Atlas.SunSpots Volume 30, Issue 62

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Material Testing Product
and Technology News
Volume 30
Issue 62
Summer 2000
Enhancement of the HDT
Apparatus: Improved Accuracy
of Plastic HDT Measurements
by Gennady Plavnik, Ph.D.,
Research Program Manager
Allen Zielnik,
General Manager
Polymer Evaluation Products Division
Atlas Electric Devices Company (Chicago)
eat Deflection Temperature (HDT),
previously referenced as Deflection
Temperature Under Load (DTUL), is one of the
basic property characteristics used by
manufacturers of plastics for their certification.
The test method applies to both molded and sheet materials with a
thickness of 3 mm or greater. A polymer or compounded plastic specimen
is installed on supports with a predefined (by the standards) span
between them and preloaded by the force applied in the mid-span plane.
The applied force is calculated from the classic approach of the
material strength theory (generally known as stress analysis of a “simple
supported beam” of rectangular cross-section under bending load) to
achieve the stresses of 0.455 or 1.82 MPa.
Fx L 2
( /6 )
bd 2
Where S
b, d
In This Issue
Atlas Announces
New Partnerships
From the expression [1], the applied force may be written as:
(2bd 2)
Atlas’ HDV3
MFI2 Melt Flow
Indexer Enhanced
maximum fiber stress (at the surface) in the specimen, (Pa)
the applied load, (N)
span value between supports, (m)
width and depth of the specimen, (m)
Continued on page 4
Atlas to Unveil Vista6™
and CL400 ChemiLUME™
at NPE 2000
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Page 2
AtlasCommitment to Growth
Atlas Announces Partnerships
Raitech Partnership Expands an Already Extensive Line
of Textile Test Products
tlas Electric Devices Company is pleased to announce a partnership
between the Atlas Textile Test Products division and Raitech, Inc.
William Lane, Chairman of Atlas Electric Devices Co., announced the
purchase of 50 percent of all issued shares of Raitech.
The partnership between Atlas and Raitech will improve Atlas’
already strong ability to serve the textile industry. The Atlas Textile Test
Products division manufactures a variety of testing instruments for
testing colorfastness, abrasion resistance and flammability of textile
products. The partnership with Raitech, founded in 1995 by Mark Raiteri,
will allow Atlas to expand its product line offerings to include the
revolutionary Quickwash Plus™, an instrument developed and
commercialized by Raitech to be an accelerated tester for determining
dimensional stability or shrinkage of fabric. The Quickwash Plus is able
to reduce the traditional test times, which could take between 12 and 24
hours, to about 15 minutes per test. This drastic reduction in test time
allows a textile mill or laboratory to improve overall quality.
Bob Lattie, General Manager of Atlas’ Textile Test Products
division, said that he is pleased to be working with the dynamic and
nimble organization of Raitech. This partnership will strengthen and
enhance sales channels for Atlas and Raitech, and will allow for an added
emphasis on new product development for the textile industry. ■
The Quickwash Plus accelerates
testing for determining dimensional
stability or shrinkage of fabric.
Millipore Partnership Boosts Local Expertise in Purification Technology
tlas has recently developed a global partnership for water
purification systems with Millipore Corporation. The goal of this
partnership is to provide Atlas customers with global, high technology
coverage supported by local knowledge and expertise.
The utilities connected to the Atlas weathering instruments are
very important to the correct operation and longevity of the instruments.
In the past, Atlas had tried to assist customers with their local water
utility problems. This has not always been successful. The utilities of the
local laboratory need to be handled by local experts. Millipore has such
local experts in almost every country in the world.
Millipore is a multinational corporation specializing in
purification technology products and services. With 4,000 employees and
30 offices around the globe, Millipore provides product sales and service
for more than 100 countries. The company is a world leader in high
purity water systems and a resource for
water quality expertise. Millipore can
guarantee that consistently pure water
will be delivered to Atlas systems
everywhere in the world.
Atlas believes this partnership
will provide global solutions to local
utility problems and increase customer
satisfaction. For more information
about the partnership, please contact
your Atlas Sales Representative or email
us at To contact
Millipore directly, please visit their web
site at ■
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Page 3
Summer 2000
AtlasWeathering Services Group
Atlas Weathering
Services Group Test
Sites Re-accredited
tlas Weathering Services Group (AWSG)
announces that three of its outdoor exposure
sites have been re-accredited by the Automotive
Manufacturers Equipment Compliance Agency
(AMECA) for the testing of plastic materials for
optical lenses.
The sites that have received this reaccreditation are DSET Laboratories in Phoenix,
Arizona and South Florida Test Service (SFTS) at
both its Miami and Everglades sites. The
accreditation permits these sites to conduct
exposure tests and to perform visual and optical
properties evaluations required to determine the
acceptability of “Plastic Materials for use in Optical
Parts Such as Lenses and Reflex Reflectors of Motor
Vehicle Lighting Devices” (SAE J576 JUL91). The
data produced from these evaluations is reported
to AMECA for ultimate approval by the United States
Department of Transportation for use in vehicles in
the United States. The accreditation is valid for two
years and will be up for renewal in 2002.
Clients of DSET Laboratories and SFTS can
be assured of the competence and quality of services
provided. All three sites are accredited to ISO/IEC
Guide 25 by the American Association for Laboratory
Accreditation (A2LA), and are approved or accredited
by Ford Motor Company and General Motors
For a full list of accredited tests or calibrations
performed by Atlas Weathering Services Group,
please contact your Client Services Representative
at (800) 255-3738 or (623) 465-7356. Information is
also available by visiting the AWSG web site at ■
Kasho Merges with Toyota
Tsusho Corporation
asho Company, Ltd., Atlas Weathering Services
Group’s (AWSG) exclusive representative in Japan,
has recently announced a major and very positive
business development. Effective April 1, 2000, Kasho
merged with Toyota Tsusho Corporation, a multinational
Japanese corporation that serves as the international
trading arm of the Toyota Group of companies.
