recommendations”
• Engine Data Sheet, LEKQ4219, “Fuel
Recommendations for Caterpillar Diesel Engines”
• Special Publication, SEBD0717, “Diesel Fuels and
Your Engine”
RENR7902, “Electronic Modular Control Panel 3
(EMCP3)”
Voltage Regulator (CDVR)”
• Electrical Schematic, RENR7952, “C27 Generator
Set Engines”
136
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
• Electrical Schematic, RENR9855, “C32 Generator
Set Engines”
• Parts Manual, SEBP4150, “C32 Industrial Engine”
• Special Instruction, SEHS9031, “Storage
Procedure for Caterpillar Products”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7332, “Warning Tag - Do
Not Operate”
• Special Instruction, SEHS7633, “Battery Test
Procedure”
• Special Publication, NEHS0526, “Service
Technician Application Guide”
• Special Publication, NENG2500, “Caterpillar
Dealer Service Tool Catalog”
• Special Publication, SEBF8029, “Index to
Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage
Operations”
• Special Publication, SEBF8062, “Guideline for
Reusable Parts - Cleaning and Inspection of Air
Filters”
• Specifications, SENR3130, “Torque Specifications”
• Special Publication, PECP9067, “One Safe
Source”
Additional Reference Material
The “Engine Fluids Data Book” can be obtained from
the following locations: local technological society,
local library, and local college. If necessary, consult
EMA at the following address:
Engine Manufacturers Associaton
Two North LaSalle Street, Suite 2200
Chicago, IL, USA 60602
E-mail: ema@enginemanufacturers.org
Telephone: (312) 827-8700
Facsimile: (312) 827-8737
The “Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Specifications” can be found in your SAE handbook.
This publication can also be obtained from the
following locations: local technological society, local
library, and local college. If necessary, consult SAE
at the following address:
SAE International
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA, USA 15096-0001
Telephone: (724) 776-4841
SEBU8088-07
The “American Petroleum Institute Publication No.
1509” can be obtained from the following locations:
local technological society, local library, and local
college. If necessary, consult API at the following
address:
American Petroleum Institute
1220 L St. N.W.
Washington, DC, USA 20005
Telephone: (202) 682-8000
The International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) offers information and customer service
regarding international standards and standardizing
activities. ISO can also supply information on the
following subjects that are not controlled by ISO:
national standards, local standards, regulations,
certification, and related activities. Consult the
member of ISO in your country.
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
1, rue de Varembé
Case postale 56
CH-1211 Genève 20
Switzerland
Telephone: +41 22 749 01 11
Facsimile: +41 22 733 34 30
E-mail: central@iso.ch
Web site: http://www.iso.ch
European classifications are established by the
Counseil International Des Machines a Combustion
(CIMAC) (International Council on Combustion
Engines).
CIMAC Central Secretariat
Lyoner Strasse 18
60528 Frankfurt
Germany
Telephone: +49 69 6603 1567
Facsimile: +49 69 6603 1566
i01087950
Emissions Warranty
Information
SMCS Code: 1000
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by law at the time of manufacture,
and this engine may be covered by an Emissions
Warranty. A detailed explanation of the Emissions
Warranty that is applicable to emissions certified
engines is found in Supplement, SEBU6981, “Federal
Emissions Control Warranty Information”. Consult
your authorized Caterpillar dealer to determine if your
engine is emissions certified and if your engine is
subject to an Emissions Warranty.
SEBU8088-07
137
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
i00382622
Warranty Information
SMCS Code: 1000
Engine Protection Plans
Extended Warranties and Service
Contracts
A wide variety of protection plans are available for
Caterpillar Engines. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
for detailed information on the specific programs and
coverages that are available.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for information on a
plan that is tailored in order to fit your requirements.
i02342531
Symbols
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 4480; 4490
Illustration 79
The control panel and modules utilize International Graphic Symbols to identify functions.
A typical list of the symbols that are used is shown above.
g01168026
138
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
SEBU8088-07
i01207219
Glossary
SMCS Code: 4450
Actuate – Actuation relates to putting something in
motion.
Alternating Current (AC) – Alternating Current is
an electric current that reverses direction at regular
intervals (50 times per second in 50 Hz or 60 times
per second in 60 Hz).
Continuity – Continuity provides a path for current
flow.
