SENSORY FOUNDATION
BLOOMS TAXONOMY: Remembering / Understanding.
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
L1
Meilgaard, M & Co (1999)
Sensory evaluation technicques.
rd
3 Edition, CRC Press LLC,
Boca Raton, FL
1.0 THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES
1.01.01
WHAT IS SENSORY ANALYSIS
A scientific discipline that evokes, measures, analyses and
interprets reactions to those characteristics of foods and
materials as they are perceived by the senses of sight, smell,
taste, touch and hearing
It relies on trained and regular tasters, standardised
preparation protocol and questionnaire, decision rules
Lawless and Heymann (2011),
nd
2 Edition, if the references are
to be made to baristas. It is the
most recent and up-to-date
regarding current knowledge
and practices.
Give examples during training including:
Touch – wool samples
Sight – optical illusions
Identify different senses
Carpenter, R.P. & Co. (2000)
Guidelines for Sensory Analysis
in Food Product Development
and Quality Control.
nd
2 Edition.
Aspen Publishers,
Gaithersburg, MD
Recognise that sensory analysis in coffee requires a standard
protocol
1.02.01
WHY IS SENSORY IMPORTANT IN COFFEE
Cupping seeks to:

identify potential defects and taints

identify pleasant flavours and their quality

evaluate intensity

record the results
L2
It establishes a general picture of a coffee’s potential that can
be refined and adjusted to various blending and brewing
practices
Yantis, JE [Ed.] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control.
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
Technic widely used in food industry extended to others (car,
pharma, …), in the high gastronomy product. For QC, NPD,
Premiumness evaluation
1.02.02
Cup speciality vs non-speciality coffee
Prove a is different to b
Discuss different tastes in two coffees
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992).
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control.
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York
L2
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992).
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control.
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York
Try two speciality coffees and compare
Acknowledge that the aim of sensory analysis in coffee is to
be able to distinguish, recognise and distinguish between
different attributes, whether we personally like them or not
Yantis, JE [Ed.] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control.
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
2
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
L1
Meilgaard
2.0 PHYSIOLOGY AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES
2.01.01
PHYSIOLOGY
Olfaction and gustation are the two key senses used in coffee
cupping
Handbook of olfaction and
gustation
Edited by Richard L Doty (1995)
Taste buds in the mouth
Not all papillae have taste buds
Flavour is a multi-modal experience: integrating gustatory,
retronasal olfaction and somatosensory systems
In training use a sugar flavoured with cinnamon or vanilla and
do the pinch test on nose
2.01.02
Distinguish the difference between taste and flavour
L1
Recognise that taste exists in the oral cavity
Handbook of olfaction and
gustation.
Edited by Richard L Doty (1995)
Recognise that flavour is primarily driven by the olfactory bulb
2.02.01
BASIC TASTES
There are 5 basic tastes
Meilgaard
L2
ISO standard 8586.1-1993
L2
ISO standard 8586.1-1993
L1
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
All coffees are naturally acid, bitter and have a sweet
perception (more than they are physically sweet)
Speciality coffee is not expected to have too high a perceived
saltiness
Umami is not a taste usually associated with brewed coffee
Relationship between individual sensations will vary depending
on their individually perceived strength
A group practical session before test in training shows 25%
stronger solutions than the final test
2.02.02
List the 5 basic tastes
Identify the 5 basic tastes in a blind assessment
Recognise differences in taste sensations between two coffees
in the practical pairs test – see 3.0
2.03.01
BASIC AROMAS
There are three main categories of aroma:

Enzematic

Sugar Browning

Dry Distillation
These aromas will be present in the dry fragrance through to
the brewed coffee
Carry out a simple category exploration as a group of
enzematic, sugar browning and dry distillation. Use picture
boards with aroma vials to make stronger cognitive links
3
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
3.0 DETECTING SENSORIAL QUALITIES IN COFFEE
3.01.01
DEFINE TASTES AND BODY IN COFFEE
In coffee, basic tastes and aromas do not exist in isolation and
they need to be recognised within the brewed coffee itself
L2
The body of the coffee describes the apparent viscosity,
fullness and weight in the mouth ranging from "thin, watery"
to "thick, heavy"
Combine the basic tastes and aromas learned and apply
recognition of these to pairs of different coffees
Different coffees will have different perceived tastes and body
3.01.02
Identify the following key attributes in pairs of coffee:

Acidity

Bitterness

Body
L2
Acknowledge that acidity, bitterness and body are origin and
process dependent
3.02.01
3.02.02
DEFINE AROMAS IN COFFEE
Recognise and categorise key positive aromas from coffee
Identify simple category differences in aroma groups in a
practical blind test
L2
L2
Recall aroma categories in a written test
3.03.01
3.03.02
COMMUNICATING THE RESULTS
Cuppers use a consistent standardised language to aid
communication between themselves
Recognise that standard terminology is used to aid clear
communication
L2
L2
Repeat key terms used in cupping, such as acidity and body.
Mention astringency and balance (TBD in intermediate)
Distinguish the difference between positive and negative key
terms
4.0 CUPPING PROTOCOL
4.01.01
WHAT IS CUPPING
It is a sensory analysis process specific to coffee
“Coffee cupping is a method used to systematically evaluate
the aroma and taste characteristics of a sample of coffee
beans” – (Ted Lingle 2001)
L1
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
4
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
4.01.02
Repeat a definition of cupping
L1
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
4.02.01
KEY TERMINOLOGY/SENSORY VOCABULARY
Cupping coffee with:
L2
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
Eye: colour, froth, crema
Nose: aroma categories (see point 5)
Mouth: basic taste and mouthfeel
4.02.02
Group example comparing milk and water to show mouthfeel
L2
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
4.03.01
CORE CUPPING PROTOCOL
Set out the standard procedure for preparing and brewing a
cupping session
L1
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
Define the correct brew ratios
Define the key protocol terms:

Dry

Crust

Break
4.03.02
Memorise and repeat the standard process of setting up a
cupping batch
L1
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
Define key terms used in a cupping session
Recall standard measurements and protocol in a written test
5.0 EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE
5.01.01
CORE SENSORY EQUIPMENT
Define core equipment for coffee sensory analysis
L1
Understand the importance of hygienic odour-free work space
for cupping
5.01.02
Identify equipment that is necessary or superfluous to a
cupping session from a list
See test in 4.0
5
Key Terminology
Word or
Term
Proposed Description
Source
Acidity
A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable
sharp and pleasing taste … as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste
ICO, 1991
Aftertaste
The sensation produced by the lingering taste and aroma
Cappuccio, 2005
Aroma
The sensation of the gases released from brewed coffee, as they are inhaled
through the nose by sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Astringent
An aftertaste sensation consistent with a dry feeling in the mouth,
undesirable in coffee
ICO, 1991
Balance
A pleasing combination of two or more primary taste sensations
Lingle,2011
Basic Tastes
The five basic tastes of sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami
Body
The physical properties of the beverage. A strong, but pleasant, full
mouthfeel characteristic
Break
Aromatic assessment of the crust as it is broken three times
Clean
Free from flavour taints or faults
Crust
Aromatic assessment of the crust of wet coffee grounds that forms on the top
of the brew surface immediately after brewing
Cupping
A method used to systematically evaluate the aroma and taste
characteristics of a sample of coffee beans
Lingle, 2011
Cupping
Glasses/Bowls
All cups or glasses used should be of the same volume, dimensions and
material of manufacture:
SCAA, 2009
ICO, 1991
Lingle, 2011
Cupping Glasses
5 to 6 oz tempered glass
Porcelain bouillon bowls of
175-225ml clean cups should be clean with no apparent fragrance and at
room temperature
Cupping Grind
Coarser than filter grind with 70% to 75% passing through a 850mμ sieve
SCAA, 2009
Cupping Roast
Sample roast targets:

Time: 8 – 12 minutes depending on roaster size

Colour: Agtron 60 – 65 (M-Basic)/Probat 105– 125 (colourette)

Coffees cupped 8 - 24 hours after roasting
SCAA, 2009
Dry
Assessment of the fragrance of the dry coffee grounds after grinding and
prior to brewing
Flavour
The sensation in mouth the coffee gives by the combination of Tastes and
Aromas in the liquid phase
6
Fragrance /
Aroma
The sensation of the gases released from roasted and ground coffee beans,
as the aromatic compounds are inhaled through the nose by sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Gustation
“The detection of stimuli dissolved in water, oil, or saliva, by the taste buds”
Meilgaard et al, 2007
Mouthfeel
The tactile sense derived from physical sensations in the mouth during and
after ingestion
Lingle, 2011
Olfaction
The sense of smell allowing the perception of aroma, fragrance, scents in
gas / air using the nose
7
SENSORY INTERMEDIATE
BLOOMS TAXONOMY: Remembering / Understanding
Level 3: Application – Use information in a new way
Translate
Illustrate
Sketch
Sequence
Prepare
Interpret
Operate
Employ
Carry
Generalise
Apply
Demonstrate
Schedule
Out
Repair
Practice
Dramatise
Use
Solve
Explain
Level 4: Analysis – Distinguish the different parts
Distinguish
Contrast
Relate
Classify
Catalogue
Differentiate
Calculate
Experiment
Discover
Investigate
Appraise
Criticise
Estimate
Discriminate
Breakdown
Analyse
Examine
Observe
Identify
Order
Compare
Test
Detect
Explore
Recognise
Determine
2
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
L3, L4
Stone, H and Sidel, JL (2004)
Sensory Evaluation practices,
rd
3 Edition
Academic, San Diego
1.0 HOW WE TASTE, PERCEIVE AND INTERPRET - GENERALITIES
1.01.01
WHAT IS SENSORY ANALYSIS
Sensory evaluation has been defined as a scientific method
used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret those
responses to products as perceived through the senses of
sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing (Stone and Sidel, 2004)
Lawless, HT and Heymann , H completed this definition by
distinguishing four phases to sensory evaluation:
- “Evoke”: understand the products and define their
presentation conditions to control potential bias
- “Measure”: sensory is a quantitative science in which
data are collected establish relationships between product
characteristics and human perception (sensory or more
elaborated such as liking, etc..)
- “Analyse”: Proper statistical analysis is a critical part of
sensory testing. Statistical methods are used to determine
if the relationships between product characteristics are likely
to be real and not due to uncontrolled variations
- “Interpret”: It is important to consider the method used,
its limitations to make a decision within the context of the study
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H
(2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition
Springer, New York
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory evaluation techniques
3rd Edition
CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton,
FL
Carpenter, RP & co (2000)
Guidelines for Sensory Analysis
in Food Product Development
and Quality Control
nd
2 Edition
Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg,
MD
Castriota-Scanderbeg, A et al
“The appreciation of wine by
sommeliers: a functional
magnetic resonance study of
sensory integration”
3
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
1.01.02
Explain the challenge of working with a human measuring
instrument that is highly variable across the population and
over time
L3, L4
Stone, H and Sidel, JL (2004)
Sensory Evaluation practices,
rd
3 Edition
Academic, San Diego
Working in sensory science requires that you can demonstrate
knowledge in the following disciplines: sensory physiology,
psychology, experimental design and statistics
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H
(2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition
Springer, New York
Differentiate between the objective judgment of the trained
taster from the subjective judgment of the consumers
Explain a panel set up typically requires:
 Trained tasters 6 to 40 making a panel
 Standard questions/questionnaires
 Preparation protocol
 Test design
 Analysis
 Facilities
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory evaluation techniques
3rd Edition
CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton,
FL
Carpenter, RP & co (2000)
Guidelines for Sensory Analysis
in Food Product Development
and Quality Control
nd
2 Edition
Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg,
MD
Explain the panel aims to:
 Identify
 Discriminate
 Describes
 Compares
 Investigate
 Hedonic
 Judgment (preference, liking)
1.02.01
WHY IS SENSORY IMPORTANT IN COFFEE
Sensory Evaluation role:
- Identify which sensory profiles are preferred by end users
- Relate sensory profiles and other product characteristics:
physical, chemical, recipe, process
- Scope: quality control, product development, marketing
innovation, consumer acceptance and communication
Technique widely used in food industry extended to others
(car, perfumery, tobacco, pharmacy, etc …),. for Quality
Control, or Product Development
Castriota-Scanderbeg, A et al
“The appreciation of wine by
sommeliers: a functional
magnetic resonance study of
sensory integration”
L3, L4
Lingle (2001)
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992)
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York.
Yantis, JE [Ed] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
4
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
1.02.02
Recall that cupping seeks to:
 Identify potential defects and taints
 Identify positive flavours and their quality
 Evaluate intensity
 Record the results
L3, L4
Lingle (2001)
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992)
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York.
Explain that sensory analysis establishes a general picture of
a coffee’s potential that can be refined and adjusted to various
green coffee selection, blending and brewing practices
Yantis, JE [Ed] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
2.0 PHYSIOLOGY AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES
2.01.01
PHYSIOLOGY (be general)
The Senses:
 Mouth (taste buds)
 Nose (olfactory bulb)
Examples:
 Sugar
 Cinnamon
2.02.01
PSYCHOLOGICAL (be general)
The human as the measurement instrument
Its limits: bias
Example:
Wine – Grand Cru vs mainstream: Which one is better
Example:
Hawaii Kona and Brazil NY2 FC: Which is more aromatic
2.03.01
TASTE AND TEXTURES IN THE CONTEXT OF COFFEE
MAIN FOCUS OF THE COURSE
There are 5 prototypical tastes
L3, L4
All coffees are naturally acid, bitter and have a sweet
perception (more than they are physically sweet)
Show:




2.03.02
Astringency
Body
Pungent
Sweet perception
Be able to recognise different tastes
L3, L4
Ability to discriminate between, and rank, four levels of acidity
and bitterness in solution
2.04.01
DEFINE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AROMAS IN COFFEE
(below Aroma and Flavour)
Recognise and categorise key positive aromas in coffee
L3, L4
5
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
2.04.02
Smell positive aromas
L3, L4
2.05.01
AROMAS AND FLAVOURS IN THE CONTEXT OF COFFEE
Green coffee contains aroma precursors. Roasting consists in
a variety of chemical reactions aiming to create aromas.
Brewing does not produce any new volatiles, but merely
extracts a percentage of what is in a roasted bean
REFERENCE
L3, L4
Model SCAA/SCAE
i) fruity, flowery, herbal
ii) nutty, caramel, chocolaty
iii) turpeny, spicy, carbon-like
2.05.02
Describe blind aroma of cola syrup or grenadine syrup;
realise the diversification of descriptors
L3, L4
Accurately categorise and identify key aromas present in
coffee
3.0 TRIANGLE TEST
3.01.01
SCOPE OF APPLICATION
Is there a difference, are products similar?
3.02.01
DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION
Out of the three, which is the odd sample?
L3, L4
See What is sensory evaluation
L3, L4
See What is sensory evaluation
Definition, questionnaire, experimental design (6 permutations)
Three digit codes
Number of assessors (18 for difference, 36 for similarity)
3.02.02
Conduct a triangle test on two coffees, eventually repeat
triangle to reach 24 to 30 answers
3.03.01
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Principle of the statistic test
Table, risk α and β
Test for difference, similarity
3.04.01
ALTERNATIVE METHODS
Mention duo – trio; pair test
4.0 RUNNING A CUPPING SESSION AND TASTING THE DIVERSITY OF COFFEE – CUPPING GENERALITIES
4.01.01
WHAT IS CUPPING
It is a sensory analysis process specific to coffee
“Coffee cupping is a method used to systematically evaluate
the aroma and taste characteristics of a sample of coffee
beans” – (Ted Lingle 2001)
L3, L4
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
6
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
4.01.02
Repeat a definition of cupping
L3, L4
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
4.02.01
KEY TERMINOLOGY/SENSORY VOCABULARY
Cupping coffee with:
L3, L4
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
L3, L4
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
Eye: colour, froth, crema
Nose: aroma categories (see point 5)
Mouth: basic tastes and mouthfeel
4.02.02
Match key cupping terminology phrases with an explanation of
the terms
4.03.01
SENSORY QUALITIES IN COFFEE: TASTES AND BODY
In coffee basic tastes and aromas do not exist in isolation and
they need to be recognised within the brewed coffee itself
L3, L4
The body of the coffee describes the apparent viscosity,
fullness and weight in the mouth ranging from "thin, watery"
to "thick, heavy"
4.03.02
Acknowledge that acidity, bitterness and body are origin and
process dependent
L3, L4
Triangle tests
5.0 CUPPING SYSTEMS IN USE
5.01.01
DIFFERENT CUPPING SYSTEM
The SCAA cupping form, a standard
L3, L4
Espresso Cupping System or brewing (filter, French press)
objective is to adapt to the end product
5.01.02
Explain there are a number of scoring cupping forms in use
L3, L4
Distinguish between these forms and highlight differences in
table set up for each form
Identify differences in specific attributes of a cupping form in
three different coffees
5.02.01
CORE CUPPING PROTOCOL; THE MEANING OF THE
STANDARD PREPARATION VALUES
Mention, explain generally
5.03.01
COMMUNICATING THE RESULTS
Mention, explain generally
7
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
6.0 HOW TO SET UP SENSORY IN YOUR BUSINESS AND SENSORY APPLICATIONS – EQUIPMENT, MAINTENANCE AND STAFF
6.01.01
6.01.02
WHAT IS PANEL AND WHY SET UP A PANEL? (Ref 1.0)
- A group to a one person
- Is a measurement instrument
L3, L4
A group is better, more objective, not personal
L3, L4
One is better than none
6.02.01
FACILITATING, TASTING AND PREPARATION AREA
Basics, mention standard
6.03.01
GOOD PRACTICES, EQUIPMENT AROUND TASTING AND
SAMPLES, CLEANING, STORAGE (Show lab pictures)
 Booth
 Table
 Spittoon
 Cups
 Spoons
 Water quality (treatment)
 Temperature
6.03.02
Explain that equipment can vary in modality
(Example: turning table or not, sink spittoon or not).
L3, L4
L3, L4
Identify the repeatability of testing and brew protocol as being
the important point
7.0 SET UP YOUR SENSORY PANEL
7.01.01
WHAT PANEL FOR WHAT TEST
Discriminative vs descriptive test
Quantitative vs qualitative
Robust vs informal
7.01.02
Adapt your tests to your needs (objective, time, budget)
in order to set up the right panel
7.02.01
SCREENING TASTERS
It is important that the panelists should have at least normal
sensory sensitivity to any tests being carried out
L3, L4
L3, L4
L3, L4
Meilgaard et al 2007 (Chapter 9)
Avoid blind tasters in your panel
Give awareness to potential tasters on sensory fundamentals
and requirements
This makes best use of time and investment, selecting
accurate and motivated people
8
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
7.02.02
Distinguish between tasters and non-tasters
L3, L4
Meilgaard et al 2007 (Chapter 9)
L3, L4
Standard ISO
Explain that people taste different, tasting relies on acuity not
on hierarchy in company
Explain that a ranking test is an effective way of screening
possible panel members
7.03.01
TRAIN YOUR PANEL AND PANELLISTS
Long process: 6 months minimum
Program example in content and time
SCAA, COE training
Ratio: nb tasters / taster expertise / scope
Depend on activity
Be practical and adapted to the
topic in content and time:
Defect
Green coffee
Roasting
Brewing
From the In/Out panellist to the SCAA/COE jury
7.03.02
Recognise that developing an appropriate level of sensitivity in
coffee and gaining knowledge takes time
L3, L4
Standard ISO
SCAA, COE training
Improving calibration, recognition and broadening the range of
sensory test protocols a cupper has knowledge of, is part of
their learning journey
7.04.01
Depend on activity
Be practical and adapted to the
topic in content and time:
Defect
Green coffee
Roasting
Brewing
CHECK PERFORMANCE AND CALIBRATION
Importance, mention, must have
8.0 APPLICATION – ADVANTAGE AND LIMIT OF IN/OUT VS DESCRIPTIVE FOR QC, NPD – RELATION WITH ANALYTICAL
8.01.01
1. THE IN/OUT METHOD (Illustrate practically)
A simple method
L3, L4
Good for routine
Require standard and calibration on simple sensory
dimensions
Based on Reference sample
Ideal for on-going production positive release
An alternative test is the duo-trio
9
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
8.01.02
Describe the protocol of in/out
L3, L4
REFERENCE
Recognise this is a core methodology used in coffee roastery
quality assurance, especially where there are small numbers
of trained tasters
Pass an in/out practical test
8.02.01
2. TRIANGLE TEST
(See before)
For QC, NPD ex: Change of roasting profile, change of
supplier, change of water, …
8.02.02
Ease of application
No training required
Preparation method
Need for number of tasters
8.03.01
3. GREEN COFFEE QUALITY CONTROL
(Mention that SCAA cupping can be this)
Can be based on simplified SCAA analysis or simply an
In/Out test
L3, L4
Determining standards in green coffee is a primary quality
marker for all subsequent quality checks
Variables include defects, colour, smell, roast appearance
Can be done for benchmark competition tasting (to be tackled
in Professional)
8.03.02
Explain that recording green coffee samples and their quality
is the base point for all roastery quality management
L3, L4
10
Key Terminology
Word or
Term
Proposed Description
Source
Acidity
A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable
sharp and pleasing taste … as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste
ICO, 1991
Aftertaste
The sensation produced by the lingering taste and aroma
Cappuccio, 2005
Aroma
The sensation of the gases released from brewed coffee, as they are inhaled
through the nose through sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Astringent
An aftertaste sensation consistent with a dry feeling in the mouth,
undesirable in coffee
ICO, 1991
Balance
A pleasing combination of two or more primary taste sensations
Lingle, 2011
Basic Tastes
The five basic tastes of sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami
Body
The physical properties of the beverage. A strong, but pleasant, full
mouthfeel characteristic
Break
Aromatic assessment of the crust as it is broken three times
Clean
Free from flavour taints or faults
Crust
Aromatic assessment of the crust of wet coffee grounds that forms on the top
of the brew surface immediately after brewing
Cupping
A method used to systematically evaluate the aroma and taste
characteristics of a sample of coffee beans
Lingle, 2011
Cupping
Glasses/Bowls
All cups or glasses used should be of the same volume, dimensions and
material of manufacture:
SCAA, 2009
ICO, 1991
Lingle, 2011
Cupping Glasses
5 to 6 oz tempered glass
Porcelain bouillon bowls of
175-225ml clean cups should be clean with no apparent fragrance and at
room temperature
Cupping Grind
Coarser than filter grind with 70% to 75% passing through a 850mμ sieve
SCAA, 2009
Cupping Roast
Sample roast targets:

