Company Index
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Barth
Dr. Hans Wienhoit
629.23 HAN
Keyword Index
Dipl-Ing. Dipl.-Wirtseh.-Ing.
August Achleitner
Dipl.-lng. Wolfgang Baierl
Dr. Werner Poechrnuller
Dipl.-Ing. Stephan Rehiich
Dipl-Ing. Gerald Spreitz
Dr, WolfgangPfaff
Dr.-Ing. Michael Walther
Dr. Wolfgang Strauss
Dipl-Ing. Herwig Leinfellner
Ing. Karl Friedrich
Dipt-Ing. Hetibert Lanzer
Dr. Burkhard Leie
Dr. Heinz Mankau
Dr. Karl-Heinz Neumann
Dr. Hans-Joachim Oberg
Dr. Klaus-Peter Schindler
A-arm. 446, 448
Abbreviated injury Scale (A1S), 367,
3681
ABC (active body control), 459, 459/
ABO (automatic brake differential).
256,257,257/
Abdomen Performance Criterion
(APF), 369, 370/
ABS (antilock brake system),
256-257,2581; 267,414,414[,
415f, 415-417, 416f, 417j, 4"
AC (alternating current), 521
AC inverters, 104
AC motors, 103, 105/
ACC (adaptive cruise control), 262[,
262-263,263[,407
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Seiffert
Acceleration, 37, 12K, 24l
Acceleration drag, 216
Acceleration resistance, 35
Acceleration sensor, 413
Acceleration slip regulation (ASR),
257
Acceleration switch, 413
Accelerometer G sensor, 413
Accident prevention innovations, 365f
Accident statistics, 365, 366j, 367/
Aceidenrs, 5, 5f
Accumulator injection system, J9 J,
Dr. Peter Kopf
ACE (active cornering enhancement),
Dipl-Ing. Winfried Bunsmann
Dr. Werner Gausmann
Dr. Peter Kalinke
Siegfried Lieber
Dr. Gerhard Wagner
191/
459-460,460/
ArEA (Association des Constructeurs
Europeens d'Automobiles), 13
ACEA Fuel Charter, 201-202
Acetylene, 183
Acetylenegas, 501
Ackermann angle, 38
Ackermann condition, 439. 465/
Ackermann function, 466, 467f
Acoustic design, 136
Acoustic qnalificarion, 61-77
Acoustic simulation, 591
Acoustic target, 58--{>1, 59}: 60/
Acoustic testing, 6!HS9, 69, 71-73
Acoustics, 58-77
Activated charcoal filters, 357, 359
Aetive body control (ABC), 459, 459f
Active boosters, 407, 419
Active cornering enhancement (ACE),
459-460,460/
Active front-wheel steering, 476---480
Active Hydro-Moe, 562-563, 563f
Active parking brake, 42J
Active tear-wheel steering, 479[, 480[,
480-482, 481/
Active springs, 458-459
Active stabilizers, 458-460
Active steering systems, 391, 476---482
Active wheel speed sensors, 412[,
412-413
Actuator functions, 329-330
Actuators. 244-245, 511-512,
514-515
ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher
Automobil Club), 532
Adaptive cruise control (ACC), 262j,
::262-263, 263j, 407
Adaptive FrontlightingSystem (AFS),
'10
Adaptronics, 265-266, 267/
Additive energy, 2\J
Adhesion, 4.10
Adhesive bonding, 332, 334, 560j,
560---561
Adhesives, 296, 309, 3341
ADI (austempered ductile iron), 545
Adiahatic process, 178
Advanced technology partial zero
emissions vehicles (AT-PZFVs).
102
546
Aluminizing, 557
Aluminum, 403, 539, 542, 557
body construction. 314, 314f,
316J~
320,327[, 541,54V
hybrid construction, 305, 306, 308[,
309/
space frames, 292-293, 291(,
Aeroacoustics, 69-71. 70j, 7V;
283-284, 284f
Aerodynamic coefficients, 40
Aerodynamie drag, ll- [2, 12j, 34{.
35,39-43,45, 97
Aerodynamic lin forces, 393
Aerodynamics, 39/: 39--47,283-284,
284f
Alternating eurrent (AC), 103, 1051,
521
Alternative energy, 29
Alternative fuels, 277[, 278-281,
495-496
Alternator, 521f, 521-523, 522f
Alternator excitation, 527
Altitude, 125,246
Aluminium RheinfeldenGmbH, 545.
'
AFS (Adapti \IeFrontlighting System),
510
Aimers,504
Air conditioning, 50, 51[, 53-57, 55/
Air cooling, 149
Air filters, 357, 358f. 359
Air mass flow sensor, l54
Air spring rate, 457
Air springs, 456-457. 456[, 457/
Air suspension, 456
Air-assisted injection, 162-163
Airbags. 29. 376, 377f, 3i8, 379[,
379/,381/
Airflow, 43-47, 51, 52j, i0J, 70---71
interior. 355-357, 356j, 359
Airflow rate, 359, 359f
Air-fuel mixture, 139-140, 140f.177
Air/fuel ratio, 140, 140[, 145f, 177,
1MO,199,208,277,277/
Air-guided combustion systems, 155,
158[, 158-160, 159j
Air-shrouded fuel injectors, 139
Air-side temperature control, 356-357
AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale), 367,
368t
Alfa Romeo, 168
ALIAS model, J42-343
Aligning moment, 43], 432f
Alkaline batteries, 116
Alley lights, 508
Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil
Club (AOAC), 532
All-wheel drive, 92, 218, 237,
248-264, 250J, 257f, 392, 413,
456,463
Alpha machines, 118
Alpina wheel, 82
294-296, 297f, 299[,
Aluminum alloys. 13lr137, 138,
294-295,305,314,310,322,
323[,403, 545-547
Aluminum Association 365.1, 546
Aluminum foam, 323, 32&f,549
AM (amplircde-rnodulated). 531
Ammonia, 199
Analog broadcast system, 531-532
Analog signals, 516-517
Angular velocity. 38
Annealing,544f
Anodizing. 557
Antennas, 46
Antidive,438
Antifreeze, 48
Anrilock brake system (ABS), 20,
256-257, 258j, 267, 414. 414f,
415f, 415-417,
~16f,
417[, 418
Antiroll bar, 453
Antislip control (ASC). 417--418
Antislip regulation (ASR), 417--418
Anrisway bar, 453
Antitheft device, 25
APF (Abdomen Performance
Criterion), 369, 370(
A-pillar, 287-288, 288/, -289, 289J,
302
Apollo space program, lO9
Approach angles, 97
Aramid, 551
Arbeitsgemeinschart der
RundfunkanstalterrDeutsehlands
(ARD),532
ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der
Rundtunkansreken
Deutschlands),532
ARJ (auto radio information), 532
Articulated shafts, 218
Artificial aging, 320
ASAM (Association for
Standardization of Automation
and Measuring Systems), 602
ASC (antislip control), 417-418
ASe (automatic stability control),
257,258,258/
620
Asea Brown Boveri, 212
(Audi spaee frame), 293-299.
294f, 3l0j; 3l9-320, 32l(
ASR (acceleration slip regulation).
ASF~
257
ASR (antishp regulation). 417--418
ASR (automatic stability regulation),
4l7-4l8
Assembly line, 99, 289. 290, 291/
Assembly process. 99, 290, 33V
Association des Constructeurs
Europeens d"Automobiles
(ACEA), l3, 20l-202
Association for Standardization of
Automation and Measuring
Systems (ASAM), 602
Aston Martin DB4 QT, 293
Asynchronous motors, 103, 105,
105t
ATE power disc, 400-401
Atomization models. 200-201
AT-PZEVs (advanced technology
pallial zero emissions vehicles),
102
Attached parts, 289-290
Audi, 12(, 306J, 307J, 448
A2,54l
A3,292
A4, 981, 308j; 4621, 490[
A6, 92J, 566, 567(
A8, 294(, 298J, 299J, 326[, 5401
10001, 1761
Quattro Spyder, 310j
TT Roadster Quartro. 10j
V8, l34(, l5.(
Audi EDL (electronic differential
traetion control), 256
Audi exhaust system, 321j
Audi space frame (ASF~), 293-299,
294f, 3l0(, 3l9-320, 321/
Audi V6 TOI engine. 208, 209j
Audio, 53 t-.534
Austempered ductile iron (ADI), 545
Austenite, 317
Austria. 36q(, 50g
Auto radio information (ARI), 532
Autobahn. 43
Autoigniticn, 123, 177, 181j, 193
Autoliv, 370
Automatic brake differential (ABO).
256,257, 257j
Automatic clutch actuation, 222-223,
228, 229j
Automatic stability control (ASC),
257, 258,258[
Automatic stability regulation (ASR),
417-4l8
Automatic transmission. 215t, 217j,
228-237, 230[
Automatic transmission fluid (ATF),
227-228,233
Automatically shifted manual
transmission, 228. 22Q(
Auto-Union. 540t
Auxiliary vessel, 610
Availability conversion efficiency, 125
Axial brakes, 400
Axial plunger pumps, 186-187
Keyword Index
Axial sleeve spring, 457, 45~r
Axle load, 37, 3 ~l
SA (brake assistant), 41 ~f, 419--421
Backlight. 303
Backrest, 340
Backup lamp, 502, 508, 509
Bake hardening, 317
Bake hardening steels, 543
Balance shafts. 61j
Ball joints, 440, 441, 445
Ballard Power Systems, 109
Barenyi, Bela, 362
Barometric pressure, 125
Barrier impaet, 372. 372J; 373,37&(
Base statiou controllers. 350, 3501
Base transceiver stations, 350, 350j
BASR (brake antislip regulation),
417--418
Batteries, 105-107, 106t, 116, 116f
Battery, 523j, 523-525, 524f
Battery chargers. 107
Battery charging, 524
Battery costs, 106, 106t
Battery life, 106, 1061
BBC Brown Boveri, 212
Beacon communications, 351
Beam axles, 445, 4461, 446J, 446-447
Bearings. 120
Belt pressure, 241
Belts, 153, 153j
Bend lights, 510
Bentley, 80
Beta machines, 118
Bevel gear differentials. 217
Biodiesel,495
Biofidelic Rear Impaet Dummy
(BioRIO), 370
Biofuels, 277J; 279
Biomcchanies,367-368
BioRIO (Biofidelic Rear Impaet
Dummy),370
Bitwise arbitration, 528
Hi-xenon systems, 507
Blaupunkr, 532, 534
Blow molding, 492
Blower, 355, 356. 359, 3.59j
BMC (bulk molding compound).
326-327
bmep (brake mean effective pressure).
l26, l34-135, 135[, 171[
BMW, 1761,447(,4791; 495, 496
3-series, 92j. 44&j, 4621, 490J, 495j
5-serics, 98t. 448, 44~f, 449j, 49V
7-serics. 266, 267j
Bobillier, 468
Body. 283-386
Body design, 40-47, 100
Body materials, 290, 313-330, 539,
54l
metal, 314-324
nonmetal, 324-330
smart, 329-330
Body pretreatment, 334-335
Body shell, 285-290. 30Dj, 300-30 I
Body stiffness, 290-292, 291J, 301
Body structure, II, 33j
Body vibration, 65---68
Bonanza effect, 74, 74/
Bonded joints, 296. 561, 561/
Bonding, 332, 334, 560j, 560-561
Booming, 46
Boost pressure eontrol, 149
Borgward, 1761
Borg-Warner system, 226
Boseh. 176t, 189, 52lj, 534
Bottom feed injectors, 139
Bowden cable. 235, 421
Boxer engines, 126. t2~(
B-pillar. 288, 289J, 302
Brake actuation system, 404-409
Brake antislip regulation (BASR),
4l7-418
Brake assistant (BA), 419--421
Brake boosters, 405--408, 406j
Brake control units, 414-415
Brake disc, 400-40 I. 402
Brake drums, 399, 399j
Brake fluid. 409
Brake fluid reservoir, 405
Brake foree distribution, 396-397,
397[
Brake heating, 397
Brake hoses, 408
Brake lamps. 509
Brake linings, 398, 403--404, 539
Brake mean effective pressure (brnep),
l26, l34-l35.l35J, l71[
Brake pads, 400. 403--404
Brake pistons, 400, 403, 403j
Brake pressure limiters. 408
Brake pressure sensor. 261, 414
Brake proportioning valve. 408, 408j
Brake rotors, 400
Brake shoes, 398, 399--400
Brake slip, 409, 410j, 411J, 415j
Brake travel sensor, 413
Brake tubing, 408
Brake-by-wire, 259--260, 525
Brakes, 394-424
fuel consumption, 126, 140j
system regulations, 20
systems, 394-396, 395j
testing. 20, 21 t
Braking, 255-256. 256J, 430t,
430-43l, 43lj; 443
Braking control, 256-263
Braking distance, 20, 396j
Braking force, 391, 392, 3941:
394--395,4lO(
Braking force coefficient, 409--410,
4l0[, 41lJ, 4l5[
Braking phases, 396
Brand image, 80
Brazing. 558
Breakerless scmieonductor ignition,
l4l,14lj
British Morgan Pierce rivet, 296,296j.
305,3ll/
Broadcast systems, 531-534
Brundtland Commission. 606
Brushless motors, 103, 104
Biichi,Alfred, 175/, t95
Bucket tappets, 132J, 133
Budd, Edward G" 539
Bugatti, 80, 82, 8~1'
Keyword Index
Bu Ib shields. 503
Bulbs, 505-506
Bulk molding compound (BMC),
326-327
Bumper. 286, 290
C,
C,
C,
C,
Bundesverkehrsministerium, 605
Burmeisterj Wain, 1751
Bus systems, 517. 527/, 527-.528,
;2~(, 535, 535J, 536
Buses. 33, 112-113, 120
C· value, 398. 398J, 399,400,403
CA (computer assisted) methodology.