Control – A control is a device that controls another
device. A control is also a circuit that controls a
device.
Cross Current Compensation – Cross current
compensation is a method that is used for reactive
power equalization.
Current Transformer (CT) – A current transformer
is used to step down higher line current.
Anode – An anode is the positive end of a diode or
an anode is the positive end of a rectifier.
Direct Current (DC) – Direct current is current flow
that moves in only one direction in a given circuit.
Blocking Rectifier – A blocking rectifier permits
direct current flow in only one direction.
Damping – Damping refers to decreasing the
amplitude of a signal.
Bolted – A bolted device uses a bolt to hold two or
more parts together.
De-energized – A de-energized input refers to
stopping the current that is going to a component.
Bridge – A bridge is a circuit that is used to measure
small quantities of current, voltage, or resistance.
Distribution Winding – Distribution windings go
from one end of the core to the other end of the
core. These windings are arranged in groups that are
located in several slots.
Bridge Rectifier – A bridge rectifier is a circuit that
is used to change alternating current (AC) to direct
current (DC).
Buildup – A buildup is a gradual increase in voltage.
Cathode – A cathode is the negative end of a diode
or a cathode is the negative end of a rectifier.
Capacitance – Capacitance is the ability to store
an electrical charge.
Capacitor – A capacitor is a device that will store
an electrical charge.
Circuit Breaker – A circuit breaker is an automatic
switch that is used to open a circuit.
Circulating Current – Circulating current is the flow
of current between two or more generators that are
working in parallel. Circulating current is also the flow
of current between two or more generators that are
parallel with a utility line.
Conduct – Conducting relates to allowing the flow of
current.
Constant Voltage Regulation – Constant Voltage
Regulation is one of the two methods of voltage
regulation. In order to maintain the line voltage,
Constant voltage regulators allow the field to be
forced to the saturation point. This allows the engine
to be overloaded. On large block load applications,
the engine may not recover.
Droop – Droop refers to a decrease.
Excitation – Excitation is controlled direct current
(DC) that is used to make a magnetic field.
Energized – An energized input refers to activating
a device.
Electrostatic Charge – Electrostatic charge is
electricity that is caused by induced voltage and
stored charge.
Exciter – An exciter supplies direct current (DC) to
the field windings of the generator.
Field – A field is a magnetic line of force that
surrounds a conductor. This force is caused by
current flow in the conductor.
Field Windings – Field windings are many turns of
wire that are wrapped around an iron core. When
direct current (DC) flows through the field windings,
a magnetic field is produced. This magnetic field is
comparable to the magnetic field of a bar magnet.
Flashing – Flashing is a process of putting direct
current from an external source into the field
windings. This process causes the generator to
produce an output voltage.
Flux – Flux is magnetic lines of force.
SEBU8088-07
Frequency – Frequency is the number of cycles
that are completed in a one second period. The unit
of frequency is the Hertz (Hz). One hertz is equal to
one cycle per second.
Full-Wave Rectifier – A full-wave rectifier changes
the positive phase and the negative phase of
alternating current to direct current.
Gain – Gain relates to the ratio of input magnitude to
output magnitude.
Gate – A gate is an electronic part of a controlled
rectifier (thyristor).
Generate – The production of electricity.
Grounded – A device is grounded by making
a connection to ground. A device could also be
grounded by making a connection to a component
that is connected to ground.
Hertz (Hz) – Hertz is the unit of measurement for
frequency. One hertz is equal to one cycle per
second.
Humidity – Humidity is the water content that is
present in the air.
Impedance – Impedance is the resistance to
alternating current.
Impulse Modulation – Impulse modulation changes
the following characteristics of a wave: amplitude,
frequency, and phase. This is accomplished by
impressing one wave on another wave that has
constant properties.
Induce – This refers to the transfer of power from
one device to another device. The transfer is done
via a magnetic field or via an electric field.
Interference – Interference is an unwanted mixture
of electrical signals. Interference is usually associated
with electrical noise.
Instrumentation – Instrumentation is a group of
instruments that are used for measuring a system
function.
Insulated – An insulated device is a device that is
covered with a nonconductive material.
kVA – This is the abbreviation for Kilovolt Amperes.
kVA is a term that is used when electrical devices
are rated. In order to calculate a device's kVA rating,
multiply the rated output (amperes) by the rated
operating voltage.