Time: 8 – 12 minutes depending on roaster size

Colour: Agtron 60 – 65 (M-Basic)/Probat 105– 125 (colourette)

Coffees cupped 8 - 24 hours after roasting
SCAA, 2009
Dry
Assessment of the fragrance of the dry coffee grounds after grinding and
prior to brewing
Flavour
The sensation in mouth the coffee gives by the combination of Tastes and
Aromas in the liquid phase
11
Fragrance
The sensation of the gases released from roasted and ground coffee beans,
as the aromatic compounds are inhaled through the nose by sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Gustation
“The detection of stimuli dissolved in water, oil, or saliva, by the taste buds”
Meilgaard et al, 2007
Mouthfeel
The tactile sense derived from physical sensations in the mouth during and
after ingestion
Lingle, 2011
Olfaction
The sense of smell allowing the perception of aroma, fragrance, scents in
gas / air using the nose
12
SENSORY PROFESSIONAL
BLOOMS TAXONOMY: Remembering / Understanding
Level 5: Synthesis – Create a new point of view
Compose
Plan
Propose
Design
Assemble
Create
Organise
Manage
Construct
Set-Up
Prepare
Write
Identify
Integrate
Produce
Theorise
Build
Systematise
Formulate
Level 6: Evaluation – Justify a position
Judge
Select
Verify
Choose
Score
Appraise
Review
Measure
Assess
Compute
Decide
Revise
Evaluate
Value
Test
Categorise
Estimate
2
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
L5, L6
Stone, H and Sidel, JL (2004)
Sensory Evaluation practices,
rd
3 Edition
Academic, San Diego
1.0 HOW WE TASTE, PERCEIVE AND INTERPRET - GENERALITIES
1.01.01
WHAT IS SENSORY ANALYSIS
RECALL DEFINITION
Sensory evaluation has been defined as a scientific method
used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret those
responses to products as perceived through the senses of
sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing (Stone and Sidel, 2004)
- “Evoke”: understand the products and define their
presentation conditions to control potential bias
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H
(2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition
Springer, New York
- “Measure”: sensory is a quantitative science in which
data are collected establish relationships between product
characteristics and human perception (sensory or more
elaborated such as liking, etc..)
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
- “Analyse”: Proper statistical analysis is a critical part of
sensory testing. Statistical methods are used to determine
if the relationships between product characteristics are likely
to be real and not due to uncontrolled variations
Carpenter, RP & co (2000)
Guidelines for Sensory Analysis
in Food Product Development
and Quality Control
nd
2 Edition
Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg,
MD
Lawless, HT and Heymann , H completed this definition by
distinguishing four phases to sensory evaluation:
- “Interpret”: It is important to consider the method used,
its limitations to make a decision within the context of the study
Castriota-Scanderbeg, A et al
“The appreciation of wine by
sommeliers: a functional
magnetic resonance study of
sensory integration”
3
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
1.01.02
Explain the challenge of working with a human measuring
instrument that is highly variable across the population and
over time
L5, L6
Stone, H and Sidel, JL (2004)
Sensory Evaluation practices,
rd
3 Edition
Academic, San Diego
Working in sensory science requires that you can demonstrate
knowledge in the following disciplines: sensory physiology,
psychology, experimental design and statistics
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H
(2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition
Springer, New York
Differentiate between the objective judgment of the trained
taster from the subjective judgment of the consumers
Explain a panel set up typically requires:
 Trained tasters 6 to 40 making a panel
 Standard questions/questionnaires
 Preparation protocol
 Test design
 Analysis
 Facilities
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
Carpenter, RP & co (2000)
Guidelines for Sensory Analysis
in Food Product Development
and Quality Control
nd
2 Edition
Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg,
MD
Explain the panel aims to:
 Identify
 Discriminate
 Describes
 Compares
 Investigate
 Hedonic
 Judgment (preference, liking)
1.02.01
RECALL WHY IS SENSORY IMPORTANT IN COFFEE
Sensory Evaluation role:
- Describe, differentiate and quantify sensory characteristics
of the product
- Identify which sensory profiles are preferred by end users
- Relate sensory profiles and other product characteristics:
physical, chemical, recipe, process
- Scope: quality control, product development, marketing
innovation, consumer acceptance and communication
Castriota-Scanderbeg, A et al
“The appreciation of wine by
sommeliers: a functional
magnetic resonance study of
sensory integration”
L5, L6
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992)
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York.
Technique widely used in food industry extended to others
(car, perfumery, tobacco, pharmacy, etc …),. for Quality
Control, or Product Development
1.02.02
Cupping seeks to:
 Identify potential defects and taints
 Identify positive flavours and their quality
 Evaluate intensity
 Record the results
Explain that sensory analysis establishes a general picture of
a coffee’s potential that can be refined and adjusted to various
green coffee selection, blending and brewing practices
Lingle (2001)
Yantis, JE [Ed] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
L5, L6
Lingle (2001)
Muñoz, AM, Civille, GV and
Carr, BT (1992)
Sensory Evaluation In Quality
Control
Van Nostrand Reinhold,
New York.
Yantis, JE [Ed] (1992)
The Role of Sensory Analysis in
Quality Control
ASTM. West Conshohocken, PA
4
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
1.03.01
WHAT IS CONDUCTING A SENSORY STUDY
Benefits of professional sensory analyses
Planning of study
L5, L6
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
L5, L6
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
L5, L6
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
L5, L6
Meilgaard, M & co (1999)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
L5, L6
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H (2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition, Springer, New York
From objective to interpreting and reporting results
1.03.02
Be capable to conceptualise a professional sensory study
1.04.01
THE MEANING OF BEING A GRADUATE SENSORY
PROFESSIONAL; SCOPE OF YOUR ABILITIES
Graduate will have:
- the knowledge to run sensory evaluation in a coffee business
e.g. generate a repeatable and methodical sensory measure
of coffees
- be aligned with the coffee standards
- the basic sensory skills required to professionally start to
identify specialty coffee qualities and to describe black
coffee beverages characteristics
1.04.02
Running sensory is managing people as the measurement
instrument e.g. generate repeatable, calibrated and unbiased
responses
Running sensory is setting up repeatable tests following
standard procedures appropriate to a problematic
Running sensory is analysing data and reporting results
Being a skilled taster helps the sensory professional to run the
discipline; being the only skilled taster in a coffee business is
expertise, not running sensory and risky
Becoming a skilled taster is a long process requiring years of
experiences
2.0 PHYSIOLOGY AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES
2.01.01
SENSORY ATTRIBUTES AND THE WAY TO PERCEIVE
THEM
The senses used to assess a coffee:

Sight

Smell (orthonasal olfaction)

Flavour (retronasal olfaction, taste and trigeminal
perception)