30,30(
Cabriolels,300
CAD (computer-assisted design), 86,
89,95, lOl, 341,383(,384,503
CAE (computer-aided engineering),
585
Caesar, Julius, 5
California Air Resources Board
ICARB), l07, 489
California emissions regulations, 10,
11,102, l84,489
Calipers. 400, 401--403, 401j, 4021:
403,403[
CAM (computer-aided
manufaeruring), 585
Cam lift, 133,169
Cam lobe profile, 133
Cam shells, 169
Cam timing, 133, 168j, 16&-169
Cam-actuated systems, 168-169
Camber angle, 39, 437, 484f
Camber loss. 444
Camshaft. 133, 138, 149, 138, 152, 168
CAN (eontroller area network), 242,
243,268[,269, 5l7, 527-530,
527j; 528(, 529[, 530(, 535
Canada, 508
Capacitor discharge ignition, 140--141
CARE (California Air Resources
Board), 107,489
Carbon, 317
Carbon dioxide (CO,), 11,25,107,
110,264
diesel engines, 183. 198,206, 206j
gas turbines, 119
Otto-cycle engines, 43, 144, 145
Carbon monoxide (CO), 10,23,24/,
25, l07, llO
diesel engines, 192, 195, 196, 198,
203[
gas turbines, 119
Stirling engines, 118
Cardan jointsZl S
Camet cycle. II?, 172
CAS (computer-assisted styling),
342--343
CASE (computer aided software
engineering), 29
Cast iron, 136, 137, 138,539,545
Caster angle. 439, 4621
Caster axis, 438j, 439
Caster offset, 439, 443---444,4621,463,
464(
Casting, 137. 137j, 322, 323j, 329j,
539,546, 563-564,584(
C,
C,
Ca
C!
C<
C<
C[
CI
C!
Ce
Ce
Ce
Ce
Ce
Ce
Ce
Ceo
CF
Ch
Ch;
Cit
Cit
Ch,
Chi
Chi
CH
Ch,
Cm
Cm
Cir,
Cir
CI~
CitJ
Ci~
Cia
Cia
Cia
Cia
Cia
Cia
Cle
Cle
CW
CliJ
c
eliJ
eli]
Clu
Clu
621
Bulbshields, 503
Bulbs, 505-506
Bulkmolding compound (BMC),
326-327
Bumper, 286, 290
Bundesverkehrsminisrerium, 605
BurmeisterjWain, 1751
Bussystems, 517, 527I, 527-528,
528j, 535,5351: 536
Buses, 33, 112-113, 120
C'" value, 398, 398f, 399, 400, 403
CA(computcr assisted) methodology,
30,30/
Cabriolets, 300
CAD (computer-assisted design), 86,
89,95, 101,341, 383j, 384, 503
CAE (computer-aided engineering),
585
Caesar, Julius, 5
California Air Resources Board
(CARB), 107,489
California emissions regulations, 10,
11, 102, l84,489
Calipers, 400. 401--403, 40lj; 402J,
403,403/
CAM (computer-aided
manufacturing), 585
Cam lift, 133, 169
Cam lobe profile, 133
Cam shells, 169
Cam timing, 133, 168/, 168-169
Cam-actuated systems, 168-169
Camber angle. 39, 437, 484/
Camber loss, 444
Camshaft, 133, 138, 149, 138, 152, 168
CAN (controller area network), 242,
243, 268j, 269, 517, 527-530,
527j, 528j, 529j, 530j, 535
Canada, 508
Capacitor discharge ignition, 140-141
CARB (California Air Resources
Board), 107, 489
Carbon, 317
Carbon dioxide (CO,), 11.25, 107,
110,264
.
diesel engines, 183, 198,206, 206j
gas turbines, 119
Otto-cycle engines. 43. 144, 145
Carbon monoxide (CO), 10,23, 24t,
25, 107,110
diesel engines, 192, 195, 196, 198.
203/
gas turbines, 119
Stirling engines, 118
Cardan joints, 218
Camet cycle, 117, 172
CAS (computer-assisted styling),
342-343
CASE (computer aided software
engineering), 29
Cast iron, 136, 137, 138,539,545
Caster angle, 439, 4621
Caster axis. 4381.439
Caster offset, 439, 443--444, 462t, 463,
464f
Casting, 137, 137j, 322, 323j, 329j,
539, 546,563-564,584f
CAT (computer-aided testing),
Catalog of requirements, 83, 88, 283,
283t
Catalysts, 145, 198-200
Catalytic converter. 10, 136, 140,
145-147. 146j, 164, 196.
198-200,203/
Cataphoretic dip, 335, 335I, 551
Caulking, 332
Cavity sealing, 336
CBC (cornering brake control, 258,
259, 260j, 417
CC (compact cassette), 531,532
CCA (cold cranking amps), 523
CD (compact disc), 532
CD player, 348
CELIS, 510
Cell phones, 350-351
Center differential, 250, 251
Central link rear suspension, 448j
Central valve tandem master cylinder,
404-405,405/
Ceramic valves, 138
Ceramics, 556
Certification marks, 501
Cetane. 202, 202t
CFD (computational fluid dynamics),
158, 159j, 359-360
Chalmers University of Technology,
370
Charcoal canisters, 97
Charge motion, 156-157, 158,161
Charge-air coolers, 208
Chassis, 38
Child-restraint systems, 375-376,
376/
Chip tuning, 149
CHMSL (center high mounted stop
lamp), 508
Chopper, 103
Chromium, 334,545,557
Chrysler, 539
Circle of optimum adaptation, 338,
339/
Circumferential force, 399I, 399-400
CISPR,537t
Citroen, 476
City cars, 7
Cladding, 97, 309, 310/
Clamped wheel system (CWS), 446
Clamping force. 398, 400, 403
Classic design proeess, 83-85, 84I,
86/
Claw pole alternator, 52 II, 521-523
Clay model, 84j
Clear coat, 335
Clearance and sidemarker lamps, 508
Climate control, 45, 51-58, 52J,
353-361, 354{, 361j, 519, 519/
Climate control unit, 355I, 355-361,
357/
controls, 360-361, 361j
Climate seats, 340
Clinching, 296, 296j, 3 iz, 320, 559I,
559-560, 560/
Clutch, 210, 219-223, 220I, 223I,
224-225,239
Clutch pressure, 219,245
CNG (eompressed natural gas), 277f
278.281,496,614
CO eon version rate, 203j
Cal budget, 571
Coastdown time, 221
Cockpit assembly, 99j
Coded orthogonal frequeney division
multiplexing (COFDM), 533
Coefficient of adhesion, 20
Coextrusion blow molding, 492, 492j
COFDM (coded orthogonal frequeney
division multiplexing), 533
Coil ignition, 140
Cold cranking amps (CCA), 523
Cold joints, 296
Cold start, 140
Cold work, 319, 319j, 321/
Cold-start emissions, 1t
Collision, 286, 292, 302, 365, 3661,
367j, 382, 389/
Color coat, 335
Color design, 82
Color pigments. 335, 336
Color sensitivity, 501
Combined sliding caliper, 403, 403j
Combustion, t43-144, 159j
diesel engine, 179-185, 181/, t82I,
183/
Combustion chamber, 119, 141I, 155,
156,158
diesel engine, 194-195
Combustion chamber recirculation,
166
Combustion engines, 173, 176, 176I,
177,1771
Combustion knock, 144
Combustion simulation, 200-20 I,
2011
Combusiion system, 155-160
diesel engine, 192-196, 196t
Comfort models, 593
Commercial transportation, 4
Commercial vehicles, 33
Common envelope strategies, 586
Common rail injection system, 191,
191/
Communications centers, 347
Communications network, 350j
Communications systems, 347I,
347-351
Commutator, 103
Compact cassette (CC), 531, 532
Compaet class, 981. 98t
Compact disc (CD), 532
Compatibility,380-382
Complex phase steels, 543, 544, 544j
Component analysis, 317, 318j
Component elasticity, 44D-441
Compound axles, 446t
Compound suspension, 445, 448--450,
449/
Compressed air, 1to
Compressed natural gas (CNG), 277I,
278,281,496.614
Compression ratio. 123, 172-173,
vru. 174,271
Compressor, 53, 55-56, 63, 110,
212-213
Keyword Index
622
Compressor efficiency, 208
Comprex supercharger, (95,209,
2101. 212, 212/
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
Coolant pump, 51, IS0-15!
Cooling, 45, 47-51, 53-57
158,1591. 359-360
Computational methods. 382-386
Coordinate system, 4Q/; 484/
Copper, 314f, 31~f; 557
Copper losses, 522, 522[
Cornering, 486-487, 487/
Cornering brake control, 258,259,
2601. 417
Cornering force, 395
Corporate structure, 586
Corrosion, 330-331. 331/
Corrosion protection, 556-558
Corrosion tests, 60 I
Counterflow gas exchange, 134
Coupling points, 291
Couplings, 251-255
Cranial fractures, 368
Crank angle, 128. 129f
Crank radius, 128
Crank train, 128-131, 12~/; 172, 173f,
194.194f
Crankcase emissions, 23
Crankcase materials, 136-137
Crankpin radial force, 129
Crankpin tangential force, 129
Crankshaft, 152
Crankshaft rotation, 128
Crash behavior, 255, 297. 297/
Crash simulation, 591-592
Crash tests, 489
Crash-EXPERT module, 383f, 384
Crash-OPT module, 38~r. 384
Crash-TEST module, 383/
Crevice corrosion, 330-331
Crosley Hotshot, 540t
Crossflow gas exchange, 134
Crosswind sensitivity, 43
Crosswind lest, 485, 485/
CRT (continuously regenerati ng trap),
197-198,1981.205
Crude oil, 278
Cruise control, 246, 262
Cryogenic storage, 109
Cryopump, 489/
Cryotank, 496, 498f, 498-499
Current controL 105
Customer expectations, 6, 6/; 9f. 9-10,
14
Customer perceptions, 14,285
Customer satisfaction. 577
Customer service, 99
CV (constant velocity) joints, 218,
218/
CVT (continuously variable
transmission), 117, 2151, 223,
237-242,2391. 240/; 247. 614
CWS (Clamped wheel system), 446
Cylinder bore distortion, 273
Cylinder filling, 207
Cylinder head. 138, 194--195, 539
Cylinder inlet flow simulation, 594,
594f
Cylinder numbering convention, 126
Cylinder pressure, 167f. 16~/
Cylinder pressure trace, 143-144,
144f
Computer design process, 85-87, 86j,
341-343,343/
Computer-aided engineering (CAE),
585
Computer-aided manufacturing
(CAM),585
Computer-aided processes (CAx),
587
Computer-aided software engineering
(CASE),29
Computer-aided tesring(CAT), 71-73,
721. 731'
Computer-assisted design (CAD), 86.
89.95. 101, 341. 383J: 384. 503
Computer-assisted (CA)
methodology, 30, 30/
Computer-assisted styling (CAS),
342-343
Computer-controlled rear axle
steering, 391
Concept design, 82 -83
Condenser, 54, 55f
Cone angle, 162
Congestion recognition systems, 611
Conicity, 433f
Coning, 40 l. 401/
Connecting rod force, 129
Connecting rod materials, 137-138
Connectors. 516
Constant velocity (CV) joints. 218,
218/
Constant volume-constant pressure
process. 178, 178/
Constant-pressure cycle, 178. 178/
Constant-voltage inverter, 104f,
10"-105,105/
Consumption of natural resources, 5f,
5-6
Contact pateh, 431, 43 II
Conti CWS, 446
Continuously regenerating trap
(CRT). 197-198. 1981. 205
Continuously variable transmission
(CVT), 117. 215t, 223. 237-242,
2391; 2401. 247, 614
Control elements, 343, 346-346
Control systems, 14, 15f, 139.
147-149,148;: 409-419. 411(,
518,518/
Controlled collapse force, 384
Controlled-slip clutch, 225
Controlled-slip torque converter,
225
Controller area network (CAN). 242,
243,2681. 517. 527-530, 527j;
5281. 529j; 5301. 535
Conversion rare, 145
Convertible hardtops, 328, 329/
Convertible top, 302-303, 303/
Convertibles, 2R8, 300j. 300-303.
303/
Coolant, 49, 49t, 53, 150
Cooling module, 48, 50, 51/,
7~r
Cooling systems, 149-151
DAB (digital auto broadcasting), 349,
351,533,534, 534f
Dacromet" coating, 294
Daimler-Benz, Ill, 119j; 1761
Daimler-Chrysler, 108, 137, 231, 448,
4591. 4781. 547
Damper constants, 452/
Damper foree, 455/
Darnperspecd,455!
Dampers, 451j; 454f, 454--461
Damping, 441, 441j, 442, 454--461,
455f
Damping factors, 455/
Damping forces, 392
Damping rate, 456
Danner, Max, 365
DARC (data radio channel), 349, 349t,
351
Dashboard,539
Data radio channel (DARC), 349,
349t, 351
Daytime running lamps, 508
D2B optical bus system, 536
DC (direct current) chopper converter,
104,104/
DC motors, 102-103, 105, 1051
DC-W5AI80 transmission, 232f
2-D/3-D seam welding, 491,
492/
DE. 503
De Dion suspension, 447
Dead pedal, 398
Deep drawing, 329[, 562
Deep drawing simulation, 592,
592/
Deformation forces, 372-373
Degreasing, 334
Degree of damping, 454--455
Del.orean Motor Company, 5401
Denitrogenation, 198-200
DeNOx, 19R-200
Departure angles, 97
Design, 79-121, 283, 305/
Design brief, 83. 85
Design catalog, 83, 88, 283, 2831
Design for Recycling (DFR). 571
Design goals, 79f, 81, 283
Design model, 84f, 84-85, 85-86, 86j;
341-344.3431; 344/
Design of experiment (DOE) concept,
595
Design philosophies, 610
Design process, 83-87, 305f. 345,
345/
Design templates, 338-340
Designers, 79, 81-82, 283, 342
Detail optimization, 41
Deutz diesel engine, 175t, 1761
Deutz Gas Engine Works, 123
Development processes, 575-587,
5771. 578/
DFR (Design for Recycling), 571
DI (direer injection) gasoline engine,
156--157.1571. 203.204
Diagnostics, 247
Diagonal brake split, 395-396
Diaphragm spring, 219
Die casting, 539, 546
I
Key
-Dies
Dies
Dies
Dies
Diffi
Diff
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
Digi
DIN
DIN
Dio(
Dip
Dip
Dire
Dire
Dire
di
g'
Din
Disl
DiS(
Disl
Disl
Disl
Dis
Dis
Div
OM
OM
D~
DO
Do:
DO
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
623
Keyword Index
Diesel, Rudolf. 174(. 174-176, 189,
195
Diesel engine, 48, 49l, 50, 62,113,
1131, 123, 173-206, 1771, 177"
192
Diesel engine development, 174-176
Diesel fuel, 201-204, 2021, 203j, 277/,
278
Differential, 217-218, 218j, 25QI:
250-251,2511, 392, 447
Diffusion barriers, 492
Digiceiver, 532
Digital auto broadcasting (DAB), 533,
534,534[
Digital broadcast system, 532-534,
533/
Digital
Digital
Digital
Digital
Digital
car, 30, 601
design process, 85~87, 86f
mockup, 101
modeler, 87
multimedia broadeasting
(DMB),533
Digital radio mondiale (DRM), 534
Digital transmission system, 349
Digital vema tile disc (DVD), 532
DIN (Dcursches Institut fur Normungj
standards, 126, 139,339.429
DIN/ISO, 125, 331
Diode losses, 522f
Dip primer, 335, 335/
Dip tank, 335
Direct current (DC), 52\
Direct current (DC) rnorors, 102-103,
105, 1051
Direct injection (Dl]. 155-166
diesel engine, 174, 174( 179-182,
1801, 1821, 188, 19,-193, 195,
196,
gasoline engine, 156-157, 157/;
203,204
Direct-actuated systems, 169-171
Disc brake, 398j, 399, 400-403, 404
Discrete-gear transmissions, 237, 239
Displaeer, 212
Display screens, 343, 346-347
Distributor injection pump, 185-187,
186f
Disrributorless electronic ignition. 141
Disturbing force moment arm, 463
Divided-chamber diesel engines, \95
DMB (digital multimedia
broadcasting),533
DMC,540'
Dodge, 539
DOE (Design of Experiment) concept,
595
Dog clutch, 226
DOHC (double overhead camshafts),
156. 168
Door glass, 28~/, 302
Door hinge, 289f
Door intrusion test, 371, 371
Door lock design, 374
.