Toyota Tsusho Corporation specializes in
automobiles, automotive related products, metals, steel
and chemicals. Kasho, in addition to providing AWSG
weathering services to the Japanese market, trades
chemicals, rubber and food products. This merger
will result in a synergistic relationship between the
chemical and automotive products sectors and the
need for natural and accelerated weathering services
for these products.
Although the merger will result in a name
change for Kasho, all of the trained and experienced
staff will continue to provide their usual outstanding
service and expertise in representing AWSG. Mr. Koji
Takada, Weathering Services Team Leader in the
Polymer Additives Group, will continue his excellent
leadership in this area.
AWSG congratulates Kasho and Toyota Tsusho
Corporation on this fruitful partnership. We look
forward to the opportunities and relationships created
by the new organization.
For more information regarding the merger, please contact
Toyota Tsusho Corporation directly at:
Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Tokyo Head Office
Weathering Services Team
Polymer Additives Group, Performance Chemical Department
Mr. Koji Takada
2-14-9 Nihonbashi Chou-ku, Tokyo, 103-8666
Phone: 81-3-3242-8267
Fax: 81-3-3242-8509
Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Osaka Branch
Polymer Additives Group, Performance Chemical Department
Ms. Yukari Morisaki
4-3-11 Minami-senba Chuo-ku, Osaka, 542 8550
Phone: 81-6-6224-5701
Fax: 81-6-6224-5942 ■
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Page 4
HDT, from page 1
Following this approach for a simple supported beam the deflection in the middle
section of the beam may be expressed as:
F • L3
48E • I
Where ∆ – deflection, (m); F – the applied load, (N); E- modulus of elasticity, (N/m 2 ); L – span
value between supports, (m); I – moment of inertia of the cross-section, I=(bd3/12), (m4).
The specimen and support frame are immersed in a heat transfer medium for
linearly raising temperature (typically with a preset gradient of 120°C/minute). The
temperature of the medium at the moment when deflection of the specimen bar reaches a
value of 0.250 mm represents the Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) under flexural load.
The major test variables are standardized in the ASTM D648 and ISO 75-1, 2 standards: where
S = 0.455 MPa (66 psi) or 1.82 MPa (264 psi); L =100 mm (4 in); and the deflection
measurement device should be readable to 0.01 mm (0.0005 in) or better.
The standards provide guidance in conducting the test and describe general
requirements for the design of the test apparatus. However, advancements in plastics
technology, the necessity for quality improvement of plastic materials and new quality control
methods (“Six Sigma” and “Three Sigma” approaches, for example) required refinement of
the HDT apparatus design to provide test repeatability (for replicates of the same material) to
within 0.2–0.5°C.
We analyzed the theoretical and design concepts of the available HDT apparatus and
enhanced designs of Atlas’ HDV3 and Vista6™ instruments to satisfy the requirements of
modern industry and achieve superior accuracy and repeatability of measurements beyond
the original needs and requirements of the standards.
Specimen Support Frame Design
Span between supports
The standardization of span values of 100 mm and 4 inches occurred because of the
harmonization of the ISO and ASTM standards and the “metrification” of the latter. As a
result of interpretation of the span value of 100 mm (the ISO standard) in Imperial (“inch-lb.”)
measurement unit’s system, the ASTM value of 4 inches was accepted as exactly equivalent
to 100 mm span. However, in closer analysis 4 inches is equal to 101.6 mm, and
not equal to 100 mm. The test results for samples of materials conducted in
the same apparatus by using two different span supports, 4 inches and 100 mm,
confirmed that this small difference in span value may lead to a difference in
measured HDT as high as 4.0 to 5.0°C or more; this is clearly unacceptable
measurement error when applying the “6-Sigma” quality control approach of
leading global resin producers.
Results of analysis and test data regarding this discrepancy between the
ISO and ASTM standards, and between the older 4 inch and “new” 100 mm
metric ASTM method were reported by Atlas to the ASTM D20 committee on
plastics. A proposed modification to the ASTM standard D648 is under
The span-based discrepancy in final HDT temperature values could be
explained by the following. It is evident from expression [3] that in case of equal
Easily interchangeable universal
stress value, for specimens of the same dimensions, the deflection of the
specimen holder for HDT testing
specimens would depend on the value of the span between supports as:
in the Atlas HDV3
P1 L13
P2 L 23
[ ][ ][ ]
2Sbd 2
3L 1
3L 2
2Sbd 2
L 13
L 23
L 12
L 22
( )
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Page 5
Summer 2000
Where ∆1 and ∆2 are deflection for span values of L1 and L2 respectively.
From expression [4] it follows that for span values of 100.0 and 101.6 mm (4 in) the
magnitude of the deflection would be different, with the ratio of
( )
= 1.0323,
Results of HDT for different materials conducted on frames
(the deflection ∆2 corresponds to the span of 101.6 mm,
with different span between supports.
and deflection ∆1 for the span of 100 mm respectively).
Therefore, when deflection ∆2 of the specimen
100 mm span
4 in span
with supports of 101.6 mm span reaches the value of
(101.6 mm)
0.250 mm, the HDT2 temperature would be registered by
the system; the respective deflection ∆1 of the specimen
ABS, 1.8 MPa
with a support span of 100 mm would be 0.242 mm and
the test would be continued for some period of time until
PP natural, 0.45 MPa
deflection reaches 0.250 mm. As a result, the
temperature of the bath medium would continue to rise
PP filled, 0.45 MPa
and the resulting value of the measured HDT1 for the
same specimen of material would be higher.
