WaveStar® ADM 16/1 Release 8.0 Application and - Alcatel

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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Release 8.0
Application and Planning Guide
365-312-833
CC109571158
Issue 1
May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
This document contains proprietary information of Lucent Technologies and
is not to be disclosed or used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
Copyright © 2005 Lucent Technologies
Unpublished and Not for Publication
All Rights Reserved
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This material is protected by the copyright and trade secret laws of the United States and other countries. It may not be reproduced, distributed,
or altered in any fashion by any entity (either internal or external to Lucent Technologies), except in accordance with applicable agreements,
contracts or licensing, without the express written consent of Lucent Technologies and the business management owner of the material.
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All trademarks and service marks specified herein are owned by their respective companies.
Notice
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this document was complete and accurate at the time of printing. However,
information is subject to change.
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Contents
About this information product
BOOKMARK1::About this information product
Purpose
xvii
Reason for reissue
xviii
How to use this information product
xviii
BOOKMARK2::Purpose
BOOKMARK3::Reason for reissue
BOOKMARK4::How to use this information product
Intended audience
xix
Conventions used
xx
Differences between Release 4.0 (Ruby) and 5.0 (Diamond)
xx
Differences between Release 5.0 (Diamond) and 5.1 (Pearl)
xxi
BOOKMARK5::Intended audience
BOOKMARK6::Conventions used
BOOKMARK7::Differences between Release 4.0 (Ruby) and 5.0 (Diamond)
BOOKMARK8::Differences between Release 5.0 (Diamond) and 5.1 (Pearl)
Differences between Release 5.1 (Pearl) and Release 6.0 (Garnet)
xxiii
Differences between Release 6.0 (Garnet) and Release 6.1 (Garnet)
xxiii
Differences between Release 6.1 (Garnet) and Release 6.2 (Garnet
Maintenance)
xxiv
Differences between Release 6.2 (Garnet Maintenance) and Release 7.0
(Earth)
xxiv
Differences between Release 7.0 (Earth) and Release 8.0 (Mars)
xxv
Conventions used
xxv
Related information
xxvi
BOOKMARK9::Differences between Release 5.1 (Pearl) and Release 6.0 (Garnet)
BOOKMARK10::Differences between Release 6.0 (Garnet) and Release 6.1 (Garnet)
BOOKMARK11::Differences between Release 6.1 (Garnet) and Release 6.2 (Garnet Maintenance)
BOOKMARK12::Differences between Release 6.2 (Garnet Maintenance) and Release 7.0 (Earth)
BOOKMARK13::Differences between Release 7.0 (Earth) and Release 8.0 (Mars)
BOOKMARK14::Conventions used
BOOKMARK15::Related information
Information product support
xxviii
Technical support
xxviii
How to order
xxviii
How to comment
xxviii
BOOKMARK16::Information product support
BOOKMARK17::Technical support
BOOKMARK18::How to order
BOOKMARK19::How to comment
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C O N T E N T S
i i i
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1
Introduction
BOOKMARK20::1 Introduction
Overview
1-1
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system
1-2
Applications
1-3
Concise system description
1-4
BOOKMARK21::Overview
®
BOOKMARK22::The WaveStar
ADM 16/1 system
BOOKMARK23::Applications
BOOKMARK24::Concise system description
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2
Features
BOOKMARK25::2 Features
Overview
2-1
Feature overview
2-3
Protection mechanisms
2-5
Synchronization and timing
2-7
AU-3 / TU-3 conversion
2-9
BOOKMARK26::Overview
BOOKMARK27::Feature overview
BOOKMARK28::Protection mechanisms
BOOKMARK29::Synchronization and timing
BOOKMARK30::AU-3 / TU-3 conversion
Integrated optical booster and booster pre-amplifier
2-10
Remote maintenance, management and control
2-11
Installation practice
2-14
Ethernet over SDH
2-15
Virtual concatenation
2-26
Spanning tree protocol (STP)
2-32
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
2-37
Ethernet over SDH applications
2-40
Operational modes
2-48
Tagging modes
2-60
Ethernet mapping schemes
2-67
Port provisioning
2-69
Quality of Service (QoS) overview
2-75
Classification, queueing and scheduling
2-79
Quality of Service provisioning
2-89
BOOKMARK31::Integrated optical booster and booster pre-amplifier
BOOKMARK32::Remote maintenance, management and control
BOOKMARK33::Installation practice
BOOKMARK34::Ethernet over SDH
BOOKMARK35::Virtual concatenation
BOOKMARK36::Spanning tree protocol (STP)
BOOKMARK37::GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
BOOKMARK38::Ethernet over SDH applications
BOOKMARK39::Operational modes
BOOKMARK40::Tagging modes
BOOKMARK41::Ethernet mapping schemes
BOOKMARK42::Port provisioning
BOOKMARK43::Quality of Service (QoS) overview
BOOKMARK44::Classification, queueing and scheduling
BOOKMARK45::Quality of Service provisioning
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C O N T E N T S
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Performance monitoring
2-91
BOOKMARK46::Performance monitoring
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3
Applications
BOOKMARK47::3 Applications
Overview
3-1
Summary
3-2
STM-N point-to-point (end) terminal application
3-3
STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear applications and rings
3-5
Hubbing functionality
3-9
BOOKMARK48::Overview
BOOKMARK49::Summary
BOOKMARK50::STM-N point-to-point (end) terminal application
BOOKMARK51::STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear applications and rings
BOOKMARK52::Hubbing functionality
Small cross-connect
3-10
Broadcasting functionality
3-11
Payload concatenation
3-12
Tributary interface mixing
3-14
Ring closure: single ADM interconnecting STM-16 and STM-1/4 rings
3-15
Dual Node Interworking (DNI)
3-16
SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
3-17
Multi-service application with TransLAN ® card
3-19
BOOKMARK53::Small cross-connect
BOOKMARK54::Broadcasting functionality
BOOKMARK55::Payload concatenation
BOOKMARK56::Tributary interface mixing
BOOKMARK57::Ring closure: single ADM interconnecting STM-16 and STM-1/4 rings
BOOKMARK58::Dual Node Interworking (DNI)
BOOKMARK59::SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
®
BOOKMARK60::Multi-service application with TransLAN
card
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Description
BOOKMARK61::4 Description
Overview
4-1
Basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
4-2
Shelf complements
4-6
Electrical paddle boards
4-8
Circuit packs
4-9
BOOKMARK62::Overview
®
BOOKMARK63::Basic WaveStar
ADM 16/1 architecture
BOOKMARK64::Shelf complements
BOOKMARK65::Electrical paddle boards
BOOKMARK66::Circuit packs
Timing and synchronization
4-39
Redundancy and protection
4-44
BOOKMARK67::Timing and synchronization
BOOKMARK68::Redundancy and protection
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
5
Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
BOOKMARK69::5 Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
Overview
5-1
BOOKMARK70::Overview
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C O N T E N T S
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Operations
5-2
Administration
5-9
BOOKMARK71::Operations
BOOKMARK72::Administration
Maintenance
5-14
Provisioning
5-17
BOOKMARK73::Maintenance
BOOKMARK74::Provisioning
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
6
Cross-product interworking
BOOKMARK75::6 Cross-product interworking
Overview
6-1
Lucent Technologies SDH product family
6-2
BOOKMARK76::Overview
BOOKMARK77::Lucent Technologies SDH product family
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
Physical design
BOOKMARK78::7 Physical design
Overview
7-1
Introduction
7-2
The subrack
7-3
The printed circuit boards
7-5
The dual WDM unit
7-6
The interconnection panel (ICP)
7-7
Face plates for front access units
7-9
BOOKMARK79::Overview
BOOKMARK80::Introduction
BOOKMARK81::The subrack
BOOKMARK82::The printed circuit boards
BOOKMARK83::The dual WDM unit
BOOKMARK84::The interconnection panel (ICP)
BOOKMARK85::Face plates for front access units
ETSI compliant racks 600 × 600 mm
7-10
Horizontal connector plate (HCP)
7-11
Fiber connector conversion kit
7-12
Rack fiber guidance
7-14
Cabling
7-15
BOOKMARK86::ETSI compliant racks 600 × 600 mm
BOOKMARK87::Horizontal connector plate (HCP)
BOOKMARK88::Fiber connector conversion kit
BOOKMARK89::Rack fiber guidance
BOOKMARK90::Cabling
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8
System planning and engineering
BOOKMARK91::8 System planning and engineering
Overview
8-1
Network planning
8-2
Network synchronization
8-3
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and engineering
8-5
BOOKMARK92::Overview
BOOKMARK93::Network planning
BOOKMARK94::Network synchronization
®
BOOKMARK95::WaveStar
ADM 16/1 system planning and engineering
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C O N T E N T S
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Paddle boards (electrical interfaces)
8-16
Configurations
8-18
BOOKMARK96::Paddle boards (electrical interfaces)
BOOKMARK97::Configurations
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Technical data
BOOKMARK98::9 Technical data
Overview
9-1
Optical interfaces
9-3
Electrical interfaces
9-4
Optical connector interface
9-5
Optical source and detector
9-6
Optical safety
9-7
Optical power budgets
9-8
BOOKMARK99::Overview
BOOKMARK100::Optical interfaces
BOOKMARK101::Electrical interfaces
BOOKMARK102::Optical connector interface
BOOKMARK103::Optical source and detector
BOOKMARK104::Optical safety
BOOKMARK105::Optical power budgets
Power specification
9-13
Dimensions
9-15
System weight
9-16
Electrical connectors
9-17
Environmental specifications
9-18
General ITU-T recommendations
9-19
Mapping structure
9-20
Electrical interfaces
9-22
Operations system interfaces
9-23
Customer data interfaces
9-24
Ethernet interfaces
9-25
Timing and network synchronization
9-26
Transmission performance
9-27
Performance monitoring
9-28
Network element configurations
9-31
Operations, administrations, maintenance, and protection
9-32
BOOKMARK106::Power specification
BOOKMARK107::Dimensions
BOOKMARK108::System weight
BOOKMARK109::Electrical connectors
BOOKMARK110::Environmental specifications
BOOKMARK111::General ITU-T recommendations
BOOKMARK112::Mapping structure
BOOKMARK113::Electrical interfaces
BOOKMARK114::Operations system interfaces
BOOKMARK115::Customer data interfaces
BOOKMARK116::Ethernet interfaces
BOOKMARK117::Timing and network synchronization
BOOKMARK118::Transmission performance
BOOKMARK119::Performance monitoring
BOOKMARK120::Network element configurations
BOOKMARK121::Operations, administrations, maintenance, and protection
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C O N T E N T S
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Network management
9-33
Bandwidth management
9-34
Protection and redundancy
9-35
Overhead bytes processing
9-37
Supervision and alarms
9-40
BOOKMARK122::Network management
BOOKMARK123::Bandwidth management
BOOKMARK124::Protection and redundancy
BOOKMARK125::Overhead bytes processing
BOOKMARK126::Supervision and alarms
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10
Quality and reliability
BOOKMARK127::10 Quality and reliability
Overview
10-1
Lucent Technologies’ quality policy
10-2
Environmental aspects
10-3
Reliability program
10-5
Reliability specifications
10-6
BOOKMARK128::Overview
BOOKMARK129::Lucent Technologies’ quality policy
BOOKMARK130::Environmental aspects
BOOKMARK131::Reliability program
BOOKMARK132::Reliability specifications
Maintainability specification
BOOKMARK133::Maintainability specification
10-10
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
11
Product support
BOOKMARK134::11 Product support
Overview
11-1
Introduction
11-2
Engineering and installation services
11-3
Training support
11-4
BOOKMARK135::Overview
BOOKMARK136::Introduction
BOOKMARK137::Engineering and installation services
BOOKMARK138::Training support
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
GL
Glossary
GL-1
BOOKMARK139::Glossary
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
IN
Index
IN-1
BOOKMARK140::Index
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C O N T E N T S
v i i i
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List of tables
1
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 documentation set
xxvii
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Description
4-1
Paddle boards
4-8
4-2
Port roles
4-18
4-3
Overview of the virtual switch modes
4-20
4-4
Overview of the QoS capabilities per operational mode
4-28
4-5
Fixed mapping of user priority to egress queue on customer
ports
4-30
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
Physical design
7-1
Connectors
7-7
7-2
Racks
7-10
7-3
Overview of interface types, cables and connector
7-11
7-4
Optical cable conversion
7-13
7-5
Rack fiber guides
7-14
7-6
Characteristics of customer cabling and semi prefab cabling
7-15
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8
System planning and engineering
8-1
Configuration of EFA4
8-5
8-2
Circuit packs
8-9
8-3
Core configuration of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
8-11
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T A B L E S
i x
8-4
Line interface units
8-11
8-5
Optical tributary interfaces
8-13
8-6
Electrical tributary interfaces
8-14
8-7
Timing and synchronization interfaces for DS0 markets
8-15
8-8
Paddle boards
8-16
8-9
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 terminal STM-16 (0 × 1, all interfaces)
8-18
8-10
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (higher
order interfaces)
8-20
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (long
distance rings, with LO grooming of 504 × 2 Mbit/s)
8-21
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (STM-1
and STM-4 ring-closure on tributaries)
8-23
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1; Japanese and United States of America
uses
8-25
8-14
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 local cross-connect
8-26
8-15
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 DWDM access terminal STM-16 (OLS
1.6T, to be used with higher order interfaces)
8-28
8-11
8-12
8-13
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Technical data
9-1
Optical interfaces
9-3
9-2
Electrical interfaces
9-4
9-3
Technical specifications of the optical source and detector
9-6
9-4
STM-0 / STM-1/STM-4
9-8
9-5
STM-16
9-8
9-6
1000BASE-SX / 1000BASE-LX
9-9
9-7
1000BASE-ZX
9-10
9-8
Booster, booster/pre-amplifier and OLS 1.6T
9-11
9-9
Voltage range
9-13
9-10
Power dissipation
9-13
9-11
Power consumption
9-13
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
T A B L E S
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9-12
Climatic conditions
9-18
9-13
Environmental conditions
9-18
9-14
Timing modes
9-26
9-15
Performance monitoring termination points
9-28
9-16
Performance monitoring bins
9-28
9-17
RSOH byte usage for STM-0 and STM-1
9-37
9-18
RSOH byte usage for STM-4 and STM-16
9-37
9-19
MSOH byte usage for STM-0 and STM-1
9-38
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
10
Quality and reliability
10-1
Protection switching options
10-6
10-2
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 circuit packs fit rate
10-7
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T A B L E S
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List of figures
1
Introduction
1-1
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 basic architecture
1-5
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3
Applications
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 0 × 1 end terminal STM-16
point-to-point application
3-3
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 1+1 MSP protected end terminal,
STM-16 point-to-point application
3-3
3-3
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 linear add/drop application
3-5
3-4
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 “folded or collapsed ring” application
3-5
3-5
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 ring application
3-6
3-6
MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings with WaveStar ® ADM
16/1
3-7
3-7
Upgrade “folded ring” to conventional ring
3-8
3-8
Example of a hub terminal configuration
3-9
3-9
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 used as a ring-closure network element
3-15
3-10
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 used as DNI network element
3-16
3-11
OC-3/OC-12 interworking with STM-1o/STM-4o via AU-3 to
TU-3 conversion
3-17
3-12
Remapping of VC-3 from AU-3 to TU-3/AU-4
3-18
3-13
OC-3c/OC-12c interworking with STM-1o/STM-4o
3-18
3-14
Example of direct LAN-LAN interconections
3-19
3-1
3-2
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F I G U R E S
x i i i
3-15
Example of direct LAN-LAN interconections
3-20
3-16
GbE Point multi-point services example
3-20
3-17
Example of a LAN-VPN application
3-21
3-18
VLAN trunking example
3-22
3-19
Ethernet to GE trunking example
3-22
3-20
DCN support with Ethernet LAN tributary unit
3-23
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
4
Description
4-1
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 basic architecture
4-2
4-2
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 high density shelf (EFA4) configuration
4-7
4-3
WAN port in customer role
4-17
4-4
LAN port in network role
4-18
4-5
VLAN trunking application example
4-23
4-6
Spanning tree separation
4-25
4-7
Examples of loops not detected when running ST on WAN ports
only
4-26
4-8
QoS functional blocks
4-28
4-9
One-ratetwo-color marker
4-31
4-10
Performance monitoring counters
4-34
4-11
Power and timing architecture
4-39
4-12
Timing modes (FR selected)
4-41
4-13
Timing at circuit pack level of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
4-43
4-14
DNI between two MS-SPRing rings
4-51
4-15
DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and LO-SNCP,
two node configuration.Traffic from MS-SPRing to LO-SNCP
4-51
DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and LO-SNCP,
two node configuration.Traffic from LO-SNCP to MS-SPRing
4-51
DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and LO-SNCP,
two node configuration. Detailed view of interconnecting nodes
4-52
4-16
4-17
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F I G U R E S
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5
Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
5-1
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 user panel: SC faceplate
5-2
Performance monitoring counters
5-3
5-13
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
Physical design
7-1
Subrack
7-3
7-2
Interconnection panel
7-7
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8
System planning and engineering
8-1
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 EFA4 high-density subrack
8-6
.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9
Technical data
9-1
Performance monitoring counters
9-30
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F I G U R E S
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About this information product
...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This Application and Planning Guide provides information about the
features, applications, operation, engineering, support and
specifications of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport
system. This Application and Planning Guide is the most recent
version of the Earth Release, R8.0.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a high-capacity intelligent multiplexer
and transport system able to multiplex standard PDH, Ethernet and
SDH bit rates to a higher level up to 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16). Because of
this wide range in capacity, this system is a useful element in building
efficient and flexible networks.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system consists of one common hardware
platform. This platform can serve a family of equipment and software
configurations designed to support a particular set of applications.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports a large variety of configurations
for various network applications:
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 point-to-point (end) terminal
connections. Options are: 0x1 terminal with no line protection
and 1+1 MSP line-protected terminal
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear
applications and rings
•
Hubbing functionality
•
Small cross-connect
•
Broadcasting functionality
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xvii
About this information product
•
Payload concatenation:
–
Virtual Concatenation on TransLAN ® Card
–
Interconnecting ATM systems via VC-4-4c concatenation
•
Tributary interface mixing
•
Single ADM for interconnection of STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1
rings (ring closure)
•
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) with drop & continue
•
SONET-SDH Conversion and Interworking
•
Multi-Service applications with TransLAN ® Card.
In this Application and Planning Guide of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1,
all features are presented up to and including the Earth Release, R8.0.
Reason for reissue
How to use this
information product
This Guide is organized as follows
•
About this document
Describes the purpose, intended audience, and organization of
this document. This section also references other related
documentation.
•
Chapter 1, “Introduction”
This chapter describes the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
•
Chapter 2, “Features”
This chapter briefly describes the Features and Benefits of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. These are described in greater detail in
Chapter 3, “Applications”, Chapter 4, “Description”, Chapter 5,
“Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning”,
Chapter 6, “Cross-product interworking” as applicable.
•
Chapter 3, “Applications”
This chapter describes how the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 platform
meets various needs relating to network-level-specific topologies.
In addition, it describes needs and provided functionality relating
to various different applications such as point-to-point, ring,
hubbing, etc.
Also special system versions for applications in combination with
other products of the Lucent Technologies family of SDH
products are briefly discussed.
•
Chapter 4, “Description”
This chapter describes the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture.
After an introduction of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 platform, the
system control, transmission, synchronization, protection and
powering are described down to circuit pack level.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
xviii
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,
About this information product
Intended audience
•
Chapter 5, “Operations, administration, maintenance, and
provisioning”
This chapter defines the “maintenance philosophy” outlining the
various features available to monitor and maintain the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1.
•
Chapter 6, “Cross-product interworking”
This chapter briefly describes the interworking between the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and other products of Lucent
Technologies’ SDH product family.
•
Chapter 7, “Physical design”
This chapter describes the physical design, subrack, rack layouts
and the connector panels of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
•
Chapter 8, “System planning and engineering”
This chapter summarizes descriptive information used with the
application information to plan procurement deployment of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
•
Chapter 9, “Technical data”
This chapter lists the detailed technical specifications for the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
•
Chapter 10, “Quality and reliability”
This chapter describes Lucent Technologies’ quality policy and
describes the reliability of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 in different
configurations.
•
Chapter 11, “Product support”
This chapter describes how Lucent Technologies supports the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. This includes information about
engineering and installation services, technical support,
documentation support, and training.
•
“Glossary”
This chapter lists in alphabetic order all the terms and acronyms
used in the Application and Planning Guide.
This Application and Planning Guide is primarily for network planners
and engineers. However, it is also useful for anyone who needs
specific information about the features, applications, operation and
engineering of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport
System.
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Conventions used
Differences between
Release 4.0 (Ruby) and 5.0
(Diamond)
1.
2.
New LAN unit (LJB459) with TransLAN ® features (FEP5536)
a.
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet mapping into VC-12xv or VC-3-xv
signals
b.
VPN services
c.
Interworking with WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Compact and
WaveStar ® AM 1 Plus TransLAN ® Card units
d.
Configurable Auto-negotiation function on WaveStar ®
TransLAN ® card units
e.
Performance Monitoring on LAN connections
Provisioning of ss bits (FEP5732)
•
In the source direction, the transmitted ss-bits can be
provisioned in “10” (SDH mode,
•
default) or “00” (SONET mode). In the sink direction the
incoming ss bits are ignored.
3.
MS-SPRing event information available on WaveStar ® ITM-SC
NB CORBA Interface (FEP4920)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides the numerical value, called
NID (between 0 and 15 – corresponding with the 4 bits in the
K-byte protocol as per ITU-T G.841) to the WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC will then make the event information
available on the NB CORBA Interface.
4.
Pointer Justification Event (PJE) counters on STM-N (FEP 5534)
The following parameters are available to estimate the
synchronization performance:
•
PJE–: count of negative pointer justifications
•
PJE+: count of positive pointer justifications
Both counters are present on one outgoing AU-4 pointer
generation circuit per outgoing STM-N.
5.
AIS detection on 2 Mbit/s ports for asynchronous mapping (FEP
5801)
It is possible to monitor the CRC-4, E-bit and A-bit information
in TS0 of any 2 Mbit/s in both directions for performance
monitoring purposes for G.704 structured 2 Mbit/s tributaries.
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Differences between
Release 5.0 (Diamond) and
5.1 (Pearl)
1200 monitoring points for full TCM emulation (FEP5718)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the possibility to performance
monitor 1200 monitor points simultaneously. Note: On WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 this feature can only be used in combination with Ruby
controller hardware (LJB457B) and Ruby Cross-connect-64/32
(LJB434).
TransLAN ® features (FEP 5517 and 5753)
With the Pearl Rainbow Release a number of new features are
supported on the Ethernet LAN tributary board, LJB459. Please note
that on WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 these features are only supported with
Ruby controller hardware (LJB457B).
1.
Layer 2 VPN Data Policing
In addition to Multi-port LAN Bridging with VPN support the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports provisioning of data policing
parameters at each external Ethernet port to allow L2 QoS and
bandwidth management for each VPN of a L2 network.
Each external Ethernet port of a switching relation in VPN mode
can get assigned data policing parameters. The following
parameters are supported:
•
Policing Mode with two possible values [Strict policing |
Oversubscription] determined via provisioning a Peak
Information Rate (PIR)
•
Committed Information Rate (CIR) per Port/User-Priority or
Port/VLAN/User-Priority (Diamond Release, R5.0) relevant
in both policing modes
In case of strict policing (PIR provisioned equal to CIR) all
incoming packets from the associated external Ethernet port
which exceed the provisioned CIR will be dropped. In
over-subscription mode (PIR provisioned above CIR) packets
exceeding the CIR will be marked by raising their drop
precedence and only dropped if an congestion situation occurs
during switching. This means that over-subscription mode allows
a peak rate in the range of the physical line rate interconnecting
the switches which are building the L2 network, but without any
guaranteed bandwidth.
Note: It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure a suitable
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provisioning of CIR for each Ethernet port in relation to the
under-laying L2 network topology to prohibit data congestion on
any physical link which are interconnecting the switches of the
network. With congestion the provisioned CIRs are not
guaranteed.
2.
Dual VLAN Tagging mode support
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is able to support both Port-based
VPN Customer Tagging and IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging.
Lucent proprietary Port-based VPN Customer Tagging is already
supported by the Diamond Release. Switching between tagging
modes is traffic affecting and requires VLAN configuration
re-engineering.
3.
Traffic segregation via IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports VLAN Tagging,
Classification and Filtering compliant to IEEE802.1Q on all of its
external Ethernet LAN ports or internal WAN ports. This Tagging
mode is incompatible with the Port-based VPN Customer
Tagging mode.
The packets are processed as follows:
•
End-customer VLAN-tagged packets are VLAN classified
according to the VLAN Id contained in the VLAN Tag. The
system performs VLAN Ingress filtering based on port
membership of the receive port to the specific VLAN.
•
End-customer untagged and priority-tagged packets are
VLAN classified according to a default Port VLAN Id
(PVID identifying an end-customer with Port-based VPN
Customer Tagging mode) assigned to the receive port. The
system inserts the PVID in the VLAN Tag.
VLAN Id shall be unique among end-customers.
4.
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet VLAN Trunking
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is able to aggregate Ethernet or Fast
Ethernet traffic of multiple end-customers over a single external
Ethernet port. Such a VLAN Trunk port is a shared member of
multiple VLANs from different end-customers. The VLAN Id list
is configurable as per IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging.
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5.
Manual Provisioning of Spanning Tree parameters
From WaveStar ® ITM-SC or ITM-CIT, the operator can
manually provision the bridge parameters to force a specific
spanning tree topology and ensure better bandwidth utilization.
The operator has access to a limited set of parameters regarding
the active Spanning Tree topology and has means to control it for
pro-active maintenance.
6.
GVRP – automatic provisioning of VLAN ID in intermediate
nodes
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the GARP VLAN
Registration Protocol (GVRP) to help maintaining VLAN
identification consistency and connectivity throughout the
switched WAN network. GVRP is a Generic Attribute
Registration Protocol (GARP) application that provides VLAN
pruning and dynamic VLAN creation on 802.1Q Trunk links.
With GVRP, switches distribute automatically VLAN
configuration information to other switches, prune unnecessary
broadcast and unknown unicast traffic, and dynamically create
and manage VLANs on switches connected to IEEE 802.1Q
Trunk links. The GVRP protocol provides a mechanism for
dynamic maintenance of the contents of the bridge filtering
database. GVRP implementation is compliant with IEEE 802.1Q
Clause 11.
Note: unlike Cisco’s VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) protocol,
standard GVRP does not propagate VLAN names.
Differences between
Release 5.1 (Pearl) and
Release 6.0 (Garnet)
FEP5905: 6 channel E3 and 6 channel DS3 unit for WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1
The tributary unit PI-E3/6 has 6 interfaces of 34 Mbit/s and an
impedance of 75 Ω. The PI-DS3/6 has also 6 interfaces and an
impedance 75 Ω. However, the speed is 45 Mbit/s.
Differences between
Release 6.0 (Garnet) and
Release 6.1 (Garnet)
•
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
•
Implement Ethernet GFP encapsualtion on the FE TransLAN ®
Card
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Differences between
Release 6.1 (Garnet) and
Release 6.2 (Garnet
Maintenance)
Differences between
Release 6.2 (Garnet
Maintenance) and Release
7.0 (Earth)
•
Capability to transport Ethernet-like frames of up to 1650 bytes
length
•
Fast download system software through Q-LAN interface
Gigabit Ethernet features on WaveStar ® ADM 16/1:
•
Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-SX/LX interfaces
•
Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet trunking
•
Gigabit Ethernet “Lite”, point-to-point and rings
•
Scalable bandwidth through virtual concatenation VC-3/4-Xv and
LCAS
•
New board PI-E3DS3/12 (LJB463): 12 × 34 Mbit/s or
455 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack (ports independently
provisionable), supported by System Controller SC2
The following list gives an overview on the additional features
provided by Release 7.0:
•
The rule “VLAN ID uniqueness per NE” has been improved to
“VLAN ID uniqueness only necessary per switch pack”.
•
Flexibility of VLAN provisioning per NE: Up to 1024 VLANs
and CIDs can be configured per NE.
•
Double-tagging (VPN tagging) is now also possible for frames on
LAN ports in Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet:
•
Enhancements for “Customer WAN port” on TransLAN ®:
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol can be disabled on WAN
ports and rate cotrol is possible.
•
VPN tagging on TransLAN ® with standard protocols and
standard Ethertype
•
Increased IEEE VLAN instances on TransLAN ® unit
•
Support of 1024 VLAN IDs on Gigabit Ethernet if GVRP is
disabled and support of 247 VLAN IDs if GVRP is enabled
•
Non-instrusive performance monitoring is possible for any 2
Mbit/s (E1) signal in both directions (PDH to SDH and SDH to
PDH) at the 2 Mbit/s interfaces. Thus port problems can be
identified during installation.
•
NE release details available for display on the OMS
•
The LCAS protocol is also available on VC-3 level for Gigabit
Ethernet TransLAN ® cards
•
SFP Inventory Data with Lucent-specific information
•
SFP type translation into GUI
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Differences between
Release 7.0 (Earth) and
Release 8.0 (Mars)
Conventions used
The following list gives an overview on the additional features
provided by Release 8.0:
•
Ingress rate control in provider bridge mode
•
Oversubscription in IEEE tagging mode
•
Flow classification in provider bridge mode
These conventions are used in this document:
Numbering
The chapters of this document are numbered consecutively. The page
numbering restarts at “1” in each chapter. To facilitate identifying
pages in different chapters, the page numbers are prefixed with the
chapter number. For example, page 2-3 is the third page in chapter 2.
Cross-references
Cross-reference conventions are identical with those used for
numbering, i.e. the first number in a reference to a particular page
refers to the corresponding chapter.
Keyword blocks
This document contains so-called keyword blocks to facilitate the
location of specific text passages. The keyword blocks are placed to
the left of the main text and indicate the contents of a paragraph or
group of paragraphs.
Typographical conventions
Special typographical conventions apply to elements of the graphical
user interface (GUI), file names and system path information,
keyboard entries, alarm messages etc.
•
Elements of the graphical user interface (GUI)
These are examples of text that appears on a graphical user
interface (GUI), such as menu options, window titles or push
buttons:
–
Provision{, Delete, Apply, Close, OK (push-button)
–
Provision Timing/Sync (window title)
–
View Equipment Details{ (menu option)
–
Administration → Security → User Provisioning{ (path
for invoking a window)
•
•
File names and system path information
These are examples of file names and system path information:
–
setup.exe
–
C:\Program Files\Lucent Technologies
Keyboard entries
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These are examples of keyboard entries:
–
F1, Esc X, Alt-F, Ctrl-D, Ctrl-Alt-Del (simple keyboard entries)
A hyphen between two keys means that both keys have to
be pressed simultaneously. Otherwise, a single key has to be
pressed, or several keys have to be pressed in sequence.
–
copy abc xyz (command)
A complete command has to be entered.
•
Alarms and error messages
These are examples of alarms and error messages:
–
Loss of Signal
–
Circuit Pack Failure
–
HP-UNEQ, MS-AIS, LOS, LOF
–
Not enough disk space available
Abbreviations
Abbreviations used in this document can be found in the “Glossary”
unless it can be assumed that the reader is familiar with the
abbreviation.
Related information
This section briefly describes the documents that are included in the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 documentation set.
Installation Guide
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Installation Guide (IG) is a step-by-step
guide to system installation and setup. It also includes information
needed for pre-installation site planning and post-installation
acceptance testing.
Applications and Planning Guide
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Applications and Planning Guide (APG) is
for use by network planners, analysts and managers. It is also for use
by the Lucent Account Team. It presents a detailed overview of the
system, describes its applications, gives planning requirements,
engineering rules, ordering information, and technical specifications.
User Operations Guide
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 User Operations Guide (UOG) provides
step-by-step information for use in daily system operations. The
manual demonstrates how to perform system provisioning, operations,
and administrative tasks by use of ITM Craft Interface Terminal
(ITM-CIT).
Alarm Messages and Trouble Clearing Guide
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Alarm Messages and Trouble Clearing
Guide (AMTCG) gives detailed information on each possible alarm
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message. Furthermore, it provides procedures for routine maintenance,
troubleshooting, diagnostics, and component replacement.
WaveStar ® ITM-SC Provisioning Guide (Application WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1)
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Provisioning Guide (Application WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1) gives instructions on how to perform system provisioning,
operations, and administrative tasks by use of WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
The following table lists the documents included in the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 documentation set:
The following table lists the documents included in the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 documentation set.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 documentation set
Table 1
Document title
Document code
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 8.0 Applications and Planning Guide
109571158
(365-312-833)
WaveStar
®
ADM 16/1 8.0 User Operations Guide
109571208
(365-312-834)
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 8.0 Alarm Messages and Trouble Clearing Guide
109571141
(365-312-835)
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 8.0 Installation Guide Part I – Physical Installation
109571174
(365-312-836)
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 8.0 Installation Guide Part II – Commissioning and
Test
WaveStar
16/1)
®
ITM-SC Provisioning Guide (Application WaveStar
®
ADM
109571182
(365-312-837)
109571190
(365-312-838)
CD-ROM Documentation WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 8.0 (all manuals on a
CD-ROM)
109571166
(365-312-839)
Customer documentation that is subnetwork controller related
The following documents are Subnetwork Controller related:
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Application and Planning Guide
provides an understanding of what the WaveStar ® ITM-SC is and
how to use it.
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Installation Guide instructs the user on
how to install the WaveStar ® ITM-SC and how to configure the
running environment.
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Administration Guide instructs the user
on how to administer the WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Maintenance Guide instructs the user on
how to maintain the WaveStar ® ITM-SC and the network.
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Information product
support
Technical support
How to order
How to comment
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Provisioning Guide for the network
element instructs the user on how to use the WaveStar ® ITM-SC
to provision network equipment.
•
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Alarm Messages and Trouble Clearing
Guide instructs the user on how to respond to alarms and how to
fix problems with the WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
The document support telephone numbers are:
•
1 630 713 5000 (for all countries)
•
1 888 727 3615 (for the continental United States)
For technical support, contact your local customer support team.
Reach them via the web (https://support.lucent.com/) or the telephone
number listed under the Technical Assistance Center menu
(http://www.lucent.com/contact/).
To order Lucent Technologies information products, contact your local
sales representative, use the following websites, or use the email,
phone, and fax contacts linked from “Contact Us” on those sites:
•
Documentation: http://www.lucentdocs.com (http://www.
lucentdocs.com)
•
Training: https://training.lucent.com/ (https://training.lucent.com/)
To comment on this information product, go to the Online Comment
Form (http://www.lucent-info.com/comments/enus/) or email your
comments to the Comments Hotline (comments@lucent.com).
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1
Introduction
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter briefly introduces the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and its large
variety of applications.
Contents
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system
1-2
Applications
1-3
Concise system description
1-4
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The
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a high-capacity multiplexer and
transport system able to multiplex standard PDH and SDH bit rates to
a higher level up to 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16). Because of its wide range in
capacity, this system is a useful element in building efficient and
flexible networks.
The main strengths of the product are:
•
Massive multiservice add/drop capacity: up to 504 × 1.5 Mbit/s,
504 × 2 Mbit/s, 96 × STM-0, 96 × 34 Mbit/s, 96 × 45 Mbit/s,
64 × 10/100BASE-T Ethernet, 18 × GbE interfaces (Gigabit
Ethernet), 32 × STM-1, 32 × 140 Mbit/s or 8 × STM-4
(possible to drop directly from the STM-16 level)
•
Compact design
•
Easy installation and maintenance
•
Flexibility in applications and protection capabilities.
These features make the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 one of the most
cost-effective, future-proof and flexible network elements available on
the market today. Although the system has primarily been designed for
STM-16 applications, it can also be used in STM-4 and STM-1
networks.
Various transmission protection mechanisms are supported by the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1, such as:
•
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
•
Path protection or SNCP/N (sub network connection protection
with non intrusive monitoring) for higher and lower order VCs
•
Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring or MS-SPRing at
STM-16 level
•
Dual node interconnection (DNI) with drop and continue
Like all network elements of Lucent Technologies SDH product
portfolio, the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is managed by Lucent
Technologies Navis ® Optical Management System (OMS), a
user-friendly network and element-level management system.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a third-generation SDH transport
system. This system can be deployed together with other Lucent
Technologies 1st and 2nd generation SDH products, today and in the
future. This makes the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 one of the main
building blocks of today’s and future SDH networks.
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Introduction
Applications
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be applied in all three tiers of a
network: access, regional and backbone, although its main applications
can be found at regional and backbone level. The system allows for
growth and changing service needs by supporting in-service
conversions and upgrades. Inherent to its basic design, the system
operates equally well within fully synchronous as well as
asynchronous environments and provides a flexible link between the
two.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports a large variety of configurations
for various network applications:
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 point-to-point (end) terminal
connections. Options are: 0×1 terminal with no line protection or
1+1 MSP line-protected terminal
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear
applications and rings
•
Hubbing functionality
•
Small cross-connect
•
Broadcasting functionality
•
Payload concatenation:
–
Virtual concatenation on TransLAN ® Card
–
Interconnecting ATM systems via VC-4-4c concatenation
•
Tributary interface mixing
•
Single ADM for interconnection of STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1
rings (ring closure)
•
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) with drop & continue
•
SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
•
Multi-service applications with TransLAN ® Card.
Main applications of the system:
•
Grooming of lower order traffic in a ring
•
Path protected rings
•
Ring closure network element
•
ADM in MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings.
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Introduction
Concise
system description
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
A big step forward in technology resulted in this very flexible
product. Because of the high level of integration at circuit pack level,
it is possible to add/drop up to 504 × 1.5 Mbit/s, 504 × 2 Mbit/s, 96
× 34 Mbit/s, 96 × STM-0, 96 × 45 Mbit/s, 64 × 10/100BASE-T
(Ethernet and Fast Ethernet), 18 × GbE (Gigabit Ethernet), 32
× STM-1, 32 × 140 Mbit/s or 8 × STM-4 signals using only one
subrack.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a multiplexer and transport system that
multiplexes a broad range of plesiochronous and synchronous signals
into 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16), 622 Mbit/s (STM-4) or 155 Mbit/s
(STM-1). The method used to map interface signals complies with the
AU-4 mapping procedure specified by ITU-T. STM-1 and STM-4
optical tributary boards also support AU-3 mapping for some interface
signals.
The system can be used as an add/drop multiplexer, terminal
multiplexer or small local cross-connect (see Chapter 4, “Description”
). It provides built-in cross-connect facilities and flexible interface
circuit packs. Local and remote management and control facilities are
provided via the Q and F interfaces and the embedded communication
channels (ECC). The cross-connect circuit pack is the core of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system.
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Concise system description
Introduction
An outline of the basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture is given in
the figure below.
Figure 1-1 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 basic architecture
Cross-connect
The cross-connect is the core of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system.
The cross-connect circuit pack functionally consists of two parts: a
higher and a lower order cross-connect, although physically the
cross-connect circuit pack is one single circuit pack.
The higher order cross-connect switches VC-4s and its capacity is 64
× 64. Other functions of the higher order cross-connect are: VC-4
SNC protection switching, MS-SPRing protection, MSP, equipment
protection (see Chapter 2, “Features” for detailed explanations of the
mentioned protection mechanisms), non-intrusive monitoring of VC-4s
and broadcasting.
The lower order cross-connect switches/grooms VC-3 and VC-12s and
its capacity ranges up to 2016 × 2016 VC-12s equivalents or 32 × 32
VC-4s. Other functions of the lower order cross-connect are: lower
order SNCP, non-intrusive monitoring of lower order VCs and lower
order broadcasting.
Tributary and line interfaces circuit packs are directly connected to the
higher order cross-connect via STM-1 equivalent signals.
Higher order and lower order cross-connect parts are interconnected
via an internal cross-connect-bus of 32 bi-directional VC-4s wide. The
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Concise system description
Introduction
lower order cross-connect itself is uni-directional, although traffic is
switched/protected bi-directionally.
Higher Order VC-4s arriving from line or tributary circuit packs need
only to be routed through the lower order matrix, if the lower order
VC content needs to be groomed. Otherwise, the VC-4 can be routed
through the higher order cross-connect only!
Flexible routing and cross-connecting of VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12
between line port ↔ line port, line port ↔ tributary port and tributary
port ↔ tributary port is possible.
The system architecture makes it possible to use an interface circuit
pack in almost any slot position, hence the system becomes very
flexible. A broad range of applications can be served with the same
shelf based on a common software platform.
To contribute to overall system reliability and availability, the
cross-connect circuit pack can be 1 + 1 equipment protected by an
accompanying circuit pack.
Fixed cross-connect
The fixed cross-connection unit replaces the (working) cross-connect
unit to provide a 0:1 or 0:2 terminal configuration, in which the (16)
VC-4s of four tributary units are routed towards one line port unit and
the (16) VC-4s of four other tributaries are routed towards the other
line port unit.
Interface circuit packs
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports a large variety of Interface circuit
packs: 1.5, 2, 34/45, 51.8, 140/155, 622 Mbit/s and 2.5 Gbit/s are the
bit-rates that are supported. For Ethernet support tributary interfaces
are available supporting 10/100BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, and
1000BASE-LX. If required, interface redundancy can be provided
(excluding Ethernet interfaces). For details of these circuit packs,
please refer to “Circuit packs” (4-9).
System control and
network management
The System Controller (SC) controls and provisions all circuit packs
via a local LAN bus. The SC also provides the external operations
interfaces for office alarms, miscellaneous discrete inputs and outputs
and connections to the overhead channels (a maximum of six
overhead bytes may be selected to be connected to six connectors on
the interconnection panel.
The SC also facilitates first line maintenance by several LEDs and
buttons on the front panel. General status and alarm information is
displayed. Various controls and an F interface connector, for a local
maintenance PC (ITM-CIT), are also located on this panel.
The SC communicates with the centralized management system
(WaveStar ® ITM-SC and Navis ® Optical NMS). Communication is
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Concise system description
Introduction
established via so-called data communication channels (DCC =
D1-3/D4-12 bytes), within the STM-N section overhead signals or via
one of the Q-interfaces of the system. Information destined for the
local system is routed to the System Controller, while other
information is routed from the node via the appropriate embedded
channels of the STM-N line or tributary signals.
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC manages the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 at the
element level and the Navis ® Optical NMS manages the system at the
Network Level. The ITM-Craft interface terminal (ITM-CIT) can be
used for managing single network elements and for maintenance.
Power and timing
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be equipped with one or two power
and timing circuit packs (PT). These power and timing circuit packs
provide power and timing to the system. To contribute to the overall
system reliability and availability, the power and timing circuit pack
can be 1 + 1 equipment protected by an accompanying circuit pack.
Power
A basic function of the PT circuit pack is to filter and stabilize the
incoming station power to meet the necessary ETSI requirements. The
basic power distribution philosophy throughout the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 is to equip each circuit pack with on-board DC/DC converters
that convert the secondary (station battery) voltage to the voltages
required for each circuit pack. The power feed from the station battery
voltage is maintained duplicated throughout the system’s backplane.
Timing
Another basic function of the PT is system timing. The local
oscillator, also called the SDH Equipment Clock (SEC), can be
synchronized to one of the user-selectable timing references. There are
two types of PT circuit packs available: one so-called standard PT
with a standard holdover stability and one with a more accurate
holdover stability frequency; Stratum-3 (see “Circuit packs” (4-9) in
for more details).
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2
Features
Overview
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Purpose
Standards compliance
This chapter briefly describes the features and benefits of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. These features are further described in Chapter
3, “Applications”, Chapter 4, “Description” and Chapter 5,
“Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning” as
applicable.
Lucent Technologies SDH products comply with the relevant SDH
ETSI and ITU-T standards. Important functions defined in SDH
Standards such as the data communications Channel (DCC), the
associated 7-layer OSI protocol stack, the SDH multiplexing structure
and the operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning
(OAM&P) functions are implemented in the Lucent Technologies
product family.
Jitter standards are also incorporated, guaranteeing a smooth
interworking between PDH and SDH based networks. The full
benefits of the SDH Standards are provided while preserving the
integrity of the existing plesiochronous network.
Lucent Technologies is closely involved in various study groups with
ITU-T and ETSI that focus on creating and maintaining the latest
global SDH standards. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 complies with all
relevant ETSI and ITU-T standards and is kept up to date according
to the latest standards.
Contents
Feature overview
2-3
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Overview
Features
Protection mechanisms
2-5
Synchronization and timing
2-7
AU-3 / TU-3 conversion
2-9
Integrated optical booster and booster pre-amplifier
2-10
Remote maintenance, management and control
2-11
Installation practice
2-14
Ethernet over SDH
2-15
Virtual concatenation
2-26
Spanning tree protocol (STP)
2-32
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
2-37
Ethernet over SDH applications
2-40
Operational modes
2-48
Tagging modes
2-60
Ethernet mapping schemes
2-67
Port provisioning
2-69
Quality of Service (QoS) overview
2-75
Classification, queueing and scheduling
2-79
Quality of Service provisioning
2-89
Performance monitoring
2-91
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Features
Feature
overview
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Main feature
Summary of the main
features and benefits
One of the main features of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is its ability to
add/drop and flexibly cross-connect 2 Mbit/s directly from the
STM-16 level. Other signals that can be add/dropped are: 1.5 Mbit/s
(DS-1), 34 Mbit/s (E3), 45 Mbit/s (DS-3), 140 Mbit/s (E4) 51.8
Mbit/s (STM-0), 155 Mbit/s (STM-1), 622 Mbit/S (STM-4),
10/100BASE-T (Ethernet and Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-SX and
1000BASE-LX (Gigabit Ethernet).
Described in this chapter:
•
Protection mechanisms supported: MS-SPRing, higher order &
lower order SNC/N, MSP, Dual Node Interworking (DNI).
•
Synchronization and timing:
–
Support of ETSI synchronization message protocol (Timing
marker)
–
Support of various synchronization modes, including 2
Mbit/s tributary timing.
•
AU-4 / TU-3 to AU-3 conversion on STM 1 and STM-4 optical
interfaces
•
Integrated optical booster and booster/pre-amplifier
•
Remote maintenance and management by Lucent Technologies
Navis ® Optical Management System (WaveStar ® ITM-SC and
Navis ® Optical NMS)
•
Installation practice.
Described in Chapter 3, “Applications”:
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 point-to-point (end) terminal
connections. Options are: 0x1 terminal with no line protection
and 1+1 MSP line-protected terminal
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear
applications and rings
•
Hubbing functionality
•
Small cross-connect
•
Broadcasting functionality
•
Payload concatenation:
–
Virtual Concatenation on TransLAN ® Card
–
Interconnecting ATM systems via VC-4-4c concatenation
•
Tributary interface mixing
•
Single ADM for interconnection of STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1
rings (ring closure)
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Feature overview
Features
•
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) with drop & continue
•
SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
•
Multi-service applications with TransLAN ® card.
Dual Node Interworking with drop and continue. Described in Chapter
4, “Description”:
•
Equipment redundancy (all electrical interfaces, cross-connect,
line port unit and power and timing unit).
•
Maximum add/drop capacity per shelf.VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12
Bi-directional cross-connect capability
•
0:1 and 0:2 terminal application with fixed cross-connect
•
Full time slot assignment (TSA) for port interface signals and
time slot interchange (TSI) for through-channels
•
Mixing/Grooming of various payload types.
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Features
Protection
mechanisms
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Transmission protection
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides the following types of network
level automatic transmission protection:
•
Point-to-point Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
A 1+1 MSP protection relation can be set up between a pair of
STM-0 optical tributary interfaces. The applied protocol is
according to ITU-T Recommendation G.841/Annex B, supporting
non-revertive operation with bi-directional control. A 1+1 MSP
protection relation can be set up between a pair of STM-1 or
STM-4 optical tributary interfaces. The applied protocol can be
selected per interface according to G.841/clause 7 supporting:
–
revertive and non-revertive operation
–
uni-directional and bi-directional control
or to G.841/Annex B supporting:
–
non-revertive operation
–
bi-directional control.
In addition, for these interface types interworking with SONET
type MSP is supported in non-revertive operation with
uni-directional control.
A 1+1 MSP protection relation can be set up between the
STM-16 aggregate interfaces. The applied protocol is according
to G.841/clause 7. It supports both revertive and non-revertive
operation and both uni-directional and bi-directional control.
See also Chapter 3, “Applications”.
•
VC-n SNC/N protection switching.
Sub-network connection protection switching is selectable per VC
using non-intrusive monitoring (SNC/N). This protection
switching facility is non-revertive.
The VC-n SNC protection scheme is in essence a 1+1
point-to-point protection mechanism. The head end is dual fed
(permanently bridged) and the tail end is switched. The switching
criteria at the tail end are determined from the server layer
defects in combination with the non-intrusive monitoring
information.
SNC protection can be applied per individual VC-pair, for lower
order VCs the total number of VCs that can be SNC protected is
limited only by the lower order cross-connect size (See Chapter
5, “Operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning”).
SNC/N protects against:
–
Server failures
–
Open matrix connections (“unequipped signal”)
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Protection mechanisms
Features
–
An excessive number of bit errors (signal degrade)
–
Misconnections (trail trace identifier mismatch).
•
Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring protocol (MS-SPRing)
In two fiber add/drop ring applications, the VC-4s on the
STM-16 ring can be protected by the MS-SPRing protection
mechanism. Rings protected by MS-SPRing can have a
maximum of 16 nodes. Within STM-16 MS-SPRing, channel #1
is protected by channel #9, #2 by #10, etc. up to #8 protected by
#16. Each channel can be included in or excluded from the
MS-SPRing protection mechanism. Access to the protection
channel capacity for “extra, low-priority traffic” is supported.
•
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) with drop and continue (D&C).
The DNI with D&C scheme protects the interconnection between
two subnetworks within which the traffic is already protected by
a network protection scheme. The advantage of using DNI
protection in a network is that there are no single point of
failures anymore.
DNI is supported in the following cases:
–
between two MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings.
–
between a MS-SPRing STM-16 ring and a lower order
SNCP protected subnetwork.
From the Sapphire release and onwards, sub-networks without
DNI protected interconnections can be upgraded in-service to
have DNI protected interconnections.
Cascaded protection
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the cascading of two protection
schemes in one network element without needing multiple passes
through cross-connects. The following schemes are cascadable:
•
MS-SPRing or MSP on aggregates and MSP on tributaries.
•
MS-SPRing or MSP on aggregates and LO-SNCP or HO-SNCP.
•
Two identical VC-n SNCP sections.
•
Two SNCP schemes on the same or different VC-n level.
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Features
Synchronization
and timing
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Synchronization
configurations
Several synchronization configurations can be used, the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 can be provisioned for:
•
Free-running operation
•
Hold-over mode
•
Locked mode, internal SDH Equipment Clock (SEC) locked to:
–
One of the external syncronization inputs (2048 kHz or 2048
kbit/s)
–
One of the 2 Mbit/s tributary signals
–
One of the STM-N inputs (line or tributary port).
The user can select the external synchronization output to be locked to
a suitable input signal independently of the selection made for the
internal oscillator.
Frequency offset handling
Timing reference
protection
By comparing the frequencies of all assigned references with the
frequencies of the internal oscillator on both timing units, it can be
decided, in case an excessive frequency difference is detected,
whether a reference is off-frequency on the internal oscillator of one
of the timing units. In that case that unit is declared failed.
The external timing references are non-revertively 1+1 protected. The
external timing references can also operate unprotected.
Timing mode protection
If the primary timing reference fails, the system will automatically
switch over to the holdover mode. The synchronization status message
is supported which enables timing reference priority settings and gives
information about the timing-signal quality.
Synchronization status
message support
A timing marker or Synchronization Status Message (SSM) signal can
be used to transfer the signal quality level throughout a network. This
will guarantee that all network elements are always synchronized to
the highest quality clock available.
On the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system the SSM algorithm or timing
marker is supported according to G.781. SSM is supported on all
STM-N interfaces and on the 2 Mbit/s synchronization output signal
(connected to the station output clock).