Door sealing system, 70, 70J, 289/
Doors, 43--44, 302
Doppler anemomerry, 601
Double A-arm suspension, 444, 444{,
448
r
Double elutch transmission, 231
Double lateral link suspension, 447
Double overhead camshafts (DOHC),
156,168
Double wishbone suspension, 440
Downshift, 236, 246
Downsizing, 171-173
Drageoefficient, 11-12, 35, 39-42,
4lj; 421, 284
Drag force. 40[
Drag link steering, 466-467
Drag torque. 221
Drive force, 394[
Drive ratio, 216
Drive slip, 409
Drive torqne, 464
Driveline. 63--65, 64f
Driven beam axles, 446, 447
Driver assistance systems, 613
Driver information systems, 352-353,
353f
Driver seat, 34Q-341, 340[, 341[
Driver wants, 6, 6/
Drivers, 582
Driveshafts, 218
Drivetrain, 29, 96-97,102,102/.
215-248,518f
Drivetrain configurations, 217, 217/
Drivetrain drag, 35
Drivetrain improvements, 13
Drivetrain materials, 542
Drivetrain mounts, 63--65, 64l
Drivetrain vibration, 218-219
Driving comparisons, 58-59
Driving equation, 216
Driving program eontrol, 241, 241[
Driving resistance, 34{, 34-35, 37,246
Dri ving resistance curve, 171, 171[
DRM (digital radio mondiale). 534
Drum brakes, 398j, 39&-400, 3991,
404
Dry machining, 587
Dry-sump lubrication system, 152
DSC (dynamic stability control), 259,
2591, 260;:261
Du Pont Duco. 540r
Dual battery system, 524. 524[
Dual cycle process, 178, n8/
Dual link strut suspension, 448f
Dual phase steels, 543, 544, 544l
Dual-mass flywheel, 221-222, 222f
Dual-phase sreels, 317, 31 ~l
Dual-spring nozzle holder, 188--189,
190r
Dual-voltage electrieal system,
524-527,525f
Dummies in the loop, 598[
Dunlop, John Boyd, 424
Duo servo drum brake. 398[, 399. 399j"
Duplex drum brake, 39~1: 399
Durrkopp, 540t
Dust flows, 43--44
Duty cycling, 56
DVD (digital versatile disc), 351, 532
Dyckhoff l75t
DYNA3D,384
Dynamic forces, 37, 390-393,
409-411
Dynamic leveling, 505
Dynamic sensitivity, 391
Dynamics simulation, 591
Dynamometers, 598f. 599
E/E (electrical/electronic) system,
511-512,512/
Earl, Harley. 79
Eaton Corporation. 212
EBD (electronic brake force
distribution), 258, 397, 408, 417,
418
ECE (Economic Commission for
Europe) regulations, 17'-181.
19-27,489,501,504,505,507,
508
ECrE (European Car Manufacturers
Information Exchange Group),
90,901, 91f
E-coat,335
Economic incentives, 608
ECT (electrically controlled
transmissions), 234, 235, 236
EDC (eleetronic damping control),
458
EEC (European Economic
Community) regulations, 16-27.
17'-181,18f
EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle
Safety Committee), 21-22
Effieiency map, 214/
E-gas, 164
EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), 160,
166,167f
EHB (clcctrohydraulic brakes), 259.
260, 261f, 267, 421--423, 422/
Eight-cylinder engines, 126, 1271,
128, 1311, 132f
Bighteen-eylinder engines, 126
Elasticity, 440-441
Elastokinemancs, 440-445, 595
Elastomeric mounts, 440, 441-442
Elastomers. 441J. 539. 5411, 553
Electric drive, IOl-107. 238, 247
Elcerric fuel pump, 493--494
Electric motors, 102-105, 105t, 515,
5151, 613
Electrie parking brake, 421, 421/
Electric steering assisr, 474-475
Electric vehicles, 101-102, 102l
Electrical eonsumcrs, 264{, 264-265
Electrical consumption, 33
Electrieal demands, 524-525, 525/
Electrical efficiency, 266-268
Electrical energy management.
267-269, ,68f
Eleetrical generation. 265/ 265-266,
266f
Electrical systems, 14, 14j, 27, 28.
520-530
Electrical/electronic (EIE) system,
511-512,512f
Electrically assisted turbochargers,
212
Electrically controlled transmissions
(ECT), CJ4, 235, 236
Electrification, 170.614
Electrocoar, 335
Electrohydraulic brakes (EHB), 259,
260, 26lf: 267, 421-423, 422f
Electrohydraulic steering, 474, 474/;
478/: 482
Electrolysis, 109
Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC), 25, 536-538, 5371, 594
Electromechanical brakes, 259. 260,
261J, 267, 268J, 423f, 423--424
Electromechanical steering, 47&1
Electromechanical valve actuation
(EMV), 170, 170(, 171, 171/
Electronic brake assist, 407,419
Electronic brake control systems,
409-419.411/
Electronic brake force distribution
(EBD), 258, 397,408,417,418
Electronic control unit. 147-149,
414-415
Electronic damping control (EDC), 458
Electronic engine controls, 139
Electronic ignition, 141,f, 141-142
Electronic stability braking system
(ESBS),417
Electronic stability program (ESP),
259,267,407.413,414,418-419
Electronic systems. !4.14f, 15J,27.29
Electronic transmission controls,
242-247,243/
Blccrrophorectic dip priming. 335
Electroplating, 557
Electrostatic rotary atomizers, 336
Elk test, 488
Ellipsoid reflector, 502--503
Elongation. 54Qf, 547/
ELR (emergency locking retractor)
systems, 375
EMB (electromechanical brakes), 259,
260,261(, 267, 268(, 423f,
423-424
EMC (electromagnetic compatibility),
536--538, 537t, 594
Emergency brake system, 395
Emergency locking retractor (ELR)
systems, 375
Emissions. 5, ~/: 10,97,107,113,
113f, 118, 119,613
reduction, 10--11. 201-202, 20~/:
2021,205f
regulations, 9-11. Illl8t, 22-25,
102
testing, 22-25, 24f. 24t, 489
See also Exhaust emissions; Noise
emissions
Emissions canisters, 97
EMT (extended mobility technology).
446
EMV (electromechanical valve
actuation), 170, 17Qf, 171, 171/
Energy absorption, 297, 297J, 327l
Energy budget. 299, 2991: 57 [
Energy carriers, 275-28 I, 277f
Energy conservation, 264
Energy consumption, 107, 112J, 20~f,
206,299, 329f
auxiliary devices, 264/; 264-265,
265f
materials. ]14, 314J, 31 Qr
Ke)
Keyword Index
624
Energy eon version, 176, 176/
Energy demand, 28Qf
Energy density, 106, 106r
Energy management, 526-527
Engine braking, 418
Engine compartment. 96
Engine configurations, 126-128,
127(
Engine control systems, 139.
147-149, 148f, 517f
Engine cooling systems, 149-151
Engine drag torque, 258, 418
Engine drag torque control (MSR),
258,418
Engine durability, 273
Engine efficiency, [[8,124-125,125/;
126, 126f, 179, 1791. 192
Engine location, 91-94
Enginclubrication, 151./: l51-153
Engine map, 207J, 217f, 241, 602
Engine materials, 136--139
Engine mounts, 62, 73-75
Engine noise, 61---63, 63l
Engine output, 126
.
Engine package, [53-154,274-275
Engine power, 26--27,125-126
Engine startup, 246
Engineering, 33J, 575--587
England. 533
Environmental compatibility.
567-571,569t
Environmental impact, ~f, 5--6
EPEFE, 20 I, 2021. 2021
Epoxy, 296, 3341
EPROM (parameter memory), 149,
243
Ergonomics, ]]8-347, 397
ESBS (electronic stability braking
system), 417
ESP (electronic stability program),
259.267,407,413,414,418--419
ESV conferences, 10
Ethanol, 277f, 279
Ethyne. 183, 184f
ETRTO (European Tire and Rim
Technical Organization), 429
ETSI (European Telecommunications
Standards institute), 533
Eureka 147 DAB project, 533
Buro I, II, 1971
Euro2,!1,197/
Euro 3,11,23,197/
Euro 4, II, 197f, 204f, 20~l
Euro NCAP (New Car Assessment
Program), 21-22
Europe. 14~(, 215t, 237. 458, 502,
505,509, 533
emissions reduction, 10, II, III
MVEG A driving cycle, 146f
European beam patterns, 502
European Car Manufacturers
Information Exchange Group
(EClE), 90, 90f, 91f
European Community directives,
3631
European Economic Community
(EEC) regulations, 16--27,
17t-18/, [~r
European Enhanced Vehiele Safety
Committee IEEVC), 21-22
European impact protection criteria,
368-369, 369f, 370f
European New Car Assessment
Program (Buro NC AP),
21-22
European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI),
533
EuroSID (European side impact
dummy), 370, 3701. 371f,
380
Evaluation, 482--488
Evaporative emissions, 23, 25, 26{
Evaporator, 54, 5~(
Excitation current, 521
Excitation frequency, 441
Exciter winding, 104
Exergy.275-276
Exhaust aftertreatment, 164-166,
196--200,204-205
Exhaust coolers, 48, 50
Exbausr cmissions. 7,10--11, ll.f,
23-25
diesel eugine, 23, 25, 183-185,
201-202, 202f, 204f
Otto-cycle engine, 140,143,
144-147, 145f, 146f, 1471, 158,
160,164-166
standards, 145. 147, 147/
testing, 23. 146(, 147
two-stroke engine, 271
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), 145,
160,166,167f
Exhaust gas turbocharger, 195, 208f,
208-209,2091. 210-211, 212f,
215
Exhaust manifold, 135-136, 13Ql
Exhaust module, 153-154
Exhaust odors, 195
Exhaust port recirculation, 166
Exhaust system, 28, 62, 63J, 96,
133-136, 134f, 1361. 166-168,
167f
Exhaust tips, 43
Exhaust train, 43
Exhaust valve train, 134f
Experience mobility. 4, 4f
Extended mobility technology (EMT),
446
Exterior contours, 283-284. 284{
Exterior design, 81
Exterior dimensions, 9Qf, 9\J: 981,
284,2841: 2851
Exterior flow simulation, 593
Exterior noise, 7~f, 75-76, 7~l
Exterior vehiele loads, 597, 597{
External effects, 5
External ignition. 123
External injuries, 367-368
External ratio, 404
Externally excited DC machine, 104,
104f
Externally excited synchronous
motors, 103, 1051
Extrusion, 295, 329/
Extrusion blow molding, 492
-
Fail
Fail
Fan
Fast
Fasl
Fasl
Fall:
Fati
Fau
Fan
Fed
I
Fed
Fee'
FEI
FE'
Fen
Fen
Fen
FE'
FFl
Fiat
Fia\
Fibl
Fibl
Fibl
Fibl
Fib
FIC
Fiel
Fill
Fin
Fin
Fin
Fin
Fin
Fir.
Fir.
Fi;
Fis
Fiv
Fiv
Fi\
Fi\
Fi~
FK
Fl~
FI~
Fil
Fb
Fl~
Fil
F1,
F1,
F1,
Keyword Index
Fail-safe quality, 317, 318/
Failure mode and effect analysis
(FMEA),583
Fans, 50, 51, 5lj
Fas{ fourier transforms (FFn, 533
Fast information channel (FIC), 533
Fastback, 39, 4~l
Fatalities, I Of. 365, 36q/; 389/
Fatigue curve, 590
Fault codes, [49
Fault management, 581/
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS), 10,21,
362t, 3631, 489
Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP75,
US).146[
Feedback systems, 14, 151,518
FEM (finite element methods) model,
383/c385(, 384, 385, 434, 435J,
625
Floating frame calipers, 401j,
401-402
Hoorpan, 42, 286-287. 286j, 287j,
288J, 301, 332[
Flow calculation. 592-594
Flow losses. 210
Fluorination, 492
Fluorine gas, 492
Flux, 103
Flywheels, 116, 1I6J, 120, (2Qf,
221-222, 222f
FM (frequency-modulated), 531, 532
FM receivers, 348, 348/
FMEA (Failure mode and effect
analysis), 583
FMVSS (Federal Motor Vebicle
Safety Standards), 10, 21, 362t,
3631,489
Foam barriers, 71/
Foams, 327, 328/
440, 440}, 583, 589-590. 589[
Fog lamps, 502, 508, 509
FEM-Crash module, 383/
Force transfer, 429
Femur force, 369, 369/
Force vector, 38
Fenders, 287, 287}; 290
Ford, 80, 108,540
Ferrite. 317
Ford, Henry, 539
FEVMotorentechnik, 158. 161
Ford Focus, 447
FFT (fast fourier transforms), 533
Ford Thunderbird, 302
Fiat, 93, 1761
Forging. 329;: 564-565
Fiat Multipla Bipower, 496. 497/
Fiber composites. 327, 328;; 541
Form drag, 39
Formula I, 93
Fiber optics, 28
Fiber-reinforced, 314, 326, 542, 570f
Four-cylinder engines, 126. 127/, 128,
Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), .