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Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
KVAR – Kilovolt Amperes Reactive is abbreviated as
KVAR. KVAR is associated with the reactive power
that flows in a power system. Reactive power does
not load the generator set's engine. Reactive power
will cause thermal loss in the generator.
KVAR Regulation – KVAR Regulation is one of the
two methods that are used to regulate the reactive
power output. Regardless of the generator's real
power output, the voltage regulator causes the
generator to produce a constant value of KVAR. In
this case, the generator's power factor will change
when the generator's real power output changes.
KVAR regulation is used when the generator is
connected in parallel with an infinite bus (utility) and it
is not possible to change the system voltage.
Kilowatts (kW) – Kilowatt is the electrical rating of
the generator. One kilowatt equals 1000 watts. Actual
power is measured in kilowatts.
Lead – A lead is a wire.
Line Voltage – Line voltage is the output voltage
of the generator that is measured between the
generator leads (phases).
Lock In – Lock in occurs when a contact closes in
order to keep a device in an energized state.
Lock Out – Lockout occurs when a contact opens in
order to keep a device in a de-energized state.
Magnetic – A magnetic device is a device that has
the characteristics of a magnet.
Magnification – Magnification refers to the
enlargement of an item.
Module – A module is an assembly of electronic
components and electronic circuits.
Moisture – Moisture is the presence of water.
Oscillation – Oscillation is the flow of electricity that
periodically changes direction and/or magnitude.
Permanent Magnet (PM) – A permanent magnet
supplies the initial magnetism that is required to start
a PMPE generator.
Permanent magnet pilot excited (PMPE) – A
PMPE generator receives power for the voltage
regulator from a pilot exciter. A PMPE generator
consists of a permanent magnet and a pilot exciter.
PF Regulation – PF Regulation is one of the two
ways to regulate the reactive power output. PF
regulation is used when the generator is connected
in parallel with an infinite bus (utility) and it is not
possible to control the system voltage.
140
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Phase Winding – A phase winding is a group of
generator stator coils. Electric power for one phase
of the load is induced in the phase winding.
Polarity – Polarity is the positive characteristics or
the negative characteristics of two poles.
Power Factor (PF) – Power factor is the ratio of
apparent power (kVA) to total power (kW). The power
factor represents the portion of the current that is
doing useful work. Power factor is expressed as a
decimal number between 0 and 1.
Pulsating – Pulsating relates to the characteristics
of current that are similar to mechanical vibration.
Radio Suppression – Radio suppression reduces
the amplitude of radio frequency interference.
Reactive Droop Compensation – Reactive Droop
Compensation is one of the two methods that are
used for reactive power equalization. In reactive
droop compensation, the voltage regulator causes an
individual generator output to change in proportion
to the reactive current. This reactive current is
measured with a current transformer.
Reactive Power – Reactive power flows back and
forth between the inductive windings of the generator.
These windings are part of the electrical load. The
reactive power does not perform any useful work in
the electrical load. The reactive power only applies
load to the generator. This limits the generator's
capacity.
Reciprocating – Reciprocating motion is motion
that first moves in a straight line in one direction. The
direction of this motion then varies by 180 degrees.
Rectifier – A rectifier is a diode circuit that converts
alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).
Regenerative Power – Regenerative power works
against primary power.
Reset – A reset returns a switch to a ready condition.
In addition, a reset returns a circuit to a ready
condition.
Residual Magnetism – Residual magnetism is a
small amount of magnetism that is remaining in a
device after excitation is removed.
RFA – An RFA is a rotating field assembly.
Rotating Rectifier – A rotating rectifier is mounted
to a plate on a generator shaft. This plate then rotates
with the generator shaft.
Rotor – A rotor is the rotating windings of a
generator.
SEBU8088-07
Saturable Reactor – A saturable reactor has
characteristics that are similar to a valve. As the load
changes, a valve opens in order to give more current
to the output or a valve closes in order to give less
current to the output.
Saturated – A device has been saturated when
the device has been magnetized in excess. When
saturation occurs, a large increase in current results
in a small increase in magnetic force.
SCR – An SCR is a silicon controlled rectifier. An
SCR is a semiconductor.
SE – An SE generator is a self-excited generator.