Consistency and texture
2003 Araujo, I et al – Taste:
Olfactory convergence and the
representation of the
pleasantness of flavour in the
human brain
5
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
2.01.02
Skilled in perceiving and abstracting attributes on a
distinguished level
L5, L6
Lawless, HT, Heymann, H (2010)
Sensory Evaluation of Food
Principles and Practices
nd
2 Edition, Springer, New York
2003 Araujo, I et al – Taste:
Olfactory convergence and the
representation of the
pleasantness of flavour in the
human brain
2.02.01
ANATOMY & PHSIOLOGY OF SENSATION
The chain of sensory perception (Tasting as neurological
circuit: )
Receptors:
- Taste buds for taste
- Olfactory receptors for aroma and flavour (nasal epithelium)
- Tactile receptors of the mouth cavity for texture mouthfeel
(Papillea)
Meilgaard, M, GV Civille and BT
Carr (2007)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
Nerves (connection to the sensorial cortex [brain]):
- Trigeminal nerve (temperature, astringency mouthfeels)
- Fascial nerve (taste)
- N glossopharyngeus
Cortex/Brain: complex processes: starting at the sensorial
Cortex
2.02.02
Understands the basic anatomy of sensation:
Understands the difference of a receptor and a nerve and their
“function”
Understanding that tasting is working with a neurological
circuit:
Meilgaard, M, GV Civille and BT
Carr (2007)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
Apply the knowledge that adaptation, decrease in sensitivity
due to continued exposure to a stimulus into daily cupping
work (Brain / receptor / odour memory)
2.02.03
Sensation and perception
Information received by sensors is a sensation.
Once interpreted by our brain it becomes a perception
(Marieb 2007)
Meilgaard, M, GV Civille and BT
Carr (2007)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
2.02.04
Stress the importance of having sensitive and calibrated
tasters
Meilgaard, M, GV Civille and BT
Carr (2007)
Sensory Evaluation Techniques
th
4 Edition, New Boca Raton,
FL: CRC Press
6
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
2.03.01
TRESHOLD TEST
Psychometric curve: detection, recognition, increases of
intensity, saturation and (pain)
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al (2007)
Flavour is not the simple addition of the three senses
responses, there is perceptual interaction between stimuli
co-experienced.
2.03.02
Recognises basic tastes relevant for coffee in a threshold test
Recognise that perceptual interactions between stimuli
(e.g.: vanillin +sugar vs. basilic+ sugar) can modify our
perception. The goal as a sensory analyst is to be as objective
as possible.
2.04.01
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Bias to consider before conducting sensory evaluation
Expectation error: Code A or #1 or round nb 100, 450 can be
associated with higher scores
Seeing the green beans can influence your judgement
(show picture of Jamaican Blue Mountain and Brazilian coffee)
Suggestion effect: other comments or behavior can influence
others e.g.: Mmmm!
If the boss says “Sample A is so aromatic,” the others are likely
to follow
Logical error: a darker colour will be rated more intense
Is a darker crema espresso necessarily more roasted?
Halo effect: the judgement made to rating one attributes may
influence other attributes rating
If the coffee is more aromatic will it be rated more intense,
more body, more acid, …
Order effect: The preceding sample can affect the scoring of
the following /adaptation
After a dark roast sample, any moderately roasted sample will
seem very acid
7
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
2.04.02
Match specific examples of sensory psychological factors in
the correct sequence with named errors
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al (2007)
The challenge of the sensory analyst is to avoid or control this
bias so that they don’t mislead the sensory result
3.0 DETECTING SENSORIAL POSITIVE QUALITIES IN COFFEE
3.01.01
TASTE AND TEXTURES IN THE CONTEXT OF COFFEE
– THE COFFEE STRUCTURE
Reminder: There are 5 prototypical tastes
L5, L6
Reminder: All coffees are naturally acid, bitter and have a
sweet perception (more than they are physically sweet)
Have your own references for every key sensory attributes
Focus on Different acidity qualities:
 tartaric
 malic
 lactic
 citric
Focus on Taste:
 bitter burnt caramel
 taste bitter wood
Illustrate:
 Astringency
 Body
 Pungent
3.01.02
Ability to discriminate between, and rank, four levels of acidity
and bitterness in complex solution
L5, L6
Describe intensity and quality of acidity, bitterness and
mouthfeel in coffees (Part II)
Re-acknowledge that individuals taste differently and
determine threshold values
3.02.01
AROMAS AND FLAVOURS IN THE CONTEXT OF COFFEE
Main (Positive) aromas of the coffees: name, reference,
sensation when above the coffee cup and in mouth
L5, L6
Have your own references for every key sensory attributes
Factors in the coffee value chain generating those aromas most admitted model
Develop the memory of aroma reference
8
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
STANDARDS
3.02.02