1301, 132f
Four-headlamp system, 502
305,305-306,314(,316/: 326(,
. . . Four-speed transmissions, 237
327,541
Fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, 5511,
Four-stroke cycle. 124, 124(, 178-179,
179[
551-552
Four-stroke engine, 269. 270f 272,
FIC (fast information channel), 533
272J, 273, 273J, 274f
Field of vision. 20-21
Four-valve technology, 192, [92f
Filter regeneration, 196-198
Four-wheel drive, 248-264. 250j, 257f
Final drive, 217, 218t
Frame hom. 287
Final drive ratio, 217
Frame rails. 286
Finger Followers, 132/ 133, 169
Finite element methods (FEM) model,
France, 366;: 505, 533, 539
FRC (fiber-reinforced composite).
383J, 384, 384(, 385, 385J, 434,
305,305-306,314(, 316J, 326},
435(,440, 440}: 583, 589-590,
589[
Fire ring, 194
Firewall, 287
FireWire, 536
Firing order, 126
Fischer-Tropsch,278
Five-cylinder engines, 126, 1271. BOt
Five-speed automatic transmission,
217J, 231[
Five-speed manual transmission,
228/
Five-speed transmissions, 237
Fixed calipers. 400, 400j, 401
FKT guideline, 489
Flame port. 192
Flange seal, 3341
flash memory, 532
Flash to pass, 502
Flat engines, 126, 127f
Flat-tube heat exchanger, 49-50, 50f
Flex lines, 408
Flexible disc joints, 218
Floating calipers, 400, 401f
327,541
Free fluoride, 334
Free inertia Forces, 1301, 13lt
Free inertia moments, 1301, BIt
Free-form reflector, 503, 503f
Freight traffic, 4, 5, 5f
.
Frequency, 221, 221j, 222, 291, 301,
302J, 309. 427, 427J, 450, 452J,
458
Frequency ratio, 441/
Frequency targets, 65--66, 66f
Fresnel lenses, 509
Friction brakes, 398
Friction cake, 432f
Friction clutch, 226
Friction coefficient, 217-218, 219,
249,251(,400,403, 431J, 432J,
462
Friction differential, 218
Friction drag, 39
Friction lining, 219. 221,233
Friction mean effective pressure, 133,
134{
Front axle, 438f
Front suspension mounts, 286
Front/rear brake split, 395
Frontal collision. 286, 302
Frontal impact, 21. 22, 3721, 372-373,
374{
Frontal impact protection criteria,
368-369, 369[
Front-mounted engine, 91-93, 92j,
94(,951,237
Front-wheel drive, 91-93, 92f, 94f.
951,218, 218J, 237, 237J, 448,
463,464,467,468
Front-wheel steering, 476-480
FTP75 (Federal Test Procedure 75,
U.S.),146[
Fuchs wheels, 82
Fuel cell batteries, 266, 267/
Fuel cell efficiency, 107, 109. IJ 0,
112, 113
Fuel cell propulsion, 107-1 t 3, 1081.
109J,
Fuel cells, 29, 107-113,278,614
Fuel consumption. 25, 36, 40, 4 If.
56-57,119,126, 140J,237, 238J,
241, 264J, 272(, 272-273, 426):
429, 429J, 524(, 613
diesel engine, 192, 193, 195
Fuel economy, 11-14, 35,113,171,
172. 172(, 173, 203. 204/: 206
Fuel filters. 494
Fuel hoses, 553
Fuel injection, 10, 11,28,29,139,
179-180
Fuel injection systems. 155-166
Fucllines, 97, 489
Fuel mixture, 139--140, 140;; 177
Fuel pressure regulator, 139
Fuel pump, 267,493
Fuel rails, 139
Fuel spray simulation, 200-201, 20lj
Fuel system, 488--499
Fuel system venting, 490;; 490-491
Fuelmnk,97.149,489,490,490j,
491J, 491-492, 495, 496, 496(,
498.498/
.
Fuel transfer, 493--494
Fuel volume measurement. 494--495
Fuel/air injector, 163
Fuels, 275-281, 277f
Functional build, 58-0
G switeh. 413
Galilee. I
Galvanic corrosion, 330, 331
Galvanizing, 331
Gamma machines. 118
Gang injection, 139
Gap dimensions, 290
Gas exchange, 123, 124(, 133-136,
166,166[
Gas flows, 43, 43/
Gas force, 132/
Gas injection technique (GIn, 566,
566/: 5661. 567[
Gas spring rate, 457
Gas turbines, 118-119, 119/
Gasmotorenfabrik Deurz, 123, 1751
Keyword Index
626
Gasoline, 203-204, 277j, 278
Gasoline direct injection (GDI)
engine, 156--157, IS7/, 203
GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine,
[56-157, 157}; 203
Gear changes, 229-230
Gear noise, 226
Gear ratio, 216, 217,226, 231-232
Gear selector lever, 234-235, 23~l
Gear selector sensor, 244
Gears, 226, 230-232
Gel cells, 116
Gemini space program, 109
General Motors, 108,539
General Use Permit, 16
Generator, 63, 265, 265f, 266/
German Federal Traffic
Administration, 605
Germany, If. 2/; 3, 3f, 95, 341, 349,
429, 429};488, 489, 502,507,533
aeeidcnts, 10, 10f, 365, 366f, 389/
regulations, 16--27, 17t, 181, 18f,
505,508,509,538,582,605
vehicles, I L 13. 13f, 215t, 294,
300
Gcrodise" coupling. 252
Geromatic'" eoupling, 251-253, 253/
GIT (gas injection technique), 566,
566/: 566/, 5671'
GKN Powrlock" differential, 251
GKN Viscolok coupling, 252, 254
Glare, 501
Glas.5401
Glass, 554-555
Glass fiber, 305-306, 314f, 3161, 551
Glass-mar-reinforced thermoplastic
(GMT), 551
Glazing, 305. 554-555
GLD (gas discharge lamps), 506
Global positioning system (GPS), 348,
3~1
Global sysrem for mobile
communications (GSM), 348,
349-350,533,534
GM Corvette. 5401
GMR (yaw moment control), 418
GMT (glass-mat-reinforced
thermoplastic). 551
Gold, 551, 557
Goodyear, Charles. 424
GPS (global positioning system). 348.
351
Grade resistance, 34j, 35
Graphite cast iron, 136, 138
Great Britain, 366f, 502
Greenhouse effect, 144
Gregoire AF. 540t
Ground elearence, 97
Gs discharge lamps (GDL), 506
GSM (global system for mobile
communications), 348, 349-350,
533,534
Guard rail frame, 382/
Guldner, Hugo, 1751
Haldex'" coupling, 254f, 254-255
Halfshafts. 218, 218/
Hall effect sensors, 244, 260. 261
Halogen bulbs, 505, 506, 506j, 507,
509
Halogen beadlamps, 501
Halogen lights, 506, 507/
Handicapped persons, 7
Handling properties, 482-488
Hanomag, 1761
Hard point package, 88
Hardware in the loop,S 18,594, 598j,
601,603/
H-arm suspension, 449, 449(
Hatchback, 39, 42j, 43/
HDPE (high density polyethylene),
492
Head injuries, 368
Head Injury Criterion (HIC), ]68, 369/
Head Protection Criterion (HPe). 369,
369/
Head restraints, 376--377, 377
Headlamp cleaning system, 504, 505/
Headlamp lenses, 504. 555
Headlamp range adjustment, 505
Headlarnps.cul-cu?
Headlight mounting points. 287
Headlights, 28, 29
Headroom, 9~. 98t
Heat engines, 116
Heal exchanger, 150/
Heat exchangers. 48, 119
Heat pump, 541
Heat transfer, 47-57
Heat treatment, 320
Heated element welding, 492
Heater, 51. 52f, 52-53, 53f. 541
Heating, 45, 51-53
Helium, 117
Heraclitus, 591
Hcrcules/McLarenILolUs,5401
Hexaffuorozirconic acid, 334
HIC (Head Injury Criterion), 368,
369/
HID (high intensity discharge) lamps.
506
Hierarchy of needs, 354, 354f
High beams, 502, 503, 504, 508
High density polyethylene (HDPE),
492
High intensity discharge (HID) lamps,
506
High-frequency welding, 558-559
High-pressure liquid fuel injection,
[61-162,162/
Hindenburg, 176t
Hip point, 285. 285f, 340
Hole-type nozzle, 188, 188f
Homogeneous mixtures, 163, 163f
Honda, 108, 4 Tlf
Prelude, 480
Honda VTEC engine, 169, 169/
Hood,187
Hooke joints, 218, 469, 469}:470/
Horizontally opposed engines, 126,
127f, 130" 131,
Hot butyl, 3341
HPC (Head Proteetion Criterion), 369,
369/
H-point, 21. 21[ 285, 285[ 340
Hcpoint template, 338-339, 340/
Hub,445
Human models, 341-342, 342f,
344-346, 346f
Humidity, l25
Hybrid bus, ll2-113, 120
Hybrid construction. 304-313, 306f.
J09f, 3lOf
Hybrid drives, 114-121
Hybrid drivetrains, 29, 247
Hybrid filters, 359
Hybrid III dummy, 370, 370/
Hybrid propulsion concepts, 114f,
114-116
Hybrid technology, 566--567, 567[,
5681'
Hydraulic actuation, 222, 222/
Hydraulic brake assistant, 419-421,
420f
Hydraulic brake boosters, 407-408
Hydraulic compensating elements,
1JJ
Hydraulie control unit (brakes), 414
Hydraulic mount, 442(
Hydraulic power steering, 470f, 471j,
472f, 473-474
Hydraulic slip conrrol, 2~7. 258/
Hydraulic telescoping dampers, 455
Hydraulic transmission controls, 234.
234f
Hydraulic valve control, 169f,
169-170
Hydrocarbons (HC), 10,23-25, 24t,
25,97
diesel engines, 183. 184/, 192, 195,
196, 198, 206, 206/
fuel cell propulsion, 107
gas turbines. 119
Otto-cycle engines, 140, 143, 145.
145f, 158
Stirling engines, 118
two-stroke engines, 271
Hydrodynamie clutch, 224
Hydrodynamic torque converter, 223(,
223-226,224/: 229
Hydrogen, 117. 277f, 280[ 281,496,
498
generation, 109, 113
storage, 109-110
Hydrogen embrittlemcnt, 557
Hydrogen fuel cells, 107-113. 108f,
[J Of, 113/
Hydromechanieal forming. 562
Hydroplaning, 426f, 426/, 486---487
Hydropneumatie active spring, 458.
459/
Hydropneumatic suspension, 458
Ideal gas. 178
Ideation, 83. 85
Idle speed control, 148
IF (interstitial free) steels. 543
Ignition coil, 142-143, 14V
Ignition delay, 159, 180-182, 18l.f;
182f; 185
Ignition system, 140-143
Ignition timing maps, 14 I}: 142
Ignition timing, 140f, 141f 141-142,
144,246
Key
-
[HF
IIIw
111m
Illw
IMI
im~
IM[
Iron
Imp
Imp
Imp
Imp
Inc,
Incl
Indo
Indi
Indi
IndJ
Indr
Indr
Indi
Indi
Ind
Iner
Inei
In.
Ine
Infl
In!
Inj1
Inj
In}
In}
Inj
Inj
Inj
Inj
Inl
[nl
Inl
ln
In.
[ru
In
In
In
In
In
In
In
In
In
I,
I,
lr
u
627
Keyword Index
IHF (internal hydroforming), 319J,
319-320, 562J, 562-565
Illuminance, 501, 506/
Illumination, 501-510
Illumination intensity, 501
IMO (in-mold decoration), 565, 565/
imep,166/
IML (in-mold lamination), 565
Immobilizer, 25
Impact dynamies, 372j; 372-374, 377,
3781; 379J, 380, 380J, 381f
Impact protection criteria, 368-369,
369J, 370f
Impact simulation, 369-370
Impeller, 356
Incandescent bulbs. 505, 506, 509
Inclination angle. 439
Independent suspension, 438, 445,
446t,447--448
Indicated efficiency, 125
Indium, 165
Individual fuel injection, 139
Induction module, 153-154
Induction runner shutoff, 161
Induction system materials, 138-139
Induction welding, 491, 492/
Inductive wheel speed sensors, 412,
412(
Inert gas welding, 492/
Inertia, 37
Inertia forces, 128-131, 129j; BOt,
131t, I 32j; 394f
Inertia moments. 130t, Bit
Information network interfaees, 514,
515,516
Infrared, 510, 554-555
Injection, 179-180, 185/
Injection molded plastics, 403
Injection molding, 325, 329j: 565,
566-567,569
Injection pump, 185-187, 186J; 187/
Injection system, 185-192, 186J, 191,
191f
Injector. 188-191, 190/
Injector nozzle, 187-189
Injury mitigation, 21-22
Inline engines, 126, 127j, 130t
Inline injection pump, 187, 187/
Inline pumps, 493
In-mold decoration (JMO), 565, 565/
In-mold lamination (lMLj, 565
Innovation, 9-16, 27-31. 281, 30/
Innovation waves, 15!
Institute filr Fahrzeugtechnik (Institute
for Automotive Technology). 362
Intake runners, 193
Intake system, 133-136, 134J, 135J,
166-168, 167(
Intake valve train,'134J, 167, 16~(
In-lank pumps. 493
Integral suspension. 449/
Intelligent technical systems, 27, 28/
Intelligent tools, 586
Interface protocol. 149
Interfaces, 514-516
Interior design, 82, 338-347
lntcrior dimensions, 901, 98t, 285,
285J, 2851
Interior flow simulation, 593-594
Interior layout, 338-344
Interior lighting, 510
Interior surfaces, 72/
Interior vehicle loads, 597, 597f
Internal combustion, 123
Internal hydroforming (IHF), 319j,
319-320, 562J, 562-565
Internal injuries, 368
International Research Council on the
Biomechanics of Impacts
(IRCOBI), 367
International Telecommunications
Union (ITU), 533
Internet, 347
Interstitial free (IF) steels. 543
Inverters, 104-105
Ion current detector. 142
IRCOBI (lntemational Research
Council on the Biomechanics of
Impacts), 367
Ireland. 502
Iridium, 551
Iron, 541J, 542
Iron losses, 522, 522f
ISAD (integrated starter alternator
damper) system, 265, 266/
ISO, 37, 75, 126,537,
lsocaudcla, 501
Isochors.117,117f
Isolux. 50 I
Isotherms, 117, 117/
Isotropic steels, 543
Italy. 366/
ITU (International
Telecommunications Union), 533
Jacking, 439
Jaguar, 80, 448
Japan, 156, 157. 215t, 391, 458, 459,
482,502, 504
Jaw clutch, 226
Jet pump, 494, 494f
Jet ring fans, 50
Jewel look, 510
Joining element dimensioning, 590
Joining methods, 290, 295-296, 309,
311J, 312, 3121; 313/. 550,
558-561
Joints, 218. 319-320, 320f, 322f, 332/
Jounce, 437,439,447
Journal bcarings. 210
Juddcr, 40 I
Junkers Motorenbau GmbH, 176t
Kamm's friction circle. 410(, 411, 431
.