An SE generator uses a small part of the generator
output to provide excitation current back to the
generator. An SE generator uses residual magnetic
field for start-up.
Semiconductor – A semiconductor is a component
such as one of the following components: a
transistor, a diode, and a thyristor. Semiconductors
have electrical characteristics that are between a
conductor and insulation.
Series Boost – A series boost is an attachment that
allows generator output to continue for a short time
during a line failure. This allows the circuit breaker
to trip in sequence.
Short – A short is an undesired electrical connection
that exists between two or more components.
Shutdown – A shutdown occurs when the engine is
stopped. This shutdown can occur manually or this
shutdown can occur automatically.
Simultaneous – A simultaneous occurrence refers
to two actions that happen at the same time.
Solid-State – A solid-state component is an
electrical component that has no moving parts.
Stator – A stator is the windings of a generator that
do not rotate.
Surge – A surge is a sudden increase in voltage or
current.
Tap – A tap is a connection at the midpoint of a
circuit. From this tap, power is taken from the circuit.
Transfer – A transfer refers to moving something
from one point to another point. A transfer also refers
to converting something from one state to another
state.
Transient Peak Voltage – A transient peak voltage
is a high voltage condition of limited duration.
SEBU8088-07
Turn-on – When a device is turned on, the device is
activated or the device is started.
Varistor – A varistor is a device that loses resistance
as voltage increases.
Voltage Droop Resistor – A voltage droop resistor
is a variable resistor. This resistor is used to control
the change of voltage. This can occur when a
generator is paralleled with another generator. This
can also occur when the generator is paralleled with
a utility.
Voltage Level Rheostat – A voltage level rheostat
gives a range of control that is used when the voltage
output level is adjusted.
Voltage Regulator – A voltage regulator is a circuit
that senses the generator's output voltage. The field
coil current is automatically adjusted in order to
maintain the desired output.
Voltage Spike – A voltage spike is a brief high
voltage.
Volts per Hertz Regulation – Under block loading
conditions, the Volts per Hertz Regulation provides
fast recovery. This regulation maintains close voltage
control over the normal load range. This regulation
also produces a rapid response of the generator set.
This control is maintained by matching the generator
output to the engine performance.
Windings – Windings are layers of wire on a core.
Wiring – Wiring relates to the wires of a circuit.
Wound – Wound refers to being circled.
141
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Reference Materials
142
Index Section
SEBU8088-07
Index
A
After Starting Engine .............................................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Air Inlet Filter - Check ............................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
54
56
77
77
B
Batteries - Replace ................................................ 77
Battery - Recycle ................................................... 77
Battery Charger - Check........................................ 78
Checking After Stopping .................................... 78
Checking Before Start-Up .................................. 78
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 79
Before Starting Engine .................................... 17, 52
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace............................... 79
Adjustment of the Alternator Belt ....................... 80
Adjustment of the Fan Drive Belt ....................... 79
Inspection........................................................... 79
Replacement...................................................... 79
Burn Prevention..................................................... 14
Batteries............................................................. 14
Coolant............................................................... 14
Oils..................................................................... 14
C
Cold Weather Operation........................................
Cold Weather Starting ...........................................
Control Panel - Inspect ..........................................
Annunciator Panel..............................................
Electronic Modular Control Panel 3 (EMCP 3)...
Switch Panel ......................................................
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change...........
Cooling Systems with Heavy Deposits or
Plugging ...........................................................
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change..............
Drain ..................................................................
Fill ......................................................................
Flush ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add.....
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check .................
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 1) Obtain ..................................................................
Cooling System Coolant Sample (Level 2) Obtain ..................................................................
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add..................................................
Cooling Systems that Use Conventional
Coolant.............................................................
Cooling Systems that Use Water and SCA........
