VAROS107 Bedienungsanleitung - KWS

Contents
1
Contents
Chapter 1 Notes on Safety, Usage, Maintenance and Service ....................................................... 9
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Safety notes ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Usage notes/guarantee ........................................................................................................................ 9
Maintenance ....................................................................................................................................... 10
Cleaning ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Calibration .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Service ............................................................................................................................................... 10
Chapter 2 Technical Data ............................................................................................................. 11
Chapter 3 Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations ................................................ 25
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
Front panel ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Left side view ...................................................................................................................................... 26
Right side view ................................................................................................................................... 26
Rear panel .......................................................................................................................................... 27
USB-A ................................................................................................................................................ 27
USB-B ................................................................................................................................................ 27
Ethernet .............................................................................................................................................. 28
DVI output .......................................................................................................................................... 28
ASI IN/OUT ........................................................................................................................................ 28
SCART socket (Euro AV) ................................................................................................................... 29
12 V power supply .............................................................................................................................. 29
Headphone-jack ................................................................................................................................. 29
Chapter 4 Startup.......................................................................................................................... 30
4.1
4.2
Mains operation .................................................................................................................................. 30
Battery operation ................................................................................................................................ 30
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
Replacing the battery ......................................................................................................................... 30
Battery management, charging/discharging the battery ..................................................................... 31
Battery management calibration......................................................................................................... 31
4.3
4.4
Operation using an external power supply ......................................................................................... 31
Control of the fans .............................................................................................................................. 31
Chapter 5 Menu Structure ............................................................................................................. 32
Chapter 6 SAT Measuring Range ................................................................................................. 34
6.1
Frequency input .................................................................................................................................. 34
6.1.1
6.1.2
IF input ............................................................................................................................................... 34
RF input .............................................................................................................................................. 34
6.1.2.1
6.1.2.2
Input of the oscillator frequencies....................................................................................................... 34
LO assignment ................................................................................................................................... 35
6.2
DVB-S/S2 operating mode ................................................................................................................. 35
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
Selection of modulation ...................................................................................................................... 35
PLS and MIS at DVB-S2 .................................................................................................................... 35
Symbol rate input ............................................................................................................................... 36
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 37
DVB-S/S2 parameters ........................................................................................................................ 37
Special receiver settings .................................................................................................................... 38
6.2.6.1
AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) .................................................................................................. 38
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10
6.2.11
6.2.12
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 38
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 38
Constellation diagram ......................................................................................................................... 39
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 39
Data rate measurement...................................................................................................................... 39
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 39
6.3
Level measurement ............................................................................................................................ 39
6.3.1
Acoustic level trend ............................................................................................................................ 39
6.4
LNB supply ......................................................................................................................................... 40
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6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
14/18 V – 22 kHz control .................................................................................................................... 40
Changing the fixed voltages ............................................................................................................... 40
DiSEqC ............................................................................................................................................... 40
6.4.3.1
6.4.3.2
6.4.3.3
6.4.3.4
DiSEqC V1.0 control .......................................................................................................................... 41
DiSEqC V1.1 control .......................................................................................................................... 41
DiSEqC V1.2 control .......................................................................................................................... 43
DiSEqC V2.0 control .......................................................................................................................... 44
6.4.4
UNICABLE ......................................................................................................................................... 45
6.4.4.1
6.4.4.2
6.4.4.3
6.4.4.4
Activation and configuration ............................................................................................................... 45
Operation ............................................................................................................................................ 46
Reading UB slot frequencies from CSS ............................................................................................. 47
Programming aerial sockets ............................................................................................................... 48
6.4.5
JESS (EN 50607) ............................................................................................................................... 48
6.4.5.1
6.4.5.2
6.4.5.3
6.4.5.4
Activation and configuration ............................................................................................................... 48
Operation ............................................................................................................................................ 49
Reading UB slot frequencies from CCS ............................................................................................. 49
Programing aerial sockets .................................................................................................................. 50
6.4.6
LNB current measurement ................................................................................................................. 50
Chapter 7 TV Measuring Range ................................................................................................... 51
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7.1
Switching between frequency and channel input ............................................................................... 51
7.1.1
7.1.2
Frequency input .................................................................................................................................. 51
Channel input ..................................................................................................................................... 51
7.2
Selection of the operating mode......................................................................................................... 52
7.2.1
ANALOG (ATV) operating mode ........................................................................................................ 52
7.2.1.1
7.2.1.2
7.2.1.3
7.2.1.4
7.2.1.5
7.2.1.6
7.2.1.7
7.2.1.8
7.2.1.9
7.2.1.10
Selecting the TV standard .................................................................................................................. 52
Sound carrier ...................................................................................................................................... 52
NICAM decoder .................................................................................................................................. 52
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 53
S/N measurement .............................................................................................................................. 53
Videotext decoder .............................................................................................................................. 53
Scope (optional) ................................................................................................................................. 54
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 54
CNI code (Country Network Identification) ......................................................................................... 54
Program Identification ........................................................................................................................ 54
7.2.2
DIGITAL (DVB-C, DVB-T/T2, DOCSIS, DTMB) Operation Mode ...................................................... 54
7.2.2.1
DVB-C ................................................................................................................................................ 54
7.2.2.1.1
7.2.2.1.2
7.2.2.1.3
7.2.2.1.4
7.2.2.1.5
7.2.2.1.6
7.2.2.1.7
7.2.2.1.8
7.2.2.1.9
7.2.2.1.10
7.2.2.1.11
7.2.2.1.12
Symbol rate input ............................................................................................................................... 55
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 55
DVB-C parameters ............................................................................................................................. 56
Special receiver settings .................................................................................................................... 56
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 57
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 57
PJ measurement (Phase jitter) ........................................................................................................... 57
HUM measurement (amplitude hum) ................................................................................................. 57
Constellation diagram ......................................................................................................................... 57
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 58
Data rate measurement...................................................................................................................... 58
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 58
7.2.2.2
DVB-T ................................................................................................................................................. 58
7.2.2.2.1
7.2.2.2.2
7.2.2.2.3
7.2.2.2.4
7.2.2.2.5
7.2.2.2.6
7.2.2.2.7
7.2.2.2.8
Selection of the COFDM bandwidth (channel bandwidth) ................................................................. 59
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 59
DVB-T parameters ............................................................................................................................. 59
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 60
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 60
Impulse response ............................................................................................................................... 61
Constellation diagram ......................................................................................................................... 62
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 62
Contents
3
7.2.2.2.9
7.2.2.2.10
Data rate measurement...................................................................................................................... 62
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 62
7.2.2.3
DVB-T2............................................................................................................................................... 63
7.2.2.3.1
7.2.2.3.2
7.2.2.3.3
7.2.2.3.4
7.2.2.3.5
7.2.2.3.6
7.2.2.3.7
7.2.2.3.8
7.2.2.3.9
7.2.2.3.10
Selecting of the COFDM bandwidth (channel bandwidth) ................................................................. 63
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 63
DVB-T2 parameters ........................................................................................................................... 64
Selecting of the PLP (Physical Layer Pipe) ........................................................................................ 65
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 65
MER Measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 65
Impulse response ............................................................................................................................... 65
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 66
Data rate measurement...................................................................................................................... 66
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 66
7.2.2.4
DTMB (Option) ................................................................................................................................... 67
7.2.2.4.1
7.2.2.4.2
7.2.2.4.3
7.2.2.4.4
7.2.2.4.5
7.2.2.4.6
7.2.2.4.7
7.2.2.4.8
7.2.2.4.9
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 67
DTMB parameters .............................................................................................................................. 68
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 68
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 68
Impulse response ............................................................................................................................... 68
Constellation diagram ......................................................................................................................... 69
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 69
Data rate measurement...................................................................................................................... 70
Picture and sound check .................................................................................................................... 70
7.2.2.5
DOCSIS (downstream) ....................................................................................................................... 70
7.2.2.5.1
7.2.2.5.2
7.2.2.5.3
7.2.2.5.4
7.2.2.5.5
7.2.2.5.6
7.2.2.5.7
7.2.2.5.8
7.2.2.5.9
DOCSIS parameters .......................................................................................................................... 71
Special receiver settings .................................................................................................................... 71
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 72
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 72
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 72
PJ measurement (Phasejitter) ............................................................................................................ 73
HUM measurement (amplitude hum) ................................................................................................. 73
Constellation diagram ......................................................................................................................... 73
PE measurement (Packet Error) ........................................................................................................ 73
7.3
7.4
Measuring the frequency offset .......................................................................................................... 73
Level measurement ............................................................................................................................ 74
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
Acoustic level trend ............................................................................................................................ 74
Level measurement with analog TV (ATV) ........................................................................................ 74
Level measurement with DVB-C, DVB-T/T2 or DOCSIS ................................................................... 74
7.5
Remote supply ................................................................................................................................... 74
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
Setting the remote supply................................................................................................................... 75
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages ....................................................................................... 75
Measuring the remote supply current ................................................................................................. 75
7.6
Blind Scan .......................................................................................................................................... 75
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
Starting a new scan ............................................................................................................................ 75
Aborting a scan manually ................................................................................................................... 76
Exporting the channel list ................................................................................................................... 77
Chapter 8 FM (VHF) Measuring Range ........................................................................................ 78
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
Frequency input .................................................................................................................................. 78
Sound reproduction ............................................................................................................................ 78
Stereo indicator .................................................................................................................................. 78
RDS (Radio Data System) ................................................................................................................. 78
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 79
Level measurement ............................................................................................................................ 79
8.6.1
Acoustic level trend ............................................................................................................................ 79
8.7
Remote supply ................................................................................................................................... 79
8.7.1
8.7.2
Setting the remote supply................................................................................................................... 80
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages ....................................................................................... 80
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8.7.3
Measuring the remote supply current ................................................................................................. 80
Chapter 9 RC (Return Channel) Measuring Range ...................................................................... 81
9.1
9.2
Frequency input .................................................................................................................................. 81
Level measurement ............................................................................................................................ 81
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
Max hold function ............................................................................................................................... 81
Setting the channel bandwidth ........................................................................................................... 81
Setting reception mode (only with the relevant hardware configuration) ........................................... 82
Acoustic level trend ............................................................................................................................ 83
9.3
Remote supply ................................................................................................................................... 83
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
Setting the remote supply................................................................................................................... 83
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages ....................................................................................... 84
Measuring the remote supply current ................................................................................................. 84
9.4
Headend Mode ................................................................................................................................... 84
Chapter 10 DAB Measuring Range (Option) ................................................................................... 85
10.1
Switching between frequency and channel input ............................................................................... 85
10.1.1
10.1.2
Frequency input .................................................................................................................................. 85
Channel input ..................................................................................................................................... 85
10.2
10.3
Scan ................................................................................................................................................... 86
Level measurement ............................................................................................................................ 86
10.3.1
Acoustic level trend ............................................................................................................................ 86
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
DAB parameters ................................................................................................................................. 86
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate) .................................................................................................... 87
Subchannel BER measurement on DAB+ ......................................................................................... 87
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate) ...................................................................................... 87
FIC decoding ...................................................................................................................................... 87
MSC decoding and audio playback .................................................................................................... 88
Remote supply ................................................................................................................................... 89
10.10.1 Setting the remote supply................................................................................................................... 89
10.10.2 Changing the fixed remote supply voltages ....................................................................................... 89
10.10.3 Measuring the remote supply current ................................................................................................. 89
Chapter 11 MPEG Decoder ............................................................................................................ 90
11.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 90
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
DVB and MPEG-2 .............................................................................................................................. 90
HDTV and MPEG-4 ............................................................................................................................ 91
UHDTV and HEVC (MPEG-H) ........................................................................................................... 92
AVS/AVS+ .......................................................................................................................................... 92
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
Operation ............................................................................................................................................ 92
Dynamic PMT ..................................................................................................................................... 94
Displaying the MPEG video parameters ............................................................................................ 94
Measurement and display of the video bit rate .................................................................................. 94
Network Information Table (NIT) ........................................................................................................ 94
11.6.1
11.6.2
Delivery System Descriptor ................................................................................................................ 95
Logical Channel Descriptor (LCD)...................................................................................................... 96
11.7
Logical Channel Numbering (LCN-Liste)............................................................................................ 97
Chapter 12 Constellation diagram................................................................................................... 98
12.1
12.2
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 98
Operation ............................................................................................................................................ 98
12.2.1
Displaying single carriers with DVB-T ................................................................................................ 99
12.3
Examples ............................................................................................................................................ 99
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
DVB-S/S2 ........................................................................................................................................... 99
DVB-C/DOCSIS ............................................................................................................................... 100
DVB-T ............................................................................................................................................... 101
Chapter 13 SCOPE ....................................................................................................................... 103
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13.1
13.2
5
Operation .......................................................................................................................................... 103
Hum measurement ........................................................................................................................... 104
Chapter 14 Videotext .................................................................................................................... 105
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
Videotext on ATV ............................................................................................................................. 105
Videotext on DVB ............................................................................................................................. 105
Operation .......................................................................................................................................... 105
Videotext test tables ......................................................................................................................... 106
VPS (Video Programming System) evaluation................................................................................. 106
Chapter 15 Subtitle ....................................................................................................................... 108
15.1
15.2
Subtitle with DVB.............................................................................................................................. 108
Operation .......................................................................................................................................... 108
Chapter 16 Memory Management ................................................................................................ 109
16.1
16.2
16.3
Saving .............................................................................................................................................. 109
Recalling ........................................................................................................................................... 109
Memory functions ............................................................................................................................. 110
16.3.1
16.3.2
16.3.3
16.3.4
16.3.5
16.3.6
16.3.7
16.3.8
16.3.9
Erasing the memory ......................................................................................................................... 110
Erasing a memory location ............................................................................................................... 110
Moving a memory location ............................................................................................................... 110
Copying a memory location .............................................................................................................. 111
Activating memory protection ........................................................................................................... 111
Cancelling memory protection .......................................................................................................... 111
Memory export ................................................................................................................................. 111
Memory import ................................................................................................................................. 112
Opening the directory of the MEM files ............................................................................................ 112
16.3.9.1
16.3.9.2
Deleting MEM files ........................................................................................................................... 112
Copying MEM files ........................................................................................................................... 113
16.3.10
16.3.11
16.3.12
16.3.13
Automatic saving .............................................................................................................................. 113
Editing MEM files using AMA.remote ............................................................................................... 114
Sorting the memory .......................................................................................................................... 115
Defragmenting the memory .............................................................................................................. 115
Chapter 17 Printer......................................................................................................................... 116
17.1
Paper refill ........................................................................................................................................ 116
17.1.1
17.1.2
Manual paper feed ........................................................................................................................... 116
Automatic paper feed ....................................................................................................................... 117
17.2
17.3
Cleaning the heater bar (only when necessary) ............................................................................... 117
Printer functions ............................................................................................................................... 117
17.3.1
17.3.2
17.3.3
17.3.4
17.3.5
Manual feed ...................................................................................................................................... 117
Automatic printout ............................................................................................................................ 117
Printout of the NIT ............................................................................................................................ 118
Printout of the LCN list ..................................................................................................................... 119
Hard copy ......................................................................................................................................... 119
17.3.5.1
17.3.5.2
Hard copy of the LCD ....................................................................................................................... 119
Hard copy of the graphics ................................................................................................................ 120
17.3.6
Active measured values ................................................................................................................... 120
Chapter 18 File Output.................................................................................................................. 121
18.1
Hard copy ......................................................................................................................................... 121
18.1.1
18.1.2
18.1.3
18.1.4
Hardcopy of the LCD ........................................................................................................................ 121
Hardcopy of the grafics .................................................................................................................... 121
File names serially numbered .......................................................................................................... 121
Calling up the directory of the BMP files .......................................................................................... 122
18.1.4.1
18.1.4.2
Deleting BMP files ............................................................................................................................ 122
Copying BMP files ............................................................................................................................ 122
18.2
NIT (network information table) ........................................................................................................ 123
18.2.1
Saving the NIT as a text file ............................................................................................................. 123
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18.2.2
Calling up the directory of the NIT files ............................................................................................ 123
18.2.2.1
18.2.2.2
Deleting NIT files .............................................................................................................................. 123
Copying NIT files .............................................................................................................................. 123
18.3
Logical Channel Numbering (LCN) .................................................................................................. 124
18.3.1
18.3.2
Saving the LCN list as a text file....................................................................................................... 124
Calling up the directory of the LCN files ........................................................................................... 124
18.3.2.1
18.3.2.2
Deleting LCN files............................................................................................................................. 124
Copying LCN files............................................................................................................................. 124
Chapter 19 Spectrum Analyzer ..................................................................................................... 125
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.5
19.6
19.7
19.8
19.9
19.10
Accessing the analyzer .................................................................................................................... 125
Frequency segment (SPAN) ............................................................................................................ 126
Measuring bandwidth (RBW) ........................................................................................................... 126
Cursor ............................................................................................................................................... 126
Switching between frequency and channel mode ............................................................................ 126
Level display ..................................................................................................................................... 126
Input of the center frequency............................................................................................................ 126
Progress bar ..................................................................................................................................... 127
Level diagram in the broadband cable range and DAB range ......................................................... 127
TILT measurement in the TV range ................................................................................................ 127
19.10.1
19.10.2
19.10.3
19.10.4
Setting the level reduction ................................................................................................................ 128
Selecting a profile ............................................................................................................................. 129
Creating or changing a profile .......................................................................................................... 129
Application ........................................................................................................................................ 130
19.11
19.12
19.13
19.14
19.15
19.16
Switching to measuring receiver mode ............................................................................................ 130
Freezing the spectrum ...................................................................................................................... 131
Max hold function ............................................................................................................................. 131
Ingress measurement in the return path .......................................................................................... 131
Marker function ................................................................................................................................. 132
Activating the remote supply ............................................................................................................ 133
Chapter 20 Management of the Instrument .................................................................................. 134
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
20.10
20.11
20.12
20.13
20.14
20.15
20.16
20.17
20.18
20.19
20.20
20.21
20.22
20.23
Language of user interface............................................................................................................... 134
Query software version .................................................................................................................... 134
Software update ............................................................................................................................... 134
Updating hardware modules ............................................................................................................ 136
Serial number ................................................................................................................................... 136
MAC address .................................................................................................................................... 136
SCART ............................................................................................................................................. 136
Query hardware configuration .......................................................................................................... 136
Default setting .................................................................................................................................. 137
TV standard ...................................................................................................................................... 137
Setting date and time ....................................................................................................................... 137
Keypad settings ................................................................................................................................ 137
Color standard .................................................................................................................................. 138
User-defined channel table for TV.................................................................................................... 138
Formatting the internal flash disk ..................................................................................................... 139
Exporting the internal flash disk ....................................................................................................... 139
Activating software options............................................................................................................... 139
User-defined headers for printing ..................................................................................................... 140
User-defined logo for printing ........................................................................................................... 140
Deactivating the DOCSIS analyzer .................................................................................................. 141
Configuration of the PING test from the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer .................................................. 141
Configuring the speed test in the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer .................................................................. 142
Level measurement unit ................................................................................................................... 142
Chapter 21 Measurement Data Memory (DataLogger) ................................................................. 143
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21.1
21.2
Creating a set of measurements ...................................................................................................... 143
Accessing the directory .................................................................................................................... 144
21.2.1
21.2.2
Erasing a set of measurements........................................................................................................ 144
Copying a set of measurements....................................................................................................... 144
Contents
21.3
21.4
21.5
7
Select the drive ................................................................................................................................. 145
Query memory capacity ................................................................................................................... 145
Evaluating the measurement sets on a PC ...................................................................................... 145
Chapter 22 AV Input and Output ................................................................................................... 147
22.1
22.2
AV output .......................................................................................................................................... 147
Monitor function ................................................................................................................................ 147
22.2.1
22.2.2
22.2.3
22.2.4
Switching between FBAS and RGB input ........................................................................................ 147
Videotext with external video signals ............................................................................................... 147
S/N measurement with external video signals ................................................................................. 147
Scope display with external video signals ........................................................................................ 148
Chapter 23 MPEG Transport Stream Interface (ASI) .................................................................... 149
23.1
23.2
ASI output ......................................................................................................................................... 149
ASI input ........................................................................................................................................... 149
23.2.1
Data rate measurement.................................................................................................................... 149
Chapter 24 DVI Interface .............................................................................................................. 150
Chapter 25 USB Interface ............................................................................................................. 151
25.1
25.2
USB-A .............................................................................................................................................. 151
USB-B .............................................................................................................................................. 151
Chapter 26 ETHERNET Interface ................................................................................................. 152
Chapter 27 Monitoring Program .................................................................................................... 153
27.1
Starting the monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 153
27.1.1
27.1.2
27.1.3
27.1.4
Entry of the name and monitoring period ......................................................................................... 154
Specifying the destination of the alarm output ................................................................................. 154
Setting the tolerances....................................................................................................................... 154
During monitoring ............................................................................................................................. 155
27.2
Managing LOG files.......................................................................................................................... 155
27.2.1
27.2.2
Deleting monitoring logs ................................................................................................................... 155
Copying monitoring logs ................................................................................................................... 156
27.3
Monitoring log ................................................................................................................................... 156
Chapter 28 Measurement Data Recording (DataGrabber) ........................................................... 158
28.1
28.2
28.3
Starting the recording ....................................................................................................................... 159
Evaluating a recording ...................................................................................................................... 160
Documenting a recording ................................................................................................................. 160
Chapter 29 Common Interface (CI) ............................................................................................... 161
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
Changing the CA modules ............................................................................................................... 161
Initializing and querying the CA modules ......................................................................................... 162
Card menu........................................................................................................................................ 162
Playing an encrypted program ......................................................................................................... 163
Chapter 30 DOCSIS Analyzer (Option)......................................................................................... 164
30.1
30.2
30.3
30.4
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 164
Connection of the measuring receiver to the multimedia socket ...................................................... 164
Measurement of the DOCSIS downstream ...................................................................................... 164
DOCSIS analysis and measurement of the DOCSIS upstream ....................................................... 165
30.4.1
30.4.2
DOCSIS DS parameters .................................................................................................................. 166
DOCSIS US parameters .................................................................................................................. 166
30.4.2.1
30.4.2.2
30.4.2.3
30.4.2.4
30.4.2.5
Upstream analysis with the DOCSIS-1.1 analyzer ........................................................................... 166
Upstream analysis with the DOCSIS-2.0 analyzer ........................................................................... 167
Downstream and upstream analysis using DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer ................................................... 168
More advanced upstream time slice analysis with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer ............................ 171
Upstream frequency response analysis with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer .................................... 171
30.4.3
30.4.4
30.4.5
PING test with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer ................................................................................... 173
Selecting the upstream frequency with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer ............................................. 174
Speed-Test with the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer ...................................................................................... 175
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Contents
30.5
30.6
30.7
30.8
30.9
Sequence of a measurement ........................................................................................................... 176
Ingress measurement ....................................................................................................................... 177
Notes regarding compatibility ........................................................................................................... 177
Input of the MAC address................................................................................................................. 177
Further information ........................................................................................................................... 178
Chapter 31 Remote Access (Option) ............................................................................................ 179
31.1
SNMP-Remote-Control (Option) ...................................................................................................... 179
31.1.1
31.1.2
Features and function of SNMP ....................................................................................................... 180
MIB structure .................................................................................................................................... 181
31.2
31.3
31.4
FTP (Option) ..................................................................................................................................... 182
Setting of the IP address .................................................................................................................. 182
Further information ........................................................................................................................... 183
Chapter 32 Electro Magnetic Interference Measurement (Option)................................................ 184
32.1
32.2
32.3
32.4
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 184
Calling .............................................................................................................................................. 184
Frequency input ................................................................................................................................ 184
Antenna selection ............................................................................................................................. 184
32.4.1
User-defined EMI antenna ............................................................................................................... 184
32.5
32.6
32.7
32.8
32.9
32.10
Entering the distance ........................................................................................................................ 185
Entering the limit ............................................................................................................................... 185
Analysis of identifier ......................................................................................................................... 185
Measuring the interference field strength ......................................................................................... 185
Setting the identifier .......................................................................................................................... 186
Remote supply ................................................................................................................................. 186
32.10.1 Setting the remote supply voltage .................................................................................................... 186
32.10.2 Changing the fixed remote supply voltages ..................................................................................... 186
32.10.3 Measuring the remote supply current ............................................................................................... 186
Chapter 33 Optical Receiver (Option) ........................................................................................... 187
33.1
33.2
33.3
33.4
33.5
33.6
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 187
Cleaning the fiber optic plug connection .......................................................................................... 188
Activating the optical input ................................................................................................................ 188
Setting the wavelength ..................................................................................................................... 188
Measuring the optical power ............................................................................................................ 189
Measuring the optical modulation index (OMI) ................................................................................. 189
Chapter 34 Upstream Monitoring System UMS (Option) .............................................................. 190
34.1
34.2
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 190
Headend Settings ............................................................................................................................. 190
34.2.1
Configuration .................................................................................................................................... 190
34.2.1.1
34.2.1.2
34.2.1.3
34.2.1.4
Auto-Start ......................................................................................................................................... 190
Keyboard locking .............................................................................................................................. 190
Power save ....................................................................................................................................... 190
TS Output ......................................................................................................................................... 190
34.2.2
34.2.3
34.2.4
34.2.5
34.2.6
34.2.7
34.2.8
34.2.9
Transport stream settings................................................................................................................. 191
Network settings ............................................................................................................................... 192
Handhelds ........................................................................................................................................ 192
Modem Upstreams ........................................................................................................................... 192
Bit error rate measurement (BER).................................................................................................... 193
TILT measurement ........................................................................................................................... 193
Forward path measurement ............................................................................................................. 193
Export/Import of UMS settings ......................................................................................................... 193
34.3
34.4
System planning ............................................................................................................................... 194
UMS startup ..................................................................................................................................... 195
Chapter 35 Definitions and Explanations ...................................................................................... 196
35.1
31009 Vxx.19
The Level .......................................................................................................................................... 196
Chapter 1 - Notes on Safety, Usage, Maintenance and Service
9
Chapter 1 Notes on Safety, Usage, Maintenance and Service
1.1
Safety notes
This instrument has been built and tested in accordance with the standard DIN 61010-1 (Safety
requirements for electrical equipment for measurement). The instrument is in perfect working order
upon leaving the factory. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, the user must
check the instrument and the power cord regularly for damage. A damaged power cord must be
replaced immediately.
Please note the instructions and warnings contained in these operating instructions.
This instrument meets the requirements of protection class II (protective insulation).
The instrument complies with the IP20 protection class according to EN60529.
You may operate this instrument using mains voltage between 100 V and 240 V with 50 Hz and 60
Hz.
Discharging via connectors may damage the instrument. Protect the instrument from electrostatic
discharge when handling and operating it.
Make sure that no external voltages greater than 70 Veff (60 Veff = Instrument delivered before
April 2010) are applied to the measuring receiver’s RF input since they may destroy the input
circuits.
Do not cover the ventilation slots on the instrument. Doing so can lead to reduced air circulation in
the instrument, causing heat to accumulate. The electronic components can overheat as a result.
Lithium batteries must not be exposed to high temperatures or fire. If battery is replaced incorrectly,
there is a risk of explosion. Replace the batteries only with the original type
(available from a salesman in your area, wholesaler, or the manufacturer of the instrument). Do not
short-circuit the batteries. Lithium batteries are hazardous waste. Only dispose of them in
containers provided for this purpose
Passage from the battery regulations (BattV).
This device contains a battery which incorporates hazardous substances. It
must not be disposed of I domestic waste. At the end of its working life it
should be disposed of only through the ESC customer service department
or at a designated collection point.
1.2
Usage notes/guarantee
The guarantee for a new instrument ends 24 months after delivery.
The guarantee is invalidated if the instrument is opened (except for battery change).
Sharp tools (such as screwdrivers) can damage the plastic pane in front of the TFT display and
thus ruin the TFT.
31009 Vxx.19
10
Chapter 1 - Notes on Safety, Usage, Maintenance and Service
The contrast of the TFT deteriorates at ambient temperatures below 5°C.
The TFT display does not reach maximum brightness until several seconds after the instrument is
cold-started.
The instrument reaches full measurement accuracy after about 5 minutes of operation.
Wireless DECT telephones and GSM mobile phones can cause malfunctions and incorrect
measurements if they are operated in the immediate vicinity of the measuring receiver.
1.3
Maintenance
The instrument is maintenance-free.
1.4
Cleaning
Clean the case and the TFT display with a soft, lint-free dust cloth. Never use solvents such as
diluents for cellulose lacquers, acetone or similar, since they may damage plastic parts or the
coating on the front panel.
Remove dust from the ventilation slots regularly so that the air circulation provided by the
integrated ventilator is not obstructed.
1.5
Calibration
The instrument should be recalibrated at least every two years. The instrument will be calibrated at
the factory if returned for service.
1.6
Service
Service address: see back cover of operating manual.
31009 Vxx.19
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
11
Chapter 2 Technical Data
FREQUENCY RANGES
SAT
TV
910 – 2,150 MHz
Resolution 500 kHz
IF- / Transponder frequency
Devices until 08/2015
Devices from 08/2015
Resolution
FM (VHS)
RC (Return channel)
45 – 868 MHz
868 – 1050 MHz (Option)
45 – 1214 MHz
50 kHz
Frequency input- / channel input
Resolution
87.4 – 108.2 MHz
50 kHz
Resolution
5 – 65 MHz
50 kHz
EMI (Option)
Resolution
same as TV Range
50 kHz
DAB (Option)
Resolution
170 – 250 MHz
50 kHz
OPERATION
Input
Monitor
Display
User Prompting
Audio reproduction
RF INPUT
Illuminated silicone keypad (numeric keypad)
5.5" TFT, VGA resolution 640*480)
Separate LCD for measured values (320*64)
German and English
Integrated loudspeaker, headphone jack
IEC socket / 75 Ohm (DIN 45 325)
Return loss
> 12 dB (5 - 910 MHz)
> 10 dB (910 - 2,150 MHz)
RF sum power
External voltage
max. 500 mW (5 – 910 MHz)
max. 70 Veff (DC – 50 Hz)
INPUT ATTENUATOR
0 – 60 dB in 2 dB increments
31009 Vxx.19
12
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
LEVEL RANGE
Measuring ranges
SAT
TV
FM
RC
DAB
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Units
Measuring bandwidth
(RBW(-3dB))
SAT analog
SAT DVB-S/S2
TV analog
DVB-T
DVB-C
30 – 120 dBµV
20 – 120 dBµV
20 – 120 dBµV
20 – 120 dBµV
20 – 120 dBµV
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB (at 20°C) warm up time > 5 min.
± 2.0 dB (0°C-40°C) warm up time > 5 min.
dBµV, dBmV or dBm adjustable
8 MHz
8 MHz, 4 MHz or 1 MHz depending on symbol rate
Video carrier 200 kHz
Audio carrier 200 kHz
4 MHz
4 MHz, 1 MHz or 200 kHz depending on symbol
rate
FM
DAB
RC
200 kHz
1 MHz
1 MHz, 200 kHz or 90 kHz
depending on bandwidth symbol rate setting
EMI
200 kHz
Acoustic level trend indicator
can be switched on/off
ANALYZER
Measuring bandwidth
(RBW(-3dB))
SAT
TV
FM
RC
DAB
8 MHz, 4 MHz, 1 MHz
4 MHz, 1 MHz, 200 kHz, 90 kHz
200 kHz, 90 kHz
200 kHz, 90 kHz
1 MHz, 200 kHz
Span (frequency segment)
SAT
TV
FM
RC
DAB
Total range, 600 MHz, 150 MHz, 75 MHz
Total range, 300 MHz, 100 MHz, 60 MHz, 30 MHz
Total range , 6 MHz, 3 MHz
Total range, 30 MHz
Total range, 30 MHz
MAX hold function
Direct switching between analyzer mode and receiver mode
31009 Vxx.19
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
13
DVB-S
QPSK demodulator
Symbol rates
Frequency offset (df)
Measuring parameters
Automatic detection
(per ETS 300421)
2 – 45 MSym/s
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
CBER (before Viterbi)
VBER (after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (packet errors)
DVB-S / DVB-S2
0.1 dB
± 100 kHz
1.00•10 -8
1.00•10 -8
up to 20 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
up to 4•10 9
Counts packet errors since the start of measurement
(only with DVB-S2)
Scan function
DVB-S2
QPSK/8PSK demodulator
16APSK, 32APSK
FEC 1/4, 1/3, 2/5
Symbol rates
(per ETS 302307)
Devices from Q3/2016
Devices from Q3/2016
10 – 30 MSym/s (Devices until Q2/2010)
2 – 45 MSym/s (Devices from Q2/2010)
Frequency offset (df)
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Measuring parameters
Automatic detection
CBER (before LDPC)
LBER (after LDPC)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (packet errors)
DVB-S/DVB-S2
0.1 dB
± 100 kHz
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10 -8
1.00•10 -8
to 20 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
to 4*10 9
Counts packet errors since the start of measurement
Scan function
31009 Vxx.19
14
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
TV ANALOG
Television standards
Color standards
Sound demodulator
B/G, D/K, L, I, M/N
PAL, NTSC, SECAM
Soundcarrier 1 and 2
Decoding of MONO, STEREO and dual sound
broadcasts
Sound carrier measurement
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Soundcarrier 1 and 2 relative to the video carrier
in dB
± 1.5 dB
± 1.5 dB
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Video carrier
0.01 MHz
± (0.5 digit + 3 kHz)
Frequency offset (df)
Scan function
VIDEOTEXT
ATV
Sources
(per ETS 300706)
TV analog, SCART
Zoom function
VPS evaluation (per ETS 300231)
DVB
(per ETS 300472)
(only with MPEG-4 decoder)
Sources
DVB-S/S2, DVB-C, DVB-T/-T2, ASI
Zoom function
SUBTITLE
DVB
(per ETS 300743)
(only with MPEG-4 decoder)
Sources
DVB-S/S2, DVB-C, DVB-T/-T2, ASI
on analog video signals
Evaluated measurement according to CCIR 569
S/N MEASURING
Sources
Measuring range
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
31009 Vxx.19
TV analog, SCART
40 – 55 dB (SAT, TV)
40 – 60 dB (SCART)
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
Oscillographic display of analog television lines in real
time
SCOPE
Sources
Line selection
Zoom function
Pre/Posttrigger
Hum measurement
SAT analog, TV analog, SCART
1 – 625 respectively 1 – 525 (NTSC)
1H, 1/2H, 1/4H, 1/8H (H = 64 µs)
± 1/2H
Display of low-frequency AM superimposition
(per ETS 300163)
NICAM-DECODER
Sound carrier
Measuring parameters
15
5.85 MHz (B/G, D/K, L) respectively 6.552 MHz (I)
Decoding of MONO, STEREO and dual sound
broadcasts
BER
1.00•10-5
DVB-C AND EURO-DOCSIS
QAM demodulator
Symbol rates
Modulation scheme
Frequency offset (df)
Measuring parameters
Scan function
(per ETS 300163)
0.5 – 7.2 MSym/s
16, 32, 64,128 and 256 QAM
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
BER
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PJ (Phase Jitter)
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
HUM
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (Packet Errors)
0.001 MHz
± 5 kHz
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10-8 or 1.00•10-9
up to 40 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
0.40° - 5.00°
0.01°
± 10% (of displayed value)
0.5% - 5.00%
0.1%
± 10% (of displayed value)
To 4*109
Counts packet errors from the beginning of the
measurement
31009 Vxx.19
16
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
PRBS (AT RETURN CHANNEL)
QAM demodulator
Dates
Symbol rates
Modulation scheme
PRBS23
0.3 – 7.2 MSym/s
QPSK, 16, 64 and 256 QAM
Frequency offset (df)
Measuring parameters
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
0.001 MHz
± 5 kHz
BER
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PJ (Phase Jitter)
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
HUM
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10 -8
up to 40 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
0.40° - 5.00°
0.01°
± 10% (of displayed value)
0.5% - 5.00%
0.1%
± 10% (of displayed value)
J83B (US-DOCSIS)
QAM demodulator
Symbol rates
Modulation scheme
De-Interleaver-Depths
Frequency offset (df)
Measuring parameters
Scan function
31009 Vxx.19
(per ITU-T J83B)
5.057, 5.361 MSym/s
64, 256 QAM
I=8 / J=16, 16/8, 32/4, 64/2, 128/1
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
VBER (after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PJ (Phase Jitter)
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
HUM
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (Packet Errors)
0.001 MHz
± 5 kHz
(Per ETR 290)
1.00•10 -8
up to 40 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
0.40° - 5.00°
0.01°
± 10% (of displayed value)
0.5% - 5.00%
0.1%
± 10% (of displayed value)
up to 4*109
Counts packet errors from the beginning of the
measurement
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
17
DOCSIS 3.0-ANALYZER (OPTION)
DOCSIS 1.1:
Physical layer according to ETSI ES 201488-2
DOCSIS 2.0:
Conforms completely to DOCSIS 2.0
DOCSIS 3.0:
Conforms completely to DOCSIS 3.0
Downstream demodulator
Upstream modulator
(DOCSIS 1.1)
Upstream modulator
(DOCSIS 2.0 and 3.0)
USDOCSIS
EURODOCSIS
Frequency
Modulation scheme
Symbol rates
Access method
Frequency
QPSK, 16QAM
160, 320, 640, 1,280, 2,560 kSym/s
TDMA
5 MHz – 65 MHz
Modulation scheme
QPSK, 8QAM, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM
(only S-CDMA)
160, 320, 640, 1,280, 2,560, 5,120 kSym/s
TDMA, A-TDMA, S-CDMA
5 MHz – 65 MHz
BPI/BPI+
Symbol rates
Access method
Frequency
Encryption
Level
see J83B
see DVB-C
111 MHz – 868 MHz
111 MHz – 1,002 MHz (DOCSIS3.0 with 1 GHz
Option)
Receive level
Max. transmission
Measuring accuracy
minimum 50 dBµV
minimum 114 dBµV
± 1.5 dB (at 20°C)
± 2.0 dB (0°C - 40°C)
Continuous ranging (synchronization with CMTS)
Continuous analysis of downstream/upstream level
Evaluation of the upstream equalizer parameters (only from DOCSIS 2.0)
Downstream channel utilization (DF = duty factor only from DOCSIS 2.0)
IP synchronization (only from DOCSIS 2.0)
Scalable PING test (only from DOCSIS 2.0)
Time slice analysis (only from DOCSIS 2.0)
Selection of the upstream frequency for ranging (only from DOCSIS 2.0)
Speed test (data throughput measurement) in the uplink and downlink directions (only for DOCSIS 3.0)
Graphical representation of channel bonding for downstream and upstream (only with DOCSIS 3.0)
Channel Bonding (only with DOCSIS 3.0)
8 x downstream (must be within 64 MHz)
4 x upstream (5 – 65 MHz)
Scan function
31009 Vxx.19
18
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
DVB-T
COFDM demodulator
Bandwidth
FFT
Modulation scheme
Guard intervals
Frequency offset (df)
(per ETS 300744)
6, 7, 8 MHz
2k, 8k
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Measuring parameters
CBER (before Viterbi)
VBER (after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (Packet Errors)
Impulse response
0.001 MHz
± 3 kHz
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10 -6
1.00•10 -8
up to 35 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
up to 4*109
counts packet errors from the beginning of the
measurement
Attenuation relative to the primary impulse 0-30 dB or
0-40 dB
Delay relative to the primary impulse in µs or km
Scan function
DVB-T2
COFDM demodulator
Bandwidth
FFT
Modulation scheme
Guard intervals
Pilot pattern
Frequency offset (df)
(per ETS 302755)
6, 7, 8 MHz
1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM
1/4, 19/128, 1/8, 19/256, 1/16, 1/32, 1/128
PP1…PP8
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Measuring parameters
CBER (before Viterbi)
LBER (after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (Packet Errors)
Impulse response
Scan function
31009 Vxx.19
0.001 MHz
± 3 kHz
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10 -6
1.00•10 -8
up to 35 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
up to 4*109
Counts packet errors from the beginning of the
measurement
Attenuation relative to the primary impulse 0-40 dB
Delay relative to the primary impulse in µs or km
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
19
DTMB (OPTION)
DTMB demodulator
Bandwidth
Carrier mode
(per GB20600-2006)
8 MHz
Single carrier modulation (C1)
Multiple carrier modulation OFDM (C3780)
4QAM, 4QAM_NR, 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM
PN420v, PN595c, PN945v, PN420c, PN945c
0.4, 0.6, 0.8
M_240, M_720
Modulation scheme
Guard intervals
FEC
Time interleaver
Frequency offset (df)
Measurement parameters
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
CBER (before Viterbi)
LBER (after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
PE (Packet Errors)
Impulse response
Scan function
0.001 MHz
± 3 kHz
(per ETR 290)
1.00•10-6
1.00•10-8
up to 32 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
up to 4*109
Counts packet errors from the beginning of the
measurement
Attenuation relative to the primary impulse 0–40 dB
Delay relative to the primary impulse in µs or km
I/Q analysis of digitally modulated signals
CONSTELLATION DIAGRAM
Sources
Repetition rate
DVB-S/S2, DVB-C, J83B, DVB-T/T2, DTMB, PRBS
Real time (not with DVB_T2 and DTMB)
3-dimensional display
(Status frequency)
In color
Zoom function
Stop function
Single carrier display
In all 4 quadrants
Freezes the diagram
Only with DVB-T
RC (RETURN CHANNEL)
Max hold function
Receiver setting
CW (unmodulated)
DVB-C, J83B, PRBS
FM (VHF)
MONO/STEREO indicator
RDS (Radio Data System)
Scan function
Station name
PI code
Dynamic radiotext
31009 Vxx.19
20
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
DAB/DAB+ (OPTION)
COFDM demodulator
FFT
Mode
Modulation scheme
Guard intervals
Measuring parameters
(per ETSI EN 300401)
2k
1
DQPSK
¼
CBER (before Viterbi)
VBER(after Viterbi)
MER
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
DAB+frame decoding
Scan function
TII evaluation
1.00•10 -6
1.00•10 -5 (only on DAB+ service playing)
up to 25 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
(per ETS TS 102563)
MPEG-2/4/H/AVS-DECODER
Video decoding
MPEG-2 MP@HL
MPEG-4 AVC
MPEG-H L5.1
AVS/AVS+
Audio decoding
DAB Audio decoding
DAB+ Audio decoding
Chinese font set
Cyrillic font set
MPEG-1 Layer I/II
MPEG-2 AAC
MPEG-4 AAC
Dolby Digital AC-3
Dolby Digital Plus
(DRA)
MPEG-1 Layer II
HE-AACv2
ISO/IEC 13818-3
ISO/IEC 14496-10
ITU-T H.264
ISO/IEC 23008
ITU-T H.265
AVS1-P2 (Jizhun)
AVS1-P16 (Guangbo)
(Option)
ISO/IEC 13818-3
ISO/IEC 13818-7
ISO/IEC 14496-3
DigiRise Technology (China)
ISO/IEC 11172-3 und 13818-3
ISO/IEC 14496-3
GB2312
CI (COMMON INTERFACE)
2 PCMCIA slots for accepting up to 2 CA modules according to EN50221
Changing of the CA module via the hinged lid on the top panel of the instrument
31009 Vxx.19
(Option)
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
21
ASI
Input
Input impedance
Output
Input level
Incoming data rate
Connection
Output level
Connection
Output impedance
500 – 880 mVpp
max. 160 MBit/s
BNC socket
75 Ohm
typ. 800 mVpp
BNC socket
75 Ohm
DVI
Digital video output for connection of a TV with
DVI/HDMI input
Source
Output impedance
Difference output level
DVB
100 Ohm
typ. 1 Vpp
SCART
FBAS input
FBAS output
RGB input
RGB output
Audio input L/R
Audio output L/R
Input impedance 75 Ohm (typ. 1 Vpp)
1 Vpp at 75 Ohm
Input impedance 75 Ohm (typ. 700 mVpp)
700 mVpp at 75 Ohm
Input impedance 600 Ohm (typ. 1 Vpp)
1 Vpp at 600 Ohm
USB
USB-A
USB-B
V1.1 (Full Speed)
V1.1 (Full Speed)
ETHERNET
RJ-45
10Base-T (10MBit/s)
REMOTE CONTROL (OPTION)
Through Ethernet interface
SNMPv1-Protokoll
31009 Vxx.19
22
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
OPTICAL REVEIVER (OPTION)
Connector
Wavelength (Lambda)
Max. optical input power
Return loss
Equivalent input noise (ON)
RF frequency range
Input power, nominal
Measuring parameters
Optical power
Optical modulation index (OMI)
SC/APC (with protective cap)
1,260 – 1,620 nm (no optical filter)
+8 dBm (continuous power)
> 40 dB
< 8 pA/√Hz
5 – 2,150 MHz
-7…+3 dBm
Wavelength
(calibrated)
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
-35 dBm…+9 dBm
1,310 nm, 1,490 nm, 1,550 nm
0.1 dB
± 0.35 dB
Individual OMI and total OMI
0.1%
± 10% (of displayed value)
ELECTRO MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENT (EMI)
(OPTION)
Evaluation of the 13-digit identifier for the KFG 242
frequency identification generator and measurement
of the interference field strength in connection with
the Peilset, consisting of the EMI 240/Y Yagi antenna,
EMI 240/V pre-amplifier and EMI 240/K adapter
cable, or with the EMI 241 antenna
Other antenna sets can be user defined
Measuring range
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
3 – 103 dBµV/m (EMI 241)
5 – 105 dBµV/m (EMI 240)
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB (at 20°C)
± 2.0 dB (0°C – 40°C)
UPSTREAM MONITORING SYSTEM (UMS) (OPTION)
Return channel measurement system (together with appropriate handheld devices)
Measurements during active DOCSIS modem service
Up to 10 handheld devices connectable
Netto data rate of DVB transport stream for data transmission between headend devices and field
device: < 700 kbit/s
ASI/IP-TS-Output
ASK modulation for signaling of the handheld device to the head end device.