Kiel dummy, 339
Kinematics, 437--439, 462--470
Kinetic energy, 120
Kingpin axis, 43&/; 439. 443-444,
445,462,4621,464,465(: 466/
Kingpin inclination, 462t
Kingpin offset. 439, 462t, 462--463,
463f. 464f
K-Line,527
Knee displacement, 369, 369/
Knock, 144, l72
Knock control, 148
Knoekback, 400
Koessler, 362
Koyo Seiko, 478f
Krupp,539
Lamborghini, 80, 293
Laminated safety glass, 554-555
Laminating, 565, 565/
Laneia Lambda, 539
Land Rover Discovery II, 459, 46Qf
Lap belt. 377-378
Laser measurement technology,
600-<;01
Laser welding. 296. 320. 491, 492,
492J, 558
Late intake opening, 167, 168/
Lateral acceleration, 486, 486j; 487/
Lateral acceleration sensors, 260,
262J,413,413f
Lateral force, 40, 392, 394f. 41 OJ, 431,
4321; 433J, 444, 445f
Lateral force coefficient, 410, 41Qf.
41lJ, 415f
Lattice Boltzmann method. 593
Lauster, Imanuel, 1751
Layered fiber composites, 327, 328(
Lead, 557
Lead-acid battery, 106, 106/, 116,
523/. 523-524
Lead/gel battery, ll6
Leaf springs, 446
Leak detection pump, 519, 519/
Leather, 553-554, 554f
LEOs (light emitting diodes), 507, 509
Left-hand traffic, 502
Legroom, 95, 98/, 285
Leisure travel, 3, 3/
Lenses, 504, 555
Lever ann sender, 495, 495j'
Lexus GS300. 481
'
LFT (long-fiber thermoplastics). 5521.
552-553
License plate, 25
License plate lamps, 509
Lift coefficient, 43
Lift force, 40, 40/
Light emitting diodes lLEDs), 507,
509
Lighting, 501-510
Lighting equipment. 2 L 22/
Lighting tests, 508
Lighrweight construction, 292-296,
293J, 304-313, 314-324, 315f
Limited slip, 251, 256
Limited-pressure process, 178, 178/
Limited-slip differential, 218, 447
Linear motion, 37
Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 277J,
278,281,496,498
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), 277j;
278,281
Liquid cooling, 149-150, 150/
Liquid hydrogen, 27~f. 28Q/; 281,496,
498
Lithium battery, 116
Lithium-ion battery, 106, 1061
Lithium-polymer battery, 106, ) 06/,
107
Keyword Index
628
Live axle, 446, 446J, 447
Lloyd 300, 5401
LNG (liquefied natural gas), 277/,
278,281,496,498
Load dumping, 523
Load leveling, 456, 45~r
Load simulation, 601, 60 lJ
Load-carrying behavior, 429--430
Load-carrying structure, 96
Load-change bucking, 74, 74J
Load-change vibrations, 74j, 74-75
Loads, 597, 597./
Locking differential, 218
Lockup clutch, 224-225, 225/
Lockup torque converters, 224-225,
225j
Lokasil. 237, 137J,555-556
Longevity, 195
Long-fiber thermoplastics (LFT),
5521,552-553
Longitudinal aeeeleration sensor, 413
Longitudinal dynamics, 3901,
391-392
Longitudinal engine, 217
Longitudinal force, 38
Longitudinal friction force, 433/
Longitudinal member, 384, 384/
Longitudinal mounting, 91, 92-94,
92/: 93!, 94(, 153(
Longitudinal suspension forces,
391-392
Longitudinal tractive forces, 409-410,
411
Long-stroke engines, 194
L'Orange, 1751
Lotus Elite Coupe, 540t
Low beams, 501, 503j, 504. 508
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), 277J,
278,281
Lubricant, 227-228
Lubrication, 151J, 151-153,273
Luggage compartment, 96, 98t
Luminous intensity, 501, 50~f
Luxury ear, 57/
M diesel engine. 174, 174f, 1751, 193
Maeh number, 40
Machining, 329/
MADYMO.385
Magnesium, 138, 305, 306J, 314, 314j,
316J,558
Magnesium alloys, 320, 322, 32~/;
541,547-548,548'
Magnesium aluminum silicate, 556
Magnetoresisrive wheel speed
sensors, 4l2J, 412-413
Magsimal-59, 545-546, 546J, 5461
MAN, 175/, l76t
Man in the loop, 598/
MAN M diesel engine, 174. 174j,
l75t,193
Manganese, 334, 546-547
Manual design process, 83-85, 84j,
86j
Manual steering, 472
Manual transmission, 215t, 219,
226-228, 226J, 227/; 228j
Manufacturer's plate, 26
Manufacturing strategy. 582-583
Map-controlled dampers, 458
Marker lamps, 509
Marketing, 80-81
Marque, 293
Maschinenfabrik Augsburg, 1751
Maserati 3500 GT, 293
Maslow, 354, 354/
MASR (motor antisJip regulation),
417,418
Mass airflow, 513f, 513-514, 514f
Master cyl inder, 404-405
Materials, 539-573
Maximum ozone formation potential,
184
Maybach/Daimler, 5401
Mazda, 209, 210/
MB A-class, 462/
MBS (multi-body systems), 383J, 384,
385.434. 435j
MeKechnie, 1761
McPherson suspension, 448
MD (mini disc), 532
MEA (membrane electrode
assembly), 108
Measurement chain principle, 600/
Measurement technology, 596J, 599,
600r
Mechanical brake assistant, 419, 420/
Mechanical control, 391
Mechanical efficiency, 125
Mechanical losses, 522, 522/
Mechanical supercharging system,
209-210, 210j, 215
Membrane electrode assembly
(MEA). 108
Memory, 243
Mercedes ABD (automatic brake
differential),256
Mercedes-Benz, 458
0405. 109
A-class, 83, 94J, 111,205,490
C-class hybrid, 115/
Bclass, 449J, 570/
G-model,44t!f
4matic, 250, 251/
MBIOO, III
Scclass. 9, 9J, 98t, 459, 4621,553,
554, 554t
SLK.302
Smart, 9, 9f
Type 260 D, 1761
Y12, 142
V-class, 109, III
Mercedes-Benz five-speed Type SO
150 transmission, 228, 228/
Mercedes-Benz Mill engine, 210,
211J, 212, 213j
Mereury switches, 413
Metal foams, 548-549, 549f
Metal forming simulation, 592, 592/
Metal inert gas (MJG) welding, 296,
313(.320, 320j
Metal matrix composites (MMC),
555-556
Metal oxide coatings, 554
Metal/plastic composites, 566-567,
567J, 568j
KeY'
--
Mull
Mull
Methane, 184,277/, 280
Methanol, 277J, 279, 495
Methanol fuel cells, 107, l l O, llQf,
IlL 113j
Methanol production, 110. 113
Michelin, 5401
Michelin PAX, 446
Microalloyed steels, 543
Microprocessor self-diagnostics, 149
Mid-mounted engine, 93-94, 94/,951
Mid-range class, 98f, 981
Mini disc (MD), 532
Minivans, 490
Mirror mounts, 44
Mirrors, 46-47
Misfires, 149
Misfiring, 144
Misuse tests, 598J, 599
Mitsubishi.481
Mitsubishi GDI engine, 156. 157
Mitsubishi MIVEC engine, 169
Mixed hybrids, 116
Mixed-material construction,
Mull
Mull
MUD
MYI
Nad.
Nati
Nan
Nan
Nav
Nav
Neb
Nee
Nee
Nee
NEI
304-313. 306J, 309J, 310j
Mixture formation. 179-180, 185
MKS-Crash module, 38~f
MMC (metal matrix composites),
555-556
Mobil Oil, 278
Mobile stations. 350, 350/
Mobile switching centers, 350, 350/
Mobility,I-7
Mobility centers, 611
Mobility model, 606, 60~r
Modifieation freedom, 578-579, 57~f.
582
Modular construction, 99, 100,
289-290, 307/
Mold casting, 323/
Moment vector, 38
Moments. 465, 469
Moose test, 488
MOST (media oriented systems
transpon),536
Motion, I
Motor antislip regulation (MASR),
4l7,418
Motor Vehiele EMC Directive, 537
Motorcycles, 33
Motorization. ~(, 2
Motorola, 532
Motronic engine rnanagemcnt system,
148j
Mounting elements, Tlf. 73-74
MP3,532
MPX-S (multiplex signal), 348
MSR (engine drag torque control),
258,418
MTU.1761
Mudflaps,44
Muffler support, 286
Muffler volumes, 96
Multi-body systems (MBS), 383J,384.
385, 434, 435F
Multifunction displays, 343
Multilink suspension, 449/
Multimedia networking, 534-536
Multimedia systems, 531-538
NEl
Net
Net
Nee
Ne,
N",
NE
NIt
Nic
Nic
Ni,
Ni~
Nil
Nis
Nh
Ni!
Ni:
Ni
Ni
Ni
Ni
Ni
Ni
I
N
N
N
N
Keyword Index
Methane, 184,277(.280
Methanol, 277[, 279, 495
Methanol fuel cells, 107, 110,110/;
111,
l1Jf
Methanol production, 110, 113
Michelin, 540/
Michelin PAX, 446
Microalloyed steels, 543
Microprocessor self-diagnostics, 149
Mid-mounted engine, 93~94, 94j; 95t
Mid-range class, 98[, 98t
Mini disc (MD), 532
Minivans, 490
Mirror mounts, 44
Mirrors, 46-47
Misfires, 149
Misfiring, 144
Misuse tests, 598[, 599
Mitsubishi, 481
Mizsubishi GDl engine, 156, 157
Mitsubishi MIVEC engine, 169
Mixed hybrids, 116
Mixed-material construction,
304-313, 306f; 309f; 31 Of
Mixture formation, 179-180, 185
MKS-Crash module. 383/
MMC (metal matrix composites),
555-556
Mobil Oil, 278
Mobile stations, 350. 350/
Mobile switching centers, 350, 350/
Mobility, 1-7
Mobility centers, 611
Mobility model. 606, 606{
Modification freedom, 578- 579,579/:
582
Modular construction. 99, 100,
289-29O,307f
Mold casting, 32Jf
Moment vector, 38
Moments, 465, 469
Moose test, 488
MOST (media oriented systems
transport), 536
Motion, 1
Motor antislip regnlation (MASR),
417,418
Motor Vehicle EMC Directive, 537
Motorcycles, 33
Motorization, 2[, 2
Motorola. 532
Motronic engine management system,
148/
Mounting elements, 73[, 73-74
MP3,532
MPX-S (multiplex signal), 348
\ofSR (engine drag torque control),
258,418
\.ITU, 1761
\ofudftaps,44
Muffler support, 286
\ofuffier volumes, 96
\ofulti-body systems (MBS), 383f, 3 84,
385,434,435/
\otullifunction displays, 343
\..fultilink suspension, 449f
\ofultimedia networking, 534-536
I.ofultimedia systems, 531-538
629
Keyword Index
Multiphase steels, 543-544
MuItiplate cluteh, 232-233, 233/
Multiplex signal (MPX-S), 348
Multipoint injection, lJ9, 139/
Munich Technical University, 346
MVEG A driving eycle (Europe), 146/
Nader, Ralph, 10, 362
National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA), 362
Natural fibers, 569l, 570/
Natural gas, 277j; 279-281, 496, 496j;
497j; 498
Navier-Stokes equations. 592, 593
Navigation systems, 34], 347,
351-352,531
Nebus (New Electric Bus), 109, 11 1,
112j; lilt, 112-Ill
Necar (New Electric Car), 109, 111.
1111. 111/, 112, 112(
Neck injuries, 368
Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). 369, 369j
NEDC (Ncw European Driving
Cycle), 1 tl, 165
NEO Di engine, 158
Net brake power, 126
Netherlands traffie fatalities, 366/
Neural networks, 595
New European Driving Cycle
(NEDC), III, 165
New vehicle program, 577
NExT (Nissen Exquisitely Tuned
Combustion), 158
NIC (Neck Injury Criterion), 369. 369/
Nickel, 334, 557
Nickel-cadmium battery, 106, 106l,
116
Nickel-metal hydride battery, 106,
106/,116
Night driving, 501
Night vision, 510
Nissen. 108,458
Nissen Active Brake limited slip, 256
Nissen ETS eoupling, 255. 255f
Nissan Exquisitely Tuned Combustion
(NExT), 158
Nissan NEO Di engine, 157-158
Nitrate stability, 165
Nitric oxide (NO), 145, 145/; 183,
198,201
Nitrogen, 117, 144
Nitrogen dioxide (N02)' 145, 165,
166,198,199
Nitrogen oxides (NO,), 10, 24t. 107
diesel engines, 183, 192, 195, 196,
198, 198f: 199f
gas turbines, 119
Otto-cycle engines, 143, 145, 160,
164-166
Stirling engines, 118
two-stroke engines, 271
Nobium,317
Noble metals, 551
Noble-metal catalytic converters, 164
Noise,5S-77,119,613
frequency, 65-67, 66f
interior, 45--47, 58
level" 58f, 59(. 60f, 66/
simulation, 65. 651
testing, 22-23, 23/
transmission, 71[, 71-73
Noise emissions, 7, 11.22-23,23('62,
75f; 75-76, 761. 192, 193, 214,
227,272,272/
Noise regulations, 23, 75, 96
Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC),
184
Nonmethane organic gases (NMOG),
184
Nonselective catalytic reaction
(NSCR),198'
North America, 215t
Norway, 502
Notchback, 41,44/; 284
NO, (nitrogen oxides) adsorber; 164,
165,165/
NO, conversion rate, 204, 204f
NO, selectivity, 164-165
NO. sensor, 164
NO. storage catalytic converter, 1991
199-200,200/
Nozzle, 187-189, 193
Nozzle geometry, 188, 189f
Nozzle holder, 188-189, 190/
Nozzle holes, 188, 189j; 192
Nozzle needles, 188, 188/
Nozzle valves, 188
NSCR (nonselective catalytic
reaction), 198
Numerical simulation, 158-159
OAIS (Overall Abbreviated Injury
Scale),367
OBD (onboard diagnostics), 23, 25,
149,519-520
OBD 11, 489, 519/
Objective evaluation, 483-488
OBU (on board unit), 351
Occupant protection, 374-379
Occupant simulation, 385-386
Off-road driving, 459
Off-road vehicles, 7, 97-98, 447
Oil,47-48, 151,210--211
Oil change, 152-153
Oil cooler, 50, 50[, 152
Oil filter, 152, 152(
Oil pan, 152
.