Nylon, 1.8 MPa
Experiments conducted at Atlas and at the site of
a major engineering resin producer, with the same
samples material (polycarbonate) on test frames with
spans of 100 mm and 4 inches (101.6 mm), and further
ASTM round robin testing on several plastics types
with participation by several plastic material producers,
indicated that the difference in the measured HDT
results could be as high as 4.0 – 5.0°C or more (the
results being higher for equipment with a span width
between supports of 100 mm). Further, the value of the
difference is material dependent (Table 1).
This could be explained by significant nonlinearity in the deformation as most plastics
demonstrate non-linear deflection curves near the HDT
endpoint temperature (Fig. 1). The “deflectiontemperature curve” response characteristic for different
plastics could be described mathematically by
Fig. 1: Most plastics demonstrate non-linear deflection
polynomial expressions of different orders. It could be
curves near the HDT endpoint temperature.
certainly related to limitations of the theoretical approach that
had been used initially for initial design of the HDT test
technique. The approach of analysis of bending stresses in the
elastic range of deformation was applied to plastic materials which demonstrate non-linear
deformation response with temperature. Because of this, Atlas enhanced the span tolerance
value for our HDV3 and Vista6 systems to better than 100 ±0.2 mm.
Support frame materials and high temperature calibration
correction software
As a specimen and measurement system support frame design usually includes
various bars of circular or rectangular cross-section, which are connected to the base plate
Continued on next page
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Page 6
HDT, from previous page
and attached specimen supports, it is important that the linear deformation of the frame and
its elements due to thermal expansion not affect the measurement of specimen deformation.
This can be very detectable in the range of ~250–300°C and can become particularly acute at
the high temperatures used for some engineering resin.
Because of this Atlas uses special metal alloys — invar and titanium with coefficients
of linear thermal expansion of 0.12 1/°K (in the HDV3 — for application in the temperature
range up to 400°C) and 8.9 1/°K (in the Vista6 — for application in the temperature range up to
300°C) which are respectively 10 and 1.5 times lower than coefficient of linear thermal
expansion of steels normally used for this type of apparatus. To increase the accuracy of
measurement by considering systematic error due to deformation, a frame
calibration/correction procedure is included as a part of the instrument software. This
automatically calculates the true deflection of the polymer specimen as the algebraic
difference between the results of measurement and the results of the frame calibration
correction (if the operator selects the option). Fig. 2 shows the results of the measurement
correction calibration of six Invar frames installed in one of the HDV3 apparatuses as an
example of the above enhancements.
Heat Transfer Media Circulation
Intensive circulation of the heat transfer media within the bath of HDT instruments
(the HDV3 utilizes one stirrer, the Vista6 two counter-rotating stirrers) provides a
temperature gradient across the bath as low as 0.1°C. This also helps assure temperature
agreement between the specimen and measurement probe which must be in close proximity
but not contacting the specimen.
Temperature Measurement
The size of the thermosensitive probe element, its location in the relation to the
specimen, response time of the sensor and associated electronics, and resolution and accuracy
of the whole temperature measurement system are critical for accuracy in the HDT test
results. As the measurement of temperature of the heat transfer media is conducted in a
transient mode (because of the dynamic heating of the media with a preset 120°C/h ramp), the
temperature of the sensitive element (thermocouple or RTD) is described by expression [5]:
T – T0 = (T∞ – T0)• 1 – e
T∞ – Temperature of the heat transfer media
T0 – Initial temperature of the surface of the sensor
T – Temperature of the sensor element (inside of the sensor) at any instant of time
h – Coefficient of heat transfer at the surface of the sensor (thermocouple or RTD)
A – Area of the surface of the sensor
V – Volume of the material of the sensor element
c, ρ – Specific heat capacity and density of sensor element
It is clear that in cases of cylindrical or spherical sensor elements, the ratio A/V would be
defined by the diameter of the element as:
V =
(2πR2L) = R
For a cylindrical sensor element
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Page 7
Summer 2000
V =
[( ) ( )]
For a spherical sensor element
It is evident from the expressions [6, 7] that the response time of the typical
thermosensor is exponentially proportional to the size (diameter) of the sensing element, and
that above its critical size value the sensor would lag behind the true rise of the temperature,
resulting in a measured HDT temperature lower than actual value.
Because of this “thermal lag” effect from probe
size, in the Atlas instruments the size of the sensors
(type T thermocouple for HDV3 and RTD for Vista6)
provide total time response within several seconds, with
a total resolution of 0.1°C. Because results reflect the
temperature at the surface of the specimen (the
measured values should be as close to the values of
temperature at the specimen surface as possible) in the
HDV3 and Vista6 the thermosensors are located at very
close proximity (within 1.5–2.5 mm) to the specimen;
unlike of the implementation of some existing apparatus
the sensor elements do not contact the components of
support frame which can introduce a thermal mass and
result in a measurement lag. This high-speed
Fig. 2: Calibration of the frame
temperature measurement approach increases the
of the HDV3 machine
accuracy of the measurement HDT temperature in the
highly nonlinear deformation mode of plastic specimens
to a value of ±0.2°C.
Deflection Measurement
LVDT transducers used in the HDV3 and Vista6
provide resolution of the deflection measurement to
±0.001 mm.
Software Enhancements
Windows-based software provides complete
automatic control of the test, frame calibration, LIMS
data interface, statistical analysis, graphic and numerical
presentation of the test results, and test report options.
The Vista6 provides optional input of Mitutoyo electronic
micrometer data (measurement of the specimen
dimensions) into the software. To increase accuracy of
measurement, the software also provides fine
interpolation between discrete temperature measurements using
cubic spine interpolation techniques at the deflection point of 0.250 mm.