2 Mbit/s tributary retiming
The user can choose for individual 2 Mbit/s tributary outputs to
operate “self-timed” or “re-synchronized”. In the (standard) self-timed
mode, the phase of the outgoing signal is a moving average of the
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Synchronization and timing
Features
phase of the 2 Mbit/s signal as it is embedded in the VC-12 that is
disassembled. In the re-synchronized mode the 2 Mbit/s signal is
timed by the SDH Equipment Clock (SEC) of the network element;
phase differences between the local clock and the 2 Mbit/s embedded
in the VC-12 to be disassembled are accommodated by a slip-buffer.
There is an option that whenever the traceability of the local clock
drops below a certain threshold; the re-timing 2 Mbit/s interfaces
automatically switch to self-timing and vice-versa when the fail
condition disappears, without hits in the traffic.
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Features
AU-3
/ TU-3 conversion
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Summary
Tributary circuit packs (SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B) are available for
supporting the connection of STM-1 optical, AU-3 structured, signals
to the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system. A maximum of four STM-1
optical signals is supported per circuit pack.
Because the cross-connect supports AU-4 structured signals, a
translation from AU-3 to TU-3s needs to take place. This functionality
is located on the circuit pack. Besides AU-3 to TU-3 translating mode
this tributary card can also operate in the AU-4 mode. The circuit
pack fits into a single freely selectable tributary slot of the system.
This circuit pack can function in either mode, depending on the traffic
type on the tributary interface (AU-3 or AU-4 based) and the
cross-connect circuit pack.
A converter circuit pack (named SA-0/12) is available supporting
connection of STM-0 optical, AU-3 structured signals to AU-4
structured signals needed by the cross-connect of the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 system. A maximum of twelve STM-0 optical signals is
supported per circuit pack.
Similar to the STM-1 optical tributary card also the STM-4 optical
card supports AU-3 to TU-3s conversion. One STM-4 optical card
supports one interface.
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Features
Integrated
optical booster and booster pre-amplifier
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Ultra long distance
applications
For ultra long distance applications (160 km per ITU-T G.692
U-16.2/3) an optical booster and a pre-amplifier must be connected to
the STM-16 optical interface. For very long distance (120 km) a
booster-only pack can be used. A combined optical booster and
booster pre-amplifier circuit pack uses one of the slots reserved for
the Interface circuit packs (see Chapter 8, “System planning and
engineering”).
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Features
Remote
maintenance, management and control
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Lucent Technologies
Navis ® Optical
Management two-tier
maintenance
First tier
Second tier
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 maintenance procedures are built on two
levels of system information and control.
The first maintenance tier consists of the user panel display (LEDs)
and push buttons (all on the front of the system controller), and the
circuit pack faceplate light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These allow most
typical maintenance tasks to be performed without the ITM-Craft
Interface Terminal (ITM-CIT) or element manager (WaveStar ®
ITM-SC).
The second maintenance tier employs Lucent Technologies’ Navis ®
Optical Management System (OMS). Detailed information and system
control are obtained by using the ITM-CIT (Craft Interface Terminal),
which supports provisioning, maintenance and configuration on a local
basis. A similar facility is (via a Q-LAN connection or via the DCC
channels) remotely available on the element manager, the WaveStar ®
ITM-SC, which provides a centralized maintenance view and supports
maintenance activities from a central location.
At network level (customer’s network management center), Lucent
Technologies’ Navis ® Optical Management System system performs
all the tasks necessary to supervise, operate, control and maintain an
SDH network with the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
Operations interfaces
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer System offers a wide range of
operations interfaces to meet the needs of an evolving operations
system (OS) network. The operation interfaces include:
•
Office alarm interfaces:
This interface provides a set of discrete relays that control office
audible and visible alarms.
•
User-settable miscellaneous discrete interfaces:
This interface provides 8 user-selectable miscellaneous discrete
inputs and 4 control outputs. These miscellaneous discrete inputs
and outputs can be used to read the status of external alarm
points and to drive external devices.
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Remote maintenance, management and
control
Single-ended operations
by WaveStar ® ITM-SC
Local and remote software
upgrades
Local and remote
inventory capabilities
Features
•
Two local workstation F interfaces:
Two F interfaces are provided, one at the front (on the faceplate
of the SC) and one at the rear of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
These interfaces provide operation access for a PC-based
workstation also known as a Craft Interface Terminal (ITM-CIT).
It can be operated by a crafts person working in front of the
system or at the rear, but not at the same time.
•
Q interfaces
The Q interfaces enable network-oriented communication
between WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 systems and the element /
network Manager. This interface uses a Qx interface protocol
compliant with ITU-T recommendation G.773-CLNS1 to provide
the capability for remote management via the data
communication channels (DCC).
Two types of Q interface are available:
–
Q LAN 10 base T (twisted pair Ethernet, for twisted pair
cables)
–
Q LAN 10 base 2 (thin Ethernet or CheaperNet, for 2
coaxial cables)
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC Element Manager provides single-ended
operations capability by remotely accessing all the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 systems in a network from a single location. Operation,
administration, maintenance, and provisioning can be performed on a
centralized location.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 System provides the capability to upgrade
the system software in service without requiring any control circuit
pack changes. The system monitoring and control are fully functional
during the software download. Software is downloaded locally using
the local ITM-CIT or remotely from the element manager via the Data
Communication Channel (DCC).
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 System provides automatic version
recognition of all hardware and software installed in the system.
Circuit pack types and circuit pack codes (“comcodes”) are accessible
via the local ITM-CIT or via the WaveStar ® ITM-SC Element
Manager. This greatly simplifies troubleshooting, dispatch decisions,
and inventory audits.
This also includes information on the NE release.
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Remote maintenance, management and
control
SFP inventory data
Features
For the optical plugggable modules, the SFPs (Small Form-factor
Pluggables) the following inventory data can be retrieved:
•
Physical Identifier
•
Connector Type
•
Transceiver Code
•
Link Type
•
Max Link Length
•
Vendor Name
•
Vendor IEEE Organisational Unique Identifier (OUI)
•
Part Number
•
Revision Number
•
Vendor Serial Number
•
Comcode Lucent
•
Unique ID Compatibility
•
Warranty Eligibility System (WES) SFP Vendor ID
These inventory data can be retrieved via ITM-CIT or WaveStar ®
ITM-SC.
This feature is only supported by the system controller SC2.
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Features
Installation
practice
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Summary
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is housed in a self-supporting single-row
shelf to fit in standard ETSI racks of 600 mm depth and width. A
maximum two WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 shelves fit in one 2200 mm
high ETSI rack cabinet (H × W × D = 2200 × 600 × 600 mm),
2600 mm high ETSI rack cabinet (H × W × D = 2600 × 600 × 600)
or 2000 mm earthquake-proof rack cabinet (H × W × D = 2000
× 600 × 600). The dimensions of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 shelf
are: 750 × 500 × 545 (H × W × D) mm.
Installation restrictions can be found in Chapter 7, “Physical design”.
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Features
Ethernet
over SDH
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Introduction
To connect remote PC LAN network sites via an SDH network
without the need for intermediate bridges or routers, the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 or Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS network element
is equipped with the Ethernet Interface extension card. The Ethernet
Interface extension card can be a Fast Ethernet card or a Gigabit
Ethernet card.
The following figure visualizes the basic design of a TransLAN ®
card:
Cross-connection unit
D
Virtual concatenation
Encapsulation and mapping
C
WAN ports
Ethernet switch
L2
LAN ports
B
Physical interface
PHY
PHY
PHY
PHY
A
Legend:
A
The external interfaces, to which the
end-customer’s Ethernet LANs are physically
connected.
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
B
The interface between the Ethernet physical
interface port and the Ethernet switch. The
internal interfaces of the Ethernet switch towards
the Ethernet physical interface port are referred to
as “LAN ports”. Note that two types of LAN
ports can be differentiated according to their port
role: “customer LAN ports” and “network LAN
ports” (cf. “Port provisioning” (2-69)).
C
The internal interface between the Ethernet switch
and the encapsulation and mapping function. The
internal interfaces of the Ethernet switch towards
the encapsulation and mapping function are
referred to as “WAN ports”. Note that two types
of WAN ports can be differentiated according to
their port role: “network WAN ports” and
“customer WAN ports” (cf. “Port provisioning”
(2-69)).
D
The interface between the encapsulation and
mapping function and the cross-connect function
of the network element. This is were the virtually
concatenated payload is cross-connected to be
transported over the SDH network.
The TransLAN ® implementations use standardized protocols to
transport Ethernet frames over the SDH network. The Ethernet over
SDH (EoS) method and the generic framing procedure (GFP) are used
to encapsulate the Ethernet frames into the SDH transmission payload.
Virtual concatenation and LCAS are used to allocate a flexible amount
of WAN bandwidth for the transport of Ethernet frames as needed for
the end-user’s application.
The Ethernet Interface extension card contains four 10/100BaseT
Ethernet ports (LAN ports). The LAN ports automatically determine
the speed of the network, whether it is 10BaseT or 100BaseT.
The physical L2 switch that is present on a Ethernet Interface
extension card can be split into several logical or virtual switches. A
Virtual Switch is a set of LAN/WAN ports on a Ethernet Interface
extension card that are used by different VLAN’s which can share the
common WAN bandwidth. Each of the virtual switches can operate in
a specific Virtual Switch mode depending on the VLAN tagging
scheme.
First the VLAN tagging mode has to be specified on Ethernet
Interface extension card level, this can be either IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
tagging or VPN-tagging (Transparent). In VPN tagging (Transparent)
mode, the end-user 802.1Q VLAN tags that optionally may appear in
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Ethernet over SDH
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the end user traffic are ignored in the forwarding process. These
VLAN tags are carried transparently through the SDH network. In
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagging mode, the VLAN tags are also carried
transparently, but the VLAN ID in the VLAN tags is used in the
forwarding decision. Therefore end user VLAN IDs must be unique
per physical switch.
Physical interfaces
The physical interface function provides the connection to the
Ethernet network of the end-customer. It performs autonegotiation,
and carries out flow control.
The following physical interfaces are enabled on Lucent Technologies
TransLAN ® cards:
•
10BASE-T
•
100BASE-TX
•
1000BASE-SX
•
1000BASE-LX
•
1000BASE-ZX
Important! It is recommended not to use flow control for
1000BASE-LX and 1000BASE-ZX interfaces located on the
LKA12/LAK12B unit.
The supported LAN interfaces for Ethernet and Fast Ethernet
applications are 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. The numbers “10” and
“100” indicate the bitrate of the LAN, 10 Mbit/s ( Ethernet) and 100
Mbit/s (Fast Ethernet) respectively. The “T” or “TX” indicates the
wiring and the connector type: Twisted pair wiring with RJ-45
connectors.
The supported LAN interfaces for Gigabit Ethernet applications are
1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, and 1000BASE-ZX. Again, the
number indicates the bitrate of the LAN, 1 Gbit/s (Gigabit Ethernet).
“SX” indicates a short-haul interface, “LX” and “ZX” indicate a
long-haul interface.
Ethernet switch
The Ethernet switch connects the LAN ports with the WAN ports. It
performs learning, filtering and forwarding according to the IEEE
802.1D standard.
The physical Ethernet switch can be logically split in multiple,
independent switches or port groups, called “virtual switch”. In the
transparent tagging modes (LAN interconnect, LAN-VPN), also the
name “LAN group” is used instead of “virtual switch”.
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
The following applies to port groups or virtual switches, respectively:
•
A virtual switch defines a spanning tree domain, and can be
assigned a mode of operation (LAN interconnect or LAN-VPN).
•
A virtual switch includes any number (at least 2) of external
Ethernet LAN ports and/or internal WAN ports associated with a
VC-n-Xv payload.
•
Traffic between virtual switches is not possible.
•
Each port can be a member of only one virtual switch at a time.
•
A VLAN must have all its port members inside a single virtual
switch.
In the following example, a virtual switch is provisioned that connects
2 LAN ports with 1 WAN port:
Virtual switch
LAN
SDH transport
network
LAN
TransLAN physical
Ethernet switch
LAN
ports
WAN
ports
Supported frame sizes
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports Ethernet frames of up to 1650
bytes. The IP-GE/2F-OS (LKA53) GbE TransLAN ® card of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports Ethernet frame sizes of up to 9216
bytes (“jumbo frames”).
Ethernet encapsulation
with GFP
The generic framing procedure (GFP) is used to adapt the
asynchronous Ethernet payload to the synchronous SDH server layer.
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Features
A GFP-header (8 octets) is prepended to each Ethernet frame to
indicate frame length and payload type. Gaps between Ethernet frames
are filled with “IDLE” frames (4 octets each).
IDLE
GFP
HEADER
Ethernet frame
Ethernet frame
GFP
HEADER
IDLE
Ethernet frame
IDLE
GFP
HEADER
IDLE
IDLE
GFP, standardized by the ITU-T in the recommendations G.7041 and
Y.1303, is a very efficient encapsulation protocol because it has a
fixed and small overhead per packet.
In earlier versions (prior to the Garnet network release of June 2002)
of the TransLAN ® equipment, the Ethernet over SDH (EoS)
encapsulation and mapping method is used for VC-12 and/or VC-3
based designs (10/100BASE-T Ethernet / Fast Ethernet cards). EoS is
a proprietary encapsulation protocol, based on the ANSI
T1X1.5/99-268r1 standard, and can be regarded as a precursor of
GFP. EoS and GFP are both length-based encapsulation methods. EoS
is similar to GFP in terms of frame delineation and mapping (incl.
scrambling); differences between the two encapsulation methods lie in
the size and interpretation of the EoS/GFP encapsulation core headers,
as well as the length of the Idle frames.
The generic framing procedure, framed mode (GFP-F) compliant to
the ITU-T Rec. G.7041 is available on all TransLAN ® products since
the Garnet Maintenance / Mercury network release of January 2003.
The following GFP encapsulation are possible:
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into Lower Order SDH
VC12–Xv
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into Lower Order SDH
VC3–Xv
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into Higher Order SDH
VC4–Xv.
VC12–Xv GFP encapsulation
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports virtual concatenation of Lower
Order SDH VC-12 as inverse multiplexing technique to size the
bandwidth of a single internal WAN port for transport of encapsulated
Ethernet and Fast Ethernet packets over the SDH/SONET network.
This is noted VC12-Xv, where X = 1...5. Usage is in conformance
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
with ITU-T G.707 Clause 11 (2000 Edition) and G.783 Clause 12.5
(2000).
This feature implies specific processing of some overhead bytes:
•
Source direction: Each individual VC-12 (from the VC12-Xv
group) K4-byte (bit 1-2 multiframed) will be written to indicate
the values of the multiframe indicator (timestamping), as well as
the sequence indicator (individual VC-12 position inside a
VC12-Xv)
•
Sink direction: Each individual VC-12 (from the VC12-Xv
group) K4-byte (bit 1-2 multiframed) multi-framing indicator and
sequence indicator is used to check that the differential delay
between the individual VC-12s of the VC12-Xv remains within
implementation limits.
Additionally, the use of G.707 Extended Signal Label is supported
using V5(bits 5-7) field, in which the “101” value is written, which
points to the appropriate bits of K4(bit 1) multiframe for writing in
the Extended Signal Label value.
VC3–Xv GFP encapsulation
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports virtual concatenation of Lower
Order SDH VC-3 as inverse multiplexing technique to size the
bandwidth of a single internal WAN port for transport of encapsulated
Ethernet and Fast Ethernet packets over the SDH/SONET network.
This is noted VC3–Xv, where X = 1,2 (SDH). Usage is in
conformance with ITU-T G.707 Clause 11 (2000 Edition) and G.783
Clause 12.5 (2000) and T1X1 T1.105 Clause 7.3.2 (2001 Edition).
This feature implies specific processing of some overhead bytes:
•
Source direction; each individual VC-3 (from the VC3–Xv group)
H4-byte will be written to indicate the values of the two-stagemultiframe indicator (timestamping), as well as the sequence
indicator (individual VC-3 position inside a VC3–Xv)
•
Sink direction; each individual VC-3 (from the VC3–Xv group)
H4-byte two-stage-multi-framing indicator and sequence indicator
is used to check that the differential delay between the individual
VC-3 of the VC3–Xv remains within implementation limits.
Important! Manual/Auto provisioning of encapsulation schemes
on GbE for VC3 does not always work seamlessly. Switching
between Manual and Auto provisioning of GFP and EoS
encapsulation scheme might sometimes get stuck. This can e.g.
happen when configuring back from a GFP scheme to EoS on
one side only.
Work around: Delete and re-create the corresponding
crossconnection.
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
VC4–Xv GFP encapsulation
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports virtual concatenation of Higher
Order SDH VC-4 as inverse multiplexing technique to size the
bandwidth of a single internal WAN port for transport of encapsulated
Gigabit Ethernet packets over the SDH/SONET network. This is noted
VC4/STS3c-Xv, where X = 1...4.
Usage is in conformance with ITU-T G.707 Clause 11 (2000 Edition)
and G.783 Clause 12.5 (2000) and T1X1 T1.105 Clause 7.3.2 (2001
Edition).
This feature implies specific processing of some overhead bytes:
Virtual concatenation
•
Source direction; each individual VC-4 (from the
VC4–Xv/STS3c-Xv group) H4-byte will be written to indicate
the values of the two-stage multiframe indicator (timestamping),
as well as the sequence indicator (individual VC-4 position inside
a VC4/STS3x-Xv group).
•
Sink direction; each individual VC-4 (from the VC4/STS3c-Xv
group) H4-byte two-stage-multi-framing indicator and sequence
indicator is used to check That the differential delay between the
individual VC-4 of the VC-4/STS3c-Xv remains within
implementation limits.
The virtual concatenation function arranges the Ethernet frames into
the right SDH virtual container. It is possible to map the client’s data
signal over a number of grouped virtual containers.
Related information
Please refer to “Virtual concatenation” (2-26) for more detailed
information.
LAN interfaces
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS
support up to four 10/100BASE-T LAN interfaces, as part of the
TransLAN ® Ethernet SDH Transport Solution, when the X4IP-V2
option card is used.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS
support up to eight Ethernet interfaces in Private Line mode, when the
X8PL option card is used. The X8PL board is a point-to-point
Ethernet solution without any switching capabilities. The Ethernet
ports are directly connected to the virtual concatenation groups (VCGs
o flexible SDH Channel TTPs).
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
Main features of the X4IP-V2 and X8PL options cards
The following table lists the main features and differences of the two
option cards X4IP-V2 and X8PL which can be used for Ethernet
applications:
X4IP-V2
X8PL
4 ports
8 ports
provides a Layer 2 switch
no switch
supports advanced networking
applications like ring connections
or point-to-multi-point
connections
cost optimized option card for
point-to-point applications
no LCAS (Link capacity
adjustment scheme) support
supports the LCAS (Link
Capacity Adjustment Scheme)
protocol (please refer to “Link
Capacity Adjustment Scheme
(LCAS)” (2-28))
EoS (Ethernet over SDH)
mapping or GFP (Generic
Framing Procedure)
GFP or LAPS (Link Acccess
Procedure SDH) (please refer to
“Ethernet mapping schemes”
(2-67))
Main Ethernet features of EPL4_E14 and EPL4_E132_75
The following table lists the main features and differences of the two
option cards EPL4_E14 and EPL4_E132_75 beside PDH which can
be used for Ethernet applications:
EPL4_E14
EPL4_E132_75
2 ports to be used of either:
4 ports:
•
two cages for SFP
1000BaseX or
•
•
two triple rate
10/100/1000BaseT
•
two dual rate 10/100BaseT
four dual rate 10/100BaseT
(Only two Gigabit-interfaces can
be used at the same time,
plugged or unplugged SFP
switches optical port on/off.)
no switch
no switch
point-to-point applications
point-to-point applications
supports the LCAS protocol
supports the LCAS protocol
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Ethernet over SDH
LAN and WAN ports and
VLAN
Features
EPL4_E14
EPL4_E132_75
GFP and LAPS mapping of
Ethernet frames
GFP and LAPS mapping of
Ethernet frames
A VLAN can contain multiple LAN ports and multiple WAN ports.
Multiple LAN ports can be assigned to different VLANs, also
mentioned as Virtual LAN’s. This keeps the traffic on each VLAN
totally separate. VLAN groups are used to connect LAN ports and
WAN ports. The LAN ports are the physical 10BaseT or 100BaseT or
gigabit Ethernet ports on the NE. All valid Ethernet packets are
accepted (both Ethernet 2 and IEEE 802.3). The WAN ports are the
logical connection points to the SDH channels. The LAN port is the
interface between the customers Ethernet LAN and the Ethernet
switch on the LAN unit. The WAN port is the internal port between
the Ethernet switch and the part of the LAN unit where the Ethernet
frame is mapped into or de-mapped from SDH payloads.
VLAN trunking
VLAN trunks carry the traffic of multiple VLANs over one single
Ethernet link and allow handling off aggregated LAN traffic from
multiple end users via one single high capacity Ethernet link (Fast
Ethernet or Giga Ethernet) to data equipment in a Central Office or an
IP Edge Router, IP Service Switch or an ATM Switch. The main
benefit of VLAN trunking is that TransLAN cards can hand off end
user LAN traffic via one high capacity LAN port instead of multiple
low speed LAN ports.
Advantages of VLAN trunking are:
•
it does not require the assignment of CID tags
•
it permits different 802.1 tagged frames to share the same
physical LAN port
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Ethernet over SDH
Learning bridges
Features
•
it gives additional flexibility for egress logical WAN port
assignment
•
it permits successfully routing via an aggregation function.
To increases the efficiency of the network, it can be separated into
segments. A bridge, which may have several parts, passes packets
between multiple network segments. By noting at which port an
Ethernet packet with a certain source address arrives, the bridge learns
to which ports a packet with a certain destination address must be
sent. If the port does not know the destination address, then it will
send it to all the ports except the port where it comes from. The tables
which the learning bridge uses to pass the Ethernet packets to its ports
are not shown to the user by the management systems.
MAC-Bridges perform automatic address learning based on the source
MAC-address present in each frame.
•
In this process an unknown SA of a frame is stored together with
the port number over which the frame entered the Bridge to be
used when frames with that DA need to be forwarded
•
Addresses that are not refreshed (relearned) within the so-called
MAC address ageing time, are removed.
In case more different source address than there is memory space are
passing in an specific interval, the MAC address ageing time,
addresses are prematurely flushed and possibly need to be re-learned
The MAC address ageing time is not stable. Ageing time can vary
between 240s up to 420s.
This causes some excess traffic as unlearned traffic is broadcasted.
Too much unlearned traffic can also affect the learned traffic (because
of the broadcasting).
Example
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Ethernet over SDH
Features
After the bridge has received a packet from station C it knows that
station C is attached to port 2. When the bridge knows to which ports
a station is attached, it will send packets with destination addresses of
these stations only to the port the station is attached to (e.g. a packet
from station B to station C is only forwarded to port 2). When a
destination address of a packet is of a station in its own segment, the
packet is not forwarded by the bridge (e.g. a packet from station D to
station E).
Quality of service
Refer to “Quality of Service (QoS) overview” (2-75).
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Features
Virtual
concatenation
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The SDH granularity
problem
The virtual containers of the SDH have fixed sizes. These virtual
containers are important for the transport of Ethernet frames over the
SDH network:
•
VC-12: 2 Mbit/s
•
VC-3: 50 Mbit/s
•
VC-4: 150 Mbit/s
It is difficult to fit the Ethernet traffic into one of these virtual
containers. For many applications the containers, or contiguously
concatenated virtual containers, such as VC-4-4C (600 Mbit/s) for
example, are either too small or too big. This is known as the
granularity problem.
Virtual concatenation is a mechanism by which a number of
independent VCs can be used to carry a single payload. This way, the
granularity problem is solved.
The following table shows the possible payload sizes, and the virtual
containers that are used for the transport.
Virtual concatenation
Payload
Virtual containers
Concatenation
2 Mbit/s
1 × VC-12
VC-12
4 Mbit/s
2 × VC-12
VC-12-2v
6 Mbit/s
3 × VC-12
VC-12-3v
8 Mbit/s
4 × VC-12
VC-12-4v
10 Mbit/s
5 × VC-12
VC-12-5v
50 Mbit/s
1 × VC-3
VC-3
100 Mbit/s
2 × VC-3
VC-3-2v
150 Mbit/s
1 × VC-4
VC-4
300 Mbit/s
2 × VC-4
VC-4-2v
450 Mbit/s
3 × VC-4
VC-4-3v
600 Mbit/s
4 × VC-4
VC-4-4v
750 Mbit/s
5 × VC-4
VC-4-5v
900 Mbit/s
6 × VC-4
VC-4-6v
1 Gbit/s
7 × VC-4
VC-4-7v
Virtual concatenation can be used for the transport of payloads that do
not fit efficiently into the standard set of virtual containers (VCs).
Virtual concatenation splits the contiguous bandwidth into individual
VCs, transports these VCs separately over the SDH network, and
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Virtual concatenation
Features
recombines them to a contiguous signal at the path termination. An
important aspect of virtual concatenation is that it only needs to be
supported at the end nodes (i.e. at the TransLAN ® cards that interface
with the end-customer’s LAN). The rest of the network simply
transports the separate channels.
Example 1
As an example, the following figure shows the virtual concatenation
of 5 × VC-12:
10 Mbit/s
Ethernet payload
VC-12-5v
0
1
2
3
4
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
VC-12
0
1
2
3
4
VC-12-5v
10 Mbit/s
Ethernet payload
The 10 Mbit/s payload is put into a VC-12–5v, i.e. into a virtual
concatenation group (VCG) consisting of 5 virtually concatenated
VC-12s. These VC-12s can travel the network independently, and do
not have to follow the same route. At the endpoint, the VC-12–5v is
reassembled, and the payload is extracted.
Example 2
The second example shows the principle of virtual concatenation in a
Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) network application. Protection of the virtually
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Virtual concatenation
Features
concatenated payload is possible via standard SDH transmission
protection schemes.
Network element
Ethernet
frame
LAN
VC-4-7v
WAN
Network element
Ethernet
VC-4-7v frame
WAN
LAN
Differential delay
Due to the different propagation delay of the VCs a differential delay
occurs between the individual VCs. This differential delay has to be
compensated and the individual VCs have to be re-aligned for access
to the contiguous payload area.
The TransLAN ® re-alignment process covers at least a differential
delay of 32 ms.
Link Capacity Adjustment
Scheme (LCAS)
LCAS is an extension of virtual concatenation that allows dynamic
changes in the number of channels in a connection. In case channels
are added or removed by management actions this will happen
without loosing any customer traffic.
LCAS allows a bandwidth service with scalable throughput in normal
operation mode. In case of failure the connection will not be dropped
completely but only the affected channel(s). The remaining channels
will continue carrying traffic. LCAS provides automatic decrease of
bandwidth in case of link failure and re-establishment after link
recovery.
In case only one end supports (or has turned on) the LCAS protocol,
the side that does support LCAS adapts automatically to the
restrictions that are dictated by the non-supporting end, i.e. the entire
link behaves as a link that does not support in-service bandwidth
adaptations.
Bandwidth allocation (GbE)
Unlike the TransLan+ and M-LAN cards the GbE unit has a fully
flexible internal cross connect. This means that it is impossible to
simply request bandwidth. For the GbE card the user selects which
VCs to add to the SDH Channel/VCG. In addition the user has the
option of substructuring the VC4s into VC3s thus giving additional
flexibility as in the other Ethernet cards the substructuring was fixed.
The user may select from the following SDH Rates: VC3, VC3-2v,
VC4-1v, VC4-2v, VC4-3v and VC4-4v. This gives a range from 50
Mbps to 600 Mbps.
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Virtual concatenation
Features
Dynamic bandwidth
adjustment (GbE)
One of the major problems with using Virtual Concatenation is that if
one of the VCs has a fault and fails the whole signal fails. This means
that if a single VC fails the entire SDH Channel/VCG is lost. The
GbE card for the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 network element supports the
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS). This LCAS allows
dynamic bandwidth increase or decrease without loss of signal.
Furthermore, if the signal of one or more of the components becomes
degraded then LCAS will autonomously remove those VCs from the
group. When the failure is repaired LCAS will automatically return
those component VCs to the SDH Channel/VCG.
The following table indicates the effect LCAS has on the transmission
capacity:
Enabling/disabling Capacity no VC-n
LCAS
failures
One or more (but not
all) VC-ns failures
All VC-ns fail.
LCAS disabled
Working Capacity =
Provisioned Capacity
Working Capacity = 0
Working Capacity = 0
LCAS enabled
Working Capacity =
Provisioned Capacity
Working Capacity is
reduced by amount of
failed VC-ns service
degraded.
Working Capacity = 0
With the introduction of LCAS for VC4-Xv an additional attribute
“SDHWorkingCapacity” is needed. The working capacity shows the
value of the actual capacity available, this allows the operator to see
when service is degraded. The working capacity will also be displayed
for non-LCAS, showing a zero if the signal is degraded on any VC-n.
When LCAS is enabled Working Capacity show a zero only when the
signal is fully degraded. The next three figures depict the effect of
LCAS.
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Virtual concatenation
Features
Non-degraded service
Non LCAS causing degraded service
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With LCAS enabled only signal degradation is caused
VC allocation (GbE)
There are 4 x VC-4 TTPs on the GbE card. Each of these can be
substructured to VC-3 TTPs or used as VC-4 TTPs. When the
operator requests an SDH Channel/VCG he has a choice of various
capacities from a single VC-3 (50 Mbit/s) up to VC-4-4v (600
Mbit/s). If the operator requires a bandwidth of say 100 Mbit/s, one of
the VC-4 TTPs must be adapted into VC-3 TTPs, and two of these
will be virtually concatenated as a VC-3-2v. For the next SDH
Channel/VCG the operator will then only have a maximum bandwidth
of 450 Mbit/s (VC-4-3v) as this is what is still available.
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Features
Spanning
tree protocol (STP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
The spanning tree protocol (STP) is a standard Ethernet method for
eliminating loops and providing alternate routes for service protection.
Standard STP depends on information sharing among Ethernet
switches/bridges to reconfigure the spanning tree in the event of a
failure. The STP algorithm calculates the best loop-free path
throughout the network.
STP defines a tree that spans all switches in the network; it e.g. uses
the capacity of available bandwidth on a link (path cost) to find the
optimum tree. It forces redundant links into a standby (blocked) state.
If a link fails or if a STP path cost changes the STP algorithm
reconfigures the spanning tree topology and may reestablish
previously blocked links. The STP also determines one switch that
will be the root switch; all leaves in the spanning tree extend from the
root switch.
Maximum bridge diameter
The maximum bridge diameter is the maximum number of bridges
between any two hosts on the bridged LAN for any spanning tree
configuration.
For TransLAN ® applications the maximum bridge diameter is 25
nodes.
Spanning tree example
The following example network serves to illustrate the principle how
a spanning tree is constructed.
LAN
2a
Switch 2
2c
2b
1b
3c
Switch 1
Switch 3
1c
3b
1a
LAN
3a
LAN
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Spanning tree protocol (STP)
Features
Determination of the root
For every switch a priority can be configured. The switch priority is a
number between 0 (highest priority) and 61440 (lowest priority) in
steps of 4096. The switch with the highest priority will become root.
If there are two or more switches with the same highest priority, then
the switch with the lowest number for the MAC address will become
root. This rule ensures that there is always exactly one root, as MAC
addresses are unique.
LAN
2a
Priority: 32768
Switch 2
2c
2b
1b
3c
Switch 1
Root
Switch 3
1c
Priority: 28072
3b
1a
LAN
3a
Priority: 32768
LAN
Determination of the root ports
Root ports are those ports that will be used to reach the root. For each
switch the port with the lowest root path cost is chosen, where the
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Spanning tree protocol (STP)
Features
root path cost is determined by adding the path costs to the root. In
the example port 2b and 3b are root ports.
LAN
2a
Switch 2
Path cost
60000
2c
r
2b
Path cost
25000
1b
3c
Switch 1
Root
r
1c
1a
LAN
10000
Path cost
Switch 3
3b
3a
LAN
For every port a path cost value can be configured. For E/FE
TransLAN ® cards, the default value of the path cost is determined by
dividing 20,000,000,000 by the bandwidth in kbit/s. For GbE
TransLAN ® cards, the path cost is a means to influence the active
network topology.
Determination of the designated and blocked ports
The designated port is the one port that is going to be used for a
certain LAN. In the example, there are 6 LANs.
The designated ports for LAN 1, LAN 2 and LAN 3 are the ports 1a,
2a and 3a respectively, because these LANs have only one connection
to a switch. If there are more connections to a switch, then the port
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Spanning tree protocol (STP)
Features
with the lowest root path cost is chosen. Thus the designated ports for
LAN 4, LAN 5 and LAN 6 are the ports 1b, 1c and 3c respectively.
LAN 2
2a
d
Switch 2
x
LAN 4
r
2b
2c
LAN 5
1b
3c
d
d
Switch 1
Root
r
d
1c
d
LAN 6
Switch 3
3b
1a
LAN 1
d
3a
LAN 3
Ports that are neither root ports nor designated ports are blocked. In
the example port 2c is a blocked port.
Thus the loop free spanning tree is constructed.
Rapid spanning tree
protocol (rSTP)
The rapid spanning tree protocol reduces the time that the standard
spanning tree protocol needs to reconfigure after network failures.
Instead of several tens of seconds, rSTP can reconfigure in less than a
second. The actual reconfiguration time depends on several
parameters, the two most prominent are the network size and
complexity. IEEE802.1w describes the standard implementation for
rSTP.
For the special case of multiple cross-connection switches in between
the last 60 seconds, a filtering function concerning STP notification is
implemented. This repetition filter modifies the hold-off time for
recalculation of the STP.
Specific attributes for TransLAN ® STP enhancements:
•
Failure Detection - Use SDH-layer failure detection to trigger
STP reconfiguration.
•
Convergence Time - Key aspects of the message-based IEEE
802.1w/D10 (rSTP) protocol instead of timer-based 802.1D (STP)
protocol.
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Spanning tree protocol (STP)
Features
•
Support larger network diameter by adjusting the “Maximum Age
Timer” parameter and enhanced STP configuration controls and
reports.
•
Automatic mode detection - The rSTP is supported as an
enhancement to STP, it cannot be enabled explicitly. It rather will
operate by default and will fall back to STP as soon as it finds
peer nodes that do not support rSTP. The STP mode that the
bridge elected can be retrieved per port.
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Features
GARP
VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Automatic configuration of
VLANs
The GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) is a protocol that
simplifies VLAN assignment on network-role ports and ensures
consistency among switches in a network.
GVRP is supported only in the IEEE 802.1Q / IEEE 802.1ad VLAN
tagging modes. In the transparent tagging modes (VPN tagging
modes), a similar protocol, the proprietary spanning tree with VPN
registration protocol (STVRP) is supported. STVRP is enabled per
default and cannot be disabled.
By using GVRP, VLAN identifiers (VLAN IDs) only need to be
provisioned on customer-role ports of access nodes. VLAN IDs on
network-role ports of intermediate and access nodes are automatically
configured by means of GVRP. The provisioned VLAN IDs on
customer-role ports are called static VLAN entries; the VLANs
assigned by GVRP are called dynamic VLAN entries. In addition,
GVRP prevents unnecessary broadcasting of Ethernet frames by
forwarding VLAN frames only to those parts of the network that have
customer-role ports with that VLAN ID. Thus, the traffic of a VLAN
is limited to the STP branches that are actually connecting the VLAN
members.
LAN
LAN
➁
➀
➁
B
➀
C
A
➂
E
D
Legend:
1
Static VLAN IDs need to be entered manually at
customer-role ports.
2
Dynamic VLAN IDs of intermediate and access nodes
are automatically configured.
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GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
3
Features
No automatic configuration of VLAN IDs on ports
towards those access nodes where the respective VLAN
ID is not provisioned, i.e. no unnecessary broadcasting
of Ethernet frames by forwarding VLAN frames only to
those parts of the network that have customer-role ports
with that VLAN ID.
Note that GVRP and the spanning tree protocol (STP) interact with
each other. After a stable spanning tree is determined (at initialization
or after a reconfiguration due to a failure) the GVRP protocol
recomputes the best VLAN assignments on all network-role ports,
given the new spanning tree topology.
GVRP can be enabled (default setting) or disabled per virtual switch.
However, all virtual switches on an Ethernet network need to be in
the same GVRP mode. For interworking flexibility one can optionally
disable STP per network-role port; implicitly GVRP is then disabled
as well on that port. GVRP must be disabled in order to interwork
with nodes that do not support GVRP.
Max. number of VLANs
The maximum supported number of active VLANs (VLAN
identifiers) is limited for reasons of controller performance, and varies
depending on product, tagging mode and GVRP activation status. The
following table shows the applicable values. Note that even if the
maximum number of active VLANs is limited to 64, 247, or 1024,
VLAN identifiers out of the full range of VLAN identifiers (0 { 4093)
can be used for tagging purposes.
Max. number of active VLANs
Product
Transparent tagging
(VPN tagging) mode1
IEEE 802.1Q / IEEE 802.1ad
tagging mode
GVRP enabled
GVRP disabled
Metropolis ® AM /
Metropolis ® AMS2
64 VLANs per card
247 VLANs
per card
1024 VLANs
per NE
Metropolis ® AMU
64 VLANs per card
247 VLANs
per card
1024 VLANs
per NE
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 2
64 VLANs per card
247 VLANs
per card
1024 VLANs
per NE
Metropolis ® ADM
(Compact shelf) 2
64 VLANs per card
247 VLANs
per card
1024 VLANs
per NE
Metropolis ® ADM
(Universal shelf) 2
64 VLANs per card
247 VLANs
per card
1024 VLANs
per NE
–3
64 VLANs
per card
4093 VLANs
per NE
LambdaUnite ® MSS
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Features
Max. number of active VLANs
Product
Transparent tagging
(VPN tagging) mode1
WaveStar ® TDM 10G
(STM-64)
–
IEEE 802.1Q / IEEE 802.1ad
tagging mode
GVRP enabled
GVRP disabled
64 VLANs
per card
4093 VLANs
per NE
Notes:
1.
No distinction is made with respect to the STVRP activation status,
because STVRP is enabled per default and cannot be disabled.
2.
An alarm (MACcVLANOVFW – Maximum number of VLAN
instances exceeded) will be reported when the max. number of
active VLANs per TransLAN ® card is exceeded.
3.
The LambdaUnite ® MSS transparent tagging mode rather compares to
the provider bridge tagging mode (see “IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging”
(2-62)) than to this transparent tagging (VPN tagging) mode.
A maximum number of 1024 active VLANs per network element is
supported.
A maximum of 5000 VLAN/port associations is supported per
network element, except for the Metropolis ® AM/Metropolis ® AMS,
where the maximum number of VLAN/port associations is 2000. An
alarm (MIBcVLANOVFW – Maximum number of VLAN instances
exceeded in MIB) will be reported when the max. number of
VLAN/port associations per network element is exceeded.
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Ethernet
over SDH applications
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This section gives an introduction to the possible TransLAN ® Ethernet
over SDH applications.
Types of applications
Layer-2 switching allows different types of applications, including:
•
Ethernet point-to-point transport
•
Ethernet point-to-point transport in buffered repeater mode
•
Ethernet multipoint transport (dedicated bandwidth)
•
Ethernet multipoint transport (shared bandwidth)
•
Ethernet multiplexing (VLAN trunking)
TransLAN ® supports all Ethernet transport solutions. Specific system
configuration is required for each network application.
Direct interconnection of
two LANs - Ethernet
point-to-point transport
The most straight-forward Ethernet application on the TransLAN ®
equipment is a leased line type of service with dedicated bandwidth to
interconnect two LAN segments which are at a distance that cannot be
bridged by using a simple Ethernet repeater, because the collision
domain size rules would be violated.
The two interconnected LANs need not be of the same speed; it is
possible to interconnect a 10BASE-T and a 100BASE-T LAN this
way for example.
LAN
SDH network
LAN
TransLAN equipment
Ethernet connection
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Mode of operation
Ethernet point-to-point transport can be realized by using any of the
TransLAN ® operational modes. However, the preferred mode of
operation for the direct interconnection of two LANs is the repeater
mode.
Related information
Please also refer to “Repeater mode” (2-49).
Ethernet multipoint
transport with dedicated
bandwidth
The following figure shows a network example of a multipoint
Ethernet over SDH network with dedicated bandwidth:
LAN
(customer A)
LAN
(customer A)
SDH network
LAN
(customer A)
LAN
(customer A)
TransLAN equipment
Ethernet connection
This multipoint network is dedicated to a single user.
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Features
Mode of operation
Ethernet multi-point transport with dedicated bandwidth can be
realized by using any of the following TransLAN ® operational modes:
•
LAN-VPN mode
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (provider
bridge mode)
Related information
Please also refer to:
•
“LAN-VPN (M-LAN) mode” (2-53)
•
“IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode” (2-56)
•
“Provider bridge mode” (2-58)
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Ethernet over SDH applications
Ethernet multipoint
transport with shared
bandwidth
Features
The following figure shows a network example of a multipoint
Ethernet over SDH network with shared bandwidth:
LAN
(customer B)
LAN
(customer A)
STM-N ring
STM-N ring
LAN
(customer A)
LAN
(customer B)
LAN
(customer A)
TransLAN equipment
Ethernet connection
The SDH capacity is shared among more than one customer in this
multipoint network. This allows customer A to use the complete SDH
bandwidth at the moment that customer B is inactive, and vice versa.
As Ethernet traffic is inherently bursty, sharing bandwidth can
increase the efficiency of the network usage.
Isolation of the traffic of different end-users can be accomplished by
using transparent tagging or VLAN tagging (see “Tagging modes”
(2-60)), depending on the desired mode of operation.
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Features
Mode of operation
Ethernet multi-point transport with shared bandwidth can be realized
by using any of the following TransLAN ® operational modes:
•
LAN-VPN mode
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (provider
bridge mode)
Related information
Please also refer to:
VLAN trunking
•
“LAN-VPN (M-LAN) mode” (2-53)
•
“IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode” (2-56)
•
“Provider bridge mode” (2-58)
Trunking applications are a special case of Ethernet multipoint
transport, either with dedicated or shared bandwidth.
Trunking applications are those applications where traffic of multiple
end-users is handed-off via a single physical Ethernet interface to a
router or switch for further processing. This scenario is also called
“back-hauling”, since all traffic is transported to a central location,
e.g. a point-of-presence (PoP) of a service provider.
Trunking applications can be classified into two topology types:
•
Trunking in the hub-node
•
Distributed aggregation in the access network
Common to both topology types is that the Ethernet traffic of multiple
LANs is aggregated on one or a few well filled Ethernet interfaces,
the trunking LAN interface(s). Thus, the Ethernet traffic of multiple
end-users can be made available to a service provider at a central
location via a limited mumber of physical connections. Without
VLAN trunking, each end-user would need to be connected to the
service provider equipment via his own Ethernet interface.
Trunking applications include the aggregation of Ethernet traffic of a
single end-user as well as the aggregation of Ethernet traffic of
multiple different end-users. Isolation of the traffic of different
end-users can be accomplished by using transparent tagging or VLAN
tagging (see “Tagging modes” (2-60)), depending on the desired mode
of operation.
A typical TransLAN ® trunking application would be a configuration
where many E/FE access nodes are combined with a trunking GbE
hub node (cf. “Distributed aggregation in the access network” (2-46)).
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Trunking in the hub node
This figure shows an example of VLAN trunking in the hub node:
Internet
VLAN 5, 17, 18, 19,
21, 22, 66, 91
X
ISP router
Trunking LAN interface
(network-role LAN port)
Hub node
Access
nodes
Access
nodes
SDH
network
VLAN
17, 18, 19
VLAN
5, 91
LAN
VLAN
66
VLAN
21, 22
LAN
LAN
LAN
Each access node is individually connected to the hub node over a
single SDH connection (or even one SDH connection per LAN port).
The trunking LAN interface is a network-role LAN port. The VLAN
tags in the Ethernet frames are preserved, i.e. made available to the
service provider, and can thus be used for further processing.
A high WAN port density is required in the hub-node.
Averaging of the peak traffic loads of each access node (or LAN port)
is not used. Each SDH link bandwidth has to be engineered for the
corresponding amount of peak traffic.
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Ethernet over SDH applications
Features
Distributed aggregation in the access network
This figure shows an example of distributed aggregation in the access
network:
Internet
VLAN 5, 17, 18, 19,
21, 22, 66, 91
X
ISP router
Trunking LAN interface
(network-role LAN port)
Hub node
Access
nodes
Access
nodes
SDH
network
VLAN
17, 18, 19
VLAN
5, 91
LAN
VLAN
66
VLAN
21, 22
LAN
LAN
LAN
The SDH bandwidth can be shared by many end-users, which allows
to gain from the statistical effects in the traffic offered by each
end-user (“statistical multiplexing”). Thus, the distributed aggregation
in the access network configuration is more bandwidth efficient than
the trunking in the hub node topology.
Another difference is that in the trunking in the hub-node topology,
the hub node has to support many WAN ports, which is not the case
in the distributed aggregation in the access network configuration.
A certain bandwidth allocation fairness can be guaranteed by applying
ingress rate control in the access nodes. Please note that ingress rate
control is not supported on GbE TransLAN ® cards but only on E/FE
TransLAN ® cards.
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Mode of operation
Trunking applications can be realized by using any of the following
TransLAN ® operational modes:
•
LAN-VPN mode
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q
•
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (provider
bridge mode)
Related information
Please also refer to:
•
“LAN-VPN (M-LAN) mode” (2-53)
•
“IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode” (2-56)
•
“Provider bridge mode” (2-58)
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Operational
modes
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview of operational
modes
These TransLAN ® operational modes exist:
•
•
Virtual Switch operation
mode
Proprietary VPN modes:
–
Multipoint LAN bridging mode (“LAN-VPN mode”,
“MLAN mode”)
–
Multipoint LAN bridging mode enhanced with IEEE 802.1p
QoS functions (“MLAN_QoS mode”)
Standard compliant IEEE modes:
–
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q
–
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad
(“Provider bridge mode”)
When the transparent tagging mode has been selected on the Ethernet
Interface extension card (LAN unit) level, a different Virtual Switch
operational mode must be chosen per Virtual Switch. The Virtual
Switch can be configured in the following operation modes:
•
Repeater
•
LAN-interconnect
•
LAN-VPN (MLAN)
When the IEE802.1Q/IEEE 802.1a tagging mode has been selected,
the operation mode of the Virtual Switch is always Spanning Tree.
The physical Layer 2 (L2) switch that is present on an Ethernet LAN
tributary board can be split into several logical or virtual switches. A
Virtual Switch is a set of LAN/WAN ports on a Ethernet LAN
tributary board that are used by different VLAN’s which can share the
common WAN bandwidth. Each of the virtual switches can operate in
a specific Virtual Switch mode depending on the VLAN tagging
scheme, and each Virtual Switch mode allows specific LAN-WAN
port associations as explained in the following paragraphs.
First the VLAN tagging mode has to be specified on LAN unit level,
this can be either IEEE 802.1Q/IEEE 802.1aVLAN tagging or VPN
tagging. In VPN tagging mode, end-user VLAN tags that optionally
may appear in the end user traffic are ignored in the forwarding
process. These VLAN tags are carried transparently through the
″TransLAN Network″. In VLAN-tagging mode, the VLAN tags are
also carried transparently, but the VLAN ID in the VLAN tags is used
in the forwarding decision. Therefore customers’ VLAN IDs may not
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overlap on a physical Ethernet switch, the VLAN IDs must be unique
per switch pack. (FEP 1_188_14221)
After having provisioned the tagging mode, per virtual switch a
different Virtual Switch operational mode may be chosen. The
Ethernet LAN tributary board supports either the Repeater mode,
LAN-Interconnect, LAN-VPN, and Spanning Tree Protocol Virtual
Switch mode of operation. IEEE 802.1D MAC forwarding and
address filtering, multi-point bridging and spanning tree protocol
(STP) are supported under all modes of operation, except the Repeater
mode.
The following table gives an overview of the different modes and a
list of the corresponding supported functionality:
VLAN Tagging
Mode
Virtual Switch Mode
Ethertype/TPID
valid per pack
Dynamic VLAN
Registration Protocol
Spanning Tree
Implementation
valid perunit
VPN Tagging
IEEE
802.1Q/IEEE
802.1ad VLAN
tagging
Repeater
N/A
N/A
No STP
LAN Interconnect
(Dedicated
Bandwidth)
N/A
STVRP
Multiple STP
LAN-VPN (Shared
Bandwidth)
N/A
Spanning Tree
Switched Network
600 ... FFFF,
except for
8100
GVRP
Single STP
N/A
No STP
8100
Repeater
Interoperability of
operational modes
600 ... FFFF,
except for
8100
Virtual Switches that are configured in the same operational mode can
interwork. Virtual Switches not configured in the same operational
mode do not interwork in all cases. If a Virtual Switch is configured
in the “Repeater” mode or the “STP Switch” mode, it can only
interwork with Virtual Switches that are configured in the same mode.
Interworking between a remote LAN-interconnect virtual switch and a
VPN virtual switch is not prohibited, because the LAN-interconnect
mode can be seen as a special case of the VPN mode.
Repeater mode
A virtual switch in repeater mode consists of exactly one LAN port
and one WAN port in a fix 1:1 relationship. All Ethernet frames
entering the virtual switch at a LAN port are transparently forwarded
to the corresponding WAN port and transported over the network.
None of the standard IEEE Std 802.1D/Q processes (MAC address
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learning, MAC frames forwarding and filtering, VLAN classification
and filtering) applies. Received frames are relayed to the other port of
the virtual switch, irrespective of their format or contents.
The WAN port that supports the Repeater mode requires the
provisioning of the following parameters:
•
WAN port capacity (require manual provisioning) at 2, 4, 6, 8,
10, 50 or 100 Mbit/s
•
WAN port capacity; for the Fast Ethernet card requires manual
provisioning at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 50 or 100 Mbit/s and for the
Gigabit Ethernet card requires manual provisioning at
VC-12,VC-12, VC-4–4c, VC-4 and VC-3.
•
association of the WAN port to a LAN port
•
create cross-connections between VC-X and TU-X (where X=12
or 3).
The following figure shows the network element configured in the
Repeater operation mode.
SDH network
LAN ports
Line port
WAN ports
switch
crossconnection
A virtual switch in repeater mode emulates an Ethernet repeater
except that it
•
breaks-up the collision domains,
•
removes the length limitation of CSMA/CD LANs, and
•
also works in full-duplex mode.
Synonyms
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The TransLAN ® repeater mode of operation is often also referred to
as “promiscuous mode” or “buffered repeater mode”.
Intended use
The repeater mode is only intended to be used in point-to-point
configurations to offer a leased-lines type of service. The repeater
mode is supported by E/FE as well as GbE TransLAN ® cards.
Configuration rules and guidelines
Please observe these configuration rules and guidelines:
•
The use of the repeater mode is limited to virtual switches
consisting of exactly one customer LAN port and one network
WAN port. Only point-to-point connections are supported.
•
No customer identifier (CID) can be configured.
•
It is not possible to provision QoS functions.
•
Flow control can be enabled or disabled per LAN port.
•
No WAN port configurations are possible.
•
When a virtual switch is switched from any of the other
operational modes into repeater mode, then all VLAN and QoS
configuration information will be reset. When the virtual switch
is switched back again into the previous mode, then these
configuration settings will not become operational again but must
be provisioned again.
The Ethernet packets are carried across the SDH network in a
channel. When using the Fast Ethernet card, each channel comprises
up to 5 VC12 or up to 2 VC3 concatenated. These VC12s and VC3s
behave in the same way as normal SDH VC12s from an E1 port or
SDH VC3s from an E3 port. There is some buffering in the NE, but it
is still possible to lose packets because the channel bandwidth can be
less than the Ethernet traffic rate. When using the Gigabit Ethernet
card, each channel comprisesVC-12, VC-4–4c, VC-4 or VC-3.
The Ethernet packets are carried across the SDH network in a
channel. Each channel comprises up to 63 VC12 or up to 2 VC3
concatenated. These VC12s and VC3s behave in the same way as
normal SDH VC12s from an E1 port or SDH VC3s from an E3 port.