Oil pressure, 151
Oil pump, 151-152,233-234
Oil sump, 152
Oil temperature sensor, 244
On board unit (OBU), 351
Onboard diagnostics (OBD), 23, 25,
149,519-520
Onboard electrieal system, 266, 267f
Onboard refueling vapor recovery
(ORVR),491
One-eylinder engines. 126, 132f
One-shot technology, 565, 565f
On/offboosler.419
Opel,540t
Opel Ecotec diesel engine, 1761
Operating conditions, 596f, 597
Operating point, 207f, 207-208
Operating point shift, 17 If, 171-172
Optical recognition, 247
Optimization, 590--591, 602
Orbital Engine Corporation. 163
Organometals, 551
ORVR (onboard refueling vapor
recovery),491
Oscillating inertia forces. 128-129,
129/
Osmium, 551
Otto, Nicolaus August, 123
Otto-cycle engines, 123, 123-173,
195-196, 196/
Output, 126
Overall Abbreviated Injury Scale
(OAIS),367
Overdrive factor, 216. 217f
Overflow container, 490j; 49Q-49!
Overhead camshaft, 131, 132{
Overhead valves 131, 132/
Overlap shift, 230
Overpressure, 45, 46r 355
Oversteer, 418
Overvolrage, 522-523
Oxidation, 184
Package, 88-101,284-285, 304, 338
Package database, 89-90
Paint. 3]1, 331/
Paint baking, 317
Painting, 306-307, 3311, 335-336,
557-558
Palladium, 551
Palm oil, 279
PAMCrash, 384, 385
Panhard Dyna 54, 540t
Panhard rod, 446
Paper lining. 233
Paraboloid reflector, 502, 503l
Parallel hybrids, 114-115, 116
Parameter memory (EPROM). 149,
243
Parameter optimization. 590
Park gear, 235
Park pawl, 235
Parked vehicles, 75
Parking brake, 20, 395, 398, 399, 39~t:
421
Parking lamps. 509
Parking space, 4, 7, 14
Partial zero emissions vehicles
(PZEV'),102
Particle size. 196-197, 197f
Particulate filters, 196--198, 197f, 357,
3581. 359
Particulates, 10,23,24/, 145
diesel engines, 183-185, 185[, 192,
196-198,197(.1981. 205, 206,
206/
Pascal, 1, II7, 117f
Passenger cabin, 45
Passenger eomfort. 45
Passenger compartment, 52, 53
Passenger traffic, lj; 3f
Passenger-kilometers, If, 2, 3l
Passive suspensions, 391
Passive vehicle safety, 21, 22f
Passive wheel speed sensors, 4 I2,
412/
Patrick. Lawrence M., 367
630
K
Patrick eurve, 368,3681
Pawl,235
Pcconvcrgence. 590
POM (product data management), 90
Pedal feel, 397-398
Pedestrian collision, 367f, 382, 383/
Pedestrian impact, 21
Pedestrian traffic, 3, 3/
PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane)
fuel cell, I08-I09.109L, ItO
Permanent magnet excited
synchronous motors. 103. 105.
105t
Permanent magnet motors, 103
Petit Pierre, 1751
Peugeot, 176t
Philips, 532
Phosphating, 331t, 334-335
Phosphorus, 317
Phosphorus-based microalloys, J 17
Photometric units, 50 I f
Physical ignition delay, 180
Physics, 33-77
Pierce riveting, 296, 296J; 305, 309.
311/312, 312/ 313/ 320, 559,
559f
Pillars, 287-288,288/,2891"
Pilot injection, 185·
.
Pintle nozzle, 188, 188!"
Piston acceleration, 12S
Piston bowl, 156, IS7/, 157, 158, 160,
175f
Piston compressor, 163
Piston cooling, 152
Piston force, 130, 1321
Piston side thrust, 129
Piston travel, 128
Piston velocity, 128
Pistons, 138, 194, 194(.539
Pitch acceleration, 38
Pitch angle, 37
Pitch moment, 38, 401
Pitch motion, 452f
Pitch velocity. 38
Pitman arm, '466-467,4671: 471
Planar independent suspension. 447,
447f
Planet gear carrier, 231-232
Planetary automatic transmissions.
230-232
Planetary differential. 250, 2501
Planetary gear train. 230-232, 2321
Planetary rransmisison. 477f
Plastic engine components, [38-139
Plastic foams, 327, 328f
Plastic lenses, 504
Plastic molding, 3291
Plastics, 305-306, 314, 314/: 316f,
325,540,541, 54lf, 542,
551-553
Plastisols.Bj-tr
Platform development, 100, 1001
Platform strategies, 586
Plating, 557
Platinum, 551
Plunger tandem master cylinder, 405,
405f
Pneumatic rrail, 463
Poisson's equation, 178
Polar moment of inertia, 394{
Polimotor Research Inc., 5401
Polyamide, 551
Polyearbonate, 504, 555
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,
183,1841
Polyester, 551
Polyester resins, 326
Polyglyco,409
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM)
fuel cell. 108-109, 109t, 110
Polymer matrices, 569, 569t
Polvmcrs. 325, 404, 565-567
Polypropylene, 551
Polyurethane, 325, 327-328, 32~{
Poly-V belts, 153, 1531
Pontiac, 539
Pcrsche, 82, 99f, 540t, 547
904 GTS, 5401
910/8,540t
911,93/ 97f, 547, 448
917, 540t
928. 448
Boxstcr,94f, 137f, 462t, 547
Carrera 4, 392{
Porsche ABO (automatic brake
differential). 256
Powder paints, 336
Power brakes, 259
Power curves, 10~1: 207. 20~r
Power density, 106, 1061
Power pack, 474
Power split hybrid, 116
Power steering, 266, 470j, 471,1; 472f,
473/473-475,476
Power steering pump, 63
Power supply, 514
PPS (product program submission), 83
Prechamber diesel engine, 174. 174{:
175/; 188, 192, 195. 196/
Precoating, 3J I
Preforms, 555, 5551
Prepreg, 325f, 551!, 551-552
Pressed glass, 504
Pressure check valve, 493
Pressure drag, 39
Pressure limiter, 493
Pressure lubrication system, 151f,
151-152
Pressnre plate, 219, 2201
Pressure regulator, 244, 2441
Pressure sensor, 414
Pressure trace, 143-144, 1441
Pressure wave supercharger, 195,209,
PROMETHEUS, 7/ 29, 29f, 607,
607/608f
.
Props hafts, 2[8
Propulsion forces, 391
Propulsion systems, 101-121
Propulsion unit, 61--63
Prototypes, 580, 585, 601--602
PSPF (Pubic Symphysis Peak Force),
369,370f
Psychoaeoustic evaluation, 136
PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene), 408
Pubic Symphysis Peak Force (PSPF),
369, 370f
Publie transportation, If, 2f, 3f, 3-4,
4f, 14
Pulley sets, 240-241
Pulse-width-modulated signals, 516
Purchasing planning, 578
Push belt, 239, 239f, 242
PWM valves, 245
PZEVs (partial zero emissions
vehicles), 102
Quality assurance, 77, 603--604
Quality circle, 604f
R
R
R
R
R
R
~
~
~
~
~
F
~
F
F
F
F
F
~
Queen Elizabeth Il, 175t
I
Quench motion, 180
I
I
Rack and pinion steering, 466, 467,
I
471/471-472, 472f, 474f
I
Radial blower, 51, 521
Radial brakes, 398
Radial plunger pumps, 186-187
Radial tires, 424-425
Radial turbine wheel, 211-212
Radiated immunity, 536-537
Radiated noise, 591
Radiator, 45, 48-50, 49f, 501
Radio, 348f, 348-349
Radio data system (RDS), 348-349,
3491,532
Radio reception, 537
Radiophones, 351
Rag joint, 469
Rain. 44
Ramp angles, 97
Ramped excitation, 527
RAMS1S, 95. 341-342. 342f, 346.
I
I
346f
.
Range extender concept. II 5-116
Rapeseed oil, 279
Rapeseed oil methyl ester (R..\1E), 495
Ravigneaux gear trains. 23 l , 232
RBCe coupling, 25~/; 254
RDS (radio data system), 348-349,
532
209/21O/212,212f
Reach envelope, 343, 343f
Prerensioners, 375
Reactants. 108-109
Primer, 335-336
Process planning, 578f, 578-582, 5801
Rear axle svsrem. 72f
Rear collision, 286
Product creation, 575--604
Product data management (POM). 90
Rear impact, 373-374
Product description. 83, 88
Rear position lamps, 508
Product program submission (PPS),
Rear subframe, 4401
83
Rear suspension crossmember,
Production volume. 582
286-287
Rear-mounted engine, 93, 93f, 94, 94f,
Program checkpoints, 576f, 5801
Program planning, 575-578
951
Project organization, 584, 584f
Rear-seat passengers, 347
I
I
I
I
631
Keyword Index
Rear-wheel drive, 91, 93, 93J, 94, 94J,
951,218, 218J, 230, 237, 401,411
Rear-wheel steering, 479j; 480J,
48l}-482,481/
Rebound, 437,439
Recapped tires, 429
Receiver-drier, 53, 54
Receivers, 532
Reciprocating-piston combustion
engines. 123
Recirculating ball steering. 470J,
470--471
Rectifier, 521
Recycling, 42~f, 569-571, 570J, 571f
Reference holes, 295
Reflectance. 504/
Reflection, 441-442, 442f
Reflectivity, 504
Reflectors, 502-504
Reformer, 110
Refrigerant, 53-55, 55f
Refrigerant cycle, 55f
Regulations, 16-27,75,96,98,102,
489,501,504
tire, 429
Relative tip clearance, 210
Release bearing, 220f
Release duration, 396
Release pressure, 219
Release time, 396
Reliability tests, 601
Renault, 93
Renewable resources, 568-569. 569(
Repairs, 99, 297, 298f
Resin transfer molding, 327
Resonant frequency, 221, 221J, 222,
291,301,309,450,453,456/
Resource profiles, 581
Restraint systems, 375-377
Reverse tumble, 157, 157f
Reynolds number, 40, 593
Rhodium,55l
Ride comfort, 427, 427f
Ride steer, 437
Right-hand traffic, 502
Rigid-axle suspension, 445
Ring gear, 231-232
Ring winding, 103
Rio de Janeiro, 606
Rio Principle, 606
Riveting. See Pierce riveting
RME (rapeseed oil methyl ester).
495-496
Road pricing, 608
Road testing, 598f
Roadster, 300
RobCAD/man, 346
Robert Boseh GmbH, 189
Robots, 336
Rocker arms. 132/; 133, 169
Roll aceeleranon, 38
Roll angle, 37, 453, 486f
Roll axis, 439
Roll bar, 302
Roll eenter, 438--439
Roll moment, 38, 40f, 453
Roll oscillations, 453, 454.(
Roll steer, 437
Roll stiffness, 392
Roll velocity, 38
Rollback,400
Roller followers, 133, 134f
Rolling noise, 71f
Rolling radius. 39
Rolling resistance, 34{, 34--35, 35J,
426/,428--429, 430{, 430t
Rolling resistance coeffi-cient, 12,35,
35/
Rollover, 302, 374, 374.(
Roll-up sleeve effect, 326f
Roof, 288J, 288-289
Roof crush resistance, 371
Roots supercharger, 212, 213f
Rotary piston, 212
Rotary vane eompressor, 55
Rotational force, 130, 132f
Rotor, 212, 212J, 521
Rover, 169
Rover ETC (electronie traction
control), 256
Rubber behavior, 433--434, 434{, 553
Rubber mounts, 73J, 440, 445
Run-flat tire systems, 436
Running lamps, 508
Ruthenium, 551
Rzeppa, Hans, 218
Seat belts, 375, 376, 377J, 377-378
anchorage, 370-371, 375, 375f
Seat crossmember, 286, 286f
Seat dimensions, 341f
Seat location, 452
Seat tests, 370-371
Seat-belt retraetors, 286
Seating, 95-96, 98(, 302
Seating buck, 95-96, 343, 344.(
Seating position, 285, 285f
Searing reference point, 21, 285, 285J,
340
Seating surface, 340-341
Secondary air injection, 147
Seiliger process, 178, 178f
Selandia. 175/
Selective catalytic reaction (SCR),
198. 199
Selective catalytic reduetion (SCR),
165
Self-diagnosis. 526, 526f
Self-diagnostics, 149
Self-learning, 149
Self-supporting tire carcass, 436
Self-supporting tires, 446
Semiconductor ignition, 141
Semiconductor switches, 265, 525
Semirrailing arm suspension, 447,
447J, 449
Saab, 142,370, 377f
Semi trailing link suspension, 448
Sac-hole nozzle, 188
Senior citizens, 7
Sensor failure, 149
SAE (Society of Automotive
Sensor functions, 329-330
Engineers), 90, 125, 126, 139,
501
Scnsors, 244, 260-261, 262(,
411-414,458, 511-514, 512J,
SAE H-point template, 338-339, 340f
Safe life quality, 317, 318f
513t
Sequential injection, 139
Safety, 297,302,362-386,364/
Safety belt testing, 602f
Serial hybrids, I I Sf, 115-/16
Safety belts, 375
Service brake system, 395
Safety glass, 554-555
Serviee life tests, 60 [
Safety regulations, 10,17/, 2Qf.20-22,
Service properties. 425--429, 426j.