31009 Vxx.19
Chapter 2 - Technical Data
23
UPSTREAM-MONITORING-SYSTEM (UMS) (OPTION)
Measurements
Real-time spectrum
Sweep function
TILT function
Measuring parameters
Frequency range
Measuring range
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
MER
BER
(with QAM-PRBS
signal)
Measuring range
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
(with QAM-PRBS
signal)
Depth of
measurement
4.32 – 65.76 MHz
0 – 120 dBµV
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB (at 20°C)
± 2.0 dB (0°C - 40°C)
up to 40 dB
0.1 dB
± 1.5 dB
1.00•10 -8
CPU
32 bit RISC architecture
RTOS (Real Time Operating System)
FAT32 file system
64 MByte flash disk
Software update
Via USB stick
TUNING MEMORY
Memory locations
Memory preview
Memory protection function
Automatic saving
200
PRINTER
Thermal printer
384 pixel
Horizontal resolution
per RF input
REMOTE SUPPLY
Voltage
Power
22 kHz modulation
DiSEqC
Current measuring
only at SAT
only at SAT
Measuring range
Resolution
Measuring accuracy
Short circuit message
5 – 20 V
up to 500 mA (short circuit-proof)
0,8 Vpp
V1.0, V1.1, V1.2, V2.0, UNICABLE, JESS
0 – 500 mA
1 mA
± 2% of final value
Automatic switch-off
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Chapter 2 - Technical Data
POWER SUPPLY
Line
Mains voltage
Power consumption
Integrated power supply
100-120 VAC, 200-240 VAC; 50 – 60 Hz
max. 45W
External 12V
Voltage
Battery
Capacity
Operating time
Battery management
Charging
Charging time
Through extra-low voltage jack per DIN 45323
10 – 15 V DC
Max. current 4.0 A
Lithium ion battery pack
14.4 V / 6.6 Ah
Min. 3 hours
Automatic switch-off with undervoltage
Capacity display via charge status bars
Via mains, external 12 V
Approx. 6 hours
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Operating temperature
Storage temperature
Battery charging temperature
0°C - +45°C
-10°C - +55°C
+15°C - +35°C
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Per EN 61326-1
PROTECTION
Per EN 61010-1
DIMENSIONS (W X H X D)
W: 360 mm, H: 160 mm, D: 300 mm
WEIGHT
Approx. 6.1 kg with installed battery pack
QUANTITY OF DELIVERY
Included in the delivery
AMA.remote PC software (download from www.kws
electronic.de „PRODUCTS“ – „AMA.remote“)
Power cable
IEC measuring cable 75 Ohm
Fiber cable SC/APC to SC/APC
Manual
USB stick
Leather case
Accessories
Rack mounting kit 19”, 5 RU
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Chapter 3 - Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
25
Chapter 3 Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
3.1
Front panel
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26
Chapter 3 - Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
3.2
Left side view
3.3
Right side view
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Chapter 3 - Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
3.4
Rear panel
3.5
USB-A
27
Pin 1 = VCC (+5V)
Pin 2 = Data D Pin 3 = Data D +
Pin 4 = GND
3.6
USB-B
Pin 1 = VCC (+5V)
Pin 2 = Data D Pin 3 = Data D +
Pin 4 = GND
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Chapter 3 - Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
3.7
Ethernet
Pin 1 = TXD +
Pin 2 = TXD Pin 3 = RXD +
Pin 4 = n.c.
Pin 5 = n.c.
Pin 6 = RXD Pin 7 = n.c.
Pin 8 = n.c.
3.8
DVI output
Compliant with DDWG (Digital Display Working Group) DVI (Digital Visual Interface) Revision 1.0
3.9
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ASI IN/OUT
Chapter 3 - Control and Connection Elements, Pin Configurations
3.10
SCART socket (Euro AV)
3.11
12 V power supply
29
Extra-low voltage jack per DIN 45 323
3.12
Headphone-jack
3.5 mm stereo jack
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Chapter 4 - Startup
Chapter 4 Startup
4.1
Mains operation
The mains connection is on the left side of the instrument. The measuring receiver is operated on
the mains using the included 2-pin power cable. If the instrument is connected to the mains, the
green LED lights up on the left side of the instrument next to the mains connection. This instrument
meets the requirements of protection class II (protective insulation). When changing the battery,
always disconnect the instrument from the mains.
4.2
Battery operation
The instrument is equipped as standard with a 14.4 V/6.6 Ah lithium ion battery. The charging time
of a completely empty battery is approx. 5.5 hours with the instrument switched off. The battery life
is approx. 3 hours at full power consumption of the instrument.
4.2.1
Replacing the battery
The customer can replace the installed battery.
For safety reasons, only the manufacturer’s original batteries may be used when replacing the
battery. These batteries are equipped with an internal protective circuit and are checked by the
manufacturer.
When changing the battery, switch off the instrument and disconnect it from the mains.
Open the battery cover by removing the four screws on the back of the instrument.
Remove the battery and battery pack cable plug. After changing the battery, reattach and secure
everything in the reverse order.
Important!
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Perform a calibration run after every battery change (see "Chapter 4.2.3 Battery management calibration").
Chapter 4 - Startup
4.2.2
31
Battery management, charging/discharging the battery
The instrument has an internal battery management program that ensures optimal charging and
discharging of the battery. As soon as the instrument is working on an external power source, the
battery begins to be charged. This occurs even if the instrument is switched off. If the instrument is
switched on, full charging current only flows in the default status. For other operating statuses, the
charging current is reduced in accordance with the power reserves of the power supply unit. A
battery symbol shows the charge status on the display.
The battery symbol is filled more or less depending on how much the battery is charged. If the
battery charge reaches a critical level, the empty battery symbol flashes. You can complete the
current measurement, but then the battery should be immediately recharged. To protect the battery
from a deep discharge, the instrument switches off automatically.
If there is no battery build in then the battery symbol will not appear.
4.2.3
Battery management calibration
In order for the charge status indicator to show the correct value, the battery must be fully charged
once and then completely discharged. If the battery symbol flashes, the battery has been
discharged and the battery capacity available at the time is measured and stored. During normal
operation of the instrument, the charge status indicator always recalibrates itself when the end
points are reached (battery empty or full). Note also that the battery capacity depends on the
discharging current.
For this reason, calibration should take place in the operating status most commonly used (e.g.
DVB-C).
Do not store the instrument with an empty battery. After a long period of storage, the battery should
be recharged
4.3
Operation using an external power supply
In addition to mains and battery operation, you can operate the instrument using external direct
current. Direct current is fed in via the low voltage jack on the left side of instrument. Ensure that
the polarity of the voltage is correct (see "Chapter 3.11 - 12 V power supply"). The external supply
voltage must be in the range between 10 V and 15 V. The maximum current is 4 A. This means the
measuring instrument can be supplied via a power supply unit or the cigarette lighter of a car. The
advantage is that the internal battery can be charged via the external power supply. This makes it
possible for the user to get the instrument ready for use again by charging it in his or her car, for
example.
4.4
Control of the fans
Two integrated fans provide for sufficient ventilation of the electronic components. These are
controlled by the microprocessor through measurement of the internal temperature of the
instrument. In order to avoid overheating, make sure not to cover the ventilation slots on the sides
of the instrument and the fan discharge openings.
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Chapter 5 - Menu Structure
Chapter 5 Menu Structure
The instrument is operated using a clear menu structure. You can select the individual menu items
using soft keys (F1...F5). A menu page can contain up to 5 menu items. The menu also contains
additional menu pages. You can scroll back and forth in the menu using the menu items >>> or
<<<. Press BACK to go to the previous menu.
Every measuring range has its own menu that is adapted to the respective operating mode. To
make operation easier, the configuration of the range menu adjusts to the current operating status
of the measuring receiver. This means different menus appear when it is in the default status and
when it is tuned.
After you press the ANALYZER, PRINT, RANGE, LNB, MODE, RECALL or SAVE keys, additional
independent main menus also appear that break down the functional range of the instrument
further. If you press the ANALYZER, PRINT, RANGE, LNB or MODE keys again, you return to the
main menu of the respective measuring range.
Using the HOME key, you can put the measuring receiver back into the default status of the
respective measuring range.
In the subsequent sections, the following notation is used to describe the menu navigation:
Key -> Menu item in the main menu -> Menu item in the submenu ….
Example: To change the user interface from English to German, you would use:
MODE -> SETTINGS -> LANGUAGE -> ENGLISH
The following figures clarify the process:
Initial state (e.g. main menu of the operating mode DVB-C).
Press the MODE key ->
Press the F2 (SETTINGS) key ->
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Chapter 5 - Menu Structure
33
Press the F2 (DEVICE) key ->
Press the F1 (LANGUAGE) key ->
Press the F2 (ENGLISH) key ->
The user interface language is now set to German.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
Chapter 6 SAT Measuring Range
You activate the SAT range via RANGE -> SAT.
6.1
Frequency input
You use the numeric keypad to enter the frequency. Here you can enter the SAT-IF frequency
(910-2,150 MHz) or the direct transponder frequency (RF) of the satellite. When you press the
ENTER key, the measuring receiver accepts the entry and begins the measurement procedure.
6.1.1
IF input
The figure above shows the default status for the entry of the SAT-IF frequency. The menu item RF
is not activated. Here you can enter in the range 910 – 2,150 MHz.
Invalid entries are ignored.
6.1.2
RF input
The instrument offers the option of directly entering the transponder frequency in GHz.
For this, you must select the menu item RF, which is then displayed inverted.
The instrument calculates the SAT-IF frequency itself depending on the respective oscillator
frequency in the LNB. For Ku band LNBs, oscillators usually operate under the RF frequency. The
following is applicable here: IF = RF – LO. The instrument calculates its tuning frequency from this
relationship. C band LNBs have oscillators that oscillate above the transponder frequency. The
following is applicable here: IF = LO – RF. The measuring receiver has 3 preset oscillator
frequencies available. These are for the Ku low, Ku high and C band.
6.1.2.1
Input of the oscillator frequencies
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> LNB-LOs, you can enter the LO frequencies.
This figure above shows the input window with the default settings. The frequencies for the Ku
band can range between 9,000 und 11,000 GHz. For the C band, the range is between 4,000 and
6,000 GHz. You can confirm and store the entries in the non-volatile memory by pressing ENTER.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
6.1.2.2
35
LO assignment
Here you set which oscillator frequencies are considered during RF input.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> LO-ALIGN, the following selection appears.
The default setting is Ku-AUTO. During RF input, the instrument switches automatically between
Ku LOW and Ku-High. The threshold for switching to the high band is 11.7 GHz. After entry of the
transponder frequency, the instrument then issues the corresponding DiSEqC or 22 kHz switching
commands.
With the setting Ku-LOW, the Ku-LOW oscillator is taken into account independent of the SAT-IF
layer that is set via the LNB supply. With Ku-HIGH, this is similarly applicable to the Ku-HIGH
oscillator frequency. If you choose the menu item C-BAND, the instrument uses the frequency of
the C band oscillator during RF input. After entry, the setting is stored in the non-volatile memory.
6.2
DVB-S/S2 operating mode
Here you can receive the digitally modulated QPSK/8PKS/16APSK/32APSK signals in the DVBS/S2 standard and measure their signal quality.
6.2.1
Selection of modulation
Under MODULATION -> DVB-S or DVB-S2, you can select the modulation type DVB-S/S2.
Automatic standard detection:
The measuring receiver uses the set standard as the starting point for automatic standard
detection. As soon as you enter a new frequency, the receiver attempts to demodulate the signal
that is present. If it is not successful in the set standard, a different modulation type is automatically
used. The standard of the signal received is shown on the display.
6.2.2
PLS and MIS at DVB-S2
PLS (Physical Layer Scrambling)
There is the possibility to encrypt the payload with a code at DVB-S2. This is done by the DVB-S2
modulator. The receiver can demodulate the transport stream, if the hardware of the receiver
supports this feature and the correspondent code is known to the demodulator. It is called PLS
(Physical Layer Scrambling). The used code consists of a base code (ROOT or GOLD) plus a
number. Both have to be known to the receiver.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
MIS (Multiple Input Stream)
Another feature of DVB-S2 includes the transmission of several independent transport streams on
one satellite transponder. This is called MIS (Multiple Input Stream). With entering a stream ID the
receiver is able to filter one single transport stream to be analyzed by the MPEG decoder.
If the measurement device supports this feature, it is shown under modulation at the menu item
ADAVANCED. The necessary parameters can be entered here.
The menu item PLS activates the Physical Layer Scrambling of the receiver. The following input
window appears.
At “Type” the base code (ROOT or GOLD) can be chosen. The type is accepted with ENTER.
Afterwards the code has to be entered. The inputs are confirmed by pressing the key ENTER. The
settings are non-volatile and will be taken into account at the tuning memory.
With MIS-FILTER the transport stream filter of the receiver is started. The ID can be set at
STREAM_ID. The following window appears and allows the settings to be entered:
You can confirm the entries by pressing ENTER. Also the Stream ID is stored in the non-volatile
memory and will be taken into account at the tuning memory. If the receiver is tuned, the program
list from the MPEG decoder will be re-established after entering a new Stream ID.
6.2.3
Symbol rate input
You must set the corresponding symbol rate before a DVB signal can be received.
First select menu item SYMBOLRATE. The symbol rate indicator then appears in brackets. You
can now enter the desired symbol rate in kBd using the numeric keypad. Press ENTER to store the
setting.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
37
For reference: 27,500 kBd = 27,500 kSym/s = 27.5 MBd = 27.5 MSym/s
Automatic symbol rate detection:
The measuring receiver uses the set symbol rate as the starting point for automatic detection. As
soon as you enter a new frequency, the receiver attempts to use the set symbol rate to demodulate
the signal that is present. If this is not successful, it uses the symbol rates 22,000 kBd and 27,500
kBd for additional attempts.
6.2.4
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire SAT frequency range (910 - 2,150 MHz) for DVB-S
signals. Within the scan, the DVB-S/S2 parameters or the set symbol rate plus 22,000 and 27,500
kBd are used.
In the digital operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new frequency,
the menu item 2.FUNCTION appears in inverse. That means that the MPEG decoder can be
operated with the arrow keys. To start the scan, first press the F5 key in order to activate the first
function of the arrow keys.
The scan is started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a frequency (see Frequency input) at
which the scan should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓
key to do the same in the negative direction.
When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end of the range.
You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the display while the
scan takes place.
Note!
6.2.5
In the UNICABLE operating mode, the scan function is deactivated.
If RF input mode is active and the LO assignment ist set to „Ku-AUTO“, the
instrument switches automatically between the low and high bands during
scanning. The switching threshold is 11.7 GHz (see "6.1.2.2 - LO assignment").
DVB-S/S2 parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream. In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient,
or the parameters of the receiver do not agree, or no DVB-S/S2 signal can be received at this
frequency.
If the receiver has synchronized, the set standard (DVB-S/S2) and the current FEC (Forward Error
Correction) are displayed.
For DVB-S2, the modulation scheme (here 8PSK) and the presence of pilots are also displayed.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
6.2.6
Special receiver settings
The device allows specific parameters in the DVB-S/S2 receiver to be changed.
This can be done using the REC.SETTG. menu item. If the measuring instrument is working with
modified receiver settings, an inverted “!” symbol appears on the display.
These settings are volatile. This means that after the device has been switched off and on or the
range has been changed, the measuring receiver switches back to the standard settings.
6.2.6.1
AFC (Automatic Frequency Control)
The device operates with the AFC switched on in the standard settings. This means that if the
DVB-S/S2 receiver detects a frequency offset between the transmitter and the receiver, the tuner
on the receiver is adjusted accordingly so that the frequency offset disappears.
However, if, for example, the frequency drift of an LNB is to be observed, it is useful to switch off
the AFC. In this case, the device shows the frequency offset in the display.
The resolution is 0.1 MHz. The sign in front of the value is determined by the following relationship:
fLNB = fAMA + df.
Note!
The measured values from the measuring receiver are calibrated with AFC
switched on. Therefore, the AFC should only be switched off in order to check
for a frequency offset.
The AFC of the receiver can be switched on and off using the REC.SETTG. -> AFC menu item.
6.2.7
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the qualitative assessment of a DVB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that. This number is placed in a ratio to the total throughput of bits and the BER is
calculated based on that. For DVB-S/S2, two independent error protection mechanisms work
together. So-called internal error protection (after the demodulator) is called Viterbi with DVB-S and
LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) with DVB-S2. The external error protection is carried out after
that. It is called Reed-Solomon with DVB-S and BCH (Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem) with DVBS2.
For DVB-S, the bit error rates are measured before Viterbi (CBER) and after Viterbi (VBER). Both
values are shown on the display in exponential form. The depth of measurement is 1•108 bits for
high symbol rates (>10,000 kBd) und 1•107 bits for low symbol rates.
For DVB-S2, the bit error rates are measured before LDPC (CBER) and after LDPC (LBER). Both
values are displayed in exponential form. The depth of measurement is generally 1•108 bits.
6.2.8
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points.
It is the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 20 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
6.2.9
39
Constellation diagram
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can access the constellation diagram via the menu item
CONST. Additional information can be found in the "Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram".
6.2.10
PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DVB-S/S2 signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable for the MPEG
decoder, however. This can lead to short picture freezes or sound that crackles.
The extent of this depends largely on the receiver hardware.
The measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed
from the point in time of entry of a new frequency.
This function runs in the background constantly. An additional window can be shown on the display
using the menu item INFO. The number of packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of
time that has passed since the last tuning process is displayed. Press ENTER to close the window.
6.2.11
Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed together with the packet errors in an additional window.
This window can be shown using the menu item INFO. Press ENTER to close the window.
In the example above, the gross data rate of the transport stream is 59.4 Mbit/s and the payload
data rate is 49.6 Mbit/s.
6.2.12
Picture and sound check
For digital television, picture and sound decoding take place in the MPEG decoder.
For more, see "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder“.
6.3
Level measurement
As soon as the measuring receiver is tuned, the automatic attenuation control and level
measurement starts.
The level measured is indicated on the right side of the LCD in dBµV with 0.1 dB resolution.
The measuring range spans from 30 to 120 dBµV. The measuring bandwidth is adjusted to the
channel bandwidth of the signal measured. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 3 Hz.
6.3.1
Acoustic level trend
When no line of sight to the measuring instrument exists while lining up a parabolic antenna, an
acoustic level trend signal can be switched on. A sound signal is emitted from the loudspeaker. Its
frequency changes in proportion to the measured level. When the level increases, the frequency
goes up and vice versa.
This function can be switched on and off via the menu item ACOU. LEVEL. When the sound signal
is switched on, the menu item is displayed inverted.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
6.4
LNB supply
The measuring receiver controls a connected LNB or multi-switch with the conventional 14/18 V –
22 kHz control (max. 4 SAT-IF layers) or with DiSEqC control.
The supply is short circuit-proof and provides a maximum current of 500 mA. The instrument
automatically switches off the LNB supply if there is a short circuit or if the current is too high.
The red LED on the RF input socket lights up as soon as the LNB supply is active.
6.4.1
14/18 V – 22 kHz control
You activate the 14/18 V – 22 kHz control (and DiSEqC off) with: LNB > DiSEqC > OFF.
Afterwards, the LNB supply is set to 0 V. With LNB > Layer > 14V, 18V, 14V/22kHz, 18V/22kHz,
you can set the desired SAT-IF layer.
If you press the LNB key, the LNB menu is displayed. You must first switch off the DiSEqC or
UNICABLE control with DiSEqC -> OFF. Then you can select one of the 4 SAT-IF layers via menu
item LAYER.
The current selection is then shown on the top line of the display.
6.4.2
Changing the fixed voltages
Two fixed voltages (14 V and 18 V) are set ex-works for the LNB supply.
In some cases, it can be useful to change the voltages (for example, to define the horizontal or
vertical switching threshold of an LNB or multi-switch).
If the LEYER menu is opened as shown above, then the ↑ and ↓ keys can be used to change the
LNB voltage from 5 V to 20 V in 1 V increments. The setting is non-volatile.
6.4.3
DiSEqC
DiSEqC defines a standard which transfers the control commands from the master (e.g. receiver)
to the slave (e.g. multi-switch, positioner) via FSK (frequency scan for 22 kHz) on the RF cable.
DiSEqC is backwards compatible to the 14V/18V/22 kHz control.
The following diagram shows the chronological sequence of a DiSEqC1.0 sequence.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
41
The 14V/18V/22kHz control follows immediately after a DiSEqC sequence. This allows nonDiSEqC compatible components to be run when DiSEqC control is active.
6.4.3.1
DiSEqC V1.0 control
LNB -> DiSEqC -> V1.0 activates DiSEqC standard V1.0.
This allows up to 5 satellite positions with up to 4 SAT-IF layers each to be controlled. You set a
SAT-IF layer using LNB -> LAYER -> V/Lo, H/Lo, V/Hi or H/Hi.
You can set a satellite position using LNB > POSITION -> P1 – P4. P1 can then be used for
ASTRA and P2 for EUTELSAT, for example.
6.4.3.2
DiSEqC V1.1 control
LNB -> DiSEqC -> V1.1 switches the instrument to DiSEqC V1.1 control. V1.1 allows a total of up
to 256 SAT-IF layers to be controlled. V1.1 also incorporates DiSEqC component cascading. That
means that corresponding multi-switches or switching relays can be connected in series. This
requires multiple repetitions of the DiSEqC command. See the example that follows for further
information.
The settings for the SAT-IF layer and the satellite position are identical to those for V1.0. Added to
this is the control of ‘Uncommitted switches’, which is operated under LNB -> UNCOM.SWIT
“Uncommitted switches” allow the 16 SAT-IF layers possible with V1.0 to be split into another 16
branches using 4 additional switches (uncommitted switches), thanks to the cascading option. This
allows a total of up to 256 SAT-IF layers to be controlled.
Using the arrow keys, you can change the settings of the “uncommitted switches”. Through these 4
switches, there are up to 16 additional combinations possible.
If you press ENTER, the settings are accepted.
V1.1 incorporates DiSEqC component cascading. Therefore, the commands must be repeated.
The number of repetitions selected should be as low as possible, as otherwise unnecessary
DiSEqC commands are sent, slowing the control. LNB -> REPEATS allows you to select between
0, 1 (default), 2 and 3 repetitions. If you press ENTER the setting is accepted.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
DiSEqC1.1 control sequence with 1 repetition
As already mentioned above, DiSEqC V1.1 is capable of cascading. For this, the control
sequences must be repeated. DiSEqC components further back in the chain cannot receive the
commands intended for them until the earlier components in the chain have processed their
commands.
Therefore, DiSEqC1.0 (committed switches) and DiSEqC1.1 (uncommitted switches) commands
are repeated. The next figure shows a possible setup in which 64 SAT-IF layers are controlled.
The structure includes 3 hierarchy levels. Consequently, 2 repetitions must be set. The following
settings must be made to connect the SAT-IF route marked in bold type:
Relay 1 works with ‘uncommitted switches’ and reacts to switches 1 and 2. The binary combination
“10” is required to connect the route to output 3. That means that SW1 must be set to OUT and
SW2 must be set to ON. SW3 and SW4 are not relevant here and can be left on OFF.
Relay 4 works with ‘committed switches’ and reacts to the option bit. The option bit must be set to
connect the route to output 2. This corresponds to DiSEqC1.0 positions P3 or P4.
Multi-switch 6 switches 8 SAT-IF layers. The selected path can be reached with P2 V/Hi. However,
as relay 4 requires the option bit to be set, the “committed switches” setting must be P4 V/Hi.
Therefore, you must make settings in all 4 DiSEqC1.1 submenus for the marked SAT-IF route:
•
•
•
•
31009 Vxx.19
Set SAT-IF layer to V/Hi
Set satellite position to P4
Set 'uncommitted switches’ to SW1:=OFF und SW2:=ON
Set repetitions to 2
Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
43
Afterwards, the display should show “P42/V/Hi”. This setting connects the SAT-IF route marked in
bold type in the example. All settings are incorporated in the tuning memory and can easily be
recalled later.
6.4.3.3
DiSEqC V1.2 control
LNB -> DiSEqC -> V1.2 activates the DiSEqC V1.2 control. V1.2 can be used to control
positioners with DiSEqC rotors. As with DiSEqC1.0, up to 4 SAT-IF layers can be operated.
The display of the position after ‘P’ in the top line of the display refers to the most recent position
number called from the position memory of the DiSEqC rotor. If you switch to DiSEqC1.2, position
number 1 of the DiSEqC rotor is moved to first.
You can open the menu for rotor control via LNB -> POSITIONER. Here you can carry out the
following functions:
Drive:
This allows the positioner to be turned to the east and west.
After the menu is opened, the menu item STOP (motor is stopped) is activated. If you press the F1
key, the rotor moves in the easterly direction. If you press F3, it moves in the westerly direction. If
you press the F2 key, it stops again.
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
East limit:
This enables an eastern limit to be set for the positioner that it cannot pass. To do so, proceed as
follows: First use the DRIVE function to move the positioner to the position to be set as the eastern
limit. If you select the menu item LIMIT EAST, the eastern limit of the positioner is stored.
West limit:
This enables a western limit to be set for the positioner that it cannot pass. To do so, proceed as
follows: First use the DRIVE function to move the positioner to the position to be set as the western
limit. If you select the menu item LIMIT WEST, the western limit of the positioner is stored.
Limits off:
This function allows you to override the eastern and western limits of the positioner. The motor can
then travel to its mechanical limits again. If you select the menu item LIM. ERASE, the limits are
deleted.
Save:
This function allows you to save in one of the 100 position memory locations a position to which
you have previously moved. The numbering of the memory locations goes from 0-99.
Position 0 is reserved for reference position 0 degrees. If you select the menu item
SAVE, the following entry field is displayed:
You can use the numeric keypad to enter a memory location between 0 and 99. If you press the
ENTER key, the current rotor position is stored in the pertinent memory location of the rotor
electronics.
Recall:
Under the menu item RECALL, you can recall a previously stored rotor position. The motor then
turns to the saved position. Position 0 corresponds to the reference position 0 degrees. The most
recently recalled rotor position is shown on the display.
This position is incorporated in the tuning memory of the measuring instrument. It allows various
orbital positions to be recalled from the tuning memory. There is then no need to open this
indirectly via the LNB -> POSITIONER -> RECALL menu.
6.4.3.4
DiSEqC V2.0 control
LNB -> DiSEqC -> V2.0 activates the DiSEqC V2.0 control. The difference from V1.0 is the
additional feedback query of a controlled DiSEqC component.
When the instrument controls a multi-switch with DiSEqC V2.0, it sends an answer back to the
instrument. The instrument evaluates this feedback and reports “Reply OK” if successful.
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6.4.4
45
UNICABLE
UNICABLE (satellite signal distribution over a single coaxial cable distribution network) is a variant
of the DiSEqC control and corresponds to the DIN EN 50494 standard. With this system, the
desired transponder is converted to a fixed frequency (center frequency of the UB slot or band
pass) in the UNICABLE unit (LNB or multi-switch). The information, regarding which transponders
should be converted on which UB slot, is transmitted to the UNICABLE unit via a special DiSEqC
command. The standard supports up to 8 UB slots. This allows up to 8 receivers to be operated on
1 cable.
The UNICABLE message contains the following information:
The SCR address, polarization (horizontal and vertical), low or high band and the tuning
transponder frequency.
The following control routine is used in this instrument:
With UNICABLE systems, the signal-generating receiver generates a high DC level as it transmits,
which is added to the UNICABLE message (special DiSEqC command). After transmitting the
UNICABLE message, the receiver returns to an idle state in which a low DC level is generated. The
receiver must return to a low DC level so that the system is available for other receivers.
The measuring receiver uses 14 V for the low DC level and 18 V for the high DC level.
6.4.4.1
Activation and configuration
LNB -> DiSEqC -> UNICABLE activates the UNICABLE control.
A menu is then displayed which can be used to edit the relationship between the satellite channel
router (SCR) address and the center frequency of the user band (UB) band pass slot that the
measuring receiver is to use. These parameters can be obtained from the data sheet of the
UNICABLE unit being used. The name of the bank can also be edited. The user-defined name for
the bank appears in the menu for selecting the bank.
Entering the center frequency of the UB slot
Using the ← or → arrow keys, you can move the cursor onto the desired SCR address. With the
numeric keypad, you can enter the corresponding center frequency of the UB slot in the range of
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Chapter 6 - SAT Measuring Range
950 to 2,150 MHz. You confirm the entry by pressing ENTER. The cursor then jumps to the next
SCR address.
Alternatively, the slot frequencies can be read automatically from a connected CSS (Channel
Stacking Switch), which is a multi-switch with a UNICABLE output (see "Chapter 6.4.4.3 - Reading
UB slot frequencies from CSS").
Entering a name for the bank
Here you can assign a specific name to the bank. For example, you could enter the name of the
manufacturer of the UNICABLE components. Using the ← or → arrow keys, you can move the
cursor to the desired position in the label. With the numeric keypad, you can enter or edit a name
up to 10 digits in length.
Confirming and saving the entry
If the cursor is on ACCEPT, pressing the ENTER key closes the input menu is and stores the
values in non-volatile memory. The measuring receiver now operates with UNICABLE control.
SCR-ADR bank:
There are UNICABLE units for 4 and 8 receivers per cable. These units generally operate with
differing UB center frequencies. To simplify the procedure for the user, the instrument offers a
feature that enables switching between 4 SCR address banks. That means that the instrument has
three banks of SCR addresses for UNICABLE units that operate with 8 receivers and a different
bank of SCR addresses for UNICABLE units that operate with 4 receivers. The UB center
frequencies can be changed within the 4 banks as described above. The set bank is non-volatile.
That means that the next time the device is switched on, it will operate again with these SCR-ADR
<-> UB center frequency relationships. In addition, the bank setting is stored in the tuning memory.
This makes it possible for you to combine memory locations with Bank0 to Bank3 as desired. You
can switch between the banks using LNB -> SCR-ADR-Bk -> BANK0 up to BANK3. The menu
item names “BANK0” to “BANK3” are used in place of the user-defined bank designations.
Broadband RF mode:
Some UNICABLE units (LNB) operate only on a single oscillator frequency. This means that the
low band and the high band are combined into a one band. This special mode can be set in the
measuring instrument via LNB -> MODE -> WIDEBD.RF. The UNICABLE control is switched back
into standard mode with 2 oscillator frequencies via LNB -> MODE -> STAND.RF. This is also the
instrument’s default setting. This setting is non-volatile; the measuring receiver will work in this
mode when UNICABLE control is next accessed. This setting is also stored in the tuning memory.
LO-Frequency (applies to broadband RF mode only):
As already mentioned, some UNICABLE units (LNB) operate only on a single oscillator frequency.
This frequency must be set in the instrument before it can be used to control these units. You can
choose between oscillator frequencies 10.000 GHz, 10.200 GHz, 13.250 GHz and 13.450 GHz via
LNB -> LO-FREQ. The setting is also non-volatile. This setting is also additionally stored in the
tuning memory. The default setting is 10.200 GHz.