There is some buffering in the NE, but it is still possible to lose
packets because the channel bandwidth can be less than the Ethernet
traffic rate.
LAN-interconnect mode
The LAN-interconnect mode of operation offers dedicated WAN
bandwidth to a single end-user. Under the LAN-interconnect mode of
operation, a Virtual Switch must only contain LAN ports with the
same CID (Customer ID) to ensure the entire WAN port bandwidth
allocated for the group is dedicated to a single end-user. Any
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combination of LAN- and WAN-ports is allowed, but with a minimum
of two ports to be meaningful.
The following figure shows the network element configured in the
LAN-interconnect operation mode.
LAN
X
LAN
LAN
X
LAN
LAN ports
Line port
WAN ports
virtual
switch
crossconnection
The Ethernet packets are carried across the SDH network in a
channel. When using the Fast Ethernet card, each channel comprises
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of up to 5 VC12 or of up to 2 VC3 concatenated. These VC12s and
VC3s behave in the same way as normal SDH VC12s from an E1
port respectively normal SDH VC3s from an E3 port. When using the
Gigabit Ethernet card, each channel comprises of VC-4 or of VC-3.
The Ethernet packets are carried across the SDH network in a
channel. Each channel comprises up to 63 VC12 or up to 2 VC3
concatenated. These VC12s or VC3s behave in the same way as
normal SDH VC12s from an E1 port respectively normal SDH VC3s
from an E3 port.
This operation mode support the following features:
•
Learning bridges
•
Spanning tree
•
Additional SDH bandwidth
•
Virtual Switch and
•
CID (Customer Identifier).
Special case of the LAN-VPN mode
The LAN interconnect mode of operation is a special case of the
LAN-VPN operation. In the LAN interconnect mode a virtual switch
may contain LAN and WAN ports of a single user only.
The TransLAN ® cards can support both modes of operation
simultaneously as long as the corresponding virtual switches do not
include the same WAN ports.
Configuration rules and guidelines
Please observe these configuration rules and guidelines:
LAN-VPN (M-LAN) mode
•
On LAN ports the CID needs to be provisioned manually.
The permitted CID value range is [0 { 4093]. However, note that
only values out of the value range [1 { 4093] can be used to
identify a user while the value “0” cannot. The corresponding
LAN port is disabled if the CID is set to “0”.
•
In the LAN interconnect mode, the virtual switch is dedicated to
a single customer. Therefore, all LAN ports of a virtual switch
must have the same customer identifier (CID).
•
In the LAN interconnect mode, LAN ports are always
customer-role ports, and WAN ports are always network-role
ports (see “Port provisioning” (2-69)).
Under the LAN-VPN (Virtual Private Network) operation mode, a
number of LAN- and WAN ports are grouped together to form one
virtual switch. The Virtual Switch contains LAN ports of multiple
end-users sharing the same WAN port(s) bandwidth. To safeguard
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each individual end-user’s data flow and to identify an end-user’s
VPN from the shared WAN, the Ethernet Interface extension card
assigns a CID to each LAN port within a Virtual Switch. The CID of
each end-user (or LAN port) must be unique within a shared WAN
port to create a fully independent VPN. The VPN provisioning on the
WAN ports on the access and intermediate nodes is done
automatically by the proprietary protocol STVRP (Spanning Tree with
VPN Registration Protocol) that runs without operator intervention.
The end-users are assigned bandwidth by the operator. It allows
multiple end-users to share the same SDH WAN bandwidth with each
end-user being allocated a sub-VC-12-Xv (X= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) or
sub-VC-3-Xv (X=1, 2) rate of bandwidth when using the Fast
Ethernet card and sub-VC-4-Xv (X=1, 2,...7) or sub-VC-3-Xv (X=1,
2) when using the Gigabit Ethernet card. The combined end-user
bandwidth is then mapped to the SDH time-slots and transported in
the SDH network as a single data load. The minimum rate that can be
configured per end-user at a LAN port is 150 kbit/s. The operator also
specifies a traffic policy for each end-user.
The LAN-VPN operation mode controls the shared bandwidth by
making use of the following features:
•
Learning bridges
•
Spanning tree
•
V-LAN (Virtual-LAN)
•
CID (Customer Identifier)
•
Assigned bandwidth policy (CIR = Committed Information Rate
and PIR = Peak Information Rate)
•
Additional SDH bandwidth and SDH WAN bandwidth sharing
•
Traffic policy (Strict policing/Oversubscription).
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The following figure shows the network element configures in the
LAN-VPN operation mode
VPN tagging mode
VPN tagging is used to identify user frames in the LAN-VPN mode
of operation. VPN tagging is often also referred to as “transparent
tagging”.
VPN tagging is characterized as follows:
•
Selecting the VPN tagging mode implies that the port role of the
ports is fixed. LAN ports are always customer role ports, and
WAN ports are always network role ports (see “Flexible port role
assignment” (2-70)).
•
VPN tagging is a double tagging mode. This means that a
customer identifier (CID tag) is inserted into each frame at each
network ingress LAN port. User frames that are already tagged
become double tagged. The CID tag is removed from the frame
at each network egress LAN port.
•
Ports forward only those frames that have a CID tag which
“belongs” to that port (i.e. which has previously been provisioned
on that port).
In the VPN tagging mode, the term “LAN group” is synonymously
used to the term “virtual switch”.
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Operational modes
Features
Configuration rules and guidelines
Please observe these configuration rules and guidelines:
•
IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual
switch mode
Be aware that the port role of the LAN and WAN ports is fixed
(see above):
–
LAN ports are always customer role ports.
–
WAN ports are always network role ports.
•
On LAN ports the CID needs to be provisioned manually.
•
The CID provisioned on each LAN port must be unique within a
shared WAN to create a fully independent VPN.
The VPN provisioning on the WAN ports is done automatically
by means of the proprietary spanning tree with VPN registration
protocol (STVRP).
The IEE802.1Q/IEEE 802.1a VLAN tagging scheme can be seen as
an extension of the LAN-VPN mode, providing more flexibility in
defining the VPN’s and in general leading to a more efficient use of
bandwidth. In IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode, a virtual switch is
formed by a combination of LAN- and WAN ports on a physical
switch that is used by different VLAN’s which can share the common
WAN bandwidth. Each port can be part of only one virtual switch, but
a certain port may be associated with more than one VLAN. The ports
that are associated with a certain VLAN ID form the VLAN Port
Member Set.
On ingress, each packet is filtered on its VLAN ID. If the receiving
port is a member of the VLAN to which a received MAC frame is
classified, then the frame is forwarded. The user can provision
whether untagged packets are dropped, or tagged with a PVID (Port
VLAN ID), via the acceptable frame type parameter.
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Features
Example VLAN trunking
The VLAN trunking example shown in the next figure is one of the
possible applications in this operation mode.
Customers Access Site
Customers Access Site
VLANs11 to 20
VLANs 1 to 10
LAN
WAN
WAN
Network Element
Network Element
VLANs11 to 20
VLANs 1 to 10
LAN
VC -N -Xv
VC -N -Xv
VLAN 1 to 10 = VLAN List of customer A
VLAN 11 to 20 = VLAN List of customer B
Network Element
ISP Premises/Site
WAN
LAN
VLAN trunking
VLANs 1 to 20
FE or GbE interface
to/from
ISP Router
Customer A's + customer B's traffic
VLAN IDs assigned to LAN Ports should not overlap in case the
operator wants to ensure Layer-2 security between those LAN Ports
(in many applications, LAN Ports are likely to be dedicated to one
customer). It is the responsibility of the operator to define
appropriately non-overlapping VLAN IDs on all the created virtual
switches.
Also the provisioned PVID, with which untagged incoming frames are
tagged, should not overlap with any VLAN ID on the virtual switch
of which the customers’ port is part (again, this is the responsibility of
the operator). Manual provisioning of intermediate nodes can be
cumbersome and difficult. Therefore it is recommended to use the
auto-provisioning mode for VLAN ID’s on the intermediate nodes. A
protocol named GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) provides
this functionality. GVRP is an application of the Generic Attribute
Registration Protocol (GARP) application, which runs on top of the
active spanning tree topology.
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Operational modes
Features
IEEE 802.1Q defines two kinds of VLAN registration entries in the
Bridge Filtering Database: static and dynamic entries. In the
TransLAN ® implementation, static entries need to be provisioned on
access node LAN ports only. GVRP will take care of configuring
dynamic entries on the WAN ports of intermediate and access nodes.
A spanning tree per virtual switch is implemented. If the user wants
the traffic to be protected by the spanning tree protocol and uses the
manual-provisioning mode, he must make sure that the WAN ports in
the alternative path also will have the corresponding VLAN IDs
assigned. E.g. in a ring topology, all NE’s in the ring must be
provisioned with this VLAN ID. In automatic mode, the GVRP
protocol will take care of the dynamic VLAN ID provisioning. The
user has the possibility to flush dynamic VLAN’s, thus remove
dynamic VLAN’s that are no longer used.
Only independent VLAN learning is supported. This means, if a given
MAC address is learned in a VLAN, the learned information is used
in forwarding decisions taken for that address only relative to that
VLAN.
For the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode, the oversubscription mode
is not supported (cf. “Quality of Service (QoS) overview” (2-75)).
Configurable spanning tree parameters
Even though the management system is an SDH network element
manager, the data networking problems still need to be addressed
when managing network elements carrying Ethernet traffic. As such
the following parameters are visible/provisionable per virtual switch.
Provider bridge mode
•
bridge address
•
bridge priority
•
root cost
•
root port
•
port priority
•
bridge priority
The provider bridge mode, a double tagging mode with provisionable
TPID (“Ethertype”), is - from a functional point of view - comparable
to the LAN-VPN with the chief difference that the provider bridge
mode is compliant to the IEEE 802.1ad standard while the VPN
modes are Lucent Technologies proprietary modes, and that the
provider bridge mode supports Quality of Service features while the
LAN-VPN does not.
Traffic is forwarded based on the destination MAC address and the
outer VLAN tag (S-tag).
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As in the IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode, a virtual switch in
the provider bridge mode is a set of LAN/WAN ports on a physical
switch that are used by different VLANs which can share the common
WAN bandwidth. VLANs in the same virtual switch are defined by
their VLAN port member set. An instance of the spanning tree
protocol runs on the WAN ports for each virtual switch.
The LAN ports and WAN ports can be configured to be customer-role
or network-role ports (see “Flexible port role assignment” (2-70)).
In the provider bridge mode, the IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode
is used (see “IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging” (2-62)).
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Features
Tagging
modes
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Sharing transport channels between multiple users requires the
identification of MAC frames. Tagging is the process of attaching an
identifier, a “tag”, to a MAC frame in order to identify the user to
which the frame pertains.
These tagging modes are supported:
•
Transparent tagging (“VPN tagging”)
•
IEEE 802.1Q/IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging
–
VLAN tagging compliant with IEEE 802.1Q-1998 (“IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagging”)
–
VLAN tagging compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (“IEEE
802.1ad VLAN tagging”, “Provider bridge tagging mode”)
The different tagging modes are explained later-on in this section.
Important! Note that it is not possible to use different tagging
modes at the same time on the same TransLAN ® card.
However, within the transparent tagging mode there can be
virtual switches in the repeater mode, LAN interconnect mode, or
LAN-VPN mode (with or without IEEE 802.1p QoS) at the same
time on the same physical switch.
Transparent tagging
Transparent tagging (or “VPN tagging”) is a double tagging mode
used to identify end-user frames in the LAN-VPN mode of operation.
Selecting the transparent tagging mode implicitely means that the port
role of the ports is fixed. LAN ports are always customer-role ports,
and WAN ports are always network-role ports (see “Flexible port role
assignment” (2-70)).
To enable bandwidth sharing, a customer identification (CID) is
associated with every LAN port. This CID is inserted into incoming
Ethernet frames, in an extra tag. MAC address filtering and learning is
done independently for every CID.
Ethernet frames that are already tagged become double tagged.
Already present end-user VLAN tags remain unused in the transparent
tagging mode, i.e. every VLAN tag is transmitted transparently
through the SDH network.
Outgoing frames are only transmitted on LAN ports which have the
respective CID associated. The extra tag is removed before the
Ethernet frames are forwarded to an external LAN.
Note that in the VPN tagging mode the term “LAN group” is
synonymously used to the term “virtual switch”.
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Tagging modes
Features
Configuration rules and guidelines
Please observe these configuration rules and guidelines:
•
The port role of the LAN and WAN ports is fixed in the
operational modes that make use of the VPN tagging mode (see
above):
–
LAN ports are always customer role ports.
–
WAN ports are always network role ports.
•
On LAN ports the CID needs to be provisioned manually.
•
The CID provisioned on each LAN port must be unique within a
shared WAN to create a fully independent VPN.
The VPN provisioning on the WAN ports is done automatically by
means of the proprietary spanning tree with VPN registration protocol
(STVRP).
Important! Changing the tagging mode from transparent tagging
to IEEE 802.1Q/IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging or vice versa is
traffic affecting! Furthermore, most objects provisioned in one
mode will be deleted or reset to default - except the LAN group /
virtual switch infrastructure - when switching to the other mode.
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging is used to identify end-user frames in the
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q.
These are the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging rules:
•
On end-user LAN interfaces:
–
At each network ingress port, untagged user frames are
tagged with a default identifier, the port VLAN identifier
(PVID) which is removed from the frame at the network
egress port.
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Features
Already tagged frames are forwarded if their VLAN
identifier is in the port’s static or dynamic list of VLAN
IDs, i.e. if the port belongs to the configured port member
set for that VLAN ID. The static VLAN ID list is
configurable. The dynamic VLAN ID list is automatically
generated by making use of the GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP).
–
IEEE 802.1ad VLAN
tagging
At each network egress port, the port VLAN identifier
(PVID) is removed from previously untagged frames that
were tagged with the PVID at the ingress port. VLAN
tagged frames are forwarded if the port belongs to the
configured port member set for the respective VLAN ID.
•
On trunking LAN interfaces, all tagged frames are forwarded in
both directions. Untagged frames are discarded (dropped).
•
The end-customer VLAN tag sets have to be disjunct.
The IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode (“provider bridge tagging
mode”) is a double tagging mode with provisionable Ethertype
(TPID), used to identify end-user frames in the STP virtual switch
mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (“provider bridge mode”).
At each customer role port, a provider bridge tag carrying a customer
identifier (CID) is inserted into each Ethernet frame in the ingress
direction, and removed from the frame in the reverse direction.
Frames that are already tagged become double tagged. The IEEE
802.1ad VLAN tagging mechanism is transparent to the end-customer.
VPNs on transit nodes (no customer LAN port) are automatically
instantiated by means of the standard GVRP protocol which optionally
can be disabled.
The value of the Ethertype (TPID) can be flexibly chosen. However,
some values are reserved for specific purposes, for example:
•
0x0800 for IP
•
0x0806 for ARP
•
0x8847 for MPLS
•
0x8100 is not selectable because this is the default value for the
STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q.
The recommended value for the Ethertype in the provider bridge
tagging mode is 0x9100.
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Tagging modes
Features
Configuration rules and guidelines
Please observe these configuration rules and guidelines:
•
The provider bridge mode can be configured by selecting the
IEEE 802.1Q / IEEE 802.1ad tagging mode in combination with
provisioning an Ethertype in the range 0x0601 { 0xFFFF, but
unequal to 0x8100. Provisioning the value 0x8100 for the
Ethertype results in the selection of the STP virtual switch mode
compliant with IEEE 802.1Q.
The recommended value for the Ethertype in the provider bridge
tagging mode is 0x9100. Please also observe the reserved values
as given above.
•
The customer identification (CID) can be configured in the range
[0 { 4093].
Important! Changing the tagging mode is traffic affecting!
Furthermore, most objects provisioned in one mode will be
deleted or reset to default - except the LAN group / virtual
switch infrastructure - when switching to a different mode.
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Tagging modes
Features
The following figure illustrates the structure of the MAC frame in
different tagging modes as well as the structure of the respective tags.
Tagged MAC frame
Destination address
6
Destination address
6
Source address
6
Source address
6
VLAN tag (C-tag)
Length/Type
4
2
CID-tag (S-tag)
VLAN tag (C-tag)
Length/Type
4
4
2
Payload
MAC frame
(68 - 1526 bytes)
VPN tagging mode /
IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode
MAC frame
(64 - 1522 bytes)
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode
46 - 1500
Payload
46 - 1500
4
FCS
FCS
2
TPID
UP
CFI
2
VID (V
1
VID (V
8
S-VID (co nt.)
v7, v6 , v5, v4 , v 3, v2 , v 1, v0
v1 1, v10 , v9, v8
S-VID
S-UP
S-CFI
p2 , p1 , p0
TPID (e.g.0x9100)
C-VID (co nt.)
p2 , p1 , p0
v7, v6 , v5, v4 , v 3, v2 , v 1, v0
C-VID
v1 1, v10 , v9, v8
S-tag
C-CFI
C-UP
... V11)
... V7)
C-tag
TPID (0x8100)
4
Legend:
TPID
Tag protocol identifier (“Ethertype”) - indicates
the presence of a VLAN tag (or CID tag,
respectively). Furthermore, it indicates that the
lenght/type field can be found at a different
position in the frame (moved by 4 bytes).
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UP (3 bits)
User priority - “0” (low priority) { “7” (high
priority).
CFI (1 bit)
Canonical Format Identifier - indicates the
presence or absence of routing information.
ID (12 bits)
Identification - customer identification which can
be configured in the range [0 { 4093].
Concerning their structure there is no difference between a VLAN tag
(C-tag) and a CID tag (S-tag). A distinction between both types of
tags can be made by means of the value in the TPID field, the
“Ethertype”. In the IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode (provider
bridge tagging mode), the Ethertype can be provisioned per virtual
switch.
The value of the Ethertype depends on the mode of operation:
•
In the transparent tagging modes (VPN tagging modes), the value
of the Ethertype is 0xFFFF, and cannot be changed.
•
In the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode, the value of the
Ethertype is 0x8100, and cannot be changed.
•
In the IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode (provider bridge
tagging mode), the value of the Ethertype can be flexibly chosen
in the range 0x0601 { 0xFFFF, but unequal to 0x8100. The
recommended value for the Ethertype in the provider bridge
tagging mode is 0x9100.
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Tagging modes
Comparison of different
tagging schemes
Features
The next figure summarizes the possible tagging schemes:
•
No tagging
•
Single tagging (IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging)
•
Double tagging (VPN tagging, IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging)
No tagging
Bytes: 12 (min.)
IPG
7
1
6
6
2
46 - 1500
4
Preamble
SFD
DA
SA
L /T
Data
FCS
Single tagging
Bytes: 12 (min.)
IPG
7
1
6
6
4
2
46 - 1500
4
Preamble
SFD
DA
SA
VLAN
L /T
Data
FCS
6
6
4
4
2
46 - 1500
4
DA
SA
CID
VLAN
L /T
Data
FCS
Double tagging
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Features
Ethernet
mapping schemes
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
LAPS encapsulation
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS
support the following schemes for the mapping of Ethernet packets
into SDH frames:
•
Link Access Procedure SDH (LAPS encapsulation)
•
Ethernet over SDH (EoS encapsulation)
•
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP encapsulation)
LAPS encapsulation is implemented according to ITU-T X.86. It is
supported when using the option card X8PL.
EoS encapsulation
EoS encapsulation is implemented according to T1X1.5/99-268. It is
supported when using the option card X4IP-V2.
GFP encapsulation
GFP encapsulation is implemented according to T1X1.5/2000-147. It
is supported when using the option cards X8PL or X4IP-V2.
GFP provides a generic mechanism to adapt traffic from higher-layer
client signals over a transport network.
The following GFP encapsulation are possible:
TUG structure
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into Lower Order SDH
VC12–Xv
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into Lower Order SDH
VC3–Xv
For X8PL, it is possible to set the TUG structure of the VC4 that runs
to the option board. The TUG structure determines what VC12s/VC3s
are available for assignment to a VCG. The method of setting the
bandwidth of a VCG has also been modified. For X8PL it is not
possible to modify the bandwidth parameter of a VCG. Instead
VC12s/VC3 have to be allocated to a certain VCG, the total combined
bandwidth of the allocated VCs is reflected in the bandwidth
parameter of the VCG.
The TUG strucure of the VC4 running to the option board also
determines the possible cross-connections to the X8PL unit.
VC12–Xv GFP
encapsulation
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS
support virtual concatenation of Lower Order SDH VC-12 as inverse
multiplexing technique to size the bandwidth of a single internal WAN
port for transport of encapsulated Ethernet and Fast Ethernet packets
over the SDH/SONET network. This is noted VC12-Xv, where X =
1...5 when using the X4IP-V2 option card and X = 1...63 when using
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Ethernet mapping schemes
Features
the X8PL option card.. Usage is in conformance with ITU-T G.707
Clause 11 (2000 Edition) and G.783 Clause 12.5 (2000).
Additionally, the use of G.707 Extended Signal Label is supported
using V5 (bits 5-7) field.
VC3–Xv GFP encapsulation
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and Metropolis ® AM / Metropolis ® AMS
support virtual concatenation of Lower Order SDH VC-3 as inverse
multiplexing technique to size the bandwidth of a single internal WAN
port for transport of encapsulated Ethernet and Fast Ethernet packets
over the SDH/SONET network. This is noted VC3–Xv, where X = 1,2
(SDH). For X8PL also VC3-3v is supported. Usage is in conformance
with ITU-T G.707 Clause 11 (2000 Edition) and G.783 Clause 12.5
(2000) and T1X1 T1.105 Clause 7.3.2 (2001 Edition).
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Features
Port
provisioning
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Customer-role and
network-role ports
The user can assign a so-called “port role” to WAN ports as well as to
LAN ports. In this way it is possible to forward VLAN tags ,
especially in double-tagging mode, also via LAN ports. Additionally it
is possible to run the STP and GVRP protocols on physical LAN
ports, too.
Each LAN port or WAN port can have one of the following port
roles:
Customer role
Customer-role ports are usually located at the edge of the switched TransLAN ®
network boundary, providing the Ethernet interface to the end-customer.
Ethernet frames may be but need not necessarily to be tagged.
In the majority of cases, LAN ports are customer-role ports. However, two LAN
ports connected via an Ethernet LAN link would be an example of network-role
LAN ports. Another example would be a trunking LAN port connected via an
Ethernet LAN link to an ISP router (where VLAN tags are needed for further
processing).
Network role
Network-role ports usually interconnect the nodes that make up the TransLAN ®
network. Ethernet frames need to be tagged.
In the majority of cases, WAN ports are network-role ports. However, a WAN
port which is connected to an Ethernet private line unit (EPL unit), thus
extending the switched TransLAN ® network boundary, would be an example of
a customer-role WAN port.
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Port provisioning
Features
The following figure serves to visualize the concept of customer-role
and network-role ports.
Switched TransLAN
network boundary
EPL unit
Customer LAN port
Customer WAN port
“neutral” LAN port
Network LAN port
Network WAN port
“neutral” WAN port
Ethernet LAN link
SDH link (virtually concatenated VCs)
Flexible port role
assignment
In most cases physical LAN ports have the customer role and physical
WAN ports have the network role, but there may be exceptions in
some applications. In the following figure the WAN port connects an
EPL link and is therefore at the edge of the TransLAN ® network.
Thus it has the customer role in this case.
LAN
LAN unit
TransLANTM network
“Ethernet over SDH”
WAN port (“customer role”)
EPL link
In the example in the figure below the VLAN tags have to be
forwarded to a router. The router uses the tagging information for its
switch decisions. Additionally the LAN port must fulfil a network
role. In this case it behaves like a node of the TransLAN ® network. It
could also participate in the STP in order to avoid loops, if there was
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Port provisioning
Features
another link from a Router LAN interface to a second node within the
TransLAN ® network.
Forbidden acc. to STP
LAN
LAN unit
Router
TransLANTM network
“Ethernet over SDH”
LAN unit
LAN port (“network role”)
A LAN port which operates in the “network role” behaves like a
WAN port in terms of VLAN tagging, STP and GVRP.
The default settings are shown in the following table
Physical ports
Port role
Customer role
LAN port
WAN port
default
Network role
default
In the IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode and in the provider
bridge mode, the port role of each LAN and WAN port can be
flexibly assigned. Each LAN or WAN port can be configured to be
either a customer-role or network-role port.
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Port provisioning
Features
These are the characteristics of customer-role and network-role ports:
Customer-role port
In the IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual
switch mode:
Network-role port
No tagging or untagging
operations are performed.
In the ingress direction, untagged
Ethernet frames are tagged with
a default identifier, the port
VLAN identifier (PVID). The
PVID is removed from each
frame at each network egress
port. See also: “IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN tagging” (2-61)
In the provider bridge mode:
A provider bridge tag carrying a
customer identifier (CID) is
inserted into each Ethernet frame
in the ingress direction, and
removed from the frame in the
reverse direction. Frames that are
already tagged become double
tagged. See also: “IEEE 802.1ad
VLAN tagging” (2-62)
The spanning tree protocol (STP)
is not supported.
The spanning tree protocol (STP)
can be enabled (default setting)
or disabled.
GVRP is not supported.
GVRP can be enabled (default
setting) or disabled.
VLAN IDs or CIDs need to be
configured manually.
Ingress rate control exists at
customer-role ports only (see
“Quality of Service (QoS)
overview” (2-75)).
Fix port-role assignment in
the VPN tagging modes
Dynamic VLAN IDs or CIDs of
intermediate and access nodes
are automatically configured if
GVRP is enabled.
There is no rate control on
network-role ports.
The traffic class encoded in the
p1 and p2 bits of the incoming
frames is evaluated and
transparently passed through.
In all the operational modes relying on the VPN tagging mode (see
“Transparent tagging” (2-60)) the port role is fixed:
•
LAN ports are always customer role ports.
•
WAN ports are always network role ports.
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This port-role assignment in the VPN tagging modes cannot be
changed. Corresponding provisioning options that might be available
on the graphical user interfaces of the management systems do not
apply to the VPN tagging modes and are blocked.
Repeater mode
In the repeater mode, there is no necessity to distinguish between
customer-role and network-role ports, because the repeater mode can
only be used in point-to-point configurations, and there is:
•
no tagging mechanism,
•
no spanning tree, and
•
no GVRP or STVRP.
In the repeater mode, there is simply a LAN port and a WAN port.
The LAN port provides the connection to the end-customer LAN, and
the WAN port provides the connection to the SDH transport network
(see “Repeater mode” (2-49)).
Example
As an example, the following figure shows a possible network
application:
Tagging Area
Protocol Area
DiffServ Area
UNI
I-NNI
I-NNI E-NNI
I-NNI
TransLAN
I-NNI
Trunk router
Trunk router
I-NNI
UNI
EPL
UNI
Customer-role port
Network-role port
Legend:
UNI port
User-Network-Interface (always a customer-role port)
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Features
I-NNI port
Internal Network-Network Interface (always a
network-role port)
E-NNI port
External Network-Network Interface (here a trunking
network-role port)
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Features
Quality
of Service (QoS) overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
Quality of service (QoS) control allows to differentiate between
Ethernet frames with different priorities. If traffic with a high priority
and traffic with a low priority compete for SDH capacity, the traffic
with the high priority should be served first. This can be realized
through quality of service control.
QoS control is supported on the E/FE and Gigabit Ethernet cards, in
the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode and the IEEE 802.1ad VLAN
tagging mode (provider bridge mode). QoS control is implemented as
a DiffServ architecture applied to layer 2 (in accordance with IETF
recommendations on Differentiated Services, cf. www.ietf.org).
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Quality of Service (QoS) overview
Flow classification,
queueing and scheduling
Features
The following figure provides an overview of the QoS control:
Network-role ports:
Flow
classifier
Flow
classifier
Customer-role ports:
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Flow
classifier
Switch
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Dropper
Queue
Flow
classifier
Scheduler
Priority
mapping
Scheduler
Priority
mapping
Traffic of one flow
Traffic of one traffic class
Traffic at a port
Rate
controller
Dropper/
Marker
Ingress
Egress
Quality of Service
configuration options
Mode of operation
Ethertype
(hex. value)
QoS CQS
QoS_osub
Ingress rate control
HoL blocking
prevention
–
[disabled]
[disabled]
[none]
[disabled]
LAN
interconnect
[0xFFFF]
[disabled]
[disabled]
[none]
[disabled]
LAN-VPN
[0xFFFF]
[disabled]
[enabled]
strict policing
[enabled]
Repeater mode
VPN
mode
The following table gives on overview of the QoS provisioning
options depending on the configured mode of operation.
oversubscription
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Quality of Service (QoS) overview
Mode of operation
IEEE
mode
Ethertype
(hex. value)
QoS CQS
QoS_osub
Ingress rate control
HoL blocking
prevention
0x8100
[enabled]
disabled
strict policing
[enabled]
enabled
strict policing,
oversubscription
enabled
strict policing,
oversubscription
STP virtual
switch mode
compliant with
IEEE 802.1Q
STP virtual
switch mode
compliant with
IEEE 802.1ad
(Provider bridge
mode)
Features
0x0600 { 0xFFFF
(≠ 0x8100)
[enabled]
[enabled]
Notes:
1.
QoS CQS: Quality of Service - Classification, Queueing and Scheduling
2.
“QoS_osub” represents a configuration parameter which determines if the encoding and evaluation of the
dropping precedence is supported (supported if QoS_osub is enabled).
3.
Entries in square brackets indicate an implicite selection. If in the “QoS CQS” column for example the
entry is “[disabled]”, then the preceding selection of tagging and operation mode implies that Quality of
Service - Classification, Queueing and Scheduling (QoS CQS) is not available. It is implicitly disabled, and
cannot be enabled.
4.
The Ethertype can be set per virtual switch. However, as all virtual switches of a TransLAN ® card are
switched in common, it is effectively set per TransLAN ® card.
5.
The distinction between the STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q and the STP virtual
switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1ad (provider bridge mode) can be realized by provisioning the
Ethertype. In the STP virtual switch mode compliant with IEEE 802.1Q, the Ethertype is fix preset to
0x8100. In the provider bridge mode, the Ethertype can be provisioned in the range 0x0600 { 0xFFFF, but
unequal to 0x8100.
6.
If “HoL blocking prevention” is enabled then frames that are destined for an uncongested port will not be
discarded as a result of head-of-line blocking.
Ingress rate control provisioning method
If Quality of Service - Classification, Queueing and Scheduling (QoS
CQS) is enabled, then ingress rate control can be provisioned per flow
by using QoS profiles (see “Quality of Service provisioning” (2-89)).
Otherwise, ingress rate control can only be provisioned per port.
Service level agreements
On the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 the responsibility for admission control
is left to the operator. This means there is no check that the Service
Level Agreements on already existing connections can be fulfilled,
when a new user starts sending data from node A to B.
In this respect the notion of over-subscription factor is important. This
is the factor by which the calculated bandwidth, based on e.g. the
traffic matrices of the operators sharing a link, exceeds the physically
available bandwidth. Although theoretically the bandwidth can only be
guaranteed for an over-subscription factor ≤ 1, in practice an
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Quality of Service (QoS) overview
Features
over-subscription factor of 5-10 can be used without giving problems.
Due to the effects of statistical multiplexing it is safe to “sell the
bandwidth more than once”. The burstiness of the traffic from
individual customers that share a common link makes this possible.
The Service Level Agreements give a quantification for the “statistics”
of the multiplexing.
Provisioning LAN and
WAN ports details
The provisioning of the classifier and rate controller per flow is done
only on the ingress customer-role port (LAN port). On the network
ports (WAN port), only the scheduler for the egress queues is
provisionable.
It is important that some of the QoS settings are provisioned
consistently on all ports throughout the whole customer’s VPN
domain. In the LAN-VPN (M-LAN) operation mode, the rate
controller mode (none, strict policing, oversubscription) must be
provisioned consistently (per virtual switch). The latter applies to the
only. For the scheduler, for each egress queue the mode =
strict_priority/weighted_bandwidth and corresponding weights (per
virtual switch) must be provisioned consistently. This is ensured by a
background aging function of the system. The parameter will be
enforced to be set equally.
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Classification,
queueing and scheduling
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Flow classification
The flow classifier determines into which flow each incoming packet
is mapped. On customer-role ingress ports, a number of flows can be
defined, based on port, user priority, and optionally VLAN ID.
However, the mapping towards the egress queue is fixed and based on
the user priority only. For each flow a rate controller can be specified
(CIR/PIR value).
Apart from these flows based on input criteria, a default flow is
defined for packets that do not fulfil any of the specified criteria for
the flows, e.g. untagged packets that have no user priority field. Thus,
untagged traffic is classified per port. All traffic on a certain port is
treated equally and attached a configurable default port user priority
value to map the traffic on the appropriate queues.
A default user priority can be specified on port level to be added to
each packet in the default flow (see “Default user priority” (2-83)).
Furthermore, the rate controller behaviour for the default flow can be
specified. The same fixed mapping table from user priority to traffic
class to egress queue is applied to packets in the default flow as to
packets in the specified flows.
Provided that Quality of Service - Classification, Queueing and
Scheduling (QoS CQS, cf. “Quality of Service configuration options”
(2-76)) is enabled, each flow can be assigned a traffic class by using
QoS profiles (see “Quality of Service provisioning” (2-89)).
Each traffic class is associated with a certain egress queue (see
“Traffic class to queue assignment” (2-85)).
Ingress direction for network-role ports
For network-role ports, two cases need to be differentiated:
•
On I-NNI ports, explicit provisioning of the flow identification
(flow configuration) is not provisionable. I-NNI ports always
have the default QoS profile assigned. On an I-NNI port, the
only purpose of the flow classifier is to evaluate the traffic class.
The traffic class determines the egress queue.
•
E-NNI trunk ports may be split in so-called virtual ports which
can be provisioned by means of virtual port descriptors (VPDs).
Explicit provisioning of the flow identification (flow
configuration) enables the DiffServEdge function for this fraction
of the network-role port. Ingress rate control of these virtual
ports is the same as for customer-role ports.
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Ingress rate control
Features
Ingress rate control is a means to limit the users access to the
network, in case the available bandwidth is too small to handle all
offered ingress packets.
A rate controller has two parameters, a provisionable committed
information rate (CIR, see below), and a committed burst size (CBS).
The committed burst size is the committed information rate multiplied
by 0.11 seconds.(CBS = 0.11 seconds × CIR).
Rate control is supported for every ingress flow on every
customer-role port. There is one rate controller per flow. A “color
unaware one-rate two-color marker” is supported, which can be seen
as a degenerate case of the two-rate three-color marker. “Color
unaware” means that the rate controller ignores and overwrites any
dropping precedence given by an upstream network element
(network-role ports with DiffServEdge function (E-NNI) only).
The rate controller is accurate within 5% of the rates specified for the
CIR and PIR. The rate metering comprises the whole Ethernet MAC
frame. Products may deviate from this and count only the IP package
size. The rate controller measurement accuracy is optimized for long
frame traffic. Shorter frames are underestimated. Thus, it is
recommended to dimension the transporting network to have always a
headroom of at least 10% bandwidth compared to the committed
information rate (CIR) provisioned.
A two-rate three-color marker is defined by three colors, specifying
the dropping precedence, and two rates as delimiter between the
colors. The marker will mark each packet with a certain color,
depending on the rate of arriving packets, and the amount of credits in
the token bucket. The size of the token bucket will determine how
long and far a data burst may be surpassed before the packets are
marked with a higher dropping precedence.
The three colors indicate:
•
Green: Low dropping precedence.
•
Yellow: Higher dropping precedence.
•
Red: The packet will be dropped.
The two rates mean:
Committed Information Rate
(CIR)
The committed information rate is the delimiter between green and
yellow packets.
If the information rate is less than the committed information rate, all
frames will be admitted to the egress queues. These frames will be
marked “green”, and have a low probability to be dropped at the
egress queues.
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Classification, queueing and scheduling
Peak Information Rate (PIR)
Features
The peak information rate is the delimiter between yellow and red
packets.
If the information rate is greater than the committed information rate
(CIR), but less than the peak information rate (PIR), the frames will
be admitted to the egress queues. They will be marked “yellow” and
have a high probability to be dropped (“high dropping precedence”).
If the information rate is greater than the PIR, the frames will be
marked “red” and dropped immediately.
For the LAN-VPN (M-LAN) operation mode the relationship between
CIR and PIR is determined by the rate control mode.
For the IEEE 802.1Q STP virtual switch mode and the provider
bridge mode the relationship is as specified in the assigned QoS
profile. Note that on the LKA4 unit, any PIR is interpreted as infinite
(if not: CIR=0, or CIR=PIR).
Important! Provisioning of rate controllers does not apply to
network-role ports (see “Quality of Service (QoS) overview”
(2-75)).
In general, the behavior of the rate controller is characterized as
follows:
•
All packets below CIR are marked green.
•
All packets above CIR are marked yellow.
•
All packets above PIR are marked red and dropped.
In case oversubscription support is disabled (QoS_osub = disabled),
then the provisioning of the PIR is ignored and system-internally the
value of the CIR is taken instead. This leads to a strict policing of all
flows entering at a customer-role port of this VS.
Rate control modes
The rate controller can operate in two different modes:
1. Strict policing mode (CIR = PIR)
The strict policing mode allows each user to subscribe to a minimum
committed SDH WAN bandwidth, or CIR (committed information
rate). This mode will guarantee the bandwidth up to CIR but will drop
any additional incoming frames at the ingress LAN port that would
exceed the CIR.
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Features
All packets below CIR are marked green; all packets above PIR (=
CIR) are marked red and dropped.
CIR = PIR < MAX
0 kbit/s
CIR=PIR
green
red
Information
rate
2. Oversubscription mode (CIR < PIR)
The oversubscription mode allows users to burst their data flow to a
maximum available WAN bandwidth at a given instance. When PIR is
set equal to the maximum of the physical network port bandwidth,
then a user is allowed to send more data than the specified CIR. The
additional data flow above CIR has a higher dropping probability.
The following two cases can be differentiated in oversubscription
mode.
0 < CIR < PIR = MAX
0 kbit/s
CIR
green
yellow
Information
rate
0 = CIR < PIR < MAX
(CIR)
0 kbit/s
PIR
green
Provisioning the rate
control mode
yellow
Information
rate
The desired rate control mode can be chosen by enabling/disabling
oversubscription support (QoS_osub = enabled/disabled), and by
setting the CIR and PIR values. CIR and PIR values can be set by
means of QoS profiles (see “Quality of Service provisioning” (2-89)).
The setting of the QoS_osub configuration parameter in combination
with the relationship between CIR and PIR determines which rate
control mode becomes effective. If, for example, oversubscription
support is enabled, and the relationship between CIR and PIR is
CIR = PIR ≤ MAX, then the rate controller is operated in strict
policing mode.
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Features
Important!
Dropper / Marker
1.
Which of the rate control modes can actually be configured
depends on the mode of operation (see “Quality of Service
configuration options” (2-76)).
2.
As a general rule it is recommended to use the
oversubscription mode for TCP/IP applications, especially in
case of meshed or ring network topologies where multiple
end-users share the available bandwidth.
Based on the indication of the rate controller, and the rate control
mode for the flow, the dropper/marker will do the following:
No rate control
Oversubscription
mode
Strict policing
mode
Incoming rate <
CIR
mark “green”
mark “green”
mark “green”
Incoming rate >
CIR
mark “green”
mark “yellow”
drop
In the dropper function a decision is made whether to drop or forward
a packet. On a TransLAN ® card a deterministic dropping from tail
when the queue is full is implemented. Packets that are marked red
are always dropped. If WAN Ethernet link congestion occurs, frames
are dropped. Yellow packets are always dropped before any of the
green packets are dropped. This is the only dependency on queue
occupation and packet color that is currently present in the dropper
function. No provisioning is needed.
Default user priority
A default user priority can be configured for each customer-role port.
Possible values are 0 (lowest priority) { 7 (highest priority) in steps
of 1. The default setting is 0.
Provisioning of the default user priority does not apply to
network-role ports.
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Features
The default user priority is treated differently depending on the
taggging mode:
Traffic classes
•
LAN-VPN (M-LAN) mode
Incoming frames without a user priority encoding (untagged
frames) are treated as if they had the default user priority.
•
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode and provider bridge mode
Incoming frames without a user priority encoding (untagged
frames) get a default user priority assigned. This C-UP may be
furtheron equal to a user priority given by one of the provisioned
flow descriptors. The subsequent traffic class assignment for this
flow, however, will overwrite this C-UP bits again.
At each ingress port, the traffic class (TC) for each frame is
determined. At customer-role ports, this is done via the flow
identification and the related provisioned traffic class. At network-role
ports, the traffic class is directly derived from the p-bits of the
outermost VLAN tag.
Depending on the operation mode, these traffic classes exist:
Provider bridge mode
and IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
tagging mode with
encoding of the
dropping precedence
The traffic class is encoded in the user
priority bits using p2 and p1. Thus, 4
traffic classes are defined: 0, 1, 2, 3.
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
tagging mode without
encoding of the
dropping precedence
The traffic class is encoded in the user
priority bits using p2, p1, and p0. Thus, 8
traffic classes are defined: 0, 0-, 1, 1-, 2,
2-, 3, 3-. The “n” traffic classes differ
from the “n-” traffic classes in the value
of the p0 bit.
Notes:
1.
The support of dropping precedence encoding and evaluation can be
enabled or disabled per virtual switch by means of the QoS_osub
configuration parameter (QoS_osub = enabled/disabled). All virtual
switches belonging to the same TransLAN ® network must be
provisioned equally for their TPID and this QoS_osub configuration
parameter.
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Features
These tables show the traffic class encoding in the user priority bits:
Traffic class
p2
p1
0
0
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
3
1
1
Traffic class
p2
p1
p0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
2
1
0
1
3
1
1
1
0-
0
0
0
1-
0
1
0
2-
1
0
0
3-
1
1
0
For the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode with oversubscription
support (QoS_osub = enabled) it is recommended not to use the nclasses, otherwise all frames will always be marked yellow (i.e. they
will have a higher dropping precedence; p0 = 0). In the provider
bridge mode, any assignment of an n- class will be recognized as the
related n class (tolerant system behavior for inconsistent provisioning).
Traffic class to queue
assignment
The assignment of the traffic classes to the egress queues is as
follows:
Transparent
tagging
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging and IEEE
802.1ad VLAN tagging (provider bridge
mode)
Traffic
class
Queue
Traffic class
Queue
Internal use
4
Internal use
4
2
3
3 (and 3 -)
3
1
2
2 (and 2-)
2
0
1
1 (and 1-) and 0 (and
0-)
1
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Features
Notes:
1.
Queueing
“Internal use” means that the queue is used for network management
traffic (spanning tree BPDU’s or GVRP PDU’s, for example).
The egress treatment is the same for customer-role and network-role
ports.
Every port has four associated egress queues. The queues 1 and 2 are
to be used for delay-insensitive traffic (for instance file transfer); the
queue 3 is to be used for delay-sensitive traffic (for instance voice or
video), the internal queue 4 is only for BPDU and GRVP PDU.
Please refer to “Traffic class to queue assignment” (2-85) for the
assignment of the traffic classes to the egress queues.
Repeater mode
In the repeater mode, there is no queueing process as described above.
All frames go through the same queue.
Scheduler
The preceding functional blocks assure that all packets are mapped
into one of the egress queues, and that no further packets need to be
dropped.
The scheduler determines the order, in which packets from the four
queues are forwarded. The scheduler on each of the four queues can
be in one of two operational modes, strict priority or weighted
bandwidth. Any combination of queues in either of the two modes is
allowed. When exactly one queue is in weighted bandwidth mode, it
is interpreted as a strict priority queue with the lowest priority.
Provided that Quality of Service - Classification, Queueing and
Scheduling (QoS CQS, cf. “Quality of Service configuration options”
(2-76)) is enabled, the queue scheduling method can be configured as
follows:
Queue scheduling method
Strict priority
The packets in strict priority queues are forwarded strictly according to the queue
ranking. The queue with the highest ranking will be served first. A queue with a
certain ranking will only be served when the queues with a higher ranking are
empty.
The strict priority queues are always served before the weighted bandwidth
queues.
Weighted
bandwidth
The weights of the weighted bandwidth queues will be summed up; each queue
gets a portion relative to its weight divided by this summed weight, the so-called
normalized weight. The packets in the weighted bandwidth queues are handled in
a Round-Robin order according to their normalized weight.
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Features
Each of the two modes has his well-known advantages and
drawbacks. Strict priority queues will always be served before
weighted bandwidth queues. So with strict priority, starvation of the
lower priority queues cannot be excluded. Starvation should be
avoided by assuring that upstream policing is configured such that the
queue is only allowed to occupy some fraction of the output link’s
capacity. This can be done by setting the strict policing rate control
mode for the flows that map into this queue, and specifying an
appropriate value for the CIR. The strict priority scheme can be used
for low-latency traffic such as Voice over IP and protocol data such as
spanning tree BPDU’s or GVRP PDU’s.
Weighted bandwidth queues are useful to assign a guaranteed
bandwidth to each of the queues. The bandwidth can of course only
be guaranteed if concurrent strict priority queues are appropriately
rate-limited.
Usually the queue with the lowest number also has the lowest ranking
order, but the ranking order of the strict priority queues can be
redefined.
Important! It is recommended not to change the mode and
ranking of the queue which is used by protocol packets like
spanning tree BPDU’s and GVRP PDU’s (queue 3 or queue 4,
respectively; cf. “Traffic class to queue assignment” (2-85)).
Weight
A weight can be assigned to each port’s egress queue in order to
define the ranking of the queue.
The weight of a strict priority queue has a significance compared to
the weight of other strict priority queues only.
The weight of a weighted bandwidth queue has a significance
compared to the weight of other weighted bandwidth queues only.
The weights of the weighted bandwidth queues are normalized to
100%, whereas the normalized weights of the strict priority queues
indicate just ordering.
Example
The following table shows an example of a scheduler table:
Queue
Queue scheduling method
Weight
Normalized weight
1
Weighted bandwidth
5
50%
2
Strict priority
9
1
3
Weighted bandwidth
5
50%
4
Strict priority
15
2
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The strict priority queues are served before the weighted bandwidth
queues. The strict priority queue with the highest weight is served
first, queue 4 in this example.
In this example, after serving the strict priority queues 4 and 2, the
remaining bandwidth is evenly divided over queues 1 and 3.
Depending on the mode of operation, queue 3 or queue 4 is used for
network management traffic, for instance for the spanning tree
protocol (see “Traffic class to queue assignment” (2-85)). Hindering
this traffic can influence Ethernet network stability.
Default settings
These are the default settings of the queue scheduling method and
weight:
Queue
Queue scheduling method
Weight
1
Strict priority
1
2
Strict priority
2
3
Strict priority
3
4
Strict priority
4
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Features
Quality
of Service provisioning
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A 3-stage provisioning concept is used for QoS provisioning. This
concept can easily be adapted to different provisioning needs in
different network applications.
QoS provisioning concept
port
ID
port
type
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LJB459
LJB459
...
...
LJB459
.....
LJB460B
LJB460B
9
.....
10
LJB460B
flow#
1:n*)
1
2
3
4
5
Ctag(12,22 ; 0)
Ctag(12,22 ; 1)
Ctag(12,22 ; 2,3)
Ctag(12,22 ; 4-7)
Ctag(allCVIDs ; 4-7)
8
OTHERS
Ctag(MASKxx.xx ; 0)
2
CIR PIR TC .... .... .... ....
4500
P#
51
1
1
35
2
2
2
m:255
PROFILE 2
CIR PIR TC .... .... .... ....
4inf1
TC = Traffic Class
2
8
port 7
flow#
70
QoS profiles
max. 255 per NE
PROFILE 1
Flow Identification Tables
max. 600 per NE
port 1
Port type selection (of a unit)
1
2
3
4
5
DA(00000........00xxxx)
IPTOSnoCtag(101110)
IPTOSnoCtag(100xxx)
IPTOSnoCtag(01xxxx)
IPTOSnoCtag(001xxx)
....
OTHERS
LJB460B
P#
51
1
1
35
1
2
2
PROFILE 51
CIR PIR TC .... .... .... ....
44
T
port 70
flow #
......
virtual port descriptor
Virtual Port =
physical port # AND [
S-tag(10-15; allS-UPs) OR
S-tag(110-115; allS-UPs) OR
S-tag(4093; allS-UPs) ]
1
2
3
4
5
max. 16
130
16
*) 4 of the physical ports per unit
(2 at LJB459) may - if they run in NR split up into virtual ports.
The ’virtual port descriptor’ defines
criterias based on the S-VID.
VIDs
Ctag(10-100 ; 0-7)
IPTOSctagged(...)
Ctag(4093; allUPs)
OTHERS
P#
51
1
5
65
4
4
4
PROFILE 91
CIR PIR TC .... .... .... ....
44
C
PROFILE 250
P# = ID of assigned QoS profile
CIR PIR TC .... .... .... ....
0503
5 profiles are reserved for
fixed default profiles
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Quality of Service provisioning
Features
The basic QoS provisioning concept consists of the following stages:
1.
For each port one or more customized flow identification tables
(FIT) can be assigned.
An FIT can be assigned either to an entire physical port, or to a
fraction of a physical port, i.e. to a so-called “virtual port”. Only
E-NNI trunk ports can be split into virtual ports each having an
FIT assigned. A virtual port can be defined by means of a virtual
port descriptor (VPD).
In case more than one FIT is assigned, each FIT is related to
usually one virtual port. Each FIT may also be related to several
virtual ports, provided they are identified by the same virtual port
descriptor (VPD).
2.
The flow identification tables contain the identification criterias
for the flows (for example the values of the C-VID and/or
C-UP). Furthermore, the flow identification tables contain a
reference identifying the assigned QoS profile.
Up to 600 flow identification tables are supported per network
element.
3.
The QoS profiles contain the provisioning parameters (CIR, PIR,
traffic class).
Using this method of QoS provisioning via QoS profiles can be
enabled or disabled on a per-NE basis.
On a per-port basis you can decide to only use default QoS profiles,
or to define your own QoS profiles in order to accomplish flow
configuration.
Provisioning defaults
The parameter settings in the default QoS profiles for customer-role
and network-role ports are:
Port role
CIR
PIR
TC
Customerrole
MAX
MAX
0
Network-role
MAX
MAX
T
The traffic class “T” is the so-called “transparent traffic class”. The
p-bits of the outermost tag (S-UP of the S-tag, or UP of the VLAN
tag) remain unchanged, i.e. keep their value which has been assigned
by a data unit anywhere upstream.
Explicit provisioning of the flow identification at network-role ports is
only intended in the case of so called external network-network
interfaces (E-NNIs) connecting to the network of other operators, or
to trunking routers, respectively.
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Features
Performance
monitoring
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Performance counters
On the VC-12, VC-3 or VC-4 termination points connected to a WAN
port, standard SDH performance monitoring can be activated. The
same counters that apply for VC-12, VC-3 or VC-4 termination points
on any other port also apply to the VC-12, VC-3 or VC-4 termination
points on a WAN port.
Apart from this standard SDH performance monitoring, a limited
amount of counters that are dedicated to LAN/WAN ports are defined.
Activation of these counters can be established by setting:
•
the LAN/WAN port mode to monitored
•
selecting a LAN port or WAN port as active PM point
•
setting the PM point type to LAN or WAN.
The supported counters are:
•
CbS (total number of bytes sent)
•
CbR (total number of bytes received)
•
pDe (total number of errored packets dropped)
Note that CbS and CbR are rather traffic monitoring counters than
performance monitoring counters, as they give insight in the traffic
load in all places in the network. pDe is a real performance
monitoring counter as it gives an indication about the performance of
the network. Only unidirectional PM is supported for these
parameters. See the following figure for the location of the
measurements. Note that because of the difference in units, bytes
versus packets, the counters cannot be correlated with each other. Also
the counter for dropped packets considers only packets dropped due to
errors, and does not include packets dropped due to congestion.