Fig. 3: Results of tests conducted on
HDV3 and Vista6 instruments
Test Results
Results of tests conducted on HDV3 and Vista6 instruments (graphical presentation
representative data shown in Fig. 3) demonstrates that the above enhancement provides
superior accuracy and repeatability of the test results within the range of 0.2–0.5°C. ■
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Page 8
AtlasTest Instruments Group
New WinPlast Data
Acquisition Package for
MFI2 Melt Flow Indexers
Atlas’ popular
MFI2 Melt Flow Indexers
will soon have new
data acquisition software.
he Atlas Polymer Evaluation Products division will introduce a
new Windows-based data acquisition package for its popular
MFI2 Melt Flow Indexers (extrusion plastometer) at NPE 2000
(Chicago, Illinois, June 19–23). The WinPlast package consists of
Windows PC software and a “smart” interface cable to convert the
MFI2 output to be compatible with a PC’s standard RS232C serial
port. No separate cards are placed in the PC, simplifying installation,
compatibility and PC networking.
The WinPlast package replaces the earlier DOS-based PC
Communications Package accessory; up to nine MFI2s can be
daisy-chained to a single PC port. Each MFI2 is coded with a unique
address so the software can identify the transmitting instrument in
the chain. Test condition parameters, raw test data, calculated results
(including rheological properties) and final reports can be
automatically sent by the MFI2 after each sample run or stored and
manually transmitted to the PC later.
From the PC the user can view, annotate and print all of the
above data. The data is automatically saved and named. A key
benefit of WinPlast is its ability to convert reports to Microsoft®
Excel format (.xls). This allows the Excel user to easily perform
custom analysis and report formatting, such as comparing test
runs, generating SQC charts and other graphics, flagging offspecification results and generating customized quality or end-user
certifications. Other applications software such as LIMS systems
can then use the data.
For security purposes only operator or sample related
information and test comments can be edited in WinPlast. Actual test
conditions and results are sent “as run” by the MFI2 and cannot be
edited in WinPlast. This is to comply with requirements of quality
systems such as ISO 25/17025 and ISO/QS 9000; test method setup
is done directly on the MFI2 and cannot be altered by the PC.
Existing MFI2s, and those currently using the PC
Communications Package, can be upgraded to use the new WinPlast
system; a simple programming (EPROM chip) change is required
plus the WinPlast package. New MFI2s shipped from Atlas will be
WinPlast enabled; hardware components are CE compliant.
For information on WinPlast or system upgrades, contact
your authorized Sales or Service Representative. ■
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Page 9
Summer 2000
BCX Cyclic Corrosion Exposure System
Fills Out Atlas’ Offerings
he Atlas BCX Cyclic Corrosion Exposure System is a
perfect addition to our wide range of corrosion
instruments. In test method capability, it fits in between
the existing Salt Fog and CCX Cyclic Corrosion
Exposure System models.
The BCX provides corrosion testing according to
ASTM G85 Annex 5 (Prohesion™) and other basic cyclic
(Wet/Dry) test methods. Compared with traditional
testing, basic cyclic tests in the Atlas BCX offer improved
correlation with outdoor exposures. It can also reform
traditional salt fog and humidity tests such as ASTM
B117, ASTM B368, ISO 9227 and JIS Z2371, in addition to
most CASS, SWAAT and acetic acid tests.
BCX standard features include microprocessor-based cyclic controls, which allow
automatic changes to environmental conditions. The controls are set by the operator to cycle
automatically between Salt Fog, Dry-off/Purge, Dwell and optional Direct Spray. A clear cover
allows easy viewing of test conditions. The Omni-Fog™ or Omni-FogII™ Dispersion Tower
provides precise control of fall-out rates for compliance with standard test methods. This patented
system provides for double baffling of fog, exceeding the requirements of many test methods.
The BCX’s modern, all-plastic construction assures accurate, repeatable and
reproducible testing, while taking up minimal floor space. The cabinet comes in four standard
sizes, 565 liters, 850 liters, 1130 liters and 2550 liters. Custom sizes are available, including
walk-in and drive-in.
To match an Atlas corrosion cabinet with an industry test method, please refer to the
chart below.
For more information about the BCX, please check the corresponding box on the
reply card or contact the Atlas sales support office for your territory. ■
Atlas’ BCX gives you
one more option for
corrosion testing.
Basic Cyclic
Advanced Cyclic
D1735; ASTM D2247; ASTM G85
A 1; ISO 7253; ISO 9227; DIN
50021; JIS Z2371
ASTM G85 A 2, 3 , and 5; ASTM
D5894; ISO 11977 part 1; IEC
60068-2-52 part 2; Prohesion™;
Wet/Dry Cyclic; Direct Solution Spray
ASTM G85 A 4; SAE J2334;
GM9540P; Nissan CCT I,II, III, IV;
VW1210; Immersion; Gas Injection;
Variable Humidity; Wet Bottom
Humidity; High/Low Temperature
Atlas SF
Atlas BCX
Atlas CCX
Almost no correlation with outdoor
Some correlation with outdoor
exposures for certain materials.
Certain test methods or test cycles may require installed options.
Excellent correlation with outdoor
exposures, especially for automotive
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Page 10
CE Approved
Atlas’ LEF Launder-Ometer
is now CE approved.
oining the many Atlas Textile Test Products with CE approval, the
LEF and LHT Launder-Ometers will make use of updated controls
and enhanced safety features to comply with CE directives for
product safety.
These instruments
feature an upright angular
console, similar to the LP2
Launder-Ometer and Dyeing
System, which makes the controls
easy for the operator to read. The
updated LEF/LHT models use a
Honeywell digital temperature
controller with single setpoint
display and a digital cycle timer
with LED display. The digital
timer has a greater range than the
rotary dial timer previously used.
Two arrow buttons on the timer’s
panel are used to set the time up
to 59:59 minutes:seconds. During
a test, the LED will flash as it
counts down from the selected
running time. Its timing accuracy
is ± 0.5% of setting. The digital
timer is easily set to count down
for extended test times in hours:
Other features of these Launder-Ometers include:
Safety temperature switch to protect the system from
overheating by shutting down the heaters and rotor
Door safety switch to automatically stop the rotor from
turning if the door is opened during a test
Warning buzzer to signal the end of a test
Automatic shut down of the instrument when
the test is completed
The Launder-Ometer is the official instrument of the
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC).