6.4.4.2
Operation
The UNICABLE control can be used to convert a max. of 8 SAT-IF layers in a max. of 8 UB slots.
These are further divided into 2 satellite positions with 4 SAT-IF layers each. Each connected
receiver (max. 8) operates using a dedicated UB slot. This is defined by the SCR address.
These UNICABLE control parameters are set via LNB -> LAYER, -> POSITION and -> SCR-ADR.
The measuring receiver is tuned as described in the "Chapter 6.1 - Frequency input". The
difference when using the UNICABLE control is that the desired transponder frequency is
converted to the center frequency of a UB slot in the UNICABLE unit. That means that the
measuring receiver must send the transponder frequency to the UNICABLE unit using a
UNICABLE command and then tune itself to the corresponding UB slot center frequency.
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Whenever there is a new tuning process, the entire UNICABLE control command is sent to the
UNICABLE unit again. Because UNICABLE enables the use of up to 8 receivers connected to one
cable, collisions may occur between the connected receivers during control. Should this happen
with the measuring receiver, the UNICABLE command can be repeated by entering a new
frequency.
The following figure shows the LCD of the instrument in UNICABLE mode with the LNB menu
open.
Broadband RF mode:
As described above, these UNICABLE units operate only on a single oscillator frequency, causing
the low and high band to be combined in one band. This reduces the number of SAT-IF layers to 2
(vertical and horizontal).
If the instrument is in this mode, you can set the vertical (-> V) or horizontal (-> H) polarization via
LNB -> LAYER. This also switches the measuring receiver to RF frequency input mode. You can
enter a transponder frequency between 10.700 GHz and 12.750 GHz.
Note!
6.4.4.3
In the UNICABLE operating mode, the scan function is deactivated.
Reading UB slot frequencies from CSS
As an alternative to manually entering the UB slot frequencies, the instrument can automatically
read the parameters of a connected UNICABLE multi-switch (CSS: Channel Stacking Switch) from
a connected multi-switch. The instrument uses the procedure described in EN 50494. While
UNICABLE control is active, open the LNB menu using the LNB key.
The UB slots are determined using the menu items ADVANCED -> READ CSS. This may take
approximately 10 s. All the UB slots found then appear on the display along with their center
frequencies.
A new name (e.g. the name of the multi-switch) can also be assigned for the set SCR-ADR bank.
Select the SAVE option and confirm using the ENTER key to save this UB setting in the current
bank.
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6.4.4.4
Programming aerial sockets
A disadvantage of UNICABLE is that subscribers can cause each other interference when they are
set to the same UB slot. This can occur in housing blocks with high tenant turnover, for example.
To prevent this, aerial sockets are available which are only “permeable” for a certain UB slot. In
other words, they can be programmed so that only UNICABLE commands that correspond to the
assigned UB address are forwarded to the multi-switch. The measuring receiver allows such
sockets to be programmed. First the instrument must be connected to the subscriber terminal of the
socket. The LNB menu must be opened to begin programming. Selecting the menu items
ADVANCED -> PROG.ASOC. reads the current configuration of the connected socket.
Selecting the RECALL menu item reads the configuration again. As shown in the figure, up to 32
UB slots can be programmed.
Note!
Under the UNICABLE EN 50494 standard, only the first 8 UB slots can be
controlled. Also see "Chapter 6.4.5 - JESS".
The UB mask is seen here in binary form. A “1” means that the UB slot is enabled, while a “0”
means that the UB slot is locked. Using the ← or → arrow keys, you can move the cursor to the
desired UB slot. You can enter “0” or “1” using the corresponding keys to change a particular bit
position. Press the ENTER key to apply the entry. Move the cursor to SAVE and press the ENTER
key to complete the programming of the socket. A message appears if the action was successful.
6.4.5
JESS (EN 50607)
JESS (Jultec Enhanced Stacking System) is an expansion on the EN 50494 standard (UNICABLE).
The following additions to UNICABLE have been incorporated:
•
•
•
6.4.5.1
Up to 32 UB slots are supported (8 with UNICABLE).
Up to 8 satellite positions can be controlled (2 with UNICABLE).
The frequency of the JESS converter can be set in 1 MHz increments (in 4 MHz increments
with UNICABLE).
Activation and configuration
JESS control is activated by selecting LNB -> DiSEqC -> JESS.
A menu is then displayed which can be used to edit the relationship between the satellite channel
router (SCR) address and the center frequency of the user band (UB) bandpass slot that the
measuring receiver is to use.
These parameters can be obtained from the data sheet of the JESS unit being used or, more
simply, read directly from the JESS unit using a DiSEqC command. The name of the bank can also
be edited. The user-defined name for the bank then appears in the menu for selecting the bank.
The bank labels are independent of the UNICABLE settings. As shown in the figure below, JESS
supports up to 32 UB slots. The further UB slots are on an additional page, which can be called by
>>> .However, most JESS components do not use all possible slots. The UB slots marked with “---” have no function.
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Entering the center frequency of the UB slot:
The slot frequency is entered in the same way as for UNICABLE. Entering a frequency of “0”
deletes the selected UB slot.
Entering a name for the bank:
Here you can assign a specific name to the bank. For example, you could enter the name of the
manufacturer of the JESS component. Using the ← or → arrow keys, you can move the cursor to
the desired position in the label. With the numeric keypad, you can enter or edit a name up to 10
digits in length.
Confirming and saving the entry:
If the cursor is on ACCEPT, pressing the ENTER key closes the input menu and stores the values
in non-volatile memory. From here on, the measuring receiver operates with JESS control.
SCR-ADR bank:
Not all JESS components use the same UB configuration. To simplify the procedure for the user,
the instrument offers a feature that enables switching between 2 SCR address banks. The UB
center frequencies can be changed within the 2 banks as described above. The set bank is nonvolatile. That means that the next time the device is switched on, it will operate again with these
SCR-ADR ↔ UB center frequency relationships. In addition, the bank setting is stored in the tuning
memory. This makes it possible for you to combine memory locations with Bank0 and Bank1 as
desired. You can switch between the banks using LNB -> SCR-ADR-Bk -> BANK0 or BANK1.
The menu item names “BANK0” and “BANK1” are used in place of the user-defined bank
designations.
6.4.5.2
Operation
JESS can be used to convert a max. of SAT-IF layers in a max. of 32 UB slots. These are further
divided into 8 satellite positions with 4 SAT-IF layers each. Each connected receiver (max. 32)
operates using a dedicated UB slot. This is defined via the SCR address.
These JESS parameters are set via LNB -> LAYER, -> POSITION and -> SCR-ADR.
The measuring receiver is tuned as described in the "Chapter 6.1 - Frequency input". The
difference when using JESS control is that the desired transponder frequency is converted to the
center frequency of a UB slot in the JESS unit. That means that the measuring receiver must send
the transponder frequency to the JESS unit as a JESS command and then tune itself to the correct
UB slot center frequency.
Whenever there is a new tuning process, the entire JESS control command is sent to the CSS
(Channel Stacking Switch) again.
Note!
Note!
6.4.5.3
In the JESS operating mode, the scan function is deactivated. In general, JESS
components are backwards compatible and can also understand conventional
EN50494 commands. If the expanded features of JESS are not required,
UNICABLE control can also be used.
The possibility to control 16 or 32 UB slots depends on the hardware.
Reading UB slot frequencies from CCS
In contrast to UNICABLE, where the UB configuration is indirectly determined using a scan
function, JESS allows the number and center frequencies of the available UB slots to be read out
from the CSS unit using DiSEqC commands. This makes the process significantly faster.
With JESS control active, open the LNB menu.
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Select the menu items ADVANCED -> READ CSS and the instrument will begin reading the
configuration from the JESS unit. A list of all possible UB slots then appears on the display.
In the following example, you can see that this particular CSS unit only has 3 UB slots available.
The others are deactivated.
You can also assign a custom label for the set SCR-ADR bank. The settings are saved when you
move the cursor to the SAVE option and then press the ENTER key.
6.4.5.4
Programing aerial sockets
Also see the "Chapter 6.4.4.4 - Programming aerial sockets".
Selecting the menu items ADVANCED -> PROG.ANTD. reads the current configuration of the
connected socket.
Selecting the RECALL menu item reads the configuration again.
The UB mask is seen here in binary form. A “1” means that the UB slot is enable, while a “0” means
that the UB slot is locked. Using the ← or → arrow keys, you can move the cursor to the desired
UB slot. You can enter “0” or “1” using the corresponding keys to change a particular bit position.
Press the ENTER key to apply the entry. Move the cursor to SAVE and press the ENTER key to
complete the programming of the socket. A message appears if the action was successful.
6.4.6
LNB current measurement
For this, you must bring the measuring instrument into the default status of the SAT measuring
range. You can do this by pressing the HOME key. If an LNB supply is activated, the measuring
receiver measures the amount of DC current flowing from the RF input socket (e.g. to supply an
LNB) and displays the amperage in mA on the left edge of the LCD. The measuring range spans
from 0 - 500 mA with a resolution of 1 mA.
In the above example, a current of 45 mA is measured with a 14 V LNB supply.
If the measuring receiver is tuned, the current indicator disappears from the LCD.
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Chapter 7 TV Measuring Range
You access the TV range via RANGE -> TV.
7.1
Switching between frequency and channel input
The instrument can be tuned by entering the channel center frequency (DVB-C, DOCSIS and DVBT), the video carrier frequency (ATV) or by entering the channel. You switch between modes using
the menu items CHANNEL or FREQUENCY. After selection, the corresponding menu item is
displayed inverted.
7.1.1
Frequency input
You can enter the frequency using the numeric keypad.
Here the smallest frequency resolution is 0.05 MHz (50 kHz). You use the ENTER key to confirm
the entry. Invalid entries are ignored.
Frequency detuning
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can carry out a frequency detuning in the 50 kHz grid using
the ← and → keys.
7.1.2
Channel input
The basis for the channel input is a channel table stored in the instrument. It corresponds to the TV
standard that has been set (BG, I, L, etc.). The table contains the center frequency and the video
carrier frequency (ATV) for every channel. Within the channel table, there are “normal” channels (C
channels) and special channels (S channels). You can switch the instrument from C to S channel
input by pressing the F1 key (CHANNEL).
There is the possibility to load user defined channel tables into the device, see "Chapter 20.14 User-defined channel table for TV". In these modifiable tables standard C and S channels plus D
channels can be used. For D channels the channel number is derived from the center frequency.
You can enter the desired channel number using the numeric keypad. Invalid entries are ignored.
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can set the previous or next channel using the ← and →
keys. In this way, you can key in the channels one by one.
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7.2
Selection of the operating mode
Using the ANA/DIG key, you can select the operating mode of the measuring instrument in the TV
range. An “A” on the display stands for analog mode, while a “D” indicates digital operating mode.
7.2.1
ANALOG (ATV) operating mode
Analog-modulated TV signals can be received and measured here.
The instrument supports the B/G, M/N, I, D/K and L TV standards as well as the PAL, SECAM and
NTSC color standards.
7.2.1.1
Selecting the TV standard
You can set a new TV standard via MODE > SETTINGS -> TV-STAND. -> B/G, M/N, I, D/K or L.
The setting is stored in non-volatile memory. The TV standard is also incorporated in the tuning
memory. The default setting is B/G.
The TV standard that is currently set is shown in the top line of the display.
The channel table is also changed when the instrument is switched to another TV standard.
7.2.1.2
Sound carrier
Audio signals are transmitted on modulated sound carriers. Depending on the TV standard, the two
sound carriers have different frequency distances from the video carrier frequency.
The sound information can transmit MONO, STEREO or DUAL SOUND (bilingual). The instrument
can demodulate both sound carriers at the same time. The type of source signal transmission
(MONO, STEREO or DUAL SOUND) is shown on the display.
You can select the desired sound carrier with SOUND CAR. -> SC1 or SC2. The sound carrier
level that is measured relative to the video carrier is displayed in dB. At the same time, the
loudspeaker outputs the demodulated sound signal of the set sound carrier. Both audio signals (L
and R) are always present at the SCART socket, however.
Using ABSOLUTE the sound carrier is displayed as absolute instead of relative value. This setting
is non-volatile.
7.2.1.3
NICAM decoder
The measuring receiver is equipped for the demodulation of the NICAM-728 digital transmission
system. NICAM-728 is the abbreviation for “Near Instantaneously Companded Audio Multiplexing”
with a data rate of 728 kbit/s.
This transmission system was developed in the United Kingdom to eliminate crosstalk problems
that can occur in conventional transmission methods. This method transmits sound using a QPSK
(Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) modulated subcarrier.
NICAM-728 allows terrestrially broadcasting television companies, in accordance with PAL B/G and
I, SECAM D/K or SECAM L standards, to transmit digitally-coded hi-fi stereo/dual channel sound
with the quality one expects from a compact disc.
The distance between video carrier and digital audio carrier is 5.85 MHz in the B/G, D/K and L
standards and 6.552 MHz in the I standard.
NICAM can be transmitted together with an analog sound carrier. This means that a total of 3 (1x
analog und 2x digital) sound channels are available. The system is set up so that if the bit error rate
is too high, leading to unpleasant crackling in the audio signal, the decoder automatically switches
to the analog sound channel. This is not implemented in the measuring receiver, however.
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NICAM-728 operates with a sample rate of 32 kHz with 14 bit resolution. For transmission, the
signal is compressed to 10 bits, however. This technology is called NIC (Near Instantaneous
Companding).
To activate the NICAM decoder, select the menu item NICAM under SOUND CAR.
The decoder then attempts to synchronize with the signal that is present. LOCK in the top line of
the display indicates that a NICAM signal is present.
At the same time, the bit error rate of the digital data stream is displayed. Next to this, as with
analog sound carriers, the relative level of the NICAM sound carrier is displayed.
As mentioned, the sound transmission can occur in MONO, STEREO or DUAL SOUND.
The type of transmission is displayed in the top line of the display.
7.2.1.4
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire TV range for analog TV signals. For this, the instrument
must operate in channel input mode.
You start the scan by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan should
begin.
Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the same in the
negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end of the
range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the display
while the scan takes place.
7.2.1.5
S/N measurement
The S/N (Signal/Noise) measurement is used with analog television for quality assessment of the
video signal received. The measuring receiver measures the assessed signal to noise ratio of the
demodulated video signal. For this, the noise signal of an empty video line is fed through an
evaluation filter written in CCIR569. The displayed S/N value is calculated from the ratio of the
nominal video signal limit (700 mVpp) to the assessed noise level. The measuring range spans 40
to 55 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB. A video signal with an assessed S/N of more than 46.5 dB can
be considered noise-free.
The default setting is to use video line 6 for the measurement of the noise signal. With MODE ->
SETTINGS -> S/N-LINE, lines 5 and 7 are available as alternative settings. With the SCOPE
function, you can check whether the relevant video line has no content (is empty).
7.2.1.6
Videotext decoder
By selecting the menu item VIDEOTEXT, you can access the videotext of the current program. For
more, see "Chapter 14 - Videotext".
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7.2.1.7
Scope (optional)
The line oscilloscope function is under the menu item SCOPE. Here you can oscillographically
display individual video lines of the current program. Additional notes can be found in the "Chapter
13 - SCOPE".
7.2.1.8
Picture and sound check
As soon as the measuring receiver is tuned, the TFT screen shows the demodulated video image.
At the same time, the internal loudspeaker of the instrument outputs the demodulated audio signal.
Video and audio signals are also available on the SCART socket.
7.2.1.9
CNI code (Country Network Identification)
The CNI code is the country and network identification of a TV channel. This code is part of the
VPS (Video Programming System) line. The VPS signal is transmitted in TV line 16. Video
recorders use this code for recording control. It is used as unique identification for the current
program.
Once the measuring instrument has been tuned, it evaluates the VPS line and shows the CNI code
in hexadecimal form in the display.
7.2.1.10
Program Identification
To identify the running program, the name is extracted from the head line of the videotext and
displayed near the CNI.
This program name can be called by remote over SNMP. Like this it is possible to control the
content of the running program by remote.
7.2.2
DIGITAL (DVB-C, DVB-T/T2, DOCSIS, DTMB) Operation Mode
Here you can receive the digitally modulated DVB-C, DVB-T/T2 , DOCSIS or DTMB signals and
measure their signal quality.
7.2.2.1
DVB-C
The DVB-C receiver of the measuring instrument is activated via the menu item MODULATION ->
DVB-C.
You enter the modulation scheme for DVB-C in another menu.
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The selections 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM, 128QAM and 256QAM are also available.
QAM means Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. That is the modulation method with DVB-C.
Automatic detection of the modulation schemes:
The measuring receiver uses the modulation scheme that was just selected as the starting point for
automatic detection of the modulation scheme. As soon as you enter a channel, the receiver
attempts to demodulate the signal that is present. If that is not successful with the set modulation
scheme, the receiver attempts additionally with 64QAM, 128QAM and 256QAM. The modulation
scheme of the DVB-C signal received is shown on the display.
7.2.2.1.1
Symbol rate input
You must set the corresponding symbol rate before a DVB-C (QAM) signal can be received.
First select menu item SYMBOLRATE. The symbol rate indicator then appears in brackets.
You can now enter the new symbol rate in kBd using the numeric keypad. Press ENTER to store
this setting.
For reference: 6,900 kBd = 6,900 kSym/s = 6.9 MBd = 6.9 MSym/s
The symbol rate can be set in the range 500 kBd to 7,200 kBd.
Automatic symbol rate detection:
The measuring receiver uses the set symbol rate as the starting point for automatic detection. As
soon as you enter a new channel, the receiver attempts to use the set symbol rate to demodulate
the signal that is present. If this is not successful, it uses the symbol rates 6,111 kBd, 6,875 kBd or
6,900 kBd for additional attempts.
7.2.2.1.2
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire TV range for DVB-C signals.
For this, you must switch the instrument to channel input mode.
The scan function includes automatic detection of modulation schemes and symbol rates.
That means that the instrument scans every channel with 64QAM, 128QAM and 256QAM and the
symbol rates 6,111 kBd, 6,875 kBd and 6,900 kBd.
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In the digital operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel, the
menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted. That means that the MPEG decoder can be operated with the
arrow keys. To start the scan, first press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the
arrow keys.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end
of the range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the
display while the scan takes place.
7.2.2.1.3
DVB-C parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronisation process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream.
In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient, or that
the parameters of the receiver do not agree, or that no DVB-C signal can be received at this
frequency.
Once the receiver has synchronised, the set modulation scheme and the associated symbol rate is
shown on the display.
7.2.2.1.4
Special receiver settings
The instrument allows certain parameters in the DVB-C to be changed.
This can done in the REC.SETTG. menu item. If the measuring instrument is working with modified
receiver settings, an inverted “!” symbol appears on the display.
These settings are volatile. This means that after the device has been switched off and on or the
range has been changed, the measuring receiver switches back to the standard settings. However,
the settings are accounted for in the tuning memory. For automatic measurements, a notice about
the modified receiver settings will follow the measurement results.
7.2.2.1.4.1 Carrier control bandwidth (CRL Carrier Recovery Loop)
A large bandwidth is set in the standard settings. This means that carrier control happens quickly.
Carrier control can work with a small bandwidth using the menu item REC.SETTG. -> CRL(PhJit).
This makes the receiver react sensitively to phase jitter.
7.2.2.1.4.2 AGC bandwidth
A large bandwidth is set in the standard settings. This means that amplitude control happens
quickly. Amplitude control can work with a very small bandwidth using the menu item REC.SETTG.
-> AGC(Hum). This makes the receiver react sensitively to hum modulation.
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7.2.2.1.4.3 Turning off the VHF block filter
As standard, the measuring receiver places a VHF block filter in the frequency range from 112 MHz
to 122 MHz before the receiver itself. This improves reception on channels S2/S3 due to the higher
definition. Using the menu item REC.SETTG. -> FM-FLTbyp the filter can be manually switched
off.
7.2.2.1.4.4 Turning off the Equalizer
In the standard setting, the equalizer of the QAM receiver is switched on. The equalizer can
compensate for short echoes, known as micro-reflections, in the transmission link. Using the menu
item REC.SETTG. -> EQUAL. byp the Equalizer can be manually switched off.
7.2.2.1.5
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DVB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that.
This number is placed in a ratio to the total throughput of bits and the BER is calculated based on
that. For DVB-C, there is only one error protection mechanism (Reed-Solomon), i.e., there is only
one bit error rate (BER) here.
The BER is shown on the display in exponential form. The measuring depth can set between 1•108
and 1•109 bits. To change the measuring depth, first press the HOME key. The depth of the bit
error rate measurement can then be set to 109 (1 billion) bits using the menu item MEAS.SETTG. > BER -> e-9. Accessing this menu item a second time resets the measuring depth to the default
setting of 108. This setting is non-volatile. In monitoring mode and DATAGRABBER operating
mode, the bit error rate is generally measured with a depth of 108 bits.
7.2.2.1.6
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points.
It is the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 40 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
7.2.2.1.7
PJ measurement (Phase jitter)
The measuring instrument can measure the phase jitter in a QAM signal. The principle of
measurement is explained in ETR290. The measurement is in degrees, with a measuring range
from 0.40° to 5.00° and a resolution of 0.01°. The instrument shows the phase jitter on the display
as soon as the receiver is working with slower carrier control. See "Chapter 7.2.2.5.2.1 - Carrier
control bandwidth (CRL Carrier Recovery Loop)".
7.2.2.1.8
HUM measurement (amplitude hum)
The measuring instrument can measure the amplitude hum in a QAM signal. The principle of
measurement is explained in ETR290. The measurement is specified as a percentage. The
measuring range extends from 0.5 to 5.00% with a resolution of 0.1%. The instrument shows the
amplitude hum on the display as soon as the receiver is working with a slower AGC. See "chapter
7.2.2.5.2.2 - AGC bandwidth".
7.2.2.1.9
Constellation diagram
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can access the constellation diagram via the menu item
CONST. Additional information can be found in the "Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram".
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7.2.2.1.10 PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DVB-C signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable for the MPEG
decoder, however. This can lead to short picture freezes or sound that crackles.
The extent of this depends largely on the receiver hardware.
The measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed
from the point in time of entry of a new channel.
This function runs in the background constantly. An additional window can be shown on the display
using the menu item INFO. The number of packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of
time that has passed since the last tuning process is displayed. Press ENTER to close the window
again.
7.2.2.1.11 Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed together with the packet errors in an additional window.
This window can be shown using the menu item INFO.
In the example above, the gross data rate of the transport stream is 50.9 Mbit/s and the payload
data rate is 31.7 Mbit/s.
Press ENTER to close the window.
7.2.2.1.12 Picture and sound check
For digital television, picture and sound decoding take place in the MPEG decoder.
For more, see "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
7.2.2.2
DVB-T
The DVB-T receiver of the measuring instrument is activated via the menu item MODULATION ->
DVB-T.
The modulation method with DVB-T is COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex).
It involves a very robust digital transmission method that is optimized in particular for transmission
channels with multipath reception.
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7.2.2.2.1
59
Selection of the COFDM bandwidth (channel bandwidth)
The DVB-T standard provides for transmission in 6, 7 or 8 MHz channels.
The bandwidth of the COFDM signal is set via BANDWIDTH -> AUTO, 8MHz, 7MHz or 6MHz. In
the AUTO setting, which is also the default setting, the measuring instrument uses the channel
bandwidth that is stored in the respective channel table.
This setting is non-volatile and is also incorporated in the tuning memory.
7.2.2.2.2
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire TV range for DVB-T signals.
For this, you must switch the instrument to channel input mode.
In the digital operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel, the
menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted. That means that the MPEG decoder can be operated with the
arrow keys. To start the scan, first press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the
arrow keys.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end
of the range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the
display while the scan takes place.
7.2.2.2.3
DVB-T parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream. In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient,
or that the parameters of the receiver do not agree, or that no DVB-T signal can be received at this
frequency.
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Once the receiver is synchronized, the following additional parameters are shown on the display.
The DVB-T receiver determines these automatically.
With COFDM, a multi-carrier method is involved. The single carriers within the DVB-T signal are
either QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulated. In the above example, a transmission with the
modulation scheme 16QAM is involved.
The DVB-T standard specified 2 FFT modes (2k or 8k). In the top line, you can see the currently
determined FFT mode.
Additional parameters are the Guard Interval (GI), FEC (Forward Error Correction) and the network
identification number (ID). These are displayed in the line above the menu bar.
The DVB-T standard is suitable for transmission in Single Frequency Networks (SFN). In a single
frequency network, the involved stations operate synchronously on the same frequency. In order to
take into account differing transit times with simultaneous effect on the receiving location, the DVBT signal contains a so-called “guard interval”. The size of the guard interval tells you something
about the maximum station distance within a single frequency network.
The FEC value expresses the ratio between usable bits and transmitted bits. In this example, there
are 2 usable bits for every 3 transmitted bits.
Every single frequency network has its own identification number (ID). This number does not
indicate from which station within the SFN the signal is being received.
7.2.2.2.4
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DVB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that. This number is placed in a ratio to the total throughput of bits and the BER is
calculated based on that.
For DVB-T, two independent error protection mechanisms work together. So-called internal error
protection (after the demodulator) is called Viterbi (named after the Viterbi algorithm) with DVB-T.
External error protection operates after that. With DVB-T, it is called Reed-Solomon.
For DVB-T, the bit error rates are measured before Viterbi (CBER) and after Viterbi (VBER).
Both values are shown on the display in exponential form.
The depth of measurement for the CBER is 1•106 bits, for the VBER is 1•108 bits.
7.2.2.2.5
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points.
It is the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 35 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
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7.2.2.2.6
61
Impulse response
It is helpful to measure the impulse response for DVB-T for setting up a receiving antenna especially in situations where reception is difficult and signals are received simultaneously from
several stations in the SFN. If a receiving antenna receives the DVB-T signal from multiple
directions with differing transit times and differing field strengths, the individual signals superimpose
upon each other to form a sum signal.
Because DVB-T is made up of several narrow-band single carriers (COFDM), individual carriers
may occasionally be notably attenuated through superimposition. Because information is
distributed among all carriers with respect to time, the DVB-T system can process this to a certain
degree without any problem. However, the impulse response can be used to detect this scenario
before it causes problems in reception. The basis for measuring the impulse response is
information in the channel transmission function. The DVB-T channel decoder acquires this from
the pilot carriers that are transmitted with DVB-T. Through calculation of the IFFT, you can obtain
the impulse response from the channel transmission function.
The measuring receiver must receive a DVB-T signal in order to display the impulse response. The
instrument should be tuned to an appropriate channel to do this.
To show the impulse response on the TFT of the measuring instrument, select the menu item
IMPULSERES. A menu for additional settings will then appear.
You can “freeze” the picture using FREEZE. You can expand the impulse response in the
horizontal direction using ZOOM. You can then see more details near the primary impulse. You
can define the unit of the x-axis with µs or km. Time and length are related via the speed of light,
c: =3•108 m/s. You can end the display of the impulse response via the menu item BACK.
The printed example shows an impulse response with a primary impulse (left picture edge) and
several secondary impulses at a distance of approximately 17 km from the primary impulse.
You can move the cursor (small triangle) left and right using the ← and → keys. At the top right
edge of the picture, the distance of the secondary impulses and their attenuation (-21 dB) in
relation to the primary impulse is displayed.
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Peak-Search Function
While the impulse response is built up, the instrument determines the four highest secondary
impulses apart from the main impulse. If there are echoes, the cursor moves to the highest
secondary impulse after the second cycle. By pressing the keys ↑ and ↓ the cursor may be moved
to further echoes cyclically one after the other. The distance and/or the delay as compared to the
main impulse may be taking taken from the readings in the header of the diagram.
7.2.2.2.7
Constellation diagram
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can access the constellation diagram via the menu item
CONST. Additional information can be found in the "Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram".
7.2.2.2.8
PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DVB-T signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable for the MPEG
decoder, however. This can lead to short picture freezes or sound that crackles.
The extent of this depends largely on the receiver hardware.
The measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed
from the point in time of entry of a new channel. This function runs in the background constantly.
An additional window can be shown on the display using the menu item INFO. The number of
packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of time that has passed since the last tuning
process is displayed. Press ENTER to close the window again.
7.2.2.2.9
Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed together with the packet errors in an additional window.
This window can be shown using the menu item INFO. Press ENTER to close the window.
7.2.2.2.10 Picture and sound check
For digital television, picture and sound decoding take place in the MPEG decoder.
For more, see "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
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7.2.2.3
63
DVB-T2
The DVB-T receiver of the measuring instrument is activated via the menu item MODULATION ->
DVB-T2.
The modulation method for DVB-T2 is COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex). It
involves a very robust digital transmission method that is optimized in particular for transmission
channels with multipath reception. DVB-T2 is a very flexible standard for terrestrial transmission of
digital TV. OFDM transmission parameters can be optimally adapted to the topographic conditions.
The main improvement over DVB-T is the considerably more efficient FEC (LDPC and BCH), with
which the transmission capacity can be increased by up to 30% at the same channel quality.
7.2.2.3.1
Selecting of the COFDM bandwidth (channel bandwidth)
The DVB-T2 standard provides for transmission in 1.7, 5, 6, 7 or 8 MHz channels.
The bandwidths 1.7 MHz and 5 MHz are not supported by the instrument.
The bandwidth of the COFDM signal is set via BANDWIDTH -> AUTO, 8MHz, 7MHz or 6MHz. In
the AUTO setting, which is also the default setting, the measuring instrument uses the channel
bandwidth that is stored in the respective channel table.
This setting is non-volatile and is also incorporated in the tuning memory.
7.2.2.3.2
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire TV range for DVB-T2 signals.
To do this, you must switch the instrument to channel input mode.
In the digital operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel, the
menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted.
That means that the MPEG decoder can be operated with the arrow keys. To start the scan, first
press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the arrow keys.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end
of the range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the
display while the scan takes place.
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7.2.2.3.3
DVB-T2 parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream.
In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient, or that
the parameters of the receiver do not match, or that no DVB-T2 signal can be received at this
frequency.
Once the receiver is synchronized, additional parameters are shown on the display. The DVB-T2
receiver determines these automatically.
In the figure above, the equipment receives a DVB-T2-signal with the following parameters:
•
•
FFT order: 32k(E). (E) means “Extended Carrier Mode”, i.e. bandwidth utilization is higher in
this mode as additional OFDM single carriers are used.
Modulation scheme: 256QAM, Guard Interval (GI): 1/16, FEC: 2/3, Cell ID: 256.
The PARAMETERS menu item can be used to display a window in which additional DVB-T2
parameters are listed. This window is displayed on the TFT-display of the device. It consists of two
pages which can be selected with the keys <- and ->. It is possible to make a hardcopy of this
screen on the internal printer and to a bmp-file to the USB-stick.
Explanations:
This parameters are the most important L1-Pre Signaling Data, which are explained in ETSI EN
302 755.
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7.2.2.3.4
65
Selecting of the PLP (Physical Layer Pipe)
On feature at DVB-T2 is the possibility of simultaneously transmitting more independent transport
streams, which can be sent with separated FEC parameters.
If more than one PLP is transmitted than “MPLP” (Multi PLP) is displayed one line above the menu
line. Then you can select one of the PLP´s by using the menu item SET PLP . Afterwards the
MPEG-Decoder starts a new scan on the changed transport stream.
After retuning the DVB-T2 receiver the device automatically switches to the PLP with the
PLP_ID=0.
7.2.2.3.5
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DVB-T2 signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that. This number is placed in a ration to the total throughput of bits and the BER
is calculated based on that.
For DVB-T2, two independent error protection mechanisms work together. LDPC (Low Density
Parity Check) is used for internal error protection, BCH (Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem) is used for
external error protection.
The equipment measures the bit error rates before LDPC (CBER) and after LDPC (LBER).
Both values are shown on the display in exponential form.
The depth of measurement for the CBER is1•106 bits, for the LBER it is 1•108 bits.
7.2.2.3.6
MER Measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points.
It is the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 35 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
7.2.2.3.7
Impulse response
As with DVB-T, DVB-T2 is intended for operation in a single frequency network. This means
several transmitters transmit on the same frequency.
The transmitters involved must operate synchronously on the same frequency.
The maximum transmitter distance depends on the Guard Interval used.
At the receiving location, the signals from individual transmitters superimpose on each other to form
a sum signal.
The result can be constructive or destructive depending on the transit time difference and the
received field strength. The impulse response graphically represents attenuation and transit time
difference of the individual signals.
In order to calculate the channel impulse response, the DVB-T2 receiver requires information on
the channel transmission function. The demodulator obtains this information by evaluating the pilot
carrier in the OFDM signal.
The measuring receiver must receive a DVB-T2 signal in order to measure the impulse response.
The instrument should be tuned to an appropriate channel to do this.
The instrument displays the impulse response on the screen when the IMPULSERES menu item is
selected. A menu for additional settings will appear at the same time.
You can “freeze” the picture using STOP. You can expand the impulse response in the horizontal
direction using ZOOM. You can define the unit of the x-axis with µs or km. Time and length are
related via the speed of light, c:=3•108 m/s. You can end the display of the impulse response via
the menu item BACK.
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The printed example shows an impulse response with a primary impulse (left picture edge) and
several secondary impulses at a distance of approximately 17 km from the primary impulse.
You can move the cursor (small triangle) left and right using the ← and → keys. At the top right
edge of the picture, the transit time difference and attenuation in relation to the primary impulse is
displayed at the cursor position.
Peak-Search Function
While the impulse response is built up, the instrument determines the four highest secondary
impulses apart from the main impulse. If there are echoes, the cursor moves to the highest
secondary impulse after the second cycle. By pressing the keys ↑ and ↓ the cursor may be moved
to further echoes cyclically one after the other. The distance and/or the delay as compared to the
main impulse may be taking taken from the readings in the header of the diagram.
7.2.2.3.8
PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DVB-T2 signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable for the MPEG
decoder, however. This can cause the picture to freeze temporarily or the sound to crackle.
The measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed
from the point in time of entry of a new channel. This function runs in the background constantly.
An additional window can be shown on the display using the menu item INFO. The number of
packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of time that has passed since the last tuning
process is displayed. Press ENTER to close the window.
7.2.2.3.9
Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed together with the packet errors in an additional window.
This window can be shown using the menu item INFO. Press ENTER to close the window.
7.2.2.3.10 Picture and sound check
For digital television, picture and sound decoding take place in the MPEG decoder.
See "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
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7.2.2.4
67
DTMB (Option)
DTMB (Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting) is a Chinese standard for digital TV and radio
program transmission. DTMB was developed in 2007 out of the two drafts of DMB-T and ADTB-T.
DMB-T, which was developed at the University of Beijing, is a multiple carrier standard similar to
the European DVB-T/T2. ADTB-T (single carrier) was derived from the American standard ATSC
and was further developed at the University of Shanghai. Parts of the specification of DTMB, which
supports a single and a multi-carrier mode, are written down in GB20600-2006. Like DVB-T2,
DTMB uses as an internal error correction LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) and BCH (Bose
Chaudhuri Hocguenghem) as an external error correction. Thus the transmission standard is very
robust, which makes it suitable for mobile TV reception. In addition DTMB can be used in single
frequency networks.
The DTMB receiver is activated via the menu items MODULATION -> DTMB.
As a result a new menu will appear where the DTMB mode can be adjusted.
The single carrier mode (C1) is activated via SINGLECAR whereas the receiver is set to multi
carrier mode (C3780) via MULTICAR.
Automatic mode detection:
The measuring receiver uses the set mode as the starting point for automatic mode detection. As
soon as you enter a new frequency, the receiver attempts to demodulate the signal that is present.
If it is not successful in the set mode, the other mode is automatically used. The mode of the signal
received is shown on the display.
7.2.2.4.1
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire TV range for DTMB signals. To do this, you must
switch the instrument to channel input mode.
In the digital operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel, the
menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted.
That means that the MPEG decoder can be operated with the arrow keys. To start the scan, first
press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the arrow keys.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end
of the range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the
display while the scan takes place.
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7.2.2.4.2
DTMB parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream. In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient,
or that the parameters of the receiver do not match, or that no DTMB signal can be received at this
frequency.
Once the receiver is synchronized, additional parameters are shown on the display. The DTMB
receiver determines these automatically.
In the figure shown above, the instrument receives a DTMB-Signal with the following parameters:
Multi carrier modulation
Modulation scheme
Guard interval(GI)
FEC
Time interleaver
7.2.2.4.3
MULTICAR (C3780)
16QAM
PN945variable (equivalent 125 µs)
0.4
M_720
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DTMB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that. This number is placed in a ration to the total throughput of bits and the BER
is calculated based on that.
With DTMB there are two independent error protections that work together. The inner error
protection comes from LDPC (Low Density Parity Check), the external error protection uses BCH
(Bose Chaudhuri Hocguenghem).
The instrument measures the Bit Error Rate before LDPC (CBER) and after LDPC (LBER). Both
results will be shown on the display in exponential form. The measurement depth is for CBER
1•106 Bits. For the LBER 1•108 Bits.
7.2.2.4.4
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points. It is
the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 32 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
7.2.2.4.5
Impulse response
For the measurement of the impulse response, the measuring instrument must receive a DTMB
signal. For this, you must adjust the instrument to the appropriate channel.
By selecting the menu point IMPULSERES the instrument will show the impulse response on the
display. Simultaneously you will see a further menu for adjustments.
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69
With FREEZE you can freeze the picture. With ZOOM the impulse response can be spread
horizontally. You can define the unit of x-axis with µs or km.Time and length values are related via
the speed of light c:=3•108 m/s. Via the menu point BACK you can end the display of the impulse
response.
The example above shows an impulse response with a primary impulse (left picture edge) and
several secondary impulses at a distance of approximately 16km to the primary impulse.
You can move the cursor (small triangle) left and right using the ← and → keys. At the top right
edge of the picture, the run time difference (or path difference respectively) and attenuation in
relation to the primary impulse is displayed at the cursor position.
-Peak-Search Function
While the impulse response is built up, the instrument determines the four highest secondary
impulses apart from the main impulse. If there are echoes, the cursor moves to the highest
secondary impulse after the second cycle. By pressing the keys ↑ and ↓ the cursor may be moved
to further echoes, cyclically one after the other. The distance and/or the delay as compared to the
main impulse may be taking taken from the readings in the header of the diagram.
7.2.2.4.6
Constellation diagram
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can access the constellation diagram via the menu item
CONST.
For more, see Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram".
7.2.2.4.7
PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DTMB signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable for the MPEG
decoder, however. This can cause the picture to freeze temporarily or the sound to crackle.
The measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed
from the point in time of entry of a new channel. This function runs in the background constantly.
An additional window can be shown on the display using the menu item INFO. The number of
packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of time that has passed since the last tuning
process is displayed. Press ENTER to close the window.
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7.2.2.4.8
Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed together with the packet errors in an additional window.
This window can be shown using the menu item INFO. Press ENTER to close the window.
7.2.2.4.9
Picture and sound check
For digital television, picture and sound decoding take place in the MPEG decoder. See "Chapter
11 - MPEG Decoder".
7.2.2.5
DOCSIS (downstream)
DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification) is the standard for the transmission of
data in interactive cable networks. DOCSIS includes a downstream and an upstream.
DOCSIS differentiates between US-DOCSIS (transmission in 6 MHz channels) and Euro-DOCSIS
(transmission in 8 MHz channels).
Similarities and differences in the upstream:
Modulation type
Symbol rate
FEC
Channel bandwidth
Transmission frequency range
US-DOCSIS
64-QAM, 256-QAM
5057 and 5361
J.83/B
6 MHz
50…862 MHz
EURO-DOCSIS
64-QAM, 256-QAM
6952
DVB-C
8 MHz
112…862 MHz
US-DOCSIS
5…42 MHz
EURO-DOCSIS
5…65 MHz
Differences in the downstream:
Transmission frequency range
As you can see in the comparison, you can use a DVB-C receiver for the reception of a EuroDOCSIS downstream signal. It is only necessary to set the symbol rate to 6.952 kBd. For USDOCSIS, a receiver according to ITU J.83/B is required.
The measuring receiver has a common receiver for both DOCSIS variants.
You can activate the DOCSIS receiver of the measuring instrument via the menu item
MODULATION -> DOCSIS.
You select the modulation scheme for the DOCSIS variant in another menu.
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The associated symbol rate is automatically set.
Automatic scan with DOCSIS:
If you enter a new channel, the receiver attempts to synchronize with the current settings (DOCSIS
variants, modulation schemes). If this is not successful, the instrument alternatively uses the other
settings EUDOC64, EUDOC256, USDOC64 or USDOC256 to receive the signal that is present.
7.2.2.5.1
DOCSIS parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display.
When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data stream. In contrast,
UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient, or that the
parameters of the receiver do not agree, or that no DOCSIS signal can be received at this
frequency.
Once the receiver has synchronized, the set modulation scheme and the associated symbol rate is
shown on the display.
In the case of a US-DOCSIS signal, the automatically detected deinterleaver depths are also
shown in the LCD. The variable deinterleaver is part of the J83B specification (in the case of DVBC and EURO-DOCSIS, the deinterleaver is fixed with I = 12 / J = 17).
7.2.2.5.2
Special receiver settings
The instrument allows certain parameters in the DOCSIS receiver to be changed.
This can done in the REC.SETTG. menu item. If the measuring instrument is working with modified
receiver settings an inverted “!” symbol appears on the display.
These settings are volatile. This means that after the device has been switched off and on or the
range has been changed, the measuring receiver switches back to the standard settings.
However, the settings are accounted for in the tuning memory. For automatic measurements, a
notice about the modified receiver settings will follow the measurement results.
7.2.2.5.2.1 Carrier control bandwidth (CRL Carrier Recovery Loop)
A large bandwidth is set in the standard settings. This means that carrier control happens quickly.
Carrier control can work with a small bandwidth using the menu item REC.SETTG. -> CRL(PhJit).
This makes the receiver react sensitively to phase jitter.
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7.2.2.5.2.2 AGC bandwidth
A large bandwidth is set in the standard settings. This means that amplitude control happens
quickly. Amplitude control can work with a very small bandwidth using the menu item REC.SETTG.
-> AGC(Hum). This makes the receiver react sensitively to hum modulation.
7.2.2.5.2.3 Turning off the Equalizer
In the standard setting, the equalizer of the QAM receiver is switched on. The equalizer can
compensate for short echoes, known as micro-reflections, in the transmission link. Using the menu
item REC.SETTG. -> EQUAL. byp the Equalizer can be manually switched off.
7.2.2.5.3
Scan
With this function, you can scan the entire TV range for DOCSIS signals.
For this, you must switch the instrument to channel input mode.
In the DOCSIS operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel,
the menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted.
That means that the DOCSIS analyzer can be operated with the arrow keys. To start the scan, first
press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the arrow keys.
The scan function includes the automatic scan of the DOCSIS variants as described above. That
means that the instrument scans every channel with EUDOC64, EUDOC256, USDOC64 and
USDOC256.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction.
When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end of the range. You can end the
scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the display while the scan takes place.
7.2.2.5.4
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DVB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction and the number of corrected bits is
determined from that. This number is placed in a ratio to the total throughput of bits and the BER is
calculated based on that. With Euro-DOCSIS, there is only one error protection mechanism (ReedSolomon). That means that there is only one bit error rate (BER) here.
With US-DOCSIS, in contrast, there is an internal error protection (Viterbi) and an external error
protection (Reed-Solomon) as with DVB-S and DVB-T. For technical reasons, the measuring
instrument can measure only the bit error rate according to Viterbi (VBER) with US-DOCSIS.
The BER is displayed in exponential form. For US-DOCSIS the measuring depth is generally 1•108
bits. For EURO-DOCSIS the measuring depth can be set to 1•108 or 1•109 bits. See BER
measurement for DVB-C.
7.2.2.5.5
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290. MER is calculated from the constellation points. It is
the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
goes up to 40dB with a resolution of 0.1dB.
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73
PJ measurement (Phasejitter)
The measuring instrument can measure the phase jitter in a QAM signal. The principle of
measurement is explained in ETR290. The measurement is in degrees, with a measuring range
from 0.40° to 5.00° and a resolution of 0.01°. The instrument shows the phase jitter on the display
as soon as the receiver is working with slower carrier control. See "Chapter 7.2.2.5.2.1 - Carrier
control bandwidth (CRL Carrier Recovery Loop)".
7.2.2.5.7
HUM measurement (amplitude hum)
The measuring instrument can measure the amplitude hum in a QAM signal. The principle of
measurement is explained in ETR290. The measurement is specified as a percentage. The
measuring range extends from 0.5 to 5.00% with a resolution of 0.1%. The instrument shows the
amplitude hum on the display as soon as the receiver is working with a slower AGC. See “chapter
7.2.2.5.2.2 - AGC bandwidth”.
7.2.2.5.8
Constellation diagram
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can access the constellation diagram via the menu item
CONST. Additional information can be found in the "Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram".
7.2.2.5.9
PE measurement (Packet Error)
Short interruptions in the DOCSIS signal usually cannot be detected using MER and BER
measurement. They can make entire packets in the transport stream unusable, however. The
measuring receiver has a function with which corrupt transport stream packets are summed from
the point in time of entry of a new channel. This function runs in the background constantly.
An additional window can be shown on the display using the menu item INFO.
The number of packet errors (PE = Packet Error) and the amount of time that has passed since the
last tuning process is displayed.
Press ENTER to close the window again.
7.3
Measuring the frequency offset
The measuring instrument measures the frequency offset between the receiver and the received
signal. It is displayed in MHz with a resolution of 10 kHz for ATV and 1 kHz for DVB-C, DVB-T/T2
and DOCSIS.
The user can choose not to have the frequency offset displayed. By default, the offset is not
displayed. To activate it, the following steps must be performed.
First press the HOME key, then select the MEAS.SETT. menu item. The display of the frequency
offset can be activated using the FRQ.OFFSET key.
The menu item is displayed inverted when active. The next time the receiver is tuned, the
measuring instrument displays the frequency offset below the frequency/channel display.
The user can set whether to deactivate the display independently for ATV, DVB-C, DVB-T/T2 and
DOCSIS. It must also be separately enabled for each individual reception mode.
In the case of remote control via SNMP, the frequency offset can be read out even if the display is
deactivated.
The sign in front of the value is determined by the following relationship: fIN = fAMA + df.
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In the example above, the measuring instrument receives a DVB-C signal with a carrier frequency
that is 27 kHz below the normal center frequency of channel C54 (738 MHz).
The frequency offset is displayed inverted once the deviation is greater than 30 kHz.
Note!
7.4
This feature is only available with the appropriate hardware. If the instrument is
not properly equipped, the FRQ.OFFSET menu item is absent.
Level measurement
After the measuring receiver is tuned, the automatic attenuation control and level measurement
starts.
The level measured is indicated on the right side of the display in dBµV with 0.1 dB resolution.
The measuring range spans from 20 to 120 dBµV. The measuring bandwidth is adjusted to the
channel bandwidth of the signal measured. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 3 Hz.
7.4.1
Acoustic level trend
If when lining up an antenna, for example, no line of sight exists to the measuring instrument, you
can switch on an acoustic level trend signal. A sound signal is emitted from the loudspeaker. Its
frequency changes in proportion to the measured level. When the level increases, the frequency
goes up and vice versa. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 10 Hz.
The sound signal can be switched on and off via the menu item ACOU. LEVEL.
When the sound signal is switched on, the menu item is displayed inverted.
7.4.2
Level measurement with analog TV (ATV)
With ATV, the peak value of the video carrier is measured. This coincides in time with the line sync
pulse.
The level of the currently set sound carrier (see above) is measured and displayed relative to the
video carrier level (e.g. –13.0 dB).
7.4.3
Level measurement with DVB-C, DVB-T/T2 or DOCSIS
With DVB-C, DVB-T and DOCSIS, the spectra of the signals have characteristics similar to noise.
The signal energy is spread over the entire channel bandwidth. The measuring receiver uses its
measuring bandwidth to measure the level in the channel center and extrapolates the channel
bandwidth using the bandwidth formula.
The measuring bandwidth is adjusted to the current channel bandwidth.
7.5
Remote supply
The measuring receiver can provide a remote power supply via the RF input socket; this can
provide power for an active receiving antenna, for example. You may choose between 5 V, 18 V
and no remote supply. The supply is short circuit-proof and provides a maximum current of 500
mA. The instrument automatically switches off the remote supply if there is a short circuit or if the
current is too high.
The red LED on the RF input socket lights up as soon as the remote supply is active.
Important!
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Before switching on a remote supply, always check the compatibility of the
connected system with the selected remote supply. Otherwise, terminating
resistors may be overloaded or active components may be destroyed.
Chapter 7 - TV Measuring Range
7.5.1
75
Setting the remote supply
Press LNB to open the selection menu. You may select the available voltages (0V, 5 V and 18 V)
using the function keys F1, F2 and F3.
7.5.2
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages
Two fixed voltages (5 V and 18 V) are set ex-works for the remote supply.
In order to adjust the voltage according to the requirements of the active components that are
supplied, each of the two voltages can be changed independently of one another from 5 V to 20 V.
For this, one of the two voltages must first be activated. By pressing the LNB key again, the
instrument can be set to the state as shown above.
The voltage can be changed here in 1 V increments using the ↑ and ↓ keys. The setting is nonvolatile.
7.5.3
Measuring the remote supply current
For this, you must bring the measuring instrument into the default status in the TV range. You can
do this by pressing the HOME key. If an LNB supply is activated, the measuring receiver measures
the amount of DC current flowing from the RF input socket (e.g. to supply an active antenna) and
displays the amperage in mA on the left edge of the display. The measuring range spans from 0
500 mA with a resolution of 1 mA.
In the above example, a current of 0 mA is measured with a 5 V remote supply.
If the measuring receiver is tuned, the current indicator disappears from the display.
7.6
Blind Scan
This function can be used to determine the channel configuration in an unknown cable network.
The measuring receiver scans the specified frequency range for ATV, DVB-C and DOCSIS signals.
The instrument creates a channel list, which is displayed on the TFT during the scan. Once the
function is complete, the list can be printed, saved as a CSV file or exported as a CHA file. The
latter file format can then be further edited in the PC software AMA Remote and imported into the
instrument as a user-defined channel table.
Note!
7.6.1
This feature is only available with appropriate hardware.
Starting a new scan
Via MODE -> BLINDSCAN you can access the following menu.
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Selecting the START menu item brings up the following entry field.
Here you can set the parameters for the scan.
You can move the cursor to the individual entry fields using the ← and → keys. You can specify
the upper and lower limits for the scan next to the fields Starting at and Stopping at. The entire
TV range can be used.
Using the F1-F4 soft keys, you can select which signals to include in the scan. To start the function,
move the cursor to “APPLY” and then press the ENTER key.
In the figure above, the instrument is set to perform a scan from 109 to 868 MHz. The minimum
measurement increment is always 250 kHz. The measuring receiver will search for analog TV
programs and for DVB-C, EURO and USDOCSIS channels.
For DVB-C, the common symbol rates of 6,875 kBd and 6,900 kBd are measured with the
modulation schemes 64QAM and 256QAM. For DOCSIS, 64QAM and 256QAM are used. The
symbol rate is permanently coupled to the modulation.
7.6.2
Aborting a scan manually
You can follow the progress as the instrument carries out the function.
The scan can be aborted at any time using the F5 key. After a manual abort, the channel list
determined up to that point remains available for further processing.
The following figure shows a list as it is displayed on the TFT of the instrument.
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7.6.3
77
Exporting the channel list
Once the function is ended (either regularly or manually), the list determined by the instrument is
available for further processing. The instrument presents you with the options below.
Selecting the EXPORT menu item displays the following menu.
The ->CHA-FILE menu item allows the list to be exported as a user-defined channel list (see
"Chapter 20.14 - User-defined channel table for TV"). The instrument numbers the channels
consecutively starting with C1. This can be easily adjusted using the “AMA Remote” PC software.
This channel table can then be re-imported into the instrument.
This is particularly useful when a cable system has a frequency configuration that does not
correspond to a standard channel table. This is necessary because special functions, such as the
TILT measurement, require a suitable channel table.
The ->CSV-FILE menu item allows the list to be saved in CSV format. This is primarily used for
documentation purposes.
The ->PRINTER menu item causes the instrument to print the list of channels on the instrument’s
internal printer.
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Chapter 8 - FM (VHF) Measuring Range
Chapter 8 FM (VHF) Measuring Range
You activate the FM (VHF) range via RANGE -> FM. The measuring receiver has its own VHF
tuner. This features better performance in relation to definition and intermodulation in comparison
with measuring instruments that use the TV tuner for VHF reception.
The frequency range spans 87.4 - 108.2 MHz.
8.1
Frequency input
You can enter a frequency between 87.40 and 108.20 MHz using the numeric keypad.
Here the smallest frequency resolution is 0.01 MHz (10 kHz). You use the ENTER key to confirm
the entry. Invalid entries are ignored.
Frequency detuning
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can carry out a frequency detuning in the 10 kHz grid using
the ← and → keys.
8.2
Sound reproduction
The measuring instrument’s VHF stereo receiver demodulates a received VHF signal and
reproduces the audio signal using the built-in loudspeaker. In the case of stereo transmission, the
signal of the left sound path is output on the loudspeaker. Both sound paths (L and R) are always
present at the SCART socket.
8.3
Stereo indicator
The stereo decoder of the VHF receiver evaluates the 19 kHz pilot signal. If a pilot is present,
STEREO appears in the top line; MONO is otherwise displayed.
8.4
RDS (Radio Data System)
RDS is the counterpart to videotext for TV. In addition to audio signals, additional data are
transmitted. These are modulated up to a 57 kHz subcarrier in PSK (Phase Shift Keying). The RDS
specification comes from the standard EN50067.
These data are sent in what are referred to as groups. Every group transmits different information.
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79
The repetition rate of every group also differs.
The measuring receiver evaluates only the groups of type 0A, 0B, 2A and 2B. Groups 0A or 0B
make up approx. 40% of the total data. The proportion with groups 2A and 2B is only 15%. Among
other data, the program name is transmitted with a maximum of 8 characters in groups 0A and 0B.
Groups 2A and 2B transmit the radiotext with up to 64 characters.
The program name (“Bayern 3” [Bavaria 3]) is shown in the top line of the display. In addition to the
program name, the PI (Program Identification) code is shown in the top line of the display. The PI
code is used as unique identification of the radio program.
The radiotext (“Internet: www.bayern3.de”) appears as scrolling text in the line above the menu bar.
8.5
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire range (87.40 - 108.20 MHz) for VHF broadcast signals.
You start the scan by first tuning the measuring receiver to a frequency at which the scan should
begin.
Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the same in the
negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end of the
range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the display
while the scan takes place.
8.6
Level measurement
As soon as the instrument is tuned to a frequency, it begins to measure the level and displays the
measured value in dBµV. The measuring range is from 20 to 120 dBµV with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
The measuring rate for the numerical level value is approx. 3 Hz.
8.6.1
Acoustic level trend
When no line of sight to the measuring instrument exists while lining up an antenna, an acoustic
level trend signal can be switched on. A sound signal is emitted from the loudspeaker. Its frequency
changes in proportion to the measured level. When the level increases, the frequency goes up and
vice versa. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 10Hz.
The sound signal can be switched on and off via the menu item ACOU. LEVEL.
When the sound signal is switched on, the menu item is displayed inverted.
8.7
Remote supply
The measuring receiver can provide a remote power supply via the RF input socket; this can
provide power for an active receiving antenna, for example. You may choose between 5 V, 18 V
and no remote supply. The supply is short circuit-proof and provides a maximum current of
500 mA. The instrument automatically switches off the remote supply if there is a short circuit or if
the current is too high.
The red LED on the RF input socket lights up as soon as the remote supply is active.
Important!
Before switching on a remote supply, always check the compatibility of the
connected system with the selected remote supply. Otherwise, terminating
resistors may be overloaded or active components may be destroyed.
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8.7.1
Setting the remote supply
Press LNB to open the selection menu. You may select the available voltages (0 V, 5 V and 18 V)
using the function keys F1, F2 and F3.
8.7.2
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages
Two fixed voltages (5 V and 18 V) are set ex-works for the remote supply.
In order to adjust the voltage according to the requirements of the active components that are
supplied, each of the two voltages can be changed independently of one another from 5 V to 20 V.
For this, one of the two voltages must first be activated. By pressing the LNB key again, the
instrument can be set to the state as shown above.
The voltage can be changed here in 1V increments using the ↑ and ↓ keys. The setting is nonvolatile.
8.7.3
Measuring the remote supply current
For this, you must bring the measuring instrument into the default status in the TV range. You can
do this by pressing the HOME key. If an LNB supply is activated, the measuring receiver measures
the amount of DC current flowing from the RF input socket (e.g. to supply an active antenna) and
displays the amperage in mA on the left edge of the display. The measuring range spans from 0 500 mA with a resolution of 1 mA.
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Chapter 9 RC (Return Channel) Measuring Range
You access the RC range via RANGE -> REV.CHA..
9.1
Frequency input
You can enter a frequency between 5.00 and 65.00 MHz using the numeric keypad.
Here the smallest frequency resolution is 0.05 MHz (50 kHz). You use the ENTER key to confirm
the entry. Invalid entries are ignored.
Frequency detuning
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can carry out a frequency detuning in the 50 kHz grid using
the ← and → keys.
9.2
Level measurement
As soon as the instrument is tuned to a frequency, it begins to measure the level and displays the
measured value in dBµV. The measuring range is from 20 to 110 dBµV with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
The measuring rate for the numerical level value is approx. 3 Hz.
9.2.1
Max hold function
The usable signal on the return path of a cable system is generated by the active (online) cable
modem. According to the cluster size of a network, the cable modem can transmit more or fewer
frequencies. The registered cable modem may only transmit in certain short time slots. Therefore,
the maximum level for a frequency may only be present for a short amount of time.
For this reason, a max hold function can be switched on in the measuring instrument. Here the
maximum level is saved, starting from the point in time of activation. This indicator only changes
when an even higher level exists temporarily. This function can be switched on and off via the
menu item MAX HOLD. If the max hold function is active the menu item is displayed inverted.
9.2.2
Setting the channel bandwidth
Cable modems transmit in bursts with the modulation types QPSK or QAM. Because every active
cable modem is assigned to only certain time slots, it can only transmit briefly. This means that a
short burst is generated in QPSK or QAM.
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In order to precisely measure the level in the return path, the measuring instrument must know the
channel bandwidth of the return path signal. In the DOCSIS standard, Bandwidths are set to 200
kHz, 400 kHz, 800 kHz, 1.6 MHz, 3.2 MHz and 6.4 MHz. They correspond to the symbol rates
used: 160 kBd, 320 kBd, 640 kBd, 1,280 kBd, 2,560 kBd and 5,120 kBd. This setting can be carried
out via the menu item BANDWIDTH.
If one of the bandwidths is activated, the instrument adjusts its measuring bandwidth to the channel
bandwidth automatically. It also carries out a level correction in relation to the set channel
bandwidth.
Using the menu item BANDWIDTH -> OFF, you can switch off adjustment to the channel
bandwidth. Now the instrument measures with a measuring bandwidth of 1 MHz. This setting
should be implemented if a comb generator (sinusoidal signal) or a noise generator is used as the
signal source. This is also the instrument’s default setting. The channel bandwidth setting is stored
in non-volatile memory. This position is also incorporated in the tuning memory.
9.2.3
Setting reception mode (only with the relevant hardware configuration)
This feature can be used to switch the measuring instrument to DVB-C, J83B or PRBS modes in
the return channel range. The measuring options available for the forward path are also available in
this case. The instrument evaluates MER, BER, Phase jitter (PJ), amplitude hum (HUM) and PE
(packet error). The constellation diagram can also be opened. Monitoring and recording modes
(DATAGRABBER) can also be activated. In PRBS mode, the instrument operates in conjunction
with the upstream generator from the manufacturer. This generates a QAM signal with a
pseudorandom data sequence. It is not possible to evaluate packet errors (PE) here.
With the factory settings, the frequency offset will not be displayed. To activate it, the following
steps must be performed. First press the HOME key, then select the MEAS.SETT. menu item. The
display of the frequency offset can then be activated using the FRQ.OFFSET key (see also
"Chapter 7.3 - Measuring the frequency offset").
You can activate measurement of the phase jitter and hum by adjusting the receiver’s settings. Use
the REC.SETTG menu item to change these settings. More information is available under “Chapter
7.2.2.1 - DVB-C” in the TV measuring range section.
When using these operating modes, it is possible to test the return path under real conditions
(cable modems send QAM signals on the return path) with the aid of an upstream modulator (QAM
modulator). Ingress can be seen in the MER, BER and the constellation diagram. The
DATAGRABBER can also be used to take long-term measurements. For more information, see the
application note “AN005 – Return path measurement with upstream generator”. You can find this
on the homepage of www.kws-electronic.de under “SUPPORT” –> “Application notes”.
The four settings with which the receiver can be operated in the return path are listed again below:
•
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Modulation off: In this mode, the instrument behaves in the same way as for the “Bandwidth
OFF” setting (see "Chapter 9.2.2 - Setting the channel bandwidth”). This setting should be
implemented if a comb generator (sinusoidal signal) or a noise generator is used as the signal
source.
Chapter 9 - RC (Return Channel) Measuring Range
•
•
•
83
DVB-C: The receiver operates in DVB-C mode. Symbol rates and modulation schemes can
be set in the same manner as for the forward path. A DVB-C generator is required as the
signal source.
J83B: The receiver operates in J83B mode. The parameters can be changed in the same
manner as for USDOCSIS in the forward path. A QAM modulator with J83B FEC is required
for this.
PRBS: The receiver operates in PRBS mode. Symbol rates and modulation schemes can be
set in accordance with the generator settings.
In PRBS operating mode, the depth of the bit error rate measurement is set between 1.00•10-6 and
1.00•10-8 depending on the data rate (i.e. depending on the QAM mode and symbol rate) so that
the measurement time (and therefore the update rate) is no greater than 2 seconds.
Use the menu items MODULATION -> OFF, DVB-C, J83-B or PRBS to set the relevant operating
mode.
The bandwidth settings, as described in the ”Chapter 9.2.2 - Setting the channel bandwidth", can
be made by setting the instrument to DVB-C reception and entering the symbol rate that
corresponds to the bandwidth.
9.2.4
Acoustic level trend
When no line of sight to the measuring instrument exists during line-up, an acoustic level trend
signal can be switched on. A sound signal is emitted from the loudspeaker. Its frequency changes
in proportion to the measured level. When the level increases, the frequency goes up and vice
versa. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 10 Hz.
The sound signal can be switched on and off via the menu item ACOU. LEVEL.
When the sound signal is switched on, the menu item is displayed inverted.
9.3
Remote supply
The measuring receiver can provide a remote power supply via the RF input socket; this can
provide power for a receiving antenna, for example. You may choose between 5 V, 18 V and no
remote supply. The supply is short circuit-proof and provides a maximum current of 500 mA. The
instrument automatically switches off the remote supply if there is a short circuit or if the current is
too high.
The red LED on the RF input socket lights up as soon as the remote supply is active.
Important!
9.3.1
Before switching on a remote supply, always check the compatibility of the
connected system with the selected remote supply. Otherwise, terminating
resistors may be overloaded or active components may be destroyed.
Setting the remote supply
Press LNB to open the selection menu. You may select the available voltages (0 V, 5 V and 18 V)
using the function keys F1, F2 and F3.
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9.3.2
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages
Two fixed voltages (14 V and18 V) are set ex-works for the remote supply.
In order to adjust the voltage according to the requirements of the active components that are
supplied, each of the two voltages can be changed independently of one another from 5 V to 20 V.
For this, one of the two voltages must first be activated. By pressing the LNB key again, the menu
for setting the supplies is called up again.
The voltage can now be changed in 1 V increments using the ↑ and ↓ keys. The setting is nonvolatile.
9.3.3
Measuring the remote supply current
For this, you must bring the measuring instrument into the default status in the TV range. You can
do this by pressing the HOME key. If an LNB supply is activated, the measuring receiver measures
the amount of DC current flowing from the RF input socket (e.g. to supply an amplifier) and displays
the amperage in mA on the left edge of the display. The measuring range spans from 0 - 500 mA
with a resolution of 1 mA.
9.4
Headend Mode
This operating mode includes several features that are designed for stationary operation of the
instrument at a head end. In receiver mode, the contents of the display are also shown on the
graphics screen.
This provides the option of transmitting the video signal of the graphic to an analog or digital
modulator via SCART and then feeding it into the cable system on the forward path. The
manufacturer’s upstream generator can be set to transmit on the return path and allow the
instrument’s graphics screen to be shown at the head end. This means that the return path to the
head end can be measured at the subscriber socket. Users can view the results of the
measurement and the real-time constellation diagram “live” on the screen of the upstream
generator.
The graphics screen of the RC analyzer features 4 markers, which can, for example, be set on the
four possible upstream frequencies for the upstream generator. If the frequencies are evenly
distributed throughout the RC range, they can be used to make a tilt analysis of the transmission
link from the subscriber terminal to the head end.
This approach can also be used to “level” the return amplifier.
The marker setting process is described in the “Chapter 19 - Spectrum Analyzer”.
Use the HEADENDMOD menu item to switch the instrument to head end mode. The setting is nonvolatile.
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Chapter 10 DAB Measuring Range (Option)
DAB stands for “Digital Audio Broadcasting”. The measuring receiver can demodulate both DAB
and DAB+ modulated signals and decode the FIC (Fast Information Channel) and MSC (Main
Service Channel) information contained within.
You access the DAB range via RANGE -> DAB.
This range spans the frequency range from 170.00 to 250.00 MHz.
10.1
Switching between frequency and channel input
The instrument can be tuned by entering the channel center frequency or by entering the channel.
You can switch between modes using the menu items CHANNEL or FREQUENCY. After
selection, the corresponding menu item is displayed inverted.
10.1.1
Frequency input
Using the numeric keypad, you can enter a frequency between 170.00 and 250.00 MHz. The
smallest frequency resolution is 0.05 MHz (50 kHz). Use the ENTER key to confirm the entry.
Invalid entries are ignored.
Frequency detuning:
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can carry out frequency detuning in 50 kHz increments
using the ← and → keys.
10.1.2
Channel input
A channel table stored in the instrument serves as the basis for channel input. The table contains a
center frequency for each channel.
The DAB channel grid is derived from the original TV channel grid in the VHF range.
A DAB channel has a bandwidth of 1.75 MHz. A maximum of 4 DAB channels can therefore share
an original 7 MHz channel. This fact must be taken into account in the numbering of DAB channels
in the VHF range (mode I). The channel with the lowest frequency receives a channel number with
the index “A”, and the next 3 channels receive the indices “B”, “C” and “D”. Channel 13 is a special
case, where the DAB channels are defined as 13E and 13F. The complete channel table is
provided in the appendix of these instructions.
You can enter the desired channel number using the numeric keypad. The channel index (“A”-“F”)
can be entered using keys 1 (for “A”) to 6 (for “F”). Use the ENTER key to confirm the entry. Invalid
entries are ignored.
If the measuring receiver is tuned, you can set the previous or next channel using the ← and →
keys. In this way, you can key in the channels one by one.
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10.2
Scan
You can use this function to scan the entire range for DAB/DAB+ signals. For this, you must switch
the instrument to channel input mode.
In the DAB operating mode, the arrow keys have a dual function. After entry of a new channel, the
menu item 2.FUNCTION is inverted.
That means that the MPEG decoder can be operated with the arrow keys.
To start the scan, first press the F5 key in order to activate the first function of the arrow keys.
The scan is then started by first tuning the measuring receiver to a channel at which the scan
should begin. Press the ↑ key to start the scan in the positive direction. Press the ↓ key to do the
same in the negative direction. When the band limit is reached, the scan continues at the other end
of the range. You can end the scan at any time by pressing ENTER. “SCAN” is shown on the
display while the scan takes place.
10.3
Level measurement
After the measuring receiver is tuned, the automatic attenuation control and level measurement
starts.
The spectra of the signals for DAB have characteristics similar to noise.
The signal energy is spread over the entire channel bandwidth. The measuring receiver uses its
measuring bandwidth to measure the level in the channel center and extrapolates the channel
bandwidth using the bandwidth formula.
The level measured is indicated on the right side of the display in dBµV with 0.1 dB resolution.
The measuring range extends from 20 to 120 dBµV. The measuring bandwidth is adjusted to the
channel bandwidth of the signal measured. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 3 Hz.
10.3.1
Acoustic level trend
When no line of sight to the measuring instrument exists while lining up an antenna, an acoustic
level trend signal can be switched on. In this case, an acoustic signal is emitted from the speaker.
Its frequency changes in proportion to the measured level. When the level increases, the frequency
goes up and vice versa. The measurement repetition rate is approx. 10 Hz.
The acoustic signal can be switched on and off via the menu item ACOU.LEVEL.
When the acoustic signal is switched on, the menu item is displayed inverted.
10.4
DAB parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the synchronization process, several parameters are shown
on the display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is receiving a valid data
stream. In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is present is insufficient or
that no DAB signal is received at this frequency.
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Once the receiver is synchronized, additional parameters are shown on the display. The DAB
receiver determines these automatically.
4 different modes are defined for DAB. Mode I is intended for transmission in the VHF range. The
other 3 modes are reserved for transmission in the L band.
Station ID: A station ID is also transmitted in DAB. This
TII (Transmitter Identification Information) is transmitted in the first DAB symbol (zero symbol).
Each DAB station transmits its own unique Main ID and Sub ID. These numbers allow a station to
be uniquely identified in a single-frequency network. This is unlike in DVB-T, where each station in
a cluster transmits the same station ID.
10.5
BER measurement (Bit Error Rate)
The measurement of the bit error rate aids in the determination of the quality of a DAB signal.
To determine the bit error rate, the error correction mechanisms in the digital receiver are used.
The data stream is compared before and after correction, and the number of corrected bits is
determined from this. This number is placed in a ratio to the total throughput of bits, and the BER is
calculated based on this.
In DAB, the FEC (Forward Error Correction) consists of convolutional coding. In the DAB receiver,
the decoding is performed by a Viterbi decoder. In DAB, the various symbols in the DAB frame can
be protected against errors in different ways. In this way, information components can be
transmitted more or less robustly.
To determine the bit error rate, the measuring receiver evaluates the corrected bits in the MSC
(Main Service Channel).
Once the receiver has locked in on a DAB signal, the BER is shown on the display in exponential
form. The displayed CBER is the BER before Viterbi of the MSC. This is the channel bit error rate.
The depth of measurement is 1•106 bits.
10.6
Subchannel BER measurement on DAB+
DAB services are transmitted on subchannels within the MSC (Main Service Channel). On DAB+
audio is coded with HE-AAC and each service is additionally protected with a Reed Solomon block
code. The DAB+ receiver can measure the bits corrected by the Reed Solomon decoder and
calculates the VBER (BER after Viterbi). As each subchannel (service) has its own block code the
VBER can only be measured for the service actually running. So before you can measure the
VBER of a subchannel you have to select one service in the program list (see “Chapter 10.9 MSC
Decoding and audio playback).
The depth of measurement is 1•105 bits.
10.7
MER measurement (Modulation Error Rate)
In addition to measurement of the bit error rate, it is established practice with digital transmission to
also measure MER. It is defined in ETR290, e.g. for DVB-T, and can be applied to DAB in a similar
manner. MER is calculated from the DQPSK constellation points.
It is the counterpart to S/N measurement with analog transmission methods. The measuring range
extends up to 25 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB.
10.8
FIC decoding
Once the measuring receiver has locked in on a DAB signal, the DAB frame is analyzed. The data
of the FIC (Fast Information Channel) are then analyzed. This contains information on the
composition of the ensemble. For DVB, this corresponds to evaluation of PAT, PMT and SDT. The
instrument then creates a program list and displays this on the TFT. This is performed in a similar
manner as for DVB (see "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder").
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The decoder lists the names of all audio programs contained in the ensemble.
Pure data streams are not included. DAB+ programs receive an additional label. If the list
comprises multiple pages, you can switch between pages of the program list using the ← and →
keys.
10.9
MSC decoding and audio playback
You can play a program from the list by moving the cursor onto the desired program name using
the ↑ and ↓ keys.
When ENTER is pressed once, the decoder lists the corresponding program details.
This includes the program name, program provider, service ID, DAB type and the audio data rate of
the particular program. The example above is for a DAB+ program with 80 kbit/s.
Pressing ENTER again starts audio playback and the sound can be monitored using the internal
speakers or the headphone jack. Pressing ENTER again stops playback of the current program,
and the program list again appears on the screen.
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10.10
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Remote supply
The measuring receiver can provide a remote power supply via the RF input; for example, this may
provide power for an active receiving antenna. You may choose between 5 V, 18 V and no remote
supply.
The supply is short circuit-proof and provides a maximum current of 500 mA. The instrument
automatically switches off the remote supply if there is a short circuit or if the current is too high.
The red LED on the RF input lights up as soon as the remote supply is active.
Important!
10.10.1
Always check that the connected system is compatible with the selected
remote supply before switching on the remote supply. Otherwise, terminating
resistors may be overloaded or active components may be destroyed.
Setting the remote supply
Press LNB to open the selection menu. You may select from the available voltages (0V, 5V and
18V) using the function keys F1, F2 and F3.
10.10.2
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages
Two fixed voltages (5 V and 18 V) are set ex-works for the remote supply.
In order to adjust the voltage according to the requirements of the active components to be
supplied, each of the two voltages can be changed independently from 5 V to 20 V.
For this, one of the two voltages must first be activated. By pressing the LNB key again, the
instrument can be set to the state as shown above.
The voltage can be changed here in 1 V increments using the ↑ and ↓ keys. The setting is nonvolatile.
10.10.3
Measuring the remote supply current
For this, you must the measuring instrument into the default status in the DAB range. You can do
this by pressing the HOME key. If remote supply is activated, the measuring receiver measures the
amount of DC current flowing from the RF input socket (e.g. to supply an active antenna) and
displays the amperage in mA on the left edge of the display. The measuring range extends from 0 500 mA with a resolution of 1 mA.
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Chapter 11 MPEG Decoder
11.1
Introduction
11.1.1
DVB and MPEG-2
Digital television transmission is based on the DVB project. DVB uses the methods established in
the MPEG-2 standard for coding video and audio sources.
Source coding and multiplexing
In order to be able to transmit the high data rates that occur with the digitalization of video and
audio signals in a cost-effective way, the volume of data must be reduced using special
compression methods.
MPEG-2 video source coding (ISO/IEC 13818-2)
Simply put, the video compression method works according to the following principle:
The complete picture information is only transmitted after x number of pictures. In the meantime,
only changes from one picture to the next are transmitted. This can be accomplished due to
complex computational algorithms.
MPEG-1/2 Layer II audio source coding (ISO/IEC 13818-3)
The audio data reduction works according to the psychoacoustic model of the human ear, whereby
the sensitivity of hearing perception is distributed in a spectral manner. The volume of data can be
significantly reduced with little loss of quality by using special algorithms.
Multiplexing
Video and audio data from one or more programs are transmitted in the MPEG transport stream
(TS) in time division multiplexing. In addition, the transport stream contains service information for
the receiver in order to demultiplex programs as well as teletext and other data services.
Satellite, cable and terrestrial transmission of SDTV (Standard Definition TV)
In order to transmit digital TV via satellite, cable and terrestrial media, the DVB-S transmission
method has been developed for satellite, while DVB-C serves cable and DVB-T serves terrestrial
transmission. Each respectively has the task of transporting the MPEG multiplex (transport stream)
from the transmitter to the receiver.
Encryption
Pay TV providers encrypt their programs at the transport stream level. Current methods include
e.g. BetaCrypt, Irdeto, Viacess, Conax, Cryptoworks, etc. A CA (conditional access) module must
be integrated into the receiver for decryption to work. The module can then unscramble the
transport stream again with a corresponding Smart Card.
MPEG decoder
The MPEG decoder has the task of demultiplexing the transport stream and making the data
available to the respective audio and video decoders. Furthermore, it ensures synchronicity
between the audio and video signal.
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Service Information (SI)
The transport stream (TS) generally contains several programs. These programs are sent in
packets one after the other. Each packet is assigned a number or PID (Packet Identify). The TS is
managed by special tables that are part of the multiplex.
The most important table is the PAT (Program Association Table), which always has PID 0 and
includes information about the number of programs contained in the multiplex. The PAT refers to
further tables, the PMTs (Program Map Tables).
They contain the PIDs of the elementary streams for video and audio. With these tables, the MPEG
decoder can filter out an individual program in the TS and undertake MPEG-2 decoding.
Picture and sound quality
While the transmission quality of analog TV goes hand in hand with the quality of picture and
sound, the situation with digital transmission is fundamentally different.