362,3621,3631
4261
Safety Stutz, 5401
Servotronic, 473--474, 474(, 475,4 75f,
Safety testing, 591-592
476
Sand casting, 539
SgRP,21
Shape factor, 120
Sandwich composites, 550J, 550-551
Sandwieh structures, 323-324, 324(,
Shape optimization, 41,43, 590
327-328,328/
SHED test (sealed housing
Sauter mean diameter (SMD), 162
evaporative determination), 489
Sheet metal, 293, 294--295, 306, 306f,
Seandinavia, 504, 508, 533
308j, 317, 331, 539
Scavenging, 271, 271f
Schedule, 58 If
Sheet molding compound (SMC),
Scissors effect, 183, 183f
306, 307J, 326-327, 551
SCR (selective catalytie reaction),
Shift, 226, 230
Shifl eomponenrs, 232-233
198,199
SCR (selective catalytic reduction),
Shift meehanism, 227J, 228
165
Shift programs, 246-247
Shift quality. 235-236, 241, 246
Screw pumps, 493
Scroll compressor, 55, 212-213, 213f,
Shift schedule, 236. 236(
Shifting lever. 234--235: 235f
2141
Scrub radius, 462
Shock absorber. 440
Shock absorber forees, 392
SEA (statistical energy analysis), 591
Shoek absorber friction, 448
Sealant, 334, 334t
Sealed beam headlamps, 501, 504
Shock absorbers. See dampers
Short-fiber thermoplastics, 552t
Sealing, 332, 334, 334t
Sealing wax, 336, 336t
Shoulder room, 97, 98t
Searehlamps. 508
Shredder light fraction (SLF), 569,
571
Seat adjustment, 34Q{, 340-341, 341f
Keyword Index
632
51 (spark ignition) engine, 123
Sickle link, 448
SID (side impact dummy), 370, 370/;
3711, 380, 381/
Side force, 40j, 390. 39l, 392. 433f
Side impact, 21, 22, 2~8, 302. 373,
379-380, 3801,381/
Side impact dummy (SID), 370, 370/;
3711, 380, 381/
Side impact protection criteria, 369,
370(.371
Side panel assembly, 287-288, 288!
Side pinions, 217
Sideslip. 410
Sideslip angle, 38
Siemens Automotive, 163
Sight angles, 95
Signal lamps, 508-510
Signal processing, 516-517
Signaling headlamps, 502
Silafont 36, 546. 547{; 5471
Silencer volumes. 96
Silicate technology, 430
Silicon, 136-137, 137J, 555-556
Silicon nitride valves, 556
Silicone, 409
Silver, 551, 557
Simplex drum brake, 398, 398/
Simpson gear trains, 231,232
Simulation. 583, 584{
Simulation technology, 587-595, 588t
Simultaneous engineering, 575f,
575-587
Single point injection, 139
Sintered metals, 38
Sintered rods, 138
Sintcring, 329{
Sinusoidal input, 488
Six-cylinder engines, 126, 127J, 128,
130t, 1311, 13~r
Skeleton construction, 293
Ski sack. 490
Skin, 283-284, 284f
Skin drag, 39
Skyhook prineiple, 458
Slalom tests, 488
Sleeve stiffening, 457
SLF (shredder light fraction ), 569,
571
Sliding calipers, 402J, 402--403, 403f
Sliding frame eatipers, 402--403, 403{
Sliding speeds, 430
Sliding zones, 43 J. 431f
Slip, 223, 410
Slip angle, 39, 390, 391, 410,410/:
431, 432f, 486{
Slip-ring rotor, 103
Sloan, Alfred P., 79
Small car segment, IO{
Smart. 9, 9/: 10(, 94{
Smart card systems, 611
Smart materials, 329-330
Smart power, 525
Smart power switch. 265
SMC (sheet molding eompound), 306,
3071, 326-327, 551
SMD (Sauter mean diameter), 162
SMG Engineering GmbH, 562
Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE).501
Sodium-filled exhaust valves, 138
Sodium-nickel chloride battery, 106,
1061. ll6
Sodium-sulfur battery, 106
Soft combustion, 192, 193
Software in the loop, 518, 594, 601
Soiling, 43--44, 284
Soldering, 491, 492f
Solenoid valve, 244J, 244-245, 257,
258/
Solvent emissions, 337(
Soot, 183-184. 184[, 184t, 192, 196
Sound. See Noise
Sound insulation, 67J, 67--68,681; 4421
Sound pressure distribution. 591
SP programs, 236, 236f
Space cams, 169
Space frame, 293-299, 294/; 31 Of.
3 I (}--320, 321f
Space shuttle, 109
Spare tire, 97, 446
Spare tire well, 287
Spark duration, 142
Spark energy, 142
Spark ignition (SI) engine, 123
Spark ping, 142, 14~r
Spatial geometry, 338, 339f
Spatial independent suspension, 448,
448(,449/
Spatial perception, 285
Spatial suspensions, 468
Specific mass, 126
Speech recognition, 353
Speed control, 246, 262
Speed-sensitive power steering.
473--474
Spherical independent suspension,
447-448, 448/
Spider gears, 217
Spindle, 445
Split brake systems, 395-396
Sport mode, 236, 236j"
Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), 97-98
Sports car, 44J, 456
Spot welding, 290, 295, 3l2J, 313/;
317,539,558
Spray booths, 336
Spray models, 162, 163J, 594, 594/
Spray propagation, 180
Spray-guided combustion systems,
155-156,156/: 1591, 159-160
Spring constants, 45~r
Spring forces, 392
Spring rate, 441
Spring stiffness, 452{
Spring surface stiffness, 457
Springing, 450--461. 451/; 455f
Springs. 446, 450-453, 451J, 452J,
453(,456-459.4561, 457{
Spyder,300
Sqneeze casting, 137, 137/; 323/; 546,
563,563/
Squirrel-cage motor, 103
Stability systems, 257-259, 259/, 261
Stabilizer, 451J, 453--454, 458-460
Stabilizer bar, 453
Staged combustion, 195
Staged release, 585
Stainless steel, 540, 545
Standardization, 530, 530t, 602
Stapp, John, 367
Stapp Car Crash Conferences, 367
Starch, 279
Starter, 153
Starter battery, 523
Starter/generator units, 170
Static compression, 450
Static toe-in. 38
Stationary traffic, 4
Statistical energy analysis (SEA), 591
Stator winding, 104
Steady-state cornering. 486, 48~(
Steel, 293, 299, 314, 314/. 316/: 317,
3191, 403, 539, 541. 5411,
542-545,564
Steel foam, 328{
Steer angles, 437
Steer-by-wire, 391, 476, 47~f,
478-480,525
Steering, 38.390-391
Steering angle, 390-391,444,445,
463,464, 464/: 4651: 467,
468-469
Steering angle map, 48Q{
Steering angle sensors, 260-261,
26~(
Steering assist, 472--475
Steering axis. See Kingpin axis
Steering box, 466-467, 470--472
Steering gear, 466-467
Steering impulse test, 486
Steering kinematics, 439, 462--470
Steering knuckle, 445
Steering linkage, 466-467, 467j"
Steering ratio. 38, 469, 474
Steering shaft, 469
Steering system, 68-69, 69,
461--782
Steering wheel angle, 38, 486{
Steering wheel angle sensor, 413
Srecring wheel moment, 38
Steering wheel movement. 369
Step steer, 487, 488
Stiction,448
Stiffness,3lQf
Stiffness simulation, 589
Stirling engines, I [~(, 117-118, 118{
Storage chips, 532
Straight-line motion, 484-486
Strain limits. 317
Strassenverkehrs-Zulassungs-Drdnu
ng (StYZO), 16, 171-181. 181,
4R9.538
Stratified charge, 163, 163{
Strength modeling, 589-590
Structural optimization, 590-591
Structure-borne noise, 591
Strut, 459{
Strut suspension, 440, 44~(, 444, 445/;
466,467, 468(
Strut towers, 287 .
Strut-type suspension, 448
Stud welding, 296
Studio engineer, 81
KeYWOl
SlVZO
(St
Or,
531
Subfran
Subject
Success
Sugar, 2
Sulfur,
19
Sulfur d
19'
Sulzer t
Summe
Sun gca
Sunbee
Sunroo1
Superce
Supercl
20
Supetle
Superp.
Suppler
Supple
Surface
Surface
Surface
Suspen
kine!
layer
""Ie
Suspen
Sustain
Sustain
SUVs(
Swash]
Swayt
Swede!
SWIFl
In
Tt
Swirl,
Swirl c
I:
Swirlc
Swirl (
I:
Swirl I
Swirl I
Switct
II
Switel
Switze
Svnch
Svneh
Synerj
Synthr
Syster
F
(:
Taillal
Tailli~
Taikm
Tande
Tande
Tange
4
Keyword Index
taged combustion, j 95
zaged release, 585
tainless steel, 540, 545
tandardizatjon, 530. 530/, 602
.tapp, John, 367
lapp Car Crash Conferences, 367
:tan;h,279
tarter, 153
tarter battery, 523
tarter/generator units, 170
tatic compression, 450
.tatic toe-in, 38
aationary traffic. 4
tatistical energy analysis (SEA), 59 L
zatorwinding, 104
ready-stare cornering, 486, 487/
reel, 293, 299, 314, 314f, 316/317,
319/:403, 539,541. 541f,
542-';45,564
teel foam, 328f
teer angles, 437
teer-by-wire, 391, 476, 478/;
478-480,525
.
eeering, 38, 39a-391
teering angle, 39a-39 L 444, 445,
%3.•64. 464f, 465f. 467,
468-469
teenng angle map, 480f
ISteering angle sensors, 260-261,
262/
teering assist, 472-475
Steering axis. See Kingpin axis
Steering box, 466--467, 47Q--472
Steering gear, 466-467
Steering impulse test, 486
Steering kinematics, 439, 462-470
Steering knuckle, 445
Steering linkage, 466-467, 467f
Steering ratio, 38, 469, 474
'
Steering shaft, 469
Steering system, 68--69, 69,
461-782
Steering wheel angle, 38, 48~/
Steering wheel angle sensor, 413
Steering wheel moment, 38
Steering wheel movement, 369
Step steer, 487, 488
Stiction,448
Stiffness, 316f
Stiffness simulation. 589
Stirling engines, 117f; 117-11 R, 11 8f
Storage chips, 532
Straight-line motion. 484--486
Strain limits, 317
Strassenverkehnl-lulassungs--0rdnu
ng(S'VZO), 16, 17/-18/, 18/;
489.538
'
Stratified charge, Hi], 16~f
Strength modeling, 589-590
Structural optimization, 590-591
Structure-borne noise, 591
Strut, 459f
Strut suspension, 440, 443[, 444, 445j,
466, 467, 468[
Strut towers, 287
Strut-type suspension, 448
Stud welding. 296
Studio engineer, 81
Keyword Index
633
Tape drawing, 84, 84;; 85, 86, 87
Target catalog, 83, 88, 283. 2R3t 145,
345/
Taxis, 7'
TCC (Thorax Compression Criterion).
369, 369J
TCFC (Tibia Compressive Force
Criterion, 369, 369(
TeU (transmission control unit),
242-244, 243[
Technology advancements, 9-16,
27-31, 28f. 30/
Teflon, 408
Telematics, 28, 247, 347, 352,610,
Thrust hyperbola, 237, 23~f
Thyristor ignition, 140-14\
Tibia Compressive Force Criterion
Ordnung), 16, 17t-18r, l~f;489,
(TCFC), 369,369/
538
Subframe design, 74f
Tibia Index (TI), 369,369/
Subjective evaluation, 482-483, 483(
Tie rods, 466, 46?1; 46~/; 471
Tier 2 standards (U.S.), 205, 205f
Successor model development, 89, 8'~(
Tie-rod-actuated brake boosters.au?
Sugar, 279
Sulfur, 144, 16.>-166, 198, 198j, 199,
Tin, 557
Tire aspect ratios, 424--425
/99f, 202, 202/
Tire earcass, 425, 425f
Sulfur dioxide (S02)' (83, 198, 19~/;
Tire chains, 21
199,206,206/
Tire noise, 75, 76, 436
Sulzer brothers, 175/, 176t
Tire normal force, 394, 394(
Summer tire, 432(
613
Tire/road noise, 4261, 427, 428/
Sun gear, 231-232
Sunbeam vcncziu, 293
Telephony, 349-351, 350/
Tire-roadway force transfer, 429-431
Temper. 546, 546j, 547, 547t, 5481
Tires. 39, 424--436
Sunroof, 46, 289, 289f
construerion, 424--425, 425{
Supercepacirors, 116, llt?(
Temperature, 56, 57/. 354-355, 430t
evaluation criteria, 427( .
Tempered safety glass, 554-555
Supercharging, 171-173, 195,
mileage, 426[. 426t
.
207-215
Ten-eylinder engines, 126
models, 434-435
Tensile strength, 317, 543, 544(, 545,
Supetleggera,293
regulations. 429
546, 5461; 547, 547/; 548,
Superposition steering, 476-477,477(
Supplemental brake system, 395
simulation, 434{
Terminal velocity. 2 16
Test conditions, 597, 598(
standardization, 429
Suppliers, 578, 582
Test dummy, 36~j; 370, j70/3711
Titanium, 314, 314/; 3 I6/; 317
Surface corrosion, 330
Titanium alloys, S4W; 549-550, 5501
380,381/; 601
Surface gap spark plug, 142, l4~1
Titanium phosphate, 334
Surface protection, 33U-338
TeSL locutions, 599, 600(
Test maneuvers, 485 .
TMC (traffic message channel), 349,
Suspension, 286--287, 389-499
351,532
Testing technology, 595-603, 59~(,
kinematics, 437-439
Toe angle, 437, 443
layout. 451.1; 452
5971; 598[
TEVES, 401/, 402, 413, 414, 416/
Toe Changes, 391
materials, 541
Textiles. 553, 553/, 5541
.
Toe-in, 437, 443.443j, 444, 445j, 484f
Suspension upright, 445
Toe-out, 437, 443, 444
Thermal comfon, 353-355, 355/
Sustainable development, 606
Thermal efficiency, 124, 12~( .
Tolerance, 290
Sustainable mobility, 6, 607/; 609
Top feed injectors, 139, 13~{
Thermal losses, 273
SUVs (sport utility vehicles), 97-98
Thermodynamics, 123, 178-179, 1791
Topology optimization, 590-591
Swashplate compressor, 55-56
Sway bar, 453
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), 553
Toroidal transmissions, 238-239
Torque. 126, 135, 14q/; \64, 16·Y;219,
Thermoplastics, 305-306, 324-325,
Sweden, 370
SWIFT (System for Wireless
325f. 327, 551-553, 5S 1/; 5521;
220/; 221, 230
5521
.
.
Torque bias ratio, 251
Infotainment Forwarding and
Thermosetting plastics, 324-325
Teledtstribuuon), 349
Torque control. 105. 518!'