For more information on these instruments and other Atlas Textile
Testing Products please call (773) 327-4520 or visit our web site at ■
1:09 PM
Page 11
Summer 2000
Visit us at Booth #1214!
The Vista6™ and
CL400 ChemiLUME™
Lead the Way at NPE 2000
tlas is excited to announce the debut of the Vista6 Heat Distortion
Tester at NPE 2000, June 19–23, at McCormick Place, Chicago,
Illinois. The Atlas Vista6 was developed in close cooperation with major
global resin producers to include features to meet the testing needs of
high-volume quality laboratories typical of polyolefin producers. The all
new Vista6 adds to Atlas’ widely used HDV line, featuring the HDV1,
HDV2 and HDV3. All models comply with the applicable ISO 75, ISO 306,
ASTM D648 and ASTM D1525 test standards.
The Vista6 hardware and PC-based Vortex software
were designed for high sample throughput, increased
automation, ease of calibration and operation, and
more data output and custom report options.
The Vista6 features a high-volume immersion
bath and dual-stirrer design for superb temperature
uniformity. A pneumatic lift system semi-automatically
raises and lowers the test stations platform into the
bath. This lift, in conjunction with the quickset LVDT
transducer positioning, provides fast and easy sample
loading and test setup by any technician. Built-in twin
water-cooling coils provide rapid cool-down for quick
sample turnaround time; compressed air
automatically clears the coils of water during
temperature ramping.
The Vista6 is designed for quality control and
research and may be used in either capacity. For
research, the Vista6 offers hardware and software
features oriented to a higher volume and the repetitive
testing needs of quality control.
In addition to the Vista6, Atlas offers a full line
of polymer evaluation instruments designed to impact
resistance, thermal expansion and other physical properties of plastics.
Many of these instruments will be on display at NPE. To compliment the
Vista6 in testing heat distortion and flammability properties, Atlas will
demonstrate the HDV3 Heat Distortion Tester, the HVUL Flame
Chamber and the MFI2 Melt Flow Indexer.
A wide range of instruments will be on display to test physical
properties of polymers, including the API Advanced Pendulum Impact
Tester, the DDI Dart Drop Tester, the Strograph EL Tensile Tester and
the Mini Test Press. Also on display will be the A3 Notcher for sample
See page 19
for a
list of
Atlas Shows.
The Atlas Vista6 Heat Distortion Tester
will make its debut in June at NPE 2000.
Continued on next page
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Page 12
Scientific Conference at Universita die Palermo
September 3–7, 2000
Palermo, Italy
r. Jörg Boxhammer and Dr. Dieter Kockott, ATLAS Material Testing Technology GmbH, will co-present a
lecture titled "Shorter Test Times for Thermal and Radiation Induced Ageing of Polymer Materials." Dr.
Boxhammer will present Part 1: Intensified Testing Conditions in Weathering Instruments. Part 2, Early
Recognition of Molecular Alterations by Measurement of Chemiluminescence will be presented by Dr. Kockott.
The lecture is part of the MoDeSt2000 – 1st International Conference on Polymer Modification, Degradation
and Stabilization.
Het Instrument Trade Show
October 9–13, 2000
Utrecht, The Netherlands
TLAS Material Testing Technology GmbH will present a paper on the analysis of oxidation of polymer
material and the evaluation/classification of coating surfaces. The lecture will take place during the show
at a seminar titled “Test to Match,” organized by Platform Omegivings Technologie (Platform Environment
Vista6, from previous page
Additional instruments at our booth will include the LME Laboratory Mixing Extruder
and LMM Laboratory Mixing Molder with accessories TUS Take-Up System and LEC Chopper.
Several instruments will be featured for laboratory lightfastness and weathering exposure such
as the Ci5000 Xenon Weather-Ometer® and the Suntest XLS+, a benchtop laboratory
instrument for accelerated weathering. A small model of an EMMAQUA (Equatorial Mount
with Mirrors for Acceleration with Water) unit will also be at
the booth.
The last product that will be featured is a product
from our Analytical Instruments Group called the CL400
ChemiLUME™ which rapidly and accurately evaluates the
oxidative stability of materials by measuring
chemiluminescence, or light emission caused by thermal
Offering quantitative information on long-term
thermal stability in a fraction of the time required by the
traditional oven aging method, the CL400 ChemiLUME
determines the thermal stability of polymers at the speed of
light. The instrument is ideal for a variety of applications
including quality control, stabilizer evaluation and routine
quality assurance testing and product formulation research.
The CL400 ChemiLUME is computerized for quick,
reproducible and accurate operation and has the capability of
simultaneously measuring as many as four specimens. Each of
the four cells has an independent photomultiplier tube,
Fly into NPE 2000 Booth #1214 to see the full line temperature control and dual gas flow control. The computer
of Atlas polymer evaluation products. monitors and controls the established parameters of the test
while it collects the data for subsequent analysis. The test can
be run either dynamically, with heating rates from 1 to 15°C/minute, or isothermally with an
upper temperature limit of 250°C.
For more information on any of these products, please stop by the Atlas
Exhibit at Booth #1214 at NPE 2000. ■
1:09 PM
Page 13
Summer 2000
AtlasCommitment to Education
University of Sharjah
and Atlas Collaborate
on Workshop
About the University
his first workshop in the United Arab Emirates was held
in Sharjah, at the University of Sharjah. In 1998, Sharjah
was chosen as the Cultural Capital of the Arab world.
The University campus occupies 138
hectares with architectural design that exudes
harmony and inspires content, reflecting
peace emanating from the perennial desert
environment surrounding it. Founded under
the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Dr.