Although the quality of transmission deteriorates, the picture and sound quality remains unchanged
over long distances. This is ensured by efficient error protection mechanisms which correct bit
errors that arise. Picture and sound suddenly cut out only when the reception quality is such that
the corrective algorithms can no longer function (Brick Wall Effect). Shortly before that, typical
“blocking” can be seen in the picture, while the sound drops out several times. The external error
protection is identical with DVB-S, DVB-C and DVB-T (Reed-Solomon). A bit error rate of 5•10-3
with the Reed-Solomon decoder leads to this “blocking” effect, while reception is virtually perfect
with an error rate of 2•10-4.
11.1.2
HDTV and MPEG-4
HDTV (High Definition TV)
While SDTV (Standard Definition TV) such as PAL, NTSC and SECAM transmits TV pictures with a
resolution of 720x576i or 720x480i, the resolution with HDTV programs can be up to 1920x1080p.
With “i = interlaced”, the pictures are transmitted with the lines interlaced. With “p = progressive”,
the complete images are transmitted. The established HDTV resolutions are currently 1920x1080i
and 1280x720p. While 1920x1080i offers greater spatial resolution, 1280x720p offers advantages
during quickly changing scenes (e.g. sports transmissions). The transmission of HDTV requires
considerably higher data rates.
The development of a more efficient video compression method (MPEG-4 AVC) has led to a further
reduction in data rates in comparison to MPEG-2 and has thus enabled cost-effective transmission
of HDTV for the first time.
MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding)
MPEG-4 AVC is a highly efficient video compression standard. It is used within DVB for the digital
transmission of high-resolution television (HDTV). In comparison to MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC leads
to a further data reduction by a factor of 2-3 and improved picture quality. The necessary
computational processing also increases by a factor of 3, however. The fundamental principle of
MPEG-4 is based on MPEG-2. The details were further refined and improved, however. MPEG-4
programs are transmitted in the DVB transport stream like MPEG-2 programs. MPEG-2 and MPEG
4 programs can thus be combined in any way and transmitted in a transport stream.
More efficient and higher quality compression methods in comparison to MPEG-1/2 Layer II are
also utilized in the transmission of audio signals.
Dolby Digital AC-3 (Adaptive Transform Coder 3)
AC-3 is increasingly used as the audio coding method with HDTV programs. Here version 5.1
offers a multi-channel sound system with 6 channels.
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MPEG-2/4 AAC (Advanced Audio Coding), HE-AAC (High Efficient AAC)
Multi-channel sound systems developed by Fraunhofer IIS, similar to AC-3.
HE-AAC is currently the most effective audio coding method. It is being used increasingly for
transmitting HDTV programs via DVB-T.
Satellite, cable and terrestrial transmission of HDTV
Within DVB, three different transmission standards have been developed for satellite, cable and
terrestrial transmission media. These are DVB-S, DVB-C and DVB-T.
In order to further increase bandwidth efficiency, improved transmission methods have been or are
being developed that stand out due to their increased efficiency in error protection (FEC = Forward
Error Correction). DVB-S2 transmission via satellite is already in routine use. The DVB-C2 and
DVB-T2 next-generation standards for cable and terrestrial are still in the development phase.
11.1.3
UHDTV and HEVC (MPEG-H)
-UHDTV (Ultra High Definition TV) is the next generation of high definition TV. The video resolution
is two times of full HD, so we have 3840x2160 pixels. Because one picture in UHD has four times
the number of pixels compared to full HD, the data rate to be transmitted increases with factor four.
So, transmitting UHD content on DVB on an economical way is only possible if we can reduce the
data rates. Therefore more efficient video codecs are necessary.
-HEVC (High Efficient Video Coding) is an advanced development of the predecessor standard
AVC (MPEG-4). With this codec the coding efficiency is increased by two. So only 50% of data rate
is necessary to transmit the same content compared to AVC. These improvements could be
reached by further optimizations in the differential coding and division of macro blocks. But the
algorithms get more and more complex, so the encoder and decoder chips have to be faster and
higher integrated.
11.1.4
AVS/AVS+
AVS (Audio Video Standard) is video codec developed in china.
The AVS Jizhum Baseline Profile AVS1-P2 has a similar coding efficiency compared to
H.264/AVC, but needs fewer resources in the encoder and decoder chips.
The AVS Guangbo Profile AVS1-P16 is an advanced development of the predecessor AVS1-P2
and has improved coding efficiency. This codec is used more and more for TV broadcast in china.
11.2
Operation
The decoder is operated using the keypad on the instrument. All messages from the decoder
appear on screen via the decoder’s OSD (On-Screen Display).
As soon as the measuring receiver is tuned to a digital channel or digital frequency, the MPEG
decoder is activated.
It requires some time for its “booting procedure”, which can be tracked via a progress bar. When
the range is changed or during analyzer mode, the MPEG decoder will switch off in order to
increase battery life. As a result, the “booting procedure” is repeated when the decoder is activated
again.
As soon as the decoder is ready, it analyses the transport stream present and constructs the
program lists for video and audio programs and pure data services. If the decoder is unable to find
a valid transport stream, a WAITING FOR TS message appears. In this case, the corresponding
digital demodulator (e.g. DVB-C) is not receiving a signal and the receiver displays an “unlocked”
message.
After the decoder has acquired the program lists from the transport stream, it displays the video
program list on the OSD. If there are more than eight video programs, the remaining entries can be
found on additional pages.
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Use the ← and → keys to scroll through the pages. If the program name is displayed as “????”,
the name cannot be displayed, because this information is missing (e.g. error in the SDT).
An “ * ” before the program name denotes an encrypted program.
By selecting Display audio only from the menu, the program list of audio programs is displayed.
By selecting Display data only from the menu, all pure data services (e.g. SkyDSL) are listed
separately. By selecting Display video only from the menu, the list of TV programs is again made
available.
Select a program from the list by moving the cursor onto the desired program name using the ↑
and ↓ keys. When ENTER is pressed once, the MPEG decoder lists the corresponding program
details.
This includes the program name, program provider, service ID and the PIDs for PCR (Program
Clock Reference), video, audio and videotext (TTX). As with analog television, most program
providers supply videotext. This can be seen if a PID is entered at the TTX position. As explained in
the "Chapter 14 - Videotext", information is transmitted using elementary text streams in the MPEG
transport stream. The MPEG decoder decodes the pages.
Consult the "Chapter 14 - Videotext" for details on how to access the pages.
The PIDs are displayed in decimal and hexadecimal form. Some TV programs are broadcast with
several audio streams. These can be various languages or a combination of MPEG, AAC and AC-3
audio streams. By choosing Select audio stream from the menu, the desired audio stream can be
selected. Now start the selected program by pressing ENTER. Audio streams encoded in AC-3 and
AAC format can be played only using an MPEG-4 decoder.
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The decoder now tries to decode the picture and sound. A message will appear accordingly if the
selected program is in an encrypted format. Press the ENTER key again to return to the program
list.
MPEG-4 AVC H.264 programs and MPEG-2 decoder
The MPEG-2 decoder cannot decode MPEG-4 programs. If transmitted in AC-3 or AAC, the
accompanying audio streams also cannot be played.
However, these HDTV programs are also entered in the program list by the MPEG-2 decoder.
Additional information appears in the program details (H.264 and AC-3 or AAC).
11.3
Dynamic PMT
Some program providers divide their programming into regional content at specific times.
This means that, for example, 4 programs may appear in the MPEG program list which have the
same content at certain times and different content at other times. The program map table (PMT) in
the data stream therefore changes over time. In this way, the station can prompt the receiver to use
different packet identities (PIDs).
In the standard setting, the MPEG decoder of the instrument uses the PMT that was sent at the
time of the last program search. In other words a static PMT.
However, the user can activate the dynamic PMT update function for a specific program. To do so,
press the → key while the program details are displayed on the screen. The text dyn.PMT then
appears on the screen.
If you start the program now, the decoder continually searches for a new PMT version. If the device
detects a change in the PMT, the current program is stopped and then restarted with the updated
PIDs.
11.4
Displaying the MPEG video parameters
As soon as a live picture can be seen, the MPEG decoder displays the following parameters in a
window at the bottom right of the screen.
•
•
•
•
Profile and level: e.g. MP @ ML
Chroma format: e.g. 4:2:0
Video resolution: e.g. 720x576
LetterBoxFormat: 4:3 or 16:9
Press the ← and → keys at any time to show or hide the parameter window.
11.5
Measurement and display of the video bit rate
The decoder can measure the current bit rate of the video stream being transmitted while a live
picture is played. This is shown in the unit [Mbit/s] in the window described in the "Chapter 11.4 Displaying the MPEG video parameters". A time window of 1s is used for measurement.
11.6
Network Information Table (NIT)
NIT (Network Information Table) is part of the Service Information (SI) range that is transmitted in
multiplex in the transport stream along with video and audio programs.
Each transport stream has a separate NIT. The NIT contains information that can be used for
navigation (program search) in set-top boxes (STB). Its precise structure is defined in EN 300 468.
The NIT information depends on the reception mode chosen (DVB-S, DVB-S2, DVB-C or DVB-T).
NIT evaluation can be initiated by selecting the NIT menu item below the program list and then
pressing ENTER.
The OSD reports on the NIT search and the reception of individual sections of the NIT. If the entire
NIT is received, the instrument puts together a NIT list. If the transport stream does not contain a
NIT, then the search is cancelled after a period of time and a corresponding message appears. You
can also stop the NIT search manually by pressing ENTER.
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After the NIT has been imported, the list can also be printed out or copied into a text file. For more
information, see “Chapter 17 - Printer” and “Chapter 18 - File Output” sections.
The following example shows a NIT from an ASTRA transponder:
10 entries are displayed per page. Use the ← and → keys to scroll through the entries. An entry
consists of the serial number, transponder frequency, polarization and orbital position.
An “ * ” after the serial number indicates that the current transport stream originates from this
transponder/channel. You can move the yellow bars up and down with the ↑ and ↓ keys.
Press ENTER for more details on the NIT entry highlighted in yellow.
11.6.1
Delivery System Descriptor
The information contained in the delivery system descriptor differs according to the transmission
medium (cable, satellite, terrestrial). The descriptor contains information about the transmission
parameters.
The decoder displays this information when the Delivery System Descriptor menu item is
selected. The following example shows the contents of a SAT delivery system descriptor.
The transport stream with the number 1056 (TS_ID) is transmitted at a transponder frequency of
11.8365 GHz at an orbital position of 19.2° East with horizontal polarization.
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Transmission occurs in the DVB-S2 standard with 8PSK. The symbol rate is 22,000 kBd, the FEC
is 2/3 and the original network number (Org. Network_ID) is 1. All IDs are displayed in decimal and
hexadecimal form. Press ENTER to return to the NIT list. The information provided depends on the
reception mode (DVB-S, DVB-S2, DVB-C or DVB-T).
If a transport stream is converted from satellite to cable, then generally the NIT in the header must
be adjusted accordingly. If this is not done or only partially done, the cable box may not be able to
find certain programs, since the navigation is based on information provided by the NIT.
11.6.2
Logical Channel Descriptor (LCD)
For a suitable receiver, the order of the stations can be controlled using the logical channel
descriptor (LCD) which is transmitted within the NIT. This means that the network operator can
determine which program receives which memory location number in the receiver. This can be
useful in places such as hotels or hospitals in order to ensure that the memory locations are
identical for all receivers.
In the LCD, a specific memory location number (logical channel number – LCN) is assigned to each
service ID (TV program).
If the Logical Channel Descriptor menu item is selected, the MPEG decoder lists the
relationships between the service IDs and LCNs for the selected transponder/channel within the
NIT. Press ENTER to return to the NIT list.
Another way of displaying the LCNs is described in the "Chapter 11.7 - Logical Channel Numbering
(LCN-Liste)".
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97
Logical Channel Numbering (LCN-Liste)
NIT evaluation, like specified in the chapter above, can be initiated by selecting the LCN menu item
below the program list.
If the NIT contains information about LCN, the instrument puts together a sorted LCN list.
Otherwise a corresponding message appears.
After the NIT has been imported, the LCN list can also be printed out or copied into a text file. For
more information, see “Chapter 17 - Printer” and “Chapter 18 - File Output”.
Per page 10 entries are displayed. Use the ← and → keys to scroll through the entries. An entry
consists of the LCN, service ID and transponder frequency.
An “ * ” after the LCN indicates that the current transport stream originates from this
transponder/channel. You can move the yellow bars up and down with the ↑ and ↓ keys
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Chapter 12 - Constellation diagram
Chapter 12 Constellation diagram
12.1
Introduction
The constellation diagram is a graphical representation of the states of a digitally modulated signal
in a two dimensional coordinate system. Individual signal states can be viewed as source vectors
with I (inphase, horizontal axis) and Q (quadrature, vertical axis) components. Only the peaks of
the vectors are shown in diagram, however. Depending on modulation method, there is a varying
number of decision fields within the two dimensional field (e.g. 256 with 256QAM). These decision
fields are assigned to a fixed bit combination.
In the ideal case, all signal states are in the center of the decision fields. A real signal is exposed to
variable interferences, however. If you view these interferences as vectors that are superimposed
on the ideal signal states, the peaks of the sum vectors depict the deviation from the ideal state.
The worse the signal quality is, the larger the distribution in the two-dimensional state space. It is
possible for you to draw conclusions about the type of signal interference based on the form of the
constellation diagram. This is explained later using examples.
The mean between two ideal states is designated as the decision limit (indicated in the diagram by
horizontal and vertical lines). A signal with enough interference to move several signal states
beyond the decision limit will result in bit errors. This means: The better all signal states center on
the ideal states (the smaller the signal clouds are), the better the signal.
The measuring receiver shows the constellation diagram in real time for the digital standards (DVB
S/S2, DVB-C, DVB-T and DOCSIS). With a symbol rate of e.g. 6,900 kBd with 256QAM, the
diagram is updated approx. 50x per second.
65,536 symbols are recorded, analyzed and displayed in color on the TFT according to an analysis
of frequency of occurrence. The color gradation provides information about the distribution of the
occurrence frequency of the signal states. Blue, green, yellow and red represent increasing
frequency. This gives the constellation diagram a three dimensional appearance.
12.2
Operation
As previously mentioned, you can show the constellation diagram for all digital standards (DVB
S/S2, DVB-C, DVB-T and DOCSIS). You must first tune the measuring receiver in a digital range.
You can then access the constellation diagram via the menu item CONST. At the same time, a
submenu opens through which you can access additional functions.
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The diagram can be frozen via the menu item FREEZE. When you access ZOOM, another menu
appears in which every individual quadrant of the constellation diagram can be enlarged to the full
screen size.
12.2.1
Displaying single carriers with DVB-T
With DVB-T, you can display the constellation diagram for all single carriers and for certain single
carriers.
If you access the menu item SINGLE CAR, you can enter the number of a single carrier within the
COFDM spectrum using the numeric keypad. You confirm the entry by pressing ENTER. The
constellation diagram of the desired single carrier is then displayed. Due to the fact that a single
carrier is only transmitted approx. every 1ms, the repetition cycle of the display is lengthened.
Using this function, you can view pilot carriers, TPS carriers or data carriers separately. With
2kFFT, single carriers can be shown from 0...1704. With 8kFFT, single carriers from 0...6817 can
be shown.
12.3
Examples
The following figures show images of constellation diagrams. Next to the images, possible errors
and their causes are explained.
12.3.1
DVB-S/S2
Ideal constellation diagram -> signal source SFU (Rohde & Schwarz)
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Error: Uncorrelated interference
Cause: Bad cross-polarization decoupling
Real 8PSK signal with MER = 14dB.
12.3.2
DVB-C/DOCSIS
Ideal constellation diagram -> signal source SFU (Rohde & Schwarz)
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Error: Noisy signal
Cause: Bad C/N -> level possibly too low
Error: Phase jitter (a low-frequency frequency modulation is impinging on the carrier)
12.3.3
DVB-T
Ideal constellation diagram -> signal source SFU (Rohde & Schwarz)
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Error: Amplitude hum (a low-frequency amplitude modulation is impinging on the carrier)
Cause: Defective amplifier (dried out electrolytic capacitor in the power supply unit)
Single carrier display: TPS carriers (Index 34) are illustrated here
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Chapter 13 SCOPE
With the Scope (line oscilloscope) function, you can display individual lines in the FBAS signal
(video signal) oscillographically. The video signal has test lines added to it that allow you to draw
conclusions about the quality of the analog video signal during operation. The test lines are defined
internationally in the specification ITU-T J.63.
The most important test lines are lines 17, 18, 330 and 331. With the help of these and with correct
interpretation, linear and nonlinear distortions in the transmission links can be detected.
In combination with S/N measurement, you can check whether the line being used for
measurement (6) is actually empty. If necessary, you must switch to either line 5 or 7.
The dotted grid lines are shown in the oscillogram at 100%, 30% and 0%. With these, the deviation
from the nominal value of the measured video amplitude can be measured. With TV, the video is
modulated up using a vestigial sideband amplification modulation.
The measuring instrument is adjusted so that with a residual carrier of 10% (standard value), a
video amplitude of 100% is displayed. For a larger video amplitude, there is a smaller residual
carrier; for a smaller amplitude, there is a correspondingly larger one. With a residual carrier of
10%, a video amplitude of 1Vpp is present on the SCART socket when terminated with 75 ohm.
In the SAT range, a frequency modulation is used for the analog picture transmission. Here the
nominal value of the frequency deviation that generates 100% video amplitude is 16 MHz/V.
13.1
Operation
As previously mentioned, you can access the line oscilloscope in the analog operating modes for
satellite and TV. You can also test the video signal present on the SCART socket. For satellite and
TV, the measuring receiver must first be tuned to an analog carrier. You can then activate the line
oscilloscope via the menu item SCOPE. At the same time, a submenu opens through which you
can access additional functions.
You can enter a line number from 1 to 625 using the numeric keypad. During entry, a cursor
appears on the right edge of the TFT screen. You confirm the entry by pressing ENTER. SCOPE
then displays the desired video line.
You can freeze the diagram via the menu item FREEZE.
You can enlarge a section of the line by accessing the ZOOM function. You can show or hide a
white frame in the diagram by pressing ENTER (see the following figure). This frame marks the
section that should be enlarged. You can enlarge and shrink this window using the ↑ or ↓ keys,
which change the zoom factor.
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You can also move the oscillogram to the left or right with the ← and → keys. This makes it
possible to move any section of a video line into the range of the white frame and enlarge it with the
menu item ZOOM.
13.2
Hum measurement
You can access the hum measurement function via the menu item HUM.
Low frequency amplitude fluctuations of the video signal are shown here within a temporal excerpt
of 40 ms (1 complete picture). Transmission is susceptible to amplitude fluctuation of the RF carrier
due to the vestigial sideband amplitude modulation used with analog TV. Due to defective amplifier
power supply units, low-frequency amplitude fluctuations can develop at multiples of the mains
frequency (50 Hz). This so-called hum produces a dark bar that runs through the video image
vertically. You can freeze the diagram via the menu item FREEZE. The following figure shows a
strong mains hum in the video signal caused by a defective distribution amplifier.
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Chapter 14 Videotext
14.1
Videotext on ATV
Videotext (or teletext) was introduced at the start of the 1980s as a means of transmitting data.
Information is broadcast in the vertical blanking interval between image frames in a broadcast
television signal. The bit stream is then modulated onto the corresponding video lines using NRZ
encoding (non-return-to-zero). The complete information pool is then divided into videotext pages,
which are labelled with a three-digit number. A videotext page consist of 24 lines of 40 characters.
These are transmitted sequentially in the vertical blanking interval. The repetition rate of the
individual pages is not distributed consistently. Overview pages containing information for
navigating the pages are transmitted more frequently.
14.2
Videotext on DVB
In contrast to analog television, where videotext is inserted as an additional signal in the vertical
blanking interval, DVB uses a multiplexed videotext elementary stream that is inserted directly into
the MPEG-2 transport stream. The videotext elementary stream is transmitted together with the
video and audio elementary streams. The videotext stream is allocated an individual PID for each
program. This PID can be found in the program details in the MPEG decoder.
Further information can be found in the "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
14.3
Operation
The videotext decoder can be called up in various operating modes of the measuring receiver. On
analog SAT, analog TV and monitor (SCART input) sources, the videotext information is
transmitted in the video signal as detailed above in the “Chapter 14.1 - Videotext on ATV". To call
up the decoder, the instrument must be tuned or set to the monitor operating mode.
On DVB, the decoder extracts the videotext data from the MPEG transport stream. The videotext
decoder can also be called up via the ASI interface.
The instrument must also be tuned in advance in the digital operating modes. Additionally, a video
program must also be called up in the MPEG decoder. The videotext decoder can be activated only
when the current program is transmitted with a videotext PID.
The videotext decoder can be called up using the VIDEOTEXT menu item.
The instrument then searches for page 100 (default) and shows the page on the TFT.
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A three-digit page number can now be entered using the numeric keypad. The decoder starts to
search for the new videotext page as soon as the third digit is entered.
A videotext page can be enlarged vertically by a factor of 2 using the ZOOM function. The
TOP/BOTTOM menu item is used to switch between the display of the top and bottom half of the
screen.
Select the BACK menu item to exit videotext.
14.4
Videotext test tables
Special test tables are used for checking the videotext function quickly. The characters used in the
test tables set increased demands on the character generator in the videotext decoder.
On ATV:
As the videotext information is contained in the baseband (video signal), malfunctions in the
transmission link have a particular impact on the characters in videotext (character errors).
These test tables are then particularly suitable for testing the transmission link for reflections. For
this, call up videotext page 195 or 199. Unfortunately, these test tables are not offered by all
program providers. If there are reflections in the transmission path, some of the “betas” on the page
are fragmented. This is an indication of incorrect tuning, irregularities, damaged cables or defective
plug connectors.
On DVB:
For DVB videotext, information is transmitted is made in the same way as video and audio
transmission. The transmission link can be evaluated using the BER, MER and packet error
measurements. Therefore, the test tables (if transmitted at all) are of less significance. However,
errors can occur when multiplexing the MPEG-2 transport stream, meaning some or all pages are
not transmitted at all.
14.5
VPS (Video Programming System) evaluation
This function is not available for DVB. VPS is used for recording control in video recorders. The
data are transmitted in TV line 16.
The following information is contained in VPS:
Start date and time of a new program, country identification and network identification, program
type, sound type.
Country identification and network identification are designated together as CNI (Country Network
Identification).
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The following example provides an illustration:
VPS
24.08 09:00 CNI:=D C8h PTY:=FFh STEREO
Day:
Month:
Hours:
Minutes:
Country identification:
Network identification:
Program type:
Sound type:
24
08
09
00
D (Germany)
C8 (Phoenix ARD/ZDF)
FFh (not used)
STEREO
The contents of the VPS line can be displayed on the videotext screen using the menu item VPS. If
the menu item VPS is accessed again, the previous videotext page will reappear.
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Chapter 15 - Subtitle
Chapter 15 Subtitle
15.1
Subtitle with DVB
In contrast to analog television, where subtitles for the current program are transmitted as special
videotext tables, DVB uses its own subtitle elementary streams that are inserted directly into the
MPEG-2 transport stream. The elementary stream for the subtitle is transmitted together with the
video and audio elementary streams. The subtitle stream is allocated an individual PID for each
program. This PID can be found in the program details in the MPEG decoder.
Further information can be found in "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
15.2
Operation
With DVB, the decoder extracts the subtitle data from the MPEG transport stream.
Subtitles can be viewed in all DVB operating modes and via ASI.
The instrument must first be tuned in one of the DVB operating modes. A video program must then
be opened in the MPEG decoder. Subtitles can be viewed only if the current program has a subtitle
PID.
The SUBTITLE menu item opens the decoder. If this menu item does not appear, the instrument
hardware does not support this function.
Subtitles may be broadcast in a variety of languages. These are then listed in the menu bar, as can
be seen in the figure. Subtitles are shown on the current program by selecting one of the menu
items. The window with the video parameters is then hidden. Subtitles are often transmitted with
films and newscasts. Selecting the BACK menu item hides the subtitles and the video parameters
appear on the display once more.
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Chapter 16 Memory Management
The instrument has a tuning memory with 200 program locations. The memory preview allows the
user to get an overview over the tuning memory without having to access all memory locations or
having to make corresponding notes when saving. The memory preview is activated when saving
and accessing program locations and with many memory functions. On the display, you can show a
page of the memory preview covering 5 memory locations.
As shown in the image above, the 200 memory locations are subdivided into 4 blocks with 50
locations each.
Using the function keys F1...F4, you can jump to the start of each block.
You can use the ← and → keys to scroll through the individual pages. You can use the ↑ and ↓
keys to move the cursor within the page.
16.1
Saving
The measuring receiver must first be tuned. You access the memory preview described above
using the SAVE key. Now the cursor can be moved to the desired memory location. You complete
the save by pressing SAVE again. If the selected memory location is not empty, the following
message appears on the display:
You can now use the ← or → keys to select between REPLACE, INSERT and CANCEL. Press
ENTER to begin the process. With INSERT, the entire memory content that follows is moved
forward one memory location. If the last memory location is occupied, then this location is deleted.
With REPLACE, the memory location is simply deleted. When you next access the SAVE function,
the cursor is automatically placed in the next memory location.
16.2
Recalling
The memory preview is called up using the RECALL key. The desired memory location can now be
selected using the cursor.
Alternative the number block of the keypad can be used to enter a memory location from 1 to 200.
That is also useful if you know the desired memory location number to save the browsing time of
the memory preview.
The following figure shows a direct memory location recall of slot number 175.
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Chapter 16 - Memory Management
Press the RECALL key again or the ENTER key to open the memory. The measuring receiver then
accepts the settings from the tuning memory. If the memory location is empty, the old settings are
kept.
16.3
Memory functions
These make it possible for you to carry out various changes to the tuning memory.
16.3.1
Erasing the memory
You can erase the entire tuning memory using this function.
After pressing the MODE key, select the menu item MEMORY -> MEM. ERASE. To prevent this
from happening unintentionally, the following warning appears:
Move the cursor to the YES position using the ← key. The entire tuning memory is then
irretrievably erased if you press the ENTER key.
16.3.2
Erasing a memory location
You can erase a single memory location with the tuning memory using this function. You access
this function via MODE -> MEMORY -> SINGLE ERA.
First move the cursor to the memory location to be erased. After you confirm by pressing the
ENTER key, the following message then appears.
You can use the ← and → keys to select either YES or NO. After you press the ENTER key again,
the desired action is carried out.
16.3.3
Moving a memory location
You can use this function to move individual memory locations within the tuning memory. To do
this, activate the menu item MODE -> MEMORY -> MOVE. The memory preview then appears.
First move the cursor onto the memory location that is supposed to be moved. Then confirm this by
pressing the ENTER key. You can then move the cursor to the target location. After you confirm by
pressing the ENTER key, the following message appears.
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Using the ← or → keys, you can select the actions REPLACE, INSERT, EXCHANGE or CANCEL.
The functions REPLACE and INSERT operate as described in chapter. With the selection
EXCHANGE, the memory locations switch places with each other. In the above example, memory
location 1 was exchanged with memory location 2.
16.3.4
Copying a memory location
With this feature, you can copy a memory location. To do this, select the menu item COPY via
MODE -> MEMORY.
The memory preview appears and the operator can move the cursor to the memory location that is
supposed to be copied. You confirm the selection by pressing ENTER. The memory location is
displayed inverted. Now you can move the cursor to the next memory location, for example.
Pressing the ENTER key causes the action to be carried out.
16.3.5
Activating memory protection
You can protect individual memory locations using this function. That means that a protected
memory location can only be changed if the memory protection is cancelled. To do this, select the
menu item MODE -> MEMORY -> PROTE. MEM.
The memory preview then appears. You can now move the cursor onto the memory location that is
supposed to be protected. Pressing the ENTER key activates memory protection. To indicate
protected memory locations, “ * ” appears after the memory location number.
16.3.6
Cancelling memory protection
You can cancel the memory protection of all 200 memory locations via the menu item MODE ->
MEMORY -> CANCEL PRO.
16.3.7
Memory export
Here you can write the complete tuning memory to a file.
To do this, access the menu item MODE -> MEMORY -> IMP/EXPORT -> EXPORT. An input
menu for the file name will then appear.
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You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter alphanumeric characters for
the file name using the numeric keypad. The file name can be up to 20 characters. By pressing the
ENTER key, the cursor jumps to START. When you press ENTER again, the process starts. In this
example, a file named STATIONMEMORY.MEM is generated. You can write this either to an
external USB stick or the internal flash disk. This can be useful if several people use the measuring
instrument, for example. Then everyone can create his or her personal tuning memory and write it
to a file. Before use, the contents of the file just need to be read back in (imported - see "Chapter
16.3.8 - Memory import").
16.3.8
Memory import
With the memory import function, you can restore to the instrument a copy of the tuning memory
created by the memory export function. To do this, access the menu item MODE -> MEMORY ->
IMP/EXPORT -> IMPORT. Then a selection appears of files that are available for import to the
current memory medium.
You can use the ↑ and ↓ keys to move the cursor to the desired file name.
By pressing the ENTER key, the contents of the relevant file replace the tuning memory of the
instrument.
16.3.9
Opening the directory of the MEM files
You can display list of all MEM files using MODE -> MEMORY -> IMP/EXPORT -> DIRECTORY.
Press BACK to exit the list. You can use the ← and → keys to scroll between the pages of the
list. Use the FLASH DISK or USB STICK menu items to switch between the storage media.
All files can be selected my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it possible to
handle all of the files at the same time using the “delete MEM files” and “copy MEM files” functions.
16.3.9.1
Deleting MEM files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
To select REMOVE you can use the keys ← or →.The file DEMO2.MEM will be deleted from the
flash disc by pressing the ENTER key.
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16.3.9.2
113
Copying MEM files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
You can use the ← and → keys to select COPY ALL. In this example, all MEM files are copied
from the internal flash disk to the USB stick when the ENTER key is pressed.
16.3.10
Automatic saving
This function allows you to automatically assign the tuning memory. To do this, you need to use the
scan function in the particular measuring range that has been set. When the instrument detects a
signal, it stores the receiver settings in the previously specified memory area. You can call the
function in the following measuring ranges.
Range
SAT
Operating mode
DVB-S/DVB-S2
TV
ATV
DVB-C
DVB-T/DVB-T2
EUDOCSIS
USDOCSIS
DTMB
FM
DAB
The measuring range that was previously set determines which signals are detected during
automatic saving. If you have set TV + DVB-C, for example, the instrument only scans for digital
cable channels. The modulation and symbol rate are detected automatically. This results in
connected memory blocks that have the same receiver settings.
Important note on using the function in the SAT range
Before starting the function in the SAT range, ensure that the required LNB supply has been set. If
the RF input mode is active and the LO assignment is set to “Ku-AUTO”, the instrument
automatically switches to the high band when the switching threshold of 11.7 GHz is reached
during automatic saving, and continues the process there. Also see the “Scan” section of the “SAT
Measuring Range” chapter.
Before using this function, it is advisable to first export the current contents of the tuning memory to
a file. See "Chapter 16.3.7 - Memory export” for more information. Afterwards, you can erase the
entire memory. See "Chapter 16.3.1 - Erasing the memory” section for more information. If you
proceed in this way, you will be unable to overwrite any existing memory locations.
In addition, you can generate separate memory assignments for various systems that simply need
to be loaded using the memory import function.
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You call the automatic saving function using the MODE -> MEMORY -> AUTOM.SAVE menu item.
The memory preview then appears.
You can now use the F1 to F4 function keys plus the ←, →, ↑ and ↓ cursor keys to move the
cursor to the memory location at which automatic saving should begin.
After you have confirmed by pressing ENTER, the instrument begins the process. The station
search always starts at the beginning of the band. Here is an example of what the measuring
instrument might display while the scan is running.
Once a station has been found, the receiver data is stored in the tuning memory.
If the designated memory location is already occupied, the following options appear.
You use REPLACE to overwrite the memory location and CANCEL to stop the automatic saving
process.
Each time receiver data has been saved successfully, the cursor is moved to the next memory
location. Once the last memory location has been assigned, automatic saving begins again at
memory location number 1. Automatic saving ends as soon as the scan function reaches the end of
the band.
You can also end the function manually at any time using the ABORT menu item.
16.3.11
Editing MEM files using AMA.remote
The AMA.remote PC software can be used to edit MEM files on the PC. The program makes it
possible to make changes to files exported from the measuring receiver (see "chapter 16.3.7 Memory export") or to create new files. Files created in this way can then be imported into the
measuring instrument (see "Chapter 16.3.8 - Memory import"). The AMA.remote software is
available for download from www.kws-electronic.de under “PRODUCTS” – “AMA.remote,” and its
exact operation is described in detail in a separate operating manual.
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16.3.12
115
Sorting the memory
Using the menu items MODE -> MEMORY -> ORDER, the entire tuning memory can be sorted
according to the following criteria:
•
•
•
•
Range (SAT, TV, ...)
Frequency (ascending order within a range)
Analog/digital (within a range)
Modulation (DVB-C, DVB-T, DOCSIS, ...)
The sorting process can be started using the menu items RANGE, FREQUENCY, ANA/DIG or
MODULATION. This may take a few seconds.
16.3.13
Defragmenting the memory
You can defragment the entire tuning memory using this function. This means that empty memory
locations between individual blocks are removed.
This process is started using the menu items MODE -> MEMORY -> DEFRAGMENT.
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Chapter 17 - Printer
Chapter 17 Printer
The measuring receiver has an integrated thermal printer with a horizontal resolution of 384 pixels.
17.1
Paper refill
You must first open the printer cover by loosening the 4 cross-head screws and removing the metal
cover. You can then insert the thermal paper roll according to the following illustration.
17.1.1
Manual paper feed
To feed in paper manually, first raise the heater bar off the transport roller by pulling the lever up.
Then insert the beginning of the thermal paper roll under the transport roller. By turning the knurled
wheel, you can push the paper through to the top. When the paper protrudes about 10 cm out of
the heater bar, you can move the lever down so that the heater bar is pressed against the transport
roller again. Lastly, you must thread the paper into the printer cover and reinstall the cover. You
can now tear off the protruding paper on the tear-off edge as appropriate.
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17.1.2
117
Automatic paper feed
For this, the instrument must be switched on and the heater bar must be on the transport roller
(lever down). Then you can insert the beginning of the paper roll under the transport roller.
When the paper sensor detects the thermal paper, the printer unit draws in the paper automatically.
If the paper is pulled in at an angle, you can lift the lever to align the paper properly. You must then
lock the lever again. After that, you feed the paper through the printer cover. Once that is done, you
can reinstall the cover.
17.2
Cleaning the heater bar (only when necessary)
If the printout appears smeared, the cause can be a dirty heater bar. When cleaning the heater bar,
the following steps are necessary. First, it is absolutely necessary that you switch off the
instrument. Then raise the lever, whereby the heater bar is lifted off of the transport roller. Now you
can clean the surface with a soft cloth soaked in alcohol. Lastly, push the lever down again. Never
use sharp objects for cleaning.
17.3
Printer functions
For this, press the PRINT key, bringing up the following menu.
17.3.1
Manual feed
You can cause the printer to carry out a feed at any time by pressing the F1 key. The printer unit
feeds the paper forward continuously as long as the key is pressed. During this time, the menu item
FEED is displayed inverted.
17.3.2
Automatic printout
You can carry out an automatic memory printout via the menu item MEMORY.
The memory preview then appears. You can now move the cursor onto the memory location from
which the printout should begin. When you press the ENTER key, an input menu is shown in which
you can edit the name of the system being measured.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter a name up to 20 characters
long using the numeric keypad. If you press the ENTER key, the cursor jumps to START. When
you press ENTER again, the process starts. In this example, SYSTEMNAME appears in the
protocol header of the printout. The measuring instrument now recalls each memory location one
by one and prints out the measured values. You can stop the printout manually via the menu item
ABORT. The instrument otherwise prints until an empty memory location ends the block being
measured.
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Chapter 17 - Printer
The figure above shows the display during an automatic printout.
Automatic printout example:
The protocol header can be designed according to each customer (See "Chapter 20.18 - Userdefined headers for printing" and "Chapter 20.19 - User-defined logo for printing").
17.3.3
Printout of the NIT
First, the NIT must be read as shown in the "Chapter 11.6 - Network Information Table (NIT)". Now
you can start the printout of the complete list on the thermal printer, including all details, via the
menu item PRINT -> MPEG-NIT -> PRINTER.
You can cancel the current process at any time via the menu item PRINT -> CANCEL.
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The following example printout shows the NIT from an ASTRA transponder.
17.3.4
Printout of the LCN list
First, the LCN list must be read as shown in the Network Information Table section. Now you can
start the printout of the complete list on the thermal printer, via the menu item PRINT -> MPEGLCN -> PRINTER .
17.3.5
Hard copy
For purposes of documentation, you can output copies of the LCD and graphics screen to the
thermal printer at any time. You can only make hard copies of the graphics if the graphics screen is
switched on.
17.3.5.1
Hard copy of the LCD
You can print the current contents of the display onto paper via the menu item PRINT ->
HARDCOPY -> LCD -> PRINTER. The figure below shows an example printout.
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17.3.5.2
Hard copy of the graphics
You can print a copy of the current graphics screen (analyzer, constellation diagram, scope,
impulse response...) via the menu item PRINT -> HARDCOPY -> GRAPHIC -> PRINTER. The
next figure shows an example printout of an analyzer image.
17.3.6
Active measured values
You can use the PRINT -> ACT. MEASV menu item to output the active measured values to the
printer in the style of an automatic printout. This requires that the measuring instrument is in the
tuned mode (measuring mode).
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Chapter 18 File Output
The operating system of the measuring receiver supports the FAT32 file system.
Various outputs can be written into a file using this system. A USB stick or the internal flash disk
can be used as the storage medium.
18.1
Hard copy
Copies of the LCD and graphics screen can be saved as BMP files at any time for documentation
purposes. The bitmap file format operates without losses or compression.
18.1.1
Hardcopy of the LCD
The current contents of the LCD can be saved as a BMP file in this manner.
You can open window for entering the file name by following PRINT -> HARDCOPY -> LCD ->
BMP- FILE.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter a name up to 20 characters
long using the numeric keypad. After the ENTER key is pressed, the contents of the LCD (before
the PRINT key was pressed) are written into a BMP file under the previously entered name. In this
example, a file named HARDCOPY_LCD.BMP is created.