PDE
CBS
SDH/
SONET
CBR
Ethernet
CBR
CBS
LAN
port
Layer-2
switching
function
PDE
WAN
port
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Performance monitoring
Performance counters for
aggregated ports
Features
The performance counters related to a link aggregation group (LAG)
reflect the counts of the signals transmitted/received over all the
aggregated ports of the LAG.
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3
Applications
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter shows the various possible applications of WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1.
Contents
Summary
3-2
STM-N point-to-point (end) terminal application
3-3
STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear
applications and rings
3-5
Hubbing functionality
3-9
Small cross-connect
3-10
Broadcasting functionality
3-11
Payload concatenation
3-12
Tributary interface mixing
3-14
Ring closure: single ADM interconnecting STM-16
and STM-1/4 rings
3-15
Dual Node Interworking (DNI)
3-16
SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
3-17
Multi-service application with TransLAN ® card
3-19
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3-1
Applications
Summary
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a single, highly flexible product that
supports a variety of STM-16 network applications.
Based on its flexibility with regard to interface circuit packs and
cross-connect capabilities (see Chapter 4, “Description”) the system
supports a wide range of applications for bandwidth access,
service-on-demand and network protection.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be applied in all three tiers of a
network, that is: access, regional and backbone. The system allows for
growth and changing service needs by supporting in-service
conversions and upgrades. Inherent to its basic design, the system
operates equally well within fully synchronous as asynchronous
environments and provides a flexible link between the two.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports a large variety of configurations
for various network applications:
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 point-to-point (end) terminal
connections. Options are: 0x1 terminal with no line protection
and 1+1 MSP line-protected terminal
•
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear
applications and rings
•
Hubbing functionality
•
Small cross-connect
•
Broadcasting functionality
•
Payload concatenation:
–
Virtual concatenation on TransLAN ® card
–
Interconnecting ATM systems via VC-4-4c concatenation
•
Tributary interface mixing
•
Single ADM for interconnection of STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1
rings (ring closure)
•
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) with drop & continue
•
SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
•
Multi-service applications with TransLAN ® Card, supporting
10/100BASE-T and 1000BASE-X Ethernet.
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Applications
STMN point-to-point (end) terminal application
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Application description
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be configured to provide an STM-16,
STM-4, STM-1 point-to-point application (see figure below).
Figure 3-1 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 0 × 1 end terminal STM-16
point-to-point application
ADM 16/1
End Terminal
Regenerator
ADM 16/1
End Terminal
Central Office
Central Office
The STM-16, STM-4 or STM-1 point-to-point application is served by
two 0x1 end terminals (each terminal is equipped with one
transmit/receive circuit pack).
The regenerator can be used to increase the distance between the
terminals. The regenerators can be maintained through the end
terminals at either span or through a modem at the repeater side. To
span longer distances without using the regenerators in intermediate
nodes, the user can also make use of the in-shelf optical
booster/pre-amplifiers available for the WaveStar ® ADM 16/.1.
Protected point-to-point
application
Figure 3-2 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 1+1 MSP protected end terminal,
STM-16 point-to-point application
Service
Protection
ADM 16/1
End Terminal
ADM 16/1
End Terminal
Central Office
Central Office
Regenerator
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be configured to provide an STM-N (N
= 16, 4, 1) 1+1 MSP protected point-to-point application (see Figure
3-2, “WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 1+1 MSP protected end terminal,
STM-16 point-to-point application” (3-3)).
The STM-N (N = 16, 4, 1) 1+1 MSP point-to-point application is
served by two WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 end terminals. These terminals
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STM- N point-to-point (end) terminal
application
Applications
are equipped with each two STM-N lines, one for service and one for
protection. Each STM-N line consist of a pair of single mode fibers
(one transmit, one receive).
The system uses revertive or non-revertive protection switching, this
means:
•
In revertive operation, the traffic is switched from the working to
the protection line if a fault occurs. In this case low priority
traffic, if connected, is automatically switched off. When the fault
clears, the traffic is automatically switched back (revertive) to the
working line.
•
In non-revertive operations the traffic is switched from the
working to the protection line, if a fault occurs. In this case low
priority traffic, if connected, is automatically switched off. When
the fault clears, the traffic is not automatically switched back
(non- revertive reverts) to the working line.
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Applications
STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in linear applications and
rings
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 two fiber add/drop terminal is a flexible
product that can be used for ring and non-ring applications, for
example point-to-point linear applications. Linear applications can be
“upgraded” to conventional rings.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 in
linear applications
The figure below shows the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop terminal
used in a linear application. Both end-nodes are WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 systems functioning as a 0x1 terminal and the two intermediate
nodes are ADMs. There is no route diversity.
Figure 3-3 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 linear add/drop application
ADM 16/1
Folded or collapsed rings
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
Folded rings are rings without fiber diversity. This is in fact a linear
application of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. The terminology derives
from the image of folding a ring into a linear segment.
Folded or collapsed rings can be created by using the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1. Sometimes this configuration is also called a “flattened
ring”
Figure 3-4 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 “folded or collapsed ring”
application
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 two fiber add/drop terminals enable the
user to use folded rings in a variety of “non-ring” applications, such
as linear add/drop topologies. Folded rings provide flexibility and can
help evolve the network into a fully (conventional) ring configuration.
In the folded ring configuration shown in Figure 3-4, “WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 folded or collapsed ring application” (3-5), terminals are
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3-5
STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in
linear applications and rings
Applications
placed at adjacent nodes, and the end nodes are connected together
across the whole network.
In a folded ring, all facilities are run in the same path, for example, a
cable sheath between the nodes. Therefore, in the case of a facility or
node failure, nodes on each side of the failure are isolated, as in the
linear add/drop chain. Because the length of the network is probably
long and the optical loss greater than the system gain of the
transmitter/receiver pairs, there may be a need to use intermediate
repeaters or intermediate ring nodes (ADMs) on the return path to
connect the end nodes.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 in
ring applications
Rings provide redundant bandwidth and/or equipment to ensure
system integrity in the event of any transmission or timing failure,
including a fiber cut or node failure. A ring is a collection of nodes
that form a closed loop, in which each node is connected to adjacent
nodes. Ring nodes can be made up of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 two
fiber add/drop terminals.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 two-fiber add/drop terminal supports
two-fiber, bi-directional, line switched rings working at STM-16,
STM-4 or STM-1 level. At STM-16 level the MS-SPRing protection
mechanism is supported. SNCP is supported at all other levels (see
figure below).
Figure 3-5 The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 ring application
ADM 16/1
STM-16 Ring
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
One of the most cost-effective applications of the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 is an add/drop terminal functioning at a line speed of 2.5 Gbit/s
and dropping traffic at tributary speeds of 2 Mbit/s. Per network
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STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in
linear applications and rings
Applications
element, up to 504 × 1.5 Mbit/s, 504 × 2 Mbit/s, 48 × 34 Mbit/s, 96
× 45 Mbit/s, 96 × STM-0, 32 × 140 Mbit/s, 64 10/100BASE-T, 32
× STM-1 or up to 8 × STM-4 can be add/dropped directly from the
STM-16 level.
MS-SPRing protected
STM-16 rings
When using the already mentioned MS-SPRing protection mechanism,
rings from 2 up to 16 nodes are supported (the maximum allowed by
the standard). They perform automatic protection switching (revertive)
in less than 50 msec.
Figure 3-6 MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings with WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1
Service 1 / Protection 2
Service 2 / Protection 1
STM-16 Ring
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
Service 2 / Protection 1
Service 1 / Protection 2
In bi-directional line-switched rings under normal conditions, service
traffic and protection traffic travel in both directions around the ring.
Given spans consist of two sets of bi-directional channels: service
channels and protection channels. Each physical line is shared by
service channels and protection channels. See Figure 3-6,
“MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings with WaveStar ® ADM 16/1”
(3-7).
Upgrading a folded ring to
a conventional ring
In a linear add/drop topology, folded rings provide flexibility in the
amount of equipment deployed. In many cases a network starts out as
a linear add/drop chain because of short-term service needs between
some of the nodes. It then evolves into a ring later when there is a
need for service and fiber facilities to other nodes in the network. It is
easier to evolve the linear add/drop network into a full ring
configuration if a folded ring is used in the nodes that have this
short-term service.
Folded rings have upgrade, operational, and self-healing advantages
over other topologies for this type of evolution.
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3-7
STM-16 two fiber add/drop terminal in
linear applications and rings
Applications
Deploying folded ring technology to evolve a ring network from a
linear add/drop chain configuration to a full ring network provides the
following advantages:
•
A folded ring can be more easily upgraded (that is, in-service) to
include the new node in a full ring configuration than in
back-to-back or linear add/drop configurations.
•
A folded ring familiarizes users with the operation,
administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) of a
ring.
•
In most cases, a folded ring is more cost-effective than deploying
back-to-back or linear add/drop configurations.
•
A folded ring can recover from some Terminal failures better
than a linear add/drop chain.
See the figure below for an upgrade example.
Figure 3-7 Upgrade “folded ring” to conventional ring
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
Site A
ADM 16/1
Site C
ADM 16/1
Present
Site B
Future
ADM 16/1
Site B
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
Site A
Site C
ADM 16/1
Site D
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Applications
Hubbing
functionality
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Feature description
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system can be configured to function as a
hub-terminal at STM-16 level by deploying the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
as an end terminal or add/drop terminal.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can serve a cluster of for instance
WaveStar ® ADM 4/1 multiplexers and Metropolis ®AM/AMS
multiplexers located at remote sites (see figure below). In this way,
the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Systems can be configured as an STM-16
hub. All the traffic for the WaveStar ® ADM 4/1 Multiplexers passes
through the hub using either these electrical or optical interfaces.
Figure 3-8 Example of a hub terminal configuration
STM-16
AM/AMS
#1
#32
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
STM-1
STM-16
ADM 4/1
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3-9
Applications
Small
cross-connect
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Feature description
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system can be used to function as a small
local cross-connect system. At VC-4 level, a maximum cross-connect
capacity of 64 × 64 is available. For lower order VCs (VC-3 and
VC-12s) a maximum of 32 × 32 VC-4s may be opened at any time
for grooming purposes.
This means that within a single shelf e.g. a VC-4, -3, -12
cross-connect can be realized to cross-connect a maximum of 64
× STM-1 equivalents. A maximum of 32 × VC-4s can be groomed in
the lower order cross-connect (see Chapter 4, “Description”).
64 × STM-1 equivalents can be connected with the higher order
cross-connect as follows: 16 × STM-1s derived from East and 16
× STM-1s derived from the West side of the cross-connect, plus
32 x STM-1s (8 slots times four STM-1s per circuit pack) from the
tributary side. Hence, in total 64 STM-1 equivalent signals are
connected to the higher order cross-connect and can be
cross-connected at VC-4 level. When the contents of some of these
VC-4s needs to be groomed or Time Slot Interchanged (TSI), a
maximum of 32 × bi-directional VC-4s can be connected to the lower
order cross-connect for this purpose. Cross-connections can be set
bidirectionally.
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Applications
Broadcasting
functionality
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Feature description
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 has broadcast functionalities for VC-12,
VC-3, VC-4 and VC-4-4c containers. There are two broadcast modes
possible, controlled by either the ITM-CIT or the WaveStar ® ITM-SC:
•
Uni-directional 1:N broadcast
A particular incoming VC is retansmitted in multiple (N = 2 { 9)
directions. The return channels remain unused without generating
any alarms.
•
1:2 broadcast
This is meant for test purposes. One of the directions of a
bi-directional signal is broadcasted to an unused system output
•
Uni-directional 1:N broadcast with protection
The system supports unidirectional cross-connects at the VC-4,
VC-4-4c, VC-3 and VC-12 level in ring or linear networks, such
that up to nine copies of a VC-n can be dropped (broadcasted)
uni-directionally to tributary ports from a bi-directional transit
VC-n. The go- and return directions of this transit VC-n are
usually identical. SNC/N selectors determine which direction of
the transit signal is dropped towards each tributary port. This
feature is to support protected video distribution networks.
Setting up or breaking down a broadcast direction does not affect the
traffic in the other branches.
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3-11
Applications
Payload
concatenation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
Virtual concatenation
Within the SDH standards there are two methods defined to create
larger payload capacity than provided by a single VC-12 (payload
capacity: 2.176 Mbit/s), VC-2 (6.848 Mbit/s), VC-3 (53.760 Mbit/s) or
VC-4 (149.760 Mbit/s). These methods are called “virtual
concatenation” and “contiguous concatenation”. In both cases multiple
VC’s are taken together to create a bigger capacity transport pipe.
In the case of virtual concatenation, the payload is divided over
multiple VCs, which are independently transported through the SDH
network. The total transport entity in called VC-n-Xv, where the n is
indicating the VC-type (n = 12, 2, 3 or 4) and the X is denoting the
number of VCs that are taken together to form a virtually
concatenated signal. The v stands for “virtual”.
Each VC-n that is part of a VC-n-Xv structure has its own path
overhead and its own corresponding TU-pointer, so each VC-n is
transported independently over the SDH network between the
VC-n-Xv termination points. The most popular options being
considered are VC-12-Xv (X = 2, { , 63) and VC-2-Xv (X = 2, { , 21).
For transport of these VC-n-Xv types it is required that all
participating VC-ns are located in the same VC-4. On the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 virtual concatenation is used on the Ethernet LAN
tributary card which is based on the WaveStar ® TransLAN ® card. On
the Ethernet LAN tributary board Ethernet frames are mapped into
VC-12-xv (x = 1, 2, { , 5), VC-3-xv (x = 1, 2) or VC-4-xv (x = 1, 2,
3, 4).
Contiguous concatenation
Contiguous concatenation is only applicable at the VC-4 level. In this
case the payload is divided over multiple VC-4s which are carried
over the network as a single block, where the VC-4s are mapped in
adjacent AU-4 envelopes. This contiguous group of VC-4s has only
one single column of path overhead and also has a single pointer,
which controls the phase of the complete block. Contiguously
concatenated VC-4s are denoted as VC-4-Xc (X = 4, 16, or 64). The
“c” indicates the fact that “contiguous” mapping is used.
On order to transport VC-4-Xc payloads through the SDH network, it
is necessary that all SDH nodes that are passed through support this
mapping. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports transport of VC-4-4c
(payload capacity: 599.040 Mbit/s) via the STM-16 aggregate
interfaces and STM-4 tributary interfaces. The VC-4-4c payload can
be added or dropped via the STM-4 tributary. In addition, protection
of VC-4-4c is supported within the MS-SPRing protection scheme in
an STM-16 ring. Also, SNC/N protection is supported to protect the
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Payload concatenation
Applications
add/drop path via the tributaries or in case MS-SPRing is not used.
Lastly, passing VC-4-4c’s can be non-intrusively monitored, both for
faults and performance.
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3-13
Applications
Tributary
interface mixing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Feature description
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System
supports a mix of 1.5, 2, 34, 45, 10/100BASE-T Ethernet, STM-0,
140, STM-1 and STM-4 tributary speed interface inputs and outputs.
It is possible to mix these interfaces in the same subrack for all
platforms. Also, a circuit can enter a WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 network
through one type and exit through another type (if the payload that is
being carried is compatible with both interface types). Mixing is
supported not only within a Terminal, but also between Terminals.
These capabilities offer more efficient network evolution and allow
planners to improve their equipment deployment based on the needs
of the particular application. For example, network needs (sudden
demand) may require SDH deployment in one area before others.
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Applications
Ring closure: single ADM interconnecting STM-16 and
STM-1/4
rings
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Two rings working at different or the same line speeds can be
interconnected by a single network element as depicted in the figure
below.
Figure 3-9 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 used as a ring-closure network
element
ADM 4/1
STM-1/4 Ring
ADM 16/1
STM-16 Ring
ADM 16/1
ADM 4/1
ADM 4/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system has the possibility to function as a
ring closure network element because the architecture of the system
makes it possible to have for instance 2 × STM-16 and 2 × STM-1
interfaces in one single shelf.
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3-15
Applications
Dual
Node Interworking (DNI)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Two rings working at different or the same line speeds can be
interconnected by two network elements, working in add/drop mode,
protected by the Dual Node Interworking (DNI) protection mechanism
as depicted in the figure below.
Figure 3-10 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 used as DNI network element
ADM 4/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
(DNI node)
STM-1/4 Ring
STM-16 Ring
ADM 16/1
(DNI node)
ADM 4/1
ADM 4/1
ADM 16/1
ADM 16/1
The DNI protection scheme protects the interconnection between two
subnetworks within which the traffic is already protected by another
network protection. This means traffic going from one node to another
may be MS-SPRing or Path (SNCP) protected and will, in this case,
be extra protected in the nodes interconnecting both rings by
activating the DNI protection mechanism in these two nodes.
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Applications
SONET-SDH
conversion and interworking
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports 2 different ways of interworking
with SONET signals: interworking by AU-3 to TU-3 conversion and
interworking on OC-3c and OC-12c level.
See also “Mapping structure” (9-20) for more details about the
supported mapping features.
For SONET/SDH interworking the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports
the following feature:
•
Interworking via AU-3 to
TU-3 conversion
support of different size (ss)-bit on STM-1/4/16 interfaces (new
standards):
–
In the source direction, the transmitted ss-bits can be
provisioned in “10” (SDH mode, default) or “00” (SONET
mode)
–
In the sink direction the incoming ss bits are ignored.
In case of end-to-end DS-3 connection between SONET and SDH
networks the AU-3 to TU-3 conversion can be used. The SONET
networks maps the DS-3 into VC-3 and AU-3.
Figure 3-11 OC-3/OC-12 interworking with STM-1o/STM-4o via
AU-3 to TU-3 conversion
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SONET-SDH conversion and interworking
Applications
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 remaps the VC-3 into a TU-3/AU-4
structure (see figure below) and terminates the VC-3 on the DS-3
tributary interface units.
Figure 3-12 Remapping of VC-3 from AU-3 to TU-3/AU-4
Direct interworking
between OC-3c and
STM-1o and between
OC-12c and STM-4o
Based on the equivalence between STS-3c and AU-4 pointers or
between STS-12c and AU-4-4c pointers the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is
transparent for OC-3c and OC-12c signals. Pre-requisite is that the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 operates in AU-4 (for STM-1o) or AU-4-4c
(for STM-4) mode. This can be useful for inter-connecting ATM
systems via mixed SONET and SDH networks.
Figure 3-13 OC-3c/OC-12c interworking with STM-1o/STM-4o
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Applications
Multi-service
application with TransLAN ® card
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The Ethernet LAN tributary card which is based on the TransLAN ®
card, enables the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 to provide Ethernet over
SDH, and offers variable data applications on top of the traditional
TDM applications. Thus it offers cost-effective, simple and reliable
multi-service solutions. TransLAN ® can provide VLAN function, and
bandwidth can be shared for different customers.
Direct LAN-to-LAN
interconnect (two LANs)
The most straight-forward application of the Ethernet LAN tributary
card is to interconnect two LAN segments over a distance which
cannot be bridged with a simple Ethernet repeater, since that would
violate the collision domain size rules. Both LANs do not have to be
of the same speed. It is possible to interconnect a 10BASE-T,
100BASE-TX or a 1000BASE-SX/LX LAN this way. Such an
application is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3-14 Example of direct LAN-LAN interconections
Direct LAN-to-LAN
interconnect (multiple
LANs)
A next step in complexity is to interconnect multiple LANs at
different locations. It is possible to associate a single LAN port with
two or more WAN ports. This way multiple sites can be
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Multi-service application with TransLAN ®
card
Applications
interconnected, forming a fully Layer 2-switched WAN Ethernet
network. This application is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3-15 Example of direct LAN-LAN interconections
Figure 3-16 GbE Point multi-point services example
LAN-ISP interconnect
An extension of the previous application is to have one LAN drop of
a multi-point LAN-to-LAN interconnection at the point of presence of
an ISP (Internet Service Provider), to provide for instance internet
access to the users in the company LANs.
Multiple customers sharing
a WAN connection
To increase the efficiency of the bandwidth usage, it is possible to
route the Ethernet traffic of multiple end-users over the same SDH
facilities. This feature is called Switched Network and makes use of
customer-specific Ethertypes. The tagging scheme is derived from the
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Multi-service application with TransLAN ®
card
Applications
arising standard IEEE 802.1ad to separate the traffic of the different
users. This application is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3-17 Example of a LAN-VPN application
VLAN trunking
At the ISP premises, the aggregated LAN traffic from multiple
customers (i.e. multiple VLANs) via one single high capacity Ethernet
link (Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet) to data equipment in a Central
Office or ISP POP such as an IP edge Router, IP Service Switch or
ATM Switch, can be handled by means of the VLAN trunking feature.
VLAN trunking is a possible application of the new IEEE 802.1ad
VLAN Tagging scheme supported in the Earth Release and the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
Main benefit of the VLAN trunking feature is that TransLAN ® cards
can hand off end user LAN traffic via one high capacity LAN port
instead of multiple low speed LAN ports, thus reducing port, space
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Multi-service application with TransLAN ®
card
Applications
and cabling costs. In the figures below, examples are given of
different VLAN Trunking applications.
Figure 3-18 VLAN trunking example
Figure 3-19 Ethernet to GE trunking example
DCN support with Ethernet
LAN tributary unit
The Ethernet LAN tributary unit can also be used for DCN
engineering purposes. An important application in this respect is to
use the Ethernet interfaces to make a long distance Q-LAN
connection. This solution can replace the current solution that uses
external modems or routers. It is often cheaper and easier to manage
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Multi-service application with TransLAN ®
card
Applications
if the long distance Q-LAN connection can be made over the SDH
infrastructure (at the cost of the bandwidth of a few VC-12s).
The DCN application of the Ethernet LAN tributary card assumes the
WaveStar ® ITM-SC co-located with at least one of the NEs equipped
with this tributary card (e.g. Metropolis ® AM/;MS, WaveStar ®ADM
16/1 Compact or WaveStar ® ADM 16/1). In such case, one can
connect the Ethernet port of the WaveStar ® ITM-SC to one of the
designated 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX LAN ports and configure the
associated WAN port with desired bandwidth (e.g., VC-12) to carry
the management traffic.
Figure 3-20 DCN support with Ethernet LAN tributary unit
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4
Description
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter provides a more detailed view of the system composition
and the shelf complements of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer
and Transport System. The system functions and circuit packs are
described following the description of the system architecture, the
partitioning of the circuit packs in the system, and the physical design.
Additional information is provided relating to timing architecture,
equipment redundancy and protection.
Contents
Basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
4-2
Shelf complements
4-6
Electrical paddle boards
4-8
Circuit packs
4-9
Timing and synchronization
4-39
Redundancy and protection
4-44
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4-1
Description
Basic
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Interfaces and signal types
This very flexible product resulted from a great step forward in
technology. Owing to the high level of integration at circuit-pack
level, it is possible to add/drop up to 504 × 1.5 Mbit/s, 504 × 2
Mbit/s, 48 × 34 Mbit/s, 96 × 45 Mbit/s, 64 × 10/100BASE-T
Ethernet, 16 × GbE (Gigabit Ethernet), 96 × STM-0, 32 × 140
Mbit/s, 32 × STM-1 or 8 × STM-4 signals using only one subrack.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a multiplexer and transport system that
multiplexes a broad range of plesiochronous and synchronous signals
into 2.5 Gbit/s (STM-16), 622 Mbit/s (STM-4) or 155 Mbit/s
(STM-1). The method used to map the interface signals complies with
the ITU-T specified AU-4 mapping procedure. STM-1 and STM-4
optical tributary interfaces also support AU-3 mapped signals.
The system can be used as an add/drop multiplexer, terminal
multiplexer or small local cross-connect. It provides built-in
cross-connect facilities and flexible interface circuit packs. Local and
remote management and control facilities are provided via the Q and
F interface and the embedded communication channels. The
cross-connect circuit pack is the core of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
system.
Basic architecture
An outline of the basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture is given in
the figure below.
Figure 4-1 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 basic architecture
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Basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
The cross-connect
Description
The cross-connect is the core of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system.
The cross-connect circuit pack functionally consists of two parts: a
Higher and a lower order cross-connect, although physically the
cross-connect circuit pack is a single circuit pack.
The higher order cross-connect switches VC-4s and its capacity is 64
× 64. Other functions of the higher order cross-connect are: VC-4
SNC protection switching, MS-SPRing protection, MSP, equipment
protection of tributary slots (see “Redundancy and protection” (4-44)
and Chapter 2, “Features” for detailed explanations of mentioned
protection mechanisms), non-intrusive monitoring of VC-4s and
broadcasting.
The lower order cross-connect switches/grooms VC-3 and VC-12s and
its capacity ranges up to 2016 × 2016 VC-12s equivalents or 32 × 32
VC-4s. Other functions of the lower order cross-connect are: lower
order SNCP protection, non-intrusive monitoring of lower order VCs
and lower order broadcasting.
Tributary and line interfaces circuit packs are directly connected to the
higher order cross-connect via STM-1 equivalent signals.
Higher- and lower order cross-connect parts are interconnected via an
internal cross-connect-bus of 32 bi-directional VC-4s wide. The lower
order cross-connect itself is uni-directional although traffic can be
switched/protected bi-directionally (= default situation).
Higher Order VC-4s arriving from line or tributary circuit packs need
only to be routed through the lower order matrix, if the lower order
VC content needs to be groomed. Otherwise, the VC-4 can be routed
through the higher order cross-connect only.
Flexible routing and cross-connecting of VC-4, VC-3 and VC-12
between line port ↔ line port, line port ↔ tributary port and
tributary port ↔ tributary port is possible.
The system architecture makes it possible to use an interface circuit
pack in almost any other slot position, hence the system becomes very
flexible. A broad range of applications can be served with the same
shelf based on a common software platform.
To contribute to overall system reliability and availability, the
cross-connect circuit pack can be 1 + 1 equipment protected by an
accompanying circuit pack.
Fixed cross-connect
The fixed connection unit replaces the (working) cross-connect unit to
provide a 0:1 or 0:2 terminal configuration, in which the (16) VC-4s
of four tributary units are routed towards one line port unit and the
(16) VC-4s of four other tributaries are routed towards the other line
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Basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
Description
port unit. The protection cross-connect slot remains unassigned, as
well as one of the tributary slots. The tributary units can be all types,
but it is understood that if a PI-E1/63 is used, then 3 VC-4’s worth of
line capacity become unreachable for each inserted PI-E1/63 unit.
No equipment protection of tributary cards is supported, nor of line
cards or cross-connect units. Only the PT unit can be protected.
Network protection schemes like MSP, MS-SPRing or SNCP are not
supported either.
Interface circuit packs
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports a large variety of interface circuit
packs: 1.5, 2, 34, 45, 140 Mbit/s, 10/100BASE-T Ethernet, GbE
(Gigabit Ethernet), STM-0, STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 are the
circuit packs that can be used. If required, interface redundancy can
be provided. For details of these circuit packs please refer to “Circuit
packs” (4-9) described later in this chapter.
System control and
management
The System Controller (SC) controls and provisions all circuit packs
via a local LAN bus. The SC also provides the external operations
interfaces for office alarms, miscellaneous discretes and connections to
the overhead channels (a maximum of six overhead bytes may be
selected to be connected to six connectors on the interconnection
box).
The SC also facilitates first line maintenance by several LEDs and
buttons on the front panel. General status and alarm information is
displayed. Various controls and an F interface connector, for a local
maintenance PC (ITM-CIT), are also located on this panel.
The SC communicates with the centralized management system
(WaveStar ® ITM-SC and Navis ® Optical NMS).
Communication is established via so-called data communication
channels (DCC = D1-3/D4-12 bytes), within the STM-N section
overhead signals or via one of the Q-interfaces of the system.
Information destined for the local system is routed to the System
Controller, while other information is routed from the node via the
appropriate embedded channels of the STM-N line or tributary signals.
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC manages the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 at the
element level and the Navis ® Optical NMS manages the system at the
network level. The ITM-Craft Interface Terminal (ITM-CIT) can be
used for managing small networks and for maintenance.
Power and timing circuit
pack (PT)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be equipped with one or two power
and timing circuit packs (PT).
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Basic WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 architecture
Description
Power
A basic function of the PT circuit pack is to filter and stabilize the
incoming station power in Order to meet the necessary ETSI
requirements. The basic power distribution philosophy throughout the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is to equip each circuit pack with on-board
DC/DC converters that convert the customer’s secondary (station
battery) voltage to the voltages required for each circuit pack. The
power feed from the station battery voltage is maintained duplicated
throughout the system’s backplane.
Timing
Another basic function of the PT is system timing. The local
oscillator, also called the SDH Equipment Clock (SEC), can be
synchronized to one of the user-selectable timing references. There are
two types of PT circuit packs available: one so-called standard PT
with a standard hold-over stability of 2048 kHz 4.6 ppm and one with
a more accurate hold-over stability frequency of 2048 kHz 0.37 ppm
(Stratum-3).
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Description
Shelf
complements
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is a single-row subrack designed for
application in 600-mm deep ETSI rack frames.
The shelf of the D700 type construction provides the facilities to
house the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 circuit packs. It consists of the
mechanics, a backplane and an integrated interconnection box (ICB).
Via the interconnection box access to overhead channels, station
alarms, miscellaneous discrete input s and outputs and Q-LAN is
possible.
Cabling to the customer is pre-fabricated and will be connected to the
rear of the subrack. If protection or impedance conversion is needed,
special paddle boards can be inserted between customer cabling and
the backplane. Optical interfaces are located on the front (STM-4 and
STM-16 signals) and rear (STM-0 and STM-1 signals) of the system.
Subrack
High-density shelf
The subrack is called the high-density subrack. An integrated fan unit
cools the system circuit packs. This fan unit is part of the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 subrack.
The high-density shelf Figure 4-2, “WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 high
density shelf (EFA4) configuration” (4-7)) is provided with:
•
1 slot for the system controller (SC)
•
2 slots for the line circuit packs (SI-16)
•
2 slots for the cross-connect circuit packs (CC)
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Shelf complements
Description
•
9 slots for the tributary circuit packs
•
2 slots for the power and timing circuit packs (PT).
Figure 4-2 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 high density shelf (EFA4)
configuration
FRONT VIEW
PT 2
LS 2
CC 2
TS 9
TS 8
TS 7
TS 6
TS 5
TS 4
TS 3
TS 2
TS 1
LS 1
CC 1
SC
PT 1
Station
clock
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4-7
Description
Electrical
paddle boards
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
A variety of paddle boards exists for connection between customer
cabling and the backplane in case of protection or impedance
conversion. All paddle boards can be inserted from the rear of the
equipment and fit on the 2 mm-pitch backplane connectors.
The paddle boards contain the hardware to adjust the impedance or to
provide equipment protection.
Table 4-1
Paddle boards
Bitrate
Name
Function
Additional
information
1.5 Mbit/s
PB-DS1/100/32
75 to 100 Ω impedance conversion
board, 32 channels
PB-DS1/P100/32
75 to 100 Ω impedance conversion
board, 32 channels + protection board
Two identical 1.5
Mbit/s paddle boards
are mounted behaind a
worker circuit pack to
provide impedance
adaptation.
PB-E1/75/32
Direct through-connections paddle
board, 32 channels, 75 Ω
PB-E1/P75/32
Protection paddle board, 32 channels,
75 Ω
PB-E1/120/32
75 to 120 Ω impedance conversion
paddle board, 32 channels
PB-E1/P120/32
75 to 120 Ω impedance conversion +
protection paddle board, 32 channels
34/45 Mbit/s
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection paddle board, 6 channels
STM-1e /
140 Mbit/s
PB-1E4/PW/2
Protection paddle board to be used in
combination with “worker” circuit
packs, 2 channels
PB-1E4/PP/2
Protection paddle board to be used in
combination with “protection” circuit
pack, 2 channels
2 Mbit/s
10/100BASE-T PB-LAN/4
Ethernet
All 2 Mbit/s paddle
boards are mounted
behind the worker
circuit packs. No
paddle board is needed
behind the protecting 2
Mbit/s circuit pack.
The PB-E3DS3/6 is
mounted horizontally
across the worker and
the protecting circuit
pack.
Paddle board with 4 interfaces without
protection to be used in combination
with IP-LAN/8 circuit packs.
For more details on equipment protection, see Chapter 8, “System
planning and engineering”.
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Description
Circuit
packs
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
Figure 4-1, “WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 basic architecture” (4-2) shows
the types of circuit pack that can be used with the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 system.The interface circuit packs are briefly described here. For
an explanation of the naming of the circuit packs, please refer to
Chapter 8, “System planning and engineering”.
Optical interface circuit
packs
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be equipped with STM-16, STM-4,
STM-1 and STM-0 optical interface circuit packs, which are available
in several types. Options for STM-16 are 1310 nm (long-haul), 1550
nm (long-haul). Options for STM-1 and STM-4 are 1310 nm
(short-haul) and 1550 nm (long-haul). STM-0 optical units are using
the 1310 nm short-haul version.
All STM-4 and STM-16 optical packs are equipped with a universal
built-out optical connector type, allowing the connector type to FC/PC
or SC to be changed on-site depending on the customer needs.
The STM-1 optical circuit packs do have a SC-connection with a
conversion possibility to FC/PC.
The STM-0 does have a LC-connection with a conversion possibility
to FC/PC or SC.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can also be equipped with GbE Pluggable
optical option cards up to a maximum of 8.
For optical interfaces located on main plug-in units, the access is
through the front of the system, directly to the connector on the front
of the unit in question. For optical interface located on paddle boards,
the access is via the rear of the system, directly on the optical
connector on the respective paddle board.
STM-16 optical line port units
All power budgets indicated below are “end-of-life”.
•
•
SI-L 16.1/1C and SI-L 16.1/1D (1310 nm ITU, ITU-T G.957)
–
10{24 dB over G.652 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (L-16.1)
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 1 dB
optical path penalty.
–
10{23 dB over G.652 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–12 (L-16.1)
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 1 dB
optical path penalty.
SI-L 16.2/1C and SI-L 16.2/1D (1550 nm ITU, ITU-T G.957)
–
11-24 dB over G.652 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (L-16.2)
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Circuit packs
Description
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 2 dB
optical path penalty (i.e. up to 1800 ps/nm dispersion).
–
11-25 dB over G.653 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (L-16.3)
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 1 dB
optical path penalty.
Optical amplifier
Special circuit packs has been developed to bridge ultra-long distances
(up to 160 km) that amplifies the transmitted and received signals.
This circuit pack can be placed in any slot position normally used for
a tributary circuit pack.
Booster pre-amplifier:
•
LBPA-U 16.2/1
This circuit pack has to be mounted in front of a transmitter, in
one of the tributary slots.
•
SI-EML U16.2/1 (1550 nm, ITU-T draft rec. G.691)
–
33-44 dB over G.652 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–12 (U-16.2)
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 2 dB
optical path penalty.
–
33-45 dB over G.653 fiber at a BER of 1 × 10–12 (U-16.3)
Including 2 dB margin for temperature and aging and 1 dB
optical path penalty.
Booster:
•
LBA-V16.2/1 (1550 nm, ITU-T G.691 V-16.2/3)
This circuit pack has to be mounted in front of a transmitter, in
one of the tributary slots.
Circuit pack for interworking with WaveStar ® OLS 1.6T
Eighty different wavelengths, with compatible optics (STM-16) are
available for interworking with the WaveStar ® OLS 1.6T:
•
SI-16EMLx/1 (x ranging from 9190 to 9585 (1530{1565 nm)).
x represents the frequencies, which range from 191.90 THz to
195.85 THz in steps of 50 GHz
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Circuit packs
Description
Two simple WDM coupler units (Gould KIT ASSY MODULE WDM
KIT, comcode 848270682) can be mounted in the system to allow
single fiber operations:
•
Co-directional 2 wavelength WDM operation:
It is possible to combine the optical signals from the line
interfaces of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 systems, when one
system operates in the 1310 nm region and the other in the 1550
nm region, so that the optical signals travel in the same direction.
The net power budget for this type of operation on standard fiber,
after subtracting the coupler and extra connector losses is 20 dB
at 1 × 10–10 BER.
•
Contra-directional 2 wavelength WDM operation:
It is possible to combine the optical transmit and receive signals
from the line interface of one WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system,
when one direction operates in the 1310 nm region and the other
in the 1550 nm region, so that the optical signals travel opposite
directions of each fiber. The net power budget for this type of
operation on standard fiber, after subtracting the coupler and
extra connector losses is 20 dB at 1 × 10–10 BER.
Optical interfaces for tributaries (STM-0 and STM-1)
The optical interface circuit packs listed below must always be used
together with a tributary circuit pack (SA-0/12, SIA-1/4B or
SPIA-1E4/4B) described later in this chapter. They must be mounted
behind the tributary circuit pack (just like a paddle board). See also
Chapter 8, “System planning and engineering”. These circuit packs
provide the optical circuits and are provided with an optical connector.
Via a patch panel with a fiber management system this connector can
be converted to a SC or FC/PC connector.
An optical interface paddleboard contains 2 × STM-1 or 6 × STM-0
Interfaces, to be used together with the tributary circuit packs:
•
OI-S 1.1/2 (1310 nm, ITU-T G.957)
0-12 dB at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (S-1.1) (STM-1)
•
OI-L1.2 (1550 nm):
10{28 dB at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (L-1.2).
•
OI- 0/6 (1310 nm):
0-10 dB at a BER of 1 × 10–10 (STM-0)
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Circuit packs
Description
Optical interfaces for tributaries (STM-4)
There is also an optical interface for a STM-4 signal on a tributary
port. This circuit pack has front access and does not use optical
interfaces at the backside.
•
SI-S 4.1/1 (1310 nm, ITU-T G.957)
0-12 dB (1 × 10–10 sensitivity) at an operating wavelength of
1310 nm.
•
SI-L 4.2/1 (1550 nm, ITU-T G.957)
10{24 dB (1 × 10–10 sensitivity) at an operating wavelength of
1550 nm
Optical Gigabit Ethernet interfaces (1000BASE-X)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can also be equipped with 1000BASE-X
tributary units. The circuit pack IP-GE/2 (LJB460) provides two
interfaces for which the follwing pluggable optics are available:
•
1000BASE-SX (850 nm short haul, multi-mode)
•
1000BASE-LX (1310 nm long haul, multi-mode or single-mode)
The optical interfaces are present at the front-side of the system via
LC connectors. Please refer also to “1000BASE-X Gigabit Ethernet
tributary board; IP-GE/2, (LJB460)” (4-34).
Electrical tributaries circuit
packs
The electrical tributaries circuit packs contain the low-speed
interfaces. The interface circuit packs provide the plesiochronous
interface circuits or synchronous STM-1 interfaces and alignment into
TUs.
The following electrical interface circuit packs can be provided:
•
PI-DS1/63: 63 × 1.5 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
PI-E1/63: 63 × 2 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
PI-E3/6: 6 × 34 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
PI-DS3/6: 6 × 45 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
PI-DS3/12: 12 × 45 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
PI-E3DS3/6+6 6 × 34 Mbit/s and 6 × 45 Mbit/s interfaces per
circuit pack
•
PI-E3DS3/12 12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit
pack (ports independently provisionable)
•
SPIA-1E4/4B: 4 × STM-1e/140 Mbit/s interfaces per circuit pack
•
SIA-1/4B: 4 × STM-1e interfaces per circuit pack
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Circuit packs
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
tributary board, IP-LAN 8
Tlan+, (LJB459)
Description
•
IP-LAN/8: 8 × 10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T interfaces per circuit pack
(Ethernet stream is mapped into 1 to 4 VC-12s),
•
IP-LAN 8 Tlan+: 8 × 10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T interfaces per
circuit pack (Mapping of Ethernet traffic into VC-12xv and
VC-3-xv).
On the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 an Ethernet/Fast Ethernet tributary
board (IP-LAN 8 Tlan+) is available providing eight 10/100BASE-T
Ethernet interfaces. This tributary board is based on the TransLAN ®
solution. When equipped with an E/FE tributary board, Lucent
Technologies’ SDH multiplexers can offer besides TDM services like
DS1, E1, E3/DS3, E4, STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 interfaces also
10/100BASE-T Ethernet interfaces. Below a description is given of
the E/FE tributary board functionality supported by the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1.
An E/FE tributary board, based on the TransLAN ® solution, is also
available for the Metropolis ® AM/AMS and Metropolis ® ADM 16/1
Compact. Please refer to the respective Application and Planning
Guides (APG).
Speed, cable, connector
The LAN interfaces that are supported are 10BASE-T and
100BASE-TX. The numbers “10” and “100” indicate the bit-rate of
the LAN, 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s respectively. The “T” or “TX”
indicates the wiring and connector type: Twisted pair wiring with
RJ-45 connectors.
The actual LAN speed does not need to be configured, since the
Ethernet interfaces support the auto-negotiation protocol, which
enables them to select automatically the proper LAN speed.
The auto-negotiation function on the E/FE tributary board is
configurable. This feature allows the auto-negotiation function to be
manually overriden from WaveStar ® ITM-SC or the ITM-CIT. If this
auto-negotiation function is disabled, it is possible to select a specific
operation mode (10 or 100BASE-T, Half/Full-Duplex).
CSMA/CD principles
The Ethernet type that is supported by the E/FE tributary board is
according to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet, which means that the access
control to the LAN is according to the CSMA/CD principles: carrier
sense multiple access with collision detection. “Multiple Access”
means that all hosts on the LAN may transmit packets whenever they
need to, provided nobody else is transmitting at the same time:
“Carrier Sense”. In case there is simultaneous transmission of two or
more hosts, the “Collision Detect” part of the protocol prescribes how
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this situation needs to be detected and resolved. The larger the size of
a LAN, the higher the probability of collisions, due to the finite
propagation times of the frames over the LAN. For this reason, there
are rules about minimum frame lengths and maximum LAN sizes.
LAN’s can only be made larger by splitting them in multiple
“collision domains”. Within each collision domain, the normal
CSMA/CD rules apply.
Traffic between collision domains needs to be transported via a
special device known as a bridge. The bridge can store frames from
one collision domain and forward it in another collision domain once
the LAN is free. A WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 equipped with E/FE
tributary boards contains this bridge functionality, which allows to
have virtually unlimited distances between the LAN’s that need to be
interconnected.
To end-users, the “TransLAN ® Network” (a network built with
Metropolis ® AM/AMS, WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Compact and
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 equipped with E/FE tributary boards), appears
as a single bridge interconnecting their CPE LAN’s. Thus, end-users
do not have to consider the “TransLAN ® Network” in the design rules
(e.g., number of repeaters, distance, collision domain size) of their
end-to-end Ethernet network. Collision domains interconnected via a
“TransLAN ® Network” will always be fully separated.
This is in contrast to the situation where the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is
used as a repeater. A repeater just forwards all frames it receives,
without considering the destination MAC address. A repeater does not
separate collision domains so the two parts on each side of the
repeater should be considered as one Ethernet network.
The implementation of the E/FE tributary board supports star
topologies. The maximum LAN segment of CPE LAN’s connected to
the E/FE tributary board should be compliant to the Ethernet LAN
design rules defined in IEEE802.3. As a reference, the maximum
distance from an end device (e.g., PC, host) to an E/FE tributary
board should be less than 100 meters.
Ethernet communication mode, speed negotiation
Data devices connected through a single collision domain of a Fast
Ethernet LAN usually communicate in half-duplex mode, a
communication method in which a device may either send or receive
data at a given instance, but not both.
The newer design of Ethernet switches and hubs today supports both
half-duplex and full-duplex mode of communication. Full-duplex
mode is a communication method that allows a device connected to
the switch or hub to simultaneously send and receive data. To support
communication in full-duplex mode, it requires the use of full-duplex
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media, the cable/wire that provides independent transmit and receive
data paths. Note: an Ethernet LAN with full-duplex media does not
mean automatically that it operates in full-duplex mode.
Before sending and receiving data between two devices connected
through an Ethernet LAN, they must both agree to the communication
speed (e.g., 10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s), communication mode
(half-duplex or full-duplex) and support of flow control capability.
The auto-negotiation protocol defined in the Ethernet standard
specifies a process to reach such agreement between the devices
during the device initialization phase. The process uses special signals
to carry the auto-negotiation information between the devices. We
support the auto-negotiation protocol and by default, the
auto-negotiation function is always on.
In some field cases, it is known that auto-negotiation can fail. In
Order to allow interworking with equipment not supporting this
function, the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports an option to override the
auto-negotiation. The user has the possibility to disable the
auto-negotiation and to force the port speed (10 or 100 Mbit/s) and
the half or full-duplex mode.
WAN bandwidth
To facilitate the flexibility of mapping mixed higher layer traffic into
SDH/SONET circuits, and to offer better granularity, ITU-T G.707
and G.783 (2000 edition) have recently standardized virtual
concatenation, a byte-level inverse-multiplexing technique. The virtual
concatenation allows the mapping of different types of traffic (e.g,
Ethernet, TDM) to individual SDH channels (VCs) that are associated
in a concatenated group. The key difference between contiguous
concatenation and virtual concatenation is the transport between the
path termination. Contiguous concatenation maintains the contiguous
bandwidth through-out the whole transport path, while virtual
concatenation breaks the contiguous bandwidth into individual VCs,
transports the individual VCs and recombines these VCs to a
contiguous bandwidth at the end point of the transmission path.
Virtual concatenation requires concatenation functionality only at the
path termination equipment, while contiguous concatenation requires
concatenation functionality at each network element. Thus virtual
concatenation is perfectly suited for interworking with legacy nodes in
a multi-vendor SDH environment, where traffic can be transparently
transported over the legacy nodes not supporting the feature.
WAN bandwidth is supported and defined based on the amount of
VCs being allocated (provisioned and configured) for it. The E/FE
tributary board supports WAN bandwidth of mixed VC types. The
only limitation is fixed by the maximum capacity between the E/FE
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tributary board and the backplane of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1, i.e.
two VC-4.
Ethernet WAN port capacity configuration rules
The encapsulated Ethernet frames are mapped in VC-12 (2 Mbit/s),
VC-12-2v (4 Mbit/s), VC-12-3v (6 Mbit/s), VC-12-4v (8 Mbit/s),
VC-12-5v (10 Mbit/s), VC-3 (50 Mbit/s) or VC-3-2v (100 Mbit/s). A
user can provision the actual bandwidth per WAN port. Since the
backplane capacity is limited, the total combined bandwidth of all
WAN ports together must follow the WAN capacity configuration
rules defined in Table .
Please note that only the WAN port bandwidth determines the
effective end-to-end Ethernet communication throughput, not the LAN
ports.
WAN Capacity
Configuration Case
Capacity of
WAN Port 1
Capacity of
WAN Port 2
Capacity of
WAN Port 3
Capacity of
WAN Port 4
Note
1
VC-3-2v
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
x = 0, 1,
{ ,5
2
VC-3
VC-3
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
x = 0, 1,
{ ,5
3
VC-3
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
x = 0, 1,
{ ,5
4
VC-12xv
VC-3
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
x = 0, 1,
{ ,5
5
VC-12xv
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
VC-12 xv
x = 0, 1,
{ ,5
One E/FE tributary board supports 8 ports divided over 2 groups. The
first WAN port group (Port 1 to 4) supports the possible combination
of Ethernet WAN port (total of 4) capacity configurations defined in
Table .
The second WAN port group (port 5 to 8) of the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 supports the same capacity configurations as defined for the first
WAN port group (port 1 to 4).
The E/FE tributary board equipped WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system
keeps track of the available capacity according to the rules defined in
the WAN port configuration table above. If an attempt to configure a
new WAN port capacity violates the rules, not only the system will
not grant the new configuration but also an alarm will be triggered
and displayed.
Port Role Flexibility A LAN port is the interface between the the
user’s Ethernet LAN and the physical switch.
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A WAN port is the internal port between the physical switch and the
EoS/GFP device. An Ethernet frame sent by the physical switch on a
WAN port is mapped into SDH payload by the EoS/GFP device, an
Ethernet frame received by the physical switch on the WAN port is
demapped from SDH payload by the EoS/GFP device.
The user can assign a so-called “port role” to WAN ports as well as to
LAN ports. In this way it is possible to forward VLAN tags,
especially in double-tagging mode, also via LAN ports. Additionally it
is possible to run the STP and GVRP protocols on physical LAN
ports, too.
The following port roles are possible:
•
•
Customer role:
–
Customer LAN port: Port of the L2 switch connected to an
end-user via a physicla Ethernet link.
–
Customer WAN port: Port of the L2 switch connected to an
end-user via an SDH/SONET link.
Network role:
–
Network LAN port: Port of the L2 switch connected to
another L2 switch in the same operator domain via a
physicla Ethernet link.
–
Network WAN port: Port of the L2 switch connected to
another L2 switch in the same operator domain via an
SDH/SONET link.
In most cases physical LAN ports have the customer role and physical
WAN ports have the network role, but there may be exceptions in
some applications. In the figure below, the WAN port connects an
EPL (Ethernet Private Line) link and is therefore at the edge of the
TransLAN ® network. Thus it has the customer role in this case.
Figure 4-3 WAN port in customer role
LAN
LAN unit
TransLAN network
Ethernet over SDH
WA N port (customer role)
EPL link
In the example in Figure 4-3, “WAN port in customer role” (4-17) the
VLAN tags have to be forwarded to a router. The router uses the
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tagging information for its switch decisions. Thus the LAN port must
fulfil a network role. In this case behaves like a node of the
TransLAN ® network. It could also participate in the STP in order to
avoid loops, if there was another link from a Router LAN interface to
a second node within the TransLAN ® network.
Figure 4-4 LAN port in network role
Forbidden acc. to STP
LAN
LAN unit
Router
TransLAN network
(Ethernet over SDH)
LAN unit
LAN port (ônetwork roleö)
A LAN port which operates in the “network role” behaves like a
WAN port in terms of VLAN tagging, STP and GVRP.
The default settings are shown in the following table.
Table 4-2
Port roles
Physical ports
Port role
LAN port
Customer role
default
Network role
WAN port
default
TransLAN ® operation modes
The physical Layer 2 (L2) switch that is present on an E/FE tributary
board can be split into several logical or virtual switches. A Virtual
Switch is a set of LAN/WAN ports on an E/FE tributary board that
are used by different VLAN’s which can share the common WAN
bandwidth. Each of the virtual switches can operate in a specific Port
Group Mode depending on the VLAN tagging scheme, and each Port
Group Mode allows specific LAN-WAN port associations as explained
in the following paragraphs.
First the VLAN tagging mode has to be specified on LAN unit level,
this can be either IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging or VPN tagging.
VPN tagging mode
For the VPN-tagging scheme, a Virtual Switch is a set of LAN/WAN
ports on a physical switch that are used by a group of end-customers
who can share the common WAN bandwidth. The end-customers
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sharing the same Virtual Switch can be separated by their Customer
Identifiers (CIDs). Virtual Switches are defined by their “VLAN Port
Member Set”.
In VPN tagging mode, end-user VLAN tags that optionally may
appear in the end user traffic are ignored in the forwarding process.
These VLAN tags are carried transparently through the “TransLAN ®
Network”.
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagging
IEEE 802.1Q is used as umbrella value for the single-tagging mode
IEEE 802.1Q and the double-tagging mode IEEE 802.1ad. For both
modes a Virtual Switch is a set of LAN/WAN ports on a physical
switch that are used by different VLANs which can share common
WAN bandwidth. In VLAN-tagging mode, the VLAN tags are also
carried transparently, but the VLAN ID in the VLAN tags is used in
the forwarding decision. Therefore customers’ VLAN IDs may not
overlap on a physical Ethernet switch, the VLAN IDs must be unique
per switch pack.
Port group modes
After having provisioned the tagging mode, per virtual switch a “port
group mode” may be chosen. The E/FE tributary board supports the
following port group modes:
•
Repeater mode
•
LAN-Interconnect
•
LAN-VPN
•
Spanning Tree Switched Network
IEEE 802.1d MAC forwarding and address filtering, multi-point
bridging and Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) are supported under all
modes of operation, except for the Repeater Mode (IEEE 802.1d
(1998 Edition)).
In the table below, an overview of the different modes and a list of
the corresponding supported functionality is given.