Sultan bin Mohammed Al-Qassimi, Ruler of
Sharjah, Member of the Supreme Council and
President of the University, the university has become the epitome of
quality education in the Arab world in a short period of time. The
University of Sharjah contains five colleges supported with all the
facilities and services to enhance its cultural and scientific stature.
University interaction with society is one of its goals, which was set
by His Highness Sheikh Dr. Sultan bin Mohammed Al-Qassimi, Ruler
of Sharjah, Member of the Supreme Council and President of the
University. This goal will be achieved through co-operation between
the research centre and any government or private entity seeking
academic help for development. This workshop was consequently a
continuation of the efforts of the university in serving the
departments of society.
2000 Client Ed
Remaining Dates
Fundamentals of Weathering I
June 26
Marlborough, MA
September 25
Philadelphia, PA
July 17
Pittsburgh, PA
September 28
Indianapolis, IN
July 20
Cincinnati, OH
October 9
Plymouth, MI
August 7
Mexico City, Mexico
October 12
Arlington, TX
August 9
Guadalajara, Mexico
October 17
Atlanta, GA
August 11
Monterrey, Mexico
December 4
Phoenix, AZ
September 21
Chicago, IL
December 8
Vancouver, BC
Fundamentals of Weathering II
June 27
Marlborough, MA
October 10
Plymouth, MI
July 18
Pittsburgh, PA
December 5
Phoenix, AZ
September 26
Philadelphia, PA
The Workshop
Dr. Abdallah Alnajar, Director of the Research Centre of the
University of Sharjah and his team, excellently organized workshop
was held under the patronage of His Highness Sheikh Sultan Bin
Mohamend Bin Sultan Al-Qassimi, the Crown Prince of Sharjah. His
Highness Sheikh Tariq Bin Faisal Al Qassimi, Chairman of the
Economic Development Department gave the inauguration.
During the inauguration, the organization committee and the
50 participants of the workshop were honored by the presence of Prof.
Isam Zabalawi, Chancellor of the University of Sharjah, Excellency Dr.
Abdel Hamid Hallab, His Highness Special Advisor, and Prof. Salim
Sabri, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.
During the two-day workshop, the materials scientists and
engineers, who attended the workshop from the UAE, Saudi Arabia,
Oman, Bahrain and Qatar, were introduced to the fundamentals of
2000 Weather-Ometer®
Workshop Schedule
The Weather-Ometer Workshop
November 16-17
Ci4000/Ci5000 Workshop
November 15
Continued on page 15
1:09 PM
Page 14
Contaminated Water and Weathering
Instruments: A Case Study
Quality water is
important for your
Atlas Ci5000 Xenon
Arc Weather-Ometer.
hat is contaminated water? How important is water quality when running a weathering test?
Can dirty or contaminated water change the results of a test? How does this “bad” water
affect weathering instruments? What can be done to ensure accurate and repeatable results?
Water quality can vary greatly in different geographies. The ions found in water come
from minerals in the ground. Organic impurities in water can occur naturally, or be the result
of pollution (petroleum products) or industrial and agricultural run-off. Particles and colloids
in water will also vary with geological conditions.
Water purification attempts to remove these contaminants; however, even “purified”
water can be contaminated. Deionized water is often produced by Service Deionization
systems (SDI). SDI involves the repeated use and regeneration of ion
exchange resins. Unless this is done extremely carefully, SDI
canisters will often contain carryover organic contaminants. In
addition, mixed bed deionization systems will not do a good job
of removing silica, one of the most common contaminant
problems. Silica is often the cause of the white powder seen in
contamination problems.
Dissolved silica is difficult to remove by ion exchange
technology because it is neutral at pH 7. It will go right through
a resin whose removal capability relies on a charge-based ion
exchange. Even when silica is removed, it is easily released
when the resins become saturated or fouled with organics.
In addition, a large percentage of silica exists in a
colloidal form that also is not charged. Ion exchange resins
will not remove colloidal silica. Complicating this is the fact
that besides being difficult to remove, silica is also difficult to
detect. The most commonly used colorimetric tests for silica
test only for dissolved silica. Total silica, including colloidal
silica, is measured by graphite furnace AA. Thus, a colorimetric
silica test will completely miss colloidal silica. However, when
colloidal silica enters the Weather-Ometer ® and comes out of
solution in the presence of warm water and radiation from the
Xenon lamp, it will show up as the white powder you will find on
your samples and in your Weather-Ometer.
Atlas Weather-Ometers require purified water with a total dissolved solids (TDS)
of at least 0.1 ppm (about 0.5 Meg-ohm resistivity). The water quality sensor inside the
Weather-Ometer typically alarms the operators at values less than 2 Meg-ohms resistivity.
Experts advise that the better the water quality, the more reliable the results. In addition to
specifying the TDS, a specific requirement for silica is also noted. A maximum value of 0.1
ppm or less for general tests, and a maximum value of 0.02 ppm or less for the “gloss” test is
Consistently pure water used in the Weather-Ometer is important because
contaminants in your water will change your test results. Contaminants can cause spots,
clouding, or a powdery coating on samples that makes taking an accurate gloss or temperature
reading impossible. Water-borne contaminants can cause other problems as well. Consider
1:09 PM
Page 15
Summer 2000
where water is used in the Weather-Ometer. Pure water is run through
the Xenon lamp to cool it. Pure water is also run through the spray
nozzles and sprayed on samples, as well as run through the vibrasonic
humidification nozzle.
Therefore, consistent and valid test results cannot be
assured when contaminants enter the Weather-Ometer. A few of the
known effects of water contaminants on weathering testing are:
natural and laboratory weathering by expert
speakers from Sharjah University and Atlas:
Organics in water leave spots behind when water dries.
Silica, calcium, magnesium and iron are common
contaminants that affect the temperatures, humidity,
irradiance and running costs of your Weather-Ometer.
The effects of a coating or film caused by any of the
contaminants listed are as follows:
Workshop, from page 13
A coating on the black panel in the chamber can decrease its
heat absorption, resulting in inaccurate temperature
readings for the samples; therefore, your test will be run at
the wrong temperature.