18.1.2
Hardcopy of the grafics
A copy of the current graphics screen (analyzer, constellation diagram, scope, impulse response)
can be saved as a BMP file in this manner. By selecting
PRINT -> HARDCOPY -> GRAPHIC -> BMP-FILE, the window for entering the file name is
opened (see above). If +LCD is selected additionally, the instrument adds the content of the LCD
to the BMP file.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter a name up to 20 characters
long using the numeric keypad. After the ENTER key is pressed, the contents of the graphics
screen are written into a BMP file under the corresponding name
18.1.3
File names serially numbered
If the file name already exists in the directory the device automatically suggests a running number
as suffix to the file name. This is helpful, when you make more hardcopies in the same context.
If you don`t want this suffix to be appended you can change the file name manually.
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18.1.4
Calling up the directory of the BMP files
You can display list of all BMP files using PRINT -> HARDCOPY -> DIRECTORY. Press BACK to
exit the list. You can use the ← or → keys to scroll between the pages of the list. Use the FLASH
DISK or USB-STICK menu items to switch between the storage media.
All measurements can be selected my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it
possible to handle all of the files at the same time using the “delete BMP files” and “copy BMP files”
functions.
18.1.4.1
Deleting BMP files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. After pressing the ENTER key, the following selection is displayed.
Use the ← and → keys to select REMOVE. In this example, the instrument deletes the
HARDCOPY1.BMP file from the flash disk when the ENTER key is pressed.
18.1.4.2
Copying BMP files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. After pressing the ENTER key, the following selection is displayed.
You can use the ← and → keys to select COPY ALL. In this example, all BMP files are copied
from the internal flash disk to the USB stick when the ENTER key is pressed.
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18.2
123
NIT (network information table)
This section describes how DVB NITs can be saved as a text file and managed.
18.2.1
Saving the NIT as a text file
The NIT can be saved as a text file with the .NIT file extension in this manner. The file name is
generated automatically from the NIT header.
The NIT must first be exported as described in the "Chapter 11.6 - Network Information Table
(NIT)". The complete list (including all details) can then be output in a NIT file using the PRINT ->
MPEG-NIT -> NIT-FILE menu item. If a file with the same name already exists, you will receive a
warning. The process can then be cancelled or the existing file can be overwritten.
18.2.2
Calling up the directory of the NIT files
A list of all NIT files is displayed using PRINT -> MPEG-NIT -> DIRECTORY. Press BACK to exit
the list. You can use the ← or → keys to scroll between the pages of the list. Use the FLASH
DISK or USB STICK menu items to switch between the storage media.
All measurements can be selected my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it
possible to handle all of the files at the same time using the “delete NIT files” and “copy NIT files”
functions.
18.2.2.1
Deleting NIT files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
Use the ← and → keys to select DELETE. In this example, the instrument deletes the
MEDIA_BROADCAST.NIT from the USB stick when the ENTER key is pressed.
18.2.2.2
Copying NIT files
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file name using the ↑ and ↓
keys. When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
You can use the ← and → keys to select COPY ALL. In this example, all NIT files are copied from
the internal flash disk to a USB stick when the ENTER key is pressed.
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18.3
Logical Channel Numbering (LCN)
This section describes how LCN lists can be saved as a text file and managed.
18.3.1
Saving the LCN list as a text file
The LCN list can be saved as a text file with the .LCN file extension in this manner. The file name is
generated automatically from the list header.
The LCN must first be exported as described in the NIT section. The complete list can then be
output in a NIT file using the PRINT -> MPEG-LCN -> LCN-FILE menu item. If a file with the same
name already exists, you will receive a warning. The process can then be cancelled or the existing
file can be overwritten.
18.3.2
Calling up the directory of the LCN files
A list of all NIT files is displayed using PRINT -> MPEG-LCN -> DIRECTORY. Press BACK to exit
the list. You can use the ← or → keys to scroll between the pages of the list. Use the FLASH
DISK or USB STICK menu items to switch between the storage media.
All measurements can be selected my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it
possible to handle all of the files at the same time using the “delete LCN files” and “copy LCN files”
functions.
18.3.2.1
Deleting LCN files
See “Chapter 18.2.2.1 - Deleting NIT files”.
18.3.2.2
Copying LCN files
See “Chapter 18.2.2.2 - Copying NIT files”.
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Chapter 19 Spectrum Analyzer
You can access the spectrum analyzer in the satellite, TV, FM und RC ranges.
The figure below shows an ASTRA satellite spectrum.
The level grid is 10 dB/DIV. The dynamics can be a maximum of 40 dB.
The labelling of the level lines with the unit dBµV can be seen on the left. In the lower blue band,
the center frequency (CF), the measuring bandwidth (RBW) and the frequency segment (SPAN)
are shown. Parallel to this, additional information is shown in the LCD. These are the measuring
range, the current cursor position and the level measured at the cursor position.
In addition, the set LNB supply, the measured LNB current and current time are shown.
19.1
Accessing the analyzer
You must first set the desired measuring range via the menu items RANGE -> SAT, TV, FM, RC
or DAB. Press ANALYZ to initiate the analyzer. The status of the measuring receiver is now
important. If the receiver is not tuned, the analyzer sweeps over the entire measuring range
(FULLSPAN). But if the instrument is in the tuned mode (measuring mode), the analyzer displays
the spectrum segment in the range of the measuring frequency.
When the UNICABLE control is active, the analyzer displays the frequency segment above and
below the center frequency of the last UB slot that was activated.
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19.2
Frequency segment (SPAN)
In all measuring ranges, you can change the frequency segment displayed.
You can do this via the menu item SPAN -> FULLSPAN or xxMHz.
In the “FULLSPAN” mode, the frequency segment spans the entire measuring range.
The figure shows the setting options in the TV range.
On devices working up to 1050MHz or 1214MHz in the range TV, there is a possibility to select a
further frequency span called “SPAN867MHz” to display the span from start of band to 867MHz.
This is useful for users working only in systems up to 867MHz, to get a better resolution.
The setting “FULLSPAN” or “SPAN867MHz” is stored in the device and the analyzer will come up
with the last selection.
19.3
Measuring bandwidth (RBW)
The measuring instrument makes several measuring bandwidths available. These are coupled with
the SPAN setting. The current setting is shown in the analyzer image.
19.4
Cursor
The cursor appears on the screen as a vertical white line with a tip. You can move the cursor within
the frequency segment with the ← and → keys. After a change in the range or SPAN, the cursor is
in the center of the frequency segment. Frequency and level displays in the LCD are always based
on the cursor position.
TV range in the channel input mode:
Here you can move the cursor in the channel grid. The measuring receiver also detects whether
the channels are analog or digital. With analog channels, the cursor jumps to the video carrier
frequency; with digital channels, the cursor expands to a window that corresponds to the channel
bandwidth. The channel bandwidth is assigned based on the channel table.
19.5
Switching between frequency and channel mode
You can only do this in the TV and DAB range. You can switch between modes via the menu items
CHANNEL and FREQUENCY.
19.6
Level display
During each search, the level of the cursor frequency is measured and displayed in the LCD in
dBµV. Level measurement in analyzer mode is comparable to a pure spectrum analyzer. The level
is measured with the set measuring bandwidth (RBW).
TV range in the channel input mode:
The measuring instrument differentiates here automatically between analog and digital channels.
With analog channels, the level specification is based on the peak value of the video carrier. With
digital channels, the total power within the channel bandwidth is measured. It is not important here
which SPAN is set.
19.7
Input of the center frequency
You can enter a new center frequency at any time using the numeric keypad. The frequency
segment SPAN and the measuring bandwidth are not affected.
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TV range in the channel input mode:
Using the menu item CHANNEL, you can switch between the input of C channels and S channels.
Now you can type in a channel number using the numeric keypad. After you confirm with the
ENTER key, the measuring instrument displays the spectrum around the set channel. Invalid
entries are ignored.
19.8
Progress bar
A yellow bar on the lower edge of the screen grows from left to right during each new search by the
analyzer. This allows you to follow the position of the “sweep”.
19.9
Level diagram in the broadband cable range and DAB range
Assuming the measuring receiver is operating in the TV range, the mode is set to channel input
and the frequency segment is FULLSPAN, the instrument provides a very useful feature.
As you can see in the figure, the diagram shows the relationship of the levels in a broadband cable
system independent of the modulation (ATV or DVB-C) of the individual channels.
During the process, the instrument measures the levels of every individual channel and displays
them in the diagram as a green or red bar. The green bars are analog and the red bars are digital
channels. The cursor is marked with an “A” or “D”.
In this diagram, tilted levels or abnormal drops in levels can be immediately detected with digital
channels.
The function works in a similar manner in the DAB range, except that in this case there is nothing to
indicate analog or digital. The levels are simply displayed as red bars.
19.10
TILT measurement in the TV range
This mode is an expansion on the level diagram in the TV range with the following additions:
You can select as many individual channels from the full channel table as you wish to include in the
tilt measurement. The fewer “active” channels, the higher the repetition rate of the diagram. The
specific combination of channels can be saved in a profile. The measuring instrument can manage
2 independent profile settings.
A second cursor appears for the tilt measurement. This can be moved with the ↑ und ↓ keys.
The first cursor is moved with the ← and → keys.
If the channels upon which the two cursors are located are occupied, the device draws a reference
line between the peaks of the level lines. To facilitate a tilt analysis in a system with both analog
and digital channels, an “offset” line corresponding to the level reduction is added to the peaks of
the level lines for digital channels. If the difference in level between an analog and a digital channel
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corresponds to the specified level reduction, the level lines are displayed with the same height in
the diagram.
The instrument also determines the modulation for digital channels, and the “offset” line is
displayed in a different color according to the modulation.
This allows you to quickly identify which DVB-C channels have 256 QAM and which have 64 QAM,
for example.
Note!
While determining the modulation the instrument uses the following setting:
DVB-C: Symbol rates 6,111, 6,875, 6,900 kSym/s
Modulation scheme: 64QAM, 256QAM
EURO-DOCSIS.
For every cursor position, the LCD shows the channel, the level measured during the last search,
the channel type (analog/digital) and, for digital channels, the modulation.
The level differential between the two cursor positions is also displayed. No level reduction is taken
into account in the level displays. This means that these are the absolute levels. The level
differential which appears in the brackets does, however, include the level reduction. This means
that these displays can be used to set the reference line between the cursors exactly horizontal.
This function is activated via the TILT menu item. You can end the tilt measurement by selecting
the BACK menu item.
19.10.1
Setting the level reduction
Using the menu item LEVEL RED., the level reduction for digital channels can be set depending on
the modulation scheme.
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You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor to the desired entry field.
You can now change the entry using the numeric keypad.
Confirm every entry using the ENTER key. The cursor then jumps to the next field.
The entries are saved when you move the cursor over the APPLY field and then press the ENTER
key.
19.10.2
Selecting a profile
The measuring instrument can manage 2 different profiles for the tilt measurement. The profiles
save the channels which are to be used for the measurement. The profiles can be selected using
the menu items PROFILE1 and PROFILE2.
On devices working up to 1050MHz or 1214MHz, there is a possibility to select quasi 2 further
profiles “PROFILE3” and “PROFILE4” when calling the tilt measurement from “FULLSPAN” or
“SPAN867MHz”.
19.10.3
Creating or changing a profile
The currently active profile can be adjusted using the menu item SETTINGS. After the menu item
is selected, the diagram is frozen and the 2nd cursor appears.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor within the diagram. The current position is
shown on the LCD.
Activate/deactivate individual channels.
The channel on which the cursor is located can either be included in the measurement or skipped
using the menu item ACT./DEACT. If a channel is excluded from the measurement, a small, lightblue X appears in the diagram instead of the level line.
Activate all channels
The menu item ACT. ALL includes all channels in the measurement. All light-blue Xs in the
diagram disappear.
Deactivate all channels
The menu item DEACT. ALL excludes all channels from the measurement, including the two on
which the cursors are located.
Save profile
The menu item SAVE PROF. stores the channel profile. This confirms the adjustment of the profile
and the diagram resumes updating with the modified settings.
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Do not save profile
The menu item BACK discards all changes and the measurement resumes with the old settings.
Note!
19.10.4
The instrument automatically determines the symbol rate and the modulation
for the digital channels as soon as a new profile has been added. After this the
new information is memorized, therefore the intervals of TILT measurement
will increase. Should there be a change of transmission of channels in a
facility, then the profile must be stored new so that the instrument can define
the sizes correctly.
Application
There are two basic applications.
„Lining up“ a system:
A profile is created with the channels that are occupied in the system. Move the 1st cursor onto the
lowermost channel and the 2nd cursor onto the uppermost channel. First set the lowermost
channel to the desired absolute level. You then have two options.
No predistortion:
Set the level of the uppermost channel so that the reference line between the two cursors is
horizontal or raise the level display.
With predistortion:
Set the level of the uppermost channel appropriately higher.
The channels in between can then be “lined up” using the reference line.
Checking the tilt of the system:
A profile is created with the channels which are to be analyzed in the test. This may be fewer than
the number which are occupied in the system. Including fewer channels increases the repetition
rate.
Move the two cursors to the uppermost and the lowermost channels. Then check the level lines of
the channels in between using the reference line.
19.11
Switching to measuring receiver mode
You can switch directly from the analyzer to measuring receiver mode while in all measuring
ranges. The instrument uses the current cursor frequency to tune the measuring receiver. Direct
switching with TV only is possible in the FULLSPAN setting. Press ENTER to trigger the process.
SAT range:
If the cursor is located on the center frequency of the transponder, the instrument detects whether it
is an analog or digital transponder based on the spectrum. When you switch into measuring
receiver mode, the instrument then sets the corresponding mode. But this feature only works when
the digital transponder operates with symbol rates of 22,000 kBd or 27,500 kBd.
When the UNICABLE control is active, the frequency display always refers to the spectrum that
was converted by the UNICABLE unit.
TV range in the channel input mode:
As already mentioned in the "Chapter 19.4 - Cursor", the instrument can distinguish between
analog and digital channels based on the spectrum. This feature is used when switching into the
measuring receiver mode. When the instrument detects an ATV channel, the corresponding
measuring receiver mode is activated.
If it is a digital channel, the instrument switches to the last digital mode that was active (DVB-C,
DVB-T or DOCSIS).
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If the ANALYZ key is then pressed in the measuring receiver mode, the instrument switches back
into analyzer mode and shows the most recently set spectrum segment.
19.12
Freezing the spectrum
You can freeze the current spectrum using FREEZE. While frozen, the menu item FREEZE is
displayed inverted. If you select the menu item FREEZE a second time, the analyzer image will
again be continuously updated.
19.13
Max hold function
This function can be switched on and off via the menu item MAX HOLD. The menu item is then
displayed inverted. The spectrum is only updated when the level increases. Since with an active
return path, the spectrum changes depending on the activity of the connected cable modem a
reasonable representation of the spectrum is only possible with this function.
This function can also be called upon in different analyzer ranges.
19.14
Ingress measurement in the return path
This function is activated via the menu item INGRESS. Ingress refers to all interference spectra
that mix with the signal in the return path. This can be strong short wave stations, CB radio, baby
monitors or interference emissions from electrical machines. Badly shielded return path
components and incorrectly mounted plug connections can also increase the ingress. Ingress
reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of return path signals and can therefore lead to errors in
transmission.
The consequence is that the required data rates in interactive cable networks can no longer be
maintained. It is therefore crucial to keep ingress as low as possible.
To support ingress measurement, the instrument provides a special function.
The frequency range from 5 to 65 MHz is divided into 4 ranges. Within these ranges, the maximum
level and the frequency with which this level occurred is continuously measured and shown on the
display. The instrument also shows the elapsed time since the start of the ingress measurement.
The following spectrum shows a strong interference at 27 MHz (CB radio). You can end the ingress
measurement by selecting the menu item BACK. The ingress measurement makes use of the max
hold function.
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19.15
Marker function
As described in the "Chapter 9 - RC (Return Channel) Measuring Range", when the device is in the
RC measuring range, it can be switched to an operating mode for stationary operation at a head
end. This is displayed slightly differently in the analyzer.
4 markers appear on the screen printout.
The level values at the marker positions are shown in the lower section. When “MaxH” appears, the
Max-Hold function is switched on. The figure is recorded along with the upstream generator and the
generator transmits 4 unmodulated carriers. This provides information about the frequency
response of the return path.
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The marker frequencies can be edited. See the display on the right for this purpose.
Four marker frequencies appear in the display. Marker 1 is selected. Use the ↑ and ↓ -keys to
select one of the four markers You can change the marker frequency using the numeric keypad.
You can also gradually adjust the markers using the ← or → keys. The settings are non-volatile.
19.16
Activating the remote supply
You may activate the remote power supply options available in each respective measuring range
(e.g. LNB supply) while in analyzer mode in the same way as was discussed in previous sections.
Therefore, first use the LNB key to access the corresponding menu.
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Chapter 20 Management of the Instrument
Via MODE -> SETTINGS, you can access the following menu.
This menu includes several pages that can be reached with >>>.
20.1
Language of user interface
The instrument supports a user interface in German, English and French. You can select the
desired language using MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> LANGUAGE -> GERMAN,
ENGLISH, FRENCH. The setting is non-volatile. The default setting is German.
20.2
Query software version
This function allows you to query the software version (firmware). To do this, choose the menu
items MODE -> SETTINGS -> FIRMWARE -> INFO. The instrument then shows the current
firmware version and the software version of the MPEG decoder. If the DOCSIS analyzer option is
installed, its software version is also displayed. In the firmware information, the digits after the point
(1565 in this example) represent the instrument's hardware version. The entry after the point
indicates the current firmware release (11b).
As of version Vxx.11a, two firmware variants are available. One variant applies to existing
instruments without integrated memory expansion. The second variant applies only to instruments
with memory expansion. An “(E)” after the firmware version indicates an integrated memory
expansion. Some future features will require a memory expansion.
You can close the INFO window again by pressing ENTER.
20.3
Software update
You can load a new firmware release onto the instrument at any time.
The software is saved in a file with the extension *.bin or *.bin1 (for instruments without memory
expansion) or *.bin2 (for instruments with memory expansion). These files may be requested from
the manufacturer or downloaded directly from the website www.kws-electronic.de and then copied
to the supplied USB stick from a PC.
It is advisable to save both files (*.bin1 and *.bin2) to the stick. The instrument will then select the
appropriate file automatically.
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Before performing the update, connect the instrument to the mains for safety.
The instrument must not be switched off while the update is running as the update process deletes
the old firmware and the new version may not have been fully installed.
To perform the update, insert the USB stick in the instrument and choose the menu items MODE ->
SETTINGS -> FIRMWARE -> UPDATE. All saved BINx files are then displayed for selection. Use
the ↑ and ↓ keys to move the cursor to the relevant file. The following screenshot is taken from an
instrument without memory expansion.
If the instrument has a memory expansion, only *.bin2 files are available for selection.
Press the ENTER key to start the software update. The instrument deletes the old version from
memory and writes the new software onto the internal flash memory.
This process can take about 70 seconds. As soon as the update is finished, the instrument emits a
short beep and boots using the new firmware.
Important:
As of version Vxx_11a, a memory expansion is required for fully equipped
instruments. This results in a need for two different files. The *.bin1 extension
is retained for instruments without memory expansion. The software for
instruments with memory expansion is contained in a separate file with the
extension *.bin2. The instrument detects the appropriate file automatically. It is
therefore advisable simply to copy both the *.bin1 and *.bin2 files to the
supplied USB stick and select the required version. The file extension must not
be changed on the PC.
Important:
The following paragraph applies only to instruments without memory
expansion. Starting with version Vxx_06a, the extension of the image file has
been changed from .bin to .bin1. That is necessary because an enhanced
bootloader is required. However, this bootloader is used only for versions
Vxx_5b and higher. So, in order to update to version Vxx_06a and higher, a
version that is Vxx_5b or higher must already be loaded on the instrument. If
that is not the case, first update to Vxx_5b.
Vxx_5b or higher is required so that an image file with the extension .bin1 can
be selected for the update.
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20.4
Updating hardware modules
The instrument contains some components with dedicated software or programmable logic. So that
updates can also be performed at the customer, the instrument offers the ability to program the
most important components using the instrument software. The instrument must fulfil certain
prerequisites for this. Use the MODE -> SETTINGS -> FIRMWARE -> ADVANCED menu items to
access a sub-menu showing the components that can be programmed using the current instrument
version. More information is available from the Service team or via the website www.kwselectronic.de.
20.5
Serial number
In addition to finding the serial number next to the text on the name plate on the back of the
instrument, you can also access the serial number of the measuring receiver here. This is done via
MODE > SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> SERIALNUM.
You can close the INFO window again by pressing ENTER.
20.6
MAC address
A MAC address (Media Access Control Address) is the physical address that each individual
network adapter has for unique identification of the device in a computer network. Every instrument
is given a MAC address that is unique worldwide.
This can be viewed using MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> MACADR.
The INFO page can be closed again using the ENTER key.
20.7
SCART
The graphics screen output (e.g. analyzer, scope, constellation diagram) via the SCART connector
can be controlled under MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> SCART.
Output can be either an RGB or CVBS signal.
Note!
20.8
This menu item only appears if the device hardware is suitably equipped.
Otherwise the graphics output via SCART is generally an RGB signal.
Query hardware configuration
The instrument reads out all included modules under MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE ->
SERVICE -> HARDWARE and shows its number and version.
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137
Default setting
Via MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRESET, all non-volatile instrument settings are set back to the
delivery condition. The contents of the tuning memory are not affected.
20.10
TV standard
You can select 5 different TV standards via MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> TV-STAND ->
B/G, M/N, I, D/K or L. The TV standard is linked to the channel table used with TV. The TV
standard also defines the video/sound carrier used with ATV (Analog TV). The channel table
defines the channel spacing used and the channel bandwidth. This also applies to digital
transmissions (DVB-C, DVB-T, DOCSIS). This setting is non-volatile and is incorporated in the
tuning memory. For this reason, you can create memory locations with different TV standards. The
default setting is B/G.
20.11
Setting date and time
The measuring receiver is equipped with a clock component. The date and time are displayed in
many operating modes on the display line above the menu bar.
Via the menu item MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> TIME/DATE, you can access the following
input menu. You can change the date and time, e. g. for switching to summer/winter time.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor to the desired entry field.
You can now change the entry using the numeric keypad. Confirm every entry using the ENTER
key. The cursor then jumps to the next field.
The entries are saved when you move the cursor over the APPLY field and then press the ENTER
key.
20.12
Keypad settings
Using the menu item MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> KEYBOARD, you can switch the key
illumination and buzzer off and on.
The figure shows the default setting. The buzzer and illumination are switched on. These settings
are non-volatile.
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20.13
Color standard
You can select the desired standard for color decoding with ATV (Analog TV) using MODE ->
SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> COLORSTAND -> PAL, NTSC or SECAM.
This setting also applies to an external FBAS video signal that is fed in through the SCART socket.
This setting is non-volatile but is not incorporated in the tuning memory. The default setting is PAL.
20.14
User-defined channel table for TV
In addition to the preset channel tables that the instrument uses in combination with the set TV
standard, a user-defined channel table can be loaded onto the instrument. Users can use the
AMA.remote PC software to create their own tables and then export them as files. The channel
table currently used in the instrument can be exported so as not to have to create a channel table
from scratch.
To do this, use the menu items MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> EXPORT.
The instrument creates a CHA file with a file name that is derived from the name of the currently set
channel table, for example STANDARD_BG.CHA. This file can be used as a template in
AMA.remote.
If you wish to import a channel table using a CHA file, the following steps are necessary.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> LOAD allows the user to select the CHA
files stored on the USB stick. Use the cursor to select the desired file, and press the ENTER button.
The measuring instrument will then load the channel table stored in the file into a non-volatile
memory.
If the file is defective, the process is cancelled and a corresponding message will appear on the
display.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> DIRECTORY, the channel tables can
be transfered from the USB stick to the internal flash disk and then the files may be loaded into the
instrument from there.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> INFO, the instrument displays the file
name from which the most recently loaded channel table comes.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> USER, the instrument switches to
using the channel table that has been loaded. An error message appears if no channel table has
been loaded. The following figure shows that menu item CHANNEL receives the extension (BEN).
The instrument now uses the user-defined table for all functions that are based on a channel table.
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This setting is non-volatile. In other words, the instrument works with the table that has been loaded
even after being switched on and off. In addition, the channel table is also incorporated in the
tuning memory. In this way, entries from both the standard channel table and the user-defined table
can be saved.
Caution!
If the user-defined channel table is changed, the instrument can no longer use
the memory entries that were stored using the previous version of the userdefined channel table.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> DEVICE -> CHAN.TABLE -> STANDARD, the instrument uses the
channel table that is stored permanently in the instrument according to the TV standard. This is the
default setting.
The AMA.remote software is available for download from www.kws-electronic.de under
“PRODUCTS” – “AMA.remote,” and its exact operation is described in detail in a separate
operating manual.
D Channels:
Since nowadays analog channels are often turned off in the cable networks, digital channels are
named after their center frequencies (e.g. D346). The software AMA.remote can be used to create
user defined channel tables containing these D channels. Furthermore it is possible to mix the
standard C and S channels with the D channels. Hence you can create a channel table where the
analog channels are still defined as C and S channels, but the digital channels are called D
channels for example.
20.15
Formatting the internal flash disk
The instrument is equipped with a 64 MByte flash disk. The data medium is formatted in the
factory. You can reformat the flash disk via MODE -> SETTINGS -> FLASH-DISK ->
FORM.FLDSK. This causes all files stored by the user to be deleted.
20.16
Exporting the internal flash disk
All files on the flash disk can be copied to a connected USB stick using MODE -> SETTINGS ->
FLASH-DISK -> EXPO.FLDSK. If formatting is then carried out, the internal data carrier will revert
to the state it was in when the instrument was delivered.
20.17
Activating software options
Software options can be activated by entering an 8-digit key code.
You can request the individual key code for each option from the manufacturer.
When you select MODE -> SETTINGS -> KEY-CODE, the following submenu appears.
The options available to date are listed here. Options that are already activated are displayed
inverted. The "Remote Control via SNMP" and "FTP" option are currently available.
To activate the “Remote Control via SNMP” option, select the REMOTECNTR menu item. For
turning on the “FTP” option, the FTP menu item has to be chosen. An entry field for the 8-digit key
code is then displayed.
If the code is entered successfully, the following message appears.
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The corresponding option is now activated. To use the option, you need to switch the instrument off
and on again.
20.18
User-defined headers for printing
Up to six user-defined rows can be added to the standard protocol header of the printout (see
"Chapter 17.3.2 - Automatic printout").
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> EDIT HEAD, takes the user to the following window
for entering the information.
Menu items 1 - 3 and 4 - 6 can be used to switch between the entry of lines 1-3 and 4-6.
The ← and → keys are used to move the cursor to the desired line or position. Each line can
include up to 20 characters, which can be entered using the numeric keypad.
Press ENTER to accept the entries. The cursor moves to the beginning of the next line. Menu item
CLEAR LINE is used to delete the entire line. After an entry has been made in the third line, the
cursor moves to the SAVE selection. Press ENTER again to save the headers in the instrument.
With MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> HEADER, the user-defined lines are added to the
standard protocol header. In the default setting, the additional headers function is deactivated.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> TEST can be used to generate a sample printout of the
new protocol header.
20.19
User-defined logo for printing
A logo can be added to the printout instead of or in addition to the user-defined headers. This logo
can be loaded into the instrument as a Bitmap file.
An example of this type of logo can be downloaded from the www.kws-electronic.de webpage
under „PRODUCTS“ –> „AMA 310“ -> „Downloads“ -> „Demologo.bmp“. This “Demologo.bmp” file
can be changed according to the user’s preference using Microsoft® Paint software. However, the
format of the sample file must be retained.
This Bitmap file can now be uploaded to the instrument via the USB stick.
This is done is follows: MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> LOAD LOGO.
A list appears containing all BMP files. The desired file can be selected using the cursor keys.
Press ENTER to copy the file into the internal FLASH DISK. If the format of the file is not
compatible, the process is cancelled and an error message appears.
Caution!
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If the internal FLASK DISK is formatted at a later time, the logo will become
lost. For this reason, a backup copy of the file should always be kept.
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MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> LOGO is used to print the logo loaded from the BMP file
before the standard protocol header. No logo is printed in the default setting.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> PRINTOUT -> TEST can be used to generate a sample printout of the
new protocol header.
20.20
Deactivating the DOCSIS analyzer
If the measuring receiver is equipped with a DOCSIS analyzer, the analyzer can be deactivated
manually. This can be useful in many cases.
If no return-path-capable components are integrated in a system, but the DOCSIS downstream
channel is still to be measured, this will prevent the measuring instrument on the upstream from
trying to send. As this occurs in such a case with a high transmitting power, the downstream
measurements can be interrupted in some circumstances.
With automatic measurements (DataLogger and automatic printout), the upstream transmitting
power is also taken into consideration with the active DOCSIS analyzer. However, to do this, the
ranging process must be completed. This usually takes a few seconds. If only the downstream
parameters are to be recorded with DOCSIS, it is better to deactivate the DOCSIS analyzer.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> UPSTREAM can be used to activate and deactivate the
DOCSIS analyzer. When the DOCSIS analyzer is active, the menu item is displayed inverted.
This setting is non-volatile. It is also incorporated in the tuning memory. For this reason, memory
locations can be created with an active or inactive DOCSIS analyzer. Memory entries, for which the
DOCSIS analyzer is active are marked with +US.
In the default setting, the DOCSIS analyzer is active.
20.21
Configuration of the PING test from the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer
If the measuring receiver is equipped with a DOCSIS 2.0 or DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer, the analyzer can
be used to perform a PING test.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> PING-TEST is used to configure this test. By default,
PING packets with a 64-byte length are sent during this test. The number of the packets to be sent
and the time interval between two PINGs can be configured in the submenu.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> PING-TEST-> PACKETS is used to set the number of
packets to be sent. After calling the submenu, the user can select the number of packets. This
number can be changed using the numeric keypad. The allowed value range is from 5 to 100
packets. If a value smaller than 5 or larger than 100 is entered, the display resets to the last value
that was entered correctly.
After a valid value has been entered, pressing the ENTER key twice applies the setting for all future
PING tests until a new value is entered. The entry is non-volatile and is kept even when the
instrument is shut off.
MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> PING-TEST -> INTERVAL is used to set the time
interval between two PINGs.
Keys F1 to F4 are used to select between 0.5 seconds, 1 second, 2 seconds and 5 seconds. Press
BACK to exit the submenu. The entry is non-volatile and is kept even when the instrument is shut
off.
The submenus above are available only when the measuring instrument is equipped with a
DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer.
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20.22
Configuring the speed test in the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer
If the measuring receiver is equipped with a DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer, it can be used to perform a
speed test (data throughput measurement) in the uplink and downlink directions. The test is based
on transmission of data from or to an FTP server that is connected to the headend. Several
parameters must be stored in the measuring instrument for this test.
You can use MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> SPEED TEST to configure the test. This
section offers four profiles which also allow you to store the data for multiple HFC clusters or
headends.
You can use keys F1 to F4 to select a profile. You can edit the selected profile using the steps
described below. At the same time, the parameters of the most recently selected profile are
automatically selected for future speed tests of the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer.
You can use the ← or → keys to move the cursor within the profiles to change individual
parameters. You can use the measuring instrument’s numerical keypad to enter not only numbers,
but also letters and special characters. The individual keys include both their numerical value, and
a label of the letters they can be used to enter. By pressing a key multiple times, you can switch
between the individual letters, uppercase and lowercase, and the numerical value. You can enter a
space with the 0 key, and the 1 control button can be used for various special characters.
Enter the IP address in the usual format. The username and password of the FTP server and the
name (or path, where applicable) of the download file are alphanumeric character strings. 16
characters are available for the password, 18 for the username and 30 for the file name or file path.
The value range for the downlink file size is 0.1 to 2,048 MByte. The uplink file size is 0.1 to 500
MByte. Even though, for example, a profile is only configured for a downstream test, a valid figure
must be entered for the upstream file size. When you are done entering a value, use the ENTER
key to skip straight to the next value. The last parameter is the name of the profile. The user can
also edit the parameter name. Using the APPLY button, you can permanently store all the
parameters in the measuring instrument’s memory. The name entered for the profile – which can
be no more than 10 characters long – is displayed above the corresponding F key after you reopen
the speed test configurator.
20.23
Level measurement unit
MODE -> SETTINGS -> UNITS -> LEVEL is used to switch the measuring receiver between the
units dBµV (default), dBmV and dBm (W).
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Chapter 21 - Measurement Data Memory (DataLogger)
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Chapter 21 Measurement Data Memory (DataLogger)
The instrument is equipped with a datalogger function. This makes it possible for sets of
measurements to be automatically saved in the form of an XML file onto a USB stick or onto the
internal flash disk of the measuring receiver. The data can then be evaluated using MSExcel or
OpenOfficeCalc. For this, you must store the measuring receiver settings for recording the set of
measurements in the tuning memory of the measuring receiver.
You can access the following menu via MODE -> DATALOGGER.
21.1
Creating a set of measurements
You can record a new set of measurement by selecting the menu item NEW MEAS.. The memory
preview then appears. You can now move the cursor to the first memory location of the set of
measurements. When you press the ENTER key, an input menu is shown in which you can edit the
name of the system being measured.
This name is also the name of the XML file.
Selecting the menu item LEVEL ONLY reduces the measurements to level values. This speeds up
the data recording. You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter a name up
to 20 characters long using the numeric keypad. By pressing the ENTER key, the cursor jumps to
START. When you press ENTER again, the instrument begins recording the set of measurements.
If the file name you have entered already exists, the following warning appears.
You can use the ← and → keys to select between REPLACE and CANCEL.
If you press the ENTER key, the process is continued or cancelled.
In this example, the new set of measurements is created in a file named DEMO.XML.
The measuring instrument now recalls each memory location one by one and writes the measured
values to the XML file. You can stop the process manually via the menu item ABORT. The process
otherwise continues until an empty memory location in the tuning memory ends the block being
measured.
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Chapter 21 - Measurement Data Memory (DataLogger)
The figure above shows the display during a running set of measurements.
21.2
Accessing the directory
The menu item DIRECTORY opens a list of all saved measurements. Press ABORT to exit the list.
You can use the ← and → keys to scroll between the pages of the list. Use the FLASH DISK or
USB STICK menu items to switch between the storage media. All measurements can be selected
my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it possible to handle all of the files at the
same time using the “delete measurements” and “copy measurements” functions.
Note:
21.2.1
The device can list a maximum of 200 files. A message appears if there are
more files of the same type (e.g. XML) on the data carrier. If this happens, the
first 200 files should be backed up and then deleted from the data carrier. See
"Chapter 21.2.1 - Erasing a set of measurements" and "Chapter 21.2.2 Copying a set of measurements". This situation can arise when files are
continuously saved on the internal flash disk and are then copied individually
onto a USB stick without being deleted from the flash disk.
Erasing a set of measurements
With the directory open, you can move the cursor to the desired set of measurements using the ↑
and ↓ keys. After you confirm by pressing the ENTER key, the following choice appears.
Use the ← and → keys to select REMOVE. The device deletes the file MUSTERANLAGE.XML
from the USB stick when ENTER is pressed.
21.2.2
Copying a set of measurements
With the directory open, you can move the cursor to the desired set of measurements using the ↑
and ↓ keys. After you confirm by pressing the ENTER key, the following choice appears.
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You can use the ← and → keys to select COPY ALL. All measurements (XML files) are copied
from the internal flash disk of the measuring instrument to a USB stick when ENTER is pressed.
21.3
Select the drive
You can select the memory medium used (USB stick or flash disk) via MODE -> DATALOGGER->
DIRECTORY. The menu item of the currently set drive is shown inverted in the menu bar.
21.4
Query memory capacity
The number of saved files on the storage medium and the free memory capacity can be queried
using MODE -> DATALOGGER -> INFO. The number of objects refers to all files.
21.5
Evaluating the measurement sets on a PC
To evaluate, document or process the set of measurements, you must first transfer the data to a
PC or laptop. For this, you must first use the copy function to copy the sets of measurements onto
the USB stick if they were stored on the flash disk. The XML files created by the measuring
receiver can be read and processed using MSExcel or OpenOfficeCalc. The following figure shows
a set of measurements in MSExcel:
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Chapter 21 - Measurement Data Memory (DataLogger)
It is also possible to import the XML files into the AMA.remote PC software. When multiple
DataLogger files are selected at the same time, different measurements can be combined
automatically into a single table and stored in a file. In this way, several measurements from one
project can be grouped together.
The AMA.remote software is available for download from www.kws-electronic.de under
“PRODUCTS” – “AMA.remote,” and its exact operation is described in detail in a separate
operating manual.
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Chapter 22 - AV Input and Output
147
Chapter 22 AV Input and Output
22.1
AV output
The video signal on the SCART output is always identical to the contents of the TFT display. Video
signals from the videotext decoder and graphics source can be output as RGB signals only.
Parallel to this, the signals of both sound paths (L/R) exist only on the audio outputs.
22.2
Monitor function
In addition to the AV output, the instrument also has an AV input.
You can access the following menu via RANGE -> >>>. The measuring instrument operates as a
monitor if the menu item MONITOR is selected. That means that external video signals (FBAS or
RGB) are shown on the TFT screen. At the same time, the sound paths (L / R) are switched from
the SCART socket to the integrated loudspeaker and headphone jack.
The operating elements volume, brightness and color are fully functional here.
The following menu bar appears in the monitor operating mode:
22.2.1
Switching between FBAS and RGB input
You can select the video source via the menu items FBAS and RGB. This setting is non-volatile.
The default setting is FBAS.
22.2.2
Videotext with external video signals
By selecting the menu item VIDEOTEXT, the videotext of the external video signal is accessed.
For more, see "Chapter 14 - Videotext".
22.2.3
S/N measurement with external video signals
The S/N measurement is used with analog television for quality assessment of the video signal
received. The measuring receiver measures the assessed signal to noise ratio of the video signal
fed in externally. For this, the noise signal of an empty video line is fed through an evaluation filter
written in CCIR569. The displayed S/N value is calculated from the ratio of the nominal video signal
limit (700 mVpp) to the assessed noise level.
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The measuring range spans 40 to 60 dB with a resolution of 0.1 dB. A video signal with an
assessed S/N of more than 46.5 dB can be considered noise-free.
The default setting is to use video line 6 for the measurement of the noise signal. With MODE ->
SETTINGS -> S/N-LINE, lines 5 and 7 are available as alternative settings. With the SCOPE
function, you can check whether the relevant video line has no content (is empty).