57
52
80
81
80
80
81
82
81
82
81
83
83
84
83
84
85
85
86
86
87
87
Cooling System Water Temperature Regulator Replace................................................................ 88
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 88
Visconic Damper................................................ 88
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 17
Customer Assistance........................................... 131
Outside of the USA and of Canada.................. 131
USA and Canada ............................................. 131
Customer Service ................................................ 131
E
Electrical Connections - Check.............................. 89
Electrical System ................................................... 18
Grounding Practices .......................................... 18
Electronic Modular Control Panel 3 (EMCP 3) ...... 47
Annunciator Module ........................................... 51
Control Panel ..................................................... 49
Electronic Control Module (Generator Set)........ 47
Electronic Modular Control Panel II+ with Paralleling
(EMCP II+P) (If Equipped)................................... 38
Alarm Module..................................................... 46
Custom Alarm Module ....................................... 46
Generator Set Control + (GSC+) ....................... 40
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 56
Emergency Stop Button ..................................... 56
Emissions Certification Film .................................. 26
Emissions Warranty Information.......................... 136
Engine - Clean....................................................... 89
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) Clean/Replace (If Equipped)................................ 89
Inspecting and Replacing the Secondary Air
Cleaner Element (If Equipped)......................... 90
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect (If
Equipped) ............................................................ 90
Test the Service Indicator................................... 91
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean...................... 91
Engine Mounts - Check ......................................... 91
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 93
Drain the Engine Oil........................................... 93
Fill the Engine Crankcase .................................. 94
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 93
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 92
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 92
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 92
Engine Operation................................................... 55
Engine Protective Devices - Check ....................... 94
Visual Inspection................................................ 94
Engine Rating Conditions .................................... 129
Engine Rating Definitions .................................... 129
Industrial Engine Ratings ................................. 130
Ratings for Generator Set Engines .................. 129
Engine Ratings .................................................... 129
Engine Starting ................................................ 17, 52
Engine Stopping .............................................. 18, 56
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 95
SEBU8088-07
F
Fan Drive Bearing - Lubricate................................ 95
Features and Controls ........................................... 38
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 15
Ether .................................................................. 16
Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 16
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 16
Foreword ................................................................. 5
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 5
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 57
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 55
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................. 95
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 57
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 58
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 58
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 57
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 96
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................... 97
Replace the Element.......................................... 97
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain .................................................................... 98
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ............... 98
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 99
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 99
Fuel Storage Tanks .......................................... 100
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 99
G
General Hazard Information .................................. 12
Asbestos Information ......................................... 13
Containing Fluid Spillage ................................... 13
Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 14
Fluid Penetration................................................ 13
Pressurized Air and Water ................................. 13
Softwrap............................................................. 14
General Maintenance Information ......................... 68
Generator - Dry.................................................... 100
Drying Methods................................................ 100
Generator - Inspect.............................................. 100
Cleaning (Assembled Generators)................... 101
Cleaning (Disassembled Generators).............. 101
Generator Bearing - Inspect/Replace (SR4
Generator) ......................................................... 102
Inspect ............................................................. 102
Replace............................................................ 102
Generator Bearing - Lubricate ............................. 102
Lubricating Process (If Applicable) .................. 102
Generator Bearing Temperature - Test/Record ... 106
Infrared Thermometers .................................... 107
Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs) ........ 107
Generator Isolating for Maintenance ..................... 19
143
Index Section
Generator Lead Connections ................................ 28
Grounding the Frame......................................... 30
Lead Numbering ................................................ 28
Multiple Units ..................................................... 30
Neutral Connections .......................................... 30
Parallel to Utility ................................................. 30
Single Units........................................................ 30
Generator Load - Check ...................................... 107
Generator Operation.............................................. 59
Block Loading .................................................... 59
Excitation Systems............................................. 60
Generator Options ............................................. 61
Loading of the Generator ................................... 59
Low Idle Adjustment........................................... 60
Power Factor...................................................... 60
Standby Generator Sets .................................... 60
Generator Set - Test ............................................ 107
Generator Set Alignment - Check (Generator
Sets) .................................................................. 108
Generator Set Installation...................................... 36
Alignment ........................................................... 37
Bearing Inspection ............................................. 36
Electrical Measurements.................................... 37
Location ............................................................. 36
Protective Devices ............................................. 37
Receiving Inspection.......................................... 36
Storage .............................................................. 36
Unpacking and Storage ..................................... 36
Generator Set Vibration - Test/Record ................ 109