Coatings on the chamber light sensor will cause it to
incorrectly read the intensity of the Xenon lamp. This will
cause it to automatically boost power to the lamp to
compensate for its lower output (sensed inaccurately). The
result is that the test may be run at too high a light intensity,
potentially changing the results, and definitely shortening
the life of the Xenon lamp.
If contaminated water is used to cool the Xenon lamp,
deposits will form on the lamp case and filter. The result is that part
of the lamp radiation will be blocked. The Weather-Ometer, in turn,
will boost the power to the lamp in an effort to increase its
irradiance. Depending upon the age of the lamp, this may or may not
work. The unnatural power boost, however, will definitely shorten
the life of the lamp.
Contaminants may also cause plugging of the spray and
humidification nozzles, which will influence the reliability of the
test and result in the need to clean or replace the nozzles.
Only a carefully designed water system will protect the
Weather-Ometer. That system will include pretreatment designed
specifically for local water conditions. It will also use an efficient
reverse osmosis process to remove ions, including silica, and
organics. Finally, it will employ a strong, Type I nuclear grade ion
exchange resin for added protection. Where the tap water is more
difficult (high TDS) or where larger volumes of water are used for
multiple Weather-Ometers, electronic deionization (EDI) can also
be used to improve water quality consistency and result in lower
operating costs.
Please contact your local Sales Representative to find out
how you can learn more about the quality of water running through
your instruments. ■
Determining the rate of
deterioration of plastic materials by
all natural meteorological
parameters (e.g., heat, humidity,
wind, dust) is essential if the useful
life of a plastic product is to be
sufficiently extended to meet the
design requirements for long-term
An approach to stabilization of
plastics subject to outdoor
exposure can be developed if
there is a full understanding of
the characterisation techniques,
experimental conditions and the
history of the plastic material under
Topics on service life prediction,
spectroradiometer studies and
material evolution
An overview of the important
theoretical and practical techniques
used to study materials durability
and reliability
The increasing awareness of the
effects of weathering on materials exposed
to the environment was documented by the
number of attendees from governmental
institutions as well as the industry and the
highly motivated discussions of all
participants on the information given after
each of the sessions.
The final discussion on the last day
of this workshop was indicating the high
interest in material testing under the
specific effects present in the UAE and the
neighbouring countries.
The first Atlas workshop in the UAE
was a tremendous success and interesting
experience for all that were involved. ■
1:09 PM
Page 16
Current Status of ASTM G26,
G23 and G53: Still Alive but
Soon to Be Withdrawn
or the last five to six years, ASTM Committee G03 on Weathering has been working on
developing new performance standards that will replace G26 (Xenon Arc), G53 (FL UV)
and G23 (Carbon Arc) standards. The old standards G23, G26 and G53 are “device specific
and descriptive” and these types of standards are being replaced by “performance based”
standards. Performance-based standards have been promoted by ASTM and other standards
organizations, including government agencies, because the “non-device specific” nature of
test methods create competition resulting in economic benefits for the industry. ASTM G151
through G155 standards are the new performance-based standards that will replace the old
G23, G26 and G53 standards. The new performance-based standards contain performance
criteria that instruments should meet and do not contain any description of particular
instruments. The new standard G151 is a general guideline for accelerated weathering, which
did not exist with the old standards. The instrument standards (G152 to G155) need to
accompany G151 to describe a test method.
Instruments / Description
Old Device Specific
General Description for Accelerated Weathering
Open Flame Carbon Arc
Enclosed Carbon Arc
Xenon Arc
Fluorescent UV + Condensation
New Performance
Based Standards
G151 & G152
G151 & G153
G151 & G155
G151 & G154
Currently, both “device specific” and “performance-based” standards
coexist. It means that G23, G26 and G53 are still valid and enforced at this time.
The new standards G151 through G155 are also published and enforced at the same time.
This is to provide a transition period that users can get acquainted with the change. In
addition, there will be “conversion tables” published in the place of the old standards, as
well as in new standards, notifying users of the equivalent cycles in the new performance
standards. Currently, the committee is working on these tables and Atlas is preparing the
first proposal. However, until this work item is completed, the old standards will remain in
the book. It is difficult to pinpoint an exact time frame for this task to be complete, but it is
safe to assume that the old standards will be deleted from the book by 2002. Currently, work
items are being proposed throughout other ASTM committees to reflect this change in many
ASTM documents that reference the old standards. There have been reports that the old
standards have been withdrawn from the book; please note that this is not the case, and that
the old standards are still valid. ■
1:09 PM
Page 17
Summer 2000
Atlas to Host ASNAW
tlas Electric Devices Co. will host its 2000 ASNAW symposium
for the automotive industry on the subject of materials
durability and weathering October 25–27 in Phoenix, Arizona. Guest
speakers will cover new testing and modeling techniques on
automotive products, service life predictions, spectroradiometry
studies, and advanced evaluation of materials.
Subjects to be covered during the 2000 symposium include:
an overview of weathering — natural and accelerated, the effect of
light on materials, the factors influencing natural and accelerated
weathering, correlation studies, weatherability of specific materials,
evaluation techniques and the role of international test standards.
Included in the program is a half-day tour of DSET Laboratories —
part of the Atlas Weathering Services Group — an independent
laboratory and outdoor testing site with over 1 million samples on
exposure. This provides hands-on exposure to test sample
preparation and handling, exposure orientations, data acquisition
and interpretation of test results.
The school benefits anyone involved in materials durability
and weatherability testing in the automotive industry. This includes
the materials engineer, product manager, quality control supervisor
and others involved in determining product durability. Students will
learn the effects that various elements of nature have on the
degradation of materials.