The S/N measurement can only be carried out with an FBAS signal.
22.2.4
Scope display with external video signals
The line oscilloscope function is under the menu item SCOPE. Here you can oscillographically
display individual lines of the external video signal. Additional notes can be found in the "Chapter
13 - SCOPE".
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Chapter 23 - MPEG Transport Stream Interface (ASI)
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Chapter 23 MPEG Transport Stream Interface (ASI)
The measuring instrument is equipped with an ASI (Asynchronous Serial Interface) serial transport
stream interface. The instrument has an input and an output as a separate BNC socket on the right
side of the case.
23.1
ASI output
As soon as the measuring receiver receives a valid data stream in the operating modes DVB-S/S2,
DVB-C or DVB-T/T2, it is output 1:1 to the ASI output. There is therefore a signal present on the
interface as soon as the MPEG decoder is activated.
23.2
ASI input
An external transport stream can be fed through this input into the measuring instrument for
analysis by the MPEG decoder. A green LED flashes between the BNC sockets if the instrument
detects a valid transport stream on the ASI input.
You can access the following menu via RANGE -> >>>. If you select the menu item ASI-INPUT,
the MPEG decoder is switched on and the program lists are built. It is operated according to the
description in "Chapter 11 - MPEG Decoder".
If you select the menu item ANALYZE TS, the MPEG decoder rebuilds the program list. This is
necessary with a change of transport stream, for example.
The ASI interface supports both burst and packet mode.
Encrypted programs from the external transport stream can be decrypted via the integrated
Common Interface.
23.2.1
Data rate measurement
Herein the device measures the data rate of the transport stream. On the one hand it measures the
gross data rate (all transmitted packets including the null packets are measured) and on the other
hand is measures the payload data rate (all transmitted packets with PID other than null PID are
measured). This informations are displayed in the first line. Take a look at the screenshot above. In
the example the gross data rate is 65.3 Mbit/s and the payload data rate is 63.5 Mbit/s. If there is
no valid transport stream on the ASI input, both data rates are zero.
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Chapter 24 - DVI Interface
Chapter 24 DVI Interface
The measuring instrument is equipped with a DVI/HDMI port for the connection of an “HD ready”
TV set. This allows you to check the function of the DVD/HDMI port of an LCD screen, for example.
The DVI port is on the right side of the instrument.
DVI stands for “Digital Visual Interface” (HDMI means “High Definition Multimedia Interface”). The
port is designed physically as a DVI-I socket. The protocol HDMI-compliant however. This means
that, in addition to video data, audio data are also output. Video and audio data are transmitted via
three different data channels and a differential clock line in TMDS (Transition Minimized Differential
Signaling). The measuring instrument can be connected with the HDMI input of a TV set using a
DVI/HDMI adapter. The measuring receiver does not support HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital
Content Protection), however. HDCP restricts the tapping of digital and audio material within the
HDMI connection. HDCP is demanded by the program being played. If an HDTV program demands
HDCP, the measuring instrument cannot output the data via the DVI/HDMI port. The connected TV
set remains dark in this case.
HEVC and AVS+ contents are internally downscaled to adapt it to the small display. On DVI/HDMI
output it is upscaled again to the standard output format 1920x1080i. So the quality of video could
be reduced. But it is possible to output the video directly from the decoder via the DVI/HDMI port.
By pressing the key ↓ one, two or three times the output format can be changed in 1280x720p,
1920x1080p or 3480x2160p. In this case the video on the internal display must be switched off and
the DVI/HDMI output format is displayed instead of. By pressing the key ↑ the video is displayed on
the internal display again. It is thus possible to connect an UHD-Monitor and test it with full
resolution.
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Chapter 25 - USB Interface
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Chapter 25 USB Interface
The measuring instrument is equipped with a USB-A and a USB-B port. Both ports are located on
the right side of the instrument. USB stands for Universal Serial Bus and has become the standard
port in the PC world.
25.1
USB-A
This port operates according to the 1.1 specification at a maximum of 12 MBit/s at full speed. The
measuring instrument functions here as the master, meaning that it takes over full control of the
port. Before an application can communicate with a USB device, the host must first determine what
kind of device it is and what driver must be loaded. This happens after a device is plugged into the
USB port. This process is called enumeration. The standard defines several USB device classes.
The measuring instrument only supports the class MASS STORAGE DEVICE (USB stick).
The software of the measuring receiver can read and write files to the USB stick via the integrated
FAT32 file system.
The USB driver is optimized for the stick that is included. This means that this stick should be used.
If the software tries to access the USB interface when no stick has been inserted, the following
error message appears on the display.
25.2
USB-B
Here the instrument operates as a USB slave. This port is currently used for manufacturer testing
purposes only.
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Chapter 26 - ETHERNET Interface
Chapter 26 ETHERNET Interface
The measuring instrument is equipped with an Ethernet port in the 10Base-T standard with a
maximum transfer speed of 10 MBit/s. The RJ-45 socket used for this is located on the right side of
the instrument.
At present, the measuring instrument can be monitored and remotely controlled via the Ethernet
interface. Additionally file transmission is offered. Further information can be found in "Chapter 31 Remote Access (Option)".
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Chapter 27 - Monitoring Program
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Chapter 27 Monitoring Program
The measuring receiver is equipped with a monitoring program ("Supervisor"). This special function
can be called up in all measuring ranges. Using this function, measured values can be monitored
over a set time period by specifying tolerances.
Various measurement parameters can be monitored depending on the measuring range. The
following table provides an overview. This applies to a fully equipped instrument.
Range
SAT
Operating mode
Monitored parameters
DVB-S
DVB-S2
Level, MER, CBER, VBER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, CBER, LBER, PE (packet errors)
ATV
DVB-C
DVB-T
DVB-T2
EUDOCSIS
USDOCSIS
DTMB
Level, S/N
Level, MER, BER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, CBER, VBER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, CBER, LBER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, BER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, VBER, PE (packet errors)
Level, MER, CBER, LBER, PE (packet errors)
Level
Level
Level, MER, CBER
TV
FM
RC
DAB
If the optical input is activated, the optical power can be monitored in each range.
You can also specify which measurement parameters should not be monitored. This is done as the
tolerances are entered.
Errors are output using a log, which can either be output on the instrument's printer and/or in a file.
When output in a file, a text file with the LOG file extension is created. These files can be deleted
and copied. This means that you can save a monitoring log on the internal flash disk, copy it to a
USB stick and finally process it on a PC.
27.1
Starting the monitoring
The measuring instrument must be in the tuned mode (measuring mode) to start the monitoring
function. The following submenu opens when the SUPERVISOR menu item is called up.
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27.1.1
Entry of the name and monitoring period
The following window is opened for entry by selecting the NEW MEAS. menu item.
The monitoring name and monitoring period can be entered here.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can enter a name up to 20 characters
long using the numeric keypad. Press ENTER to accept the entries. The cursor moves to the next
entry field.
The monitoring period can be set between 00 hours 00 minutes and 23 hours 59 minutes. This
means that an entire day can be monitored. 01 hour 00 minutes is the factory default. Press
ENTER after entering the monitoring period. The cursor now moves to the START field.
27.1.2
Specifying the destination of the alarm output
The measuring instrument continuously monitors the measurement parameters in the
corresponding measuring range while taking the tolerances into account. The instrument triggers
an alarm in the event of impermissible deviations. This monitoring log can be output via the
installed printer and/or saved in a LOG file.
You can specify the alarm output destination by selecting ->PRINTER or ->LOG-FILE. If file output
is specified, the instrument creates a file with the LOG file extension and the name specified under
“Name of system”.
By pressing ENTER again, the following window opens for specifying the tolerances.
27.1.3
Setting the tolerances
Tolerances can be specified for the monitored measurement parameters depending on the
measuring range.
These limits can be set in the following entry menu.
You can move the cursor to the desired entry field using the ← and → keys. Tolerances can be
entered for the specified measurement parameters using the numeric keypad. Confirm each entry
using ENTER. The cursor then moves to the next entry field. The tolerance entries are non-volatile.
The following tolerance ranges can be set in the following ranges.
Parameter
Level
MER
S/N
BER
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Tolerance
± 0.1 dB - ± 9.9 dB
± 0.1 dB - ± 9.9 dB
± 0.1 dB - ± 9.9 dB
e±1 – e±3
Chapter 27 - Monitoring Program
155
The tolerance for BER also applies to CBER, VBER, LBER and NICAM BER.
“e±1” means that the bit error rate can be increased or decreased by a factor of 10 without
triggering the alarm.
Entering ± 0.0 dB or e±0 means that the measurement parameter is not monitored.
By activating PACKET ERR, the packet error counter is included in the monitoring. An entry is
made in the monitoring log as soon as at least one packet error occurs. If the menu item is
deactivated, packet errors in the MPEG-2 transport stream are not included in the monitoring.
The monitoring program is started when the cursor is positioned on APPLY and the ENTER key is
pressed.
27.1.4
During monitoring
After monitoring is started, the reference values of the measurement parameters are defined first.
These are applied in the log header of the alarm output. The PE counter is always set to 0 when
monitoring is started.
During monitoring, the display shows the following contents (example). The remaining monitoring
time is shown in the menu bar.
In digital measuring ranges, the PE counter is also displayed in monitoring mode.
The monitoring program can be stopped at any time using ABORT.
27.2
Managing LOG files
If file output is activated for the alarm, the monitoring log is written as a text file with the .LOG file
extension. The file name is derived from the name entered for monitoring. The destination drive
(flash disk or USB stick) can be set under VOLUME. A list of previously saved LOG files can be
accessed for each drive under DIRECTORY.
All files can be selected my choosing the menu item SELECT ALL. This makes it possible to
handle all of the files at the same time using the “delete monitoring logs” and “copy monitoring logs”
functions.
27.2.1
Deleting monitoring logs
When the directory is open, you can move the cursor to the desired file using the ↑ and ↓ keys.
When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
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Use the ← and → keys to select REMOVE. In this example, the DEMO2.LOG file is deleted from
the USB stick when ENTER is pressed.
27.2.2
Copying monitoring logs
When you press ENTER, the following selection is displayed.
You can use the ← and → keys to select COPY ALL. All LOG files are copied from the internal
flash disk of the measuring instrument to a USB stick when ENTER is pressed.
27.3
Monitoring log
The monitoring log can be output via the printer and/or in a file.
The structure of the log is identical in both cases. An example of a monitoring log is shown below.
The log header consists of the name, the tolerances that are set for the measurement parameters
and the settings on the measuring receiver. This is followed by the time and date for the start of
monitoring. The log header is completed by the reference values that are determined at the start of
each new monitoring process. Only tolerance specifications that are not zero are recorded on the
log (i.e. when the corresponding measurement parameter is included in the monitoring).
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If the monitoring program detects an error, the measured values of all measurement parameters in
the corresponding measurement range are printed in the log with the current date and time.
Measurement parameters that are outside the tolerance are indicated with a “*”.
An error is present when at least one measurement parameter is outside the specified tolerance,
the PE counter has increased or the receiver is locked out.
If an error is permanent, another error message is printed in the log after 60 seconds.
Once the measured values are OK again, an OK message is displayed with the date, time and all
measured values.
The monitoring log is completed with the time and date of the end of the monitoring process.
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Chapter 28 - Measurement Data Recording (DataGrabber)
Chapter 28 Measurement Data Recording (DataGrabber)
The DataGrabber allows the measuring instrument to record measurement data over a specified
period of time and display it graphically. The shortest period of time that you can enter is one
minute. The longest period is 23 hours and 59 minutes.
The memory depth is 500. This means that 500 values are recorded in equivalent time periods for
each measurement parameter. The time interval between two samples thus depends on the
recording period that has been specified.
The table below provides an overview of the recording options that are available. This applies to a
fully equipped instrument.
Range
SAT
Operating mode
Recorded parameters
DVB-S
DVB-S2
Level, MER, CBER, PE (Packet Errors)
Level, MER, CBER, PE (Packet Errors)
ATV
DVB-C
DVB-T
DVB-T2
EUDOCSIS
Level, S/N (only with option S/N)
Level, MER, BER, PE (Packet Errors)
Level, MER, CBER, PE (Packet Errors)
Level, MER, CBER, PE (Packet Errors)
Level, MER, BER, PE (Packet Errors)
DF (Duty Factor, Downstream capacity utilization)
Level, MER, VBER, PE (Packet Errors)
DF (Duty Factor, Downstream capacity utilization)
Level, MER, CBER, PE (Packet Errors)
Level
Level
Level, MER, CBER
TV
USDOCSIS
DTMB
FM
RC
DAB
If the optical input is activated, the optical power trend is recorded instead of the level.
Note on recording the duty factor:
This function is only available for DOCSIS2.0 analyzers and higher. Before recording starts, the
menu item DUTYFACTOR can be used to select recording with or without duty factor. If this item is
active, the diagram with the bit error rate is omitted.
For all measurement parameters apart from PE, the value saved is the one that is active during
recording at the time of sampling.
The situation is slightly different when packet errors are captured. During normal measuring
operations, packet errors are continuously added up (accumulated). When the DataGrabber
function is used, packet error counter changes from one sampling time point to the next are
recorded. This makes it possible to subsequently determine how many packet errors occurred and
at what times. The absolute number of packet errors is shown in the LCD while the measurement
data is recorded and is incorporated in the graphics screen once the measurements are finished.
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Note!
159
Packet errors can also occur when the measuring receiver's automatic
attenuation control changes the input attenuation. In order to achieve optimal
performance at all times, attenuation control must also operate during
measurement data recording.
Packet errors that occurred due to a change in the input attenuation are
displayed in magenta by the measuring receiver while “normal” errors are
shown in yellow.
If no measured values are available for particular measurement parameters at the time of sampling,
a vertical red bar appears in the respective diagram. This can happen if the receiver goes to
“unlocked”, for example.
If the status of the receiver subsequently changes back to “locked”, the measurement parameters
are recorded again and the packet error counter is set to zero. However, this does not affect the
previously recorded packet errors in the diagram. They remain unchanged.
28.1
Starting the recording
The measuring instrument must be in the tuned mode (measuring mode) when the DataGrabber
function is started.
When you call the DATAGRABB. menu item, the following submenu appears.
This is where you specify the recording time period.
You can use the ← and → keys to move the cursor. You can set the recording period to a value
between 00h 01min and 23h 59min using the numeric keypad. This means that recording can take
place over a whole day. The factory setting is 01h 00min. Once you have finished entering the
hours and/or minutes by pressing ENTER, the cursor moves to the START field. When you press
ENTER again, the measuring instrument begins recording the measurement data. The instrument
first captures the active measured values and uses these to calculate the scaling for the individual
diagrams. Individual diagrams then appear on the graphics screen for each measurement
parameter. Data is now continuously added to these diagrams. Here is an example of what the
LCD might display while the DataGrabber is running.
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The absolute number of packet errors is also displayed in this operating mode.
You can use the ABORT menu item to stop the recording before the specified time period has
elapsed. This only stops the recording. Data that was recorded up until this point remains saved on
the graphics screen.
If the instrument reaches the end of the recording process normally, i.e., without being interrupted,
a beep sounds and the following message appears.
The RESTART menu item allows you to initiate a new recording process using the same settings.
28.2
Evaluating a recording
Once the DataGrabber has finished (automatically or stopped manually), you can use the cursor
function to determine the time at which a possible error occurred in the system. To do this, you use
the ← and → keys to move the cursor (represented by a triangle) to the required position.
The following figure shows sample measurement data that was recorded for a DVB-C channel.
The level, MER, BER and packet errors (relative) are recorded for the DVB-C mode.
The start time and time at which recording ended (normally) appear in the lower left and lower right
of the display respectively. The cursor time is marked with a ‘*’. The measured value at the cursor
position is displayed above each diagram. In the above example, 282 packet errors occurred at
13:29:06. These errors were caused by an adjustable attenuator element. PE=2689 means that an
absolute number of 2,689 packet errors occurred in the period from 13:25:43 to 13:30:43.
28.3
Documenting a recording
For purposes of documentation, you can either output the graphics screen to the printer, or save it
as a bitmap file. More detailed information is provided in "Chapter 17 - Printer" and "Chapter 18.1.2
- Hardcopy of the grafics".
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Chapter 29 Common Interface (CI)
Pay TV providers usually transmit their programs encrypted. For decryption, a CA (Conditional
Access) unit must be present in the receiver. This can be permanently integrated into the receiver
or inserted into a CI that conforms to the EN50221 standard.
The latter has been implemented in this measuring instrument.
The measuring receiver is equipped with 2 PCMCIA interfaces for accepting up to 2 CA
(Conditional Access) modules. The PCMCIA slots are accessible via a hinged lid on the top panel
of the instrument.
This makes it possible for all DVB programs to be decrypted if you have an appropriate CA module
with an activated SmartCard. The data stream is not decrypted in the MPEG decoder, but instead
exclusively in the inserted CA modules.
29.1
Changing the CA modules
Before changing a CA module, always switch off the instrument.
First open the hinged lid that is located on top of the instrument and secured by a magnet. Then
you can raise an inserted module with the ejection lever until you can reach it with your fingers.
Now you can pull the module out of the instrument. When inserting a module, ensure that the
polarity of module is correct. The colored sticker of a CA module usually must point toward the
back. You should also check whether the module is lining up with the guide rails provided for this
purpose. Under no circumstances should there be a great amount of resistance during insertion. If
there is, check the seating and the polarity of the CA module again. The following figure clarifies
the process.
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29.2
Initializing and querying the CA modules
The inserted CA modules are re-initialized every time the MPEG decoder is cold started. This
process runs in the background while the decoder builds the program list. After initialization, you
can query the inserted CA modules under the Common Interface (CI) menu item.
You can choose between the 1st and 2nd PCMCIA slot by selecting the menu item Slot2 or Slot1
with the ENTER key. Slot1 is the slot that is nearer to the front panel of the instrument.
If you place the cursor on the CA-System IDs menu item and press the ENTER key, the instrument
lists all CA system IDs that the inserted CA module supports. If the list is longer than one page, you
can use the ← and → keys to navigate through them. Every encryption system such as
VIACCESS, CRYPTOWORKS, NAGRAVISITON, etc. has its own number IDs. These numbers are
carried in the data streams of the encrypted programs. This makes it possible for the MPEG
decoder to determine the appropriate CA module for decrypting the desired program.
29.3
Card menu
You can open the main menu of the CA module via the menu item Card Menu. You can access
different information and services here such as information about the SmartCard, software version,
software updates, etc. according to the module.
The following applies for the menu interface: You can use the ↑ and ↓ keys to move the cursor
through the menu. You can use the ← and → keys to scroll back and forth. You can select a menu
item by pressing ENTER.
If the module requires entry of a PIN, select the number field using the ← or → keys and choose a
number (0-9) using the ↑ or ↓ keys. Press ENTER to confirm the entry. The PIN cannot be entered
using the numeric keypad.
The following figure shows the main menu of an Alphacrypt module:
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Playing an encrypted program
To play an encrypted program, follow the same procedure as for a non-encrypted program: Select
the program name from the station list and press ENTER to confirm. The list of program details
then appears.
If programs are encrypted, a list of all CA system IDs used appears in the program details. If
several CA IDs are listed, this indicates SimulCrypt encoding.
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Chapter 30 - DOCSIS Analyzer (Option)
Chapter 30 DOCSIS Analyzer (Option)
30.1
Introduction
The analyzer of the measuring receiver operates in accordance with specification DOCSIS 1.1,
DOCSIS2.0 or DOCSIS 3.0 (depending on the connected hardware). DOCSIS stands for “DataOver-Cable Service Interface Specification”. The standard sets the rules for fast, bi directional
communication and IP data exchange between the headend and the user either via a pure coaxial
network or an HFC network (Hybrid Fiber/Coaxial). The counterpart station for the cable modem
(CM) on the user side is the CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System) in the headend.
The data from the headend to the customer is transmitted in the so-called downstream (DS);
information returning from the customer is transmitted in the upstream (US). The US and DS are
transmitted in the same cable but in different frequency ranges.
With DOCSIS, there are two different specifications: Euro-DOCSIS and US-DOCSIS. You can
measure both standards with the measuring instrument. The differences are in the DS error
protection and the DS channel bandwidths and in the channel spacing and DS and US frequency
range (see "Chapter 7.2.2 - DIGITAL (DVB-C, DVB-T/T2, DOCSIS, DTMB) Operation Mode"). The
content of the messages that are exchanged between the head end and the user is identical in both
specifications.
30.2
Connection of the measuring receiver to the multimedia socket
For measurement with the DOCSIS analyzer, you must connect the instrument via an F-plug to
IEC-plug adapter with the F-connection of a multimedia socket on which a DOCSIS signal is
present.
30.3
Measurement of the DOCSIS downstream
For downstream, the same measurement parameters can be recorded as for a DVB-C signal
(MER, BER, constellation diagram, packet error measurement, level measurement (see "Chapter
7.2.2 - DIGITAL (DVB-C, DVB-T/T2, DOCSIS, DTMB) Operation Mode". You can also assess the
downstream via the spectrum analyzer (see "Chapter 19 - Spectrum Analyzer").
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DOCSIS analysis and measurement of the DOCSIS upstream
To obtain information about the upstream, the measuring instrument must first be receiving a valid
downstream channel.
The DOCSIS analyzer receives information about the upstream and the communication with the
CMTS.
30.4.1.1
You activate the downstream receiver of the measuring instrument via the menu
item MODULATION -> DOCSIS in the TV measuring range (see "Chapter 7.2.1.10
- Program Identification
To identify the running program, the name is extracted from the head line of the videotext and
displayed near the CNI.
This program name can be called by remote over SNMP. Like this it is possible to control the
content of the running program by remote.
DIGITAL (DVB-C, DVB-T/T2, DOCSIS, DTMB) Operation ").
You select the modulation scheme for the DOCSIS variant in another menu.
The associated symbol rate is automatically set.
Automatic scan of the DOCSIS variant:
If you enter a new channel, the receiver attempts to synchronize with the current settings (DOCSIS
variants, modulation schemes). If this is not successful, the instrument alternatively uses the other
settings EUDOC64, EUDOC256, USDOC64 or USDOC256 to receive the signal that is present.
The graphic display begins to show a summary relating to the DOCSIS analysis.
In addition to the direct channel entry of a known DOCSIS DS channel, it is also possible to carry
out an automatic scan of the entire TV frequency band (see "Chapter 7.2.2.5.3 - Scan").
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30.4.2
DOCSIS DS parameters
As soon as the receiver has completed the DS synchronization process, several parameters are
shown in the measured value display. When LOCK appears, it means that the digital receiver is
receiving a valid data stream. In contrast, UNLK means that either the quality of the signal that is
present is insufficient, or that the parameters of the receiver do not agree, or that no DOCSIS
signal can be received at this frequency.
Once the receiver has synchronized the DOCSIS analyzer queries whether valid DOCSIS packets
are being received. Is this the case, the indicator on the graphic display under the “Downstream”
item changes from “Scan running...” to “Valid”.
30.4.3
DOCSIS US parameters
After a valid DS is detected, the analyzer automatically extracts the upstream parameters from the
downstream information. The most important are shown on the graphical display.
Communication with the CMTS is now established. During this, the transmitting power and other
important parameters for problem-free communication between the cable modem and head end
are set iteratively. This process is called “ranging.” The current transmitting power is shown on the
graphical display. After the first successful ranging, the screen on the graphical display under the
“Ranging” item switches from “running...” to “finished.”
After the cable modem and the CMTS have been synchronized, the analyzer switches to a mode
for continuous ranging, which means that communication with the CMTS is maintained and the
transmitting power on the graphical display is updated after every data exchange.
30.4.3.1
Upstream analysis with the DOCSIS-1.1 analyzer
With the DOCSIS 1.1 analyzer, a statement regarding whether communication between a modem
and the CMTS basically functions at the location of the measurement is now possible. Furthermore,
the analyzer can be an instrument for lining up return path amplifiers. The following are displayed
as measuring parameters: the transmitting frequency, the modulation type which is currently
specified by the CMTS for the ranging procedure, the symbol rate and the transmitting power
required at the moment.
After ranging is finished, the following screen appears on the graphical display:
Depending on the cable network operator, the US or DS frequency may change automatically
during measuring.
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This happens because in systems with several upstream and downstream frequencies, the CMTS
can force the modem to other frequencies for reasons of equal utilization of all channels. The
display of measurement values always shows the frequency or channel on which the modem is
currently receiving data. The same applies for the graphical display. This display always shows the
frequency at which the modem is currently sending data. It is theoretically possible that even the
US symbol rate and QAM organization (QPSK, 16 QAM) can change during measuring.
30.4.3.2
Upstream analysis with the DOCSIS-2.0 analyzer
Many more measuring parameters can be defined with the DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer. Even with the
DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer, only the most important statement is possible at first, namely, whether
communication between a modem and the CMTS basically functions at the location of the
measurement. Furthermore, the analyzer can be an instrument for lining up return path amplifiers.
Before measuring with the DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer can begin, however, (and differing from DOCSIS
1.1), the user must wait until the boot time of the (significantly more complex) 2.0 modem is
finished. Boot time takes about 11 seconds. When the user activates the DOCSIS analyzer, first a
start-up screen will appear on the graphical display showing the progress of the booting procedure
as percent. The actual graphical interface of the analyzer will also be displayed here.
The following measuring parameters are available with a functioning DOCSIS connection on the
graphical display:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DOCSIS standard (e.g.: DOCSIS 1.1, DOCSIS 2.0)
Downstream channel utilization
US frequency
US symbol rate
US access method
US modulation for the continuous ranging process
US transmission level
US level offset
Synchronization status with the CMTS
After ranging is finished, the following screen appears on the graphical display.
The uppermost row displays information on the DOCSIS system that is currently being measured.
Here, the user can read whether the system is entirely 1.1 or 2.0, or whether mixed-mode is
activated from both systems so that modems can communicate with the head end according to
both specifications.
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The DS channel utilization provides information on how many MPEG packets of the DS data
stream carry the DOCSIS PID (packet identification) 0x1FFE in relation to all incoming packets. It is
also possible to display the DS duty factor graphically as a function of time (see "Chapter 28 Measurement Data Recording (DataGrabber)").
Since many DOCSIS modems communicate with the CMTS on the same upstream frequency,
modems must share the upstream channel. The access method shows the way in which this
occurs. With DOCSIS 1.1, only TDMA (time division multiple access) is available as an access
method.
In this method, the modems share the upstream bandwidth in such a way that each modem sends
only at specified, reserved time slices. With DOCSIS 2.0, A-TDMA (advanced TDMA) and S-CDMA
(synchronous code division multiple access) are also available. With A-TDMA, data can be sent
also with 64 QAM at a symbol rate of 5120kSymb/s in upstream, compared to DOCSIS 1.1. With SCDMA, several modems transmit on the same frequency at the same time. The CMTS assigns the
messages to the individual modems based on special codes and the mathematical correlation
formula. The access method is specified by CMTS and is binding for all connected modems.
During ranging, the modem receives correction values regarding transmitting power from the
CMTS. These correction values can be read under the “Level offset” item on the graphical display.
The modem always adjusts its transmitting power in such a way that the level offset is nil. This
means that messages that the modem sends to the CMTS arrive with its required level. For
example, if a return channel amplifier is set up and then the amplification is varied during the
measurement, the offset is not equal to nil. Afterwards, the modem corrects its transmitting power
in such a way that the level offset is once again nil the next time ranging messages are exchanged.
If the level offset is constantly unequal to nil, an error is present in the return path. (Example: The
modem is already sending at 114 dBμV, and the level offset is +9 dB. Now the modem must send
at 123 dBμV so that the transmitting power is evaluated correctly by the head end. The modem
cannot work with this transmitting power. The error may be caused by a falsely set or defective
return path amplifier.)
The “Stack status” parameter provides information on the extent to which the analyzer can
synchronize with or log on to the CMTS. At the beginning of a measurement, the modem searches
in the downstream for information on how it must send in the upstream. If this data is found, the
stack status switches to “UsParameters Acquired”.
If ranging is successful, the status is “Ranging Complete.” If the modem can find an IP address via
DHCP, the status says “DHCP Complete.” If the modem was able to complete fully logging onto the
head end, the status changes to “Operational”.
Depending on the cable network operator, the US or DS frequency may change automatically
during measuring.
This happens because in systems with several upstream and downstream frequencies, the CMTS
can force the modem to other frequencies for reasons of equal utilization of all channels. The
display of measurement values always shows the frequency or channel on which the modem is
currently receiving data. The same applies for the graphical display. This display always shows the
frequency at which the modem is currently sending data. It is theoretically possible that other US
parameters can change during measuring.
30.4.3.3
Downstream and upstream analysis using DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer
The DOCSIS3.0 standard is based on the DOCSIS2.0 standard. The key difference in 3.0 is the
ability to perform channel bundling in the downstream and upstream. This section examines only
the extensions to the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer compared to the DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer. It assumes that
the reader is already familiar with the explanations provided in the previous section.
The boot time of the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer is around 18 seconds.
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The instrument uses the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer to provide a graphical overview of all bundled
downstream and upstream channels with their level ratios and channel bandwidths.
The DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer can essentially be used to perform the same measurements as the
DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer. The analyzer also provides the following additional information's or
functionalities:
•
•
•
•
Display of the encryption system used (e.g. BPI+)
Number of bundled DS channels
Number of bundled US channels
Data throughput measurement (speed test)
The graphical overview provides a summary of the existing downstream and upstream conditions.
For the downstream, a distinction is made between primary and secondary channels.
The primary channels in the downstream contain SYNC and UCD messages; the secondary
channels do not. Primary channels can be used to create a connection between a modem and
CMTS; secondary channels are used only for data rate multiplication. The primary downstream
channel is shown in green in the graphic. The channels bundled with the primary channel appear in
yellow. In some systems, all bundled downstream channels are primary channels. Other systems
contain only one primary downstream. In the latter case, the download data rate is higher because
the sync and UCD messages are sent on one channel only, which avoids the associated overhead.
For the upstream channels, there is no distinction between primary and secondary channels. In the
diagram, the upstream through which the modem was able to successfully establish a connection
with the CMTS is shown in green. The upstream channels bonded to this during subsequent
registration are shown in yellow in the diagram.
The DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer supports the bundling of up to 8 downstream channels, although these
must be within 64 MHz. Up to 4 bundled upstream channels are supported.
The top figure shows the graphic screen of the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer following successful ranging
in a DICSIS 3.0 system. It shows the main menu of the DICSIS 3.0 analyzer. Use the arrow keys
and ENTER to navigate in the menu. The figure below shows the graphic that appears after
choosing the DOWNSTREAM menu item.
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Each bar represents a DS channel. You can use the ← and → keys to select the relevant channel
in the graphic. The currently selected channel is highlighted in red. The information shown below
applies to the selected channel.
Each DS channel in the system has a unique identification (ID) that is displayed after the
corresponding frequency.
The load is shown only for the primary channel marked in green.
Select the UPSTREAM menu item from the main menu to view additional information about the US
channels.
Each bar represents a US channel. You can use the ← and → keys to select the relevant channel
in the graphic. The currently selected channel is highlighted in red. The information shown below
applies to the selected channel.
Each US channel in the system has a unique identification (Id) that is displayed after the
corresponding frequency.
Select the ADVANCED and FRQRESP menu items to view additional US information. This
information is described in more detail in the following sections.
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30.4.3.4
171
More advanced upstream time slice analysis with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer
As soon as the ranging process starts, the arrow keys and ENTER can be used to select the
“ADVANCED” menu item in the graphical display. Here, the user receives information on which
time slice types which are specified in the DOCSIS 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 standards, are currently
supported by the CMTS and which modulation type is to be used to transmit in this time slice. The
display of DS data and the most important US parameters still appears in the upper portion of the
graphical display.
The following figure shows the DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer.
The following figure shows the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer.
You can use the ← and → keys to select the relevant upstream channel in the graphic.
Press ENTER to leave the ADVANCED menu.
30.4.3.5
Upstream frequency response analysis with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer
As soon as the ranging process is finished, the arrow keys and ENTER can be used to select the
FRQRESP menu item in the graphical display.
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The various DOCSIS specifications provide an equalizer for the upstream sender of the modem.
This equalizer filter can be configured with the filter parameters that the CMTS sends to each
modem individually.
The purpose of this filter is to equalize the frequency response between the modem and head end
that arises through the upstream transmission link between the modem and head end (for example,
through micro-reflections where the cable is damaged). This means that equalizer parameters can
be used to find which frequency response is prevalent within the transmission bandwidth of the
modem (e.g. 3.2 MHz at a symbol rate of 2,560 kSymb/s). This frequency response can be
determined in the “FRQRESP” submenu. If the submenu cannot be entered, the head end is not
sending any equalizer data to the connected modems (this feature is optional in the DOCSIS
specifications).
The following figure shows the DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer.
The following figure shows the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer.
You can use the ← and → keys to select the relevant upstream channel in the graphic.
The frequency response is always shown for the upstream channel marked in red.
Press ENTER to leave the “FRQRESP” menu.
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30.4.4
173
PING test with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer
The PING test is a diagnostic tool that is well-known from the PC world. It can be used to assess
the quality of an IP connection. In this test, certain IP packets are sent to a host, and the host must
respond to them (insofar as it supports the protocol). The quantity of responses received to the
PING packets that are sent and how long this time delay is (round trip delay) are used to provide
qualitative information.
A PING test is triggered with the selection of the “PING” submenu in the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer.
Since an IP connection is required for a PING test, the user cannot access the submenu until the
stack status is “DHCP Complete” or “Operational.” The PING test is configured (number and time
interval of the PING packets to be sent) in instrument management (See "Chapter 20.21 Configuration of the PING test from the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer").
As with the above submenus, the DS data and the most important US parameters appear in the
upper portion of the graphical display. The top row of the PING menu shows the status of the test
(“initialized”, “running...” or “finished”).
Below this row, the IP address that the modem was assigned via DHCP and the IP address of the
standard gateway on which the PING runs are displayed.
If the ping status switches to “finished”, the results are summarized below in statistical form
(packets sent; packets received; packets lost, calculated from packets sent and received; and the
minimum, maximum and average time to receive a response from the individual PINGs). Since
many PINGs can be sent (at most 100 packets), a detailed listing for each individual PING would
not be helpful here.
Since many PINGs can be sent (up to 100 packets), a detailed listing for each individual PING
would not be helpful here.
During the PING test, detailed progress information appears in the line after “Ping statistics”.
Press ENTER to exit the PING test. This not possible until the test has completely finished and the
statistical evaluation has been displayed.
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30.4.5
Selecting the upstream frequency with the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer
As soon as the stack status “Ranging Complete” is reached, the user can select an upstream
frequency for the measurement (if several upstream frequencies are offered for the selected
downstream). During the ranging process, the modem searches automatically for a frequency at
which communication with the headend functions. If, however, you also want to determine the
transmission level or frequency response at other upstream frequencies, it is possible to do so
using the “US-FRQ” submenu.
This submenu contains a list of all the upstream frequencies with an associated upstream ID
offered by the CMTS. The number of upstreams displayed is limited to 20. A star symbol marks the
upstream on which the modem is currently in contact with the CMTS.
You can use the arrow keys to select an upstream on which the modem is to perform a ranging
attempt (if more than four upstreams are available for selection, the measuring instrument lists
them over several pages of the sub-menu, which you can scroll between using the ← and →
arrow keys. In the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer, each page has 3 entries). Press ENTER to trigger a
switch to a new frequency. The modem then attempts to establish contact with the CMTS at the
new upstream frequency once the ranging process with the headend has been completed.
This means that changing to the new upstream can take a few seconds. The change takes effect
after the next beep, which signals that ranging has successfully completed. The menu for selecting
the upstream frequency closes. After successful synchronization on the new upstream, the
parameters are displayed in the same way as after an initial automatic search for a valid upstream
channel. Selecting the upstream marked by a star symbol (i.e. on which the modem is transmitting
at that moment) causes nothing to happen. Only the “US-FRQ.” submenu closes.
If ranging is not possible on the selected upstream – for example because the CMTS does not
support a choice of the US by the modem, due to overload on the CMTS on the new US, or
because the selected US is not supported in the cluster being currently measured – the modem
automatically searches for a frequency at which synchronization with the headend is possible.
Use the menu item BACK to exit the submenu for selecting the upstream frequency.
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175
Speed-Test with the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer
The speed test (data throughput test) is only available for the DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer. This test can
determine the data rate that can be achieved both in the uplink and the downlink directions at the
point that the measurement is taken. You can combine it with the PING test and the downstream
duty factor to get a very detailed picture of the HFC network’s performance.
The data throughput test is based on the FTP (file transfer protocol). For an uplink test, data is
loaded onto an FTP server connected to the headend. For a downlink test, a file with a known file
path and size is downloaded from this server. The time required for uploading or downloading is
measured. In combination with the known file volumes, this time is used to determine the data rate
achieved.
For detailed information on the speed test, please refer to application note “AN004 – DOCSIS 3.0
Analyzer”. You can find this on our homepage, www.kws-electronic.de, under “SUPPORT” –>
“Application Notes”.
In order for the speed test to be performed, registration between the DOCSIS modem and the
headend must be fully completed, meaning that the measuring instrument must have the
“Operational” stack status. You cannot open the submenus for performing a speed test before this
point. You can use the “→” cursor key to open a second page of the main menu that contains the
two options for the speed test.
Several parameters in the measuring instrument are necessary for performing the speed test. They
are: the IP address of the FTP server, the username and password of the FTP server, the name
and size of the download file (only for downlink tests), and the size of the upload file (only for uplink
tests). You can enter this data using Instrument Management (see "Chapter 20.21 - Configuration
of the PING test from the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer"). This section offers four profiles which also
allow you to store the data for multiple HFC clusters or headends.
If the submenu is activated for one direction of the throughput test, the corresponding test will start
as soon as possible. During this process, the top line of the display will indicate the current status
of the test. The status will go through the phases “started”, “initialized”, “running...” and “finished”. If
the test cannot be completed properly, the status will be “aborted”.
Under this status bar, the measuring instrument will show the parameters set in Instrument
Management for the current test. If the speed test was completed successfully, the bottom line of
the display will show the data rate achieved as the measurement result. The following image shows
the conditions for a successfully performed downlink speed test.
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For uplink tests, the display is the same except for the minor difference that the line for the file
name remains empty because random data is sent from the measuring instrument to the FTP
server in this case. After the end of the test, the measuring receiver deletes the data from the
server.