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Table 4-3
Description
Overview of the virtual switch modes
VLAN Tagging
Mode
Port Group
Mode
valid per pack
valid per Virtual Switch
VPN Tagging
Repeater
N/A
LAN
Interconnect
(Dedicated
Bandwidth)
N/A
LAN-VPN
(Shared
Bandwidth)
N/A
Spanning Tree
Switched
Network
600 { FFFF,
except for
8100
IEEE
802.1Q/IEEE
802.1ad VLAN
tagging
Spanning
Tree
Implementation
Tagging
N/A
No STP
No tagging
STVRP
Multiple
STP
Double
tagging
GVRP
Single STP
Double
tagging
Ethertype/TPID Dynamic VLAN
Registration
Protocol
8100
Repeater
600 { FFFF,
except for
8100
Single
tagging
N/A
No STP
No tagging
Repeater mode
The Repeater mode is used for point-to-point connections, the
10BASE-T/100BASE-TX LAN ports at both ends of the E/FE
tributary board equipped systems are “plug-and-play” devices and no
provisioning is necessary, except that they need to be associated with
WAN ports at both ends via a Virtual Switch. Under the Repeater
mode of operation, a Virtual Switch contains only one LAN port and
one WAN port. In this mode no MAC filtering takes place.
The Repeater mode for VPN tagging is identical to the Repeater mode
for IEEE 802.1Q/IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging.
The WAN port that supports the Repeater mode requires the
provisioning of the following parameters:
1.
WAN port capacity (require manual provisioning) at either 2, 4,
6, 8, 10, 50, or 100 Mbit/s
2.
Association of the WAN port to a LAN port
3.
Create cross-connections between VC-X and TU-X (where X = 12,
or 3).
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LAN-interconnect mode
The LAN-Interconnect Mode of operation offers dedicated WAN
bandwidth to a single end-user. Under the LAN-interconnect mode, a
Virtual Switch must only contain LAN ports with the same CID
(Customer ID) to ensure the entire WAN port bandwidth allocated for
the group is dedicated to a single end-user. Any combination of LAN
and WAN ports is allowed (but with a minimum of two ports to be
meaningful).
LAN-VPN mode
Under the LAN-VPN mode, a number of LAN and WAN ports are
grouped together to form one Virtual Switch. The Virtual Switch
contains LAN ports of multiple end-users sharing the same WAN
port(s) bandwidth. To safeguard each individual end-user’s data flow
and to identify an end-user’s VPN from the shared WAN, the E/FE
board equipped system assigns a CID to each LAN port within a
Virtual Switch. The CID of each end-user (or LAN port) must be
unique within a shared WAN port to create a fully independent VPN.
The VPN provisioning on the WAN ports on the access and
intermediate nodes is done automatically by the proprietary protocol
STVRP (Spanning Tree with VPN Registration Protocol) which runs
without operator intervention.
The LAN-VPN mode of operation controls the shared bandwidth by
making use of the following features:
SDH WAN bandwidth sharing:
Allows multiple end-users to share the same SDH WAN bandwidth
with each end-user being allocated a sub-VC-12-Xv (X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
or sub-VC-3 rate of bandwidth. The combined end-user bandwidth is
then mapped to the SDH time-slots and transported in the SDH
network as a single data load. The minimum sub-VC-12 rate that can
be configured per end-user at a LAN port is 150 kbit/s.
Strict policing/Oversubscription mode: See “Quality of Service (QoS)”
(4-28).
The LAN-Interconnect mode is a special case of LAN-VPN operation
where a Virtual Switch contains LAN and WAN ports of a single
end-user only. Note the E/FE tributary board can support both
LAN-interconnect and LAN-VPN mode of operations simultaneously
as long as a Virtual Switch under each operation mode does not
include the same WAN port(s) used by the other operation.
LAN-VPN with 802.1p QoS mode
This mode is identical to the “normal” LAN-VPN mode, with the
addition of the enhanced Quality of Service features described in the
Quality of Service section. These features comprise classification into
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four traffic classes, rate control per flow, rate control per port, and
scheduling on egress ports.
Spanning Tree Switched Network
The port group mode “Spanning Tree Switched Network” is still an
umbrella value for the operation modes IEEE 802.1Q and IEEE
802.1ad which refers to a specific Virtual Switch. The major selection
between the two modes is executed by the provisioning of the
Ethertype (a.k.a. TPID). The Ethertype for the IEEE 802.1Q mode ist
8100. The Ethertype for the IEEE 802.1ad mode is a provisionable
hexadecimal value between 600 and FFFF, but it must not be 8100. In
IEEE 802.1Q and IEEE 802.1ad VLAN tagging mode, a Virtual
Switch is formed by a combination of LAN- and WAN ports on a
physical switch, that are used by different VLANs which can share
the common WAN bandwidth. Each port can be part of only one
Virtual Switch, but a certain port may be associated with more than
one VLAN. VLANs in the same Virtual Switch are defined by their
VLAN Port Member Set. The ports that are associated with a certain
VLAN ID form the VLAN Port Member Set. On ingress, each packet
is filtered on its VLAN ID. If the receiving port is a member of the
VLAN to which a received MAC frame is classified, then the frame is
forwarded. If not, then that frame shall be discarded. The user can
provision whether untagged packets are dropped, or tagged with a
PVID (Port VLAN ID), via the acceptable frame type parameter.
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The VLAN trunking example in figure below is one of the possible
applications in the IEEE 802.1Q mode.
Figure 4-5 VLAN trunking application example
VLAN IDs assigned to LAN Ports should not overlap in case the
operator wants to ensure Layer 2 security between those LAN Ports
(In many applications, LAN Ports are likely to be dedicated to one
customer). It is the responsibility of the operator to define
appropriately non-overlapping VLAN IDs on all the created virtual
switches. Also the provisioned PVID, with which untagged incoming
frames are tagged, should not overlap with any VLAN ID on the
virtual switch of which the customers’ port is part (again, this is the
responsibility of the operator).
Manual provisioning of intermediate nodes can be cumbersome and
difficult. Therefore it is recommended to use the auto-provisioning
mode for VLAN ID’s on the intermediate nodes. A protocol named
GVRP (Generic VLAN Registration Protocol provides this
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functionality. GVRP is an application of the Generic Attribute
Registration Protocol (GARP) application, which runs on top of the
active spanning tree topology.
IEEE 802.1Q defines two kinds of VLAN registration entries in the
Bridge Filtering Database: static and dynamic entries. The static
entries can only be entered by the user, the dynamic entries are added
automatically by the GVRP protocol. In the E/FE tributary board
implementation, static entries need to be provisioned only on access
node’s LAN ports. GVRP will take care of configuring dynamic
entries on the WAN ports of intermediate and access nodes.
A spanning tree per virtual switch is implemented. If the user wants
the traffic to be protected by the spanning tree protocol and he uses
the manual provisioning mode, he must make sure that the WAN ports
in the alternative path also will have the corresponding VLAN ID
assigned. E.g. in a ring topology, all NE’s in the ring must be
provisioned with this VLAN ID. In automatic mode, the GVRP
protocol will take care of the dynamic VLAN provisioning.
The user has the possibility to flush dynamic VLAN’s, thus remove
dynamic VLAN’s that are no longer used.
For the 802.1Q VLAN tagging mode, the Oversubscription Mode is
not supported.
Only independent VLAN learning is supported on the E/FE tributary
board. This means, if a given MAC address is learned in a VLAN, the
learned information is used in forwarding decisions taken for that
address only relative to that VLAN.
Spanning Tree Protocol
Ethernet MAC service does not permit duplication of Ethernet frames
between any source and destination end station pair. The potential for
frame duplication in a bridged network (e.g., LAN) happens when
multiple paths between the source and destination end station pair.
When multiple paths exist between any source-destination pair, a loop
occurs in the bridged network.
IEEE 802.1d (1998 Edition) defines Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) to
prevent a bridged network (e.g., LAN) from creating network loops.
By using the STP, bridges communicate to each other by exchanging
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) configuring a simple connected
active topology. Frames are forwarded through some of the bridged
ports (with forwarding state) but not to the ports/segments, which are
held in a blocking state. Ports that are in a blocking state do not
forward frames in either direction but may be put into a forwarding
state should the active topology and path fail. With STP, the algorithm
ensures that only one active path will be used to forward frames from
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any source port to any destination port. The STP algorithm uses
bridge priority, port priority and path cost to compare and select an
active path.
The user can track back the path from a NE to the root by
successively retrieving the Root Port for each NE in the path. The
user can influence the STP choice of root and topology by modifying
the bridge/port priority of individual bridges/ports and the path cost of
individual links. This influence is indirectly however, the Spanning
Tree Protocol itself will evaluate all these parameters to determine the
root and calculate a topology.
The STP support in the “TransLAN ® Network” is invisible to
end-users because STP is only applied to WAN ports to resolve loops
in the WAN network. The end-user’s BPDUs are transported
transparently through the “TransLAN ® Network”. Therefore, to
end-users connected to the “TransLAN ® Network” through LAN
ports, the “TransLAN ® Network” appears like a single bridge that
does not support STP. See the figure below.
Figure 4-6 Spanning tree separation
Consequently, LAN ports of the E/FE board should not be
interconnected without a STP supporting bridge in between in order to
avoid loops in the interconnected LAN ports. See Figure 4-7,
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“Examples of loops not detected when running ST on WAN ports
only” (4-26) for examples of wrongly configured networks.
Figure 4-7 Examples of loops not detected when running ST on
WAN ports only
The Ethernet bridge diameter is defined as the maximum number of
nodes between any connection in the active spanning tree topology,
the access nodes included. There is an upper limit for the diameter in
any practical application. If the diameter exceeds this limit, there is a
risk that re-convergence of the spanning tree algorithm in case of a
link failure will never be reached.
In the VPN tagging mode the maximum diameter is 20, in the VLAN
tagging mode the maximum diameter is 40.
The E/FE tributary board supports a single STP per Virtual Switch
under LAN-Interconnect mode and a single STP per VPN under the
LAN-VPN mode. In the STP Virtual Switch mode, the E/FE tributary
board supports a single STP per Virtual Switch. When operating in the
Repeater mode, the Ethernet virtual bridge (an instance of the
TransLAN ® Ethernet bridging function) must not participate in a STP.
In the STP Virtual Switch mode, a number of STP status parameters
per Port/Virtual Switch are retrievable/editable. The most important
ones are the support of Port State retrieval and the support of
Bridge/Port Priority provisioning.
The Port State can have one of the following values:
Disabled – The port is disabled completely.
Blocking – BPDUs and normal frames are discarded.
Listening – BPDUs are processed, but normal frames are discarded.
The Filtering Database is not updated.
Learning – BPDUs are processed, but normal frames are discarded
Received BPDUs are used to learn addresses and update the Filtering
Database.
Forwarding – BPDUs are processed and normal frames are forwarded.
Path Cost provisioning:
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The system sets a default STP path cost for each link which is inverse
proportional to the speed (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 50 and 100 Mbit/s). BPDUs
are capable of carrying 32 bits of Path Cost information; however,
IEEE Std. 802.1d, 1998 edition and earlier revisions of this standard
limited the range of the Path Cost parameter to a 16-bit unsigned
integer value. The recommended values in IEEE Std. 802.1t-2001,
make use of the full 32 bit range available in BPDUs in order to
extend the range of link speeds supported by the protocol. In LAN’s
where bridges that use the recommended values defined in the IEEE
Std. 802.1d, 1998 edition and bridges that use the recommended
values in IEEE Std. 802.1t-2001 are required to inter-operate, either
the older Bridges or the new Bridges need to be reconfigured to make
Path Cost values compatible. However, this situation is not likely to
occur since the first release of STP in IEEE 802.1Q tagging will
support the values recommended in IEEE Std. 802.1t-2001.
Bridge Priority provisioning:
Ranges and granularities for Port Priority defined in IEEE Std.
802.1d, 1998 edition have been modified in IEEE Std. 802.1t, 2001
edition: value range should now be expressed in steps of 4096 instead
of 1. The step values chosen ensure that the low-order bits that have
been re-assigned cannot be modified (Bridge priority 12 low-order bits
have become a 12-bit system ID extension for Multiple Spanning
Trees). The magnitude of the priority values can be directly compared
with those based on previous versions of the standard, which ensures
full interoperability. Although the NE and management systems
support a granularity of 1, it is advised to provision a Port Priority
with the new granularity of 4096 in order to ensure interoperability.
Port Priority provisioning:
Ranges and granularities for Port Priority defined in IEEE Std.
802.1d, 1998 edition have been modified in IEEE Std. 802.1t, 2001
edition: value range should now be expressed in steps of 16 instead of
1. The step values chosen ensure that the low-order bits that have
been re-assigned cannot be modified (Port priority 4 low-order bits are
now considered to be part of the Port Number). The magnitude of the
priority values can be directly compared with those based on previous
versions of the standard, which ensures full interoperability. Although
the NE and management systems support a granularity of 1, it is
advised to provision a Port Priority with the new granularity of 16 in
order to ensure interoperability.
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Description
Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Service is supported on the E/FE tributary board. It is
implemented as a DiffServ architecture applied to layer 2. See the
figure below for an overview of the implemented functional blocks.
Figure 4-8 QoS functional blocks
The following table gives an overview of the QoS capabilities per
virtual switch operational mode.
Table 4-4
Overview of the QoS capabilities per operational mode
Operational Mode
Flow Classification
on Ingress
Rate Controlling
per Flow
Scheduling on
Egres
Repeater
N/A
N/A
N/A
LAN-Interconnect/LAN-VPN
Per port
None, Strict Policing,
Oversubscription
One Queue
LAN-VPN with IEEE QoS
Per port per User
Priority
None, Strict Policing,
Oversubscription
Four Queues, (Strict
Priority or Weighted
Bandwidth per
Queue)
Spanning Tree Switched
Network
Per port/ per port per
User Priority
None, Strict Policing,
Oversubscription
Four Queues, (Strict
Priority or Weighted
Bandwidth per
Queue)
On the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 the responsibility for admission control
is left to the operator. This means there is no check that the Service
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Description
Level Agreements on already existing connections can be fulfilled,
when a new user starts sending data from node A to B. In this respect
the notion of over-subscription factor is important. This is the factor
by which the calculated bandwidth, based on e.g. the traffic matrices
of the operators sharing a link, exceeds the physically available
bandwidth. Although theoretically the bandwidth can only be
guaranteed for an over-subscription factor <= 1, in practice an
over-subscription factor of 5-10 can be used without giving problems.
Due to the effects of statistical multiplexing it is safe to “sell the
bandwidth more than once”. The burstiness of the traffic from
individual customers that share a common link makes this possible.
The Service Level Agreements give a quantification for the “statistics”
of the multiplexing.
The provisioning of the classifier and rate controller per flow is done
only on the ingress customer port. On the network ports, only the
scheduler for the egress queues is provisionable.
It is important that some of the QoS settings are provisioned
consistently on all ports throughout the whole customer’s VPN
domain. For the rate controller the mode = none/strict_policing/oversubscription (per virtual switch),
for the scheduler for each egress queue the mode =
strict_priority/weighted_bandwidth and corresponding weights (per
virtual switch) must be provisioned consistently.
Classifier
The classifier will determine into which flow each incoming packet is
mapped. On customer port ingress, a number of flows can be defined,
based on port, user priority, and optionally VLAN ID, but the
mapping towards egress queue is fixed and based on the user priority
only. For each flow a rate controller (CIR/PIR value on LAN ports
only) can be specified. If the classifier operational mode is set to
mapping-table, each flow will be mapped to a traffic class based on
the value of the user priority only, using a fixed table. Each traffic
class is associated with a certain egress queue. Apart from these flows
based on input criteria, a default flow is defined for packets that do
not fulfil any of the specified criteria for the flows, e.g. untagged
packets which have no user priority field. If the user specifies the
default_overriding mode, all incoming packets will go into the default
flow and are treated the same. The user can specify on port level the
default user_priority to be added to each packet in the default flow,
and the rate controller behavior for the default flow. The same fixed
mapping table from user priority to traffic class to egress queue is
applied to packets in the default flow as to packets in the specified
flows.
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Circuit packs
Description
See Table 4-5, “Fixed mapping of user priority to egress queue on
customer ports” (4-30) for the mapping of user priority to traffic class
to egress queue on a customer port. Once the traffic class/egress
queue is set for a certain packet at the ingress customer port, the
packet will keep the same traffic class/egress queue throughout the
network. A customer should make sure that his packets are marked
with the appropriate user priority, if he wants to use this flow
classification, or use the default_overriding mode otherwise.
Table 4-5
Fixed mapping of user priority to egress queue on
customer ports
User Priority
Traffic Class
Egress Queue
0 (000)
1
2
1 (001)
0
1
2 (010)
0
1
3 (011)
1
2
4 (100)
2
3
5 (101)
2
3
6 (110)
3
4
7 (111)
3
4
Note that the egress queue number is not linear increasing with user
priority. This mapping is according to IEEE802.1Q Table 8-2 (case of
four traffic classes).
Rate controller
The rate controller is a means to limit the users access to the network,
in case the available bandwidth is too small to handle all offered
ingress packets. Rate control is supported for every ingress flow on
every LAN port.
On the E/FE tributary board a “color unaware one-rate two-color
marker” is supported, which can be seen as a degenerate case of the
two-rate three-color marker. “Color un-aware” meant the user cannot
provision the packets with a certain dropping precedence. Marking
will be done only by the rate controller itself.
A two-rate three-color marker is defined by thee colors, specifying the
dropping precedence, and two rates as delimiter between the colors.
The marker will mark each packet with a certain color, depending on
the rate of arriving packets, and the amount of credits in the token
bucket. The size of the token bucket will determine how long and far
a rate may be surpassed before the packets are marked with a higher
dropping precedence.
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Description
The three colors indicate:
•
Green – low dropping precedence
•
Yellow – higher dropping precedence
•
Red – The packet will be dropped
The two rates mean:
•
Committed Information Rate (CIR): Delimiter between green and
yellow packets
•
Peak Information Rate (PIR): Delimiter between yellow and red
packets
The one-rate-two-color marker that is currently implemented can
operate in two different modes. The Strict Policing Mode is defined
by CIR = PIR and the Over-subscription Mode is defined by PIR =
Infinite. The size of the token buckets is implemented as a fixed
percentage of the corresponding rate and is not provisionable.
Figure 4-9 One-ratetwo-color marker
No policing: In this mode effectively no policing is taking place. This
mode allows each end-user to offer the maximum committed SDH
WAN bandwidth. Any additional incoming frames at the ingress LAN
port that would exceed the physical network port bandwidth will be
dropped. The user has no influence on which packets are dropped. In
this mode effectively applies that CIR = PIR = MAX.
Strict policing mode: This mode allows each end-user to subscribe to
a minimum committed SDH WAN bandwidth, or CIR (committed
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Circuit packs
Description
information rate). This mode will guarantee the bandwidth up to CIR
but will drop any additional incoming frames at the ingress LAN port
that would exceed the CIR. All packets below CIR are marked green,
all packets above CIR are marked red and dropped. Note CIR only
concerns the Ethernet frame payload; therefore, we recommend the
use of layer 3 traffic rate to define the required CIR at service level.
In this mode effectively applies that CIR ≤ MAX, CIR = PIR.
Over-subscription mode: This mode allows end-users to burst their
data flow to a maximum available WAN bandwidth at a given
instance. When PIR is set to equal to MAX, the physical network port
bandwidth, an end-user is allowed to send more data than the
specified CIR. The additional data flow above CIR is tagged with the
“drop precedence bit” being set to a higher drop probability. All
packets below CIR are marked green, all packets above CIR are
marked yellow. In this mode effectively applies that CIR ≤ PIR, PIR
= MAX.
Dropper
The dropper function will decide whether to drop or forward a packet.
On the E/FE tributary board a deterministic dropping from tail when
the queue is full is implemented. Packets that are marked red are
always dropped. If WAN Ethernet Link congestion occurs, frames are
dropped. Yellow packets are always dropped before any of the green
packets are dropped. This is the only dependency on queue occupation
and packet color that is currently present in the dropper function. No
provisioning is needed.
Scheduler
The preceding functional blocks assure that all packets in the four
queues can be handled by the scheduler, no further packets need to be
dropped. The order in which packets from the four queues are
forwarded, is determined by the scheduler.
The scheduler on each of the four egress queues can be in two
operational modes, strict priority or weighted bandwidth. Any
combination of queues in either of the two modes is allowed. When
exactly one queue is in weighted bandwidth mode, it is interpreted as
a strict priority queue with the lowest priority. Normally the queue
with the lowest number also has the lowest ranking order, but this
ranking order of the strict priority queues may be redefined by the
user. It is recommended not to change the mode and ranking of the
queue with the highest number (= 4) however, because this queue is
also used by protocol packets like spanning tree BPDU’s and GVRP
PDU’s.
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Description
Strict priority mode
The packets in strict priority queues are forwarded strictly according
to the queue ranking. The queue with the highest ranking will be
served first. A queue with a certain ranking will only be served when
the queues with a higher ranking are empty.
Weighted Bandwidth Mode
The weights of the weighted bandwidth queues will be summed up;
each queue gets a portion relative to its weight divided by this
summed weight, the so called normalized weight. The packets in the
weighted bandwidth queues are handled in a Round-Robin order
according to their normalized weight.
Each of the two modes has his well-known advantages and
drawbacks. Strict Priority queues will always be served before
Weighted Bandwidth queues. So with strict priority, starvation of the
lower priority queues cannot be excluded. Starvation should be
avoided by assuring that upstream policing is configured such that the
queue is only allowed to occupy some fraction of the output link’s
capacity. This can be done by setting the strict policing rate control
mode for the flows that map into this queue, and specifying an
appropriate value for the CIR. The strict priority scheme can be used
for low-latency traffic such as Voice over IP and protocol data such as
spanning tree BPDU’s or GVRP PDU’s.
Weighted Bandwidth queues are useful to assign a guaranteed
bandwidth to each of the queues. The bandwidth can of course only
be guaranteed if concurrent strict priority queues are appropriately
rate-limited. The assigned weight factor represent 256-byte quanta in
the weighted Round-Robin algorithm. To reduce burstiness between
the queue transmissions, the user should strive for minimal weight
factors, which are however bigger than the maximum length of a
packet. This will be achieved by a weight factor of at least six
(6×256>1500).
Performance monitoring
On the VC-3/VC-12 termination points that are connected to a WAN
port, the “normal” performance monitoring can be activated. The same
counters that apply for VC-3/VC-12TPs on any other port also apply
to the VC-3/VC-12 TP’s on a WAN port.
Apart from this standard SDH PM, a limited amount of counters that
are dedicated to LAN/WAN ports are defined. Activation of these
counters can be established by setting the LAN port mode to
monitored, selecting a LAN port or WAN port as active PM point,
and setting the PM point type to LAN or WAN.
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Circuit packs
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The supported dedicated parameters are:
•
CbS (total number of bytes sent)
•
CbR (total number of bytes received)
•
pDe (packets in error dropped)
Note that CbS and CbR are rather traffic monitoring counters than
performance monitoring counters, as they give insight in the traffic
load in all places in the network. pDe is a real performance
monitoring counter as it gives an indication about the performance of
the network. Only unidirectional PM is supported for these
parameters. See Figure 4-10, “Performance monitoring counters”
(4-34) for the location of the measurements. Note that because of the
difference in units, bytes versus packets, the counters cannot be
correlated with each other. Also the counter for dropped packets
considers only packets dropped due to errors, and does not include
packets dropped due to congestion.
Figure 4-10 Performance monitoring counters
1000BASE-X Gigabit
Ethernet tributary board;
IP-GE/2, (LJB460)
The Gigabit Ethernet interface supports 1000BASE-SX optical
interfaces or 1000BASE-LX optical interfaces according IEEE 802.3
Clause 38. Full duplex only is supported. SX or LX applications can
be selected by Small Formfactor Plugable module based Gigabit
Ethernet interfaces.
Note: On WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 the 1000BASE-X tributary card is
only supported in combination with Ruby controller hardware
(LJB457B) or later.
By using the circuit pack IP-GE/2 Gigabit Ethernet frames can be
mapped into VC-3s (50 Mbit/s) and VC-4s (150 Mbit/s). A higher
bandwidth can be achieved by virtual concatenation of the VCs. The
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IP-GE/2 provides two optical LAN ports and supports 8 WAN ports
with the following virtual concatenation:
•
VC-3-xv, x = 1, 2
•
VC-4-xv, x = 1, { , 4
The maximum capacity of a WAN port is VC-4-4v = 600 Mbit/s.
For basic Ethernet features please refer to “Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
tributary board, IP-LAN 8 Tlan+, (LJB459)” (4-13). Ethernet LAN
tributary board, IP-LAN 8 Tlan+, (LJB459). 1000BASE-X specific
features are listed below.
Timing and
synchronization interface
circuit packs
•
Gigabit Ethernet mapping type for VLAN Trunking (single/dual
LAN port, single card)
•
Gigabit Ethernet mapping type for Gbe “lite” (single LAN port,
single card)
•
Ethernet mapping type for WAN-to-WAN grooming/aggregation
(single card)
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into VC-4-Xv (GFP
encapsulation)
•
Mapping of Ethernet MAC frames into (LO) VC-3-Xv (GFP/EoS
encapsulation)
•
LAN bridge mode on Gigabit Ethernet Hardware
•
LAN promiscuous mode on Gigabit Ethernet Hardware
•
Multi-port LAN Bridging mode with L2 VPN support for Gigabit
Ethernet
•
Layer 2 VPN Data Policing, for Gigabit Ethernet
•
Port-based VPN Customer Tagging, for Gigabit Ethernet
(Transparent aka double tagging)
•
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging (Gigabit Ethernet)
•
Gigabit Ethernet VLAN Trunking
•
VLAN Trunking: Fast Ethernet WAN to Giagbit Ethernet LAN
•
LCAS for Ethernet (1000BASE-X “lite”)
•
Performance Monitoring on LAN connections (Gigabit Ethernet
ports)
•
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
•
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Two types of timing and synchronization interface circuit packs are
available to provide extra external synchronization in- and outputs
with a specific format (besides the station clock in- and outputs on the
interconnection box). These boards must be mounted behind the
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Circuit packs
Description
power and timing circuit packs. The synchronous paddle boards’
internal (that is towards the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system) output
signal of 2048 kHz, is dual fed to both power and timing circuit pack
slots.
The following timing interface circuit pack is available for DS0 and
DS2 markets (Japan and USA):
•
E4/STM-0/STM-1 circuit
packs
TI-DS2DS0/1: Combined 64 + 8 kHz Sync Input + 6312 kHz
Sync Output pack
Contains hardware to transform the external 64 + 8 kHz
composite clock signal into the internal 2 MHz station clock
signal. This board also contains hardware to transform the
internal 2 MHz station clock signal into an external 6312 kHz
sinusoidal output clock signal. One input and one output channel
per pack.
The SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B circuit packs supports a maximum of
4 × STM-1 signals. By using the correct electrical or optical paddle
board and by correct provisioning of the unit, the card supports
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical interfaces.
For 140 Mbit/s interfaces electrical paddle boards should be mounted
behind the SPIA-1E4/4B card.
The SA-0/12 is needed to support a maximum of 12 × STM-0
signals. The STM-0 optical interfaces themselves are located on
separate optical Interface Circuit Packs (see above) and must be
mounted directly behind the SA-0/12 card.
AU-3 / TU-3 conversion
STM-1 tributary circuit packs, SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B, support
remapping of VC-3 from AU-3 to TU-3 and vice versa (AU-3/TU-3
conversion):
•
AU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ VC-4 ↔ AU-4
In this way, AU-3 structured signals will be translated into TU-3/AU-4
structured signals that can be handled by the cross-connect of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system.
STM-4 optical interface cards support the same AU-3/TU-3
conversion as described above for the STM-1 tributary board.
Conversion is selectable per “STM-1”.
The SA-0/12, supports the following conversion mode:
•
Cross-connect circuit pack
AU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ VC-4 ↔ AU-4
The CC-64/16 or CC-64/32(B) is connected with the Interface circuit
packs via the backplane bus. The higher order cross-connect size is
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Circuit packs
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equivalent to 64 × 64 STM-1s (VC-4s); the lower order cross-connect
size is up to 32 × 32 STM-1s (VC-4s)(CC-64/32). The lower order
part is also called time slot interchanger (TSI) because it can
interchange the location of TU-3s and TU-12s within the VC-4s.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can provide optional equipment
redundancy (1+1) for the cross-connect circuit pack.
The fixed cross-connect unit replaces the working cross-connect unit,
the protection cross-connect slot remains unassigned, as well as one of
the tributary slots. No equipment protection of tributary cards is
supported, nor of line cards or cross-connect units. Only the power
and timing unit can be protected. Network protection schemes like
MSP, MS-SPRING or SNCP are not supported either.
Power and timing circuit
packs
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be equipped with two power and
timing circuit packs (PT): one as a working generator and the other as
standby.
Two versions of PT are available:
•
PT-stnd: Standard version with approximately 4.6 ppm stability
•
PT-str3: Version with approximately 0.37 ppm stability for the
first 24hours of hold-over.
Timing modes available:
•
Free-running
•
Hold-over
•
Locked with reference to:
–
one of the external sync. inputs
–
one of the STM-N inputs
–
one of the 2 Mbit/s tributary inputs
The PT circuit packs also perform the necessary power filtering
functions to meet the ETSI requirements. To maintain high
availability, these circuit packs may be duplicated (however, the
system still works properly with only one PT inserted).
The actual DC/DC conversion is located on the circuit packs. The
power feeds remain duplicated between the PT and the circuit packs.
System controller circuit
pack
The System Controller (SC or the new SC2 in R4.0, Ruby-2) controls
and provisions all circuit packs, via a duplicated LAN bus. It also
controls the user panel (located at the front of the SC) and provides
external operations interfaces.
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Circuit packs
Description
The SC has a certain amount of alterable non-volatile memory for
storage of programs, configuration and other semi-permanent data for
the DPS (on-board the SC) and all Function Controllers (FCs) in the
system; this is the local WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 database. After initial
power-up, the SC assumes default parameters for some configurable
items (e.g. CIT bit rate). Volatile memory is needed to store temporary
data structures. It is possible to download software from the
WaveStar ® ITM-SC to the SC to replace or add applications in the
local database.
During download the old software is stored in memory as a back up.
This means that after download, two complete software versions are
available on the SC.
The following external interfaces are provided by the SC:
•
Miscellaneous discretes (8 × Input, 4 × Output), via a
management system
•
Station alarm interfaces
•
Q-LAN 10BASE-2 interface (for network and network element
level management)
•
Q-LAN 10BASE-T interface (for network and network element
level management)
•
2 × F interface (rear and front access) (for local network element
management and maintenance)
•
4 × G.703 and 2 × V.11 interfaces (Data and/or engineering
order wire).
The Q-LAN address is derived from the dip-switch settings on the
SC.
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Description
Timing
and synchronization
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
power and timing
architecture
Figure 4-11 Power and timing architecture
from/to other PT
2
2 MHz
2 Mb/s
#1
6
Reference
Selection
SEL
Main
PLL
Driver
Reference
Selection
SEL
Main
PLL
2 MHz
2 Mb/s
#2
2
The figure above depicts the architecture of a power and timing
circuit pack (PT) of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 System, a maximum
of two of which can be present in a system. A 1+1 equipment
protection scheme can be set up between the two PTs.
Eight timing reference inputs (2 + 6) are shown. These inputs have
the following function:
•
2 × External timing inputs (external station clock): 75 or 120 Ω
(selected by different wiring of the cable connectors), 2 Mbit/s or
2 MHz.
•
6 × internal timing reference inputs divided as follows:
–
4 × tributary (2 Mbit/s or STM-1 tribs)
–
2 × line
Note: an MSP pair counts as a SINGLE timing reference!
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Timing and synchronization
Description
Eight timing reference outputs (2 + 6) are shown. These outputs have
the following function:
•
2 × External timing outputs (external station clock): 75 or 120 Ω
(selected by different cabling), 2 Mbit/s or 2 MHz.
•
6 × internal timing reference outputs divided as follows:
–
4 × tributary (2 Mbit/s or STM-1 tribs)
–
2 × line.
Note: by software selection the user may choose to forward the
external timing output signal to the first, the second or both timing
output signal connectors.
Two PLLs (phase lock loops), or station equipment clocks (SECs), are
shown: one is the main PLL; the central clock driving six timing
output ports, and the other the External PLL, driving two timing
output ports.
The signal driving the individual PLLs can be selected as follows:
•
for the MAIN PLL: out of either the sync. signal provided by the
other (protect) PT-circuit pack or out of the reference signal
selected by the reference selector shown to its left.
•
for the EXT. PLL: out of either the sync. signal provided by the
MAIN PLL or out of the reference signal selected by the
reference selector shown to its left.
Hence it is possible to select individual timing references for the
outgoing station clock signals and for the internal reference clock
signals. Reference selections are software selectable by the user.
Timing modes
As shown in Figure 4-12, “Timing modes (FR selected)” (4-41), the
system can be provisioned for the following synchronization
conditions / modes:
•
add/drop or Terminal application:
–
Free-running from an internal oscillator (FR)
–
Internal Timing from an incoming line or tributary signal
(Lower Order)
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Timing and synchronization
Description
–
External Timing, timed from an external 2 MHz or 2 Mbit/s
clock signal (Lower Order)
–
Hold-over mode (HO).
Figure 4-12 Timing modes (FR selected)
LO
FR
PLL
HO
Hold-over
memory
Timing mode selection
The user can select the system to function in any one of the three
sync. modes specified above. This selection can be done by software
(user input) or be fully automatically. If set to automatic, the system
will automatically switch to hold-over mode if the input timing
reference signal fails.
Free-running operation (FR)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is designed to operate without any
external synchronization reference in the free-running mode. In the
free-running mode (switch set to FR in figure 4-10), the PT derives
timing from an internal station equipment clock (SEC) oscillator. The
internal SEC oscillator’s long-term accuracy is higher than 4.6 ppm.
The PT generates and distributes the timing signals to the interface
circuit packs.
Locked mode (LO)
•
Locked-to-line or tributary operation (with hold-over).
In the locked-to-line or tributary timing mode (switch set to LO
in Figure 4-12, “Timing modes (FR selected)” (4-41)), the system
derives timing from the incoming line or tributary signals. In
turn, the PT generates timing signals and distributes them to the
transmission circuit packs. The signal references are continuously
monitored for error-free operation. If the working line or tributary
reference in a protected system becomes corrupted, the PT circuit
selects the protection line / tributary reference without causing
service degradation. If both references fail, the PLL circuit holds
the on-board oscillator frequency at the last good reference
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Timing and synchronization
Description
sample while the references are repaired, (hold-over mode:
switch set to HO in figure 4-10 automatically!). This mechanism
is provided so that operation with or without an external clock
can be easily accommodated. In both timing modes, the PT can
also provide two synchronization outputs to other central office
equipment.
•
Locked to External timing reference Operation (with hold-over)
In the external timing mode (switch set to LO in Figure 4-12,
“Timing modes (FR selected)” (4-41)), each PT circuit pack
accepts a 2 MHz or 2 Mbit/s synchronization reference signal
from a 4.6 ppm or better station clock. These references
synchronize the local terminal. Within the PT circuit pack, a
highly stable PLL circuit removes any transient impairments from
the 2 MHz or 2 Mbit/s reference for improved jitter
performance. If the external reference fails, the PLL circuit on
the PT circuit pack holds the on-board oscillator frequency at the
last reference sample while the external clock signal is repaired
(hold-over mode: switch set to HO in Figure 4-12, “Timing
modes (FR selected)” (4-41) automatically!).
Hold-over mode (HO)
As described above, the system provides a so-called hold-over mode
to ensure that the timing of the system is as accurate as possible when
all timing references fail. It therefore memorizes the most recently
used timing frequency in a hold-over memory on-board the PT.
Two versions of PT circuit packs are available with the only
difference of hold-over accuracy:
Back-up timing
•
PT-stnd: the standard PT circuit pack providing a clock to the
system with 4.6 ppm hold-over accuracy.
•
PT-str-3: the PT circuit pack providing a clock signal to the
system with 0.37 ppm hold-over accuracy during at least the first
24 hours of hold-over.
To keep the software on all circuit packs alive when there is no
synchronization signal from one or both PTs, the System Controller
(SC) distributes a back-up timing signal. This timing allows for the
execution of circuit pack tests and equipment loop-backs. The SC
timing signal is distributed to all slots of the system, except for the
PT slots. The accuracy of the back-up timing signal is approximately
50 ppm. When the back-up clock is selected, the circuit packs switch
all transmission ports to SQUELCH mode.
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Clock / synchronous
distribution on circuit
packs
Description
Figure 4-13 Timing at circuit pack level of the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1
Pulse
Detector
155 MHz
:N
155 MHz
from
working PT
from
protecting PT
N kHz
Select
Mux
PLL
Freq.
Divider
from SC
back-up clock
N MHz
The figure above gives an overview of timing at circuit-pack level.
A selection is made between one of the following three timing
sources:
1.
Reference signal selected by the working PT circuit pack
2.
Reference signal selected by the protecting PT circuit pack
3.
Back-up clock signal derived from the SC.
All PT signals are checked for availability and if a signal fails then
message “Timing Fail” (including appropriate source that’s missing) is
sent to the on-board function controller (FC). Then the FC
immediately initiates the command to switch to the system’s back-up
timing and all transmission ports are switched off (squelch mode).
Switching between the input references is non-revertive.
A PLL on the circuit pack itself locks to the selected timing source
and supplies the circuit pack with all necessary frequencies.
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Redundancy
and protection
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Equipment protection
(redundancy)
To enhance the over-all reliability of the system, equipment
redundancy can be applied. The FIT rate numbers are specified for
each unit in section 10 of this manual.
The core of the system functionality, the cross-connect (CC) circuit
pack, can be duplicated if so required. It avoids a single point of
failure for traffic between any two port units. A switch-over between
cross-connect units, causes a hit in the traffic of at most 50 ms.
In addition, the power and timing (PT) circuit pack can be optionally
duplicated. This will provide the necessary power and timing
redundancy. If the timing of a single PT circuit pack fails, the back-up
PT unit takes over. A switchover of power or timing functions
between both PT units, does not affect the traffic through the system.
Although the PT unit can be used in unprotected mode, it is strongly
advised to use the PT circuit pack in redundant mode.
To complete equipment redundancy, all electrical tributary interface
circuit packs can be provided with equipment protection as well:
•
1.5, 2 Mbit/s Interface circuit packs can be 1:n (n = max. 8)
equipment protected
•
140 Mbit/s and STM-1e circuit packs can be 1:n (n = max. 4)
protected
•
34/45 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s circuit packs will be 1+1 equipment
protected.
In the event of failure in any circuit of an interface circuit pack, all
traffic carried by this pack is switched to the protecting circuit pack.
Network protection
Protection against failures at the network level, e.g. cable breaks or
failures in other equipment in the network, requires network level
protection schemes. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system supports the
following network level protection schemes:
1.
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
2.
Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (MS-SPRing)
3.
Sub-network connection protection (SNCP)
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In addition a number of features are supported to optimize the
network protection for many applications:
1.
Access of protection bandwidth in MS-SPRing
2.
Tailoring of the MS-SPRing bandwidth (selective MS-SPRing)
3.
Dual Node Interworking with drop & continue
At the network level these features allow to make the most efficient
use of the available bandwidth, while still providing adequate
protection for a very large number of applications.
Multiplex Section Shared
Protection Ring
(MS-SPRing)
MS-SPRing is a shared protection mechanism, which means that the
protection bandwidth is shared by multiple connections. MS-SPRing
can operate in a ring network only and it operates at the VC-4 level.
The protection is applicable from the node where the VC-4 enters the
ring till the node where the VC-4 leaves the ring. The WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 supports 2 fiber MS-SPRing on its STM-16 aggregate
interfaces, so it supports 2 fiber MS-SPRing protected STM-16 rings.
The maximum number of nodes in the MS-SPRing can be 16, the
minimum can be 2. The MS-SPRing protocol uses an APS channel for
signalling, which is transmitted in K1/K2 bytes in the Multiplex
Section overhead, according to ITU-T Recommendation G.841. The
protocol provides protection within 50 ms.
In MS-SPRing protected rings it is useful to define (bi-directional)
channels. There are 16 such channels in an STM-16 MS-SPRing. A
channel can be thought of as the capacity of a single, bi-directional,
STM-1 going fully around the ring in a certain fixed position within
the STM-16 connections that make up the ring. Each channel can
transport one VC-4 payload in both directions at a time If a VC-4 is
added/dropped from the channel in a node, it can pick up a new VC-4
there and carry it further around the ring. These channels can be
numbered #1 through #16.
In the MS-SPRing the channels #1 through #8 are available for
protected VC-4 traffic. They are protected by the capacity provided by
channels #9 through #16, on a pair-by-pair basis, so channel #9
protects channel #1, #10 protects #2, etc. up to channel #16 protecting
#8. In the Sapphire and later releases, it is allowed to decide per
channel pair (1, 9), (2, 10) etc. whether or not it is part of the
MS-SPRing (selective MS SPRing or NUT/NPPA). An application for
this exclusion of a certain pair from MS-SPRing could be to avoid
double protection on an connection that is already VC-4 SNC
protected and thus save bandwidth.
To summarize, within an MS-SPRing the bandwidth can be split in
three parts: Worker capacity, protection capacity and un-protected
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capacity. Each channel pair can be anunprotected pair or a
worker/protection pair. In the latter case the lower channel number
represents the worker capacity and the higher channel number the
protection capacity.
The protection capacity can be accessed and used for transport of low
priority traffic (“extra traffic”), to utilize the bandwidth even better.
Under failure conditions this traffic will be lost (“pre-empted”).
At the network level, the efficiency of the MS-SPRing protection
mechanism is its most obvious advantage. The degree of bandwidth
saving over e.g. a VC-4 SNCP scheme depends on the traffic pattern.
The most dramatic improvement is in the case where the traffic is
mostly between adjacent ring nodes. On the other hand, if all traffic is
destined for a specific hub-node, there is no bandwidth advantage
compared to VC-4 SNCP. For uniform traffic patterns the result is
between these extremes.
1+1 Multiplex Section Protection (MSP)
1+1 Multiplex Section Protection is a relatively simple scheme to
protect an STM-N link between two adjacent SDH network elements
(excluding regenerators) by providing dedicated protection capacity.
The MSP protocol exists in different versions: G.841/Clause 7 (mostly
used internationally), G.841/Annex B (Japan) and SONET-style,
according to ANSI T1.105 and Telcordia GR-253-CORE (US,
Canada). To maximize the interworking and application possibilities,
the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports all these versions on various
STM-N interfaces.
The following parameters can be provisioned and commands can be
issued for each 1+1 MSP protection process:
•
Operation: Revertive or non-revertive. Revertive operation means
that after repair of a failure the traffic is switched back to the
“worker” capacity. Non-revertive operation means that the traffic
will not be switched back to the “worker” capacity.
•
Wait-to-Restore time. The time that should elapse before a switch
back to “worker” is initiated after repair of a failure. The timer
can be provisioned between 0 and 60 minutes in 1 minute
increments. The default is 5 minutes. Only available with
revertive operation.
•
Control: Bi-directional or Uni-directional control. Uni-directional
control means that each receive end decides separately which
traffic stream is active. Bi-directional control means that both
ends switch in conjunction. In uni-directional schemes the traffic
in one direction can be selected from the “worker” and in the
other direction from the “protection” capacity.
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•
Force switch command. By issuing a force switch the user forces
the traffic to either “worker” (force to worker) or to “protection”
(force to protection).
•
Manual switch command. By issuing a manual switch the user
requests the traffic to either “worker” (manual to worker) or to
“protection” (manual to protection) side. The request is only
honored if the designated capacity is not affected by “Signal
Fail” or “Signal Degrade” defects.
•
Lockout of Protection command. By issuing a Lockout of
Protection command all access to the protection side is denied.
•
Clear command. Clears all pending requests.
The following interfaces support 1+1 MSP
•
STM-0 tributary interfaces support 1+1 MSP according to the
G.841/Annex B protocol. This protocol version supports only
non-revertive operation with bi-directional control.
•
STM-1 and STM-4 optical tributary interfaces support 1+1 MSP
all three types of MSP protocol:
•
–
According to G.841/Annex B supporting only non-revertive
operation with bi-directional control.
–
According to G.841/Clause 7 supporting both revertive and
non-revertive operation and both uni-directional and
bi-directional control.
–
According to ANSI T1.105 and Telcordia GR-253-CORE
supporting only non-revertive operation with uni-directional
control.
STM-16 aggregate interfaces support 1+1 MSP according to
G.841/Clause 7, with both revertive and non-revertive operation
and both uni-directional and bi-directional control.
Sub-network Connection Protection (SNCP)
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports Sub-Network Connection (SNC)
protection, also known as path protection, according to ITU-T
Recommendation G.841/Clause 8. It is available at the VC-12, VC-3
and VC-4 level. SNC protection is a simple 1+1 protection scheme
which only supports uni-directional operation. The big advantage over
the MS-SPRing and MSP schemes is that the protection can be
applied over the whole VC-n path from source to sink termination
point, but also on one or multiple parts of the end-to-end path. In this
way SNC protection is very flexible.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports VC-4 SNC protection between
any pair of VC-4 in the Higher-Order matrix, located on the
cross-connect unit. Protection can be set up between to VC-4s from
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tributary interfaces or between two VC-4s from aggregate interfaces
or between a VC-4 from a tributary interface and a VC-4 from an
aggregate interface. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports VC-3 and
VC-12 SNC protection between any pair of VC-3s or VC-12s,
irrespective of their source/destination in the Lower-Order matrix, also
located on the cross-connect unit. The protection switch time for SNC
protection is 50 ms.
The SNC protection scheme supported in the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is
of the non-intrusively monitored type or SNC/N. This variety not only
protects against defects in the server layer (as Inherently Monitored
SNC or SNC/I does) but in addition also against defects in the VC-n
layer itself. So SNC/N protected VC-4s are protected against AIS or
LOP at the AU-4 level (server layer defects) and against
misconnections (trace identifier mismatch or VC-4 dTIM) or
disconnections (unequipped signal or VC-4 dUNEQ) or signal
degradations (VC-4 dDEG) in the VC-4 itself. Likewise, SNC/N
protected VC-3s and VC-12s are protected against TU3/12-AIS and
TU3/12-LOP (server layer defects) and VC-3/12 dTIM, dUNEQ and
dDEG.
Optionally for each SNC process, the trace identifier mismatch
detection can be disabled. This feature allows interworking with
equipment that transmits an unknown trace identifier or which uses a
different format for it. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the 15
byte API plus 1 byte CRC-7 format for its Trail Trace Identifiers
(TTIs).
Within the SNC protection mechanism it is possible to protect the
complete end-to-end VC-n connection, but also to protect one or more
part of it. When the end-to-end connection is split in multiple parts
(thus truly creating sub-network connections), each part can be
individually protected by an SNCP scheme. The WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 supports the cascading of two such SNCP sections within one
network element. This can be applied e.g. in cases where the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 interconnects between a ring over its tributaries
and another ring over its aggregates. The protection mechanism in
both rings can be two cascaded SNCP schemes, thus separating the
protection in both rings. This helps in fault localization, because
failures in a ring lead to protection switches in that same ring.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports “hold-off” timers for SNC
protection. For each SNC/N process the user can provision a timer
between 0 and 10 seconds in 0.1 second increments, which defines
how much time should elapse before a SNC switch is initiated. This
mechanism can be applied if several protection schemes are nested.
E.g. a VC-12 SNCP scheme is used on top of an MS-SPRing.
Normally, the MS-SPRing reacts within 50 ms. By provisioning a 100
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ms hold-off time on the VC-12 SNC protection, the MS-SPRing is
given the opportunity to react to a failure first. This avoids multiple
switches.
Dual Node Interworking with drop & continue
The MS-SPRing protection mechanism offers very efficient protection
but since the protection span is limited to a single ring network, there
is need for a mechanism to couple ring networks in a way that avoids
single points of failure, to allow longer end-to-end protected paths.
This mechanism is called Dual Node Interworking with Drop &
Continue.
The advantages of using this mechanism are:
•
Protected interconnection between MS-SPRing rings possible,
thus allowing longer end-to-end protected spans, without single
point of failure on each ring interconnect.
•
Possibility to interconnect the MS-SPRing scheme to the SNCP
scheme, without introducing a single point of failure. This allows
the user the flexibility to use the protection scheme of choice in
each network part, while avoiding double protection.
•
Independence of the protection mechanisms in different network
parts, which results in protection switches relatively close to the
failure, so in principle easier to fault-locate.
•
A higher availability, compared to end-to-end SNCP protection
schemes. Especially on very long connections, more protection
against multiple failure is provided (as long as there is at most
one failure per protected sub-network).
Dual Node Interworking with Drop and Continue is a mechanism
described in ITU-T Recommendation G.842, and it is realized by
connecting the two networks in question in two different locations in
such a way that if one location fails completely, the traffic can still
reach the other network via the second interconnection.
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The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports two different DNI configurations:
1.
Between two MS-SPRing rings. The ring interconnection consists
in this case of four network elements. Two network elements in
each ring which are pair wise connected (see Figure 4-14, “DNI
between two MS-SPRing rings” (4-51))
2.
Between an STM-16 MS-SPRing ring and a LO-SNC protected
subnetwork. In this case the interconnect can be built with just
two nodes, which are connected to the MS-SPRing via the
aggregate interfaces and to the SNC protected network via the
tributary interfaces (see Figure 4-14, “DNI between two
MS-SPRing rings” (4-51) to Figure 4-17, “DNI with drop &
continue between MS-SPRing and LO-SNCP, two node
configuration. Detailed view of interconnecting nodes” (4-52)).
The MS-SPRing part of the DNI scheme allows for each individual
VC-4, the assignment of primary and secondary “add” and “drop”
nodes. Dropped traffic is broadcasted to both primary and secondary
outputs (“drop & continue”), while a selector in the primary node
selects whether the added traffic from the primary of from the
secondary node is forwarded onto the MS-SPRing. This selector is
usually called a “service selector” is non-revertive and operates
according to the VC-4 SNC/N criteria.
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The following features are supported:
•
The traffic between the primary and secondary node in the
MS-SPRing can be transported over “worker” capacity or over
“protection” capacity, called “continue over worker” and
“continue over protection” respectively. The latter option saves
bandwidth but leads to slightly lower availability and precludes
“extra traffic” to make use of that same capacity.
•
Both VC-4 and VC-4-4c payloads can be handled.
•
Primary and Secondary nodes can be selected for each VC-4
transported over the MS-SPRing, both at the entry and at the exit
side. These nodes need not be adjacent.
Figure 4-14 DNI between two MS-SPRing rings
Figure 4-15 DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and
LO-SNCP, two node configuration.Traffic from
MS-SPRing to LO-SNCP
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Figure 4-16 DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and
LO-SNCP, two node configuration.Traffic from
LO-SNCP to MS-SPRing
Figure 4-17 DNI with drop & continue between MS-SPRing and
LO-SNCP, two node configuration. Detailed view of
interconnecting nodes
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5
Operations, administration,
maintenance, and provisioning
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter defines the “maintenance philosophy” outlining the
various features available for monitoring and maintaining the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
Contents
Operations
5-2
Administration
5-9
Maintenance
5-14
Provisioning
5-17
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Operations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
Element management and network management aspects of WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 are based on the SDH concepts as laid down in ITU-T
recommendations, for instance G.784.
Local operations facilities are based on long-term experience and
several commonly applied operations and alarms procedures.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is additionally provided with advanced
diagnostic features which can be used for equipment performance
checks and detailed fault location.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 maintenance procedures are built on two
levels of system information and control. The first maintenance tier is
provided by the:
•
User panel
•
Circuit pack faceplate LEDs
•
Operations interfaces.
These features enable maintenance tasks (that is, circuit pack
replacement) to be performed without an ITM-CIT (Craft Interface
Terminal) or external test equipment. The second maintenance tier
uses the ITM-CIT to retrieve detailed reports about alarms and status,
and system configuration for local terminals.
User panel
The user panel of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is integrated in the
faceplate of the System Controller (SC) circuit pack, as shown in
Figure 5-1, “WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 user panel: SC faceplate” (5-3).