The course will be held at the Embassy Suites Hotel in
Phoenix. During the course, scientific papers are presented by
various individuals distinguished in their field and qualified by years
of practical experience in materials chemistry, research, testing and
evaluation. The speakers represent several major automotive
manufacturers and suppliers, including Ford, GM, and DuPont.
Course tuition is $1,295 and covers a welcoming reception,
course materials, instruction, refreshments and meals. All other
costs are the responsibility of the attendee. Advanced registration
is required.
Call the Embassy Suites Hotel directly for room reservations
at (800) 527-7715 and be sure to mention the Atlas School for Natural
and Accelerated Weathering for a special room rate.
Registration information and ASNAW brochures are
available by contacting Theresa Garcia at (773) 327-4520 or by
sending a fax to (773) 327-9731. On-line registration is available at ■
1:09 PM
Page 18
AtlasMaterial Testing Technology
KHS Building Lighting Systems
to Meet Your Needs
HS designs, manufactures
and installs large-scale
lighting systems. The areas of
application are primarily in the
field of solar simulation and
high-speed photography
lighting systems. These systems
are most often utilized in the
automotive industry for material
performance tests (accelerated
material aging), heat load
testing (solar heating effects)
and automotive safety testing,
including crash simulation and
air bag deployment evaluations
(high-speed photography
lighting systems). In addition,
the KHS technical staff has
developed specialty lighting
systems for photovoltaic
cell/panel evaluation, military
applications, agriculture
chemical/growth studies, and
building product testing.
KHS manufactures
application-based engineered
products focused on the
individual needs and
specifications of the customer.
The SolarConstant
lighting systems are a flexible
solar simulation source that
provides a spectrum very close
to sunlight. The ability to accomplish material performance tests on large test objects in a
laboratory environment provides a strategic advantage over traditional outdoor testing.
Automotive companies throughout Europe and elsewhere use KHS technology to perform full
size vehicle tests and component tests to judge various aspects of material performance.
Some tests include:
Full vehicle material evaluation — fade, color match, impact strength, dimensional
stability, fit and finish, squeak/rattle tests.
Full vehicle heat load evaluation — when coupled with a windtunnel, air-conditioning
performance tests, engine heat management, fuel/tire temperature tests.
1:09 PM
Page 19
Component material evaluation
— fade, color match, impact
strength, dimensional stability,
fit and finish, air bag system
Test Methods that
KHS Systems Meets:
• DIN 75-220 — Automotive
Material Performance
MIL-STD-810 (C, D, E, F)
— Military Applications
EPA 40 CFR — Automotive
— Airbag Performance
Photography Lighting
One of the most important
elements of safety/crash testing is the
process of examining film and video
taken during the simulation. The process
of recording high-speed events demands
a specialized lighting system. KHS is a
world leader in the design, manufacture,
and installation of high-speed
photography lighting systems focused
on the needs of the automotive industry.
Engineered systems for military,
aerospace and other applications are
within the capabilities of KHS.
For more information about
KHS check the corresponding box on
the reply card or visit the KHS web site
at or contact:
KHS US Office
4114 North Ravenswood Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60613, USA
Sally Stansbury
(773) 327-4520 x494
K.H. Steuernagel Lichttechnik GmbH
Gerauer Strasse
Postfach 1421
64529 Mörfelden-Walldorf
Marion Kopp
011-49-6105-91286 ■
NPE 2000
June 19–23
Booth #1214
McCormick Place
Chicago, Illinois
AATCC 2000
September 17–20
Booth #701 & 703
Benton Convention Center
Winston-Salem, North Carolina
International Exhibition Brno
September 18–22
Brno, Czech Republic
September 19–21
Torino, Italy
Het Instrument Trade Show
October 9–13
Utrecht, The Netherlands
October 16–20
Booth #1815
McCormick Place
Chicago, Illinois
Cloristic Congress and Exhibition
October 18–20
Pardubice, Czech Republic
October 18–20
Stuttgart, Germany
Summer 2000
November 28–December 1
Moscow, Russia
Chemistry 2000
December 1–3
St. Petersburg, Russia
December 1–10
Mumbai, India
SAE 2001
March 5–8
Cobo Hall
Detroit, Michigan
European Coatings Show
April 3–5
Nuremberg, Germany
ANTEC 2001
May 7–10
Booth #507
Dallas Convention Center
Dallas, Texas
Test 2001
May 8–10
Nuremberg, Germany
October 25–November 1
Düsseldorf, Germany
Application Notes Available
he first ten CL-technique (Chemiluminescence) application notes have been published.
They are available as a downloadable PDF (Portable Document Format) file from our web
site at Printed versions can be obtained by contacting your local
sales representative.
Application notes are based on various tests performed in the CL400 ChemiLUME™.
The tests show specific industrial problems successfully investigated using the CL technique.
The application notes may serve as a basis to decide if CL testing is useful to your specific
Please check back periodically for further application notes.
1:10 PM
Page 20
AtlasMaterial Testing Solutions
Atlas Electric Devices Company
4114 North Ravenswood Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60613, USA
Phone: (773) 327-4520
Fax: (773) 327-5787
Atlas Weathering Services Group
South Florida Test Service
17301 Okeechobee Road
Miami, Florida 33018
Phone: (305) 824-3900
Fax: (305) 362-6276
ATLAS Material Testing
Technology BV
Aalsvoort 69
7241 MA Lochem
The Netherlands
Phone: +31-573-256465
Fax: +31-573-253368
DSET Laboratories
45601 North 47th Avenue
Phoenix, Arizona 85087
Phone: (623) 465-7356
Fax: (623) 465-9409
Toll Free: (800) 255-3738
ATLAS Material Testing
Technology GmbH
Vogelsbergstrasse 22
D-63589 Linsengericht/Altenhaßlau
Phone: +49-6051-707-140
Fax: +49-6051-707-149
Bulk Rate
US Postage
4114 North Ravenswood Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60613, USA
Evanston, IL
Permit No. 198