You can exit the submenu using BACK. For downlink tests, you can also use this button to cancel
the test before it is finished. It is not possible to cancel uplink tests before they are finished. The
reason is that the data that was already transferred to a server is not deleted after a cancellation. If
you were to keep performing and cancelling the tests, the amount of unusable data on the server
would continue to grow and take up storage space. As a result, you should always wait until the
end of the speed test in the uplink direction.
After the speed test is completed (or cancelled), the DOCSIS analyzer returns to the continuous
update of all upstream and downstream measurement parameters.
30.5
Sequence of a measurement
After the measuring instrument is connected to a multimedia socket (or another point at which the
DOCSIS connection can be tested, for example, a return channel amplifier), the measuring receiver
should be tuned either by entering the channel of a known DOCSIS DS channel directly or by
scanning for a valid DS channel.
A summary of the US measuring parameters starts in the graphical display. The DS can be
assessed qualitatively in the measured value display.
Since, in practice, a measured value update comes once every five to 20 seconds during
continuous ranging, the instrument-internal beeper signals when the measured values were
updated and that the CMTS sent positive feedback (“Ranging complete”) on the last data
exchange. This makes the work easier, such as, when setting the return channel amplifiers. If the
beeper is activated, the user knows that a correct value for the required US transmitting power is
present.
If a cable network operator offers several US and DS channels, ranging may not function on the
selected DS. In this case, scanning should take place after the next DOCSIS downstream, or, if
known, a new DS frequency should be entered directly.
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Since the DOCSIS 1.1 analyzer does not start any further registration attempts (different from the
2.0/3.0 analyzer, which establishes an IP connection with the head end), the measuring instrument
with the integrated 1.1 analyzer receives no more transmission opportunities from the CMTS after a
certain time (the head end assumes the modem is defective). For this reason, the analyzer is reset
in this case from time to time and measuring starts again from the beginning.
As was described above, the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer can be used to perform further tests, in
addition to pure US and DS level tests, after successful ranging.
30.6
Ingress measurement
An important measuring parameter with return channel capable systems is ingress (interference
level through external stray pick-up in the coaxial cable). The measuring instrument can assess
ingress with the aid of the spectrum analyzer (for this, see "Chapter 19.14 - Ingress measurement
in the return path" and "Chapter 9 - RC (Return Channel) Measuring Range)".
30.7
Notes regarding compatibility
Basically, the various DOCSIS specifications (1.0, 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0) are compatible with one
another. This means that the DOCSIS analyzer functions, in general, with any head end. However,
if a cable network operator has issued only DOCSIS 2.0 modems to its customers, for example,
and no longer has any 1.1 modems in circulation, it can switch off mixed mode and change over to
pure DOCSIS 2.0 or DOCSIS 3.0 operation.
In this case, the measurement will not work with the DOCSIS 1.1 analyzer. Thus, in general, not
every analyzer works with every network operator.
Additionally, there are some network operators that identify a modem using the MAC address and
assign it to a customer during the very first ranging. It can therefore happen that measurement is
only possible once the instrument’s MAC address has been specified in the headend. For this
reason, the MAC address can be read out from the instrument (see "Chapter 20 - Management of
the Instrument").
However, the above aspects are heavily dependent on the operator.
30.8
Input of the MAC address
In the case of a measuring instrument with a DOCSIS 1.1 analyzer, a user-defined MAC address
can be stored with which the modem communicates with the head end. This can be done through
the menu item MODE -> SETTINGS -> DOCSISANAL -> MACADR.
You use the numeric keypad to carry out the input. After entering a position, you confirm the entry
by pressing ENTER. The cursor then jumps to the next position.
Once the last position has been entered, the cursor jumps to OK. Now you press the ENTER key a
final time, causing the MAC address to be stored and used with the next activation of the DOCSIS
analyzer.
You can reset the MAC address to the default setting via the menu item DEFAULT.
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For the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer, manipulation of the MAC address is not needed. The reason is
that some head ends require the messages between the modem and CMTS to be encrypted
(baseline privacy (BPI) or baseline privacy plus (BPI+)). Encryption is based on certificates that are
stored permanently in the DOCSIS analyzer. These certificates are used to encrypt the messages.
However, the certificates also contain the serial number and MAC address of the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0
analyzer. If the MAC address is changed, the certificates would no longer match the MAC address
that must be contained in every message from the modem to the CMTS. In this case, the head end
cancels the registration and data exchange with the modem and the measuring features of the
DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer would be no longer available in the full extent with the head ends that
request BPI(+).
For this reason, the menu item for changing the MAC address is not available if the 2.0/3.0
analyzer is installed.
30.9
Further information
Further information for measuring using the DOCSIS 2.0/3.0 analyzer can be found in application
note “AN003 – DOCSIS 2.0 analyzer and “AN004 – DOCSIS 3.0 analyzer.” This is available from
the homepage www.kws-electronic.de under “SUPPORT” – “Application Notes”.
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Chapter 31 Remote Access (Option)
These options must be activated by entering an 8-digit key code in the measuring instrument. You
can request the key codes from the manufacturer. Further information on entering the key code is
provided in the "Chapter 20.17 - Activating software options".
31.1
SNMP-Remote-Control (Option)
This option allows the measuring receiver to be monitored and remotely controlled. SNMP stands
for Simple Network Management Protocol. This protocol permits the management of networks and
their connected components.
The protocol was originally intended to allow network administrators to monitor and remotely
control devices in a network with the help of network management software, for example. The
software uses SNMP to communicate with the network devices (such as routers and switches). The
devices and a PC with the management software, which are connected to one another via Ethernet
and/or WLAN, for example, make up the network. Provided a system component has an Internet
connection, the network can, under certain conditions, also be accessed via the Internet. Devices in
the network can then be addressed from a PC with network management software via the Internet.
Suitable software packages can be purchased from various providers or are offered free of charge.
In addition, the AMA.remote PC software is used to control the measuring receiver remotely. This
SNMP management software is available for download from www.kws-electronic.de under
“PRODUCTS” – “AMA.remote,” and its exact operation is described in detail in a separate
operating manual.
Because many headends are connected to the Internet, SNMP is increasingly being used to
monitor and remotely control headends. At the same time, headends have an increasing number of
network-capable components such as multiplexers, which cable network operators can manage via
the Internet. The measuring receiver can also be monitored and remotely controlled using the
SNMP option. This requires that the instrument is connected to the headend via the Ethernet
interface.
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31.1.1
Features and function of SNMP
SNMP is based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and is available in three versions. The Internet
standards are specified in Request for Comments documents (RFCs). Version 1 of the SNMP
standard (SNMPv1), for example, is described in the documents RFC1155, RFC1156 and
RFC1157. The measuring receiver's SNMP option uses SNMPv3.
A PC or network device on which SNMP-compatible network management software is installed is
referred to as an SNMP Manager or SNMP Client. The network device to be monitored, such as a
measuring receiver, is referred to as an SNMP Agent or SNMP Server. This client/server
designation refers to the fact that the network device to be monitored, acting as a server, provides
data and the monitoring program, acting as a client, retrieves this data. In the following, the network
management system is referred to as the SNMP Manager and the device to be monitored is
referred to as the SNMP Agent.
A network device is controlled by specifying and reading settings. A network device can also initiate
"events" in order to provide information on particular incidents. SNMP primarily uses Set
instructions (to specify settings) and Get instructions (to read settings, measured values and
parameters) to control devices. The events that are initiated (that may be used for monitoring, for
example) are referred to as "traps". The objects (mostly variables), which are required for control
and monitoring, are represented by unique object identifiers (OIDs).
All OIDs are listed in a Management Information Base (MIB). The MIB is hierarchical (tree
structure). Each node in the MIB tree has a name as well as a number and an OID holds all names
and numbers up to the actual object. Certain MIB elements are standardized; however, a company
may, for example, request a Private Enterprise Number (PEN) from the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA). According to the standard, the nodes up to the PENs are
.iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1).private(4).enterprise(1).
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The manufacturer has the PEN 35128, for example, and the OID for the MER object of measuring
receivers is .1 .3 .6 .1 .4 .1 .35128 .ama(1) .measuredValues(2) .amaMER(4).
It is left up to the PEN holder to assign the OIDs after the PEN. This is carried out in a devicespecific MIB. Strictly speaking, this MIB is a sub-MIB, which can normally be requested from the
device manufacturer. A (sub-) MIB is specified in a text file with the file extension .mib and the
content of the file follows a predefined syntax. This ensures that an SNMP agent type can be made
known to an SNMP Manager by reading in a MIB. The SNMP Manager can then manage all SNMP
agents for which the read-in MIB applies. A particular network device is addressed via its IP
address.
31.1.2
MIB structure
The AMA MIB is divided into eight sections.
control:
This category includes all objects that are necessary for tuning the measuring receiver. Various
objects need to be used, depending on the measuring range etc. The order in which the settings
are specified corresponds to how the measuring receiver is operated.
Furthermore, some of the objects in particular configurations do not need to be set, as these
parameters are determined automatically by the measuring receiver.
measuredValues:
Objects from this section return the measured values. The number of objects with valid measured
values varies depending on the measuring range. For a tuned measuring instrument, the amaLevel
object always returns a measured value for the level.
receivedParameters:
These are parameters that are determined automatically by the measuring receiver. Here too, the
number of objects with valid values varies depending on the measuring range.
trapControl:
This is where the settings for sending trap messages are specified. The following three tables are
provided for this: amaEventTable, amaAlarmTable and amaTrapTable. All settings relating to the
event recipient are specified in the amaEventTable. The amaAlarmTable contains all information on
the measurement parameters to be monitored and the amaTrapTable is used to monitor states,
such as amaState.
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traps:
This section lists the traps that are sent by the measuring receiver when certain events occur.
transportStreamData:
Some SI-table information from the MPEG data streams can be queried via this section. The data
query initiates a Transport Stream analysis of the relevant table, the results of which are then
transmitted.
deviceManagement:
Instrument-specific data is transmitted via the deviceManagement objects. This includes the
querying of serial numbers or setting up a key lock.
analyzerControl:
Some of the settings in the spectrum analyze mode of the measuring receiver can be made via this
section.
fileTransferConfig:
The objects in this section are used for the file transmission via FTP. Among other things you can
set an user name and a password.
To be able to receive measured values and parameters, the measuring receiver must have been
tuned and therefore at least one control object set as an SNMP command. When a control object is
set, SNMP functionality is activated in the measuring receiver and measured values and
parameters can be read.
31.2
FTP (Option)
This option allows file exchanges with the measuring receiver. FTP stands for File Transfer
Protocol and is used to transmit files over networks.
A device connected to the network, which provides files, is called FTP server. A PC software, which
offers up- and downloading of files, serves as FTP client. For example the Windows Explorer can
be used as a FTP client by entering “ftp://” and the required IP address of the FTP server into the
address line.
There is the possibility to make a FTP connection secure by using a user name and a password. If
this is not needed, public access to a FTP server is granted by assigning the user name
“anonymous”. You can set the required login details for the measuring instrument via SNMP.
In the measuring receiver the flash disk is the disk space used for file exchange. You can download
files stored at the flash disk, like screen shots, tuning memory tables, channel tables and
DataLogger files via FTP. For generating files to download from remote, settings with SNMP are
needed. Additionally you can load files transmitted via FTP into the device with SNMP commands.
These files could be firmware files, tuning memory tables and channel tables.
31.3
Setting of the IP address
The IP settings must be done before the measuring instrument is used in a network. For this you
need IP-address, subnet-mask and standard-gateway.
These entries can be set through MODE -> EINSTELLU. -> IPCONFIG -> IP-ADR,
SUBNETMASK or STDGATEWAY.
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Use the numeric keypad to enter the address. After entering a position, confirm the entry by
pressing ENTER. The cursor then jumps to the next position. Once the last position has been
entered, the cursor jumps to OK. Now press the ENTER key a final time, causing the IP address to
be stored. After changing the IP address, you must switch the measuring instrument off and on
again, so that the TCP/IP stack is initialised with the new setting.
31.4
Further information
You can find further information in application note AN001 “Remote Control”. This document is
available from our homepage www.kws-electronic.de under “SUPPORT” – “Application Notes”.
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Chapter 32 Electro Magnetic Interference Measurement (Option)
32.1
Introduction
The German regulation on the protection of public telecommunication networks and transmission
and receiving radio plants that are operated in the defined frequency ranges for security purposes
(SchuTSEV) [“Verordnung zum Schutz von oeffentlichen Telekommunikationsnetzen und Sendeund Emfpangsfunkanlagen, die in definierten Frequenzbereichen zu Sicherheitszwecken betrieben
werden”] has been in effect since May 2009. This regulation controls, for example, the switching off
of analog TV content in the special channels S2 to S5 for the protection of aircraft radio frequencies
(108 - 137 MHz). In addition, the regulation sets high requirements on the cable networks regarding
their maximum permitted transmitted interference field strengths.
The principle of the procedure implemented in this measuring instrument for measuring
electromagnetic interference is implemented by many major cable network operators and is fully
compatible with their measuring procedures.
Basic information on measuring radiation and on the required measuring equipment can be found
in application note “AN002 – Electro Magnetic Interference Measurement (EMI)”. This document is
available from our webpage www.kws-electronic.de under “SUPPORT” – “Application notes”.
32.2
Calling
Call measuring of electromagnetic interference (EMI) under RANGE -> EMI.
32.3
Frequency input
The numeric keypad can be used to set a frequency between 44.75 and 867.25 MHz. Increments
are made in steps of 50 kHz. Use the ENTER key to confirm the entry. It is important to make sure
that identification frequency generator and measuring receiver are tuned to the same frequency.
32.4
Antenna selection
The field strength that is displayed is acquired by measuring the antenna voltage and converting it,
taking into consideration the physical properties of the antenna used. The antenna being used can
be set under ANTENNA. Types EMI 240 and EMI 241 are currently supported. A pre-amplifier is
already integrated in the EMI 241 antenna. With the EMI 240/Y antenna, note that the correct
measuring results will be obtained only in connection with the EMI 240/V pre-amplifier.
32.4.1
User-defined EMI antenna
In addition a user-defined antenna may also be defined. Enter the name and correction factor for
the EMI antenna using the menu item EMIANT.
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If a new name is entered for the user-defined antenna, the name of the menu item will also change
under the ANTENNA menu. The correction factor that is entered governs the conversion of the
level measured by the receiver (in dBµV) to the displayed field strength (in dBµV/m). The following
relationship applies: E[dBµV/m] = L[dBµV] + Factor[dB].
32.5
Entering the distance
The limits for observing the EMV are based on the norm-distance of 3 m to the outer wall of the
building. As it is not always possible to take a measurement from 3 m away, the interference field
strength at a greater distance can be measured and converted to the reference spacing of 3 m
based on the current spacing to the building. The measuring instrument requires the distance to be
entered for the conversion.
The measured distance can be entered under DISTANCE. This can be determined easily with the
help of the additionally available DLE 70 laser distance measuring device, which can be mounted
to the EMI 240/Y antenna.
32.6
Entering the limit
There are official regulations for observing the interference radiation of cable systems. They set
limits for the emission field strength at a distance of 3 m. The maximum field strength can be
entered into the instrument. The instrument uses it for certain warnings when the limit has been
exceeded. The maximum field strength in dBμV/m can be entered under LIMIT.
32.7
Analysis of identifier
The electromagnetic interference measurement is based on using the KFG 242 frequency
identification generator. This generator is used as a defined source of interference in a cable
system and should be integrated into the head end. The signal of the interference transmitter is
modulated with an identifier for the unique assignment of the interference emission. This can be
programmed in the frequency identification generator as a text having 13 characters. The
measuring instrument demodulates the identifier and shows it in the top row on the display. To
demonstrate that the identifier is being received continuously, the instrument clears the text and
shows it again.
32.8
Measuring the interference field strength
When tuned to a frequency, the instrument measures the antenna voltage of the receiving antenna
and converts it into the equivalent field strength. The absolute field strength is displayed in dBµV/m
in a larger font. The measuring range is from 3 – 103 dBµV/m (EMI 241) or 5 – 105 dBµV/m (EMI
240) with a resolution of 0,1 dBµV/m.
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At the same time, the instrument calculates, in connection with the current spacing, a reference
field strength at a distance of 3 m to the building and displays it in a smaller font in the row above
the menu bar. If the reference field strength exceeds the set limit, a warming message will appear
on the display. A warning signal sounds at the same time over the loudspeaker.
32.9
Setting the identifier
The measuring instrument has a help setting for setting the identifier of the frequency identification
generator. Application note “AN002 – Measuring electromagnetic interference” contains information
on how to set and change the identifier for KFG 242.
If a character received from the identifier is marked showing that this character is one that can be
changed with two buttons on KFG 242, this character will be displayed inverted on the display. If no
character is displayed inverted (normal mode), it means that there is no character that is currently
selected for modification.
32.10
Remote supply
The measuring receiver can provide a remote power supply for active receiving antennas via the
RF input. Antenna EMI 240 (with the EMI 240/V pre-amplifier) and EMI 241 require a supply of 5 V.
The operator may choose between 5 V, 18 V and no remote supply. The supply is short circuitproof and provides a maximum current of 500 mA. The instrument automatically switches off the
remote supply if there is a short circuit or if the current is too high.
The red LED on the RF input lights up as soon as the remote supply is active.
Important!
32.10.1
Before switching on a remote supply, always check the compatibility of the
system connected to the remote supply that is selected. Otherwise,
terminating resistors may be overloaded or active components may be
destroyed.
Setting the remote supply voltage
Press the LNB key to open the selection menu. The possible voltages of 0 V and 5 V can be
activated using function keys F1 and F2.
32.10.2
Changing the fixed remote supply voltages
A fixed voltage of 5 V is preset at the factory for the remote supply.
To adjust the voltage in line with the requirements of the active components to be supplied, this
voltage can be changed within a range of 5 V to 20 V.
To do this, the voltage must first be activated. Then press the LNB key again. The voltage can now
be changed in increments of 1 V using the ↑ and ↓ keys. This setting is non-volatile.
32.10.3
Measuring the remote supply current
To do this, the measuring instrument must be in the default status. Press HOME to put it in the
default status. If remote supply is activated, the measuring receiver measures the amount of DC
current that is being supplied through the RF input (e.g. to supply an active antenna) and displays it
on the left side of the display in mA. The measuring range extends from 0 mA to 500 mA with a
resolution of 1 mA.
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Chapter 33 Optical Receiver (Option)
33.1
Introduction
RF signals are increasingly being transmitted via fiber optic cables. Optical transmission in
broadband networks is gaining importance. While optical transmission in most existing networks
still occurs exclusively at network level 2, the trend is moving towards fiber optic distribution up to
the subscriber terminals.
Even in the field of SAT-IF distribution, solutions are already available for optical transmission.
Optical fibers:
The optical fiber is the medium through which the light signal is transmitted. There are 2 different
fiber types. With multi-mode fibers, the light can move through the optical fibers on multiple “paths”
(modes). That results in modal dispersion (distortion), which limits the bandwidth and the
transmission distance. With single-mode fibers, on the other hand, the light can only move through
the fibers on a single path, preventing modal dispersion and resulting in higher bandwidths. At the
moment, almost all the fibers used are single-mode.
They have a core diameter of 9 µm and a sheath diameter of 125 µm. A single-mode optical fiber
has an attenuation of approx. 0.3 dB/km.
Optical plug connection:
There are 2 different kinds of fiber optic plug connection. The first one has a straight polish. This
version, called PC (physical contact), has a somewhat worse return loss. Connectors with APC
(angled physical contact) have an interface with an angle of 8°. PC connectors have blue markings,
whereas APC connections have green ones.
Fiber optic plug connections are available in various forms such as FC (threaded connection), SC
(plug connection), and E2000 and LC (both with snap/plug connection).
An SC/APC plug connection is built into the measuring instrument.
The measuring instrument is equipped with an optical receiver that converts the light signal back
into an RF signal. After the optical receiver, the RF signal behaves as if it had been supplied via the
coax input of the measuring receiver. This means that all the measurements available through the
RF input can also be taken via the optical input. There is one restriction: For DOCSIS, only the
downstream can be measured because the device does not have an optical transmitter for the
upstream.
The optical receiver itself is not wavelength-selective. In some systems, light with different
wavelengths is transmitted via one and the same optical fiber. This is known as a wavelength
division multiplex. In this type of system, the wavelengths must be separated again before the
optical receiver because otherwise the signals from the two wavelengths would be mixed in the
optical receiver, leading to interference. A patch cable with an integrated wavelength filter should
be used for this type of application. But generally, only one wavelength is used, making this
unnecessary. In most cases, wavelengths of 1310 nm, 1490 nm and 1550 nm are used.
Optical input power:
The measuring instrument does not have an integrated adjustable optical attenuator element.
As a result, the measuring instrument’s optical receiver can be operated with up to 8 dBm of
continuous power. However, the optimal range for the receiver is from -7 dBm to +3 dBm. At lower
power levels, the reception quality is reduced because of the receiver noise.
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At higher input power levels, the intermodulation products have a negative effect on the
performance. In this case, optical attenuation elements should be used.
Example:
Measurements must be taken on an optical transmitter with an output power of
8 dBm. The optical power can be measured directly. However, an attenuation
element of 5 to 10 dB should be connected between the transmitter and the
receiver to determine the signal quality.
SAT-IF transmission via fiber optics:
There are systems that stack the individual SAT-IF levels in order of frequency. This means that
multiple (e.g. 4) SAT-IF levels are transmitted via one optical fiber and one optical wavelength.
Other systems use a separate optical wavelength for every SAT-IF level (wavelength division
multiplex). Multiple SAT-IF levels can also be transmitted via one optical fiber in this case. The first
system (lower cost) requires more effort in the RF range. The complex aspect of the wavelength
division multiplex is that each SAT-IF level requires its own optical transmitter, which must be
demultiplexed again in the receiver of the wavelength division multiplex using optical filters. The
second system has higher quality.
The measuring instrument can receive SAT-IF signals in the range from 910 to 2,150 MHz. With
this system, transmission of the level is generally vertical/low. However, this is sufficient for setting
up a satellite antenna with an optical LNB. An optical LNB can be supplied with power through the
LNB supply of the RF input.
33.2
Cleaning the fiber optic plug connection
The weak point of every optical transmission system lies in the splice and plug connections. For
plug connections, it is important to ensure that the contact surfaces are very clean. But the ferrules
of a fiber optic connection must also remain free of dust so that no contamination reaches the
connectors’ interfaces when they are plugged in. Industry-standard cleaning sets are available for
this purpose. Immediately after cleaning the plugs and connections, you should put dust covers on
them unless you are going to use them again right away.
The measuring instrument’s fiber optic connection is equipped with a hinged lid that seals the
connection as soon as the plug is removed. However, you must still ensure that the area around
the lid remains free of contamination.
33.3
Activating the optical input
You can activate the instruments optical input using RANGE -> FIBRE-IN.
If the instrument’s optical input is activated, “FIB XXXXnm” will appear in the display. XXXXnm
stands for the wavelength set, e.g. 1,310 nm. Now you can set a specific measuring range, e.g. TV.
The spectrum analyzer also uses the signal from the optical receiver.
33.4
Setting the wavelength
As previously stated, the integrated optical receiver is not wavelength-selective. However, you must
set the wavelength used because it is required for measurement of the optical power and the
optical modulation index (OMI).
The responsivity of the integrated photodiode depends on the wavelength.
Using MODE -> SETTINGS -> LAMBDA you can set the wavelength as 1,310 nm, 1,490 nm or
1,550 nm.
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33.5
189
Measuring the optical power
Optical transmission involves modulation of the intensity of the light power.
The measuring instrument measures the average optical power in dBm. This power is also
measured when the light is supplied from an unmodulated laser source. In this case, the instrument
can be used as a purely optical power measuring instrument.
Start the measurement by entering the frequency/channel and pressing ENTER to confirm.
33.6
Measuring the optical modulation index (OMI)
The optical modulation index (OMI) is comparable with the modulation index for an amplitude
modulation. The amplitude (intensity) of a carrier – here, the light – is modulated. The greater the
difference between the maximum intensity and the minimum intensity, the greater the OMI and the
RF voltage (level) after the optical receiver. There are now two options for specifying the OMI. One
option is selectively measuring the OMI for a specific channel or a OMI for a channel. This
measurement only takes the RF power within the channel bandwidth into account. The total OMI
measurement or OMI sum takes the entire RF power after the optical receiver into account. For this
purpose, the instrument measures the average RF power after the optical receiver in the range
from 5 to 2,150 MHz. Signals outside of this frequency range are included in the OMI sum in
attenuated form.
In professional optical transmitters, the total OMI is adjusted to a fixed average value using an
AGC. This means that it is independent of the frequency plan of the RF signal supplied. However,
the channel OMI can change based on the frequency plan (configuration with ATV, FM, DOCSIS
and DTV channels). The attainable signal-to-noise ratio depends on the channel OMI. For ATV
signals, a value of around 4% is ideal. Generally, the OMI sum ranges from 16 to 20%.
The measuring receiver can measure both the channel OMI and the OMI sum. After the receiver is
tuned, the instrument displays the channel OMI (see above). The OMI sum is displayed in analyzer
mode in the FULLSPAN setting. The OMI is specified in %.
Note!
The level specified after the OMI value corresponds to the internal RF level
after the optical/electrical converter. This information is only relative. This
specification is primarily used to determine the relationships between the
levels of the individual channels.
A brief overview of the relationships between optical power, RF level and OMI is provided below.
If the optical power is increased by 1 dB for optical transmission, the RF voltage increases by 2dB
after the optical receiver, while the optical modulation index (OMI) remains unchanged. The RF
voltage is proportional to the square of the optical power.
If the optical modulation index is doubled (e.g. increased from 2% to 4%) with the same optical
power, the RF voltage after the optical receiver increases by 6 dB. This means that the OMI and
RF voltage are linearly proportional to one another.
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Chapter 34 - Upstream Monitoring System UMS (Option)
Chapter 34 Upstream Monitoring System UMS (Option)
34.1
Introduction
The Upstream Monitoring System (UMS) is a measuring system consisting of an instrument in the
headend and one or several handhelds for field operation. The UMS permits to measure the return
path in a DOCSIS network. The following measurements can be carried out with this system:
wobbling (frequency sweep), TILT measurement, BER measurement, MER measurement,
constellation diagram, real-time spectrum. The measurements can be performed during regular
modem upstream activity.
The data transmission from the headend to the handhelds is done via transport stream and DVB-C
modulation. If the headend is equipped with a transport stream multiplexer, the UMS data stream
may be added to an existing DVB-C-channel.
Further information can be found in the Application Note "AN006 - Upstream Monitoring System
UMS" on www.kws-electronic.de under "SUPPORT" -> "Application Notes".
34.2
Headend Settings
Before putting the UMS into operation several settings have to be made at the headend. The menu
for the basic settings may be called up via MODE -> SETTINGS -> UMS SETUP.
34.2.1
Configuration
Device-specific settings for the UMS operation mode can be made via these menu items.
34.2.1.1
Auto-Start
With CONFIG. -> AUTO-START the headend may be set such that the UMS function will be
started immediately after switching on the instrument. It is recommended to activate AUTO-START
if the instrument is permanently installed in a headend. In this way the instrument is ready for
operation again after a power failure.
34.2.1.2
Keyboard locking
Via the menu item CONFIG. -> KEYB.LOCK the keyboard locking can be activated.
If the instrument is in a headend, it is recommended to switch it on to ensure that the UMS function
is not turned off by mistake. The keyboard locking may be deactivated by the key combination
HOME -> 3 -> 1 -> 0 -> ENTER. Subsequently the instrument may be operated normally for 10 s.
However, if the UMS function is not left within this time, the keyboard locking will be activated
again.
34.2.1.3
Power save
Via the menu item CONFIG. -> POWER SAVE a power-saving mode can be activated. In this
setting the TFT, the LCD backlight and the keyboard lighting are switched off shortly after the UMS
function started.
34.2.1.4
TS Output
By selecting the menu item CONFIG. -> TS-OUTPUT the interface for the transport stream output
can be set. This menu item is only available for instruments with IP output. Otherwise the ASI
output is a standard factory setting.
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In case of instruments with IP output the interface for the transport stream output can be defined
under CONFIG. -> TS-OUTPUT -> ASI or -> IP.
For the transport stream output via IP the instrument has a second Ethernet connector located on
the left side of the instrument. The standard is Fast Ethernet 10/100Base-T.
When transmitting the transport stream via an IP network, the transport stream packets are
encapsulated in IP packets. UDP/RTP is used as protocol. Up to 7 TS packets can be
accommodated in one UPD/RTP packet.
The TS/IP interface can be configured under CONFIG. -> TS-OUTPUT -> TSoIP CONF This
includes IP address, subnet mask, standard gateway and data encapsulation. As a second
independent Ethernet interface is concerned here, these settings must not be mixed up with those
in "Chapter 31.3“. These settings are completely independent. The IP settings for this Ethernet
interface can be made under TSoIP CONF -> IP-ADR, SUBNETMASK, and STDGATEWAY. For
transmitting the transport stream via the UDP/RTP protocol, the IP address and the port of the
receiver still have to be set. This can be done by using the menu item TSoIP CONF -> DEST
IPADR. The input after ":" is the destination port.
Unicast and Multicast
UDP/RTP packets may be transmitted via a point-to-point connection (Unicast) and a point-tomultipoint connection (Multicast). For Multicast a reserved destination-IP-address range is defined
which includes the address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
If the IP data stream of the instrument is to be sent to several receivers, a destination address from
the above stated range is to be set.
Data encapsulation
The transport stream packets can either be encapsulated in the IP packets by UPD or UDP/RTP.
By choosing the menu item ENCAPSULA. -> UDP or UDP/RTP the data encapsulation can be
configured.
Always 7 transport stream packets are packed into one IP frame.
The MAC address of the second Ethernet connector may be obtained by selecting the menu item
MACADR. It is firmly linked to the hardware of the instrument
34.2.2
Transport stream settings
Via the menu item TS-PSI an input window can be opened in which some transport stream settings
can be made. In the UMS mode the instrument provides a DVB-conform transport stream with
several data streams: PES (Packet Elementary Stream) and SI (Service Information).
Via the input window the following parameters can be determined:
Provider name:
16 characters are available for the name
Service name:
16 characters can be used
In addition the following PIDs may be entered in decimal form:
PMT-PID, ServiceID, PES-PIDspec, PES-PIDconst, PES-PIDmeta, PES-PIDtele
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Chapter 34 - Upstream Monitoring System UMS (Option)
34.2.3
Network settings
By selecting the menu item NET an input window may be opened where some settings as to the
cable network can be made. 16 characters each may be used for the network name and the name
of the cluster. The handheld uses this information for identifying the network.
In the setting RefLevel in [dBµV] a reference level may be entered which is taken for all
measurements of the UMS. This reference level is comparable to that of the CMTS to which all
connected cable modems adjust. If the same upstream level is available at the RF input of the
headend device as at the CMTS, then this reference level should be set to the same value as in the
CMTS (e.g. 60 or 75 dBµV).
Under TSDelay in [ms] a value for the system-dependent delay of the transport stream from the
output of the headend device to the input of the DVB-C-modulators can be set. In case this delay
which may arise due to the IP distribution of the transport stream, is in the range of 100 ms and
more, an adequate value has to be entered under TSDelay. Alternatively the factory setting of 0ms
may be maintained.
34.2.4
Handhelds
All handhelds which are to be used in UMS, have to be registered in the headend device with their
serial numbers. Signaling from the handheld to the headend is done via ASK-modulated telemetry
carriers whose frequencies have to be in the upstream frequency range.
By choosing the menu item HANDHELD an input window may be opened in which all handhelds
with their serial numbers and telemetry carriers can be registered.
At the same time a system graphics is displayed on the screen which shows all frequency inputs of
UMS.
A telemetry carrier is a sine tone assigned to a handheld with its frequency. The communication of
the handheld with the headend is done via this frequency. Up to 10 handhelds may be operated at
a headend device.
34.2.5
Modem Upstreams
As the UMS works during active modem operation, in no case shall there be any collisions with the
upstream frequencies of the cable modems in the network. Therefore the UMS has to know on
which upstream frequencies and with which bandwidth (symbol rate) the cable modems send in the
network.
By selecting the menu item UPSTREAMS an input window may be opened where all active
modem upstreams with their symbol rate can be entered. Up to 8 active upstream frequencies can
be entered. When entering the frequency 0, an upstream can be erased from the system. Valid
symbol rates are 0.32 MSym/s, 0.64 MSym/s, 1.28 MSym/s, 2.56 MSym/s and 5.12 MSym/s.
Here the input is also supported by the display of a system graphics.
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34.2.6
193
Bit error rate measurement (BER)
The UMS supports a BER measurement in the upstream path. For this purpose e.g. at the user's
station modulated upstream carriers are fed in by the handhelds and evaluated in the headend.
The measurement results will then be sent back to the handheld. This measurement may be
performed during active DOCSIS operation. However, these test carriers must not overlap with the
modem frequencies. The system supports the BER measurement at four different frequencies.
Taking into account the modem frequencies these can be freely distributed on the return path.
Via the menu item BER-MEAS an input window can be opened in which up to four test frequencies
with their symbol rates and modulation schemes may be entered. When entering the frequency 0, a
test carrier can be erased from the system.
Valid symbol rates are 0.32 MSym/s, 0.64 MSym/s, 1.28 MSym/s, 2.56 MSym/s and 5.12 MSym/s.
Admissible modulation schemes are QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM.
Here the input is also supported by the display of the system graphics.
34.2.7
TILT measurement
Apart from the sweep function the UMS also supports a special TILT function.
Here the handheld sends simultaneously 4 pilot carriers which the headend measures and sends
back to the handheld in real time. This function is provided for the "adjusting" of return path
amplifiers and the setting of tilt position equalizers.
This measurement may be performed during active DOCSIS operation. However, these pilots must
not overlap with the modem frequencies. The pilots for the tilt position measurement may be
distributed freely in the return path range.
Via the menu item TILT-MEAS an input window may be opened where the four pilot frequencies
can be entered. Here the input is also supported by the display of the system graphics.
34.2.8
Forward path measurement
The UMS may also be configured for measurements in the forward path. For this purpose certain
downstream frequencies can be set in the headend device which the handheld can measure
systematically. The idea here is that it is possible to define at a central point which measurements
shall be performed and recorded in situ via the handhelds in the forward path.
Via the menu item DNSTREAMS an input window may be opened several forward frequencies and
their symbol rates and modulation schemes can be entered. When entering the frequency 0, a test
carrier can be erased from the system.
34.2.9
Export/Import of UMS settings
All UMS settings may be stored in a file and stored back again from the file or copied on to a further
headend device.
By selecting the menu item EXPORT an input window may be opened in which a file name can be
entered and the storage medium (USB stick or FLASH disk) may be chosen. The data are stored
on a *.UMS file, as soon as the cursor is moved to the selection START and the ENTER key is
pressed.
By selecting the menu item IMPORT the list of all *.UMS files can be called up. By choosing the
desired file and by pressing the ENTER key, the UMS settings from the file are transferred to the
headend device.
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34.3
System planning
To support the input of various test frequencies in the return path range, the instrument disposes of
a graphical representation of the system where all frequencies of the system are shown with their
bandwidths. This graph is always displayed if a frequency in the system changes or is added. In
case a frequency is put in which leads to a collision in the system, a relevant error message
appears. If a faulty setting is not corrected, the UMS cannot be started, as it might possibly disturb
the operation of the cable modem.
A system planning can be exported as bitmap file. If the key PRINT is pressed when the system
planning is displayed, an input window is opened in which the file name and the memory location
can be entered. The following illustration shows an example printout of a system planning.
The height of the frequency bars does not state anything, it just serves for a better differentiation.
The width of the bars refers to the symbol rate used. The active modem frequencies are displayed
in light blue in the system planning.
The test frequencies for the bit error rates and MER measurement are shown in green. The sine
tones shown in dark blue are used for TILT measurement. They should be distributed over the
complete frequency range as evenly as possible.
The telemetry frequencies shown in yellow may be distributed at will in the return path range. It is
recommended to occupy either the upper or the lower return path area.
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34.4
195
UMS startup
Unless "AUTO-START" has been set in the configuration, the UMS function can also be started
manually.
For this purpose the instrument first has to be switched to the RC (return channel) range. This is
done via RANGE -> REV.CHA.. By MODE -> UMS the upstream monitoring system in the
headend is started. At first all hardware modules are initialized. Subsequently the return path
spectrum can be seen on the screen. If the energy saving mode is activated, the screen switches
off automatically after a short time.
The above illustration shows the LCD display during a bit error rate measurement. In this case a
QAM signal is fed into the system at a user's station via the handheld and the headend device
measures the reception level, MER and BER. On the upper line the current status of the upstream
monitoring system and the serial number of the handheld can be seen which initiated the bit error
rate measurement.
Here the system operates in the power-saving mode, i.e. the screen is turned off.
By pressing key F5, menu item POWER SAVE, the display may be switched on for a short time
until the instrument returns to the power saving mode within short.
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Chapter 35 - Definitions and Explanations
Chapter 35 Definitions and Explanations
35.1
The Level
The level in dB indicates how much the voltage or power value is above or below the reference
value. A variety of units are defined for specification of the level. The specification of the unit
defines the reference value. This is why they are referred to as absolute levels.
dBµV:
If the level is specified in dBµV, the reference value is the voltage 1 µVRMS.
dBµV = 20 lg (Vin/1 µV); (Vin in µV)
dBmV:
If the level is specified in dBmV, the reference value is the voltage 1 mVRMS.
dBmV = 20 lg (Vin/1 mV); (Vin in mV)
dBm(W):
While a voltage is defined as the reference value for dBµV and dBmV, a power is defined for dBm.
This reference power is 1 mW.
dBm = 10 lg (Pin/1 mW); (Pin in mW)
Conversion:
The following relationship is used for converting dBmV into dBµV:
dBµV = 20 lg (10-3/10-6) + dBmV
dBµV = 60 + dBmV or dBmV = dBµV – 60
The conversion of dBµV into dBm is only defined when the impedance is specified.
With this as a given, the following formula is used:
dBµV = 10 lg (Zin/10-9) + dBm (Zin = input impedance in Ohm)
Since the measuring receiver has an input impedance of 75 ohms, the following applies:
dBµV = 108.75 + dBm or dBm = dBµV – 108.75
Example:
0 dBmV =
0 dBm =
80 dBµV =
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60 dBµV =
108.75 dBµV =
20 dBmV =
-48.75 dBm
48.75 dBmV
-28.75 dBm