Lightguides are used to make the alarm and status indicators on the
SC visible with the front door of the subrack closed. The door must
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be opened to operate the buttons or make connection to the ITM-CIT
connector. The user panel provides system-level information.
Figure 5-1 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 user panel: SC faceplate
User panel LEDs and
connector
The user panel LEDs show the following system information:
•
FAIL
A red FAIL LED is lit when at least one prompt or deferred
maintenance alarm exists.
•
POWER
A green POWER LED indicates that voltage is present on at least
one of the –48V secondary power-distribution feeds inside the
system.
•
The active alarm level is shown by LEDs for
–
PROMPT alarms
A red PROMPT LED indicates a transmission affecting
malfunction.
–
DEFERRED alarms
A red DEFERRED LED indicates a no transmission
affecting malfunction
–
INFO alarms
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A yellow INFO LED indicates a failure that is not located
within the terminal.
If only the INFO indicator is lit, no immediate maintenance
action is required.
The alarm severities (CRITICAL, PROMPT, DEFERRED and
INFO) of the fault messages, are user provisionable.
•
ABNORMAL
A yellow ABNORMAL LED indicates a the existence of
abnormal conditions initiated in the Network Element, for
example: a protection lock out, forced switch, manual switch,
protection line in use, alarms disconnected, installation self-test
failed.
•
SUPPRESS
A yellow SUPPRESS LED indicates that the SUPPRESS key has
been activated while an active office alarm condition exists.
•
DISCONNECT
A yellow DISC LED indicates that the DISC(onnect) key has
been activated, which means that office alarms are disconnected.
•
USE CIT
A yellow USE ITM-CIT LED indicates when the ITM-CIT must
be used to obtain more detailed information about system status.
This LED is part of the ITM-CIT connector.
User panel controls and connector
Two manual controls (switches) and one connector are mounted on
the SC faceplate. The following functions can be distinguished:
•
SUPPRESS SWITCH
An alarm that is shown on the user panel can be suppressed by
pressing the SUPPRESS SWITCH push button, consequently the
SUPPRESS LED lights up. If another alarm of the same class
occurs, it can now be noticed.
•
DISC SWITCH
The DISC SWITCH push button inhibits the activation of office
alarms when pressed, consequently the DISC LED lights up.
•
ITM-CIT connector
The ITM-CIT connector is a RJ-45 connector. It is also called the
F-interface, and interfaces with the local element management
system.
Circuit pack faceplate LEDs
To supplement the user panel’s system-level view, each circuit pack
has a red FAIL LED on its faceplate (at the top of the faceplate).
During normal fault-free operation, the LED is not lit. A continuously
lit FAIL LED means the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 has isolated a failure
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to this circuit pack or when the circuit pack has been inserted in a slot
which cannot support or is not configured to support this type of
pack.
A 1 Hz flashing FAIL LED shows the following:
•
A flashing FAIL LED on a interface circuit pack indicates that an
incoming signal to that circuit pack has failed
•
A flashing FAIL RED LED on a Power and Timing (PT) circuit
pack indicates an external timing reference failure.
•
A flashing FAIL LED on the SC indicates loss of communication
with the Navis ® Optical Management System.
It is user provisionable if FAIL LEDs flash or are continuously off in
the case of an alarm as indicated above.
The PT circuit pack has a second, green, LED. This LED lights up
when the external supply voltage is present.
Note: paddle boards have no indicators.
Operations interfaces
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system supports office (station) alarms,
user-settable miscellaneous discretes and a message-based operations
system interface.
Office (station) alarm interface
The office-alarms interface is a set of discrete relays (floating
contacts) that control office audible and visible alarms. The relays are
located on the system controller (SC) circuit pack. The relays are
activated when a PROMPT or DEFERRED Maintenance Alarm
situation exists in the system to activate: End-Of-Suite, Bay-top,
Station alarms and Miscellaneous maintenance information. They are
made available via a connector on the interconnection box (ICB); both
disconnectable and non-disconnectable outputs are available. The
miscellaneous conditions consist of suppressed alarms present,
disconnect function activated and main controller removed.
Miscellaneous discretes
The miscellaneous discrete interface allows an operations system to
control and monitor equipment co-located with the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 system through a series of input (MDIs) and output (MDOs)
contact closures. Eight miscellaneous discrete inputs can monitor such
conditions as open doors, high temperature or high humidity, and four
miscellaneous discrete control outputs can control equipment such as
fans and generators. The statuses of the miscellaneous discrete
environmental inputs are reported to the WaveStar ® ITM-SC network
element management system. It is possible to activate these
miscellaneous discrete control outputs from the WaveStar ® ITM-SC
network element management system when the system reports an
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alarm condition. Miscellaneous discretes are provided to the user
through a connector at the interconnection box.
MDI/MDO management
It is possible for the user to control all MDOs of all WaveStar ® ADM
16/1s under a single WaveStar ® ITM-SC by means of a scripting
facility. These scripts can be edited, activated and de-activated during
runtime. The scripts are sufficiently flexible to allow activation or
de-activation of certain MDOs based on combinations of certain
alarms or MDI statuses on those network elements. Strings can be
assigned to MDOs and their status is visible to the user.
Network management interfaces
•
Q-LAN interfaces
The Q-LAN interfaces enable network-oriented communication
between the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 and the WaveStar ® ITM-SC
and Navis ® Optical NMS. This is the standardized interface to
Navis ® Optical Management System. Two physical interfaces for
Q-LAN are available and available on the interconnection box:
–
10 Base-T: Twisted Pair Ethernet, (10 Mbit/s)
–
10 Base-2: Thin Ethernet or Cheapernet, (10 Mbit/s).
It is not possible to use both interfaces simultaneously.
•
CIT-F (Craft Interface Terminal) interfaces
Three logical connection points for a CIT are available: 3
× CIT-F. Three connection points for local use are available: one
on the User Panel (faceplate SC), which can be used by a crafts
person working in front of the equipment. The second CIT-F
interface is available on the system’s interconnection box and can
be used by a crafts person working with the EMC boundary
closed. The last one is present on the rear side of the system.
Electrical characteristics of both CIT ports comply with V.10.
Additional operational
features
Loop-backs
Within the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 loop-backs are possible at VC-n
level or AU-4 level. The VC-n level can be used for far-end /
near-end loop-backs and AU-4 for a loop-back within the higher order
cross-connect. The 2 Mbit/s, STM-0o, STM-1o and STM-4 have both
far-end and near-end loop-back possibilities. The STM-1e will be
loop-backed via the higher order cross-connect.
Far-end refers to looping back the signal coming from the
cross-connect back to the cross-connect via a tributary. Near-end
refers to directly looping back incoming signals as outgoing signals.
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Loop-backs are also allowed when the optical STM-N interfaces are
being provisioned as 1+1 MSP protected.
Note: Due to device problems on the units as listed below (and also
newer versions) the far-end loopback on STM-1 and STM-4o is not
working anymore when operated in SDH (AU-4) mode. In this case
traffic needs to be loop-backed via the cross-connect. When operated
in AU-3 conversion mode these far-end loopbacks are working fine. A
software change is available in order to work around the problems via
a VC loopback on the CC unit.
Unit type
Itemcode
Comcode
Remarks
SI-L4.2/1+6dB B
LJB405B
108681677
Not orderable anymore
SI-L4.2/1
LJB405C
108862509
SI-S4.1/1B
LJB416B
108442005
SPIA-1E4/4B
LJB431B
108681651
LJB431T
108988312
LJB439B
108884610
LJB439T
108988338
SIA-1/4B
User channels
The STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 section overhead and the
VC-3/VC-4 path overhead contain several bytes, for instance E and F
bytes, which can be used to provide 64 kbit/s operations channels.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides for a maximum of six transparent
64 kbit/s channels selected from the following overhead bytes:
•
E1 and E2 bytes: The use of which is mainly referred to as:
engineering order wire channels
•
F1 and F2 bytes: The use of which is mainly referred to as: user
channels
•
MS-NU and RS-NU bytes: The use of which is mainly referred
to as: National Use bytes.
The selected six overhead byte channels are fed via the System
Controller to the integrated interconnection box and are available via:
4 × G.703 co-directional interfaces and 2 × V.11 contra-directional
interfaces.
See Chapter 9, “Technical data” for more details on the overhead
bytes.
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Remote login/single ended operations/NSAP addresses
(programmable)
The interfaces for the CIT-F (F-interface) provide the facility to log
onto the local WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. The WaveStar ® ITM-SC can
perform these control and provisioning tasks remotely.
The NSAP address is programmable to enable compatibility with the
NSAP addresses of existing products like ISM, SLM, PHASE, etc.
This will allow DCC interworking with other kinds of equipment.
Data communications channel
This network operations capability uses the SDH section (MSOH and
RSOH) data communication channel (DCC) bytes. Management
interface dialogs and operations interface messages travel in these
DCC bytes on each STM-1 (optical and electrical) interface. Other
optical signals like STM-16, STM-4 and STM-0 are also supporting
the DCC channel.
Severity setting for alarms on each termination point instance
Since different clients pay for different Quality of Service (QoS), the
priority and time to repair can differ for different paths. By setting a
higher severity for the alarms on paths that require a high QoS, than
for the paths that require a low QoS, the promised QoS can be met
better. In the subsection Performance Monitoring the concept of
Quality of Service is explained in more detail.
Support of a multiplex section trace identifier (J0 byte)
The user can provide a multiplex section trace identifier on all STM-N
(N = 1, 4, 16) outputs of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 via the
WaveStar ® ITM-SC or ITM-CIT. In the receive direction an expected
value for this trace identifier can be provided. In case of a mismatch a
TIM (trace identifier mismatch) alarm is generated an consequent
actions are invoked. The TIM detection mechanism can be disabled
per interface.
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Administration
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Version recognition
The system provides automatic version recognition of all hardware
and software installed on the system. The system can report the type,
version and serial number of the circuit pack installed in each slot.
Each circuit pack identification code is stored on the circuit pack itself
and is accessible by the system controller.
User login security
The WaveStar ® ITM-SC network element management system
provides security protection against unauthorized access to the
network element functions (for example provisioning). This feature
controls access to the system on an individual user basis including:
Software upgrades
•
Login ID and password assignment
This requires the user to enter a valid Login ID and password to
access the system.
•
User authorization levels
Provides three levels of access on a per session basis:
–
Administrator
The Administrator is authorized to perform WaveStar ®
ITM-SC system control activities. This includes starting and
stopping management of the transmission network. Only this
user can administer other users of the WaveStar ® ITM-SC
application. In addition, backups can be created or restored
by this user.
–
Operator
Authorized for all retrieval and operate commands that are
not service affected and does not imply system configuration
changes.
–
Supervisor
Authorized for all retrieval, provisioning and operate
commands, as well service and not service affected
handling, with the exception of provisioning security data
and software downloads.
Upgrading and reconfiguring the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 to support
new services or to incorporate feature enhancements can easily be
implemented by downloading a new software generic via the
appropriate (F) Operations interface.
Normally, however, depending on the actual situation, downloading
and replacing software generics do not cause service interruption.
Performance monitoring
Performance monitoring can be used for, broadly speaking, two
applications. The first application is for maintenance applications, the
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second application is for “Quality of Service (QoS)” monitoring. The
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 performance monitoring features are based
upon ITU-T Recommendations G.784, G.826, G.827, G.829,
M.2101.1, M.2110 and M.2120. All definitions of maintenance
parameters are according to G.784 and G.826.
Maintenance applications
The maintenance applications are based on ITU-T Recommendations
M.2101.1, M.2110 and M.2120 and are used for “bringing into rervice
(BIS)” and other initial testing procedures and localization/monitoring
of under-performing parts of an end-to-end path. To support these
applications the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides for each performance
monitoring process, the current 15 minute interval and current 24 hour
interval counts of the BBE (background block errors), ES (errored
seconds), SES (severely errored seconds) and UAS (unavailable
seconds). In addition the recent history of these parameters remains
stored in the network element: the 16 most recent complete 15 minute
counts and the 1 most recent complete 24 hour count.
For all current interval counters, thresholds can be set that control the
forwarding of threshold report (TR) and reset threshold report (RTR)
information to the management system. A TR is generated at the
moment that the actual count in a current register crosses the “set”
threshold level for the first time since the last RTR. An RTR is
generated at the end of the first interval in which the actual count
remains below the “clear” threshold. So the TRs and RTRs are
generated alternatingly. In the period between a TR and an RTR the
monitored part of the path is considered degraded, while the period
between a RTR and a TR it is considered normal. “set” and “clear”
thresholds can be assigned by the user via the ITM-CIT or the
WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
In addition to the parameters above, also the 6 most recent UAPs
(unavailable periods) are logged in the system. Each UAP is
represented by two timestamps. The first indicates the time of entering
“unavailable time” and the second indicates the subsequent entering of
“available time”.
For maintenance applications the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the
counting, threshold monitoring and logging of all the parameters
mentioned above for the incoming traffic direction (or “uni-directional
near-end” performance monitoring). Possible monitoring points are
VC-12, VC-3 and VC-4 trail terminations points (TTPs) as well as on
MS-0, MS-1, MS-4, MS-16 and RS-16 termination points as well as
VC-4 and VC-4-4c transit points or connection termination points
(CTPs). In R4.1 also VC-12 and VC-3 CTPs is supported. Note that
the uni-directional near-end performance monitoring provides the
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performance of the incoming signal between the signal trail source
and the monitoring point.
The BBE, ES, SES, UAS and UAT parameters are derived from the
errors in the incoming signal, based on the B1, B2, B3 or V5 (bit 1,
2) parity information which is part of the RSOH, MSOH or VC-POH.
Periods of unavailable time are, additionally, based on local defacts or
defects in the incoming signal. For the duration of a period of
unavailable time the BBE, ES and SES counters are inhibited.
Quality of Service application
The Quality of Service (QoS) applications are based on ITU-T
Recommendations G.826 and G.827. In contrast with the maintenance
application, the QoS application requires a performance assessment of
the bi-directional path over longer periods.
To support the QoS application in the network element, the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides the logging of the current and most
recent 24 hour periods of the UAP, UAP-count (number of
unavailable periods) and UAS for the bi-directional connection,
whereby the bi-directional connection is considered unavailable as
soon as one of the direction is unavailable. In addition, for each
monitoring point the BBE, ES and SES counts are reported for both
directions individually. So there are nine parameters altogether per
bi-directional monitoring point. Note that all six BBE, ES and SES
counters are inhibited as soon as the bi-directional connection is
unavailable. For this reason the bi-directional counts may differ from
the uni-directional counts, even if they are concerning the same path
and the same monitoring interval.
Bi-directional performance monitoring comes in two flavours: In
“end-points” or TTPs or in “mid-points” or CTPs. The following
monitoring points in the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 support bi-directional
PM: VC-12, VC-3 and VC-4 TTPs, VC-4 and VC-4-4c CTPs and in
R4.1 also VC-12 and VC-3 CTPs.
Bi-directional performance reports in end-points are based on the
near-end and far-end (REI, RDI) information received on the
incoming signal. Bi-directional performance reports in midpoints are
based on the far-end information contained in the incoming signal in
both directions of transmission.
Number of Performance Monitors
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can support 250 monitoring points
simultaneously. The new SC2 system controller can even support 600
monitoring points simultaneously with Ruby Release and up to 1200
monitoring points with the Pearl Release. These can be randomly
selected from all the possible TTPs and CTPs indicated above,
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counting the “uni-directional near-end” and “bi-directional”
applications as different. Once a performance monitoring point is
activated the full set of performance parameters is supported.
Activating or de-activating a performance monitoring process can be
performed from the ITM-CIT or WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
Note: On WaveStar ® ADM 16/1, 600 or 1200 monitoring points can
only be used in combination with Ruby controller hardware
(LJB457B) and Ruby Cross-connect-64/32 (LJB434).
Performance monitoring for LAN ports
On the VC-3/VC-12 termination points that are connected to a WAN
port, the “normal” performance monitoring can be activated. The same
counters that apply for VC-3/VC-12TPs on any other port also apply
to the VC-3/VC-12 TP’s on a WAN port.
Apart from this standard SDH PM, a limited amount of counters that
are dedicated to LAN/WAN ports are defined. Activation of these
counters can be established by setting the LAN port mode to
monitored, selecting a LAN port or WAN port as active PM point,
and setting the PM point type to LAN or WAN.
The supported dedicated parameters are:
•
CbS (total number of bytes sent)
•
CbR (total number of bytes received)
•
pDe (packets in error dropped)
Note that CbS and CbR are rather traffic monitoring counters than
performance monitoring counters, as they give insight in the traffic
load in all places in the network. pDe is a real performance
monitoring counter as it gives an indication about the performance of
the network. Only unidirectional PM is supported for these
parameters. See Figure 5-2, “Performance monitoring counters” (5-13)
for the location of the measurements. Note that because of the
difference in units, bytes versus packets, the counters cannot be
correlated with each other. Also the counter for dropped packets
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considers only packets dropped due to errors, and does not include
packets dropped due to congestion.
Figure 5-2 Performance monitoring counters
Performance Monitoring on LAN connections (Gigabit Ethernet
ports)
It is possible to monitor byte and packet related performance
parameters on any external Ethernet port and any internal port linked
with VC-3/4-Xv channels. The following counters are supported for
each port:
•
Outgoing number of bytes
•
Incoming number of bytes
•
Number of incoming packets dropped
Accumulation of counts in 15 min and 24 hour bins can be selected
per port. Recent bins are stored: 16 recent 15 min bins and 1 recent
24 hours bin. Thresholding (TR/RTR) on counts of dropped incoming
packets can be enabled and configured per port.
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Maintenance
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Maintenance signaling
The system maintenance signals notify downstream equipment that a
failure has been detected and alarmed by some upstream equipment,
and notify upstream equipment to initiate trunk conditioning due to a
failure detected downstream.
These alarm signals include alarm indication signals (AIS), far end
receive failure (FERF) signals, and unequipped signals (UNEQ).
AIS detection on 2 Mbit/s
ports for asynchronous
mapping
It is possible to monitor the CRC-4, E-bit and A-bit information in
TS0 of any 2 Mbit/s in both directions for performance monitoring
purposes for G.704 structured 2 Mbit/s tributaries.
Alarms and status reports
The system provides a report that lists all active alarm and status
conditions. This report is made available to the Navis ® Optical
Management System on demand. The identity of the condition is
included in the report along with a time stamp indicating when the
condition was detected. There is an option to display specified subsets
of alarm conditions.
Element management and
remote operations
interfaces
Before it can begin providing services, the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
requires a large amount of provisioning data.
This data will be loaded upon installation in non-volatile memories
but needs a reliable backup to support repair and maintenance
procedures. It is therefore assumed that the equipment is connected to
a back-up database either via a local port or via the embedded
operations channels.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be connected to a co-located
WaveStar ® ITM-SC Management System via the Q-LAN. At station
level and besides local or remote Navis ® Optical Management System
facilities, a craft interface terminal (ITM-CIT) can be used to carry
out local management functions.
This application is often referred to as “Centralized Alarming and
Remote Login”
Fault detection, isolation
and reporting
When a fault is detected, the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 employs
automatic diagnostic to isolate the failed circuit pack or signal.
Failures are reported to local maintenance personnel and operations
systems so that repair decisions can be made. If desired, operations
system personnel and local maintenance personnel can use the
ITM-CIT to gain more detailed information on the fault condition.
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A maintenance history report containing past alarms, status, protection
switching, and craft or management events is provided, and made
available to the Navis ® Optical Management System on demand. This
summary contains time stamp indicating when each condition was
detected and cleared, or when a command was entered.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system also automatically and
autonomously reports all detected alarm and status conditions through
the office alarm relays, user panel, equipment LEDs, and message
based operations systems.
Reports
Active alarms and status
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides a report showing all the active
alarm and status conditions. The local alarms and status report are
displayed automatically on the local ITM-CIT immediately after log in
or directly on the network element management system. The report
shows the following alarm levels:
•
PROMPT
•
DEFERRED
•
INFO
•
NO REPORT.
The source address description of the alarm condition (for example
controller failure, high-speed signal failure) is included in the report
along with the date and time detected. The report also shows whether
the alarm condition affects operations. The option to display specified
subsets of alarms conditions by severity is also provided.
Reporting of analog parameters
Upon user request, the WaveStar ® ITM-SC and ITM-CIT can report
the values of the laser bias current and optical transmitted power
(derived from backface current) of any STM-16 unit in the system. In
addition, the value of the optical received power is reported, provided
the STM-16 port unit in question actually supports this parameter in
its hardware.
State
An on-demand report displays the equipment and the equipment
status.
Equipment report contains:
•
equipment
•
location
•
circuit pack type
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•
version
•
slot status, (the slot status can be auto or equipped).
Equipment status contains:
•
equipment
•
location
•
circuit pack type
•
port status (if applicable)
•
service status (if applicable).
Version/equipment List
The version/equipment list report is an on-demand report that lists the
circuit packs version and the software generic (if applicable). This
report also lists all of the circuit packs that are present.
Synchronization report
The synchronization report is an on-demand report that lists the status
of the system synchronization. This report lists all the clock
parameters that can be interrogated.
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Provisioning
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The system supports many system applications by its provisioning
features.
Provisioning parameters are set by software control. These parameters
vary from one installation to the next, and a wide range of options or
in-service changes can be provisioned locally or remotely with the aid
of an ITM-CIT or WaveStar ® ITM-SC.
Default provisioning
Automatic provisioning on
replacement
Installation provisioning is minimized with carefully chosen default
values/parameters defined and maintained in the System Controller,
and a simple command can be given to restore all default values. All
provisioning data is stored in non-volatile memory to prevent data loss
during power failures.
Replacement of a faulty circuit pack is simplified by the automatic
provisioning of the original values. The system controller maintains a
provisioning map of the entire subrack so when a transmission or
synchronization circuit pack is replaced, the system controller
automatically downloads values to the new circuit pack and initiates
testing of the new circuit pack. If the system controller itself is
replaced, provisioning data from a back-up database mounted in the
WaveStar ® ITM-SC, is automatically downloaded to the new System
Controller’s non-volatile memory assumed it is empty.
If the controller database is not empty but valid, the choice is offered
to download or upload.
Provisioning reports
The provisioning report, which is made available to the WaveStar ®
ITM-SC on demand, contains the current values of all electronically
provisionable parameters.
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6
Cross-product interworking
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter contains a brief description of the Lucent Technologies
SDH systems that interwork with the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 in
today’s telecommunications networks. The application of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is briefly described in Chapter 3,
“Applications”.
For more detailed information, reference is made to the Application
and Planning Guide of the system concerned.
Contents
Lucent Technologies SDH product family
6-2
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Cross-product interworking
Lucent
Technologies SDH product family
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview
Lucent Technologies offers the industryís widest range of high-quality
transport systems and related services designed to provide total
network solutions. Included in this offering is the optical
networkingproduct family. The optical networking product family
offers telecommunications service providers advanced services and
revenue-generating capabilities.
Family members
•
LambdaUnite® MultiService Switch (MSS)
•
LambdaXtreme™ Transport
•
Metropolis ® ADM (Universal shelf)
•
Metropolis ® AM/AMS
•
Metropolis ® DMX Access Multiplexer
•
Metropolis ® DMXpress Access Multiplexer
•
Metropolis ® Enhanced Optical Networking (EON)
•
Navis ® Optical Capacity Analyzer (CA)
•
Navis ® Optical Customer Service Manager (CSM)
•
Navis ® Optical Management System (OMS)
•
Navis ® Optical Fault Manager
•
Navis ® Optical Integrated Network Controller (INC)
•
Navis ® Optical Network Management System (NMS)
•
Navis ® Optical Performance Analyzer (PA)
•
Navis ® Optical Provisioning Manager (PM)
•
OptiGate™ OC-192 Transponder
•
OptiStar™ Edge Switch
•
OptiStar™ IP Encryption Gateway (IPEG)
•
OptiStar™ MediaServe
•
OptiStar™ Network Adapters
•
Radio OEM
•
Synchronization OEM
•
TransLAN ® Ethernet SDH Transport Solution
•
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
•
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Compact
•
WaveStar ® ADM 4/1
•
WaveStar ® BandWidth Manager
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Family features
•
WaveStar ® DACS 4/4/1
•
WaveStar ® Engineering Orderwire (EOW)
•
WaveStar ® ITM-SC
•
WaveStar ® OLS 1.6T
•
WaveStar ® TDM 10G (OC-192)
•
WaveStar ® TDM 10G (STM-64
•
WaveStar ® TDM 10G (OC-192)
•
WaveStar ® TDM 2.5G (OC-48)
Cross-product interworking
The optical networking products family offers customers
•
SONET and/or SDH-based services
•
Scalable cross-connect, multiplex, and transport services
•
Ethernet transport over SONET or SDH networks
•
Network consolidation and reliability
•
Interoperability with other vendorsí products
•
Coordination of network element and element management
Deployment of
transmission systems
From a network point of view, SDH is the answer to the rapidly
changing demand for services on the one hand, and on the other the
increasing cost of implementing these services in switching
equipment. The latter means that the switching equipment has to
provide for larger and larger areas to keep cost per line at an
economical level. This causes an increase in the deployment of
transmission systems because the average distance between
subscribers and the central exchange (and also the distance between
exchanges) increases. The cost penalty for extra transmission
equipment was relatively low thanks to new developments in
transmission technology (e.g. optical fiber).
PDH transmission network
The existing (plesiochronous digital hierarchy, PDH) transmission
network is structured with a fixed multiplex architecture (2/8, 8/34,
34/140 Mbit/s). Digital distribution frames are installed between the
multiplex equipment where the signal cabling is connected. The
routing of some of the data streams is established with these
connections. The other streams are demultiplexed to 2 Mbit/s and
connected to the exchange. Making changes in such a transmission
network requires manual action and accurate administration. So
flexibility is not optimal and operating costs increase when the
demand is changing continuously.
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7
Physical design
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter informs about the physical design of the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 components.
Contents
Introduction
7-2
The subrack
7-3
The printed circuit boards
7-5
The dual WDM unit
7-6
The interconnection panel (ICP)
7-7
Face plates for front access units
7-9
ETSI compliant racks 600 × 600 mm
7-10
Horizontal connector plate (HCP)
7-11
Fiber connector conversion kit
7-12
Rack fiber guidance
7-14
Cabling
7-15
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Physical design
Introduction
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is Lucent Technologies’ third generation
of SDH equipment. In particular in the mechanical design of the
system, the overall system requirements of compact design and
flexibility where given special attention. This system has a volume of
only one third of its previous generation.
To get big functional units, a design based on ETSI 600 × 600 mm
footprint was developed. To keep the equipment on the right
temperature over the whole operating temperature range, fans were
introduced. These fans assure a uniform temperature pattern in the
system for a reliable and long equipment life.
Another system characteristic is its flexibility. On the STM-16 line
side a variety of line port units can be placed and especially with the
9 tributary slots, almost every combination of trib units is possible. As
a consequence, configurations with the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 are so
flexible that at the moment of deployment, almost no precautions have
to be made to be future proof for many years.
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Physical design
The
subrack
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subrack constructed in the new D700
construction is based on the ETSI floor space of 600 × 600 mm. Two
subracks can be housed in an ETSI compliant rack.
The dimensions of the subrack are 750 × 500 × 545 mm (H × W
× D). It is designed for front and rear access and consists of two
major parts:
1.
The equipment area that accommodates the plug-in units from
front and backside.
2.
The airflow areas of which one is located at the bottom of the
subrack and one at the top. The lower airflow area is equipped
with three self-contained fan units. Via the area at the top the
cooling air exits the subrack.
Two out of three fans are enough for adequate cooling. In case of a
malfunction a fan unit can be replaced in a subrack that is operational.
The correct operation of the fans is monitored by an alarm system.
The lower airflow area with fans is separated from the equipment area
with a removable dust filter.
Figure 7-1 Subrack
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The subrack
Physical design
In the subrack there is room for:
•
Two STM-16 line port units
•
Two power and timing units (PTU) which operate in the 1+1
protection mode. One PTU can feed the whole subrack.
•
Two cross-connect Units (CC) in 1+1 protection mode can be
housed. If no equipment protection is needed, one unit is
sufficient.
•
One System Controller (SC) acts as the control interface to the
Element Management Systems. The SC also handles the DCC
channel. The SC is not involved in line or tributary transmission
aspects and also the CC settings stay unchanged when the SC is
removed.
•
Additional 9 places for tributary slots are available.
The subrack is closed by metal face and rear plates with metal spring
contacts.
The subrack with metal cover plates forms the EMC boundary of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. Light guides are placed in the face plate in
such a way, that the LED’s on the SC can be monitored without
opening the EMC area.
For ESD precautions, a person installing equipment must carry a
bracelet. On front and backside of the Lucent Technologies racks an
earth contact is provided to connect the bracelet to.
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Physical design
The
printed circuit boards
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subrack accommodates the circuit packs.
From the front side the big, almost rectangular packs with a size of
3N can be inserted with the help of two latches per pack.
The so called paddle boards can be used at the rear side of the
backplane. For each tributary unit, these paddle boards have to be
used, in case of conversion and/or protection. Paddleboards are
mechanically secured with a bar in the back of the system. Of the two
paddle boards per slot the upper one sends its connecting cables to the
top and the lower one sends its cables to the bottom of the subrack.
All circuit packs make use of the new 2 mm pitch connector system
as generally used with the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
There is one front inserted circuit pack which differs in size, namely
the power and timing pack with a height of 1.5N. Those packs are
located at the very right side of the subrack.
Apart from the System Controller which has several LEDs all other
front packs have a LED for alarm purposes. On the optical paddle
boards LEDs are also planned.
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Physical design
The
dual WDM unit
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A dual WDM unit can be placed in the subrack at the back. This unit
supports co- and contra directional operation.
Within the WDM kit a bracket is included to mount the optical unit. 4
optical 0 dB SC connectors connect the two STM-16 units using
universal connectors for FC built-outs. The two outputs are made with
universal connectors with support SC of FC optical connectors.
With an extra bracket a second WDM can be mounted in the first
WDM, which is placed within the subrack.
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Physical design
The
interconnection panel (ICP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Figure 7-2 Interconnection panel
The interconnection box forms the physical interface for the
permanent and semi permanent supervision interfaces of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. A suppress button like on the SC makes it
possible to suppress alarms without opening the EMC boundary of the
subrack.
The ICP is part of the subrack, but it has no cover in front of it.
A number of interfaces are available on the interconnection panel for:
Table 7-1
•
Timing
•
Suppress button outside the EMC-boundary (similar to System
Controller)
•
Station alarms
•
Miscellaneous discrete inputs and outputs
•
Access to overhead bytes
•
Management interfaces.
Connectors
Connector
Connector Type
Use
STATION CLOCK IN 1
D-SUB 9P MALE
External Timing input 1
STATION CLOCK IN 2
D-SUB 9P MALE
External Timing input 2
STATION CLOCK OUT 1
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
External Timing output 1
STATION CLOCK OUT 2
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
External Timing output 2
STATION ALARM
D-SUB 25P FEMALE
Station Alarm cabling
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The interconnection panel (ICP)
Table 7-1
Connectors
Physical design
(continued)
Connector
Connector Type
Use
V11-1
D-SUB 15P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, V.11
provisionable
V11-2
D-SUB 15P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, V.11
provisionable
G703-1
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, G.703
provisionable
G703-2
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, G.703
provisionable
G703-3
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, G.703
provisionable
G703-4
D-SUB 9P FEMALE
Access to user overhead bytes, G.703
provisionable
MD I/O
D-SUB 25P FEMALE
Miscellaneous input and outputs
Q-LAN-10BT
MODULAR JACK 8P
ITM SC connection, (Twisted Pair
Ethernet)
QLAN1
BNC 50 Ω FEMALE
Q-LAN cabling
QLAN2
BNC 50 Ω FEMALE
Q-LAN cabling
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Physical design
Face
plates for front access units
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
It is possible to equip the front access units with face plates. These
face plates are designed in such, that mounting is also possible on
already deployed units. In this way it is possible to create a uniform
front sight of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 with the front subrack cover
removed.
The face plates are fully EMC and ESD safe.
For empty places dummy units are available in all sizes.
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Physical design
ETSI
compliant racks 600 × 600 mm
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lucent Technologies can provide a number of dedicated ETSI
compliant racks for housing of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subracks.
Table 7-2
Racks
Rack Type
Remarks
ETSI Rack Frame 2200 × 600 × 600 mm (H × W × D)
assembled
ETSI Rack Frame 2200 × 600 × 600 mm (H × W × D)
as a kit
ETSI Rack Frame 2600 × 600 × 600 mm (H × W × D)
assembled
ETSI Rack Frame 2600 × 600 × 600 mm (H × W × D)
as a kit
Earthquake Proof Rack 2000 × 600 × 600 mm (H × W × D)
Assembled; zone 4 proof
The racks are equipped with full height doors on the front and the
back. The 2600-mm rack version has a separate cover, which can be
placed above the doors in case top access is required. The same cover
can be placed under the doors when bottom access (for instance with
computer floors) is required.
The assembled version of the 2600-mm rack is intended for top
access.
Every rack can house two subracks.
There are limits in cabling flexibility related to the rack size. In
general, the higher the rack the more flexible the cabling philosophy.
Each rack has two alarm lamps on front and back side for prompt and
deferred maintenance alarms. The equivalent lamps of front and
backside are set in parallel.
The four ETSI racks have standard improved fiber management. This
means that fibers in the rack are housed in a tube which separates
them from the electrical cables. So the fiber cables that are more
vulnerable, are better protected and bow radii are also better
maintained.
The ETSI racks have got one fiber guide standard mounted over the
full working length of the rack.
For distribution of the power within the racks towards the subrack, a
Power Distribution panel is needed. The panel has the function to
secure the power network, by using automatic fuses, included as well.
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Physical design
Horizontal
connector plate (HCP)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The horizontal connector plate (HCP) is situated at the top of a rack.
It is a combination of two metal plates covering together the whole
600 × 600 mm of rack surface in the top. The plates are completely
filled with “holes” to mount D-sub connectors. So the intra-rack 2
Mbit/s cabling ends on this position. The customer can connect its
dedicated station cable to the corresponding D-sub connector of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. The HCP is also used to mount the 34 Mbit/s
up to STM-1e coax cabling. Two coax cables are used together with
an adapter filler plate to mount two APT-1000 contacts (male) in the
recoup.
The 2600-mm rack has enough room for two subracks with the intra
rack cabling and the curves needed for the cabling. Within a 2200-mm
rack, there is not enough bending area for the great number of 2
Mbit/s intra rack cabling area and there a lot of limitations become
visible if two subracks have to be housed. Then the semi prefab
cabling is a big relief.
Table 7-3
Overview of interface types, cables and connector
Interface type
Cable type
Connector type on
connector plate
Number of cables/
connectors per slot
2 Mbit/s
COAX
25 pins D-sub
16 8-fold
2 Mbit/s
UTP
25 pins D-sub
16 8-fold
34/45 Mbit/s
COAX
APT-1000V
24 coax
140 Mbit/s
COAX
APT-1000V
8 coax
STM-1e
COAX
APT-1000V
8 coax
STM-0o
OPTICAL
Universal Built-out
24 fibers
STM-1o
OPTICAL
SC
8 fibers
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Physical design
Fiber
connector conversion kit
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Today the number of optical channels, that from a mechanical or
layout perspective can be placed on a board, is strongly dependent on
the size of the optical send receiver module. The pitch between two
modules depends heavily on the optical connector used.
All STM-4 and STM-16 optical packs (except for the WaveStar ® OLS
1.6T compatible optics packs, these support LC connectors) are
equipped with a universal built-out optical connector type, allowing
the connector type to FC/PC or SC to be changed on-site depending
on the customer needs.
The STM-1 optical circuit packs do have a SC-connection with a
conversion possibility to FC/PC and LC.
The STM-0 does have a LC-connection (a miniature high performance
connector design by Lucent Technologies) with a conversion
possibility to FC/PC or SC.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports two ways of optical connector
conversion:
1.
In order to support FC and SC connectors, a fiber connector
conversion kit has been defined. A total of 64 optical connections
per subrack can be adapted in rack to the customer connector.
This is enough to convert a completely filled subrack with
STM-1 optical units from LC towards FC or SC.
The optical conversion is done by a fiber with a length of 0.5 m
and an LC connector at one end and the universal connector at
the other side. With the 0 dB adapter in the universal connector,
the connector can be made FC or SC. Ordering is per 4 fibers, 0
dB adapters and mounting material in one orderable kit. The kit
is defined in a way that 4 is the smallest number of optical
interfaces per paddle board, and thus the smallest number that
can be ordered. The customer does not have to order more
conversion cables than needed with start up.
2.
When conversion in the rack is no prerequisite longer conversion
cables can be used. There is a number of cables which can be
used from the optical system paddle board directly to the optical
distribution frame (ODF). Both LC to FC and LC to SC are
supported
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Fiber connector conversion kit
Physical design
These cables are also necessary when a number of optical contacts
larger than 64 must be converted.
Table 7-4
Optical cable conversion
Length (m)
LC to FC
LC to SC
5
Yes
Yes
10
Yes
Yes
15
Yes
Yes
20
Yes
Yes
25
Yes
Yes
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Physical design
Rack
fiber guidance
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
In the latest racks standard improved fiber guidance is implemented.
The guides are square pipes mounted in the space between subrack
and rack. In these pipes an endless cord is mounted to support the
installing of fibers during installation or to install more fibers if the
system is already operational.
The first fiber guides are mounted at the right of a rack looking from
a front perspective. The initial guides are used for the STM-16 fibers
and a limited number of for instance STM-1 optical fibers. When
more fibers are used in a system, more guides should be mounted. It
is important to realize, that due to the inflexibility of the guide
material, mounting of fiber guides with subracks in place is not
possible and the guides have to be mounted in a rack in the
beginning.
When electrical and optical units are mixed in one rack, the fibers
must be kept at the right and the electrical cabling at the left of the
subracks. If only optical tributary interfaces are used, then fiber guides
can be mounted at the left and the right.
Table 7-5
Rack fiber guides
Number of fiber guides
Fiber size
Max. number
of fibers
1 subrack
2 subracks
1.5 mm
20
1
2
1.5 mm
40
3
5
3 mm
18
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Physical design
Cabling
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The trend in the digital transmission industry is a rapid decrease in
equipment volume and a rapid increase in density. This trend is
particularly noticeable with the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. The
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1, Lucent Technologies’ new generation of SDH
equipment, has a very compact design. This causes a challenge for the
mechanical engineers who are responsible for the design of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 connections to the outside world, the
transmission cabling. This is true for the electrical as well as for the
optical cabling. For the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 a couple of new
transmission cables has been designed. A new set of smaller cables
was necessary to connect the great number of circuits in a WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 to the DDF and the ODF.
Alternatives
For electrical low and high frequent cabling and for fiber connections,
the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system supports two methods for
transmission cabling:
1.
On rack level an interface with standard electrical connectors
(sub-D or APT-1000) and for fiber the customer requested
connector (FC or SC) is delivered. The connection from the
system to DDF or ODF is realized with customer defined
cabling.
2.
Semi prefab cabling with the 2-mm pitch equipment connector at
one side for electrical cabling. LC connector on one fiber side
and SC or FC connectors at the other end and fibers with
sufficient length to go directly from equipment to the ODF.
Both methods have their own advantages.
Table 7-6
Characteristics of customer cabling and semi prefab cabling
A: Customer Cabling
B: Semi Prefab Cabling
Expansive, one extra contact needed
Lowest cost
Less flexible with expansion later
Most flexible with expansion later
Local cable buy; exact cable length possible
during installation
Cable to be ordered with a certain length; losses
possible
For 75 Ω coax expansive cable needed
75 Ω via symmetrical lower cost cable and Balun
connector
Different cables needed for 75 Ω and 120 Ω
For 75 and 120 Ω the same cable can be used
For lengths greater then 30 m
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Cabling
Customer cabling option A
Physical design
The customer interface is situated in the top of the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 rack at the Horizontal Connector Plate (HCP) outside the
subracks, outside the EMC boundary. Here a maximum of 1008 2
Mbit/s channels can be connected dependent of the rack size.
The connector philosophy is the same as used for ISM and SLM. That
means SUB-D connectors for 2 Mbit/s for both 75 Ω and 120 Ω. The
ISM prefab cables can be reused for the 2 Mbit/s WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 connections.
Pre-fabricated cables already in use with ISM speed up the installation
work enormously, since no connectors have to be mounted in the
field, which is very time consuming. Also, the quality of the
connections will be much higher. And all cables are tested before they
are shipped, so the number of cables that need to be repaired during
installation test drops significantly.
For STM-1e, 34, 45 and 140 Mbit/s the APT-1000 coax connector is
reused. For these frequencies no prefab cables from the HCP to the
DDF is available. The cables from the APT-1000 contact on the HCP
to the DDF is as with ISM and SLM constructed in the field during
installation. In the field cable manufacturing is of course also possible
for the 2 Mbit/s cabling.
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Cabling
Semi prefab electrical
cabling option B
Physical design
A concept of semi-prefab cables for the 2 Mbit/s connection had been
developed. This means that the equipment side of a 2 Mbit/s cable is
pre-connected with the 2-mm equipment connector. The cable is
available in 8, 15 , 22 and 30 m such that most equipment to DDF
distances can be bridged.
For a number of reasons Lucent has developed one type of 2 Mbit/s
cable for 75 as well as for 120 Ω. This means that it is possible to use
shielded twisted pair (STP) cable to connect the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 to the DDF. The impedance transformation for 75 Ω is realized
in a special so-called Balun connector that can directly be connected
to the customer DDF.
Lucent supports the 1.6/5.6, BT-43, BNC and the APT-1000
connectors on the 75 Ω side of the DDF.
For the lowest cost a solution with UTP cable is possible. Wire wrap
to a 120-Ω DDF or even using a low cost non-EMC close Balun for
75 Ω connectivity is possible. Cable lengths identical as for the STP
cable: 8, 15, 22 and 30 m.
The semi prefab cables can be connected, with the equipment
connector side, directly to the 120-Ω paddle boards 2-mm Pitch
connector.
There is a third way to connect cables to the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
and that is completely field made cables.
There are installation tools available to connect cables with the correct
specifications to a 2-mm pitch connector with IDC contacts. This is
however, because of the expected unreliability of the connections and
the expansive tools a non-preferred solution. Only used for limited
repair functions.
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8
System planning and engineering
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter summarizes the descriptive information used for system
planning. It describes the basic engineering rules for the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System.
Contents
Network planning
8-2
Network synchronization
8-3
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
engineering
8-5
Paddle boards (electrical interfaces)
8-16
Configurations
8-18
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8-1
System planning and engineering
Network
planning
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
There are a number of issues to consider when planning a network.
Projected customer requirements determine the network topology and
traffic capacities needed, both initially and in the future. These
considerations drive, in their turn, the equipment planning and
physical installation. In addition synchronization and management
need to be planned.
The building constructed or selected to serve as a terminal office or
repeater site should be inspected and an overall plan developed before
the equipment is ordered and installed. This plan should consider the
eventual system size and include the following:
•
Synchronization
•
Protection
•
Capacity
•
Span length Chapter 9, “Technical data”)
•
Optical line loss budget Chapter 9, “Technical data”)
•
Floor-plan layout
•
Equipment interconnection Chapter 9, “Technical data”)
•
Cabling Chapter 7, “Physical design”)
•
Environmental considerations Chapter 9, “Technical data”)
•
Power planning Chapter 9, “Technical data”)
Lucent Technologies offers engineering and installation services to
plan and install the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system and related
systems. For more information about Lucent Technologies engineering
and installation services refer to Chapter 11, “Product support”.
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System planning and engineering
Network
synchronization
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
The planning of the synchronization network should be considered for
the network as a whole. The guidelines for synchronization network
engineering can be found in ITU-T Recommendation G.803, Annex
III. The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports all synchronization features
needed (as specified in ITU-T Recommendation G.781, Option 1) to
engineer the network synchronization according to ITU-T
Recommendations.
Careful consideration should be given to the correct design of the
SDH network’s synchronization. Proper synchronization engineering
minimizes timing instabilities, maintains quality transmission network
performance and limits network degradation due to unwanted
propagation of network synchronization faults.
The following list contains some key recommendations in respect to
network synchronization:
•
A group of interconnected SDH network elements, which all
contain an internal clock according to G.813 option 1, like the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1, form, from a synchronization point of
view, a so-called “SEC sub-network”. All SDH network elements
in this cloud provide each other timing information via STM-N
links. Such a network part should receive, via at least two
independent paths, synchronization from the network clock,
usually a PRC (See ITU-T Recommendation G.811) and a
back-up clock (usually an SSU according to G.812), in case the
PRC fails.
•
2 MHz and 2 Mbit/s links are used to bring in the timing
information from the network clock into the SEC sub-network.
The planning of the links between the PRC and all SSUs in a
network are part of the over-all operator’s network
synchronization plan.
•
Within the SEC sub-network the SDH network elements should
be configured in such a way that each network element receives
at least two reference signals. Selection between the alternative
references should be based on the SSM protocol.
•
When engineering the SEC sub-network synchronization one
should avoid that chains of SECs are present or can be formed
which exceed the number of 20 nodes (excluding SDH
regenerators).
•
As a guideline, it is recommended to engineer the SEC
sub-network in such a way that under any combination of two
independent failures, no timing loops can be created or
instabilities in the reference selectors can occur.
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Network synchronization
System planning and engineering
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 meets ITU-T Recommendation G.781 and
supports the following features to support the engineering of the
synchronization network:
•
Possibility to assign STM-N inputs (both aggregate and tributary),
2 Mbit/s traffic inputs and external synchronization inputs (2
MHz or 2 Mbit/s) as references for the system or the external
synchronization output.
•
Assignment/Unassignment of synchronization references. Up to 8
references can be assigned (two external timing inputs, two
aggregate interfaces and four tributary interfaces). Each can be
provisioned with a priority
•
Independent selection of references for the system clock and the
external timing output.
•
Optional enabling/disabling of the SSM algorithm.
•
Within the SSM algorithm it is possible to assign a fixed SSM
value to any incoming reference and to define a squelch
threshold for the external synchronization output
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System planning and engineering
® ADM 16/1 system planning and engineering
WaveStar
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Subrack layout
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 program contains a subrack for
applications up to 504 × 2 Mbit/s add/drop capacity or a maximum
of 8 × STM-4. Dimensions: 750 × 500 × 545 mm (H × W × D).
This subrack is called the high-density subrack.
The system circuit packs are cooled by an integrated fan-unit. It forms
part of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subrack. An InterConnection Panel
(ICP) is integrated within the subrack (EFA4). The following can be
made available on the ICP: Overhead Channels, Station Alarms,
Miscellaneous Discrete Inputs and Outputs and several network
management connectors.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 high-density subrack contains 16 slots in
High-density or 9
tributary-slot subrack
which the following circuit packs can be inserted from the front:
(EFA4)
Table 8-1 Configuration of EFA4
Slot position
Abbreviation
Slot name
1
SC
System Controller
2, 13
CC1, CC2
Cross-connect
3, 14
LS1, LS2
Line interface position
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
TS1 { TS9
Tributary interface position
15, 16
PT1, PT2
Power and timing
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
engineering
System planning and engineering
Figure 8-1 WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 EFA4 high-density subrack
FRONT VIEW
slot#15
LS 2
CC 2
TS 9
TS 7
TS 8
TS 5
TS 6
TS 3
TS 4
TS 1
TS 2
LS 1
SC
CC 1
PT 1
Station
clock
PT 2
slot#16
slot #
Configuration rules
1
2
3
4
5 6
7 8 9
10
11 12 13
14
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subrack has a maximum 9 slots available
for Tributary circuit packs.
All tributary slots of the High-density subrack can be used for regular
traffic, with the following exceptions:
•
Slot 4:
In case an SI-1/4, PI-E4/4, SPIA-1E4/4B (used in E4 or STM-1
electrical mode) or SIA-1/4B (used in STM-1 electrical mode)
tributary unit is inserted in slot 4, this unit is always considered
the protecting unit in the 1:N (N = 1, { , 4) equipment protection
scheme for STM-1 electrical or E4 interface cards. This means
that it is not possible to have regular traffic carrying unit of those
types in slot 4. If no STM-1 equipment protection is needed, this
slot can be used for one of the following cards:
–
PI-DS1/63 (protected or un protected)
–
PI-E1/63 (protected or unprotected)
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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System planning and engineering
–
PI-DS3/12 or PI-E3DS3/6+6 (protected or unprotected)
–
PI-E3DS3/12 (protected or unprotected)
–
PI-E3/6 (protected or unprotected)
–
PI-DS3/6 (protected or unprotected)
–
SA-1/4B (MSP protected or unprotected)
–
SI-S4.1/1 (MSP protected or unprotected)
–
SPIA-1E4/4B used in STM-1 optical mode (MSP protected
or unprotected)
–
SIA-1/4B (MSP protected or unprotected)
–
SA-0/12 (MSP protected or unprotected)
–
IP-LAN/8 Tlan+ (unprotected)
–
IP-GE/2 (Gigabit Ethernet option card, unprotected)
Note: STM-1 electrical and E4 units can be protected by an
equipment protection at the same time by using a SPIA-1E4/4B
in slot 4. The SPIA-1E4/4B automatically configures itself in the
correct operation mode. Additionally in R4.0 it is possible to
in-service upgrade an older E4 or STM-1e unit in a worker slot
to a SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B unit. A SPIA-1E4/4B or
SIA-1/4B unit in a worker slot cannot be protected by an older
E4 or STM-1e unit in slot 4, even not when both units are
running in the same mode.
Note: The SA-1/4B and SPIA-1E4/4B or SA-1/4B and SIA-1/4B
cannot be used in the same MSP protection group.
•
Slot 12:
In case a PI-E1/63 or PI-DS1/63 tributary unit is inserted in slot
12, this unit is always considered the protecting unit in the 1:N (N
= 1, { , 8) equipment protection scheme for E1 or DS1 interface
cards. This means that it is not possible to have regular traffic
carrying unit of those types in slot 12.
If no 1.5 or 2 Mbit/s equipment protection is needed this slot can
be used by one of the following cards:
–
SPIA-1E4/4B used in STM-1E or E4 mode (unprotected
only)
–
SIA-1/4B used in STM-1E mode (unprotected only)
–
SI-1/4 (unprotected only)
–
PI-E4/4 (unprotected only)
Note: DS1 and E1 units can not be equipment protected at the
same time. The unit type entered in slot 12 determines whether
E1 or DS1 units can be protected.