Torque converter, 223}, 223-226,
Swirl, 180, 193
Thermostat, 51, 150
224/; 229, 238
Thin-gauge steel, 317, 319, 542-545
Swirl chamber diesel engine, 174,
Torque converter pressure, 245f
174j; 188. 192. 195, 1961
Thixocasting, 322, 32~/; 563-564,
Torque curve, 102/. 119
564/
Swirl charge motion, 156, 158, J61
Torque distribution, 250
Thomson, Robert William, 424
Swirl combustion system, 157, 157/;
Thoracie Trauma Index (TTII. 369,
Torque hump phenomenon, 252
158
Torque-sensing locking differential.
370/
Swirl port, 179-180, 18W
25]
Thorax Compression Criterion (TCC),
Swirl pot, 494
369,369{
Torscn differential. 251, 25 If
Switched reluctance motors, 103, 104,
Torsion damper, 221, 22lJ; 223f
105, lOSt
Three-cylinder engines, 126,128,
Torsional stiffness, 290 292,291/;
Switches, 265
BUt. 132I
301
.
Three-dimensional combustion
Switzerland, 366/; 502
Total quality management (TQM),
models, 200
Synchromesh systems, 226, 227f
Three-dimensional computational
603--604
Synchronous motors, 103
model, 188, 189(
Tourism, 3
Synerject LLC, 163
Three-dimensional modeling, 84-85,
Towing. 27, 33
Synthesis gas, 278
Towing eye, 286
85-86,95
System for Wireless Infotainment
Three-liter car, 205[, 206, 2~(, 541
Toyota. 108, 157, 458
Forwarding and Teledistribution
Aristo,481
Three-point belts, 375, 376, 377/;
(SWIFT), 349
377-378, 378[
Prius, 115[, 116
Throttle, J64,210,258
Soarer, 4591
Taillamps, 509
Toyota RBC"" coupling, 25~f; 254
Throttle body injection, 139
Taillight openings, 288
TPE (thermoplastic elastomers), 553
Throttle losses, 167
Tailored blanks, 28, 306. 308/, 558
TQM (total quality management),
Throttle-free load control, 166-168
Tandem brake boosters, 407, 407(
Throttling, 154-155, 166, 177,
603--604
Tandem master cylinder, 404-40'5
Track,38
214--215
Tangential force, 40(, 391-392. 398,
431,433/
.
Traction, 246, 42~/; 426t. 43~f
Throwout bearing, 22Qf
SIYZO
(Strass~nverkdlrS-Zulassungs­
Keyword Index
Keywoi
V engines, 126-127, 127/, 131/
Vacuum brake boosters, 405--407, 406/
Vacuum die casting, 323f, 564
Vacuum power brake boosters,
405-407,406J
Vacuum pump, 407
Vacuum solenoids, 361
Valve actuanon, 168-171, 168j, 169J,
170[.I7lJ
Valve deactivation, 161
Valve lash, 1]J
Valve lift, 133, 167[, 167-168, 169
Valve materials, 138
Valve recession. 133
Valve timing, 160, 166-171, 1671
Valve train, 61---62,131, 132j, 133,
134f
Valve-covered nrificc (VeO) nozzle,
188
VAN (vehicle area network), 517
Van Doome"s Transmissions (VDT),
239
Vans, 44J, 95, 98j, 98/
Vapor cooling systems, 15 (
Vapor emissions, 10
Variable compression ratio, 172-173,
ventilat
Ventilat
Vents, 3
Venturi
634
Traction batteries, 102, 105-107
Traction behavior, 429--432, 430t,
431[. 432J
Traction coefficient, 29, 409
Traction control, 256--263
Traction diagram, 249, 249f
Traction force radius, 464--465
Tractive force, 35, 361,392J, 409--410
Tractive power, 35, 36/
Tractors, 33
Traffic, I}: 2, 605--611
information.Ta
problems, 5, Sf, 9
technology, 609--6l 0, 61 Of
Traffic fatalities, lO/. 365, 366J, 389J
Traffic management, 6, 609, 6101, 611,
611J
Traffic message channel (TMC), 349,
351,532
Trailers, 19[. 27, 33
Trailing arm suspension, 447
Trailing arms, 446
Transfer case, 218
Transformation-induced plasticity
(TRlP),543-544,544f
Transistorized ignition, 140
Transmission, 12-13, 116-117,
215-248
noise, 61--63, 69/
types, 21St
wiring, 245
Transmission angle, 468
Transmission control unit (TCU),
242-244, 243J
Transmission mounts, 62, 73-75
Transmission pressure control, 245.
246
Transmission ratio range, 216
Transmitted torque, 219, 221
Transom, 287. 287/
Transport protection, 331,337, 337/
Transportation mileage, 3, 3/
Transportation systems, 2, 2[, 4{, 5/
Transverse dynamics, 3901, 390-391,
483-488,484f
Transverse engine, 217
Transverse flux motors, 103-104, 105.
105t
Transverse force, 38,431
Transverse front drive, 237
Transverse mounting, 91, 92f 94{,
153f 237, 237J
Transverse suspension forces,
390-391
Transverse tractive forces, 410. 411
Travel information, 14
Tread. 425, 425/
Tread wear indicators (TWl), 429
Trend research, 81
Trim design, 82
TRIP (transformation-induced
plasticity), 543-544, 544{
Truck/car collisions, 382
Trucb,33
Trunk volume, 98f, 98t
TTl (Thoracic Trauma Index). 369,
370J
Tube-type sender, 495. 495/
Tubular cam shaft, 138
Tumble charge motion. 156-157,
157f 161, 161J
Tunnel reinforcement, 286, 286/
Turbine efficiency, 208
Turbine equation, 223
Turbocharged engines, 96
Turbocharger, 195,208-209, 214--215
Tum, 443
Tum signal lamps, 508--509
Twelve-cylinder engines, 126, 128,
1311. 132J
TWI (tread wear indicators), 429
Twist beam suspension, 449f, 449-450
Two-cylinder engines. 126, 132/
Two-dimensional modeling, 95
Two-dimensional templates. 338-340
Two-headlamp system, 502
Two-speed automatic transmission,
230J
Two-stroke engine, 269-275, 270/.
273f 274/
Type 1 emissions test, 23, 2~/; 241,
25
Type II emissions test, 23
Type III emissions test, 23
Type IV emissions test, 23-25
Type V emissions lest, 23, 25
Type VI emissions test, 23, 25
rtu: nu.
ULSAB.550
Ultimate strain, 317
Ultrasonic welding, 492
Ultraviolet (UV), 335, 510
Underbody, 96-97,971, 284,
33"-337
Underbody cover, 97
Undercoating, 336-337, 337/
Underfloor engine. 94, 94[
Underpressure, 45, 46/
Understeer, 418
Undriven axles, 447
Unit injector, 189-191, 190/
United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development
(1992), 606
United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe (ECE).
I7t-181, 19-27,489,501,504,
505,507,508
United States. 366f, 502, 504, 505,
507,508,539
impact protection criteria, 368-369,
369f 370J
regulations, 9--10
United States National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA),362
Universal joints, 218
Unregulated exhaust components, 185
Upper range class, 98f, 98t
Upshift, 230, 230f 236, 246, 246J
Uptime, 582
Urban vehicle concepts. 7
Urea, 165, 199
US-SID (U.S. side impact dummy),
370, )70[. 371J
UV (ultraviolet), 335,510
vru. 173J
Variable damping systems, 458
Variable turbine geometry (VTG),
195f 210, 212J
Variable valve lift, 167-l68
Variable valve timing, 166-171, 167f
VC (Viscous Criterion), 369, 369J,
370J
VCO (valve-covered orifice) nozzle,
188
VDA (Verband der
Automobilindustrie), 139.571
VDA test, 488
VDl (Vercin Deutscher lngenieure),
605
VDT push belt, 239, 2391, 242
VE pump, 185-187, 186/
Vehicle area network (VAN). 517
Vehicle categories. 19f, 33-34
Vehiele classes, 97-98, 98/, 98/
Vehicle concept, 88-101
Vehicle concept process, 89f, 89-90
Vehicle concepts, 6J, 6-7, 7/
Vehicle control points, 575-576, 576/
Vehicle dimensions, 27, 90, 90f 9lj;
97-98,981,2841:284-285
Vehicle dynamic handling controls,
393J
Vehicle dynamics, 390--393, 393/
Vehicle dynamics sensor, 262/
Vehicle identification number, 26
Vehicle kilometers, 2
vehicle package. See Package
Vehicle platform, 100
Vehicle sensitive retractor, 375
vehicle stability systems, 257-259,
259J
Vehicle support systems. 12/
Vehicle variants, 100, 100/
Velocity, 37, 38
Vent port tandem master cylinder, 404.
404J
verband
(VI
Verein I
6{)~
Veremig
Vertical
Vertical
VerticlII
Vertical
Vertical
Vibe's L
Vibratto.
119
suspe
458
Vibrauc
vibrauoi
Vibratior
Vibratic
Vibratior
Vibranor
Vibratia
Vibratior
Vibratio.
Virtual Ii
Virtual p
Virtual p
Virtual p
Virtual r,
Virtual \I
Visrolok
viscoma
Viscous
Viscous I
Visual a
Visual 0'
Visual n
Voice rei
Volkswa
m
Beetle
G-La(
21;
Golf,
Golf'
Golfl
Lupo,
Lupc
Polo:
Shara
Three
635
Keyword Index
Ventilated disc brakes, 400
Ventilation, 45, 355-357, 3561, 358/
Vents, 357, 358/
Venturi pump, 494, 494[
Verband der Automobilindustne
(VDA), 139,571
Volkswagen TDI engine, 1811, 194f
Voltage, 521,522-525,5231, 525f
Volumetric efficiency, 133
Volvo, 370, 496, 497/
VR engines, 127[ 128
VTG (variable turbine geometry),
Verein Deutscher Ingerueure (VOl),
1951.210, 212}
605
42-V/14-V electrical system,
524-527, 525}
Vereinigte ZiindholzfabrikenAG, 1751
Vertical dynamics, 390t, 392-393
V-VR engines, 12':Y; 128
Vertical dynamics systems, 456-460
Vertical force. 38
Wengines, 126, 127/
Wall-guided combustion systems.
vertical motion, 452/
Vertical wheel motion, 437-439
155,156-158, 157J; 159J,
Vibe's Law, 593
159-160
Vibration, 11. 59}; 601, 61--{i1. 65--{i8,
Warm-up, 246
119,218-219,221,40 I, 441-442
Warning light, 149,343
suspension, 452j; 453, 454j; 456,
Water flows. 44
458
Water pump, 53, 63.151
Water separator, 356
vibration amplitude, 218-219, 301
Vibration comfort, 73-75
Water-side temperature control,
Vibration damper, 301-302, 302/
356
vibration damping, 221j; 221-222
Wax coatings, 332
Vibration equations, 452j; 454{
Wax sealing, 336
Vibration frequency, 65--{i7, 66/
Wayne State University Concussion
Vibration seats, 340
Tolerance Curve, 368
Vibration simulation, 591
Wear protection, 555-556
Vibration welding. 492
Weave test, 485
Virtual laboratory, 10I
Webbing clamping devices, 375
Virtual product clinics, 101
Webbing grabbers, 375
Virtual product development, 101
Webbing sensitive retractor, 375
Virtual prototypes, 30, 598/
Weight. 27. 204f, 205, 292-293, 293j;
297, 305, 306, 309, 309}
Virtual reality, 30
Weight reduction, 613--{i14
Virtual wind tunnel, 593
Visco10k coupling, 252, 254
Weight transfer, 391
weissach rear suspension. 448
Viscomatic'" coupling, 254
Welded plates, 306, 308/
Viscous couplings, 251-252, 252/
Viscous Criterion (VC), 369. 369j; 370/
Welding, 290, 295-296, 305, 3081.
Visual aiming. 504
309, 312J; 313J, 317, 320, 320J;
Visual obstructions, 342/
491,492, 492J; 558-559
Visual range, 50 I
Wet traction, 430t
wetting. 43-44, 284
Voice recognition, 28, 353
Weymann body, 540t
Volkswagen (VW). 121, 79, 80, 80j;
Wheel brakes, 398-404
176t, 189, 191, 376j; 540t
Beetle, 93, 547
Wheel bump travel, 437
G-Ladcr engine, 209, 21 OJ;
Wheelcanrier,445
212-213,214
Wheel design, 81-82
Wheel dynamics, 409-411
Golf, 921. 292, 293}
Golf 4, 98t. 449/
Wheel load lever arm, 464, 464/
Wheel load OSCillation, 4521, 454{
Golf Cabriolet, 3o<l/
Lupo.204.206,550
Wheel sensors, 411-413, 412/
Wheel slip, 431/
LupoiAudi AL2, 13, 13/
Polo 3. 98/
Wheel speed sensors, 260
Sharan,98t
Wheel travel angle, 438
Three Liter Car, 137
Wheel vertical motion, 437-439
Wneel wells, 287,288
Wheelbase. 38
Wheels, 39, 284, 446
Wilson gear trains, 231, 232
Wind angle, 40/
Wind noise, 45-47, 69-71, 284
Wind runnels. 40, 599
Windows. 45, 46, 70, 2891, 302,
554-555
Windshield. 2891, 555
Winter tire. 432/
Wiper blades, 44
Wipers, 46
Wiring. 5151, 515-516
Wohler curve, 323j, 546J, 547j; 590
Wood, 539
Work hardening, 317. 3 19J, 321/
Work lamps, 508
World War II, 9
Xenon headlamps, 28, 501
Xenon lights, 505. 506--507, 507/
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw
acceleration, 38
angle, 37
damping. 391. 486
moment control (GMR), 418
mte change, 486, 487, 487/
rate error. 485
rate sensor, 260, 413, 413/
velocity, 38
Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen (ZF).
112
Zeldovich mechanism, 201
Zener diodes, 523
Zeolites, 198, 198/
Zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs),
102
Zero-dimensional combustion models,
200
ZF (Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen)
Bcorronic transmission, 239j; 240};
242
HAG 210, 218J; 473
Type S 5-39 transmission. 228, 229/
VTl transmission, 242/
ZF~4 HP 20 transmission, 237, 237/
ZF-5 HP 19 transmission. 23 Ij; 237,
238f
Zinc. 317. 331. 3311, 334, 557
Zinc die casting, 539
Zinc-air battery, 105, 106/, 107
Zinc-bromine battery, 106
Zinc-nickel alloys, 331
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