Generator Start-up Checklist ................................. 70
Glossary .............................................................. 138
H
Heat Shield - Inspect/Replace ............................. 109
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace .................. 110
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ................. 110
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
Installation ............................................................. 36
Insulation - Test .................................................... 111
Recommended Periodic Insulation Tests.......... 111
Recommended Procedure for the Insulation
Test.................................................................. 111
J
Jacket Water Heater - Check (Standby Generator
Sets (If Equipped)).............................................. 114
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 34
144
Index Section
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standard) ........... 75
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Standby)............. 73
Maintenance Log ................................................. 134
Maintenance Recommendations ........................... 68
Maintenance Records.......................................... 133
Maintenance Section ............................................. 66
Manual Stop Procedure......................................... 56
Model View Illustrations......................................... 20
Model Views and Specifications ............................ 20
Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 17
O
Operation Section.................................................. 34
Ordering Replacement Parts ............................... 132
Overhaul Considerations ...................................... 114
Oil Consumption as an Overhaul Indicator ....... 114
Overhaul Recommendation .............................. 115
P
Parallel Operation.................................................. 61
Circulating Currents ........................................... 63
Initial Start-Up .................................................... 61
Load Division and Speed Droop (If Equipped)... 63
Paralleling Multiple Units.................................... 62
Starting Multiple Units ........................................ 62
Stopping............................................................. 63
Plate Locations and Film Locations....................... 25
Engine Identification Plate (2) ............................ 25
Engine Serial Number Plate (3) ......................... 26
Generator Identification Plate (1) ....................... 25
Power Factor - Check........................................... 117
Prelube Pump - Inspect ........................................ 117
Product Description ............................................... 22
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 23
Engine Description............................................. 22
Generator Description........................................ 23
Product Identification Information .......................... 25
Product Information Section .................................. 20
Product Lifting........................................................ 34
Lifting the Engine Only....................................... 34
Lifting the Entire Package .................................. 34
Lifting the Generator Only.................................. 34
Product Storage..................................................... 35
R
Radiator - Clean ................................................... 117
Reference Information ........................................... 27
Record for Reference......................................... 27
Reference Information Section ............................ 129
SEBU8088-07
Reference Material .............................................. 135
Additional Reference Material.......................... 136
Coolants........................................................... 135
Fuels ................................................................ 135
Lubricants ........................................................ 135
Miscellaneous .................................................. 135
Reference Materials ............................................ 133
Refill Capacities..................................................... 66
Refill Capacities and Recommendations............... 66
Cooling System.................................................. 67
Fuel .................................................................... 66
Lubrication System ............................................ 66
Rotating Rectifier - Check..................................... 118
Testing a Three-Diode Rectifier Block............... 118
S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 6
Safety Section ......................................................... 6
Single Unit Operation ............................................ 63
Initial Start-Up .................................................... 63
Starting............................................................... 63
Stopping............................................................. 63
Space Heater - Check .......................................... 119
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect.............................. 119
Standby Generator Set Maintenance
Recommendations............................................. 121
Maintenance and Operation Procedures ......... 121
Starting Motor - Inspect (If equipped) .................. 122
Air Starting Motor ............................................. 122
Electric Starting Motor...................................... 122
Removal and Installation of the Starting
Motor .............................................................. 122
Starting the Engine (EMCP 3) ............................... 53
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 54
Stator Lead - Check............................................. 122
Stator Winding Temperature - Measure/Record .. 123
Symbols............................................................... 137
System Pressure Release ..................................... 68
Coolant System.................................................. 68
Engine Oil .......................................................... 69
Fuel System ....................................................... 68
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect ........................................ 123
Cleaning and Inspecting .................................. 123
Removal and Installation.................................. 123
V
Varistor - Test.......................................................
Ohmmeter ........................................................
Test Light..........................................................
Voltage and Frequency - Check ..........................
124
124
125
125
SEBU8088-07
Voltage Connections..............................................
Single-Phase Current From a Three-Phase
Generator .........................................................
Three-Phase Voltage Connections ....................
Voltage Regulator Options.....................................
Manual Voltage Control......................................
Voltage Regulators ................................................
Caterpillar Digital Voltage Regulator (CDVR) ....
145
Index Section
30
32
30
65
65
64
64
W
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 125
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ................................................... 125
Inspect the Generator ...................................... 126
Warranty Information ........................................... 137
Engine Protection Plans................................... 137
Water Pump - Inspect.......................................... 126
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 69
Winding - Test...................................................... 127
146
Index Section
SEBU8088-07
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2009 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved
Cat, Caterpillar, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the Power edge
trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks
of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.
Printed in U.S.A.
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