By groups of three aromas, find the correct association Aroma
name, reference Nez du café and coffee presenting this
aroma:
 Floral – Sidamo GR2 washed
 Nutty – Brazil NY2 FC natural
 Spices – Sumatra GR1
 Tobacco leaf, humous – robusta
 Winey – High grown washed Colombia
 Cocoa – dark roasted Brasil NY2 natural
 Honey – Pulped natural Brazil FC or honey process
central America
 Citrus – Kenya FAQ+
 Ninth – open for choice
L5, L6
3.03.01
THE COFFEE COMPOSITION – CHEMICALS AND
SUPPOSED SENSORY EFFECT
The coffee composition complexity makes the sensory
complexity
REFERENCE
Compound or mix of compounds and its sensory
characteristics
3.03.02
Difference in composition between Arabica and Robusta;
The volatile and volatiles compounds of coffee
The complexity of the coffee composition leads to approximate
models of compounds making one coffee aroma
4.0 DETECTING LOW SENSORIAL QUALITIES IN COFFEE – DEFECT AND TAINT
4.01.01
DEFINE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AROMAS IN COFFEE
Nature of taint and defect on coffee
L5, L6
Their presence is severely jeopardise the quality of coffee
Recognise and categorise key positive aromas and negative
aromas in coffee
4.01.02
Smell positive and negative aromas (need for kit)
4.02.01
EXAMPLES OF DEFECT AND TAINT FOUND IN GC,
ROASTING, EXTRACTION, STORAGE
 Fermented or rio or musty or mouldy
 Woody
 Burnt, baked or under roasted
 Over extracted / over brewed (too long too hot)
 Stale/rancid
L5, L6
Memorise Reference
Experiment taint and defect in French press or espresso
barista vs clean standard in pair test
9
SUB
CODE
KNOWLEDGE/SKILL REQUIRED
4.02.02
Link taint and defect to threshold: often they will be detected
by a part of the population only given their concentration
STANDARDS
REFERENCE
Link taint and defect to cultural habit and awareness: ex Rio
Turkish / Greek coffee
Skilled and sensitive tasters only will reject them in tasting
5.0 RUNNING A CUPPING SESSION AND TASTING THE DIVERSITY OF COFFEE – CUPPING GENERALITIES
5.01.01
WHAT IS CUPPING
It is a sensory analysis process specific to coffee
L5, L6
“Coffee cupping is a method used to systematically evaluate
the aroma and taste characteristics of a sample of coffee
beans” – (Ted Lingle 2001)
5.01.02
Repeat a definition of cupping
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
L5, L6
SCAA
Lingle
‘Coffee Cuppers Handbook’
5.02.01
KEY TERMINOLOGY/SENSORY VOCABULARY
Cupping coffee with:
L5, L6
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
L5, L6
Coffee – Sensorial Analysis –
Vocabulary
ISO TC 34/SC 15N 2113
Eye: colour, froth, crema
Nose: aroma categories (see point 5)
Mouth: basic tastes and mouthfeel
5.02.02
Match key cupping terminology phrases with an explanation of
the terms
10
6.0 THE STEPS OF COFFEE PROFILING
6.01.01
PROFILING INTENSITY OF A FEW IN MOUTH
ATTRIBUTES WITH AN ALTERNATIVE PREPARATION
METHOD: ESPRESSO, FRENCH PRESS, FILTER
COFFEE…
Prepare four coded coffees at once to present the steps of
profiling:
 Generate vocabulary individually before regrouping
terms
 Separate descriptive from qualitative terms
 Calibrate the groups on description e.g. give terms
expected for each coffee
 Select relevant descriptive terms only to make the
profiling questionnaire/form (7 attributes maximum)
 Ensure comprehension of attributes using definition
and reference
 Re-prepare same four coffees with different codes for
individual rating in the rotation presentation
 Report all scores on paper board questionnaires
(1 questionnaire per coffee) to discuss scoring result
and alignment / dispersion of scoring
 Calibrate scoring
 Re-taste, if needed on fresh samples
L5, L6
Samples should be noticeably different and differ on the
roasting and extractions more than on the origins
Example:
Brazilian light roast (Agtron 65 -70)
Brazilian medium roast (Agtron 55 – 60)
Ethiopian washed GR2 coarse grind (>700mμ)
Ethiopian washed GR2 fine grind (<350mμ)
Acknowledge that the preparation protocol is set to
compare coffees and not to optimise them (tackled in
brewing and grinding)
6.01.02
Difference between comparative and monadic profiling
L5, L6
Importance of a random or balanced presentation of samples.
The rotation presentation in coffee
Ability to rate coffees for core descriptive attributes acidity,
bitter, sweet perception, body and a few specific flavours
Recognise that calibration is key for panel repeatability
Profiling is descriptive only and should not include qualitative
notions (reserved for the expert hybrid method like SCAA
cupping form)
Analyse profiling results with average scores and dispersion
State that profiling analysis requires statistical test (like Anova)
to determine whether average are significantly different
Relate the sensory differences observed and the nature of the
samples
11
7.0 THE SCAA CUPPING FORM
7.01.01
MASTER THE SCAA CUPPING:
PREPARATION, TASTING AND CUPPING FORM, RESULT
Work as a group on a concrete examples of 5 coffees.
Give individual end result position
L5, L6
Objective of the method – describe and give a qualitative rating
Mention other system in use: COE, Espresso, home systems,
…