The following overview indicates the Tributary port circuit packs and
the position they can have in the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 subrack:
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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System planning and engineering
Configuration of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Circuit pack (CP) Function
Circuit Pack Name
Possible slot position in WaveStar ® ADM
16/1
Tributary port 1.5 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-DS1/63
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 1.5 Mbit/s signals – eqpt.
protection
PI-DS1/63
12 (protects 4 through 11)
Tributary port 2 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E1/63
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 2 Mbit/s signals – eqpt.
protection
PI-E1/63
12 (protects 4 through 11)
Tributary port 34 and 45 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E3DS3/6+6
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 34 and 45 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E3DS3/12
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 34 and 45 Mbit/s signals –
eqpt. protection
PI-E3DS3/6+6
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port 34 and 45 Mbit/s signals –
eqpt. protection
PI-E3DS3/12
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port 45 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-DS3/12
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 45 Mbit/s signals – eqpt.
protection
PI-DS3/12
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port 45 Mbit/s signals signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-DS3/6
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Tributary port 45 Mbit/s signals signals –
eqpt. protection
PI-DS3/6
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port 34 Mbit/s signals signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E3/6
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,or 11
Tributary port 34 Mbit/s signals signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E3/6
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port STM-0 signals –
worker/unprotected
SA-0/12
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
Tributary port STM-0 signals – MSP
protection
SA-0/12
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
Tributary port 140 Mbit/s signals –
worker/unprotected
PI-E4/4
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
Tributary port 140 Mbit/s signals – eqpt.
protection
PI-E4/4
Tributary port STM-1E signals –
worker/unprotected
SI-1/4
SPIA-1E4/4B (E4 mode)
4 (protects 5, 6, 7 and/or 8)
SPIA-1E4/4B (E4 mode)
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
SPIA-1E4/4B (STM-1E mode)
SIA-1/4B (STM-1E mode)
Tributary port STM-1E signals – eqpt.
protection
SI-1/4
4 (protects 5, 6, 7 and/or 8)
SPIA-1E4/4B (STM-1E mode)
SIA-1/4B (STM-1E mode)
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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System planning and engineering
Circuit pack (CP) Function
Circuit Pack Name
Possible slot position in WaveStar ® ADM
16/1
Tributary port STM-1O signals –
worker/unprotected
SA-1/4
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
SA-1/4B
SPIA-1E4/4B (STM-1O mode)
SIA-1/4B (STM-1O mode)
Tributary port STM-1O signals – MSP
protection
SA-1/4B
SPIA-1E4/4B (STM-1O mode)
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
SIA-1/4B (STM-1O mode)
Tributary port STM-4 signals –
worker/unprotected
SI-S4.1/1
Tributary port STM-4 signals – MSP
protection
SI-S4.1/1
SI-L4.2/1
5 (protects 4), 7 (protects 6), 9 (protects 8)
or 11 (protects 10)
LAN interface unprotected
IP-LAN 8 Tlan+
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11
Gigabit Ethernet interface unprotected
IP-GE/2
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
Circuit pack naming
Table 8-2
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12
SI-L4.2/1
The circuit packs described below can be used in the high-density
subrack of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1. Some of the interface circuit
packs of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be inserted in a Line or a
Tributary slot, they are pin-compatible.
Circuit packs
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
SI
Synchronous Interface
PI
Plesiochronous Interface
IP
Internet Protocol
SPIA
Synchronous and Plesiochronous Adapter Interface
SIA
Synchronous Adapter Interface
PB
paddle board
SA
Synchronous Adapter
TI
Timing Interface
OI
Optical Interface
LBPA
Line Booster Pre-Amplifier
SC
System Controller
CC
Cross-Connect
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP standard
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37ppm
Interface Type
Description
U 16.2
Ultra long-haul, STM-16, 1550 nm
V 16.2
Very long-haul optical, STM-16, 1550 nm
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
engineering
Table 8-2
Circuit packs
System planning and engineering
(continued)
L 16.3
Long-haul optical, STM-16, 1550 nm
L 16.2
Long-haul optical, STM-16, 1550 nm
L 16.1
Long-haul optical, STM-16, 1310 nm
L 4.2
Long haul optical, STM-4, 1550 nm
S 4.1
Short haul optical, STM-4, 1310 nm
L 1.2
Long haul optical, STM-1, 1550 nm
S 1.1
Short haul optical, STM-1, 1310 nm
S 0.1
Short haul optical, STM-0, 1310 nm
I 1.1
Intrastation optical, STM-1, 1310 nm
16EML.x/1 (x from 9190 to 9585)
STM-16, 1530- 1565 nm, interworking with the WaveStar ® OLS 1.6T
0
STM-0, 1310 nm
1
STM-1 electrical
E4
140 Mbit/s
DS3
45 Mbit/s
E3
34 Mbit/s
E1
2 Mbit/s
DS1
1.5 Mbit/s
LAN
Local Area Network
Paddle board type
Description
75
75 Ω through connection board, no protection relays
100
100 W converter, no protection relays
120
120 Ω converter, no protection relays
P75
75 Ω converter with protection relays
P100
100 W converter with protection relays
P120
120 Ω converter with protection relays
PP
STM-1E/E4 protection selector/bridge (protection version)
PW
STM-1E/E4 protection selector/bridge (worker version)
Naming examples
SPIA-1E4/4: Synchronous and Plesiochronous Adapter circuit pack,
STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s, 4 channels per circuit pack.
PB-E1/P75/32: paddle board, 75 Ω, used for protection, 32 channels
per paddle board.
Core configuration of the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
The core configuration of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 always consists
of the following.
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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Table 8-3
System planning and engineering
Core configuration of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Circuit Pack
Item Code
Comcode
Description
Number
(CP) Name
Slot
Remark
position
Subrack 9TAD
B
EFA4
848414710
Subrack 9TAD (700) B
1
N.A.
SC
LJB400
107870446
System Controller
1
1
SC2
LJB457B
108829813
-
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system
software
1
n.a.
1
-
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 backup
software
1
n.a.
2
Cross-Connect CPs
1
2
3
Power Filter and Timing CPs
1
16
4
CC-64/32
LJB420
108244104
CC-64/16
LJB420T
108988320
CC-64/32B
LJB434
108645581
PT-stnd
LMB400
107870057
PT-str3
LMB401
107870453
Remarks:
1.
System software is downloaded to the SC in he factory.
2.
Backup software is delivered on tape (WaveStar ® ITM-SC) or on
a disk (ITM-CIT).
3.
If CC protection is required, an additional CC circuit pack should
be engineered in slot #13.
4.
If PT protection is required, an additional PT circuit pack should
be engineered in slot #15.
Depending on required hold-over stability, two versions of the PT
circuit pack are available
•
PT-stnd. This unit meets the specifications of G.813 option 1.
Lifetime oscillator accuracy: 4.6 ppm
•
PT-str3. This unit meets the specifications of G.813 option 1.
Lifetime oscillator accuracy: 4.6 ppm. In addition the hold-over
stability for the first 24 hours of hold-over is specified at 0.37
ppm.
Line interface units
Table 8-4
Line interface units
Circuit Pack (CP)
Item Code
Comcode
Description
Name
Slot
Remark
position
SI-L16.1/1C
LJB425B
108441981
SI-L16.1/1D
LJB435
108647215
Line-port long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm,
according table L 16.1 in G.957, one
interface per CP
3, 14
1, 3
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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Table 8-4
Line interface units
Circuit Pack (CP)
Item Code
System planning and engineering
(continued)
Comcode
Description
Name
Slot
Remark
position
Line-port long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm,
according tables L 16.2 and L16.3 in
G.957, one interface per CP
3, 14
1, 3
108442005
Line-port long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm,
4 dB better than tables L 16.2 and L16.3
in G.957, one interface per CP
3, 14
1, 3, 4
LJB419Y
108442013
Factory selected line-port long-haul 2.5
Gbit/s 1550 nm, 6 dB better than tables
L16.2 and L16.3 in G.957, one interface
per CP
3, 14
1, 2, 3, 4
LJB423
108278086
Interface Port 2.5 Gbit/s with EML
transmitter to interwork with
booster/pre-amplifier, one interface per
CP
3, 14
4
SI-EMLU16.2/1P
LJB500
109180554
Interface Port 2.5 Gbit/s with EML
transmitter to interwork with
booster/pre-amplifier, one interface per
CP
3, 14
1
LPBA-U16.2/1
LJB413
107870313
Booster/Pre-amplifier unit for U-16.2
and U-16.3 applications G.691
4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10,
11, or 12
LBA-V16.2/1
LJB433
108648841
Booster unit for V-16.2 and V-16.3
applications G.691
4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10,
11, or 12
SI-16EML80.1/1
through
SI-16EML80.16/1
LJB441
through
LJB456
108278xxx
Interface port 2.5 Gbit/s EML, to
WaveStar ® OLS 80G, one wavelength
per CP
3, 14
4
LJB501
through
LJB580
10844xxxx
Interface port 2.5 Gbit/s EML, to
WaveStar ® OLS 1.6T, one wavelength
per CP
3, 14
1
SI-L16.2/1C
LJB426B
108441999
SI-L16.2/1D
LJB436
108647223
SI-L16.3/1B
LJB419B
Limited Availability
!
SI-L16.3/1Y
Limited Availability
!
SI-EMLU16.2/1
Limited Availability
!
Limited Availability
!
SI-16EML9xxx/1
The following line interfaces are available now or supported from
previous releases:
Remark:
1.
All STM-16 optical packs, except for SI-16EML9xxx/1 and
SI-EMLU16.2/1P which support an LC-connector, support the
universal build-out optical connector type. This connector type
supports both FC/PC and SC optical connectors. For power
budget details please refer to Chapter 9, “Technical data”.
2.
The “ITU-T + 6dB” units are only available in limited quantities.
Specific requests should be made to Product Mangement.
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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Optical tributary interfaces
Table 8-5
System planning and engineering
3.
The units SI-L16.1/1C, SI-L16.2/1C, SI-L16.3/1B and
SI-L16.3/1Y support reporting of analog optical parameters
(optical transmit power, optical received power, laser bias
current).
4.
Discontinued Availability (DA) in April 2002!
The following line interfaces are available now or supported from
previous releases:
Optical tributary interfaces
Circuit Pack (CP)
Item Code
Comcode
Description
Name
Slot
Remark
position
SA-0/12
LJB421
108275587
STM-0 adapter board for four STM-0
interfaces. Supports AU-3/TU-3
conversion, MSP and loopbacks
4 thru 11
1
OI-0/6
PBD3
108333436
STM-0 1310 nm; 6 Interfaces per
interface board.
behind
1
STM-1 adapter board for four STM-1
optical interfaces in AU-4 or AU-3/TU-3
conversion mode. Supports MSP, tributary
DCC and loopbacks, also usable for
electrical interfaces, please refer to Table
8-6, “Electrical tributary interfaces”
(8-14).
4 thru 11
2, 4
STM-1 adapter board for four STM-1
optical interfaces in AU-4 or AU-3/TU-3
conversion mode. Supports MSP, tributary
DCC and loopbacks, also usable for
electrical interfaces, please refer to Table
8-6, “Electrical tributary interfaces”
(8-14).
4 thru 11
2, 4
Optical Short haul STM-1 1310 nm; 2
Interfaces per interface board
behind
2, 5
Optical Long haul STM-1 1550 nm; 2
Interfaces per interface board
behind
Optical Long haul STM-4 1550 nm;
Supports AU-4-4c, AU-4 and AU-3/TU-3
conversions
behind
SPIA-1E4/4B
SIA-1/4B
OI-S1.1/2SC
OI-L1.2/2
SI-L4.2/1
LJB431B
108681651
LJB431T
108988312
LJB439B
108884610
LJB439T
108988338
PBD4
108584962
PBA10
LJB405C
108600800
108862509
4 thru 11
4 thru 11
2, 5
4 thru 11
3
4 thru 11
SI-S4.1/1
LJB416B
108681669
Optical Short haul STM-4 1310 nm.
Supports AU-4-4c, AU-4 and AU-3/TU-3
conversion, MSP, DCC and loopbacks
4 thru 11
IP-GE/2
LJB460
109198226
Gigabit Ethernet option card
4 thru12
3
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
engineering
System planning and engineering
Remarks:
Electrical tributary
interfaces
Table 8-6
1.
One or two OI-0/6 optical paddle boards have to be installed
behind each SA-0/12 STM-0 circuit pack. Each paddle board
provides 6 optical interfaces with LC connector type.
2.
One or two OI-S1.1/2 or OI-L1.2/2 optical paddle boards have to
be installed behind each SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B STM-1O
circuit pack. Each paddle board provides 2 optical interfaces with
SC connector type. A mix of OI-S1.1/2 and OI-L1.2/2 is allowed
behind SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B STM-1O circuit pack.
3.
The optical interface is integrated on the STM-4 main board. No
optical adapter units are needed.
4.
The SA-1/4 and SA-1/4B units are no longer available and
replaced by SPIA-1E4/4B and SIA-1/4B.
5.
The PBD2 has been DA’ed. For customers that require STM-1O
interfaces with LC-connectors a patchcord can be used.
Comcode: 108113853, 4 ft LC-SC Connector
The following line interfaces are available now or supported from
previous releases:
Electrical tributary interfaces
Item Code
Comcode
Description
Slot
Remark
position
LJB411LJB411T
LJB430
107870339
2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
108988000
63 interfaces per CP
108442021
1.5 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
4-12
1
4-12
2
63 interfaces per CP
LJB427
108330366
34 and 45 Mbit/s
4-12
6 interfaces of each type per CP
LJB463
109407916
34 and 45 Mbit/s, 12 independently
provisionable interfaces
4-12
LJB424
108281387
45 Mbit/s
4-12
12 interfaces per CP
LJB461
109198234
6 interfaces, 45 Mbit/s
4-12
LJB462
109198242
6 interfaces, 34 Mbit/s
4-12
LJB414
107880148
140 Mbit/s4 interfaces per CP
4-12
3, 5
LJB431BLJB431T
108681651
140 Mbit/s / STM-1E, 4 interfaces per CP, also
usable for optical interfaces, please refer to
Table 8-5, “Optical tributary interfaces” (8-13).
4-12
3
4-12
3
108988000
STM-1E, 4 interfaces per CP, also usable for
optical interfaces, please refer to Table 8-5,
“Optical tributary interfaces” (8-13).
108567488
10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T, 8 interfaces per CP
4-11
108988000
LJB439BLJB439T
LJB458
108884610
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WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system planning and
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Table 8-6
System planning and engineering
Electrical tributary interfaces
Item Code
Comcode
(continued)
Description
Slot
Remark
position
LJB459
109107383
10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T, 8 interfaces per CP,
TransLAN ®
4-11
Remarks:
Timing and
synchronization interfaces
(DS0 markets; Japan and
USA)
Table 8-7
1.
Equipment protection functionality is provided by the circuit pack
in tributary slot 12. Impedance adaptation to 75/120 Ω and/or
equipment protection functionality can be provided by additional
paddle boards.
2.
Equipment protection functionality is provided by the circuit pack
in tributary slot 12. Impedance adaptation to 100 W or equipment
protection functionality can be provided by additional paddle
boards.
3.
Equipment protection functionality can be provided by additional
paddle boards.
4.
Equipment protection functionality is provided by the circuit pack
in tributary slot 4 and paddle boards.
5.
In the Sapphire Release the PI-E4/4 is no longer available. It is
replaced by the SPIA-1E4/4B.
6.
In the Sapphire Release the SI-1/4 is no longer available. It is
replaced by the SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B.
These timing interfaces are available for the DS0 markets.
Timing and synchronization interfaces for DS0 markets
Circuit Pack
(CP) Name
Item
Code
Comcode
Description
Slot position
Remark
TI-DS2DS0/1
LJC400
108095654
Timing Interface board
Behind PT-stnd
1
64+8 kHz Sync Input +
6312 kHz Sync Output
Remark:
1.
A maximum of 2 × TI-DS2DS0/1 can be engineered per subrack.
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System planning and engineering
Paddle
boards (electrical interfaces)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
A variety of paddle boards exists to interconnect the system directly
or indirectly to the office cabling. In addition, paddle boards can be
used for equipment protection and/or impedance adaptation. All
paddle boards can be inserted from the rear of the equipment and fit
to the 2 mm pitch backplane connectors.
Paddle boards are always needed for 1.5 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s
interfaces. Other electrical interface types can be used without paddle
boards (if protection is not needed now or in the future).
Paddle boards are half height boards and two paddle boards have to
be mounted behind each corresponding main board to be able to
access all interface ports. Also if less than half the interfaces on a unit
have to be cabled, it is still necessary to equip both paddle boards to
get a valid configuration. The two paddle boards behind each unit
have to be identical and are mounted in 180 mirrored fashion.
Table 8-8
Paddle boards
PB Name
Item
Comcode
Description
Position
Notes
Code
Protection and impedance conversion 1.5 Mbit/s paddle boards (PB)
PB-DS1/100/32
PBA6
108442047
Conversion to 100 W, 32
channels, unprotected
applications
Behind each unprotected
PI-DS1/63, Slot 4-11.
1
PB-DS1/P100/32
PBA7
108442054
Conversion to 100 W, 32
channels, protected
applications
Behind each worker PI-DS1/63,
Slot 4-11.
1, 2
Protection and impedance conversion 2 Mbit/s paddle boards (PB)
PB-E1/75/32
PBA3
107967952
Unprotected 75 W
applications, 32 channels
Behind each unprotected
PI-E1/63, Slot 4-11.
3
PB-E1/P75/32
PBA1
107967937
Protected 75 W applications,
32 channels
Behind each worker PI-E1/63,
Slot 4-11.
3
PB-E1/120/32
PBA4
107967960
Conversion to 120 W, 32
channels, unprotected
applications
Behind each unprotected
PI-E1/63, Slot 4-11.
3
PB-E1/P120/32
PBA2
107967945
Conversion to 120 W, 32
channels, protected
applications
Behind each worker PI-E1/63,
Slot 4-11.
2, 3
108330382
6 channels, 1+1 equipment
protection application
Behind each worker/protection
pair in slots 4/5, 6/7, 8/9 or
10/11. The paddle board
straddles two slot positions
4
Paddle boards for 34/45 Mbit/s:
PB-E3DS3/P/6
PBC2
Paddle boards for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s:
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-16
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Paddle boards (electrical interfaces)
Table 8-8
Paddle boards
PB Name
Item
System planning and engineering
(continued)
Comcode
Description
Position
Notes
Code
PB-1E4/PW/2
PBA5
107972218
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1
and 140 Mbit/s, worker unit
version
Behind worker STM-1E or E4
units, slot positions 5-8
5, 6
PB-1E4/PW/2 Cx
PBA8
108538646
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1
and 140 Mbit/s, worker unit
version, coax interfaces
Behind worker STM-1E or E4
units, slot positions 5-13
5, 6
PB-1E4/PP/2
PBB1
107972382
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1
and 140 Mbit/s, protection
board version
Behind protection STM-1E or
E4 unit, PB slot position
XP01&XP02
5
PB-LAN
PBA9
108573056
PB behind the LAN interface
unit
Behind LAN units, slot
position 4-11
Remarks:
1.
This paddle board can be used with the PI-DS1/63.
2.
No paddle board is needed behind the protecting DS1 or E1
circuit pack, slot position 12.
3.
This paddle board can be used with the PI-E1/63.
4.
This paddle board can be used with adjacent pairs of PI-DS3/12
or PI-E3DS3/6+6 units or with the PI-DS3/6 or PI-E3/6.
5.
This paddle board can be used with the SI-1/4, PI-E4/4,
SIA-1/4B (in STM-1E mode) and SPIA-1E4/4 (in STM-1E or E4
mode).
6.
If 1:N protection is needed at a later time, the worker unit paddle
boards have to be installed immediately (in through mode). Later
the protection unit paddle board can be added in an in-service
upgrade.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
8-17
System planning and engineering
Configurations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Table 8-9
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 terminal STM-16 (0 × 1, all interfaces)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
Remark
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
1
2
2
2
3
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
10
SI-L 16.2/1C SI-L
16.2/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2 , ITU range
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
2
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
3
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
2
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
working PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
2
4
4
5
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
6
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-18
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Configurations
Table 8-9
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 terminal STM-16 (0 × 1, all interfaces)
(continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
2
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
2
Remark
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
Remarks:
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the optical power budget needed.
4.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no
additional PI-E1/ 63 should be engineered for protection.
5.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no paddle
board has to be engineered. It should be noted that if protection
is required in future, it is advisable to install the direct-through
connect paddle board 75 Ω, 32 ch paddle board as this will ease
installation practice in future. If 120 Ω interfaces are needed,
either 16 × PB-E1/120/32 (no 2 Mbit/s protection) or 16
× PB-E1/P120/32 (2 Mbit/s protection) should be engineered
6.
STM-1 electrical and E4 units can be equipment protected at the
same time by using a SPIA-1E4/4B in slot 4. The SPIA-1E4/4B
automatically configures itself in the correct operation mode.
Additionally in R4.0 it is possible to in-service upgrade an older
E4 or STM-1e unit in a worker slot to a SPIA-1E4/4B or
SIA-1/4B unit. A SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B unit in a worker slot
cannot be protected by an older E4 or STM-1e unit in slot 4,
even not when both units are running in the same mode.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
8-19
Configurations
Table 8-10
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (higher order interfaces)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
Remark
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
2
2
2
3
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L
16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
10
SI-L 16.2/1C SI-L
16.2/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
11
SI-L 16.3/1B
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.3
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
3
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
4
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
4
8
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-20
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Configurations
Table 8-10
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (higher order interfaces)
(continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
Number
Remark
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
Remarks:
Table 8-11
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the optical power budget needed.
4.
STM-1 electrical and E4 units can be equipment protected at the
same time by using a SPIA-1E4/4B in slot 4. The SPIA-1E4/4B
automatically configures itself in the correct operation mode.
Additionally in R4.0 it is possible to in-service upgrade an older
E4 or STM-1e unit in a worker slot to a SPIA-1E4/4B or
SIA-1/4B unit. A SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B unit in a worker slot
cannot be protected by an older E4 or STM-1e unit in slot 4,
even not when both units are running in the same mode.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (long distance rings, with LO
grooming of 504 × 2 Mbit/s)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
Remark
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
1
CC-64-32B
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
8-21
Configurations
Table 8-11
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (long distance rings, with LO
grooming of 504 × 2 Mbit/s) (continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
Remark
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
2
2
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
1
3
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L
16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
10
SI-L 16.2/1C SI-L
16.2/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
11
SI-L 16.3/1B
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.3
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
1
3
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
1
3
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
9
4
18
5
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
SIA-1E4/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
Additional timing circuit packs
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-22
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Configurations
Table 8-11
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (long distance rings, with LO
grooming of 504 × 2 Mbit/s) (continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
Number
Remark
Remarks:
Table 8-12
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the optical power budget needed.
4.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no
additional PI-E1/ 63 should be engineered for protection.
5.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no paddle
board has to be engineered. It should be noted that if protection
is required in future, it is advisable to install the direct-through
connect paddle board 75 Ω, 32 ch paddle board as this will ease
installation practice in future. If 120 Ω interfaces are needed,
either 16 × PB-E1/120/32 (no 2 Mbit/s protection) or 16
× PB-E1/P120/32 (2 Mbit/s protection) should be engineered
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (STM-1 and STM-4
ring-closure on tributaries)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
Remark
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
System
Controller
1
5
CC-64/32
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
1
2
2
2
3
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L
16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
10
SI-L 16.2/1C SI-L
16.2/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
8-23
Configurations
Table 8-12
13
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 add/drop multiplexer STM-16 (STM-1 and STM-4
ring-closure on tributaries) (continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 400G (80 different
wavelengths)
Number
Remark
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
2
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
4
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
8
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-24
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Configurations
System planning and engineering
Remarks:
Table 8-13
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the optical power budget needed.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1; Japanese and United States of America uses
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
Remark
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
1
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
2
2
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L
16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
1
3
10
SI-L 16.2/1C SI-L
16.2/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
1
3
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
2
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
4
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
2
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
2
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
17a
4
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
8-25
Configurations
Table 8-13
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1; Japanese and United States of America uses
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
Number
(continued)
Remark
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
2
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
2
2
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
Remarks:
Table 8-14
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the optical power budget needed.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 local cross-connect
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
Remark
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
2
1
2
2
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Configurations
Table 8-14
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 local cross-connect
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
(continued)
Description
Number
Remark
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
10
SI-L 16.2/1C
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
3
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster
(120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
2
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
3
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
2
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
2
4
4
5
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
6
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s (provisionable)
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
2
2
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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8-27
Configurations
System planning and engineering
Remarks:
Table 8-15
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
No line port units are needed.
4.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no
additional PI-E1/ 63 should be engineered for protection.
5.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no paddle
board has to be engineered. It should be noted that if protection
is required in future, it is advisable to install the direct-through
connect paddle board 75 Ω, 32 ch paddle board as this will ease
installation practice in future. If 120 Ω interfaces are needed,
either 16 × PB-E1/120/32 (no 2 Mbit/s protection) or 16
× PB-E1/P120/32 (2 Mbit/s protection) should be engineered
6.
STM-1 electrical and E4 units can be equipment protected at the
same time by using a SPIA-1E4/4B in slot 4. The SPIA-1E4/4B
automatically configures itself in the correct operation mode.
Additionally in R4.0 it is possible to in-service upgrade an older
E4 or STM-1e unit in a worker slot to a SPIA-1E4/4B or
SIA-1/4B unit. A SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B unit in a worker slot
cannot be protected by an older E4 or STM-1e unit in slot 4,
even not when both units are running in the same mode.
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 DWDM access terminal STM-16 (OLS 1.6T, to be used with
higher order interfaces)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
Number
EFA 4
High-density subrack
1
System Controller
1
Remark
Subracks
1
Core circuit packs
3
SC
SC2
5
CC-64/32
Cross-Connect CP 64 × 64 HO, 32 × 32 LO
CC-64/32B
7
PT-stnd
Power and Timing CP 4.6 ppm
8
PT-str3
Power and Timing CP 0.37 ppm
2
2
Line-interface circuit packs
9
SI-L 16.1/1C SI-L
16.1/1D
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1310 nm, L 16.1, ITU range
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
8-28
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Configurations
Table 8-15
10
System planning and engineering
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 DWDM access terminal STM-16 (OLS 1.6T, to be used with
higher order interfaces) (continued)
Circuit Pack (CP) Name
Description
SI-L 16.2/1C
Long-haul 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm, L 16.2, ITU range
Number
Remark
2
3
SI-L 16.2/1D
13
SI-16EMLx/1
Interworking packs OLS 1.6T (80 different
wavelengths)
Boosters and pre-amplifier circuit packs
14a
SI-EMLU16.2/1
EML 2.5 Gbit/s 1550 nm U 16.2
14b
LPBA-U 16.2/3
Booster and Pre-Amplifier (160km)
14c
LBA-V16.2/1
Booster (120km)
Optical tributaries
15
SA-0/12
Converter board STM-0
15a
OI-0/6
Optical Interface STM-0 1310 nm
16
SI-S 4.1/1
Short Haul, STM-4 1310 nm
2
SPIA-1E4/4B
140 Mbit/s or STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
6
SIA-1/4B
STM-1 electrical or STM-1 optical
17a
OI-S 1.1/2
Optical Interface Short Haul STM-1 1310 nm
8
17b
PB-1E4/PW/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
17c
PB-1E4/PP/ 2
Protect PB, 2 ch. for STM-1 and 140 Mbit/s
2
Optical / electrical tributaries
17
6
Electrical tributaries
18
PI-E1/63
63 × 2 Mbit/s, 75 Ω
18a
PB-E1/75/32
Direct-through connect PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18b
PB-E1/P75/ 32
Protection PB 75 Ω, 32 ch.
18c
PB-E1/120/ 32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, 32 ch.
18d
PB-E1/ P120/32
75 to 120 Ω conversion PB, with protection, 32 ch.
19
PI-E3DS3/ 6+6
6 × 45 Mbit/s and 6 × 34 Mbit/s
19a
PI-E3DS3/ 12
12 × 34 Mbit/s or 45 Mbit/s switchable
20
PI-DS3/12
12 × 45 Mbit/s
19,
20a
PB-E3DS3/6
Protection PB 34 / 45 Mbit/s, 6 ch.
4
5
Additional timing circuit packs
21
TI-DS2DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/6312 kHz Out
22
TI-I 1.1DS0/ 1
Timing Interface CP 64+8 kHz In/155.52 MHz Out
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
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8-29
Configurations
System planning and engineering
Remarks:
1.
If protection of the CC is not required, 1 × CC should be
engineered.
2.
If protection of the PT-stnd is not required, 1 × PT-stnd should
be engineered. If a stability of 0.37 ppm for 24 hour is required,
the PT-str3 should be engineered.
3.
Depending on the wavelength and the numerous of STM-16
EML entrances.
4.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no
additional PI-E1/ 63 should be engineered for protection.
5.
If protection of the 2 Mbit/s interfaces is not required, no paddle
board has to be engineered. It should be d that if protection is
required in future, it is advisable to install the direct-through
connect paddle board 75 Ω, 32 ch paddle board as this will ease
installation practice in future. If 120 Ω interfaces are needed,
either 16 × PB-E1/120/32 (no 2 Mbit/s protection) or 16
× PB-E1/P120/32 (2 Mbit/s protection) should be engineered
6.
STM-1 electrical and E4 units can be equipment protected at the
same time by using a SPIA-1E4/4B in slot 4. The SPIA-1E4/4B
automatically configures itself in the correct operation mode.
Additionally in R4.0 it is possible to in-service upgrade an older
E4 or STM-1e unit in a worker slot to a SPIA-1E4/4B or
SIA-1/4B unit. A SPIA-1E4/4B or SIA-1/4B unit in a worker slot
cannot be protected by an older E4 or STM-1e unit in slot 4,
even not when both units are running in the same mode.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Issue 1, May 2005
9
Technical data
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter contains the technical specifications of the WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System.
Contents
Optical interfaces
9-3
Electrical interfaces
9-4
Optical connector interface
9-5
Optical source and detector
9-6
Optical safety
9-7
Optical power budgets
9-8
Power specification
9-13
Dimensions
9-15
System weight
9-16
Electrical connectors
9-17
Environmental specifications
9-18
General ITU-T recommendations
9-19
Mapping structure
9-20
Electrical interfaces
9-22
Operations system interfaces
9-23
Customer data interfaces
9-24
Ethernet interfaces
9-25
Timing and network synchronization
9-26
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9-1
Overview
Technical data
Transmission performance
9-27
Performance monitoring
9-28
Network element configurations
9-31
Operations, administrations, maintenance, and
protection
9-32
Network management
9-33
Bandwidth management
9-34
Protection and redundancy
9-35
Overhead bytes processing
9-37
Supervision and alarms
9-40
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9-2
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Technical data
Optical
interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The optical interfaces of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 have the
following optical outputs and line codes:
Table 9-1
Optical interfaces
STM-0
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
Optical
output
51.84 Mbit/s
155.52 Mbit/s
622.08 Mbit/s
2.488 Gbit/s
Optical line
code
Scrambled
non-return to zero,
(NRZ)
Scrambled
non-return to zero,
(NRZ)
Scrambled
non-return to zero,
(NRZ)
Scrambled non-return
to zero, (NRZ)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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9-3
Technical data
Electrical
interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The electrical interfaces of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 have the
following technical specifications:
Table 9-2
Electrical interfaces
Nominal bitrate
Line code
Insertion loss
Return loss
1.5 Mbit/s
1544 kbit/s
AMI (G.703)
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
2 Mbit/s
2048 kbit/s
HDB3 (G.703)
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
34 Mbit/s
34.368 Mbit/s
HDB3 (G.703)
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
45 Mbit/s
44.736 Mbit/s
B3ZS (ANSI
T1.102-1987).
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
140 Mbit/s
139.264 Mbit/s
CMI (G.703)
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
STM-1
155.520 Mbit/s
CMI (G.703)
acc. G.703
acc. G.703
The amplitude/shape of the DS1 output signal can be provisioned to
match the cable between the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1and the DDF, in
such a way that the pulse shape at the DDF, which can be up to 655
feet away, meets the specification. Five signal levels can be
provisioned in the transmitter, covering cable lengths between 0-131,
131-262, 262-393, 393-542 and 542-655 feet. The receiver has an
automatic line build-out capability to handle cable lengths between
0-655 feet. These lengths assume 22 AWG ABAM type cable with an
approximate f transfer and an attenuation of 5.5 dB and a phase
rotation of 30˚ at a frequency of 772 kHz.
The amplitude/shape of the DS3 output signal can be provisioned to
match the cable between the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1and the DDF, in
such a way that the pulse shape at the DDF, which can be up to 450
feet away, meets the specification.Two signal levels can be
provisioned in the transmitter, covering cable lengths between 0-120
and 120-450 feet. The receiver has an automatic line build-out
capability to handle cable lengths between 0-450 feet. These lengths
assume type 728 cable (Telcordia GR-139-CORE) with an
approximate f transfer and an attenuation of 5.7 dB and a phase
rotation of 38˚ at a frequency of 22.368 MHz.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9-4
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Technical data
Optical
connector interface
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
All STM-4 optical packs are equipped with a universal built-out
optical connector type, allowing the connector type to FC/PC or SC to
be changed on-site depending on the customer needs.
All STM-16 optical packs, except for SI-16EML9xxx/1 and
SI-EMLU16.2/1P which support an LC-connector, support the
universal build-out optical connector type. This connector type
supports both FC/PC and SC optical connectors.
The STM-1 optical circuit packs do have a SC-connection with a
conversion possibility to FC/PC.
The STM-0 does have a LC-connection with a conversion possibility
to FC/PC or SC.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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See notice on first page
9-5
Technical data
Optical
source and detector
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The optical sources and detectors of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 have
the following technical specifications
Table 9-3
Technical specifications of the optical source and detector
Optical circuit pack type
Laser type
Optical detector
Hazard level
(IEC-60825-2)
STM-0 1310 nm
FP (MLM)
PIN
1
S-1.1 1310 nm
FP (MLM)
PIN
1
L-1.2 1550 nm
DFB (SLM)
PIN
1
S-4.1 1310 nm
FP (MLM)
PIN
1
L 4.2 1550 nm
DFB (SLM)
PIN
1
L-16.1 ITU 1310 nm
DFB (SLM)
APD
1
L-16.2/3 standard ITU 1550
nm
DFB (SLM)
APD
1
16 EMLx/1 (x from 9190 to
9585)
EML (SLM)
APD
1
U-16.2 1550 nm
EML
APD
3A
V-16.2 1550 nm
DFB (SLM)
APD
1M
MLM
Multi longitudinal mode
SLM
Single longitudinal mode
EML
External modulated laser
DFB
Distributed feedback laser (= SLM)
FP
Fabry-Perot (= MLM)
APD
Avalanche photodiode
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9-6
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365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
Technical data
Optical
safety
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The system is classified and labelled as specified in IEC 60825-1 and
IEC 60825-2 “Radiation safety of laser products equipment,
classification, requirements and users guide”. All parts of the
equipment are designed to operate and be capable of being maintained
without hazard to personnel from optical radiation.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 System includes an automatic power
shutdown and restart (APSD) for the optical interworking pack with a
booster/pre-amplifier facility to prevent hazard to personnel from
optical radiation, as specified in ITU-T Recommendation G.664.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
365-312-833
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See notice on first page
9-7
Technical data
Optical
power budgets
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System is
designed to meet the optical power budget specifications indicated in
the following tables. These specifications are compliant with G.707,
G.957, G.958 and G.691. For special application and to avoid
overload if very short distances are being bridged, optical line build
outs (10 dB) are available at the send side (see Installation Guide).
Table 9-4
STM-0 / STM-1/STM-4
Application
unit
STM-0
S-1.1
S-4.1
L-1.2
L-4.2
Transmitter at reference point S:
Wavelength
range
nm
1270-1360
1270-1360
1283-1345
1535-1565
1535-1565
-max
dBm
–11
–8
–8
0
2
-min
dBm
–17
–15
–15
–5
–3
minimum
extinction ratio
dB
11
8.2
8.2
10
10
Optical Patch between S and R:
attenuation
range
dB
0-10
0-12
0-12
47027
45566
maximum
dispersion
ps/nm
N.A.
185
88
N.A.
2000
worst-case
dispersion
limited section
length
km
N.A.
35
22
Section is not
dispersion
limited
Section is not
dispersion
limited
Receiver at reference point R:
Minimum
sensitivity
(BER = 10–10)
dBm
–28
–28
–28
–34
–28
Minimum
overload level
dBm
–8
–8
–8
–10
–8
Maximum
optical path
penalty
dB
1
1
1
1
1
Table 9-5
STM-16
Application
unit
SI-L 16.1/1C(1D) ITU
SI-L 16.2/1C(1D) ITU
nm
1280-1335
1535-1565
nm
1
<1
Transmitter at reference point: S
Wavelength range
Spectral characteristics
Maximum –20 dB width
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9-8
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Optical power budgets
Table 9-5
STM-16
Technical data
(continued)
Application
unit
SI-L 16.1/1C(1D) ITU
SI-L 16.2/1C(1D) ITU
Minimum side mode
suppression ratio
dB
30
30
- Max
dBm
+2
+2
- Min
dBm
–2
–2
Minimum extinction ratio
dB
8.2
8.2
Attenuation range (G.652)@
BER = 10 –10
dB
10{24
11-24 (L16.2)
Attenuation range (G.653)@
BER = 10 –10
dB
N.A.
11-25 (L16.3)
Maximum dispersion
ps/nm
230
1800
Maximum return loss of
cable plant at S
dB
24
24
Maximum discrete
reflectance between S&R
dBm
–27
–27
Worst-case dispersion
limited section length (G.652
/ G.653 fiber)
km
53
G.652: 90 G.653: Section is
not dispersion limited.
Minimum sensitivity (BER =
10 –10)
dBm
–27
–28
Minimum overload level
dBm
–8
–8
Maximum optical path
penalty (G.652/653)
dB
1
G.652: 2G.653: 1
Maximum reflectance at R
dB
–27
–27
Mean launched power:
Optical patch between S and R:
Receiver at reference point R:
All values are End Of Life (EOL)
Table 9-6
1000BASE-SX / 1000BASE-LX
Application
unit
1000BASE-SX
MHz.km
62.5 µmMMF
160
Modal bandwidth as measured
at 850 nm for SX, and at 1310
nm for LX (minimum,
overfilled launch)
200
1000BASE-LX
50 µmMMF
400
500
62.5 µmMMF
500
50
10
µmMMF
µmSMF
400
n.a.
Transmitter at reference point TP2:
Wavelength range
nm
860 { 770
1270 { 1355
dBm
0
–3
Mean launched power
- max
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9-9
Optical power budgets
Table 9-6
Technical data
1000BASE-SX / 1000BASE-LX
Application
(continued)
unit
1000BASE-SX
MHz.km
62.5 µmMMF
1000BASE-LX
50 µmMMF
62.5 µmMMF
- min
dBm
–9.5
–11.5
Minimum extinction ratio
dB
9
9
50
10
µmMMF
µmSMF
–11.5
–11
Optical path between TP2 and TP3:
Attenuation range
dB
2.38
2.6
3.37
3.56
2.35
2.35
2.35
4.57
Operating distance
m
220
275
500
550
550
550
550
5000
Maximum dispersion
ps/nm
n.a.
n.a.
Worst-case dispersion limited
section length
km
n.a.
n.a.
Minimum sensitivity (BER =
10–12)
dBm
–17
–19
Minimum overload level
dBm
0
–3
Maximum optical path penalty
dB
4.27
5.08
3.96
3.27
Receiver at reference point TP3:
Table 9-7
4.29
4.07
3.57
3.48
1000BASE-ZX
EOL (end of
life)
requirements
Bit rate
1.25Gb/s
+/-100ppm
Operating wavelength range
1500-1580 nm
BOL (begin of
life)
requirements
[Non Peltier cooled]
Transmitter at reference point TP2
Source type
SLM
Spectral width under
operating conditions (max)
1.0 nm (20dB
down)
Side mode suppression ratio
(min)
30dB
Mean launched power (max)
+5 dBm
+4 dBm
Mean launched power (min)
0 dBm
+1 dBm
Extinction ratio (min)
9.0 dB
9.5 dB
Mask of the eye diagram of
the optical
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9-10
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Optical power budgets
Technical data
Table 9-7
1000BASE-ZX
(continued)
EOL (end of
life)
requirements
transmit signal
see IEEE802.3
Transmitter jitter (max)
345 ps
BOL (begin of
life)
requirements
Optical path between points TP2 and TP3
Optical return loss of the
cable plant at point TP2
20 dB
including the optical
connector
Maximum dispersion
1600 ps/nm
Attenuation range
5 - 21 dB
Optical path penalty (max)
1.5 dB
Receiver at reference point TP3
Table 9-8
Minimum sensitivity
-22.5 dBm
Overload
0 dBm
Optical return loss of the
receiver
12 dB
Jitter (max)
408ps
-23.7 dBm
Booster, booster/pre-amplifier and OLS 1.6T
APPLICATION
unit
SI-EMLU 16.2/1+
SI-EMLU 16.2/1+ LBA
SI-16EML x/1
LBPA U-16.2/1
V-16.2/1
nm
1552.52
1535-1560
1530-1565
- max
dBm
+15
+ 15
–3.8 (EOL)-4.6
(BOL)
- min
dBm
+12
+12
–6.2 (EOL)-5.4
(BOL)
Minimum extinction ratio
dB
8.2
8.2
13
dB
33 { 44
23 { 36
N.A.
Transmitter at reference point S:
Wavelength range
Mean launched power:
Optical patch between S and R:
Attenuation range (G.652)@
BER = 10 –12
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365-312-833
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See notice on first page
9-11
Optical power budgets
Table 9-8
Technical data
Booster, booster/pre-amplifier and OLS 1.6T
APPLICATION
unit
(continued)
SI-EMLU 16.2/1+
SI-EMLU 16.2/1+ LBA
LBPA U-16.2/1
V-16.2/1
SI-16EML x/1
Attenuation range (G.653)@
BER = 10 –12
dB
33 { 45
23 { 37
N.A.
Maximum dispersion
ps/nm
3200
2400
9600
Worst-case dispersion
limited section length
km
160
120
N.A.
Minimum sensitivity (BER
= 10 –12)
dBm
–34
–26
N.A.
Minimum overload level
dBm
–18
–8
N.A.
Maximum optical path
penalty
dB
2/1
2/1
2
N.A.
N.A.
12.5 (over –24 to
–10 dBm input
power)
Receiver at reference point R:
Minimum optical signal to
noise ratio (OSNR)
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Technical data
Power
specification
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Table 9-9
Voltage range
Voltage range, all components
–48 to –60 V Battery voltages, CEPT T/TR02-02 (–40.5 V
minimum, –72 V maximum)
Power feeders
Two power feeders
Table 9-10
Power dissipation
Configuration
Power Dissipation
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
450 { 600 Watt
Table 9-11
Power consumption
Unit Name
Unit type
Consumed Power (worst case) (W)
Power and Timing ±4.6 ppm
PT-stnd
15
Power and Timing ±0.37 ppm
PT-str3
16
System Controller
SC
31
SC2
26
Cross-connect 64/32
CC-64/32
CC-64/32B
45
Fixed cross-connect
CC-fixed
2.15
Optical booster and pre-amplifier
LBPA-U 16.2/1
19.2
Optical booster
LBA-V 16.2/1
11.2
Interworking pack for LBPA and LBA
application
SI-EMLU 16.2/1
37.6
STM-16 LH, 1310 nm
SI-L 16.1/1C
36.4
STM-16 LH, 1310 nm
SI-L 16.1/1D
22
STM-16 LH, 1550 nm
SI-L 16.2/1C
36.4
STM-16 LH, 1550 nm
SI-L 16.2/1D
22
STM-16 LH, 1550 nm
SI-L 16.2/1+4dB
36.4
STM-16 LH, 1550 nm
SI-L 16.3/1B
22
STM- 4 LH, 1550 nm
SI-L 4.2/1
8.5
STM- 4 SH, 1310 nm
SI-S 4.1/1
8.5
STM-16 interworking with the OLS
80G
SI-EML80.x/1
39.6
General units
57.6
Optical booster and pre-amplifier
Optical interfaces
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Power specification
Table 9-11
Technical data
Power consumption
(continued)
Unit Name
Unit type
Consumed Power (worst case) (W)
STM-16 interworking with the OLS
1.6T
SI-16EMLx/1
39.6
Gigabit Ethernet, optical interface
IP-GE/2
41.9
STM-1, optical interface
OI-L1.2/2
2.36
STM-1, optical interface
OI-S1.1/2 SC
3.5
STM-0, optical interface, SH 1310nm
OI-0/6
1.5
STM-1e/140 Mbit/s electrical
SPIA-1E4/4B
22
STM-0/AU-3 to TU-3
SA-0/12
41.7
STM-1
SIA-1/4B
22
2 Mbit/s
PI-E1/63
24
34/45 Mbit/s
PI-E3DS3/6+6
41.8
45 Mbit/s
PI-DS3/12
42.3
140 Mbit/s
PI-E4/4
21.2
10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T
IP-LAN/8
16.7
10/100 Mbit/s BASE-T
IP-LAN 8 Tlan+
42.4
-
15
Optical paddle boards
Electrical interfaces
Miscellaneous
Fans
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Technical data
Dimensions
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The subracks for the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport
System are compliant with the engineering requirements for subracks
mounted in miscellaneous racks and cabinets described in ETSI 300
119-4 for wide racks (600 × 600 mm). The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Multiplexer and Transport System is housed in a 500 mm wide
construction (required rack depth 600 mm).
Based on the above requirements, the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 outside
subrack dimensions are:
Subrack type
D× W× H
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 High Density EFA4
545 × 500 × 750 mm
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Technical data
System
weight
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
System configuration
Weight
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 max. configuration
less then 70 kg (including internal cables)
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Technical data
Electrical
connectors
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
All transmission interfaces are connected to the backplane
METRAL ™ connector system
•
All non-transmission interfaces are connected via Sub-D type
connectors via the integrated interconnection Panel (ICP).
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Technical data
Environmental
specifications
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Table 9-12
Climatic conditions
Climatic Conditions
Temperature range
Humidity
ETSI Class
Environment
–5 { +45 °C
3 { 90% (NC)
3.1e
Storage
–25 { +55 °C
up to 100% (NC)
1.2
Transport
–40 { +70 °C
up to 95% (NC)
2.3
NC: Non-condensing
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System
mounted in a 2000 mm rack comply with earthquake proof: zone 4
(modified Mercalli scale > 9) requirements as per IEC721-2-6.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport System fulfills
the requirements as specified in ETSI 300 386-1; Public
Telecommunication Network Equipment. EMC/ESD requirements as
also indicated in the table below.
Table 9-13
Environmental conditions
Radiated emission
Conducted emission:
EN 55 022 Class B
AC power
EN 55 022 Class B
DC power
EN 55 022/ETS 300 386-1
Telecom ports
CISPR 22 Class B
Electrostatic discharge:
IEC 1000-4-2 level 4
EN 61000-4-2 level 4
Radiated immunity:
Electrical fast transient:
Surges:
Continuous wave:
IEC 1000-4-3 level 3
AC power
IEC 1000-4-4 level 3
DC power
IEC 1000-4-4 level 3
Telecom ports
IEC 1000-4-4 level 3
AC power
IEC 1000-4-5 level 4
Indoor telecom port
ETS 300 386-1
AC power
IEC 1000-4-6 level 2
DC power
IEC 1000-4-6 level 2
Telecom ports
IEC 1000-4-6 level 2
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Technical data
General
ITU-T recommendations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 is in compliance with the
•
General ITU-T Recommendations: G.707
•
Equipment Recommendations: G.781, G.782, G.783, G.784,
G.813
•
Physical interface Recommendations: G.957 and G.691 for
optical and G.703 for electrical interfaces.
•
Performance requirements: G.823, G.825, G.826
•
Optical safety requirements: G.664
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Technical data
Mapping
structure
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The following mapping structures are supported:
Between cross-connect and line/tributary interface, SDH mappings:
•
AU-4-4c ↔ AUG4 ↔ AUG16 ↔ STM-16
•
AU-4 ↔ AUG1 ↔ AUG4 ↔ AUG16 ↔ STM-16
•
AU-4-4c ↔ AUG4 ↔ STM-4
•
AU-4 ↔ AUG1 ↔ AUG4 ↔ STM-4
•
AU-4 ↔ AUG1 ↔ STM-1
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ E4
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ E3/DS3
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TUG-2 ↔ TU-12 ↔ VC-12
↔ E1
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TUG-2 ↔ TU-12 ↔ VC-11
↔ DS1
Between cross-connect and tributary interface, with conversion from
TU-3 to AU-3:
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ AU-3
↔ STM-4 (OC-12)
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ AU-3
↔ STM-1 (OC-3)
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TU-3 ↔ VC-3 ↔ AU-3
↔ STM-0
Between cross-connect and tributary interface, Ethernet mapping on
LJB458 TransLAN ® unit:
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ TUG-2 ↔ n × TU-12 ↔ n
× VC-12 ↔ n × E1 ↔ ML PPP ↔ Ethernet
Between cross-connect and tributary interface, Ethernet mapping on
LJB459 TransLAN ® unit:
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ VC-3-Xv ↔ EOS ↔ Ethernet
•
AU-4 ↔ VC-4 ↔ TUG-3 ↔ VC-12-Xv ↔ Ethernet
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Mapping structure
Technical data
Between cross-connect and tributary interface, GbE Ethernet mapping
on LJB460 GbE unit:
•
WAN ↔ T1X1.5/99-268 (EOS) protocol ↔ VC-3-gv ↔ g
× TU-3 ↔ VC-4 (g = 1, 2) or
•
WAN ↔ T1X1.5/2001-024r4 (ITU-T G.7041, GFP) protocol
↔ C3-Xc ↔ VC-3-Xv ↔ X × VC-3 (X= 1, 2)
•
1000BaseX ↔ T1X1.5/2001-024r4 (ITU-T G.7041, GFP)
protocol ↔ C4-Xc ↔ VC-4-Xv ↔ X × VC-4 (X = 1, { , 4)
Support of different size (ss)-bit support on STM-1/4/16 interfaces
(new standards):
•
In the source direction, the transmitted ss-bits can be provisioned
in “10” (SDH mode, default) or “00” (SONET mode)
•
In the sink direction the incoming ss bits are ignored.
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Technical data
Electrical
interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The following electrical interfaces are available:
•
1.5 Mbit/s asynchronous/byte synchronous, 63 interfaces per
circuit pack
•
2 Mbit/s asynchronous/byte synchronous, 63 interfaces per circuit
pack
•
34 and 45 Mbit/s asynchronous, 6 interfaces each per circuit pack
•
45 Mbit/s asynchronous, 12 interfaces per circuit pack
•
140 Mbit/s asynchronous, 4 interfaces per circuit pack
•
STM-1 electrical intra-station, 4 interfaces per circuit pack.
•
Ethernet/LAN, 8 interfaces per circuit pack
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Technical data
Operations
system interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Office alarms
The steady state current for office alarms connections should not
exceed 0.9 A at 60 V or 1.8 A at 30 V. The maximum transient
currents (20 msec duration) during initial contact closure should not
exceed 9 A at 60 V or 18 A at 30 V.
Miscellaneous discrete inputs
Any external equipment to be monitored must provide the electrical
equivalent of a contact closure across the corresponding pairs. The
contact closure must be capable of passing at least 10 mA of drive
current, voltage specifications are CMOS compatible. There are eight
miscellaneous discrete input points for all WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
configurations.
Miscellaneous discrete outputs
All WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 configurations provide four miscellaneous
discrete output: hard contacts, contact rating 60V/0.5 A.
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Technical data
Customer
data interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The system supports 4 interfaces for customer access to user bytes, 2
interfaces are according G.703, 2 interfaces are according V.11. The
user can select six of the following 64 kbit/s OH-channels to be
routed to the connector points:
•
Engineering order wire E1 or E2, 64 kbit/s
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 offers external access to the E1 or E2
bytes for all STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 interfaces. Access is
via a connector on the interconnection panel.
•
User channels F1, 64 kbit/s
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 offers external access to the section
user channel F1 byte for all STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16
interfaces. Access is via a connector on the interconnection panel.
•
National Use bytes, RS-NU and MS-NU, 64 kbit/s
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 offers external access to the section
user channel RS-NU and MS-NU byte of STM-1#1 for all
STM-1, STM-4 and STM-16 interfaces. Access is via a connector
on the interconnection panel.
Note: RS-NU and MS-NU access on STM-16 requires the new
STM-16 units LJB435-LJB436 (SI-L16.1/1D and SI-L16.2/1D).
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Technical data
Ethernet
interfaces
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
Electrical 10/100BASE-T Ethernet interfaces according to IEEE
802.3, 2000 edition with configurable auto-negotiation function.
•
1000BASE-SX optical interfaces or 1000BASE-LX optical
interfaces according IEEE 802.3 Clause 38
•
Multilink PPP on LJB458 unit according to RFC 1990.
•
EOS mapping on LJB459 according to T1X1.5/99-268 protocol.
•
LAN promiscuous mode according to RFC 1638.