Explain cupping form dimension: descriptive,
qualitative, defects and define attributes not known
Recap protocol and leave group set table
Eventually correct setting before water pouring
Individual full tasting, rating and presentation of every
coffee key points
Reporting results on paper board
Calibration and re-tasting, on fresh coffees if needed
Samples should be noticeably different, with differences in
origin, cleanliness, finesse and balance
Example:
Colombia high overall grade
Colombia low grade
Colombia defect
Kenya high grade
Kenya low grade
7.01.02
Be able to use standard terminology to clearly communicate
on coffees
L5, L6
Distinguish the difference between descriptive and qualitative
terms and between positive and negative key terms
Acknowledge that the terms balance, sweet perception,
finesse are conceptual terms defining high quality coffee and
requiring the experience of the coffee experts to be rated
correctly as per his pairs
Be able to spot the defective cup, the low and the high grades,
rate correctly acidity and body
Assimilate that the lowest amount of defect the better cup
Know that the same coffee should be profiled similarly
anywhere, but that it can score a different overall value
depending on the scoring methodology used SCAA, COE
Acknowledge that analysis is based on average and
dispersion, and that experimental presentation design is the
rotation
Relate the scoring values and overall rating with the nature of
the samples
12
8.0 HOW TO SET UP SENSORY IN YOUR BUSINESS AND SENSORY APPLICATIONS – EQUIPMENT, MAINTENANCE AND STAFF
8.01.01
8.01.02
WHAT IS PANEL AND WHY SET UP A PANEL? (Ref 1.0)
- Robustness of the group versu a one person
- Is a measurement instrument
L5, L6
A group is better, more objective, not personal
L5, L6
One is better than none
8.02.01
FACILITY, TASTING AND PREPARATION AREA
Workgroup discussion where the items below should be
identified and acknowledged:
L5, L6
ISO standard 3664 2009 for light
Meilgaard et al (2007)
The very necessary basics:
 Separation preparation and tasting
 Ability to prepare a repeatable stimulus
 Ability to deliver standard tasting conditions (seated,
individual booths)
 Be practical (tap, water)
Ideally Sensory analysis rooms must be:
 Hygienic
 Odour free
 Encourage panellist sensitivity
 45 – 55% RH
 Room temperature
 Plain colours
 No carpets
 Encourage no bias
 Lighting to meet ISO 3664
 Red light as further option
Additional core equipment for a medium sized roastery
cupping lab in addition to basic cupping equipment outlined
in the foundation course includes the following:

Green coffee sample storage

Roast coffee sample storage

Humidity Meter/Control

Refractometer

Roast Colour Meter

O2/CO2 Meter

Grind Analysis Equipment
8.02.02
Identify the key design features of a cupping lab / sensory lab
Identify equipment that is not necessary for a cupping session
L5, L6
ISO standard 3664 2009 for light
Meilgaard et al (2007)
Explain how a badly designed lab is counterproductive
Demonstrate how extra sensory equipment can support
sensory analysis of coffee and how they can add value to the
business
13
8.03.01
CORE EQUIPMENT FOR TASTING AND SAMPLES
 Booth
 Table
 Spittoon
 Cups
 Spoons
 Water quality (treatment)
 Temperature
L5, L6
Trainees to list for their business the ‘must have’ and the
‘nice have’
8.03.02
Explain that equipment can vary in modality
(Example: turning table or not, sink spittoon or not).
L5, L6
Identify the repeatability of testing and brew protocol as being
the important point
8.04.01
EQUIPMENT AROUND PREPARATION
Storage area dry and cool, login equipment (as simple as
stickers or high tech as scan), preparation devices like grinder,
boiler, weight scale, dishwasher, sink, humidity and
temperature logging
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al
Manufacturer manuals
Trainees to list for their business the ‘must have’ and the
‘nice have’
8.04.02
Illustrate how a coffee sensory lab might receive and store
samples adequately
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al
Manufacturer manuals
Detail how to test within desired age sensory property
Repeat different preparation methods for common tests in
coffee sensory analysis
8.05.01
8.05.02
MAINTENANCE AND CLEANING
Grinder, machines
Cleaning schedule daily, weekly, monthly
Calibration of instruments
Explain that all equipment needs calibration
Determine frequency with group
L5, L6
Manufacturer specifications
L5, L6
Manufacturer specifications
Recall that food grade, odour and flavour free products are
preferred for sensory
8.06.01
STAFF
Tasks multiple in skills and discipline: job descriptions and
recruitment
L5, L6
Preparation, panel leader, analyst. Depend on size, costs
Trainees draw their staff organisation and share with other
trainees. Alternatively animators give a few examples in
business
14
8.06.02
Importance of keeping samples blind from tasters e.g. avoid
preparatory and taster being the same person
8.07.01
IT ELECTRONIC
Excel, dedicated software or manual table for statistic
L5, L6
L5, L6
Recording system
Specific statistical methodology and data analysis will be
covered in Professional
9.0 SET UP YOUR SENSORY PANEL
9.01.01
WHAT PANEL FOR WHAT TEST
Recap from Intermediate
9.02.01
SCREENING TASTERS
Recap from Intermediate
Don’t get low sensitivity tasters
9.03.01
TRAIN YOUR PANEL AND PANELLISTS:
WRITE A TRAINING PROGRAMME
 Write your own training program (either related to your
own business or allocated by animator) – Share with
the group
L5, L6
SCAA, COE training
Depend on activity
Be practical and adapted to the
topic in content and time:
Defect
Green coffee
Roasting
Brewing
Long process : 6 months minimum
Program example in content and time
Ratio: nb tasters / taster expertise / scope
From the In/Out panellist to the SCAA/COE jury
9.03.02
Recognise that developing an appropriate level of sensitivity in
coffee and gaining knowledge takes time
Standard ISO
L5, L6
Standard ISO
SCAA, COE training
Improving calibration, recognition and broadening the range of
sensory test protocols a cupper has knowledge of, is part of
their learning journey
Understand that panel performance is a group exercise and
not a competition
Depend on activity
Be practical and adapted to the
topic in content and time:
Defect
Green coffee
Roasting
Brewing
15
9.04.01
CHECK PERFORMANCE AND CALIBRATION
Regular re-calibration of panel members yield better sensory
results because:
 Increased consistency
 Ensures relevancy
 Ensures objectivity
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al (2007)
L5, L6
Meilgaard et al (2007)
L5, L6
Illy & Vianni (2005)
The frequency of analysis: minimum bi-yearly, should not be
less than yearly
Calibration samples is one method of ensuring continuous
assessment
9.04.02
Refer to calibration exercises done in Part II
Do calibration exercise with gritty/smooth material
Visual cappuccino barista
Recognise calibration as an important and effective method of
yielding consistent and relevant results
10.0 APPLICATION – SHELF LIFE, NPD
10.01.01
SHELF LIFE
A legal demand for BBE date
Because roasted coffee is a low moisture, low risk product
where the BBE is based on internal quality checks that have
to be documented by law
Intermediate Sensory:
Set up equipment
(oxygen meter)
Type of applicable tests: hedonic or sensory objective?
Example:
Consumer or trained tasters?
Accelerated or real time shelf life?
Use of reference sample or not?
Sensory tests are usually carried out in relation with analytical
measures, e.g. oxygen meter
10.01.02
Explain that coffee changes chemically after roasting as it
stales. CO2 decreases in coffee, peroxides develop and there
is also an increase in off flavours
Explain that this means the frequency of testing and period of
determination changes through the shelf life
L5, L6
Illy & Vianni (2005)
Intermediate Sensory:
Set up equipment
(oxygen meter)
Recall that roasters usually define their shelf life between
1 and 12 months. This is done depending on internal quality
standards
Refer to stale/rancid coffee tasted in Part I defects
16
10.02.01
NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Ensure your development objective is met sensorially
L5, L6
Make an exercise
L5, L6
Make an exercise
Groups set up a development plan including the sensory test
for the following themes:
My new roaster doesn’t behave like the old one and my
customers have noticed the change. How do I come back to
the same coffee profiles?
I have tasted this green coffee at a colleague that was very
qualitative. I have bought this same green coffee but it doesn’t
deliver the same at my place. How can I make a great cup?
The coffees I am offering taste too much alike. How do I
diversify?
My customers complain that my coffees are too bitter. How
can I correct?
10.02.02
Identify which tests are most applicable for different types of
NPD, e.g. Using Triangle testing to determine if there is a
difference between two options;
Profiling for longer term solutions and full description
Explain how to use tests discussed earlier in the course to
determine if the quality of the product reflects the green coffee
Explain how to integrate sensory tests with lab equipment to
create relevant sensory results
17
Key Terminology
Word or
Term
Proposed Description
Source
Acidity
A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable
sharp and pleasing taste … as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste
ICO, 1991
Aftertaste
The sensation produced by the lingering taste and aroma
Cappuccio, 2005
Aroma
The sensation of the gases released from brewed coffee, as they are inhaled
through the nose through sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Astringent
An aftertaste sensation consistent with a dry feeling in the mouth,
undesirable in coffee
ICO, 1991
Balance
A pleasing combination of two or more primary taste sensations
Lingle, 2011
Basic Tastes
The five basic tastes of sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami
Body
The physical properties of the beverage. A strong, but pleasant, full
mouthfeel characteristic
Break
Aromatic assessment of the crust as it is broken three times
Clean
Free from flavour taints or faults
Crust
Aromatic assessment of the crust of wet coffee grounds that forms on the top
of the brew surface immediately after brewing
Cupping
A method used to systematically evaluate the aroma and taste
characteristics of a sample of coffee beans
Lingle, 2011
Cupping
Glasses/Bowls
All cups or glasses used should be of the same volume, dimensions and
material of manufacture:
SCAA, 2009
ICO, 1991
Lingle, 2011
Cupping Glasses
5 to 6 oz tempered glass
Porcelain bouillon bowls of
175-225ml clean cups should be clean with no apparent fragrance and at
room temperature
Cupping Grind
Coarser than filter grind with 70% to 75% passing through a 850mμ sieve
SCAA, 2009
Cupping Roast
Sample roast targets:

Time: 8 – 12 minutes depending on roaster size

Colour: Agtron 60 – 65 (M-Basic)/Probat 105– 125 (colourette)

Coffees cupped 8 - 24 hours after roasting
SCAA, 2009
Dry
Assessment of the fragrance of the dry coffee grounds after grinding and
prior to brewing
Flavour
Flavor is defined as the sum of perceptions resulting from stimulation of the
sense… it includes the aromatics, the tastes, the chemical feeling factors
Meilgaard et al,
2007
18
Fragrance
The sensation of the gases released from roasted and ground coffee beans,
as the aromatic compounds are inhaled through the nose by sniffing
Lingle, 2011
Gustation
“The detection of stimuli dissolved in water, oil, or saliva, by the taste buds”
Meilgaard et al, 2007
Mouthfeel
The tactile sense derived from physical sensations in the mouth during and
after ingestion
Lingle, 2011
Olfaction
Airborne odorants (chemical substances) that are sensed by the olfactory
epithelium (located at the roof of the nasal cavity)
Meilgaard et al, 2007
REFERENCES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
nd
Sensory Evaluation of Food 2 Edition (2010) by Lawless and Heymann
rd
Sensory Evaluation Practices, 3 Edition (2004) by Stone, H and Sidel, JL
Sensory Evaluation Techniques (2007) by MC Meilgaard, GC Civille and B Thomas Carr
Espresso Coffee: The Science of Quality (2005) edited by A Illy & R Viani
The Coffee Cuppers Handbook (2001) by Ted Lingle
SCAA Cupping Protocol
SCAA Laboratory Requirements
Sensory Analysis for Food and Beverage Quality Control (2010) Edited by D Kilcast
Staling of roasted coffee: volatile release and oxidation reactions during storage (1993) by MC Nicoli et al
The Coffee Cuppers Manifesto (2001) by Paul Katzeff
19