•
Ethernet bridging according to IEEE 802.1d (1998 Edition)
•
VPN/Customer VLAN tagging or IEEE 802.1Q/IEEE 802.1ad
compliant VLAN Tagging
•
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) according to IEEE
802.1Q Clause 11
•
IEEE 802.1p QoS
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Technical data
Timing
and network synchronization
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Table 9-14
Timing modes
System
Free-running
Holdover mode
Locked mode with
reference
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1,
all configurations
÷
÷
one of the external
sync. inputs
one of the 2 Mbit/s
tributary inputs
one of the STM- N
inputs
Two types of timing packs are available:
•
Built-in oscillator standard, accuracy 4.6 ppm according G.813
option 1
•
Built-in oscillator stratum-3, accuracy 4.6 ppm according G.813
option 1, stability 0.37 ppm first 24 hours.
Support of the ETSI synchronization status message algorithms.
Two programmable input/output station clock interfaces: 2048 kHz
(G703.10) or 2048 kbit/s (G703.6, 75 or 120 Ω)
Timing Reference
•
Timing generator (4.6 ppm or 0.37 ppm)
•
Phase and frequency continuity at timing source switch-over
•
Automatic timing reference protection switching
•
Timing generator with hold-over
Pointer Justification Event Counter
The following parameters are available to estimate the synchronization
performance:
•
PJE-: Count of negative pointer justifications
•
PJE+: Count of positive pointer justifications
Both counters are present on one outgoing AU-4 pointer generation
circuit per outgoing STM-N.
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Technical data
Transmission
performance
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
Jitter on STM-N interfaces:G.813/G.825
•
Jitter on PDH interfaces:G.823/G.783
•
Error performance:G.826
•
Performance monitoring:G.784/G.826
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Technical data
Performance
monitoring
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Performance monitoring
termination points
Table 9-15
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 has Performance Monitoring capabilities at
the following termination points. These points depend on the actual
hardware configuration of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
Performance monitoring termination points
Termination points
Equipment
E1ElectricalPPITTP
for each of the 2 Mbit/s (E1) ports)
VC-12 TTP/CTP
for each of the 2 Mbit/s ports
VC-3 TTP/CTP
for each of the 34 or 45 Mbit/s ports
VC-4 TTP/CTP
for each of the 140 Mbit/s ports and terminated VC-4s in the cross
connects
RS-16
for each of the 2.488 Gbit/s ports
MS-16
for each of the 2.488 Gbit/s ports
MS-4
for each of the 622 Mbit/s ports
MS-1
for each of the 155 Mbit/s ports.
Performance monitoring on VC-12 CTPs and VC-3 CTPs requires the
CC-64/32B (LJB434) cross-connect unit.
Performance monitoring
features
Table 9-16
The following number of bins are available for the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1:
Performance monitoring bins
Interval
History bins
Total History bin storage time
15 minute
16
4 hours
24 hour
1
1 day
A threshold can be set for these counts.
The following features are also available for performance monitoring:
•
Unavailable period registering
•
Severity settings for alarms on each termination point instance.
In releases up to Ruby Release 250 performance monitoring points are
supported.
With Ruby software, Ruby controller hardware (LJB457B) and Ruby
Cross-connect-64/32 (LJB434) 600 performance monitor points are
supported simultaneously.
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Performance monitoring
Technical data
With Pearl software, Ruby controller hardware (LJB457B) and Ruby
Cross-connect-64/32 (LJB434) 1200 performance monitor points are
supported simultaneously.
2 Mbit/s non-intrusive monitoring, AIS detection
•
Performance Monitoring
for LAN ports
It is possible to monitor the CRC-4, E-bit and A-bit information
in TS0 of any 2 Mbit/s in both directions for performance
monitoring purposes for G.704 structured 2 Mbit/s tributaries.
On the VC-3/VC-12 termination points that are connected to a WAN
port, the “normal” performance monitoring can be activated. The same
counters that apply for VC-3/VC-12TPs on any other port also apply
to the VC-3/VC-12 TP’s on a WAN port.
Apart from this standard SDH PM, a limited amount of counters that
are dedicated to LAN/WAN ports are defined. Activation of these
counters can be established by setting the LAN port mode to
monitored, selecting a LAN port or WAN port as active PM point,
and setting the PM point type to LAN or WAN.
The supported dedicated parameters are:
•
CbS (total number of bytes sent)
•
CbR (total number of bytes received)
•
pDe (packets in error dropped)
Note that CbS and CbR are rather traffic monitoring counters than
performance monitoring counters, as they give insight in the traffic
load in all places in the network. pDe is a real performance
monitoring counter as it gives an indication about the performance of
the network. Only unidirectional PM is supported for these
parameters. See Figure 9-1, “Performance monitoring counters” (9-30)
for the location of the measurements. Note that because of the
difference in units, bytes versus packets, the counters cannot be
correlated with each other. Also the counter for dropped packets
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9-29
Performance monitoring
Technical data
considers only packets dropped due to errors, and does not include
packets dropped due to congestion.
Figure 9-1 Performance monitoring counters
Performance Monitoring on
LAN connections (Gigabit
Ethernet ports)
It is possible to monitor byte and packet related performance
parameters on any external Ethernet port and any internal port linked
with VC-3/4-Xv channels. The following counters are supported for
each port:
•
Outgoing number of bytes
•
Incoming number of bytes
•
Number of incoming packets dropped
Accumulation of counts in 15 min and 24 hour bins can be selected
per port. Recent bins are stored: 16 recent 15 min bins and 1 recent
24 hours bin. Thresholding (TR/RTR) on counts of dropped incoming
packets can be enabled and configured per port.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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Technical data
Network
element configurations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system can be configured in the following
ways:
•
STM-16 0x1 and 1+1 End Terminal
•
STM-162-fiber Add/Drop Terminal
•
STM-160:1 or 0:2 Terminal
•
Local cross-connect
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Technical data
Operations,
administrations, maintenance, and protection
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
Installation self test
•
Auto recovery after input power failure
•
Local operations and maintenance via faceplate LEDs, buttons on
the SC, user panel, F-interfaces
•
Centralized operations and maintenance via Q-interface
•
Software downloading via Q and F-interfaces, DCC link
•
Alarm categories for indication of alarm severity and station
alarm interface (9 ×)
•
Local workstation (ITM-CIT)
•
8 × Miscellaneous discrete inputs and 4 outputs.
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Technical data
Network
management
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 can be managed with the following
systems:
•
Fully manageable by Navis ® Optical Management System
(OMS)
•
Local workstation (ITM-CIT) via J45 connections, V.10 (RS-232
compatible)/F-interface
•
Access to ECCs via in-station Q-LAN interface,
G.773-CLNS1/10-Base-T 10BASE-T: Twisted Pair Ethernet and
10-Base-2 10BASE-2: thin Ethernet or CheaperNet (coax cable)
Interfaces
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Technical data
Bandwidth
management
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
System capacity: 504 × 1.5 Mbit/s, 504 × 2 Mbit/s, 48 × 34
Mbit/s, 96 × 45 Mbit/s, 64 × 10/100Base-T LAN, 18 × GbE, 96
× STM-0, 32 × 140 Mbit/s, 32 × STM-1 or 8 × STM-4
•
Complete VC-4 cross-connecting
•
Bi-directional cross-connecting
•
Higher Order and lower order broadcast functionality
•
Protection access on MS-SPRing
•
Higher Order cross-connect size 64 × 64 VC-4
•
Lower Order cross-connect ranges up to 32 × 32 equivalents,
that is 2016 × 2016 VC-12s or 96 × 96 VC-3s.
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Technical data
Protection
and redundancy
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
•
Tributary level redundancy:
–
1: N equipment protection on 1.5 and 2 Mbit/s interface
circuit packs (Nmax = 8)
–
1+1 equipment protection on 34/45 Mbit/s Interface circuit
packs
–
1:N equipment protection on 140 Mbit/s and STM1e
interface circuit packs (Nmax = 4)
–
1+1 equipment protection on cross-connect circuit pack and
power and timing circuit pack)
•
Non- revertive SNCP/N protection on VC-12/VC-3/VC-4 level
according to G.841/Clause 8.
•
Programmable hold-off times
•
STM-0 optical interface circuit packs support 1+1 MSP according
to G.841 annex B.
•
STM-1 and STM-4 optical interface circuit packs support 1+1
MSP according to G.841 annex B, G.841 Clause 7.1/ETS
300417-3-1, ANSI T1.105 and Telcordia GR-253-CORE.
•
STM-16 optical interface circuit packs support 1+1 MSP
according to G.841/Clause 7.1/ETS 300417-3-1.
•
MS-SPRing in two fiber ring add/drop applications
•
Selective MS-SPRing. In 2-fiber add/drop ring applications, the
VC-4(-4c)’s in the ring can be protected by the MS-SPRing
algorithm according to G.841 and ETS 300417. The user has the
option to determine for each VC-4(-4c) individually, whether or
not it participates in the MS-SPRing scheme. If an individual
VC-4(-4c) does not participate then it can be either VC-4(-4c)
SNC protected or not protected at all.
•
Dual Node Interworking:
•
–
with drop and continue between SNCP and MS-SPRing on
two nodes
–
with drop and continue between two MS-SPRings
–
to support VC-4 concatenation
Maximum of 50 msec switching time for all protection
mechanisms mentioned above
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9-35
Protection and redundancy
Technical data
•
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol according IEEE 802.1w/D10
•
LCAS for Ethernet (1000BASE-X “lite”): The implementation is
base on Nortel/Lucent contribution to T1X1.5/2000-199r1 (T1X1
T1.105 Section 7.3.4).
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Technical data
Overhead
bytes processing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Regenerator section
overhead byte usage
Table 9-17
RSOH byte usage for STM-0 and STM-1
RSOH bytes
Function
STM-0 optical
inter-station
STM-0 optical
intra-station
STM-1 optical
inter-station
STM-1
electrical
intra-station
A1, A2
Framing
X
X
X
X
J0
Trace
identifier byte
X
X
X
X
Z0
Spare bytes,
for future
international
standardization
B1
BIP-8 on RS
(transmit only)
X
X
X
X
D1-D3
Data
communication
channel (DCC)
X
X
X
X
E1 #
OW channel
X
X
F1 #
User channel
X
X
Table 9-18
RSOH byte usage for STM-4 and STM-16
RSOH bytes
Function
STM-4
STM-16
A1, A2
Framing
X
X
J0
Trace identifier byte
X
X
Z0
Spare bytes, for future
international standardization
X
X
B1
BIP-8 on RS (transmit only)
X
X
E1 #
OW channel
X
X
F1 #
User channel
X
X
D1-D3
Data communication channel
(DCC)
X
X
RS-NU (STM-1#1)
National usage
X
X
“X”: Supported
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Overhead bytes processing
Technical data
Multiplex section overhead
byte usage
Table 9-19
MSOH byte usage for STM-0 and STM-1
MSOH
bytes
Function
STM-0
optical
inter-station
STM-0
optical
intra-station
STM-1
optical
inter-station
STM-1
electrical
intra-station
B2
BIP-8 (STM-0)/ BIP-24
(STM-1) on MS
X
X
X
X
K1, K2
(bits 1-5)
Automatic protection
switch (APS) channel
X
X
X
X
K2 (bits
6-8)
MS AIS/RDI Indicator
X
X
X
X
D4-D12
Data communication
channel (DCC)
X
X
X
X
S1 (bits
5-8)
Synchronization status
message
X
X
X
X
M1
REI (remote error
indication) byte, transmit
only
X
X
X
X
E2 #
Order wire channel
X
X
MSOH byte usage for STM-4 and STM-16
MSOH bytes
Function
STM-4
STM-16
B2
BIP-N×24 on MS
X
X
K1, K2(bits 1-5)
Automatic protection switch
X
X
K2(bits 6-8)
MS AIS/RDI Indicator
X
X
D4-D12
Data communication channel
(DCC)
X
X
S1 (bits 5-8)
Synchronization status message
X
X
M1
REI (remote error indication)
byte, transmit only
X
X
E2 #
Order wire channel
X
X
MS-NU (STM-1#1)
National usage
X
X
“X”: Supported
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Overhead bytes processing
Technical data
Path Overhead Bytes
VC-3/4/4-4c
VC-3/4/4-4c POH Byte
Function
140 Mbit/s Unit
CCU
J1
Path trace identifier byte
X
X
B3
BIP-8
X
X
C2
Signal label
X
X
G1
REI/RDI (transmit only)
X
X
F2
User channel
X
X
H4
Multiframe indicator
X
X
F3
As F2
Fixed to 0
Fixed to 0
K3
VC trail protection
Fixed to 0
Fixed to 0
N1
Tandem connection OH
Fixed to 0
Fixed to 0
X = Supported
Path Overhead Bytes
VC-12
VC-12 POH Byte
Function
2 Mbit/s unit
V5 (bit1, 2)
BIP-2
X
V5 (bit 3)
REI (transmit only)
X
V5 (bit 4)
Fixed to 0
V5 (bit 5, 6, 7)
Signal label
X
V5 (bit 8)
RDI (transmit only)
X
J2
Path trace
X
N2
Network operator byte
Fixed to 0
K4
Fixed to 0
“X”: Supported
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Technical data
Supervision
and alarms
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Plug-in unit indication
•
LED continuously on, diagnostic error
•
LED flashing, transmission signal error
•
LED indicators (Power, Prompt alarm, Deferred alarm, Info
alarm, Abnormal, Suppressed (alarm cut-off), Station alarm
disconnected, use CIT)
•
Push buttons (Suppress (alarm cut-off), Disconnect station
alarms)
•
Miscellaneous discrete input/outputs
User panel
•
Access to embedded data
communication channels
–
8 inputs
–
4 outputs
CIT connector F-interfaces V10/RS232
In-station Q-LAN interface, 10-Base-T and 10-Base-2.
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10
Quality and reliability
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter presents Lucent Technologies’ quality policy and
describes the reliability of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and
Transport system.
Contents
Lucent Technologies’ quality policy
10-2
Environmental aspects
10-3
Reliability program
10-5
Reliability specifications
10-6
Maintainability specification
10-10
10-10
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10-1
Quality and reliability
Lucent
Technologies’ quality policy
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
For Lucent Technologies, quality improvement has long been a
vehicle to improve customer satisfaction. For many years, Lucent
Technologies’ quality programs have been focused on improving
products and services. Total Quality programs and benchmarking are
important tools in our continuous improvement journey.
As ISO-9000 is a global standard for quality management and
assurance, Lucent Technologies wants to use ISO-9000 certification to
demonstrate to its customers the company’s commitment to producing
the best quality products and services. We believe that ISO-9000
registration as an independent assessment of the company’s quality
system is particularly useful to demonstrate that commitment to
quality. In line with this policy, all major transmission facilities in the
USA and Europe are ISO-9000 certified.
Policy
In line with above, Lucent Technologies’ policy statement in this
respect is as follows.
Quality excellence is the foundation for the management of our
business and the keystone of our goal of customer satisfaction. It is,
therefore, our policy to:
Summary
•
Consistently provide products and services that meet the quality
expectations of our customers
•
Actively pursue ever-improving quality through programs that
enable each employee to do his or her job right the first time.
This Lucent Technologies Quality Policy guided the development of
the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport system and will
continue to affect the product throughout its lifetime.
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Quality and reliability
Environmental
aspects
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
Lucent Technologies has elected to move forward with ISO 14001 for
environmental management systems for its operations and facilities. In
fact, as part of our environmental, health, and safety goals, we have
committed to have in place EH&S management systems-based on
recognized standards such as ISO 14001-for at least 95% of our
products, services, operations and facilities by the year 2000.
At the end of year 1998, 23 Lucent facilities, operations, and services
have been ISO 14001 certified by third party auditors. The two optical
networking group (the business unit that makes the WaveStar ® ADM
16/1 Product) manufacturing facilities, has already received ISO
14001 certification, in September 1998.
Lucent’s environmental commitment is demonstrated through its
structure of environmental and health and safety personnel throughout
all levels of the company. A company officer supports the setting of
corporate goals and policies, and a Global Environmental Health and
Safety vice president oversees environmental aspects for operations
worldwide. In addition, each of the business units (including the
optical networking group, the unit that manufactures the WaveStar ®
Product) has its own responsible environment and safety officer.
Finally, each facility has environmental managers who are responsible
for compliance and the implementation of environmental management
systems such as ISO 14001.
Corporate environmental
protection
Lucent Technologies has developed several effective systems for
corporate environmental protection. In fact, Lucent’s environmental,
health, and safety goals 2000 include having in place EH&S
management systems-based on recognized standards-for at least 95%
of our products, services, operations, and facilities by the year 2000.
The goals for the year 2000 are:
1.
Deployment of environmental management systems for at least
95% of our products, services, operations and facilities by the
year 2000.
2.
Deployment of design for environment criteria for all business
groups. As of year-end 1997.
3.
Improvement of energy efficiency to avoid the emission of at
least 135.000 metric tons of greenhouse gases by the year 2000.
As of year-end 1997 110.553 metric tons of carbon dioxide has
been avoided.
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10-3
Environmental aspects
EH&S worldwide standards
Quality and reliability
In addition, the Lucent Technologies EH&S worldwide standards were
deployed in 1997, including:
1.
Banned substances for products; dyes, pigments and stabilizers;
packaging; maintenance and repair of products and production
equipment; facilities and operations. A list of banned substances
is available on request);
2.
Chemical management;
3.
Ozone depleting substances;
4.
Water and wastewater management;
5.
Hazardous waste and contaminated scrap;
6.
Transportation of hazardous materials and wastes; and real estate
transactions.
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Quality and reliability
Reliability
program
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Reliability is a key ingredient of the product life cycle, beginning at
the earliest planning stage. Major occurrences at the start of the
project involved system reliability modeling.
During the design and development stage, reliability predictions,
qualification and selection of components, definition of quality
assurance audit standards and prototyping of critical system areas
ensured built-in reliability.
During manufacturing and field deployment, techniques such as
pre-manufacturing, qualification, production quality tracking, burn-in
tests, failure mode analysis and feedback and correction further
enhance the ongoing reliability of the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Multiplexer and Transport system.
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10-5
Quality and reliability
Reliability
specifications
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides various hardware redundancy and
protective switching mechanisms where necessary to support high
service availability.
Redundancy and
protective switching
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 supports the principle that protective
switching options should be available for all units and busses that
could lead to service degradation when a failure occurs. Therefore, the
system is divided into blocks, which allow for separate protection
switching.
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 provides protection switching options for
the following units:
Table 10-1
Protection switching options
Unit
Protection switching plan
CC-64/16
1+1, non-revertive
CC-64/32
1+1, non-revertive
PT-stnd
1+1, non-revertive
PT-str3
1+1, non-revertive
PI-DS1/63
1+ n, n = 8 at maximum, revertive
PI-E1/63
1+ n, n = 8 at maximum, revertive
PI-DS3/12
1+1, revertive
PI-E3DS3/6+6
1+1, revertive
SPIA-1E4/4B
1: n, n = 4 at maximum, revertive
SIA-1/4B
1: n, n = 4 at maximum, revertive
Reliability and service
availability
The system has a minimal lifetime of 15 years. The reliability of the
system can be characterized by the mean time between failures
(MTBF is in years). For the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 the MTBF is 2.5
years.
To guarantee service availability a variety of traffic protection
mechanisms are supported by the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1:
•
Path protection or SNC/N (subnetwork connection protection
with non-intrusive monitoring) for Higher and lower order VCs
•
Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring or MS-SPRing
(selective) at STM-16 level.
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Reliability specifications
Table 10-2
Common
CC
Line Interfaces
Quality and reliability
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 circuit packs fit rate
Unit Name
Fitrate Unit (10–9 failures per hour)
FAN
11100 1
FAN CM1 (paddle board without fans)
330
PT-Str3/SEC
3950
T1-DS2 DS0/1
1950
SC
6900
SC2
6710
CC-64/16
4100
CC-64/32
4900
CC-64/32B
4700
CC-fixed
1045
SI-L16.1/1, SI-L16 2/1
8350
SI-L16.1/B SI-L16.2/B
8350
SI-L16.3/1X
8350
SI-L16-CR
8300
SI-16EML80.X/1
8020
SI-16EML9XXX/1
5940
LBA-V16.2/1
6070
LBPA-U16.2/1
10400
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10-7
Reliability specifications
Table 10-2
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 circuit packs fit rate
Tributary Interfaces
Paddleboards
Quality and reliability
(continued)
Unit Name
Fitrate Unit (10–9 failures per hour)
SI-S4.1/1
1500
SI-L4.1/1 SI-L4.2/1
2050
SI-1/4
6010
SA-1/4
3600
SA-1/4B
7200
SA-0/12
9180
OI-I.1/2
1090
OI-S1.1/2
1090
OI-0/6
3510
SPIA-1E4/4
1830
PI-1/4
7800
PI-DS3/12 PI-E3DS3/6+6
7120
PI-E3DS3/12
3428
PI-DS3/6 PI-E3/6
4109
PI-DS1/63
6550
PI-E1/63
5860
IP-LAN/8
tbd
IP-LAN 8 Tlan+
4517
IP-GE/2 without optics
3862
PB-1E4/W/2
615
PB-1E4/PP2/2
780
PB-E3DS3/6
450
PB-DS1/100/32
490
PB-DS1/P100/32
1900
PB-E1/75/32
24
PB-E1/120/32
344
PB-E1/P75/32
495
PB-E1/P120/32
812
Notes:
1.
The manufacturer specifies the L10-lifetime (10% of all fan’s have failed) at 45 °C to be 90.000 hours
(10.27 years).
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Reliability specifications
Robustness
Quality and reliability
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 meets ITU recommendations concerning
robustness. This means that:
•
Incorrect provisioning of options (software and/or hardware) does
not lead to damage or degradation of the units.
•
Changing a unit under operational conditions does not lead to
damage or degradation of the units.
•
When a non-traffic-carrying unit is plugged in or removed, no
errors will be caused in the transmission of the system.
•
When a traffic-carrying unit is plugged in or removed, no errors
will be caused in any traffic not directly related to that unit.
•
Short-circuiting of any electrical inputs and outputs (except the
Primary Power feeds) on user accessible connectors will not
cause any damage or degradation.
•
There will be no degradation in the equipment performance when
the subrack and each card are individually subjected to a
percussion test.
•
Insertion of the incorrect card in to any slot will not cause
damage to card or slot.
•
Removal of any card (including SC) will not inhibit alarms
reporting to the station alarm scheme or management system.
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10-9
Quality and reliability
Maintainability
specification
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
The WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 requires no periodic maintenance.
For the subrack equipped with a fan, the filter should be replaced
once a year.
Continuous performance monitoring allows the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1
Multiplexer & Transport to detect and report problems before they
become service affecting.
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11
Product support
Overview
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Purpose
This chapter describes Lucent Technologies’ support for the
WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 Multiplexer and Transport system. This
includes engineering and installation services, technical support,
documentation support and training.
Contents
Introduction
11-2
Engineering and installation services
11-3
Training support
11-4
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11-1
Product support
Introduction
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lucent Technologies is convinced that product support is an important
part of its total product offering. Lucent Technologies offers various
services for the planning, implementation and operations of networks
with the WaveStar ® product family. Services for network planning
include economical and technical support and network planning and
design. Project implementation services include site-surveys,
engineering, installation and testing, acceptance support, database
preparation and project management. Operations services such as field
support, repair and exchange services, product introduction services
and emergency recovery services can be provided. The introduction of
the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 system in networks and the corresponding
organizations is supported by a comprehensive set of training and
documentation offerings.
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Product support
Engineering
and installation services
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Mission
The Lucent Technologies Professional Services organization is
committed to providing customers with quality product support
services. Whether there is a need for assistance in engineering,
installation, normal maintenance, or disaster recovery, the support staff
will provide you with the quality technical support you need to get
your job done. Each segment of the Professional Services organization
regards the customer as its highest priority and understands your
obligation to maintain quality service for your own customers.
Within the Professional Services organization, the Engineering and
Installation Services Group provides a highly skilled force of support
personnel to provide customers with quality engineering and
installation services. These engineering and installation specialists use
state-of-the-art technology, equipment and procedures to provide
customers with highly competent, rapid response services. These
services include analyzing your equipment request, preparing a
detailed specification for manufacturing and installation, creating and
maintaining job records, installing the equipment, and testing and
turning over a working system.
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11-3
Product support
Training
support
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Summary
Registering for a course or
arranging an on-site
training
To complement your product needs, Lucent Technologies offers a
formal training package, with the single training courses scheduled
regularly at Lucent Technologies’ corporate training centers or to be
arranged as on-site trainings at your facility.
To enroll in a training course at one of the Lucent Technologies
corporate training centers or to arrange an on-site training at your
facility (suitcasing), please contact:
Asia, Pacific, and China
Training Center Singapore, Singapore
voice: +65 6240 8394
fax: +65 6240 8017
Central America and
Latin America
Training Center Mexico City, Mexico
voice: +52 55 527 87187
fax: +52 55 527 87185
Europe, Middle East,
and Africa
Training Center Nuremberg, Germany
voice: +49 911 526 3831
fax: +49 911 526 6142
North American Region
Training Center Altamonte Springs, USA
voice: +1-888-582-3688 – prompt 2
(+1-888-LUCENT8 – prompt 2).
To review the available courses, to enroll for a training course at one
of Lucent Technologies’ corporate training centers, or to obtain
contact information please visit:
Lucent Technologies Products and Solutions Training Catalog
(https://www.lucent-product-training.com)
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Glossary
A
ADM
Add/Drop Multiplexer
AIS
Alarm Indication Signal – A code transmitted downstream in a digital network that shows that
an upstream failure has been detected and alarmed if the upstream alarm has not been
suppressed.
ALS or APSD
Automatic Laser Shutdown
APS
Automatic Protection Switch channel
Asynchronous
Refers to network elements that are not timed from reference traceable to a single Stratum-1
source.
ATM
Asynchronous Transport Mode
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B
BER
Bit Error Rate – The ratio of bits received in error to bits sent.
BIP
Bit Interleaved Parity – A method of error monitoring over a specified number of bits (BIP-3 or
BIP-8).
BIP-N
Bit Interleaved Parity-N – A method of error monitoring. With even parity, an N-bit code is
generated by the transmitting equipment over a specified portion of the signal so that the first
bit of the code provides even parity over the first bit of all N-bit sequences in the covered
portion of the signal. The second bit provides even parity over the second bits of all the N-bit
sequences within the specified portion, etc. Even parity is generated by setting the BIP-N bits
so that there are an even number of ones in each of all N-bit sequences including the BIP-N.
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G L O S S A R Y
G L - 1
Broadband Communication
Voice, data, and/or video communication at rates greater than 2 Mbit/s.
Broadband Service Transport
STM-1 concatenation transport over the SLM-2000 for ATM applications.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
C
CC
Cross-connect
CCITT
Comité Consultatif International Télégrafique & Téléphonique (International Telephone and
Telegraph Consultative Committee)
CE
Comité Européenne
CEPT
Conférence Européenne des Administrations des Postes et des Télécommunications
CIT
Craft Interface Terminal
CMI
Coded Mark Inversion
Concatenation
Combining the capacity of a multiplicity of Virtual Containers (VCs) into a single container by
maintaining the bit-sequence integrity across this container.
CP
Circuit Pack
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
D
DACS
Digital Access and Cross-connect System
DC
Direct Current
DCC
Data Communications Channel – The embedded overhead communication channel in the SDH
line. This is used for end-to-end communication and maintenance. It carries alarm, control, and
status information between network elements in an SDH network.
DCE
Data Communication Equipment – The equipment that provides the signal conversion and
coding between the data terminating equipment and the line. The DCE may be separate
equipment or a part of the data terminating equipment.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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DCN
Data Communications Network
DCS
Digital Cross-connect System
DDF
Digital Distribution Frame
Default Value Provisioning
The original values are preprogrammed at the factory. These values can be overridden using
local or remote provisioning.
Defect
A defect is a limited interruption of the ability of an item to perform a required function. It may
or may not lead to maintenance action depending on the results of additional analysis.
Demultiplexing
A process applied to a multiplexed signal for recovering signals combined within it and for
restoring the distinct individual channels of these signals.
Downstream
At or towards the destination of the considered transmission stream, i.e. looking in the same
transmission direction.
DTE
Data Terminating Equipment – The equipment that originates data for transmission and accepts
transmitted data.
Dual Node Interworking
Dual Node Interworking (DNI) is a configuration of two ring networks that share two common
nodes. DNI allows a circuit with one termination in one ring and one termination in another
ring to survive a loss-of-signal failure of the shared node that is currently carrying service for
the circuit.
DWDM
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
E
EC
European Community
ECC
Embedded Control Channel
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
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G L O S S A R Y
G L - 3
EL
Element Level
EM
Event Management. Subsystem of ITM that processes and logs event reports of the network.
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
EMS
Element Management System
EOW
Engineer Order Wire
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
ES
Errored Seconds – A performance monitoring parameter.
ESD
ElectroStatic Discharge
ETSI
European Telecommunication Standardization Institute
Externally Timed
An operating condition of a clock in which it is locked to an external reference and uses time
constants that are altered to quickly bring the local oscillator’s frequency into approximate
agreement with the synchronization reference frequency.
Extra Traffic
Unprotected traffic carried over the protection channels when that capacity is not used for the
protection of service traffic.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
F
FIT
Failures in Time – circuit-pack failure rate per 109 hours is calculated.
Flash EPROM
A new technology that combines the non-volatility of EPROM with the in-circuit
reprogrammability of EEPROM (Electrical-Erasable PROM).
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G L O S S A R Y
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Folded Rings
Folded (collapsed) rings are rings without fiber diversity. The terminology derives from the
image of folding a ring in a linear segment.
Free-running
An operating condition of a network element in which its local oscillator is not locked to any
synchronization reference and is not using any storage techniques to sustain its accuracy.
FT-LBA
FT-Lightwave Booster Amplifier
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
G
Gbit/s
Gigabits per second
GNE
Gateway Network Element – A network element that passes information between other network
elements and operation systems via a data communication network.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
H
HDLC
High-level Data Link Control; family of layer 2 protocols.
Holdover
An operating condition of a clock in which its local oscillator is not locked to an external
reference but is using storage techniques to maintain its accuracy with respect to the last known
frequency comparison with a synchronization reference.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
I
I/O
Input/Output
ICB
InterConnection Box
IEC
International Electrotechnology Commission or Interexchange Carrier
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ISM
Intelligent Synchronous Multiplexer
ISO
International Standards Organization
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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
J
Jitter
Jitter is defined as short-term variations of the significant instants of a digital signal from their
ideal position in time.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
L
LAN
Local Area Network
LBO
Line Build Out – An optical attenuator that guarantees the proper signal level and shape at the
receiver input.
Line
An optical transmission line. “Line” refers to a transmission medium, together with the
associated high-speed equipment, required to provide the means of transporting information
between two consecutive network elements, one of which originates the line signal and the other
terminates the line signal.
Loop Timing
A timing mode in which the terminal derives its transmit timing from the received line signal.
LS
Low-Speed part
LVD
Low Voltage Directive (EC)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
M
Manager
Is capable of issuing network management operations and receiving events
MCF
Message Communications Function. This function provides facilities for the transport and
routing of TMN messages to and from the network manager
Menu
A set of possible values for a parameter.
MIB
The Management Information Base is the database in the node and contains the configuration
data of the node. A copy of each MIB is available in the EMS and is called the MIB image.
Under normal circumstances, the MIB and MIB image of one node are synchronized.
Midspan Meet
The capability to interface between two Lightwave Terminals of different vendors. This applies
to high-speed optical interfaces.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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MS
Multiplexer Section
MSOH
Multiplex Section Overhead. Part of the SOH (section overhead). Is accessible only at line
terminals and multiplexers.
MSP
Multiplex Section Protection. Provides capability for switching a signal from a working to a
protection section.
MTBF
Mean Time Between Failures. The dimension of MTBF is in Years.
Multiplexing
A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher order
path, or multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex section.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
N
NE
Network Element. The NE is comprised of telecommunication equipment (or groups/parts of
telecommunication equipment) and support equipment that performs network element functions
and has one or more standard Q-type interfaces.
nm
Nanometer (10 –9 meter)
Node
A node or Network Element is defined as all equipment that is controlled by one system
controller.
Non-revertive switching
In non-revertive switching, there is an active and standby high-speed line, circuit pack, etc.
When a protection switch occurs, the standby line, circuit pack, etc., is selected causing the old
standby line, circuit pack, etc., to be used for the new active line, circuit pack, etc. The original
active line, circuit pack, etc., becomes the standby line, circuit pack, etc. This status remains in
effect when the fault clears. Therefore, this protection scheme is “non-revertive” in that there is
no switch back to the original status in effect before the fault occurred.
NPPA
Non-Preemptible Protection Access. Also known as NUT or selective MS SPRing.The user has
the option to determine for each VC-4(-4c) individually, whether or not it participates in the
MS-SPRing switching scheme. If an individual VC-4(-4c) does not participate then it can be
either VC-4(-4c) SNC protected or not protected at all.
NUT
Non-preemptable Unprotected Traffic. Also known as NPPA or selective MS SPRing. The user
has the option to determine for each VC-4(-4c) individually, whether or not it participates in the
MS-SPRing switching scheme. If an individual VC-4(-4c) does not participate then it can be
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G L - 7
either VC-4(-4c) SNC protected or not protected at all.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
O
OAM&P
Operations, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning
Operation Interface
Any interface providing you with information on the system behavior or control. These include
the equipment LEDs, user panel, WaveStar ® ADM 16/1-EM, office alarms, and all telemetry
interfaces.
Operations Interworking
The capability to access, operate, provision, and administer remote systems through WaveStar ®
ADM 16/1-EM access from any site in an SDH Network or from a centralized operations
system.
OS
Operations System – A central computer-based system used to provide operations,
administration, and maintenance functions.
OSI
Open System InterConnection
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
P
Parameter
A characteristic of the system that affects its operation.
Path
A path at a given rate is a logical connection between the point at which a standard format for a
signal at the given rate is assembled and the point at which the standard frame format for the
signal is disassembled.
Path AIS
Path Alarm Indication Signal – A path-level code that is sent downstream in a digital network as
an indication that an upstream failure has been detected and alarmed.
Path Terminating Equipment
Network elements in which the path overhead is terminated.
PBP
Paddle board
PDH
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
Phase Locked
See Externally Timed
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Platform
A platform is a family of equipment and software configurations designed to support a
particular application.
Plesiochronous Network
A network that contains multiple subnetworks, each internally synchronous and all operating at
the same nominal frequency, but whose timing may be slightly different at any particular
instant.
PLL
Phase Lock Loop
PM
Performance Monitoring – Measures the Quality of Service and identifies degrading or
marginally operating systems (before an alarm would be generated).
POTS
Plain Old Telephone Service
PPI
Plesiochronous Physical Interface
Pre-provisioning
The capability to provision a slot before installing a circuit pack.
Proactive Maintenance
Refers to the process of detecting degrading conditions not severe enough to initiate protection
switching or alarming, but indicative of an impending signal fail or signal degrade defect.
Protection
Label attached to a physical entity. In case of reverse switching, the protection line or circuit
pack is the entity that is not carrying service (standby) under normal operation. The label has
no particular meaning in case of non-reverse switching.
Provisioning
Assigning a value to a system parameter.
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
PT-stnd
Power and timing circuit pack of WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 providing synchronization and power
filtering, 4.6 ppm hold over accuracy.
PT-str3
Power and timing circuit pack of WaveStar ® ADM 16/1 providing synchronization and power
filtering, 0.37 ppm hold over accuracy.
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....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
R
RDI
Remote Defect Indicator – [(Previously called Far-End-Receive-Failure (FERF)] An indication
returned to a transmitting terminal that the receiving terminal has detected an incoming section
failure.
Receive-direction
The direction towards the cross-connect
Revertive Switching
In revertive switching, there is a working and protection high-speed line, circuit pack, etc.
When a protection switch occurs, the protection line, circuit pack, etc., is selected. When the
fault clears, service “reverts” back to the original working line.
RSOH
Regenerator Section Overhead. Part of SOH.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
S
SC
System Controller
SD
Signal degrade
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Definition of the degree of control of the various clocks in a
digital network over other clocks.
Section
A transport entity in the transmission media layer network which provides integrity of
information transfer across a section layer network connection by means of a termination
function at the section layer.
SEFS
Severely Errored Frame Seconds – A performance monitoring parameter.
Self-healing
A network’s ability to automatically recover from the failure of one or more of its components
SEMF
Synchronous Equipment Management Function. This function converts performance data and
implementation-specific hardware alarms into object-oriented messages for transmission over the
DCC and/or Q-interface. It also converts object-oriented messages related to other management
functions for passing across the S reference points
Service
The operational mode of a physical entity that indicates that the entity is providing service. This
designation changes with each switch action.
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SES
Severely Errored Seconds – A performance monitoring parameter.
SF
Signal Fail
SLM
Synchronous Line Multiplexer
SOH
Section Overhead. Capacity added to either an AU-4 or assembly of AU-3s to create an STM-1.
Contains always STM-1 framing and optionally maintenance and operational functions. SOH can
be subdivided in MSOH (multiplex section overhead) and RSOH (regenerator section overhead).
SONET
Synchronous Optical NETwork
Standby
The operational mode of a physical entity that indicates that the entity is not providing service,
but standby. This designation changes with each switch action.
STM
Synchronous Transport Module Building block of SDH.
Subnetwork
A group of interconnected/interrelated network elements. The most common connotation is an
SDH Network in which the network elements have data communications channels (DCC)
connectivity.
Synchronous
Refers to Network elements that are timed from references traceable to a single Stratum-1 clock
source.
Synchronous Network
The synchronization of synchronous transmission systems with synchronous payloads to a
master network clock that can be traced to a single reference clock.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
T
TMN
Telecommunications Management Network
Transmit-direction
The direction outward from the cross-connect.
Tributary
A 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 45 Mbit/s, 51.84 Mbit/s (STM-0), 140 Mbit/s (CEPT-4), 155 Mbit/s
(STM-1) or 622 Mbit/s (STM-4) signal within the WaveStar ® ADM 16/1.
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TSA
Time Slot Assignment
TSI
Timeslot Interchange
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
U
UAS
Unavailable Seconds – A performance monitoring parameter.
Upgrade
An upgrade is the addition of new capabilities (feature). This requires new software and may
require new hardware.
Upstream
At or towards the source of the considered transmission stream, i.e. looking in the opposite
direction of transmission.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
V
Value
A number, text string, or other menu selection associated with a parameter.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
W
WaveStar ® DACS 4/4/1
One of Lucent Technologies’ PDH/SDH-ready digital access and Cross-connect systems.
WDM
Wavelength Division Multiplex
Wideband Communications
Voice, data, and/or video communication at digital rates from 64 kbit/s to 2 Mbit/s.
Working
Label attached to a physical entity. In case of revertive switching, the working line or circuit
pack is the entity that is carrying service under normal operation. In case of non-revertive
switching, the label has no particular meaning.
WS
Workstation
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Index
Numerics
1000BASE-X Gigabit
Ethernet tributary board,
4-34
........................................................
A
Access node, 2-45
2-45, 2-46
2-46
AU-3 / TU-3 conversion,
2-9 4-36
2-9,
4-36
Availability, 1-5
........................................................
Bandwidth allocation
(GbE), 2-28
2-28
Basic architecture, 1-4
1-4, 4-2
4-2
Blocked port, 2-34
2-34
Configuration rules, 8-6
8-6
DNI, 2-5
2-5
Contiguous concatenation,
3-12
Drop and continue, 2-5
2-5
CQS
See: Classification,
Queueing and
Scheduling
Dropping precedence, 2-80
2-80
1-5 4-3
Cross-connect, 1-5,
4-3,
4-36
Dual WDM unit, 7-6
7-6
Customer role port, 2-55
2-55
Cascaded protection, 2-6
2-6
Customer-role port, 2-53
2-53,
2-60
2-60, 2-72
2-72, 2-72
2-72
........................................................
Circuit pack naming, 8-9
8-9
CIT interface, 5-5
5-5
D
DSL, 2-21
2-21
Dimensions, 2-14
2-14
Customer identifier (CID),
2-55
Cabling, 7-15
7-15
Digital Subscriber Line
Committed information rate
(CIR), 2-80
2-80
Customer identification
(CID), 2-60
2-60
1-3 2-3
Broadcast, 1-3,
2-3, 3-2
3-2,
3-11
........................................................
Circuit pack types, 4-9
4-9
Differential delay, 2-28
2-28
Committed burst size
(CBS), 2-80
2-80
1-3 2-3
ATM, 1-3,
Circuit pack faceplate
LED, 5-3
5-3
Designated port, 2-34
2-34
Color unaware one-rate
two-color marker, 2-80
2-80
AIS detection, 5-14
5-14
C
Delay-sensitive traffic,
2-86
Collapsed ring, 3-5
3-5
Add/drop capacity, 1-2
1-2
B
Delay-insensitive traffic,
2-86
Classification, Queueing
and Scheduling (CQS),
2-75
Data communication
1-6 2-1
channel (DCC), 1-6,
2-1,
5-6
Default user priority, 2-83
2-83
Dropper / Marker, 2-83
2-83
Dual Node Interworking
1-3 2-3
(DNI), 1-3,
2-3, 3-16
3-16
Dynamic bandwidth
adjustment (GbE), 2-28
2-28
Dynamic VLAN ID list,
2-61
........................................................
E
E4/STM-0/STM-1 circuit
pack, 4-36
4-36
Electrical connector, 9-17
9-17
Electrical paddle board, 4-8
4-8
, 8-15
8-15, 8-16
8-16
Electrical tributaries circuit
pack, 4-12
4-12
Electrical tributary
interface, 8-14
8-14
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Generic framing procedure
EoS encapsulation, 2-67
GFP, 2-67
Equipment protection
(redundancy), 4-44
4-44
Ethernet frame, 2-60
2-60
Generic framing procedure
(GFP), 2-18
2-18
Ethernet frame size, 2-18
2-18
GFP encapsulation
Ethernet interface, 2-21
2-21
2-19 2-67
VC12–Xv, 2-19,
2-67
Ethernet over SDH, 3-19
3-19
2-20 2-68
VC3–Xv, 2-20,
2-68
VC4–Xv, 2-21
2-21
EoS, 2-22
2-22, 2-67
2-67
Ethernet over SDH (EoS),
2-18
Ethernet switch, 2-17
2-17
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
tributary board, 4-13
4-13
1-3 2-3
Grooming, 1-3,
2-3
2-37 2-73
GVRP, 2-37,
2-73
........................................................
H
Higher order cross-connect,
1-5
2-58 2-62
Ethertype, 2-58,
2-62, 2-62
2-62,
2-63
2-63, 2-76
2-76
........................................................
F
Hold-over mode (HO), 2-7
2-7,
4-41
F interface, 2-11
2-11
Horizontal connector plate
(HCP), 7-11
7-11
Fiber connector conversion
kit, 7-12
7-12
Fixed cross-connect, 1-6
1-6
Flattened ring, 3-5
3-5
Flow classifier, 2-79
2-79
High-density shelf, 4-6
4-6
Hub node, 2-45
2-45, 2-46
2-46
1-3 2-3,
2-3 3-2
Hubbing, 1-3,
3-2, 3-9
3-9
........................................................
LAN port, 2-16
2-16
LAN-interconnect mode,
4-13
LAN-ISP interconnect,
3-20
LAN-to-LAN interconnect,
3-19
3-19, 3-19
3-19
LAN-VPN, 2-53
2-53
LAN-VPN application,
3-20
LAN-VPN mode, 4-13
4-13
LAN-VPN with 802.1p
QoS mode, 4-13
4-13
LAPS encapsulation, 2-67
2-67
LCAS
See: Link capacity
adjustment scheme
Learning bridges, 2-24
2-24
Line interface unit, 8-11
8-11
LTU, 2-21
Folded ring, 3-5
3-5, 3-7
3-7
IEEE 802.1ad VLAN
tagging mode, 2-62
2-62
Linear applications, 3-5
3-5
Free-running operation
(FR), 2-7
2-7, 4-41
4-41
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
tagging, 2-61
2-61
Link Access Procedure
SDH
Frequency offset handling,
2-7
Interconnection panel
(ICP), 7-7
7-7
Full time slot assignment
(TSA), 2-3
2-3
........................................................
interface
Ethernet, 2-21
2-21
Interface circuit packs, 1-6
1-6
G
LAN interconnect mode,
2-53
Line Termination Unit
I
Flow control, 2-51
2-51
LAN interconnect, 2-51
2-51
GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP), 2-37
2-37,
2-61
Generic framing procedure,
2-67
Generic Framing Procedure
GFP, 2-22
Interfaces, 4-2
4-2
ITM-Craft Interface
Terminal (ITM-CIT), 2-11
2-11
........................................................
J
Jumbo frames, 2-18
2-18
........................................................
L
LAN group, 2-17
2-17, 2-55
2-55,
2-60
LAPS, 2-67
2-67
Link Access Procedure
SDH (LAPS), 2-22
2-22
Link capacity adjustment
scheme
LCAS, 2-22
2-22
Link capacity adjustment
scheme (LCAS), 2-28
2-28
Locked mode (LO), 2-7
2-7,
4-41
Loop-back, 5-6
5-6
Lower order cross-connect,
1-5
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........................................................
M
Optical Gigabit Ethernet
interface, 4-9
4-9
Maintenance application,
5-9
Optical interface circuit
pack, 4-9
4-9
Maintenance signaling,
5-14
Optical interfaces for
tributaries, 4-9
4-9
Maximum bridge diameter,
2-32
LAN and WAN ports
details, 2-78
2-78
........................................................
Q
Q-LAN interface, 5-5
5-5
Optical tributary interface,
8-13
Quality of service, 2-25
2-25
Quality of Service, 2-75
2-75
Oversubscription mode,
2-82
........................................................
Quality of Service (QoS),
4-13
4-13, 5-9
5-9
Mixing, 2-3
2-3
MS-SPRing protected
STM-16 ring, 3-7
3-7
Multiplex Section
Protection (MSP), 2-3
2-3,
2-5
2-5, 4-45
4-45
PDH transmission, 6-3
6-3
Navis Optical
Management System
(OMS), 2-11
2-11
Network applications, 1-3
1-3
Network protection, 4-44
4-44
Network role port, 2-55
2-55
Network Termination Unit
NTU, 2-21
2-21
Network-role port, 2-53
2-53,
2-60 2-72
2-60,
2-72, 2-72
2-72
Non-revertive operation,
4-45
........................................................
O
Path protected ring, 1-3
1-3
Payload concatenation, 1-3
1-3,
2-3
2-3, 3-2
3-2, 3-12
3-12
®
Queue scheduling method,
2-86
........................................................
R
Peak information rate
(PIR), 2-81
2-81
Rapid spanning tree
protocol (rSTP), 2-35
2-35
Rate control, 2-46
2-46
Rate control mode, 2-82
2-82
Performance monitoring,
2-91
2-91, 5-9
5-9
Rate control modes, 2-81
2-81
Performance monitoring
counter, 5-9
5-9
Reliability, 1-5
1-5
Repeater, 2-49
2-49
Point-to-point (end)
terminal connections, 3-2
3-2
Repeater mode, 2-41
2-41, 4-13
4-13
Port role, 2-70
2-70
Report, 5-15
5-15
Port VLAN identifier
(PVID), 2-61
2-61
Revertive operation, 4-45
4-45
Power and timing
architecture, 4-39
4-39
Ring closure, 1-3
1-3, 3-15
3-15
Ring application, 3-6
3-6
Root port, 2-33
2-33
Power and timing circuit
pack (PT), 1-7
1-7, 4-4
4-4, 4-37
4-37
Printed circuit board, 7-5
7-5
Propagation delay, 2-28
2-28
Protected STM-N
point-to-point application,
3-3
Office alarm interface, 2-11
2-11
, 5-5
5-5
Protection mechanisms, 1-2
1-2
Optical amplifier, 4-9
4-9
Provider bridge tagging
mode, 2-62
2-62
Optical booster, 2-3
2-3, 2-10
2-10
Queue, 2-85
2-85
Path cost, 2-33
2-33
Multi-service application,
3-2
Multiplex Section Shared
Protection Ring
2-3 2-5
(MS-SPRing), 2-3,
2-5,
4-45
........................................................
N
P
Q interface, 2-11
2-11
Q-LAN, 2-11
2-11
Optical pre-amplifier, 2-10
2-10
Miscellaneous discrete
input (MDI), 2-11
2-11, 5-5
5-5
Miscellaneous discrete
output (MDO), 2-11
2-11, 5-5
5-5
Provisioning, 5-17
5-17
Provider bridge mode, 2-76
2-76
Routing, 1-5
1-5
rSTP
See: Rapid spanning tree
protocol
........................................................
S
Scheduler, 2-86
2-86
SDH Equipment Clock
1-7 2-7
(SEC), 1-7,
2-7, 4-4
4-4
Service level agreements,
2-77
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I N D E X
I N - 3
Signal types, 4-2
4-6 7-3
Subrack, 4-6,
7-3, 8-5
8-5
Single-pair High-speed
DSL
Switch priority, 2-33
2-33
Small cross-connect, 1-3
1-3,
2-3 3-2
2-3,
3-2, 3-9
3-9
Synchronization network,
8-3
2-3 2-5
SNC/N, 2-3,
2-5
Synchronization Status
Message (SSM), 2-7
2-7
SONET-SDH interworking,
3-17
Spanning tree, 2-56
2-56
Spanning tree protocol,
2-32
System Controller (SC),
1-6 4-4
1-6,
4-4, 4-37
4-37, 5-2
5-2
........................................................
T
Spanning Tree Switched
Network, 4-13
4-13
Timing and synchronization
interface circuit pack,
4-35
Static VLAN ID list, 2-61
2-61
Station equipment clocks
(SEC), 4-39
4-39
STM-16 optical line port
units, 4-9
4-9
STM-16 two fiber add/drop
terminal, 3-5
3-5
STM-N point-to-point (end)
terminal application, 3-3
3-3
STP
See: Spanning tree
protocol
User panel control, 5-3
5-3
User panel LEDs, 5-3
5-3
User priority, 2-83
2-83
........................................................
V
VC allocation (GbE), 2-31
2-31
Virtual concatenation, 1-3
1-3,
2-21
2-21, 2-26
2-26, 2-26
2-26, 3-2
3-2,
3-12
Virtual switch, 2-17
2-17
VLAN
trunking, 2-57
2-57
VLAN ID list, 2-61
2-61
VLAN tagging, 2-61
2-61
Timing marker, 2-3
2-3
Timing mode, 4-37
4-37, 4-40
4-40
VLAN trunking, 2-23
2-23, 2-44
2-44
, 3-21
3-21
Timing mode protection,
2-7
VLAN trunking
application, 4-13
4-13
Timing mode selection,
4-41
Timing reference
protection, 2-7
2-7
Traffic class, 2-84
2-84, 2-85
2-85
2-3, 3-2
3-2, 3-19
3-19
TransLAN ®, 2-3
VPN tagging, 2-55
2-55, 2-60
2-60
........................................................
W
WAN port, 2-16
2-16
WaveStar ® ITM-SC, 2-11
2-11
Weighted bandwidth, 2-86
2-86
TransLAN ® operation
modes, 4-13
4-13
Transparent tagging, 2-60
2-60
Strict policing mode, 2-81
2-81
Tributary interface mixing,
1-3
Strict priority, 2-86
2-86
Tributary retiming, 2-7
2-7
2-37 2-61,
2-61 2-73
STVRP, 2-37,
2-73
See: Spanning tree with
VPN registration
protocol
Tributary timing, 2-3
2-3
Sub-network Connection
Protection (SNCP), 4-45
4-45
User panel connector, 5-3
5-3
Timing, 4-39
4-39
Timing and synchronization
interface, 8-15
8-15
User channel, 5-6
5-6
User panel, 5-2
5-2
Time slot interchange
(TSI), 2-3
2-3
Spanning Tree Protocol
(STP), 4-13
4-13
Spanning tree with VPN
registration protocol
2-37 2-56
(STVRP), 2-37,
2-56,
2-61
U
2-7 2-7
Synchronization, 2-7,
2-7,
4-39
SHDSL, 2-21
2-21
SONET-SDH conversion,
2-3 3-2
2-3,
3-2, 3-17
3-17
........................................................
Trunking applications, 2-44
2-44
Trunking LAN interface,
2-62
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
I N D E X
I N - 4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
See notice on first page
365-312-833
Issue 1, May 2005
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